WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitate patent applications

  1. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent..., DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The Drawings § 1.81 Drawings required in patent application. (a) The applicant for a patent is required to furnish...

  2. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for A...

  3. 37 CFR 1.14 - Patent applications preserved in confidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent applications preserved in confidence. 1.14 Section 1.14 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions...

  4. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Publication...

  5. Comprehension and application of patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang Nam

    2004-05-01

    This book gives descriptions of conception of patent information such as the meaning, characteristic, function, investigation and map of patent information, pro-patent period and patent strategy of the business. It also deals with comprehension of patent information like publication of nations, patent document, patent procedure in Korea, patent procedure in Japan, the U.S, and Europe, article and function of patent document, patent information survey such as writing of search keyword, procedure of the survey and search site of other countries, patent analysis and patent map.

  6. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    OpenAIRE

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2009-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991?2008 have been examined using the ?title?abstract? keyword search on esp@cenet ?worldwide? database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People?s Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the larges...

  7. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang Yan; Zhang Yulei; Fan Li; Chen Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-01-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  8. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Yan; Zhang, Yulei; Fan, Li; Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2010-03-01

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the "title-abstract" keyword search on esp@cenet "worldwide" database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant "home advantage." The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  9. Trends in worldwide nanotechnology patent applications: 1991 to 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dang Yan, E-mail: ydang@email.arizona.edu; Zhang Yulei, E-mail: ylzhang@email.arizona.edu; Fan Li, E-mail: fanli@email.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun, E-mail: hchen@eller.arizona.ed [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C., E-mail: mroco@nsf.go [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2010-03-15

    Nanotechnology patent applications published during 1991-2008 have been examined using the 'title-abstract' keyword search on esp-cenet 'worldwide' database. The longitudinal evolution of the number of patent applications, their topics, and their respective patent families have been evaluated for 15 national patent offices covering 98% of the total global activity. The patent offices of the United States (USA), People's Republic of China (PRC), Japan, and South Korea have published the largest number of nanotechnology patent applications, and experienced significant but different growth rates after 2000. In most repositories, the largest numbers of nanotechnology patent applications originated from their own countries/regions, indicating a significant 'home advantage.' The top applicant institutions are from different sectors in different countries (e.g., from industry in the US and Canada patent offices, and from academe or government agencies at the PRC office). As compared to 2000, the year before the establishment of the US National Nanotechnology Initiative (NNI), numerous new invention topics appeared in 2008, in all 15 patent repositories. This is more pronounced in the USA and PRC. Patent families have increased among the 15 patent offices, particularly after 2005. Overlapping patent applications increased from none in 1991 to about 4% in 2000 and to about 27% in 2008. The largest share of equivalent nanotechnology patent applications (1,258) between two repositories was identified between the US and Japan patent offices.

  10. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions General Information and Correspondence § 1.5 Identification of patent, patent... benefit of the date of deposit with the United States Postal Service. If the returned correspondence is...

  11. The shadow of inequitable conduct in the US patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Bao-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2016-05-03

    Inequitable conduct regarding any single claim can render the entire patent unenforceable and further damage other related patents and applications in the assignee's patent portfolio. The adverse impact of inequitable conduct significantly became a litigation strategy. The US Federal Circuit (CAFC) observed that inequitable conduct as a patent litigation strategy had become a plague and thus tightened the standard for finding inequitable conduct in a case with full court judges. However, under the shadow of previous adverse impact of inequitable conduct, patent applicants may still submit many marginal related references. This study demonstrates that an applicant even prepared an information disclosure statement (IDS) as many as 50 pages. Actually, under the new standard, inequitable conduct would not further produce significant impact in the US patent system. Thus, a patent applicant need not submit marginal references but should distinguish the prior art from the current application, especially for those listed in the IDS, to avoid the novelty rejection.

  12. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  13. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  14. Biotechnological Patents Applications of the Deuterium Oxide in Human Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da S Mariano, Reysla M; Bila, Wendell C; Trindade, Maria Jaciara F; Lamounier, Joel A; Galdino, Alexsandro S

    2017-01-01

    Deuterium oxide is a molecule that has been used for decades in several studies related to human health. Currently, studies on D2O have mobilized a "Race for Patenting" worldwide. Several patents have been registered from biomedical and technological studies of D2O showing the potential of this stable isotope in industry and health care ecosystems. Most of the patents related to the applications of the deuterium oxide in human health have been summarized in this review. The following patents databases were consulted: European Patent Office (Espacenet), the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), the United States Latin America Patents (LATIPAT), Patent scope -Search International and National Patent Collections (WIPO), Google Patents and Free Patents Online. With this review, the information was collected on recent publications including 22 patents related to deuterium oxide and its applications in different areas. This review showed that deuterium oxide is a promising component in different areas, including biotechnology, chemistry and medicine. In addition, the knowledge of this compound was covered, reinforcing its importance in the field of biotechnology and human health. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  15. Published patent applications and patents from the promoted R + D area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaeckel, G.; Zierl, I.

    1977-09-01

    The Ministry for Research and Technology of the Federal Republic of Germany has sponsored technological R + D for industrial innovations since 1969. The following compilation includes the published patent applications and patents from all projects which were sponsored up to and including 1973. (orig.) [de

  16. The problem and solution of enterprise patent application

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Dabo; Yang Xiaoqing

    2010-01-01

    Recently, the situation of Chinese patent application is pleasant, but there are still some hiding disquiets. For the most enterprises, the passion of current patent application may not be derived from the internal motility but mainly derived by the government policy. Because of the shortage of related knowledge on patent, there are still some problems for our enterprises, such as blurring the scope of patent application and failing the organization of the documents of patent application which causing the patent cannot be applied timely. In some cases, the patent cannot obtain the effective protection even if it has been applied and obtained the authorization successfully. For such problems, we should enhance the cooperation between enterprises and agency organizations and build a patent engineer group which should participate in the whole R and D process and can prepare the documents of the patent application effectively and timely. What's more, we should inhibit the phenomena of infringement of patent rights and use 'existing technique' effectively by the methods of document retrieval. (authors)

  17. 37 CFR 1.178 - Original patent; continuing duty of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original patent; continuing... Provisions Reissues § 1.178 Original patent; continuing duty of applicant. (a) The application for reissue of... upon reissue of the patent. Until a reissue application is granted, the original patent shall remain in...

  18. Prior art relevant to active beads patent application

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Moolman, S

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available -extrusion of shell (gelatin) and core (oral refrigerant or spice condiment) US 4,332,790 Nestlé patent on manufacturing fat microcapsules containing micro-organisms Patents cited by International Search Report on previous application US 5,543,162 Polymeric...

  19. 37 CFR 1.730 - Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements. 1.730 Section 1.730 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... for extension of patent term; signature requirements. (a) Any application for extension of a patent...

  20. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases

  1. A patent landscape on application of microorganisms in construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapurkar, Dipti; Telang, Manasi

    2017-07-01

    Construction biotechnology includes research and development of construction materials and processes that make use of various microbes. The present technology landscape gives a perspective on how microbes have been used in construction industry as cement and concrete additives by analyzing patents filed in this technology arena. All patents related to the technology of interest published globally to date have been reviewed. The earliest patent filing in this technology domain was recorded in the year 1958 and the patenting activity reached its peak around mid to late 1990s. The early technology was mainly focused on microbial polysaccharides and other metabolic products as additives. Year 2002 onwards, biomineralization has taken precedence over the other technologies with consistent patent filings indicating a shift in innovation focus. Japan has been the global leader with highest number of patents filed on application of microbes in construction industry. Southeast University, China has topped the patent assignee list with maximum number of filings followed by Kajima Corp. and Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. Most patent applications have claimed microbe based bio-products. Construction-related microbial technologies are mainly based on activity of different microorganisms such as urease-producing, acidogenic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, nitrate and iron-reducing bacteria. Sporosarcina pasteurii has been the most widely used microbe for biomineralization.

  2. A Review on Recent Patents and Applications of Inorganic Material Binding Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thota, Veeranjaneyulu; Perry, Carole C

    2017-01-01

    Although the popularity of using combinatorial display techniques for recognising unique peptides having high affinity for inorganic (nano) particles has grown rapidly, there are no systematic reviews showcasing current developments or patents on binding peptides specific to these materials. In this review, we summarize and discuss recent progress in patents on material binding peptides specifically exploring inorganic nano surfaces such as metals, metal oxides, minerals, carbonbased materials, polymer based materials, magnetic materials and semiconductors. We consider both the peptide display strategies used and the exploitation of the identified peptides in the generation of advanced nanomaterials. In order to get a clear picture on the number of patents and literature present to date relevant to inorganic material binding biomolecules and their applications, a thorough online search was conducted using national and worldwide databases. The literature search include standard bibliographic databases while patents included EPO Espacenet, WIPO patent scope, USPTO, Google patent search, Patent lens, etc. along with commercial databases such as Derwent and Patbase. Both English and American spellings were included in the searches. The initial number of patents found related to material binders were 981. After reading and excluding irrelevant patents such as organic binding peptides, works published before 2001, repeated patents, documents not in English etc., 51 highly relevant patents published from 2001 onwards were selected and analysed. These patents were further separated into six categories based on their target inorganic material and combinatorial library used. They include relevant patents on metal, metal oxide or combination binding peptides (19), magnetic and semiconductor binding peptides (8), carbon based (3), mineral (5), polymer (8) and other binders (9). Further, how these material specific binders have been used to synthesize simple to complex bio- or

  3. 37 CFR 1.17 - Patent application and reexamination processing fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application and reexamination processing fees. 1.17 Section 1.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees...

  4. 37 CFR 1.770 - Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.770 Express... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Express withdrawal of application for extension of patent term. 1.770 Section 1.770 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED...

  5. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... depends on who is making the application, the type of invention, and the circumstances of the case... this section regarding authentication of the authority of a foreign official. A notary or other... United States Patent Office.) (c) Authentication of authority of foreign official—(1) Necessity for...

  6. Trends in genetic patent applications: The commercialization of academic intellectual property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, J.G.; van Burg, J.C.; Stoop, T.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications

  7. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-10-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152 000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications.

  8. Ethics in scientific results application: Gene and life forms patenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past decades has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialized in the life sciences. As results, new varieties of commercially grown crops with improved or new traits are developed. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector. The effects of many of these patents are extensive, because inventors who assert rights over DNA sequences obtain protection on all uses of the sequences. Extremely valuable to breeders in the national agricultural research system is the ability to genotype their collections to get a clear picture of their diversity and how diversity could be enhanced through sharing and access to global collections. The issue of the eligibility for patenting of DNA sequences needs to be reopened. Patents that assert rights over DNA sequences and their uses are, in some cases, supportable, but in others, should be treated with great caution. Rights over DNA sequences as research tools should be discouraged. That the best way to discourage the award of such patents is by stringent application of the criteria for patenting, particularly utility. A more equitable, ethically - based food and agricultural system must incorporate concern for three accepted global goals: improved well being, protection of the environment and improved public health (particular point food from GMO. To mitigate conflict one of the approach to solve problem is ethical and truthful label of GM food, because consumers have a right to choose whether to eat genetically modified foods or not. Interesting examples and risks as consequences of free availability of genetic resources utilization, its transformation, patenting of 'new' organism and selling it back to the genetic resource owner are presented. Society has obligations to raise levels of nutrition and

  9. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chen-Yuan; Yang, James Chingyu

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  10. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... comments by any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include ``0651- 0052... several years the USPTO has supported an ongoing forecasting program for patent application filings that includes the use of quantitative and qualitative methodologies. Given the importance of accurate...

  11. 37 CFR 1.130 - Affidavit or declaration to disqualify commonly owned patent or published application as prior art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disqualify commonly owned patent or published application as prior art. 1.130 Section 1.130 Patents... or declaration to disqualify commonly owned patent or published application as prior art. (a) When.... patent or U.S. patent application publication which is not prior art under 35 U.S.C. 102(b), and the...

  12. Technological Monitoring Study Based on Invention Patents of Omeprazoleand Derivatives with Pharmaceutical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandra Guimarães de Oliveira

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The current study intends to present the relevance of omeprazole, esomeprazole, rabeprazole, pantoprazole and lansoprazole by means of the technological foresight study, through invention patent documents from Brazilian applicants as indicators of innovation. The European database of patents (Espacenet, Word Patent Index (DERWENT and the Brazilian Patent Base of INPI were used, combining keywords and International Patent Classifications. The major applicants, countries of publication and claims categories were mapped. The 212 patent requests collected are mainly distributed in Chemistry, Pharmacy and Pharmacology areas. The results obtained revealed that the US was the main country with studies directed to this technological area (59 patent applications and the major applicant was the company Astrazeneca AB. Therefore, we can understand that this is a promising technology that may reflect in an increase of R&D activities and patent applications in this area.

  13. Recent Advances in Vaccines Against Leishmania Based on Patent Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomaz-Soccol, Vanete; Ferreira da Costa, Eduardo Scopel; Karp, Susan Grace; Junior Letti, Luiz Alberto; Soccol, Flavia Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2018-01-01

    Leishmaniasis is caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, and represents a group of chronic diseases with an epidemiological and clinical diversity. The disease is endemic in tropical regions, being found in 98 countries, affecting around 12 million people, with an estimated increase of 1.5 million per year. The present review aims to analyze recent and most important patents regarding development of vaccines to improve immunization against leishmaniasis. For this purpose, the Web of Science - Derwent Innovations Index was consulted. There is also a short description of the licensed vaccines already on the market for commercialization, and a critical opinion on future developments. The data herein presented comprises national and international filings, thus considering the patent's country of origin, and can be used an indicator of a country's technological development regarding a specific field. Several types of vaccines against Leishmania were studied. The main classes comprise: vaccines using live cells (virulent or attenuated); dead cells; containing recombinant protein; using DNA of the parasite. United States (74 patents) leads the ranking of patent applications for vaccines against Leishmania, followed by Brazil (36 patents), which is an endemic region of leishmaniasis with 20,000 human cases of cutaneous leishmaniasis and over 3,000 cases of visceral form. This review showed that there is still a lot of space for development regarding the creation of a feasible, effective vaccine against leishmaniasis. The scientific community appears to be taking steps in the right direction, though. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  14. Current Energy Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kelly, R.C.

    1982-01-01

    Current Energy Patents (CEP) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the international patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization

  15. Patent Applications on Representative Sectors of Biotechnology in Brazil: an Analysis of the Last Decade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Machado Mendes

    2013-12-01

    The website of European Patent Office (EPO patent database - Espacenet was used to conduct the survey, and the search strategy fields selected for the patent applications were: (i Priority Number: BR (Brazil, and (ii the International Patent Classification (IPC - C12N, C07K14, and C07H21/04. The patent applications by Brazilian residents, from 2000 to 2010 in the Espacenet for the classifications adopted indicates a total of 396 patent applications in the most representative sectors in biotechnology over the past 10 years. After the Brazilian Innovation Law there is a growth trend line particularly in the years 2007 and 2008. The universities hold 48% of the patent applications in biotechnology, following by Individuals/ Researchers with 20%, Public Research Centers and Private Firms with 15%, and 11% of the total, respectively.

  16. Therapeutic and cosmetic applications of mangiferin: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telang, Manasi; Dhulap, Sivakami; Mandhare, Anita; Hirwani, Rajkumar

    2013-12-01

    Mangiferin, a natural C-glucoside xanthone [2-C-β-D-glucopyranosyl-1, 3, 6, 7-tetrahydroxyxanthone], is abundantly present in young leaves and stem bark of the mango tree. The xanthonoid structure of mangiferin with C-glycosyl linkage and polyhydroxy components contributes to its free radical-scavenging ability, leading to a potent antioxidant effect as well as multiple biological activities. An extensive search was carried out to collect patent information on mangiferin and its derivatives using various patent databases spanning all priority years to date. The patents claiming therapeutic and cosmetic applications of mangiferin and its derivatives were analyzed in detail. The technology areas covered in this article include metabolic disorders, cosmeceuticals, multiple uses of the same compound, miscellaneous uses, infectious diseases, inflammation, cancer and autoimmune disorders, and neurological disorders. Mangiferin has the potential to modulate multiple molecular targets including nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) protein expression. Mangiferin exhibits antioxidant, antidiabetic, antihyperuricemic, antiviral, anticancer and antiinflammatory activities. The molecular structure of mangiferin fulfils the four Lipinski's requisites reported to favor high bioavailability by oral administration. There is no evidence of adverse side effects of mangiferin so far. Mangiferin could thus be a promising candidate for development of a multipotent drug.

  17. 37 CFR 1.31 - Applicant may be represented by one or more patent practitioners or joint inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Prosecution of Application and Appointment of Attorney Or Agent § 1.31 Applicant may be represented by one or more patent practitioners or joint inventors. An... by one or more patent practitioners or joint inventors. 1.31 Section 1.31 Patents, Trademarks, and...

  18. Application of nanohydrogels in drug delivery systems: recent patents review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalwadi, Chintan; Patel, Gayatri

    2015-01-01

    Nanohydrogel combines the advantages of hydrogel and nano particulate systems. Similar to the hydrogel and macrogel, nanohydrogel can protect the drug and control drug release by stimuli responsive conformation or biodegradable bond into the polymer networks. Nanohydrogel has drawn huge interest due to their potential applications, such as carrier in target-specific controlled drug delivery, absorbents, chemical/biological sensors, and bio-mimetic materials. Similar to the nanoparticles, stimuli responsive nanohydrogel can easily be delivered in the liquid form for parenteral drug delivery application. This review highlights the methods to prepare nanohydrogel based on natural and synthetic polymers for diverse applications in drug delivery. It also encompasses the drug loading and drug release mechanism of the nanohydrogel formulation and patents related to the composition and chemical methods for preparation of nanohydrogel formulation with current status in clinical trials.

  19. Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Lira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

  20. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  1. Exploration of Global Trend on Biomedical Application of Polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA): A Patent Survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponnaiah, Paulraj; Vnoothenei, Nagiah; Chandramohan, Muruganandham; Thevarkattil, Mohamed Javad Pazhayakath

    2018-01-30

    Polyhydroxyalkanoates are bio-based, biodegradable naturally occurring polymers produced by a wide range of organisms, from bacteria to higher mammals. The properties and biocompatibility of PHA make it possible for a wide spectrum of applications. In this context, we analyze the potential applications of PHA in biomedical science by exploring the global trend through the patent survey. The survey suggests that PHA is an attractive candidate in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. In our present study, we explored patents associated with various biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates. Patent databases of European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office and World Intellectual Property Organization were mined. We developed an intensive exploration approach to eliminate overlapping patents and sort out significant patents. We demarcated the keywords and search criterions and established search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents within the recent 6 years, 2010 to 2016 and sort out the collected data stepwise to gather the most appropriate documents in patent families for further scrutiny. By this approach, we retrieved 23,368 patent documents from all the three databases and the patent titles were further analyzed for the relevance of polyhydroxyalkanoates in biomedical applications. This ensued in the documentation of approximately 226 significant patents associated with biomedical applications of polyhydroxyalkanoates and the information was classified into six major groups. Polyhydroxyalkanoates has been patented in such a way that their applications are widely distributed in the medical industry, drug delivery system, dental material, tissue engineering, packaging material as well as other useful products. There are many avenues through which PHA & PHB could be

  2. Patent prosecution strategies for stem cell related applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Rajeev; Yeh, Jenny J; Fernandez, Dennis; Hansen, Nels

    2007-09-01

    Stem cell research and the intellectual property derived from it, because of its potential to completely transform health care, demand an especially high level of consideration from business and patent prosecution perspectives. As with other revolutionary technologies, ordinary risks are amplified (e.g., litigation), and ordinarily irrelevant considerations may become important (e.g., heightened level of both domestic and foreign legislative risk). In the first part of this article, general strategies for patent prosecutors such as several prosecution considerations and methods for accelerating patent prosecution process are presented. In the second part, patent prosecution challenges of stem cell-related patents and possible solutions are discussed. In the final part, ethical and public policy issues particular to stem cell-related and other biotechnological inventions are summarized.

  3. 76 FR 70651 - Fee for Filing a Patent Application Other Than by the Electronic Filing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    ... government; or (3) preempt tribal law. Therefore, a tribal summary impact statement is not required under... 0651-AC64 Fee for Filing a Patent Application Other Than by the Electronic Filing System AGENCY: United..., that is not filed by electronic means as prescribed by the Director of the United States Patent and...

  4. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  5. Application of foresight methods in applications for patents and trademarks in Spain; Aplicacion de metodos de prevision en las solicitudes de patentes y marcas en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Glabaly Marquez, S.

    2011-07-01

    Patent and trademark offices which run according to principles of new management have an inherent need for dependable forecasting data in planning capacity and service levels. The predictive approach adopted for the time series of Spanish patents and trademarks applications (1979-2009) has been the use of different techniques of time series prediction in a short-term time horizon. The methods used can be grouped into two specifics areas: regression models of trends and time series models advanced. The results of this study show that it is possible to model the series of patents and trademarks applications with different models, especially ARIMA, with satisfactory model adjustment and relatively low error. (Author) 33 refs.

  6. Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Patentability of inventions under the Nigeria's patents and designs act: an examination. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... The Nigerian Patent Registry refuses patent applications for Software or ...

  7. A guide of patent map

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-12-01

    This book introduces application and characteristic of patent information, types of patent information data and research of patent information, arrangement of patent information and patent map, analysis of patent information, necessity, writing period arrangement way of patent map, cases of patent map on selection of task of research and development, system of research and development and application, examples of PM such as MAP by year, application, technique, Inventor, and claim point map and computerization like data arrangement of PM patent, collection of analysis range and item analysis of patent, cases and written reports on patent analysis.

  8. Spreadsheet Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borum, Holger Stadel; Kirkbro, Malthe Ettrup; Sestoft, Peter

    2018-01-01

    This technical report gives a list of US patents and patent applications related to spreadsheet implementation technology. It is intended as a companion to the monograph Spreadsheet Implementation Technology (Peter Sestoft, MIT Press 2014), and substantially extends and updates an appendix from...

  9. [Development strategy of Paris based on combination of domestic patent and current resource application and development].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Fei-Ya; Tao, Ai-En; Xia, Cong-Long

    2018-01-01

    Paris is a commonly used traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), and has antitumor, antibacterial, sedative, analgesic and hemostatic effects. It has been used as an ingredient of 81 Chinese patent medicines, with a wide application and large market demand. Based on the data retrieved from state Intellectual Property Office patent database, a comprehensive analysis was made on Paris patents, so as to explore the current features of Paris patents in the aspects of domestic patent output, development trend, technology field distribution, time dimension, technology growth rate and patent applicant, and reveal the development trend of China's Paris industry. In addition, based on the current Paris resource application and development, a sustainable, multi-channel and multi-level industrial development approach was built. According to the results, studies of Paris in China are at the rapid development period, with a good development trend. However, because wild Paris resources tend to be exhausted, the studies for artificial cultivation technology should be strengthened to promote the industrial development. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  10. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leitch, Megan E.; Casman, Elizabeth; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2012-01-01

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the “Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies” (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative “snapshot” of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially “risky” nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  11. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Megan E. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Casman, Elizabeth [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@cmu.edu [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the 'Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies' (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative 'snapshot' of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially 'risky' nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  12. The Advanced Aluminum Nitride Synthesis Methods and Its Applications: Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shishkin, Roman A; Elagin, Andrey A; Mayorova, Ekaterina S; Beketov, Askold R

    2016-01-01

    High purity nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis is a current issue for both industry and science. However, there is no up-to-date review considering the major issues and the technical solutions for different methods. This review aims to investigate the advanced methods of aluminum nitride synthesis and its development tendencies. Also the aluminum nitride application patents and prospects for development of the branch have been considered. The patent search on "aluminum nitride synthesis" has been carried out. The research activity has been analyzed. Special attention has been paid to the patenting geography and the leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis. Aluminum nitride synthesis methods have been divided into 6 main groups, the most studied approaches are carbothermal reduction (88 patents) and direct nitridation (107 patents). The current issues for each group have been analyzed; the main trends are purification of the final product and nanopowder synthesis. The leading researchers in aluminum nitride synthesis have represented 5 countries, namely: Japan, China, Russia, South Korea and USA. The main aluminum nitride application spheres are electronics (59,1 percent of applications) and new materials manufacturing (30,9 percent). The review deals with the state of the art data in nanosized aluminum nitride synthesis, the major issues and the technical solutions for different synthesis methods. It gives a full understanding of the development tendencies and of the current leaders in the sphere.

  13. Invention note and patent note

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Sung Su

    1997-09-01

    This book deals with origin of invention and term related patent and invention, making idea, brain storming, 10 laws of invention skill, attitude of inventors, invention order, making good inventions, patent system, preparation of application, procedure and method of patent, management of patent, patent and trademark office, patent lawyer, copyright, new intellectual property right, industrial property right, trademark, invasion of industrial property right, patent, Judgment, preparation of items, application of industrial property right and effect of inventor and related people.

  14. Ontology-based content analysis of US patent applications from 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lutz; Böhme, Timo; Irmer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Ontology-based semantic text analysis methods allow to automatically extract knowledge relationships and data from text documents. In this review, we have applied these technologies for the systematic analysis of pharmaceutical patents. Hierarchical concepts from the knowledge domains of chemical compounds, diseases and proteins were used to annotate full-text US patent applications that deal with pharmacological activities of chemical compounds and filed in the years 2001-2010. Compounds claimed in these applications have been classified into their respective compound classes to review the distribution of scaffold types or general compound classes such as natural products in a time-dependent manner. Similarly, the target proteins and claimed utility of the compounds have been classified and the most relevant were extracted. The method presented allows the discovery of the main areas of innovation as well as emerging fields of patenting activities - providing a broad statistical basis for competitor analysis and decision-making efforts.

  15. 37 CFR 1.221 - Voluntary publication or republication of patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... filing system requirements and be accompanied by the publication fee set forth in § 1.18(d) and the..., the Office will not publish the application and will refund the publication fee. (b) The Office will... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Voluntary publication or...

  16. Innovation Trends in NAFTA Countries: An Econometric Analysis of Patent Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Carlos Rodríguez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes innovation trends in North America Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA countries by means of the number of patent applications during the period 1965 to 2008. Making use of patent data released by the World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO and the Network for Science and Technology Indicators (Red Iberoamericana de Ciencia y Tecnología, RICYT, we search for presence of multiple structural changes in the patent applications series in Canada, Mexico, and the United States. Such changes may suggest that firms’ innovative activity has been modified in these countries (Mansfield, 1986. Accordingly, it would be expected that the new regulations implemented in these countries in the 1980s and 1990s have influenced their intellectual property regimes through the NAFTA and the Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS agreement. Consequently, the question conducting this research is how the new dispositions affecting intellectual regimes in NAFTA countries have affected innovation activities in these countries. The results achieved in this research confirm the existence of multiple structural changes in the series of patent applications resulting from the new legislation implemented in these countries.

  17. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  18. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  19. Study on the Application of Chinese Patent Drug and Chinese Formula of Rabdosia Rubescens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Mengfan; Liu, Baosong; Mao, Mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Rabdosia rubescens contais many active ingredients such as terpenoids, flavonoids, polysaccharides and organic acids. Modern research has proved that Rabdosia rubescens has the effect of heat-clearing and detoxicating, antibacterial and anticancer, promoting blood circulation to arrest pain and anti-tumor. It is used in the treatment of sore throat, rheumatoid arthritis and various kinds of cancer. The clinical application of Rabdosia rubescens is restricted in the fat-soluble components, and the solubility of water solubility is ignored. The application of prescriptions, Chinese patent drug and food therapy of Rabdosia rubescens are less and fragmented. This paper inquires relevant literature, the application of Rabdosia rubescens in prescription, Chinese patent medicine and food therapy was reviewed, in order to make Rabdosiae rubescens play a greater role in the relevant area. On the basis of make the best use of everything, to promote the innovation and development of Chinese medicine and services to the people in our country.

  20. Truth and falsity of patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-01

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  1. Technological Monitoring Applied to Survey-Based on Brazilian Patent Applications about PEMFC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysimar de Souza Carvalho

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to show the importance of patents as an instrument of technological innovation and to assess the relevance of technology of PEMFC in Brazil by means of the technological monitoring methodology from 1996 to 2005. This study used different Industrial Property Databases (INPI-BR, ESPACENET and DWPI, in order to retrieve the BR applications in each database. Relevant keywords as “fuel cell” were used in combination with specific IPC (H01M8 in order to assess the main applicants, countries, IPCs and technological innovation over time. In Brazil, the country holding more requests in this area is the United States (US with 53,7% of the patent applications, while Brazil (BR accounts for 4,4% of the total requests. It was also observed that the North-American company, UTC Fuel Cells comes on top of the list and that there were no patent applications of Brazilian origin (BR in other countries.

  2. Advancing biotechnology with CRISPR/Cas9: recent applications and patent landscape

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Raphael; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens

    2018-01-01

    for manipulating a broad range of living organisms. From the different elucidated types of CRISPR mechanisms, the type II system adapted from Streptococcus pyogenes has been the most exploited as a tool for genome engineering and gene regulation. In this review, we describe the different applications of CRISPR/Cas......9 technology in the industrial biotechnology field. Next, we detail the current status of the patent landscape, highlighting its exploitation through different companies, and conclude with future perspectives of this technology....

  3. International patent applications for non-injectable naloxone for opioid overdose reversal: Exploratory search and retrieve analysis of the PatentScope database.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, Rebecca; Danielsson Glende, Øyvind; Dale, Ola; Strang, John

    2018-02-01

    Non-injectable naloxone formulations are being developed for opioid overdose reversal, but only limited data have been published in the peer-reviewed domain. Through examination of a hitherto-unsearched database, we expand public knowledge of non-injectable formulations, tracing their development and novelty, with the aim to describe and compare their pharmacokinetic properties. (i) The PatentScope database of the World Intellectual Property Organization was searched for relevant English-language patent applications; (ii) Pharmacokinetic data were extracted, collated and analysed; (iii) PubMed was searched using Boolean search query '(nasal OR intranasal OR nose OR buccal OR sublingual) AND naloxone AND pharmacokinetics'. Five hundred and twenty-two PatentScope and 56 PubMed records were identified: three published international patent applications and five peer-reviewed papers were eligible. Pharmacokinetic data were available for intranasal, sublingual, and reference routes. Highly concentrated formulations (10-40 mg mL -1 ) had been developed and tested. Sublingual bioavailability was very low (1%; relative to intravenous). Non-concentrated intranasal spray (1 mg mL -1 ; 1 mL per nostril) had low bioavailability (11%). Concentrated intranasal formulations (≥10 mg mL -1 ) had bioavailability of 21-42% (relative to intravenous) and 26-57% (relative to intramuscular), with peak concentrations (dose-adjusted C max  = 0.8-1.7 ng mL -1 ) reached in 19-30 min (t max ). Exploratory analysis identified intranasal bioavailability as associated positively with dose and negatively with volume. We find consistent direction of development of intranasal sprays to high-concentration, low-volume formulations with bioavailability in the 20-60% range. These have potential to deliver a therapeutic dose in 0.1 mL volume. [McDonald R, Danielsson Glende Ø, Dale O, Strang J. International patent applications for non-injectable naloxone for opioid overdose reversal

  4. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  5. DOE Patents Available for Licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stuber, C.

    1981-01-01

    DOE Patents Available for Licensing (DOE PAL) provides abstracting and indexing coverage of the DOE patent literature, including patent applications, that concerns any apsect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The citations are arranged by subject category. DOE is prepared to grant exclusive or nonexclusive, revocable licenses under DOE-owned US patents and patent applications in accordance with the provisions of 10CFR781

  6. Modification of polysaccharides: Pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications with commercial utility (patents)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malviya, Rishabha, E-mail: rishabhamalviya19@gmail.com [Polymer Science Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical & Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greator Noida, UP (India); Department of Pharmacy, Uttarkhand Technical University, Dehradun, Uttarkhand (India); Sharma, Pramod Kumar [Polymer Science Laboratory, Department of Pharmacy, School of Medical & Allied Sciences, Galgotias University, Greator Noida, UP (India); Dubey, Susheel Kumar [Siddarth Institute of Pharmacy, Dehradun, Uttarkhand (India)

    2016-11-01

    Polymer modifications open new era for the development of polymers with requisite properties. Use of modified polymers is practically boundless. Different studies focus on biomedical applications of chemically modified polysaccharides. Development and utilization of modified polysaccharides get attention to be used as carrier for pharmaceutical drug delivery as well as tissue engineering scaffolds. Grafted polymer shows better cellular regeneration, signal transmission, diagnostic and imaging material than putative form. This review article aims to discuss various approaches to modify naturally derived polymer and their applications as pharmaceutical drug carrier and as a material for wound dressing and artificial cartilage due to better biophysical cues. Manuscript included various patents based on the applications of modified polymers and techniques used to modify polymers. - Highlights: • Properties of natural polysaccharides can be modulated by modification in their basic backbone. • Polysaccharides can be easily modified using microwave irradiation as compared to conventional closed vessel modification. • Biodegradable and biocompatible nature of modified polymer promotes their use in targeted cellular delivery of pharmaceuticals. • Studies show strong support that biodegradable polymers have ability to modulate cell signaling, cellular attachment, migration, proliferation and differentiation. • Manuscript reveals the fact that various commercial patents have been granted for the use of modified polymer.

  7. Searching bioremediation patents through Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Rajendra

    2016-03-01

    Patent classification systems have traditionally evolved independently at each patent jurisdiction to classify patents handled by their examiners to be able to search previous patents while dealing with new patent applications. As patent databases maintained by them went online for free access to public as also for global search of prior art by examiners, the need arose for a common platform and uniform structure of patent databases. The diversity of different classification, however, posed problems of integrating and searching relevant patents across patent jurisdictions. To address this problem of comparability of data from different sources and searching patents, WIPO in the recent past developed what is known as International Patent Classification (IPC) system which most countries readily adopted to code their patents with IPC codes along with their own codes. The Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) is the latest patent classification system based on IPC/European Classification (ECLA) system, developed by the European Patent Office (EPO) and the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) which is likely to become a global standard. This paper discusses this new classification system with reference to patents on bioremediation.

  8. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    This paper employs data from a large-scale survey (InnoS&T) of inventors in Europe, the USA, and Japan who were listed in patent applications filed at the European Patent Office with priority years between 2003 and 2005. We provide evidence regarding the reasons for patenting and the ways in which...... patents are being utilized. A substantial share of patents is neither used internally nor for market transactions, which confirms the importance of strategic patenting and inefficiency in the management of intellectual property. We investigate different types of unused patents—unused blocking patents...... and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  9. Modification of polysaccharides: Pharmaceutical and tissue engineering applications with commercial utility (patents).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malviya, Rishabha; Sharma, Pramod Kumar; Dubey, Susheel Kumar

    2016-11-01

    Polymer modifications open new era for the development of polymers with requisite properties. Use of modified polymers is practically boundless. Different studies focus on biomedical applications of chemically modified polysaccharides. Development and utilization of modified polysaccharides get attention to be used as carrier for pharmaceutical drug delivery as well as tissue engineering scaffolds. Grafted polymer shows better cellular regeneration, signal transmission, diagnostic and imaging material than putative form. This review article aims to discuss various approaches to modify naturally derived polymer and their applications as pharmaceutical drug carrier and as a material for wound dressing and artificial cartilage due to better biophysical cues. Manuscript included various patents based on the applications of modified polymers and techniques used to modify polymers. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Analysis on the Application and Characteristics of Chinese Patent Medicines Containing Dried Rehmanniae Radix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Hui; Miao, Yanyan; Miao, mingsan

    2018-01-01

    Dried Rehmanniae Radix has sweet taste, and its drug property is cold.It acts on heart, liver and kidney.It has the effect of clearing heat and cooling blood, nourishing yin and promoting fluid production.The active constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix are mainly iridoid glycosides, polysaccharides, oligosaccharides and so on.This article sorted and analyzed the application forms, efficacy, applicable symptomsh and the frequency of the use of single traditional Chinese medicine in the Chinese patent medicines containing dried Rehmanniae Radix in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia of 2015. This method provides a train of thought for the further study of the pharmacological constituents of dried Rehmanniae Radix, and supplements the pharmacodynamics of Chinese herbal medicine of dried Rehmanniae Radix. It also provides ideas for the improvement of dried Rehmanniae Radix prescription and the new usage of its old prescription.

  11. Advancing biotechnology with CRISPR/Cas9: recent applications and patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Raphael; David, Florian; Nielsen, Jens

    2018-01-24

    Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) is poised to become one of the key scientific discoveries of the twenty-first century. Originating from prokaryotic and archaeal immune systems to counter phage invasions, CRISPR-based applications have been tailored for manipulating a broad range of living organisms. From the different elucidated types of CRISPR mechanisms, the type II system adapted from Streptococcus pyogenes has been the most exploited as a tool for genome engineering and gene regulation. In this review, we describe the different applications of CRISPR/Cas9 technology in the industrial biotechnology field. Next, we detail the current status of the patent landscape, highlighting its exploitation through different companies, and conclude with future perspectives of this technology.

  12. New 'patent accelerated care environment' aims to facilitate work flow, free up ED for acute care needs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    Faced with rising acuity levels and surging demand, Virginia Mason Medical Center modified the Clinical Decision Unit concept used in many EDs, and developed a new Patient Accelerated Care Environment (PACE) to care for observation patients, process patients for discharge, and to prepare patients for admission.The approach is designed to utilize ED beds for initial processing of patients, allowing resuscitative care if needed, and treating and releasing the patients with quick care needs. Using the Virginia Mason Production System, a methodology that is modeled after Toyota production techniques, developers designed an optimal work flow pattern and then built infrastructure to facilitate that process. All patients who present to the ED for care are seen by the ED team through a "team greet" approach. Approximately 35% to 40% of patients who come to the ED for care are transferred to the PACE unit. Patients assigned to the PACE unit typically remain there for 4 to 48 hours, depending on their care needs.

  13. Scientific production and technological production: transforming a scientific paper into patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cleber Gustavo; Almeida, Roberto Barbosa de

    2013-01-01

    Brazil has been presenting in the last years a scientific production well-recognized in the international scenario, in several areas of knowledge, according to the impact of their publications in important events and especially in indexed journals of wide circulation. On the other hand, the country does not seem to be in the same direction regarding to the technological production and wealth creation from the established scientific development, and particularly from the applied research. The present paper covers such issue and discloses the main similarities and differences between a scientific paper and a patent application, in order to contribute to a better understanding of both types of documents and help the researchers to chose and select the results with technological potential, decide what is appropriated for industrial protection, as well as foster new business opportunities for each technology which has been created.

  14. Application of Bibliographic Coupling versus Cited Titles Words in Patent Fuzzy Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Kermani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Attribute selection is one of the steps before patent clustering. Various attributes can be used for clustering. In this study, the effect of using citation and citation title words, respectively, in form of bibliographic coupling and citation title words sharing, were measured and compared with each other, as patent attributes. This study was done in an experimental method, on a collection of 717 US Patent cited in the patents belong to 977/774 subclass of US Patent Classification. Fuzzy C-means was used for patent clustering and extended BCubed precision and extended BCubed recall were used as evaluation measure. The results showed that the clustering produced by bibliographic coupling had better performance than clustering used citation title words and existence of cluster structure were in a wider range of exhaustivity than citation title words.

  15. Strategies for stem cell patent applications in the light of recent court cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eyre, David E; Schlich, George W

    2015-01-01

    Stem cells offer the prospect of treatments for diseases and injuries that are currently beyond medical science. Although development of these potential medical marvels has been dogged by their controversial origin, technological developments and guidance from recent judicial decisions have answered and overcome many of these difficulties. In particular, the European Patent Office, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Japan Patent Office and State Intellectual Property Office of China have published guidelines covering patenting of stem cell technologies in the light of recent decisions. We now see a patent landscape where stem cell technologies and related therapies can, with very few exceptions, be protected via patents, provided the appropriate form of claim wording is used.

  16. Gender diversity, R&D teams and patents: An application to Spanish firms

    OpenAIRE

    Segarra Blasco, Agustí, 1958-; Teruel, Mercedes

    2018-01-01

    Previous results show that gender diversity increases the probability that firms invest in R&D and engage in innovation. This paper explores the relationship between gender diversity of R&D departments and their capacity to patent. Based on the Spanish Community Innovation Survey between 2004 and 2014, we apply a two-step procedure in order to control for endogeneity. Although gender diversity affects OEPM patents negatively, its impact is non-significant for patents with international covera...

  17. The clinical application and effect evaluation of home-made duct occluder in patent ductus arteriosus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jijun, Shi; Guohong, Zeng; Zhiwei, Zhang; Huishen, Wang; Mingyang, Qian; Yufen, Li [Guangdong Provincial People' s Hospital, Guangdong Provincial Cardiovascular Inst., Guangzhou (China)

    2003-08-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application and effect of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) by using the home-made Xinjian duct occluder. Methods: From June, 2000 to July, 2002, 182 patients (63 male, 119 female) underwent attempted transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus by using the Xinjian duct occluder at a median age of 5.23 years (range 0.3 to 16) and a median weight of 17.09 kg (range 5 to 50). The mean PDA diameter in the narrowest segment was 4.30 mm (range 1.32 to 9.00). The delivery sheath was 6 to 10 F. The median operation time was 73.31 min (range 45 to 135), and the median fluoroscopy time was 7.09 min (range 2.60 to 26.90). Follow-up evaluation was performed with color flow mapping immediately, at 24 h, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after closure, respectively. Results: The Xinjian device was successfully placed in all 182 cases. Angiography showed immediate closure in 109 patients (59.89%), small residual shunt in 30, and trace shunt in 43. At 24 h, color Doppler revealed complete closure in 163 patients. Only 8 patients still had a residual shunt after 1 month. A residual shunt was observed in 4 at 3 months and 6 months, 2 at 1 year, 1 at 2 years. There were no severe complications. Conclusions: Transcatheter closure of PDA using the home-made Xinjian occluder is a safe and effective method. The Xinjian occluder could replace the imported product in the closure of PDA.

  18. The clinical application and effect evaluation of home-made duct occluder in patent ductus arteriosus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Jijun; Zeng Guohong; Zhang Zhiwei; Wang Huishen; Qian Mingyang; Li Yufen

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the clinical application and effect of transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) by using the home-made Xinjian duct occluder. Methods: From June, 2000 to July, 2002, 182 patients (63 male, 119 female) underwent attempted transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus by using the Xinjian duct occluder at a median age of 5.23 years (range 0.3 to 16) and a median weight of 17.09 kg (range 5 to 50). The mean PDA diameter in the narrowest segment was 4.30 mm (range 1.32 to 9.00). The delivery sheath was 6 to 10 F. The median operation time was 73.31 min (range 45 to 135), and the median fluoroscopy time was 7.09 min (range 2.60 to 26.90). Follow-up evaluation was performed with color flow mapping immediately, at 24 h, 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after closure, respectively. Results: The Xinjian device was successfully placed in all 182 cases. Angiography showed immediate closure in 109 patients (59.89%), small residual shunt in 30, and trace shunt in 43. At 24 h, color Doppler revealed complete closure in 163 patients. Only 8 patients still had a residual shunt after 1 month. A residual shunt was observed in 4 at 3 months and 6 months, 2 at 1 year, 1 at 2 years. There were no severe complications. Conclusions: Transcatheter closure of PDA using the home-made Xinjian occluder is a safe and effective method. The Xinjian occluder could replace the imported product in the closure of PDA

  19. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-01

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  20. Can this kind of idea be a patent?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    2004-08-15

    This book mentions patent such as application, what is patents, patent law, procedure and patent attorney, which includes business idea is patent. Is internet domain name or name-brand? We can make a big money with others idea, the difference among patent, trademark, utility model rights and registration of design, priority system, new weapon in digital period, patent is a knife and a shield, the cost from application to registration, what is hunting of patent information, writing document for patent, patent examination and patent lawyer.

  1. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Noruzi, Alireza; Abdekhoda, Mohammadhiwa

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  2. Patents and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj

    2007-06-01

    Big pharma's business model, which relies on a few blockbusters to generate profits, is clearly broken. Patent expiration on numerous blockbusters in recent years is already altering the drug landscape. Drug companies are also facing other challenges that necessitate development and implementation of novel R&D strategies, including those that focus on nanotechnology and miniaturization. Clearly, there is enormous excitement and expectation regarding nanomedicine's potential impact. However, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be critical. Although early forecasts for nanomedicine commercialization are encouraging, there are numerous bottlenecks as well. One of the major hurdles is an emerging thicket of patent claims, resulting primarily from patent proliferation as well as continued issuance of surprisingly broad patents by the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). Adding to this confusion is the fact that the US National Nanotechnology Initiative's widely cited definition of nanotechnology is inaccurate and irrelevant from a nanomedicine perspective. It is also the cause of the inadequate patent classification system that was recently unveiled by the PTO. All of this is creating a chaotic, tangled patent landscape in various sectors of nanomedicine where the competing players are unsure of the validity and enforceability of numerous issued patents. If this trend continues, it could stifle competition and limit access to some inventions. Therefore, reforms are urgently needed at the PTO to address problems ranging from poor patent quality and questionable examination practices to inadequate search capabilities, rising attrition, poor employee morale and a skyrocketing patent application backlog. Only a robust patent system will stimulate the development of commercially viable nanomedicine products that can drastically improve a patient's quality of life and reduce healthcare costs.

  3. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S... Consultants, 1255 Roberts Boulevard NW., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark...

  4. The process of filing patent applications in the view of ICT inventors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gimenes, Celso Huerta; Politano, Rodolfo; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de, E-mail: cgimenes@Ipen.br, E-mail: politano@ipen.br, E-mail: delvonei@ipen.br [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2013-07-01

    This article analyzed the patent files of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy, CNEN, at the National Institute of Industrial Property - INPI (U.S. Intellectual Property Commission - CIPC). The following institutions were considered: the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research - IPEN and the Nuclear Technology Development Center. The process of patent requests, under the view of ICT inventors, was verified. From these results, an increase in the register requests was found, with a stable number of inventors. Hence, it is worth highlighting the necessity to strengthen the dissemination of the legislation, as well as to show the advantages the Inventor would have by presenting a curriculum with many patents. (author)

  5. The process of filing patent applications in the view of ICT inventors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gimenes, Celso Huerta; Politano, Rodolfo; Andrade, Delvonei Alves de

    2013-01-01

    This article analyzed the patent files of the National Commission of Nuclear Energy, CNEN, at the National Institute of Industrial Property - INPI (U.S. Intellectual Property Commission - CIPC). The following institutions were considered: the Institute for Energy and Nuclear Research - IPEN and the Nuclear Technology Development Center. The process of patent requests, under the view of ICT inventors, was verified. From these results, an increase in the register requests was found, with a stable number of inventors. Hence, it is worth highlighting the necessity to strengthen the dissemination of the legislation, as well as to show the advantages the Inventor would have by presenting a curriculum with many patents. (author)

  6. 78 FR 72064 - Request for Comments on Methods for Studying the Diversity of Patent Applicants

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ..., Expert Advisor, Office of Chief Economist, United States Patent and Trademark Office, Mail Stop External..., Office of Chief Economist, by telephone at (571) 272-6900, or by email at [email protected

  7. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  8. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  9. The crush and spray: a patented design for herbicide application with less waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherie LeBlanc Fisher; Adam H. Wiese

    2009-01-01

    The USDA Forest Service recently patented an equipment design to deliver herbicides more efficiently and cost-effectively. Towed by a standard all-terrain vehicle, the Crush and Spray can access out-of-the-way or wet locations. An adjustable roller first knocks down the unwanted plants. A low-set spray boom with wide angle sprayer nozzles then provides precise, close-...

  10. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  11. Biomedical applications of yeast- a patent view, part one: yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohvand, Farzin; Shokri, Mehdi; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2017-08-01

    Yeasts, as Eukaryotes, offer unique features for ease of growth and genetic manipulation possibilities, making it an exceptional microbial host. Areas covered: This review provides general and patent-oriented insights into production of biopharmaceuticals by yeasts. Patents, wherever possible, were correlated to the original or review articles. The review describes applications of major GRAS (generally regarded as safe) yeasts for the production of therapeutic proteins and subunit vaccines; additionally, immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall components were reviewed for use of whole yeast cells as a new vaccine platform. The second part of the review will discuss yeast- humanization strategies and innovative applications. Expert opinion: Biomedical applications of yeasts were initiated by utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of leavened (fermented) products, and advanced to serve to produce biopharmaceuticals. Higher biomass production and expression/secretion yields, more similarity of glycosylation patterns to mammals and possibility of host-improvement strategies through application of synthetic biology might enhance selection of Pichia pastoris (instead of S. cerevisiae) as a host for production of biopharmaceutical in future. Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall β-glucans and possibility of intracellular expression of heterologous pathogen/tumor antigens in yeast cells have expanded their application as a new platform, 'Whole Yeast Vaccines'.

  12. Spanish firms patenting in the European office. characteristics compared with non-applicant; Las empresas espanolas que patentan en la oficina Europea. Caracteristicas comparadas con las no solicitantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas, A.; Huergo, E.; Moreno, L.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide evidence about the features of Spanish firms applying for patents to the European Patent Office between 1998 and 2008. We compare these firms with a control sample of non-applicants during the same period and focus especially on firms that have been awarded public aid for R and D projects by the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology. (Author) 14 refs.

  13. Research method of nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao An'na; Sun Chenglin; Wang Lei; You Xinfeng

    2010-01-01

    When faced with a huge amount of nuclear patent information, the key to effective research include: (1) Choose convenient way to search, quick access to nuclear technology related patents; (2) To overcome the language barrier, analysis the technical content of patent information; (3) Organize the publication date of retrieved patent documents, analysis the status and trends of nuclear technology development; (4) Research the patented technology of main applicants; (5) Always pay attention to the legal status of patent information, free use the invalid patents, at the same time avoid the patent infringement. Summary, patent information is important to obtain the latest technical information source, and the research work of patent information is a comprehensive understanding and mastery way for advanced nuclear technology. (authors)

  14. Essentials of the successful drafting of invention applications on nuclear technology in the view of patent examination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai Chenyang

    2010-01-01

    Up to now, there has been a comparatively low ratio of domestic authorization in terms of invention applications in the field of nuclear technology. In this paper, the main reasons according to my experience in the patent examination are revealed in the following three aspects: (1) there is a lack of novelty or inventive step; (2) the scope of some claims is not clearly defined; (3) the description is improperly drafting. Common problems are shown and analyzed. Suggestion for avoiding the problems and corresponding solutions are given. (author)

  15. Will Governmental Incentives in Developing Countries Support Companies to Innovate More? Evidences from Skin Care Patent Applications in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Domicio da Silva Souza

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Recent Brazilian Governments have provided incentives to support domestic innovation; however, some claim that the country has set conflicting policies towards innovation, industrial property and biodiversity exploitation. After an analysis of patent applications filled in the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property, we observed that current governmental measures have not performed as expected, at least in the skin care industry. Throughout the paper we discuss plausible reasons why this sector has not managed to innovate more, reasons that may affect other businesses as well. This case is exemplary to developing economies that have implemented or are in the process of renewing their innovation policies.

  16. Patent business guide in a domestic and foreign countries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2009-09-01

    This book explains general things on industrial property right, which includes description of industrial property right, types, qualification for application of patent, application guide, on-line application, useful procedure of application, writing methods and samples for application of patents such as design patent and trademarks patent, writing skill and examples for registration, writing ways and examples related examination and writing tips and samples on international application of patent.

  17. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

  18. Grant Patents on Animals? An Ethical and Legal Battle Looms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, David L.

    1987-01-01

    Rulings on applications for animal patents being considered by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office could profoundly influence university patent and research income. Many animal-rights advocates have expressed philosophical objections to genetic engineering of animals. (MLW)

  19. Patent applications for using DNA technologies to authenticate medicinal herbal material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chan Albert

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herbal medicines are used in many countries for maintaining health and treating diseases. Their efficacy depends on the use of the correct materials, and life-threatening poisoning may occur if toxic adulterants or substitutes are administered instead. Identification of a medicinal material at the DNA level provides an objective and powerful tool for quality control. Extraction of high-quality DNA is the first crucial step in DNA authentication, followed by a battery of DNA techniques including whole genome fingerprinting, DNA sequencing and DNA microarray to establish the identity of the material. New or improved technologies have been developed and valuable data have been collected and compiled for DNA authentication. Some of these technologies and data are patentable. This article provides an overview of some recent patents that cover the extraction of DNA from medicinal materials, the amplification of DNA using improved reaction conditions, the generation of DNA sequences and fingerprints, and the development of high-throughput authentication methods. It also briefly explains why these patents have been granted.

  20. Patent office governance and patent system quality

    OpenAIRE

    PICARD, Pierre M.; VAN POTTELSBERGHE DE LA POTTERIE, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  1. Examining the Impact of Family Management on Patent Applications for German Industrial Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Burr

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Elaborating the innovation behavior of family-owned businesses, prior research primary focused on the impact of ownership structure on innovation. However, surprisingly little attention has been given to understand the role of family management in this context. Our study contributes to literature closing this research gap. Using the number of applied patents as proxy for R&D outcome, our findings show that family management affects R&D output negatively. The empirical results of the study are in line with expectations drawn from agency and stewardship perspectives supposing substantial differences in research and development strategies of family and non-family managers.

  2. Application of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: review of recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Jose; Melguizo, Consolacion; Perazzoli, Gloria; Cabeza, Laura; Carrasco, Esther; Oliver, Jaime; Jiménez-Luna, Cristina; Leiva, Maria C; Ortiz, Raúl; Álvarez, Pablo J; Aranega, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers remain one of the main causes of death in developed countries. The main obstacles to combating these diseases are the limitations of current diagnostic techniques and the low stability, availability, and/or specificity of pharmacological treatment. In recent years, nanotechnology has revolutionized many fields of medicine, including oncology. The association of chemotherapeutic agents with nanoparticles offers improvement in the solubility and stability of antitumor agents, avoidance of drug degradation, and reductions in therapeutic dose and toxicity, increasing drug levels in tumor tissue and decreasing them in healthy tissue. The use of specific molecules that drive nanoparticles to the tumor tissue represents a major advance in therapeutic specificity. In addition, the use of nanotechnology in contrast agents has yielded improvements in the diagnosis and the follow-up of tumors. These nanotechnologies have all been applied in gastrointestinal cancer treatment, first in vitro, and subsequently in vivo, with promising results reported in some clinical trials. A large number of patents have been generated by nanotechnology research over recent years. The objective of this paper is to review patents on the clinical use of nanoparticles for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis and therapy and to offer an overview of the impact of nanotechnology on the management of this disease.

  3. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  4. Are biosimilars patentable?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, Damian; Parker, Jayson; Morgan, Max

    2016-08-01

    This paper explores whether, and under what circumstances, a biosimilar approved in the United States under the Biologics Price Competition and Innovation Act (hereafter 'BPCIA') can be patented. The possibility that a biosimilar product could have meaningful patent protection arises from specific requirements for biosimilarity under the BPCIA, which account for the fact that manufacturing processes of biologics are inherently imprecise. The requirements for biosimilar approval may provide sufficient leeway to a biosimilar applicant to patent structural or formulation differences that provide non-clinical but business-relevant advantages over the reference molecule, such as improved shelf-life or ease of manufacture, without compromising clinical biosimilarity. Examination of the BPCIA and related Acts, Food and Drug Administration (FDA) guidance papers, case law, patent database searching, and relevant scholarly articles. Legislative and regulatory requirements for the approval of a biosimilar under the BPCIA are focused on clinical results and allow a degree of leeway for differences to exist between a biosimilar's structure and non-clinical components and those of the biosimilar's reference molecule. This leeway can be exploited to provide the biosimilar with potentially patentable business-relevant advantages over its reference product while maintaining clinical biosimilarity to the reference product.

  5. Application of Cardio-O-Fix occluders for transcatheter closure of patent ductus arteriosus and interatrial communications: Preliminary experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Białkowski, Jacek; Szkutnik, Małgorzata; Fiszer, Roland; Głowacki, Jan; Banaszak, Paweł; Zembala, Marian

    2010-01-01

    Transcatheter treatment has become the method of choice for treating many heart defects. Recently, Cardio-O-Fix occluder (COF) - a new, self-expandable nitinol wire-mesh device very similar to the Amplatzer device - has been introduced into clinical practice. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first publication related to its application. Five patients aged from six months to 69 years were included in the study: two with atrial septal defect (ASD), one with patent foramen ovale (PFO) after cryptogenic stroke, and two with patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). These latter two comprised one six month old infant with co-existent hypertrophied cardiomyopathy, and a 53 year-old woman with recanalized PDA after previous ligation. All were treated percutaneously with COF. There was no preliminary patient selection. The only limitation was the size of the devices in our possession (16 and 22 mm ASD COF, 25 PFO COF, 4/6 and 6/8 PDA COF). The implantation technique was the same as previously described for Amplatzer occluders. All procedures were finished successfully with complete closure of the shunt. No complications were observed during a six month follow-up. In the child with PDA, we observed decrease of gradient from 80 to 60 mm Hg in hypertrophied left ventricular outflow tract, although a small protrusion of PDA-COF device was noted in the descending aorta (8 mm Hg gradient in ECHO). In the patient with recanalized PDA, the procedure was performed after arterio-venous loop creation. Mean fluoroscopy time was 4.4 (range from 1.6 to 11) minutes. Our preliminary experience indicates that the application of Cardio-O-Fix devices is safe and effective.

  6. 75 FR 15419 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License of U.S. Patent Application No. 12/432,842 Filed April...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    ... Exclusive License of U.S. Patent Application No. 12/432,842 Filed April 30, 2009 Entitled: ``A Soil Stabilization Soil Comprising Same, and a Method of Stabilizing Soil'' AGENCY: Department of the Army, U.S. Army... climates with sandy, gravelly soils where emulsions and hydraulic cements will not effectively cure. If...

  7. 75 FR 54330 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Field of Use License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-07

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant an Exclusive Field of Use License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice... intent to grant an exclusive, revocable license for the field of use in the research reagent market to...

  8. 75 FR 39668 - Intent To Grant a Field of Use Exclusive License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Army Intent To Grant a Field of Use Exclusive License of a U.S. Government-Owned Patent Application AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION: Notice... intent to grant a field of use exclusive, revocable license for the field of shigella vaccine development...

  9. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b) General...

  10. Using Software Applications to Facilitate and Enhance Strategic Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-09-01

    Angeles, CA 90089-0021 213-743-3083 XIA 2.0 Booz-Allen & Hamilton, Inc. 1953 Gallows Road Vienna, VA 11180 703-893-0040 92 REFERENCES Ansoff , H. Igor ...to doing business was invented ( Ansoff 1984). Two examples of business applications of strategy are generic and competitive strategies (Mintzberg 1991...34 ( Ansoff 1984, p. 188) Keller (1990) states the purpose of the PPBS was "to produce a plan, a program, and, finally a budget for the Department of Defense

  11. Recent patents on flavonoids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamta, Gokhale; Bansal, Y K; Sandhu, S S

    2013-12-01

    Flavonoids are substances which are widely distributed in the plant kingdom. They occur in considerable quantities in common food products, spices and beverages. Interest of researchers has been greatly enhanced towards therapeutic potential of flavonoids in last some years. This review summarizes important patents pertaining to recent biotechnological techniques applied for the production, analysis of biosynthetic pathways, effects and applications of different flavonoids. For systematic studies investigations which have been published in the form of patents, are classified in different sectors like biosynthesis, medical application, antimicrobial activity, alteration of flower color, industrial application, cosmetics, food and plant tissue culture. A number of activities have been observed in each sector with vast area of research on flavonoids.

  12. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  13. The Patentability of Stem Cells in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petering, Jenny; Cowin, Prue

    2015-07-01

    The potential therapeutic applications of stem cells are unlimited. However, the ongoing political and social debate surrounding the intellectual property and patenting considerations of stem cell research has led to the implementation of strict legislative regulations. In Australia the patent landscape surrounding stem cells has evolved considerably over the past 20 years. The Australian Patents Act 1990 includes a specific exclusion to the patentability of human beings and of biological processes for their generation. However, this exclusion has received no judicial consideration to date, and so its scope and potential impact on stem cell patents is unclear. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  14. US patent interferences vs. international first-to-file patent systems, and current GATT problems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parkhurst, R.W.; Serbinowski, P.A.

    1991-01-01

    Simultaneous superconductivity research activities by different entities have resulted in numerous US patent applications, some of which may claim identical inventions and thus likely will be involved in interference proceedings in the US Patent and Trademark Office to determine which inventors are entitled to priority of invention and the resulting US patent. The determination in an interference proceeding of what inventors were the first-to-invent a patentable invention is contrasted with the patent systems in the rest of the world where the first inventor to file his patent application automatically gains priority. This issue and other aspects of US patent law are the subjects of criticism of US patent law and practice in the current Uruguay round of talks on the General Agreement on Trade and Tariffs (GATT). Interesting aspects of each of these subjects will be discussed

  15. Discrimination against foreigners in the patent system : evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreign firms in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard. The choice of standard-essential patents (SEPs) is particularly

  16. Discrimination in the patent system: evidence from standard-essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Rassenfosse, G.; Raiteri, E.; Bekkers, R.N.A.

    2017-01-01

    This paper tests for traces of discrimination against foreigners in the patent prosecution process. It focuses on the case of China and looks specifically at patent applications declared as essential to a technological standard, so called standard-essential patents. The identification strategy

  17. Use of Patent Applications as a Tool for Technology Development Prospection on the Ethanol Production Chain from Lignocellulosic Biomasses in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz André Felizardo Silva Schlittler

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing concerns regarding the future of global energy supplies have encouraged R&D in alternative sources to complement the global energy matrix. Brazil has earned notoriety as one of the largest producers of ethanol and biomass. This has aroused other countries’ interest in Brazil’s capabilities. However, the technologies for converting biomass into ethanol are not sufficiently mature, and have been developed in a decentralized manner. The lignocellulosic ethanol technologies can be divided into the following three groups: pretreatment, enzymes and ethanol production. One of the most efficient methods for mapping such technologies is through patent applications because the applications provide important information on trends in long-term technological development. Among all the patent applications deposited in the Brazilian database, pretreatment technologies were the most exploited followed by enzymes and ethanol production. The large number of documents from USA and European countries efforts the importance of Brazil in this technological scenario.

  18. Patent first, ask questions later: morality and biotechnology in patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagley, Margo A

    2003-12-01

    This Article explores the U.S. "patent first, ask questions later" approach to determining what subject matter should receive patent protection. Under this approach, the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO or the Agency) issues patents on "anything under the sun made by man," and to the extent a patent's subject matter is sufficiently controversial, Congress acts retrospectively in assessing whether patents should issue on such interventions. This practice has important ramifications for morally controversial biotechnology patents specifically, and for American society generally. For many years a judicially created "moral utility" doctrine served as a type of gatekeeper of patent subject matter eligibility. The doctrine allowed both the USTPO and courts to deny patents on morally controversial subject matter under the fiction that such inventions were not "useful." The gate, however, is currently untended. A combination of the demise of the moral utility doctrine, along with expansive judicial interpretations of the scope of patent-eligible subject matter, has resulted in virtually no basis on which the USTPO or courts can deny patent protection to morally controversial, but otherwise patentable, subject matter. This is so despite position statements by the Agency to the contrary. Biotechnology is an area in which many morally controversial inventions are generated. Congress has been in react-mode following the issuance of a stream of morally controversial biotech patents, including patents on transgenic animals, surgical methods, and methods of cloning humans. With no statutory limits on patent eligibility, and with myriad concerns complicating congressional action following a patent's issuance, it is not Congress, the representative of the people, determining patent eligibility. Instead, it is patent applicants, scientific inventors, who are deciding matters of high public policy through the contents of the applications they file with the USTPO. This Article

  19. To succeed with invention and patent which are my own idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book introduces how to invent through various way such as successful story about the effect to invent, conception like everyone can be a inventor and this is invention. This book also explains all of process of patent such as application of patent, patent in Korea, Japan, the U.S and other countries, what is patent information, how to hunt patent, intellectual property right, priority system, international patent application is possible in Korea, other common sense on patent application, patent as a great power and questions and answers on patent.

  20. 78 FR 2960 - Request for Comments on Preparation of Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... seeking public comment on advantages and disadvantages of applicants employing the following practices... comments on advantages and disadvantages of applicants employing the following practices when preparing... the specification and/or claims, particularly for inventions related to certain technologies, such as...

  1. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  2. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  3. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  4. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2018-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  5. Improved magnetic encoding device and method for making the same. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, R.J.

    A magnetic encoding device and method for making the same are provided for use as magnetic storage media in identification control applications that give output signals from a reader that are of shorter duration and substantially greater magnitude than those of the prior art. Magnetic encoding elements are produced by uniformly bending wire or strip stock of a magnetic material longitudinally about a common radius to exceed the elastic limit of the material and subsequently mounting the material so that it is restrained in an unbent position on a substrate of nonmagnetic material. The elements are spot weld attached to a substrate to form a binary coded array of elements according to a desired binary code. The coded substrate may be enclosed in a plastic laminate structure. Such devices may be used for security badges, key cards, and the like and may have many other applications. 7 figures.

  6. Metal-doped organic foam and method of making same. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinde, J.A.

    Organic foams having a low density and very small cell size and method for producing same in either a metal-loaded or unloaded (nonmetal loaded) form are described. Metal-doped foams are produced by soaking a polymer gel in an aqueous solution of desired metal salt, soaking the gel successively in a solvent series of decreasing polarity to remove water from the gel and replace it with a solvent of lower polarity with each successive solvent in the series being miscible with the solvents on each side and being saturated with the desired metal salt, and removing the last of the solvents from the gel to produce the desired metal-doped foam having desired density cell size, and metal loading. The unloaded or metal-doped foams can be utilized in a variety of applications requiring low density, small cell size foam. For example, rubidium-doped foam made in accordance with the invention has utility in special applications, such as in x-ray lasers.

  7. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  8. The ethics of patenting human embryonic stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chapman, Audrey R

    2009-09-01

    Just as human embryonic stem cell research has generated controversy about the uses of human embryos for research and therapeutic applications, human embryonic stem cell patents raise fundamental ethical issues. The United States Patent and Trademark Office has granted foundational patents, including a composition of matter (or product) patent to the Wisconsin Alumni Research Foundation (WARF), the University of Wisconsin-Madison's intellectual property office. In contrast, the European Patent Office rejected the same WARF patent application for ethical reasons. This article assesses the appropriateness of these patents placing the discussion in the context of the deontological and consequentialist ethical issues related to human embryonic stem cell patenting. It advocates for a patent system that explicitly takes ethical factors into account and explores options for new types of intellectual property arrangements consistent with ethical concerns.

  9. A study of fuel cell patenting activity in Canada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, B.Y.; Sajewycz, M.

    2004-01-01

    'Full text:' A patent application is generally filed shortly after completion of research and development; therefore, patent filing statistics provide insight into the state of innovation of a technology. A study has been conducted on fuel cell patenting activity in Canada. This study examines fuel cell patenting trends between 1989-2003 and specific activity in 2001, identifies the major players in the Canadian fuel cell industry, and examines the patent landscape by fuel cell technology. Our results show that historically, Canadians have been leaders at home and abroad in fuel cell innovation. However, Canadians have recently fallen behind in protecting their patent rights at home, and now rank fourth behind German, American and Japanese fuel cell patent filers in the Canadian patent office. However, our data also shows that a significant number of new Canadian entities have emerged and have been very active filing new patent applications. These new entities as well as established Canadian companies are examined in detail. (author)

  10. Device for detecting the specific gravity of a liquid. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derouin, C.R.; Kerwin, W.J.; McCormick, J.B.; Bobbett, R.E.

    1980-11-18

    A device for detecting the specific gravity of a liquid and a device for detecting the state of charge of a liquid phase electrolyte battery are described. In one embodiment of the present invention, a change in the critical angle of total internal reflection is utilized to determine the index of refraction of the liquid to be measured. It is shown that the index of refraction of the liquid is a function of the specific gravity of the liquid. In applications for measuring the state of charge of a battery, the specific gravity is proportional to the state of charge of the battery. A change in intensity of rays intersecting an interface surface indicates the critical angle which is a direct indication of the specific gravity of the liquid and the state of charge of a battery. In another embodiment, a light beam is projected through a transparent medium and then through a portion of the liquid to be measured. A change in refraction due to a change in the index of refraction of the liquid produces a deflection of the beam which is measured by a detector. The magnitude of deflection of the beam is directly proportional to the specific gravity of the liquid and the state of charge of a battery.

  11. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... interest the Air Force has in: U.S. Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010... Anish Tuteja et al.; U.S. Non-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011...

  12. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License... in: U.S. Patent Application No. 12/932,341, filed on February 23, 2011, entitled ``Resin-Based... INFORMATION CONTACT: An exclusive license for the invention described in this patent application will be...

  13. 77 FR 48130 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-13

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e... Provisional Application for Patent Application No. 61,638,362 titled ``Flow Cytometer Systems and Associated...

  14. Patents in INIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scheel, H.; Breitfeld, B.

    1983-01-01

    Proceeding from the INIS rules for collecting, characterizing, and making available patent documents, results of an analysis are presented, which concern timeliness, origin, and classification of patents according to the INIS subject categories and the International Patent Classification. GDR's capabilities for SDI services and retrospective searches are outlined taking into account patents. For a selected subject area (IPC G21) the coverage of patents announced by INIS was found to be about 30%

  15. Transferability and Commercialization of Patent Rights: Economic and Practical Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haim V. Levy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The transformation of innovation into commercial value depends primarily on appropriate protection of the intellectual property, usually by patents, and efficient pathway(s of its transferability as well as the transfer of the protected knowledge. The key features of patents, from an economic perspective, are that they encompass new knowledge and confer monopoly rights to the owner. The exclusiveness of patent rights is generally conceived as a necessary mechanism to ensure further innovation, stimulate advanced research and facilitate efficient market transactions with patent rights. The patent holder can transfer the technology embodied by way of granting to others a license to use the patented invention in return for a share of the revenues, usually royalties. Patent rights transferability has been proven to be efficient and profitable to the industry as well as beneficial to the welfare of society. The economic and practical perspectives of the transferability and commercialization of patent rights are discussed.

  16. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  17. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An

  18. Using Interactive "Shiny" Applications to Facilitate Research-Informed Learning and Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawcett, Lee

    2018-01-01

    In this article we discuss our attempt to incorporate research-informed learning and teaching activities into a final year undergraduate Statistics course. We make use of the Shiny web-based application framework for R to develop "Shiny apps" designed to help facilitate student interaction with methods from recently published papers in…

  19. 台灣地區專利指標應用之書目計量學研究 Bibliometrics Analysis of Patent Indicators’ Application in Taiwan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chun-Chi Liang

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available 十五年來專利指標研究文獻逐年成長,但是,至今尚無相關文獻對 專利指標進行系統性與全面性的了解。因此,本研究整理分析台灣 地區專利指標之研究與實證現況之文獻,期做為後續專利指標修訂、 研究與應用之參考。本研究利用專家常用關鍵字群進行檢索,再經 由文獻分析與內容分析方法,進行專利指標相關研究文獻之統計, 比較文獻歷年概況、學門與產業或企業類別之專利指標使用。本研 究結論為:(1專利指標使用多元,且研究者常使用多個專利組合指 標;(2台灣地區專利指標相關研究文獻量仍有成長空間;(3台灣地 區進行專利指標相關主要研究團隊有七組;(4學界使用專利指標與 財務績效連結並不明顯;(5國立大學在政府研究資訊系統獲得較多 的計畫支持;(6專利指標實證研究對象產業符合政府高科技政策規 劃;(7以書目計量學的方法來分析專利資訊是目前較具可信度做法; 過去台灣地區專利指標使用大都屬於單一產業實證,本研究為台灣 地區首次針對專利指標相關文獻進行統計,可供後續興趣研究者ㄧ 窺專利指標研究發展的脈絡。The past 15 years (1995-2009 witnessed an annual growth of the literature on patent indicators. However, no research was done to examine the patent indicators systematically and comprehensively. This paper reviewed the literature and current application of patent indicators in Taiwan to provide references for the future revision, application, and studies. The researchers first searched the literature using the expert keywords group; then studied the key literature by content analysis, such as using statistics to compare the publications and the application of patent indicators in industries. The findings are as follows: (1 The ways that patent indicators have been used are various and researchers usually combine multiple indicators to

  20. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  1. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  2. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  3. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  4. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    While global intellectual property trends show a stable rate of worldwide patent applications during the last five years, patent applications in emerging economies strongly increased within the same period. Unless the increasing number of applications in emerging economies, the indigenous legal...... archetypes of the world’s largest patent applicants using the case of China as an empirical context. Using Questel’s professional patent search application Orbit, we build a unique data set of the world’s top patent applicants combining data from the World Intellectual Property Organization and the State...... Intellectual Property Office of China comprising data of about 620.000 patents. Referring to the study of Keupp et al. (2012), we extend previous qualitative studies on patenting strategy archetypes by adding quantitative evidence from a data set of the world’s largest intellectual property owners. Model based...

  5. Argonne National Laboratory patent portfolio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huguelet, B.C.

    1976-01-01

    This booklet contains the abstracts of all active U. S. patents on technology items that originated at ANL, the applicability of which is not limited to nuclear reactors. Also listed are the titles of all ANL-originated nuclear-related U. S. patents that are still in force. Selected technology items for which patent applications have been filed and are available for licensing are included in several categories. Categories included in this booklet are as follows: atmospheric and earth sciences; biological and medical sciences; chemistry and chemical engineering; cryogenics and superconductivity; electronics and electrical engineering; energy conversion; measurements and controls; methods and devices; materials and fabrication; physics, accelerators and fusion; and selected nuclear-related technology

  6. DOE patents available for licensing: a bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeming, G.H.

    1982-06-01

    Abstracts and indexes are provided for 1344 DOE patents or patent applications concerning any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The entries are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. The bibliography covers the period from January 1974 through December 1980

  7. Litigation-proof patents: avoiding the most common patent mistakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Goldstein, Larry M

    2014-01-01

    "Litigation-Proof Patents: Avoiding the Most Common Patent Mistakes explains the principles of excellent patents, presents the ten most common errors in patents, and details a step-by-step method for avoiding these common errors...

  8. Should There Be an Obligation of Disclosure of Origin of Genetic Resources in Patent Applications? – Learning Lessons from Developing Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graeme Laurie

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In the lead-up to two meetings in June 2005 which will address the question of whether there should be an obligation of disclosure of origin of genetic resources in patent applications, this paper uses the on-going international policy debate in this area as a platform both to make some specific observations about this particular issue, and to offer some comments on the broader question which it raises of how the intellectual property world integrates with other legal and ethical regimes.

  9. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  10. Patents - Superconductor materials, processes and devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Test, A.

    1987-01-01

    A patent is a grant by a country to an inventor or his assignee of the right to exclude others for a limited period of time from making, using or selling the patented invention within its territory. It is reported that basic patents have been filed by IBM and the University of Houston to protect a broad range of warm superconducting materials or compounds. It is believed that other researchers are seeking patents to protect related or improved materials, processes and apparatus. Because of the importance of this field and to speed up the patent process, the United States Patent Office is giving, upon request, special expedited status to these patent applications. A survey of Japanese companies shows that more than 1500 patents have been applied for in Japan relating to superconducting materials, compositions, apparatus using superconductors and improvements. It appears that the goal of the Japanese companies is to obtain a patent position in Japan so that they can trade with companies wishing to do business in Japan for rights in other parts of the world

  11. Essential patents in industry standards : the case of UMTS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Bongard, R.; Nuvolari, A.

    2009-01-01

    We study the determinants of essential patents in industry standards. In particular, we assess the role of two main factors: the significance of the technological solution contained in the patent and the involvement of the applicant of the patent in the standardization process. To this end, we

  12. 77 FR 38771 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance... embodied in U.S. Patent Application No. 13/346,999 titled ``Chirped-Pulse Terahertz Spectroscopy for...

  13. 77 FR 40345 - Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-09

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant an Exclusive Patent License... William V. Stoecker, Hernan F. Gomez, Jonathan A. Green, and David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Number 7,927... David L. McGlasson; U.S. Patent Application Number Serial No. 12/756,875, filed on April 8, 2010...

  14. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: National Institute of Standards and Technology, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of prospective grant of exclusive patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e.... Patent Application No. 61/625,511 titled ``UV-Assisted Alcohol Sensing with Zinc Oxide Functionalized...

  15. Patents for Soldiers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-10

    PATENTS FOR SOLDIERS A thesis presented to the Faculty of the U.S. Army Command and General Staff College in partial fulfillment...COVERED (From - To) AUG 2015 – JUNE 2016 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Patents for Soldiers 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...protection of an innovative idea; that is, a patent . A Soldier’s pursuit of patents provides the Army with tangible and intangible benefits. There are on

  16. Space technology, sustainable development and community applications: Internet as a facilitator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peter, Nicolas; Afrin, Nadia; Goh, Gérardine; Chester, Ed

    2006-07-01

    Among other approaches, space technologies are currently being deployed for disaster management, environmental monitoring, urban planning, health applications, communications, etc. Although space-based applications have tremendous potential for socioeconomic development, they are primarily technology driven and the requirements from the end-users (i.e. the development community) are rarely taken into consideration during the initial development stages. This communication gap between the "space" and "development" communities can be bridged with the help of the web-based knowledge sharing portal focused on space applications for development. This online community uses the development gateway foundation's sophisticated content management system. It is modeled after the development gateway's knowledge sharing portals ( http://topics.developmentgateway.org) and draws from their expertise in knowledge management, partnership building and marketing. These types of portal are known to facilitate broad-based partnerships across sectors, regions and the various stakeholders but also to facilitate North-South and South-South cooperation. This paper describes the initiative "Space for Development" ( http://topics.developmentgateway.org/space) started in 2004 which aims to demonstrate how such a web-based portal can be structured to facilitate knowledge sharing in order to bridge the gap between the "space" and "development" communities in an innovative and global manner.

  17. Uniform interpretation of european patent law with a special view on the creation of a common patent court

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luginbühl, SL

    2009-01-01

    The European Patent Convention (EPC) provides for a common application and examination procedure for European patents. Therefore, European patents are granted on the basis of uniform European law which is applied and interpreted by the EPO, as well as by a great number of national judges and members

  18. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... and FDA-2008-E-0267] Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION... determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of...

  19. Patent border wars: defining the boundary between scientific discoveries and patentable inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Christopher M

    2007-12-01

    Drawing an appropriate boundary between unpatentable natural phenomena and patentable inventions is crucial in preventing the patent laws from unduly restricting access to fundamental scientific discoveries. Some would argue that, particularly in the U.S., patents are being issued that purport to claim a novel product or process but that, in effect, encompass any practical application of a fundamental biological principle. Examples include gene patents, which Congress is considering banning, and patents relating to biological correlations and pathways, such as the patents at issue in the headline-grabbing LabCorp v. Metabolite and Ariad v. Eli Lilly litigations. In view of the mounting concern, it seems likely that Congress and/or the courts will address the issue, and perhaps substantially shift the boundary.

  20. Quinoxaline derivatives: a patent review (2006--present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Mercedes; Cerecetto, Hugo

    2012-11-01

    Quinoxaline scaffold is included in a large number of therapeutic agents because of its physicochemical properties that make the difference between them and the carbono analogue, naphthalene. This review of patented products presents the quinoxaline heterocycle as part of the structural patent claims from a medicinal chemistry perspective. We centred our discussion in the various drug patent applications of the quinoxaline and its derivatives. The applications are based firstly in the specific enzyme target with very low development in the disease treatment. Only for cancer and antimicrobial agents they were specifically determined but little is mentioned in order to insight in the last development activities.

  1. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  2. Neglected knowledge in geophysics: Patents - how to find them, how to use them and how to apply for them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    their time, but maybe useful now, and to explore the historical background and/or timelines of inventions. Patent documents can help to avoid pitfalls and mistakes other experts might already have experienced and documented in describing the state of the art or the inspiration for their invention. It will be shown how to get access to these databases, how to use them to solve scientific problems and how to leverage search results to improve expertise, work experience or facilitate personal patent application. Patent documents resemble journal articles a lot - they contain an abstract, a description regarding the state of the art, the applicant's motivation to overcome a deficit, technical figures and claims to protect the invention. This structure is used globally for all patent documents. Besides the technical facts, they include the name of the inventor, the company applying for the patent, patent validity information and potential 'family members', which cover the same invention but often in other languages than the original patent document. To summarize, patent documents are a highly useful tool to strengthen one's knowledge in a practically orientated geophysical field and to widen the horizon to adjacent technical areas.

  3. Internet: A place for patent retrieval

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    GRACE

    2006-05-16

    May 16, 2006 ... Key words: Biotechnology, intellectual property rights, Patents, Internet application. INTRODUCTION. The principle objective of biotechnology is to produce ... Finland. France. Germany. Greek. Georgian. Hong Kong. Hungarian. Irsish. Italian. Japan. Korean. Luxemberg. Lithuania. Malaysian. Moldova.

  4. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  5. Patent protection and licensing in microfluidics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yetisen, Ali K; Volpatti, Lisa R

    2014-07-07

    Microfluidic devices offer control over low-volume samples in order to achieve high-throughput analysis, and reduce turnaround time and costs. Their efficient commercialisation has implications for biomedical sciences, veterinary medicine, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. In particular, market diffusion of microfluidic laboratory and point-of-care diagnostic devices can contribute to the improvement of global health. In their commercialisation, consultancy and patent protection are essential elements that complement academic publishing. The awareness of knowledge transfer strategies can help academics to create value for their research. The aim of this article is to provide a guidance to (1) overview the terminology in patent law, (2) elucidate the process of filing a patent in the US, EU, Japan and internationally, (3) discuss strategies to licence a patent, and (4) explain tactics to defend a patent in a potential infringement. Awareness of the patent law and rights allows obtaining optimised, valid and valuable patents, while accelerating implementation to market route. Striking a balance between academic publishing, consultancy to industry and patent protection can increase commercial potential, enhance economic growth and create social impact.

  6. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  7. 37 CFR 1.18 - Patent post allowance (including issue) fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... entity $1,190.00 (d) Publication fee $300.00. (e) For filing an application for patent term adjustment... (including issue) fees. 1.18 Section 1.18 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions Fees...

  8. To succeed using patent and invention which are brillant idea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu, Jae Bok

    1999-07-01

    This book deals with what invention is, how we can be a inventor, how we apply inventions to intellectual property office, and other useful advice and lesson on patent. These are the titles of each part : trouble stories on success to invent, everybody can be a inventor, this is a invention. There is a problem when the idea is same or similar, preceding patent, where does it hide? database on patent, patent information, Let's go to Korean intellectual property office, patient application which we misses in our dream, and instructions of patent including various sides.

  9. Annotated chemical patent corpus: a gold standard for text mining.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saber A Akhondi

    Full Text Available Exploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical exploration. Extracting chemical and biological entities from patents through manual extraction by expert curators can take substantial amount of time and resources. Text mining methods can help to ease this process. To validate the performance of such methods, a manually annotated patent corpus is essential. In this study we have produced a large gold standard chemical patent corpus. We developed annotation guidelines and selected 200 full patents from the World Intellectual Property Organization, United States Patent and Trademark Office, and European Patent Office. The patents were pre-annotated automatically and made available to four independent annotator groups each consisting of two to ten annotators. The annotators marked chemicals in different subclasses, diseases, targets, and modes of action. Spelling mistakes and spurious line break due to optical character recognition errors were also annotated. A subset of 47 patents was annotated by at least three annotator groups, from which harmonized annotations and inter-annotator agreement scores were derived. One group annotated the full set. The patent corpus includes 400,125 annotations for the full set and 36,537 annotations for the harmonized set. All patents and annotated entities are publicly available at www.biosemantics.org.

  10. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  11. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  12. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  13. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  14. How the strengths of Lisp-family languages facilitate building complex and flexible bioinformatics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomtchouk, Bohdan B; Weitz, Edmund; Karp, Peter D; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2016-12-31

    We present a rationale for expanding the presence of the Lisp family of programming languages in bioinformatics and computational biology research. Put simply, Lisp-family languages enable programmers to more quickly write programs that run faster than in other languages. Languages such as Common Lisp, Scheme and Clojure facilitate the creation of powerful and flexible software that is required for complex and rapidly evolving domains like biology. We will point out several important key features that distinguish languages of the Lisp family from other programming languages, and we will explain how these features can aid researchers in becoming more productive and creating better code. We will also show how these features make these languages ideal tools for artificial intelligence and machine learning applications. We will specifically stress the advantages of domain-specific languages (DSLs): languages that are specialized to a particular area, and thus not only facilitate easier research problem formulation, but also aid in the establishment of standards and best programming practices as applied to the specific research field at hand. DSLs are particularly easy to build in Common Lisp, the most comprehensive Lisp dialect, which is commonly referred to as the 'programmable programming language'. We are convinced that Lisp grants programmers unprecedented power to build increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence systems that may ultimately transform machine learning and artificial intelligence research in bioinformatics and computational biology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. 76 FR 82279 - Electronic Delivery of Search Results From the United States Patent and Trademark Office to the...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ...] Electronic Delivery of Search Results From the United States Patent and Trademark Office to the European... United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) has recently begun electronic delivery of search... the search results from a previously filed patent application to which the European patent application...

  16. Metadata-Driven SOA-Based Application for Facilitation of Real-Time Data Warehousing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pintar, Damir; Vranić, Mihaela; Skočir, Zoran

    Service-oriented architecture (SOA) has already been widely recognized as an effective paradigm for achieving integration of diverse information systems. SOA-based applications can cross boundaries of platforms, operation systems and proprietary data standards, commonly through the usage of Web Services technology. On the other side, metadata is also commonly referred to as a potential integration tool given the fact that standardized metadata objects can provide useful information about specifics of unknown information systems with which one has interest in communicating with, using an approach commonly called "model-based integration". This paper presents the result of research regarding possible synergy between those two integration facilitators. This is accomplished with a vertical example of a metadata-driven SOA-based business process that provides ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Loading) and metadata services to a data warehousing system in need of a real-time ETL support.

  17. Facilitating mental health screening of war-torn populations using mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Bahar; Ali, Sara; Awaad, Rania; Soudi, Laila; Housel, Lawrence; Sosebee, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    War-torn populations are often hard to screen for mental health disorders. Classical data collection approaches, such as paper-based, online, or SMS-operated, are either infeasible or lack accuracy due to a variety of challenges associated with dynamics and consequences of war. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for accurate and fast screening using free open-source software, Open Data Kit (ODK) mobile application. This approach was developed by the Palestine Children's Relief Fund (PCRF) to assess the mental health symptoms of 986 Palestinian children (age 6-18) in the aftermath of Israel's Operation Protective Edge (OPE) in 2014. The organization developed assessment questionnaires and trained local field workers on the use of the mobile application, and on recruiting and interviewing war victims. War-affected children were found to suffer from several alarming symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatic symptoms. Children with highest number of psychological symptoms were referred for further evaluation and treatment. The use of ODK mobile technologies facilitated efficient screening of affected children in war zones. The offline data collection capability was crucial for handling the difficult conditions associated with war-torn areas, enabling timely intervention for urgent cases. Further applications of the novel mobile technology are to be explored.

  18. Patent documentation - comparison of two MT strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Offersgaard, Lene; Povlsen, Claus

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on two matters: A comparison of how two different MT strategies manage translating the text type of patent documentation and a survey of what is needed to transform a MT research prototype system to a translation application for patent texts. The two MT strategies is represented....... The distinctive text type of patents pose special demands for machine translation and these aspects are discussed based on linguistic observations with focus on the users point of view. Two main demands are automatic pre processing of the documents and implementation of a module which in a flexible and user......-friendly manner offers the opportunity to extend the lexical coverage of the system. These demands and the comparison of the two MT strategies are discussed on the basis of proofread patents....

  19. 75 FR 54116 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive License of the United States Patent Application No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-03

    ... coatings, side dressing, lawn application and starter ground cover) and applications in the fields of soil... announcement. ADDRESSES: United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Attn: CEERD-OT (Ms. Bea...

  20. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria Maniero Moreira

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives: to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. Method: descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. Results: the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%, infectious-sharps (31-42% and recyclable (5-17%. The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. Conclusion: the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services.

  1. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana Maria Maniero; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives: to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. Method: descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. Results: the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%), infectious-sharps (31-42%) and recyclable (5-17%). The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. Conclusion: the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services. PMID:27556874

  2. [INDENA SPA company's patent portfolio of Ginkgo biloba preparation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nan; Guo, Kai; Cheng, Xin-min; Liu, Wei

    2015-10-01

    INDENA SPA Company in Italy is a multi-national company that produces and sells plant extracts. Based on its own re- search advantages in the field of Ginkgo biloba preparation, the company protects its own products market effectively through building patent portfolio around the patents of its opponent. Based on the multi-angle analysis for patent portfolio of G. biloba preparation from the aspects of application time, legal status, technical development route, and patent portfolio layout, this article provides technical reference on research and development of G. biloba preparation, and the author suggest that Chinese applicants learn techniques and layout experiences of other patents fully to enhance the level of research and patent protection level.

  3. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  4. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellectual Property Digital Library. This study investigated an important technique applied to the humanoid biped robot that imitates the walking behavior of the human beings on two legs. By analyzing the patent information obtained, the relative research capabilities, technical strengths, and patent citation conditions among patent competitors were compared. Furthermore, a formulated technical matrix of patent map is established in this paper to indicate that the ZMP (Zero Moment Point control means is the main technology to achieve stabilized walking control of the humanoid biped robot. This study also incorporates relevant academic journal findings and industrial information. Results presented herein demonstrate that patents can function not only as a map for tracking a technology trajectory, but also as a guide to the main development of a new technology in years to come.

  5. Identification and Analysis of Technology Emergence Using Patent Classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    and legal time and capital. The desired payoff for this investment is monopolistic control of a section of the technology space, allowed by present...the claims of their application based on either the prior art cited by the patent examiner or economic reali- ties surrounding the markets for...have been developed, the claims of the patents have been tuned and tested at the respective patent office, and market -driven commercial realities may

  6. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  7. 37 CFR 1.137 - Revival of abandoned application, terminated or limited reexamination prosecution, or lapsed patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... petition may be filed pursuant to this paragraph to revive an abandoned application, a reexamination... unintentional, a petition may be filed pursuant to this paragraph to revive an abandoned application, a... fee. (d) Terminal disclaimer. (1) Any petition to revive pursuant to this section in a design...

  8. Patent Ductus Arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal heart and normal blood flow. ... PDA may shrink and go away. However, some children need treatment to close their PDAs. Some children ...

  9. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  10. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies exemplif......This work addresses the question of determining whether reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of article 53 (c) of the European Patent Convention is viable and advisable. It does so by reference to novel or resurfacing interpretative concerns connected with emerging technologies...... exemplified by nanomedicine, while considering known interpretative issues and traditional objections to this provision. The debate concerning the patentability of ‘medical methods’ is multi-layered and complex. The ‘medical methods exception’ is a public policy mechanism, intended to introduce flexibility...... in the patent system in order to allow for the protection of core ethical values of society. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been...

  11. 75 FR 32418 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive License of the United States Patent Application No...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-08

    ...-1076. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Ms. Bea Shahin (217) 373-7234, FAX (217) 373-7210, e-mail: Bea.S... applications to achieve increased soil strength, reduced air transport, and decreased soil erosion. During...

  12. The lifespan of semiconductor patents by assignee and patent characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Shu-Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Evaluating the values of patents is critical for both managers and investors. Patent maintenance time is an ideal proxy indicator for evaluating commercial patent value. This study investigated the survival rates of patents in the semiconductor industry by using a survival analysis and incorporated a predictive model for patent maintenance times. The technical characteristics of the patents, the assignee factors, and the statuses of the patents were used as the predictive factors for patent maintenance time. The results revealed a small entity size and the number of assignees are the risk factors that increase the likelihood of the maintenance time of a patent decreasing. The litigation status of a patent and the number of its international patent classifications, claims, forward citations, and assignments were determined to be the protection factors that raise the likelihood of its maintenance time extending. Additionally, substantial differences were noted between small entities and nonsmall entities and between being litigated and not in their effects on the survival rates of patents. This study examined the factors that affect the survival rates of patents and provides a reference for the managers and investors of intellectual property rights to use when assessing technical and commercial patent values.

  13. Measuring patent quality and national technological capacity in cross-country comparison

    OpenAIRE

    Boeing, Philipp; Müller, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    China recently surpassed the USA as the greatest global source of patent applications. However, without internationally comparable measures of patent quality it remains questionable whether China's patent expansion constitutes the rise of a new technological superpower. Our novel quality index is based on citations from international search reports and provides internationally comparable, quality-adjusted figures for applications made under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We show that Ch...

  14. What is the Destiny of Patents of Brazilian Universities?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luiz de Souza Querido

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The power of patent is expressed when the innovative product or process goes to market, and the exclusive right that patent ensures generates the market power, and the holder possibility to obtain competitive advantage over competitors. Thus, it becomes compelling the discussions on the universities need for transformation of patent applications efforts into granted patents, which could be negotiated with a higher degree of juridical certainty and, consequently, higher value added. To establish an Index of Patents Granting, and understand the importance of Technological Innovation Nuclei for the increase of this index, it was developed a survey on the number of patents granted to Brazilian universities and evaluated the structure of Technological Innovation Nuclei of these universities. From the survey on the granting cases, it was verified that the universities presenting, among other characteristics, better structured Technological Innovation Nuclei stood out.

  15. The Battle for Patent Rights in Plant Biotechnology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes the occurrence and extent of oppositions initiated against plant biotechnology patents granted by the European Patent Office (EPO). The opposition mechanism is a legal procedure that allows any third party to challenge the validity of patents awarded by the EPO....... Results indicate that the opposition rate is far greater in plant biotechnology than in other emerging industries. Consistent with theoretical predictions, the empirical findings suggest that opposed patents are disproportionately those that score high on features that proxy for their “value” or “quality......”. In contrast to previous findings, however, the results show that large-volume applicants are more likely to be opposed. Because the boundaries of plant biotech patents are ill-defined, large patent portfolios do not promote cooperative behavior such as licensing or settlements. The analysis rejects...

  16. Test Collections for Patent-to-Patent Retrieval and Patent Map Generation in NTCIR-4 Workshop

    OpenAIRE

    Fujii, Atsushi; Iwayama, Makoto; Kando, Noriko

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the Patent Retrieval Task in the Fourth NTCIR Workshop, and the test collections produced in this task. We perform the invalidity search task, in which each participant group searches a patent collection for the patents that can invalidate the demand in an existing claim. We also perform the automatic patent map generation task, in which the patents associated with a specific topic are organized in a multi-dimensional matrix.

  17. Strategic management and utilization of patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Gyeong Go; Yun, Gwon Jun

    1993-11-01

    This book deals with why does management of patents need?, system of management of patents with function and site of management of patents and system and composition, what does management of patents department do?, task like technical development, management regulation, patent information, management of patents in small business with technical development of small business, how does business manage the patents in real, introduction of management of patents in the U.S, Europe, Japan, and Korea, and management of patents as strategic management.

  18. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. METHODOLOGY: Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country

  19. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães; Morel, Carlos Medicis

    2012-01-01

    New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country, will also contribute to effective dealing with public health

  20. Annotated chemical patent corpus: A gold standard for text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Akhondi (Saber); A.G. Klenner (Alexander G.); C. Tyrchan (Christian); A.K. Manchala (Anil K.); K. Boppana (Kiran); D. Lowe (Daniel); M. Zimmermann (Marc); S.A.R.P. Jagarlapudi (Sarma A. R. P.); R. Sayle (Roger); J.A. Kors (Jan); C. Muresan (Cornelia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractExploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting

  1. Patenting human genes: Chinese academic articles' portrayal of gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Li

    2018-04-24

    The patenting of human genes has been the subject of debate for decades. While China has gradually come to play an important role in the global genomics-based testing and treatment market, little is known about Chinese scholars' perspectives on patent protection for human genes. A content analysis of academic literature was conducted to identify Chinese scholars' concerns regarding gene patents, including benefits and risks of patenting human genes, attitudes that researchers hold towards gene patenting, and any legal and policy recommendations offered for the gene patent regime in China. 57.2% of articles were written by law professors, but scholars from health sciences, liberal arts, and ethics also participated in discussions on gene patent issues. While discussions of benefits and risks were relatively balanced in the articles, 63.5% of the articles favored gene patenting in general and, of the articles (n = 41) that explored gene patents in the Chinese context, 90.2% supported patent protections for human genes in China. The patentability of human genes was discussed in 33 articles, and 75.8% of these articles reached the conclusion that human genes are patentable. Chinese scholars view the patent regime as an important legal tool to protect the interests of inventors and inventions as well as the genetic resources of China. As such, many scholars support a gene patent system in China. These attitudes towards gene patents remain unchanged following the court ruling in the Myriad case in 2013, but arguments have been raised about the scope of gene patents, in particular that the increasing numbers of gene patents may negatively impact public health in China.

  2. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  3. Do patents impede the provision of genetic tests in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne; Liddicoat, John

    2013-06-01

    Health policy and law reform agencies lack a sound evidence base of the impacts of patents on innovation and access to healthcare to assist them in their deliberations. This paper reports the results of a survey of managers of Australian genetic testing laboratories that asked a series of questions relating to the tests they perform, whether they pay to access patented inventions and whether they have received notifications from patent holders about patents associated with particular tests. Some diagnostics facilities are exposed to patent costs, but they are all located in the private sector. No public hospitals reported paying licence fees or royalties beyond those included in the price of commercial test kits. Some respondents reported having received enforcement notices from patent holders, but almost all related to the widely known breast cancer-associated patents. Respondents were also asked for their views on the most effective mechanisms to protect their ability to provide genetic tests now and in the future. Going to the media, paying licence fees, ignoring patent rights and relying on the government to take action were widely seen as most effective. Litigation and applications for compulsory licences were seen as some of the least effective mechanisms. These results provide an evidence base for development of health policy and law reform. What is known about the topic? The impact of patents on the delivery of genetic testing services remains unclear in Australia. What does this paper add? The survey reported in this paper suggests that, aside from well-known enforcement actions relating to the breast cancer associated patents, there is little evidence that providers of genetic testing services are being exposed to aggressive patent-enforcement practices. What are the implications for practitioners? Although patent-enforcement actions may increase in the future, a range of strategies are available to providers of testing services to protect them against

  4. Obstacles to prior art searching by the trilateral patent offices: empirical evidence from International Search Reports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wada, Tetsuo

    Despite many empirical studies having been carried out on examiner patent citations, few have scrutinized the obstacles to prior art searching when adding patent citations during patent prosecution at patent offices. This analysis takes advantage of the longitudinal gap between an International Search Report (ISR) as required by the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and subsequent national examination procedures. We investigate whether several kinds of distance actually affect the probability that prior art is detected at the time of an ISR; this occurs much earlier than in national phase examinations. Based on triadic PCT applications between 2002 and 2005 for the trilateral patent offices (the European Patent Office, the US Patent and Trademark Office, and the Japan Patent Office) and their family-level citations made by the trilateral offices, we find evidence that geographical distance negatively affects the probability of capture of prior patents in an ISR. In addition, the technological complexity of an application negatively affects the probability of capture, whereas the volume of forward citations of prior art affects it positively. These results demonstrate the presence of obstacles to searching at patent offices, and suggest ways to design work sharing by patent offices, such that the duplication of search costs arises only when patent office search horizons overlap.

  5. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  6. Analysis of the BEV Technology Progress of America, Europe, Japan and Korea Based on Patent Map

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yurong, Huang; Yuanyuan, Hou; Jingyan, Zhou; Ru, Liu

    2018-02-01

    The paper analyzed the Battery Electric Vehicle patent application trend, major country distribution, main technology layout and patentee of America, Europe, Japan and Korea based on patent information from 2006 to 2016 by using patent map method, and visualized the Battery Electric Vehicle technology progress conditions of the four countries and regions in the last decade.

  7. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  8. Effect of the economic crisis on the production of immunology patents managed through the Patent Cooperation Treaty agreement from 2004-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Elena; Campos, Adolfo

    2015-07-01

    To determine the evolution of patents in immunology, as a result of research and innovation in the years 2004-2011. The search for patents published internationally in immunology was made by using the SCOPUSTM database. SCOPUS gives information about over 23 million patents. The extracted data from patents were: inventors and applicants; their nationalities; sections, classes and subclasses of the International Patent Classification. 89 countries. Data have been obtained from the database SCOPUS. It has been used for the international patent classification. Patents by country, Productive sectors, Productive areas. A total of 17,281 patents were applied for immunology during 2004-2011 of which 16,811 were from 30 Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development countries, and 5326 from 28 countries in the European Union. These patents were granted in 89 countries and 13,699 of them were submitted by researchers from only one country. Private entities applied for 62.45% of all patents, universities 17.48%, hospitals 3.40% and public research organisations and private applicants applied for the rest. The university that made more applications was the University of California with 315 and the company was Genentech Inc. (US) with 302. The reduction in the number of applications of international patents in all disciplines of science also affected the area of immunology. Collaboration in immunology between universities, companies and hospitals is hard because their interests are different. It is shown in patent applications that the majority of patents in immunology are applied for by only one entity. Patents in immunology are developed, mainly, in aspects such as medical preparations, peptides, mutation or genetic engineering, therapeutic activity of chemical compounds and analysing materials by determining their chemical or physical properties.

  9. The fallacy of Software Patents

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2015-01-01

    Software patents are usually used as argument for innovation but do they really promote innovation? Who really benefits from software patents? This talk attempts to show the problems with software patents and how they can actually harm innovation having little value for software users and our society in general.

  10. [The Glivec® case: the first example of a global debate on the drug patent system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moital, Inês; Bosch, Fèlix; Farré, Magí; Maddaleno, Mariano; Baños, Josep-E

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sequence of events involving the Glivec® case in India and to analyze the opinions generated in distinct settings. We performed a systematic search for articles concerning the imatinib (Glivec®) patent in India. We selected those sources that described the events, decisions of the authorities involved, and press and scientific opinions. Dates and arguments presented by the involved parties were clearly identified. Of 886 documents initially obtained, we selected 40 documents published between 2003 and 2013. Most of them were press news and commentaries. The process lasted 7 years, starting in 2006 when the Indian Patent Office rejected the patent application filed by Novartis. It ended in 2013 when the Indian Supreme Court upheld this decision. It was argued that the Indian Patent Law would facilitate access to medicines in the Third World and the final decision has received support by the general population. Although the court's final decision has been supported by several institutions, an objective analysis should also take into account the arguments of the pharmaceutical companies and other entities. The Glivec® case gave rise to an intense debate on the appropriateness of international standards on patents, their applicability and how they should be adopted in each country. This case, as well as other cases, should serve to stimulate reflection on the international patent system and to achieve scenarios in which the health of the poorest populations is protected but also balanced against intellectual property protection and innovation. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  11. Patent Searching for Librarians and Inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wherry, Timothy Lee

    Information on patents is provided for librarians and laypersons requiring an understanding of the system and the processes involved. Chapter 1 discusses successful patents; terms and concepts; patent types; copyright; trademark; requirements; patent examiners; patent pending; expiration; patentee and assignee; and reissued patents. Chapter 2…

  12. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  13. Patent urachus repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair - series—Normal anatomy URL of this ...

  14. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent ductus arteriosus URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  15. Patent urachus repair

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools About MedlinePlus Show Search Search MedlinePlus GO GO About MedlinePlus Site Map FAQs Customer Support Health Topics Drugs & Supplements Videos & Tools Español You Are Here: Home → Medical Encyclopedia → Patent urachus repair URL of this page: //medlineplus.gov/ ...

  16. Rapid-Prototyping of Application Specific Signal Processors (RASSP) Education and Facilitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000-12-01

    a new hardware platform with a new microkernel to change for each model year while maintaining the API. Support for the API is through the RASSP Run...autocoded graphs on the target hardware. The Run Time System is being built with an open interface to operating system microkernels to facilitate

  17. Expedited patent examination for green inventions: Developing countries' policy choices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Bingbin

    2013-01-01

    Innovation in green technology is important. Patent rights can provide incentives for green technology research and development. Expedited patent examination for green inventions has emerged as a policy instrument to provide such incentives. Developing countries were never opposed to patents for green technologies. China and Brazil have led the way by offering expedited examinations for green patent applications. More developing countries are expected to follow. Expedited examination for green technologies is consistent with the intellectual property system objectives and is justified by the clear social benefit from green technologies. Introducing such expedited programs in developing countries has sufficient advantages. Existing models of expedited programs for green technologies are analyzed to generalize key issues and to discern suitable policy choices for developing countries. When introducing such programs, a balanced definition for green technology is preferred; a special classification requirement is premature and is not recommended; a pre-examination search requirement is generally recommended to balance patent office workloads, and a green patent database is recommended. - Highlights: • There is no north–south divide in promoting green technologies. • Earlier issuance of green patents has its great social benefit. • Green patent application should receive expedited examination. • Developing countries should introduce such expedited programs. • A suitable approach for developing countries is searched and recommended

  18. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  19. Decoding gene patents in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2014-10-03

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents-the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government-have dealt with the issue of whether genetic material is proper subject matter for a patent. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  20. Are the Brookhill-Wilk patents impediments to market growth in cybersurgery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, T R; Torrance, A W

    2008-03-01

    In the past, many surgeons could practise their craft with little or no knowledge of patent law. But in the world of robotic and computerized surgery, this is increasingly a myopic approach, because the principle means of protecting high-tech surgical instruments is through the application of patent law. The issue is: does the Brookhill-Wilk patent, which covers the performance of remote robotic surgery, impede the growth of cybersurgery? Review of the Brookhill-Wilk patent and relevant law. Patent law, which first took its form in the Middle Ages, attempts to balance the rewarding of innovation with the stifling of market growth. Using US patent law as a model, it would appear that the Brookhill-Wilk patent, a particular example of a medical process patent, could inhibit the growth of cybersurgery, as potential sums of money could be demanded by the patent holder from anyone who practises cybersurgery. However, two recent US Supreme Court cases appear to have seriously undermined the validity of a number of medical process patents, including the Brookhill-Wilk patent. Based on recent changes in patent law, it is not expected that Brookhill-Wilk patent will hinder the growth of cybersurgery.

  1. Facilitating adverse drug event detection in pharmacovigilance databases using molecular structure similarity: application to rhabdomyolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilar, Santiago; Harpaz, Rave; Chase, Herbert S; Costanzi, Stefano; Rabadan, Raul

    2011-01-01

    Background Adverse drug events (ADE) cause considerable harm to patients, and consequently their detection is critical for patient safety. The US Food and Drug Administration maintains an adverse event reporting system (AERS) to facilitate the detection of ADE in drugs. Various data mining approaches have been developed that use AERS to detect signals identifying associations between drugs and ADE. The signals must then be monitored further by domain experts, which is a time-consuming task. Objective To develop a new methodology that combines existing data mining algorithms with chemical information by analysis of molecular fingerprints to enhance initial ADE signals generated from AERS, and to provide a decision support mechanism to facilitate the identification of novel adverse events. Results The method achieved a significant improvement in precision in identifying known ADE, and a more than twofold signal enhancement when applied to the ADE rhabdomyolysis. The simplicity of the method assists in highlighting the etiology of the ADE by identifying structurally similar drugs. A set of drugs with strong evidence from both AERS and molecular fingerprint-based modeling is constructed for further analysis. Conclusion The results demonstrate that the proposed methodology could be used as a pharmacovigilance decision support tool to facilitate ADE detection. PMID:21946238

  2. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana Maria Maniero; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2016-08-18

    to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%), infectious-sharps (31-42%) and recyclable (5-17%). The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services. propor instrumento para facilitar diagnóstico, elaboração e avaliação de Plano de Gerenciamento de Resíduos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde e apresentar os resultados da aplicação em quatro unidades selecionadas. pesquisa descritiva que contemplou as etapas de construção/aplicação do instrumento proposto e a avaliação de desempenho do gerenciamento de resíduos nas unidades estudadas. geração de instrumento composto por cinco formulários; proposta de indicadores específicos de geração de resíduos para unidades assistenciais de saúde sem

  3. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation......, the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  4. Patenting Human Genes in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo

    2017-01-01

    In accordance with the concept of the book and the assigned scope of the contribution, this chapter describes the European law with respect to the patent-eligibility of isolated DNA sequences. This chapter will further include a brief comparison with recent developments from the US and Australia....... It will, however, not focus on the important debates regarding the patent-eligibility of other biological material, diagnostic methods patents (as data aggregators) or abstract ideas which will be addressed by other contributions. Moreover, the analysis will merely concentrate on patent-eligibility. Other...... patentability requirement will only be briefly touched upon in the discussion part. The paper starts out in section 1.5.2 by discussing the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA sequences on the European national level and under the Biotechnology Directive. Then the patent-eligibility of isolated human DNA...

  5. Lovely but dangerous: The impact of patent citations on patent duration

    OpenAIRE

    Maurseth, Per Botolf

    2001-01-01

    - What is the impact of patent citations on patent renewal behaviour? Patent citations are commonly used as an indicator of technology spillovers. For cited patents therefore, patent citations have a potentially ambiguous impact. On the one hand, patent citations may indicate a scientific breakthrough, a high value of the cited patent and therefore a long survival period. On the other hand, patent citations may indicate competing innovations that render the cited patent obsolete. By discri...

  6. Analysis of Taiwan patents for the medicinal mushroom "Niu-Chang- Chih".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Yu-Fen; Lu, Wen-Ling; Wu, Ming-Der; Yuan, Gwo-Fang

    2013-04-01

    "Niu-Chang-Chih" (Antrodia cinnanomea) is a medicinal mushroom that has only been collected from the aromatic tree, Cinnamomum kanehirai, which is native to Taiwan. A total of 105 Taiwan patent applications and patents for "Niu-Chang-Chih" were collected and analyzed. Patent applications and granted patents claiming newly identified functional components from "Niu-Chang-Chih," biologically pure cultures of the mushroom strain, and cultivation of "Niu-Chang-Chih" were examined. Several applications and patents claim identified active compounds from "Niu-Chang- Chih," which provide better patent protection. These newly identified functional compounds include cyclohexanones, maleic and succinic acid derivatives, labdane diterpenoids, and benzenoids. Newly identified functional proteins include a glutathione-dependent formaldehyde dehydrogenase (GFD), a glycoprotein named ACA1, and a laccase. Newly identified functional polysaccharides include ACP1, ACP2, and ACP3. The number of patents for newly identified compounds and their uses are expected to continue growing.

  7. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... both aspects constitute major challenges for the appropriation of returns to inventive activity, extant literature suggests that participation in the market for technology might actually resolve or at least alleviate these problems. In this paper, we investigate the effect of patent blocking...... and infringement on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1000 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to patent blocking and in both in- and cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects...

  8. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  9. Science of invention patent

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Yeong Taek; Park, Su Dong

    1999-02-01

    This book tells science of invention patent about new way of invention and creative solution for problems, basic conception of TRIZ, resolution of physical contradictory and technical contradictory, development of system and types of evolution, change of thinking for solving the problems, analysis of structure for problem solution, problem solution using scientific phenomenon and effect, use of standard solution and algorithm of creative problem solution.

  10. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    following questions: In what fields are military personnel most likely to patent, and how do demographics, such as age, race, and gender , along with...technologies, which have transformed how the United States wages war. DARPA continues to develop new technologies and capabilities for the U.S. military today...build the European navies so it instead decided to utilize an innovative ship design to exploit a gap specific to the British Royal Navy. The six

  11. Using Simulation in Nursing PhD Education: Facilitating Application of Responsible Conduct of Research Principles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayton, Margaret F; Supiano, Katherine; Wilson, Rebecca; Lassche, Madeline; Latendresse, Gwen

    Simulation is a standard clinical nursing educational approach; however, simulation is rarely used in nonclinical nursing education. In doctor of philosophy (PhD) programs, ethical content about responsible conduct of research (RCR) is traditionally didactic, presented early in the program of study. Ethics content merits review before students begin the dissertation phase; thus, the purpose of this project was to design and implement simulated scenarios to help students apply RCR principles prior to beginning independent research. Two scenarios were developed: (a) a potential protocol change discussed in a research team meeting and (b) an in-home data collection experience with an elderly participant and her daughter. Actors were trained faculty volunteers, playing roles outside their usual academic positions. Faculty facilitated scenarios by posing questions as cues related to desired learning outcomes as scenarios unfolded. Eleven nursing PhD students and 6 faculty participated. Debriefing facilitated discussion of RCR principles, common research quandaries, and suggested scenario revisions. Faculty, expert observation, and video-review showed that younger and less experienced students tried to give the "right" answer rather than implement RCR appropriate solutions. Students with more clinical experience had difficulty adopting the less familiar researcher role. Overall, simulation is a novel and useful way to enhance RCR content in PhD programs. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold’s Tyson de Sousa; Moreira dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care. PMID:26157261

  13. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  14. PATENT ANALYSIS: A LOOK AT THE INNOVATIVE NATURE OF PLANT-BASED COSMETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francine C. S. César

    Full Text Available The use of plants have become a important trend in cosmetic market, with a crescent number of patent applications. Despite various herbal-based ingredients have been described in scientific literature, most of them are restricted to patent databases. In this work we analyze the innovative use of plants and its derivatives in cosmetic technologies, based on patent analysis. The investigation was conducted using Derwent World Patents Index (Thomson Reuters Scientific, USA from 1995 to 2015. The search was carried out to evaluate the number of patent deposits, the patent depositors profiles, the countries with most patent applications, the International Patent Classification (IPC and the main plant families using in cosmetics. Patent analysis revealed an increase number of applications involving cosmetic containing plants components, with a higher number of deposits related to anti-ageing and whitening skin treatment. Fabaceae, Asteraceae, Rosaceae, Lamiaceae, Poaceae, Rutaceae, Lilliacae and Apiaceae were the key plant families used in cosmetic formulations for skin care treatment. Comparison between scientific and technological data pointed out divergences between patents deposits and aid-based scientific reports. The use of patent analysis in combination with scientific data opens up wider aspects of knowledge and enables a better rationalization of innovative works.

  15. Patent filing strategies: perspectives from the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koshy, Nevin Jacob

    2016-07-01

    The protection and enforcement of intellectual property rights has become one of the most contentious issues in global commerce. Much of the traditional growth and development of countries in the Middle East over the past 30 years or so has come from oil and gas revenues. The main areas that have been covered in this article are: synopsis of patenting system in each country, the Cooperation Council for the Arab States of the Gulf patent filing system, patentability subject matter, prosecution of patent application, opposition and/or invalidation action(s) and issues that need to be resolved for an effective patent regime.

  16. Research on Technology Innovation of China's NEV Industry Based on Patent Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Jingyu; Liu, Yingqi; Kokko, Ari

    2016-01-01

    Purpose/Significance: The development of Chinas new energy vehicle(NEV) industry is concerned by both the government and enterprises. Method/Process: Based on the patent data, this paper conducts a deep analysis on the technology innovation of Chinas NEV industry from three perspectives- the year...... distribution of the patent, the distribution of the patent applicants and the distribution of patent technology area. Then, the paper makes further correlation analysis on the NEV industry chain and the patent data. Result/Conclusion: In general,the paper comprehensively reflects the whole picture of Chinas...... NEV industry technology innovation and gives some ideas for its further development....

  17. Como pesquisar o perfil patentário de um fármaco: o caso Efavirenz How to determine the patent profile of a drug: a case study of Efavirenz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Mendes Soares

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The importance of the patent system for researchers, especially in chemistry and related areas, is undeniable. In this context, this work aims at guiding the search in major search engines of patents, in order to map the patents related to a specific chemical compound and identify the material that each patent document protects. In this case study, it was performed a search for the drug efavirenz to demonstrate how to conduct a literature search in patents databases and to map patent applications at national and international levels.

  18. Decoding Gene Patents in Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Denley, Adam; Cherry, James

    2015-01-01

    Patents directed to naturally occurring genetic material, such as DNA, RNA, chromosomes, and genes, in an isolated or purified form have been granted in Australia for many years. This review provides scientists with a summary of the gene patent debate from an Australian perspective and specifically reviews how the various levels of the legal system as they apply to patents—the Australian Patent Office, Australian courts, and Australian government—have dealt with the issue of whether genetic m...

  19. Patents: Recent Trends and Puzzles

    OpenAIRE

    Zvi Griliches

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews the historical data on patenting in the United States with special reference to the last 20 years and their potential relation, if any, to the recent productivity slowdown. Two Points are made: Patents are not a "constant-yardstick" indicator of either inventive input or output. Moreover, they are "produced" by a governmental agency which goes through its own budgetary and inefficiency cycles. The paper shows that the appearance of an absolute decline in patenting in the 19...

  20. Rational Phosphorus Application Facilitates the Sustainability of the Wheat/Maize/Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Chen

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./maize (Zea mays L./soybean (Glycine max L. relay strip intercropping (W/M/S system is commonly used by the smallholders in the Southwest of China. However, little known is how to manage phosphorus (P to enhance P use efficiency of the W/M/S system and to mitigate P leaching that is a major source of pollution. Field experiments were carried out in 2011, 2012, and 2013 to test the impact of five P application rates on yield and P use efficiency of the W/M/S system. The study measured grain yield, shoot P uptake, apparent P recovery efficiency (PRE and soil P content. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the critical P rate that maximizes gains in the indexes of system productivity. The results show that increase in P application rates aggrandized shoot P uptake and crops yields at threshold rates of 70 and 71.5 kg P ha-1 respectively. With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years. A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%. We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

  1. All Work and No Play? Facilitating Serious Games and Gamified Applications in Participatory Urban Planning and Governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ampatzidou

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available As games and gamified applications gain prominence in the academic debate on participatory practices, it is worth examining whether the application of such tools in the daily planning practice could be beneficial. This study identifies a research–practice gap in the current state of participatory urban planning practices in three European cities. Planners and policymakers acknowledge the benefits of employing such tools to illustrate complex urban issues, evoke social learning, and make participation more accessible. However, a series of impediments relating to planners’ inexperience with participatory methods, resource constraints, and sceptical adult audiences, limits the broader application of games and gamified applications within participatory urban planning practices. Games and gamified applications could become more widely employed within participatory planning processes when process facilitators become better educated and better able to judge the situations in which such tools could be implemented as part of the planning process, and if such applications are simple and useful, and if their development process is based on co-creation with the participating publics.

  2. Designing Applications for Physics Learning: Facilitating High School Students' Conceptual Understanding by Using Tablet PCs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, June-Yi; Wu, Hsin-Kai; Chien, Sung-Pei; Hwang, Fu-Kwun; Hsu, Ying-Shao

    2015-01-01

    So far relatively little research in education has explored the pedagogical and learning potentials of applications (Apps) on tablet PCs (TPCs). Drawing upon research on learning technologies and taking an embodied perspective, this study first identified educational functionalities of TPCs and generated guidelines to design educational Apps for…

  3. Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiaher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property.

  4. Designing an E-Learning Application to Facilitate Health Care Professionals' Cross-Cultural Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramaniam, Nagadivya; Kujala, Sari; Ayzit, Dicle; Kauppinen, Marjo; Heponiemi, Tarja; Hietapakka, Laura; Kaihlanen, Anu

    2018-01-01

    In recent times, health care professionals (HCP) have come across a number of migrants as their patients. The cultural differences lead to communicational challenges between the migrant patients and health care professionals. Our project aimed to discover HCPs' attitudes, challenges and needs on cross-cultural communication, so that we can develop an e-learning solution that would be helpful for them. By conducting interviews with HCPs, we identified five crucial categories of problems and the current solutions that experienced professionals use to tackle those problems. These interviews also helped us in understanding the motivational factors of HCPs, when using e-learning application. Health care professionals prefer a focus on examples and themes such as death and pain that they face in their everyday work. Changing attitudes by e-learning application is challenging. However, e-learning was recognized as a flexible way for supporting traditional training with HCPs who are busy at work most of the time.

  5. Bio-inspired motion planning algorithms for autonomous robots facilitating greater plasticity for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Hohil, Myron; Desai, Sachi V.

    2007-10-01

    Proposed are techniques toward using collaborative robots for infrastructure security applications by utilizing them for mobile sensor suites. A vast number of critical facilities/technologies must be protected against unauthorized intruders. Employing a team of mobile robots working cooperatively can alleviate valuable human resources. Addressed are the technical challenges for multi-robot teams in security applications and the implementation of multi-robot motion planning algorithm based on the patrolling and threat response scenario. A neural network based methodology is exploited to plan a patrolling path with complete coverage. Also described is a proof-of-principle experimental setup with a group of Pioneer 3-AT and Centibot robots. A block diagram of the system integration of sensing and planning will illustrate the robot to robot interaction to operate as a collaborative unit. The proposed approach singular goal is to overcome the limits of previous approaches of robots in security applications and enabling systems to be deployed for autonomous operation in an unaltered environment providing access to an all encompassing sensor suite.

  6. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macfadyen, Sarina; Nash, Michael A.

    2017-01-01

    Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion) were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids) and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles) invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield loss regardless

  7. Broad spectrum pesticide application alters natural enemy communities and may facilitate secondary pest outbreaks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew P. Hill

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Pesticide application is the dominant control method for arthropod pests in broad-acre arable systems. In Australia, organophosphate pesticides are often applied either prophylactically, or reactively, including at higher concentrations, to control crop establishment pests such as false wireworms and earth mite species. Organophosphates are reported to be disruptive to beneficial species, such as natural enemies, but this has not been widely assessed in Australian systems. Neither has the risk that secondary outbreaks may occur if the natural enemy community composition or function is altered. Methods We examine the abundance of ground-dwelling invertebrate communities in an arable field over successive seasons under rotation; barley, two years of wheat, then canola. Two organophosphates (chlorpyrifos and methidathion were initially applied at recommended rates. After no discernible impact on target pest species, the rate for chlorpyrifos was doubled to elicit a definitive response to a level used at establishment when seedling damage is observed. Invertebrates were sampled using pitfalls and refuge traps throughout the experiments. We applied measures of community diversity, principal response curves and multiple generalised linear modelling techniques to understand the changes in pest and natural enemy communities. Results There was large variability due to seasonality and crop type. Nevertheless, both pest (e.g., mites and aphids and natural enemy (e.g., predatory beetles invertebrate communities were significantly affected by application of organophosphates. When the rate of chlorpyrifos was increased there was a reduction in the number of beetles that predate on slug populations. Slugs displayed opposite trends to many of the other target pests, and actually increased in numbers under the higher rates of chlorpyrifos in comparison to the other treatments. Slug numbers in the final rotation of canola resulted in significant yield

  8. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  9. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  10. How to facilitate the practical application of Quality Systems in Nuclear Medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Touzet, R.E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Which are the reasons for non-implementation of a Quality System in most of the nuclear medicine services in Latin America, in spite of the recommendations made by international agencies and of the absolute convenience involved in guaranteeing the quality of the health-care services rendered to the population? One of the projects of the Argentine Regulatory Authority was providing an answer to this question and finding the solution to the existing situation in a progressive manner. Materials and Methods: Within a set of about 400 NM service providers and with the support of the Argentine Association of Nuclear Medicine and Biology, an investigation was made in order to learn which were the opinions of their officials and staff (interviews, surveys and discussion meetings were performed). On the basis of the results, a strategy was developed involving the design of a 'basic quality system' to be used as an intermediate stage between the 'natural quality systems' and the 'certifiable quality systems', while the general requirements of the ISO 9000-2000 Standard were applied as a structure. Once an agreement was reached on the working program, several documents were widely distributed (Explanatory Guide, Format of the Quality Manual, etc.). Also, courses and practical workshops were carried out and advice was provided by e-mail. Currently, several additional documents are being developed in order to facilitate implementation, training and quality systems evaluation. Results: Some of the reasons for the scarce certification appeared to be as follows: The cost of certification is high and specialized advisors are required. The long time required causes disappointment. There are no economic stimuli because competition is based on costs and not on quality. Medical professionals are not trained in quality management during their graduate studies. The formal certification system does not allow for intermediate stages and is highly dependent on the contracted advisor

  11. Global Perspective for Protecting Intellectual Property - Patenting in USA and Poland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebski, Michalene Eva; Wolniak, Radosław

    2018-06-01

    Paper addresses the different methods for protecting intellectual property in modern knowledge-based economies. The focus of the paper is a comparison between the procedures for applying for patents in Poland and the United States. The comparison has been made from the perspective of the cost of obtaining and maintaining a patent in Poland, the United States and some other countries. The comparison has also been made from the perspective of the procedures for applying for a patent in different countries based on the Patent Cooperation Treaty. The paper also includes a comparison of the time needed for processing the patent application. Low cost provisional twelve-month patent pending protection available in the United States is also being discussed. The paper also provides some guidance and recommendations for conducting a patent search in order to validate the originality of the invention.

  12. Annotating patents with Medline MeSH codes via citation mapping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Thomas D; Boyer, Stephen K; Councill, Isaac G

    2010-01-01

    Both patents and Medline are important document collections for discovering new relationships between chemicals and biology, searching for prior art for patent applications and retrieving background knowledge for current research activities. Finding relevance to a topic within patents is often made difficult by poor categorization, badly written descriptions, and even intentional obfuscation. Unlike patents, the Medline corpus has Medical Subject Heading (MeSH) keywords manually added to their articles, giving a medically relevant taxonomy to the 18 million article abstracts. Our work attempts to accurately recognize the citations made in patents to Medline-indexed articles, linking them to their corresponding PubMed ID and exploiting the associated MeSH to enhance patent search by annotating the referencing patents with their Medline citations' MeSH codes. The techniques, system features, and benefits are explained.

  13. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    OpenAIRE

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivi?re, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely...

  14. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  15. Online Patent Searching: The Realities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaback, Stuart M.

    1983-01-01

    Considers patent subject searching capabilities of major online databases, noting patent claims, "deep-indexed" files, test searches, retrieval of related references, multi-database searching, improvements needed in indexing of chemical structures, full text searching, improvements needed in handling numerical data, and augmenting a…

  16. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  17. Osteoclast differentiation inhibitors: a patent review (2008 - 2012).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seong Hwan; Moon, Seong-Hee

    2013-12-01

    Mononuclear macrophage/monocyte-lineage hematopoietic precursors differentiate into multinucleated osteoclasts. Abnormally increased numbers and/or overactivation of osteoclasts can lead to bone loss. Therefore, pharmaceutical inhibition of osteoclast differentiation is one therapeutic strategy for mitigating the occurrence of bone loss-associated disorders and related fractures. This review surveys the patents and patent applications from 2008 to 2012 that are related to inventions of therapeutics and/or methods for inhibiting osteoclast differentiation. Over the past 20 years, the identification and validation of signaling molecules involved in osteoclast differentiation has led to a better understanding of the molecular mechanism, and to the development of new therapeutic agents for treating bone loss-associated disorders. Since 2008, 34 WO patents or patent applications have been filed that relate to inventions of therapeutics and/or methods for chemical-based, natural product-based, or biological-based inhibitors of osteoclast differentiation. Here, analysis of these patents and patent applications is presented, and summarize the disclosed osteoclast differentiation-inhibiting target molecules. This report can support further advances in the development of anti-osteoclastogenic therapeutics for bone loss-associated disorders, including osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis, Paget's disease, periodontal disease, osteosarcoma, and cancer bone metastasis.

  18. 78 FR 16474 - Extension of the Period for Comments on the Enhancement of Quality of Software-Related Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-15

    ...] Extension of the Period for Comments on the Enhancement of Quality of Software-Related Patents AGENCY... announcing the formation of a partnership with the software community to enhance the quality of software... quality of software-related patents and the preparation of software-related patent applications including...

  19. Patent Administration by Office Computer - A Case at Mazda Motor Corporation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimura, Ikuo; Nakamura, Shinji

    The needs of patent administration have been diversified reflecting R&D activities under the severe competition of technical development, and business has been increased in quantity year after year as seen in patent application. Under these circumstances it is necessary to develop business mechanization which assists manual operation as much as possible to enforce the patent administration. Introducing office computer (CPU 512 KB, external memory 128 MB) for exclusive use in this purpose, Patent Department of Mazda Motor Corporation has been constructing database of patent administration centered around patent application by their own company, and utilizes it for automatic preparation of business forms, preparation of various statistical materials, and real-time reference to the application procedures.

  20. Convective transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs facilitates direct penetration into deep tissues after topical application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dancik, Yuri; Anissimov, Yuri G; Jepps, Owen G; Roberts, Michael S

    2012-01-01

    AIMS To relate the varying dermal, subcutaneous and muscle microdialysate concentrations found in man after topical application to the nature of the drug applied and to the underlying physiology. METHODS We developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic model in which transport to deeper tissues was determined by tissue diffusion, blood, lymphatic and intersitial flow transport and drug properties. The model was applied to interpret published human microdialysis data, estimated in vitro dermal diffusion and protein binding affinity of drugs that have been previously applied topically in vivo and measured in deep cutaneous tissues over time. RESULTS Deeper tissue microdialysis concentrations for various drugs in vivo vary widely. Here, we show that carriage by the blood to the deeper tissues below topical application sites facilitates the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs that penetrate the skin, leading to rapid and significant concentrations in those tissues. Hence, the fractional concentration for the highly plasma protein bound diclofenac in deeper tissues is 0.79 times that in a probe 4.5 mm below a superficial probe whereas the corresponding fractional concentration for the poorly protein bound nicotine is 0.02. Their corresponding estimated in vivo lag times for appearance of the drugs in the deeper probes were 1.1 min for diclofenac and 30 min for nicotine. CONCLUSIONS Poorly plasma protein bound drugs are mainly transported to deeper tissues after topical application by tissue diffusion whereas the transport of highly plasma protein bound drugs is additionally facilitated by convective blood, lymphatic and interstitial transport to deep tissues. PMID:21999217

  1. An Approach for R&D Partner Selection in Alliances between Large Companies, and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Application of Bayesian Network and Patent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeeun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced R&D cooperative efforts between large firms and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs have been emphasized to perform innovation projects and succeed in deploying profitable businesses. In order to promote such win-win alliances, it is necessary to consider the capabilities of large firms and SMEs, respectively. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach of partner selection when a large firm assesses SMEs as potential candidates for R&D collaboration. The first step of the suggested approach is to define the necessary technology for a firm by referring to a structured technology roadmap, which is a useful technique in the partner selection from the perspectives of a large firm. Second, a list of appropriate SME candidates is generated by patent information. Finally, a Bayesian network model is formulated to select an SME as an R&D collaboration partner which fits in the industry and the large firm by utilizing a bibliography with United States patents. This paper applies the proposed approach to the semiconductor industry and selects potential R&D partners for a large firm. This paper will explain how to use the model as a systematic and analytic approach for creating effective partnerships between large firms and SMEs.

  2. Patent arterial duct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Robin P

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Patent arterial duct (PAD is a congenital heart abnormality defined as persistent patency in term infants older than three months. Isolated PAD is found in around 1 in 2000 full term infants. A higher prevalence is found in preterm infants, especially those with low birth weight. The female to male ratio is 2:1. Most patients are asymptomatic when the duct is small. With a moderate-to-large duct, a characteristic continuous heart murmur (loudest in the left upper chest or infraclavicular area is typical. The precordium may be hyperactive and peripheral pulses are bounding with a wide pulse pressure. Tachycardia, exertional dyspnoea, laboured breathing, fatigue or poor growth are common. Large shunts may lead to failure to thrive, recurrent infection of the upper respiratory tract and congestive heart failure. In the majority of cases of PAD there is no identifiable cause. Persistence of the duct is associated with chromosomal aberrations, asphyxia at birth, birth at high altitude and congenital rubella. Occasional cases are associated with specific genetic defects (trisomy 21 and 18, and the Rubinstein-Taybi and CHARGE syndromes. Familial occurrence of PAD is uncommon and the usual mechanism of inheritance is considered to be polygenic with a recurrence risk of 3%. Rare families with isolated PAD have been described in which the mode of inheritance appears to be dominant or recessive. Familial incidence of PAD has also been linked to Char syndrome, familial thoracic aortic aneurysm/dissection associated with patent arterial duct, and familial patent arterial duct and bicuspid aortic valve associated with hand abnormalities. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination and confirmed with transthoracic echocardiography. Assessment of ductal blood flow can be made using colour flow mapping and pulsed wave Doppler. Antenatal diagnosis is not possible, as PAD is a normal structure during antenatal life. Conditions with signs and symptoms of

  3. The patentability of living organisms between science, law and ethics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frati, L; Foà, R; Frati, P

    1999-01-01

    The approval on May 1998 of the European Union (EU) directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions has aligned Europe to the international trend about the patenting of biotechnologies. Many questions are still unresolved, i.e. the differences between the article 53b of the European Patent Convention (EPC), which prohibits patenting of plants and animal varieties, whereas the directive states that Oinvention whose object are plants or animals may be patented if the practicability of the invention is not technically confined to a particular plant or animal varietyO (article 12). Again, the interpretation of plants or animal species specificity and that on the threatening public order and morality (which inhibits patenting) may have doubtful interpretations, according to the different EU States morality and law (e.g. Denmark does not admit patentability of transgenic animals). Despite difficulties, biotechnology Research and Development for applications to medicine, veterinary sciences, agriculture and foods is continuously growing. Bioethical independent evaluations of the applications of biotechnologies and of their side-effects (risk for biodiversity of plants and animals, safety of procedures to save mankind, respect of human dignity and of fundamental human rights, etc.) are mandatory to link the interests of science and industrial productions together with those of mankind. This is the original meaning given by van Potter to the word bioethics, as a bridge to the future.

  4. Economic Justification of Patents and Exceptions to Patentability

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2012-01-01

    The present article is the conclusion of a review of economic justifications for patent rights conducted with the objective of determining whether such arguments are per se capable of sustaining the existence of a different patentability regime for inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic...... methods (art.53 (c) European Patent Convention). It starts by exploring the normative background and summarily describes the different types of claims allowed under the current legal framework and their differences. The following sections will describe and apply the main economic arguments sustaining...... patent rights inventions of methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. These reasoning will be later confronted with contra-arguments. This piece will finalize with the formulation of conclusions extracted from the previous debate, inter-alia that economic reasoning does not per se sustain...

  5. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  6. Patent protection for microbial technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S

    2017-11-01

    Microbial technologies often serve as the basis of fundamental research tools in molecular biology. These present a variety of ethical, legal and social issues concerning their patenting. This commentary presents several case studies of these issues across three major microbiological tools: CRISPR, viral vectors and antimicrobial resistance drugs. It concludes that the development of these technologies-both scientifically and commercially-depend, in part, on the patent regime available for each, and researchers' willingness to enforce those patents against others. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Patenting Biotechnological Inventions in Europe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Raspor

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The patent system has been able to provide the protection for the achievements of different technologies and in that way it has supported further development and growth of the industry where those achievements were implemented. Modern technologies like information technology and biotechnology with genetic engineering that appeared in the 70s have overgrown the frames of the existing patent system because of their exponential development during the last thirty years. Industry that invests a huge amount of money in these technologies, especially in the field of biotechnology, where the results are very uncertain, has started to claim changes in the patent system.

  8. Developing a Systematic Patent Search Training Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Li

    2009-01-01

    This study aims to develop a systematic patent training program using patent analysis and citation analysis techniques applied to patents held by the University of Saskatchewan. The results indicate that the target audience will be researchers in life sciences, and aggregated patent database searching and advanced search techniques should be…

  9. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  10. 78 FR 7759 - Patent Cooperation Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Cooperation Treaty ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal...

  11. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450...

  12. Monitoring innovation in electrochemical energy storage technologies: A patent-based approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, Simon C.; Sandner, Philipp G.; Welpe, Isabell M.

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Grid effects of intermittent sources show increasing need for decentralized storage. • Novel patent classification is applied to monitor competing technologies. • Up-to-date geographical, organizational, and qualitative insight is given. • Redox flow patenting shows strong growth, lithium also strong absolute numbers. • Revealed patents allow the expectation of improved modules in the future. - Abstract: Due to the suitability to balance the intermittency in decentralized systems with renewable sources, electrochemical energy storage possibilities have been analyzed in several studies, all highlighting the need for improvements in relevant techno-economic parameters. Particularly a reduction in the costs per cycle is much needed, which could either come from innovation in more cost-efficient manufacturing methods, a higher endurance of charge/discharge sequences or higher capacities. Looking at patent applications as a metric allows us to determine whether the necessary technological progress is indeed occurring, as the mandatory publication of the underlying inventions provides access to otherwise hidden R and D activities. Our paper contributes to the literature with a compilation of technological classes related to important battery types in the novel Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC), which can be used to identify relevant patent applications of the competing technologies. Using the worldwide patent statistical database (PATSTAT), we find that promising technologies have been showing increasing patent counts in recent years. For example, the number of patent applications related to regenerative fuel cells (e.g. redox flow batteries) doubled from 2009 to 2011. Nevertheless, the volume of patent filings in technologies related to lithium remains unchallenged. Patent applications in this area are still growing, which indicates that the introduction of improved modules will continue. Using citation analysis, we have identified

  13. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  14. Religious coalition opposes gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, J S

    1995-05-19

    The biotechnology industry is concerned about a coalition of mainstream religious leaders, working with Jeremy Rifkin of the Foundation of Economic Trends, who oppose the patenting of human and animal life forms, body parts, and genes. The coalition called a press conference on May 18 to ask the government to prohibit the current patenting practices for genetic engineering. The biotechnology industry argues that patents indicate that a company's research tool has significant value, and encourages capitalists to invest their dollars in the development of new treatments for diseases. They also argue that the 29 biotech drugs that are on the market have been developed as a result of patents on genes. Although most business leaders are united in opposing restrictions, many scientists are divided, citing both religious and scientific reasons.

  15. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  17. Technological Foresight Based on Citing and Cited Patents of Cellulose with Pharmaceutical Aplications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deysimar de Souza Carvalho

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study intends to present the relevance of cellulose by means of the technological foresight study through citing and cited documents from a patent application (WO 9745131 A1 as indicators of innovation. The European database of patents (espacenet was used, combining keywords and IPC. The major applicants, countries of publication and uses were mapped. The patent requests collected are mainly distributed in the area of polymers to medical devices and therapeutic methods that utilize cellulose. The results obtained revealed that the US were the main country with studies directed to this technological area (18 patent applications and the major applicant was the company Micro Therapeutics Inc. Therefore, we can understand that this is a promising technology that may reflect in an increase of R&D activities and in the patent deposits in this area.

  18. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  19. Patent Analysis of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels for the Fuel Cladding in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Woo Gon; Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Dae Whan; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Chan Bock

    2007-09-01

    The Korean, Japanese, U.S. and European patents related to the ferritic/martensitic steels were systematically surveyed to evaluate their patent status, which would be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). From the surveys, totally 38 patents were finally selected for the quantitative and qualitative analysis. Among them, 28 patents (74%) were processed by Japanese companies and Sumitomo Metal industries Ltd. was top-ranked in the number (9) of priority patents. On the basis of these surveys, most patents could be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for SFR and, especially, some useful patents as the cladding were registered by the Russian and the Korean

  20. Patent Analysis of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels for the Fuel Cladding in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Woo Gon; Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Dae Whan; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Chan Bock

    2007-09-15

    The Korean, Japanese, U.S. and European patents related to the ferritic/martensitic steels were systematically surveyed to evaluate their patent status, which would be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). From the surveys, totally 38 patents were finally selected for the quantitative and qualitative analysis. Among them, 28 patents (74%) were processed by Japanese companies and Sumitomo Metal industries Ltd. was top-ranked in the number (9) of priority patents. On the basis of these surveys, most patents could be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for SFR and, especially, some useful patents as the cladding were registered by the Russian and the Korean.

  1. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... of Patent Term Extension of Patent Term Due to Regulatory Review § 1.710 Patents subject to extension... primarily manufactured using recombinant DNA, recombinant RNA, hybridoma technology, or other processes...

  2. Collaborative networks and patent production in Andean Community of Nations universities (UCANS, 2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Agüero Aguilar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness and technological development of a region are measured by the degree of innovation supporting them. The quantity and quality of patents generated and applied in production dynamics serve as an element for evaluation. In this sense, universities play a role as generators and transmitters of knowledge. So it is important to identify the level of their collaboration and the trends in terms of technology application in order to establish future policies for development in this sector. This article identifies the degree of collaboration, types of patents, actors (primary and secondary and dynamics of patents produced at the Andean Community of Nations universities during the period 2005-2015 and present in the European Patent Office database. In conclusion, there is a great disparity between CAN universities regarding patent production, so it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative level among universities in this community. Nevertheless, an increase is seen in the production of patents.

  3. [Application of precursor ion scanning method in rapid screening of illegally added phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors and their unknown derivatives in Chinese traditional patent medicines and health foods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jing; Cao, Ling; Feng, Youlong; Tan, Li

    2014-11-01

    The compounds with similar structure often have similar pharmacological activities. So it is a trend for illegal addition that new derivatives of effective drugs are synthesized to avoid the statutory test. This bring challenges to crack down on illegal addition behavior, however, modified derivatives usually have similar product ions, which allow for precursor ion scanning. In this work, precursor ion scanning mode of a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer was first applied to screen illegally added drugs in complex matrix such as Chinese traditional patent medicines and healthy foods. Phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors were used as experimental examples. Through the analysis of the structure and mass spectrum characteristics of the compounds, phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors were classified, and their common product ions were screened by full scan of product ions of typical compounds. Then high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method with precursor ion scanning mode was established based on the optimization of MS parameters. The effect of mass parameters and the choice of fragment ions were also studied. The method was applied to determine actual samples and further refined. The results demonstrated that this method can meet the need of rapid screening of unknown derivatives of phosphodiesterase-5 inhibitors in complex matrix, and prevent unknown derivatives undetected. This method shows advantages in sensitivity, specificity and efficiency, and is worth to be further investigated.

  4. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  5. Patent law for computer scientists steps to protect computer-implemented inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Closa, Daniel; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Written from over 70 years of experience, this overview explains patent laws across Europe, the US and Japan, and teaches readers how to think from a patent examiner's perspective. Over 10 detailed case studies are presented from different computer science applications.

  6. 78 FR 52939 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License: Use of Scopolamine to Treat Depression

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-27

    ... Exclusive Patent License: Use of Scopolamine to Treat Depression AGENCY: National Institutes of Health, HHS... Application 11/137,114, filed May 25, 2005, titled ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety... ``Scopolamine for the Treatment of Depression and Anxiety'' [HHS Ref. No. E-175-2004/0-EP-03]; 3. German Patent...

  7. 77 FR 26556 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; EQUIDONE GEL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-04

    ... of two periods of time: A testing phase and an approval phase. For animal drug products, the testing... Cosmetic Act: July 30, 2010. The applicant claims July 27, 2010, as the date the new animal drug... Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that animal...

  8. DOE patents available for licensing. A bibliography for the period 1966-1974. Supplement 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thoeming, G.H.

    1983-10-01

    Abstracts and indexes are provided for 510 DOE patents or patent applications concerning any aspect of energy production, conservation, and utilization. The entries are arranged by subject category as shown in the table of contents. The bibliography covers the period from 1966 through 1974

  9. 77 FR 7080 - Changes To Implement Transitional Program for Covered Business Method Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... covered business method patent review will be final and nonappealable (see 35 U.S.C. 324(e)). Section 18(a...] discloses the invention more than 1 year before the date of the application for patent in the United States... effective date set forth in section 3(n)(1)) if the disclosure had been made by another before the invention...

  10. Power law distributions of patents as indicators of innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion R J O'Neale

    Full Text Available The total number of patents produced by a country (or the number of patents produced per capita is often used as an indicator for innovation. Here we present evidence that the distribution of patents amongst applicants within many countries is well-described by power laws with exponents that vary between 1.66 (Japan and 2.37 (Poland. We suggest that this exponent is a useful new metric for studying innovation. Using simulations based on simple preferential attachment-type rules that generate power laws, we find we can explain some of the variation in exponents between countries, with countries that have larger numbers of patents per applicant generally exhibiting smaller exponents in both the simulated and actual data. Similarly we find that the exponents for most countries are inversely correlated with other indicators of innovation, such as research and development intensity or the ubiquity of export baskets. This suggests that in more advanced economies, which tend to have smaller values of the exponent, a greater proportion of the total number of patents are filed by large companies than in less advanced countries.

  11. British patent 580,504 and Ilford nuclear emulsions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waller, C.

    1988-01-01

    By a new technique disclosed in British Patent 580,504, gelatin with silver halide is precipitated from emulsion by adding a surface active agent. This technique was used from 1945 to produce emulsions with about eight times the normal ratio of silver halide to gelatin. The technique also facilitated the combined use of production and laboratory resources for their reliable manufacture on a fairly large scale. (author)

  12. Research Funding, Patent Search Training and Technology Transfer: a collaboration

    KAUST Repository

    Tyhurst, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on the collaboration efforts of three different university departments to create, teach and evaluate the benefits of a joint patent training series, as well as the future directions this collaboration will take. KAUST has as one of its goals the diversification of the Saudi economy. There is a strong focus at the university on developing entrepreneurial ideas and commercializing research done. The University Library supports this goal through the provision of electronic resources and introductory patent search training skills. However, the patent training class offered by the University Library is only one step in a process that faculty and students need when starting or taking their research to the next level. In the Fall of 2015, I met with representatives of the two major stakeholders in the patent arena, the office of Sponsored Research (OSR) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO), to develop a patent training program to meet the needs of researchers. The OSR provides funding to researchers who have demonstrated that their ideas have merit with potential applications, the TTO works with researchers who are at the point of needing IP protection. The resulting discussion led us to collaborate on creating a workshop series that benefit the researcher’s information needs and each of our departments as well. In the first of the series of three 2 hour workshops, the Manager of TTO and the Lead Integrative Specialist from the OSR presented a workshop on an overview of Intellectual Property and the patenting process. These presentations focused on when and how to determine whether research is potentially patentable, why a researcher needs to protect his/her research and how to go about protecting it. The second workshop focused on introductory patent search skills and tools, how to expand a literature search to include the information found in patents, and how this kind of research will improve not only the literature search but the research

  13. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  14. Application of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold facilitates periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosen, Y; Miyaji, H; Kato, A; Sugaya, T; Kawanami, M

    2012-10-01

    A three-dimensional scaffold may play an important role in periodontal tissue engineering. We prepared bio-safe collagen hydrogel, which exhibits properties similar to those of native extracellular matrix. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of implantation of collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold on periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in dogs. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold was prepared by injecting collagen hydrogel, cross-linked to the ascorbate-copper ion system, into a collagen sponge. Class II furcation defects (of 5 mm depth and 3 mm width) were surgically created in beagle dogs. The exposed root surface was planed and demineralized with EDTA. In the experimental group, the defect was filled with collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold. In the control group, no implantation was performed. Histometric parameters were evaluated 2 and 4 wk after surgery. At 2 wk, the collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold displayed high biocompatibility and biodegradability with numerous cells infiltrating the scaffold. In the experimental group, reconstruction of alveolar bone and cementum was frequently observed 4 wk after surgery. Periodontal ligament tissue was also re-established between alveolar bone and cementum. Volumes of new bone, new cementum and new periodontal ligament were significantly greater in the experimental group than in the control group. In addition, epithelial down-growth was suppressed by application of collagen hydrogel. The collagen hydrogel/sponge scaffold possessed high tissue compatibility and degradability. Implantation of the scaffold facilitated periodontal wound healing in class II furcation defects in beagle dogs. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  16. A novel classification method for aid decision of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Bo; He, Liyun; Bai, Wenjing; Yu, Xueyun; Cao, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Rong, Peijing; Zhao, Yuxue; Li, Guozheng; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-09-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, Manifold Ranking is employed to develop the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. First, 115 stroke patients from three hospitals are recruited in the cross-sectional survey. Simultaneously, traditional Chinese physicians determine the traditional Chinese patent medicines appropriate for each patient. Second, particular indicators are explored to characterize the population feature of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. Moreover, these particular indicators can be easily obtained byWestern physicians and are feasible for widespread clinical application in the future. Third, the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment is constructed based on Manifold Ranking. Experimental results reveal that traditional Chinese patent medicines can be differentiated. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain high accuracy of aid decision.

  17. How drug life-cycle management patent strategies may impact formulary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jan; Dunn, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Margaret M; Karst, Kurt R; Shear, W Chad

    2016-10-01

    Drug manufacturers may employ various life-cycle management patent strategies, which may impact managed care decision making regarding formulary planning and management strategies when single-source, branded oral pharmaceutical products move to generic status. Passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act enabled more rapid access to generic medications through the abbreviated new drug application process. Patent expirations of small-molecule medications and approvals of generic versions have led to substantial cost savings for health plans, government programs, insurers, pharmacy benefits managers, and their customers. However, considering that the cost of developing a single medication is estimated at $2.6 billion (2013 dollars), pharmaceutical patent protection enables companies to recoup investments, creating an incentive for innovation. Under current law, patent protection holds for 20 years from time of patent filing, although much of this time is spent in product development and regulatory review, leaving an effective remaining patent life of 7 to 10 years at the time of approval. To extend the product life cycle, drug manufacturers may develop variations of originator products and file for patents on isomers, metabolites, prodrugs, new drug formulations (eg, extended-release versions), and fixed-dose combinations. These additional patents and the complexities surrounding the timing of generic availability create challenges for managed care stakeholders attempting to gauge when generics may enter the market. An understanding of pharmaceutical patents and how intellectual property protection may be extended would benefit managed care stakeholders and help inform decisions regarding benefit management.

  18. Patent quality and incentives at the patent office

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuett, F.

    2013-01-01

    Patent examination is a problem of moral hazard followed by adverse selection: examiners must have incentives to exert effort, but also to truthfully reveal the evidence they find. I develop a theoretical model to study the design of incentives for examiners. The model can explain the puzzling

  19. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  20. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability. ...

  1. Fundamentals of patenting and licensing for scientists and engineers

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ma, M. Y. (Matthew Y.)

    2009-01-01

    ... ...28 3.2 Types of Patents...28 3.3 Patent Dates ...29 viiviii Fundamentals of Patenting and Licensing for Scientists and Engineers 3.4 Eligibility of Priority Date ...30 3.5 Patentability ...32...

  2. Foreign patent documentation and information research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Tongsheng; Wu Xianfeng; Liu Jia; Cao Jifen; Song Tianbao; Feng Beiyuan; Zhang Baozhu

    2014-01-01

    Patent documentations are important scientific and technical documentations, which gather legal information, technical information and economic information together. According to WIPO forecasts, making full use of patent documentation can save 40% of research funding and 60% of the study period. Foreign patent documentations are the world's most valuable patent documentations, and many original technologies that have significant influence are first disclosed in foreign patent documentation. Studying and making use of foreign patent documentations can improve our starting point of scientific and technological innovation, and reduce the research investment. This paper analyzes foreign patent documentation and, combining with the actual development of nuclear technology in our country, makes specific recommendations for patent documentation research. (authors)

  3. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  4. International patent analysis of water source heat pump based on orbit database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Na

    2018-02-01

    Using orbit database, this paper analysed the international patents of water source heat pump (WSHP) industry with patent analysis methods such as analysis of publication tendency, geographical distribution, technology leaders and top assignees. It is found that the beginning of the 21st century is a period of rapid growth of the patent application of WSHP. Germany and the United States had done researches and development of WSHP in an early time, but now Japan and China have become important countries of patent applications. China has been developing faster and faster in recent years, but the patents are concentrated in universities and urgent to be transferred. Through an objective analysis, this paper aims to provide appropriate decision references for the development of domestic WSHP industry.

  5. The Unified Patent Court (UPC), Compulsory Licensing and Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    Competition law and rules on compulsory licensing are considered as indispensable instruments to balance patent rights. In this article, we examine the room for using such balancing instruments in the context of the UPC. We analyse whether the balancing instruments will remain applicable...... that the UPC is likely to be less inclined to use them. To redress that problem we suggest that the UPC acknowledges the institutional biases of the court and looks for ways to include other values and interests than the proprietary values and interests of patent law....

  6. International Harmonization of the Patent-awarding Rules

    OpenAIRE

    Kaz Miyagiwa

    2009-01-01

    While the rest of the world issues patents to those who file applications first the U.S. do so to those who can demonstrate to have made inventions first. The U.S. has recently been under pressure to conform to the international rule. In this paper I examine the effect of international harmonization of the patent-awarding rules. In a dynamic two-country model of R&D competition for sequential inventions, I find that harmonization to the first-to-file rule can undermine innovation. This result...

  7. Natural compounds for solar photoprotection: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim R; Guimarães, Adriana G; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Araújo, Adriano A S; Nunes, Paula S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-04-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation has deleterious effects on human skin, including tanning, sunburn, cancer and connective tissue degradation (photoaging). Botanical antioxidants have been shown to be associated with reduced incidence of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging through their photoprotective profile. Here, the authors summarized therapeutic patent applications concerning the employment of medicinal plants on the technological development of a formulation with photoprotective or photoaging application. So, the patent search was conducted in the databases WIPO, Espacenet, USPTO and Derwent, using the keywords - photoaging, photoprotection and the IPC A61K 8/97 (cosmetics or similar cleaning supplies obtained from vegetable origin, for example, plant extracts) and A61K 36/00 (medicinal preparations of undetermined constitution containing material from algae, lichens, fungi or plants, or derivatives thereof, for example, traditional herbal medicines). We found 180 patents, out of which 25 were evaluated using inclusion criteria as application of natural products with photoprotective or photoaging application. We found that some patents related to the cosmetic compositions for improving skin wrinkle and either preventing or reducing the signs of photoaging and sunburn. The cosmetic compositions are manufactured in the form of a lotion, gel, soluble liquid, cream, essence, oil-in-water-type or water-in-oil-type formulation, containing the vegetal extracts as an active ingredient.

  8. 77 FR 71004 - Patents and Inventions; Delegation of Authority

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-28

    ... any actions taken that involve the exercise of the authorities delegated herein prior to the effective... DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Patents and... separate delegation. The exercise of this authority must be in accordance with applicable laws, regulations...

  9. 78 FR 4211 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ... Law 112-29, 125 Stat. at 316-17. Section 10 also establishes certain procedural requirements for... optimal patent application inventory. Additionally, the fee schedule in this final rule will advance key... foundation of American economic growth and national competitiveness. Economic growth in advanced economies...

  10. Increasing the Discovery and Use of Non-Patent Literature (NPL): Scientific Publications in Patent Examination

    OpenAIRE

    F. Loizides; B. Diallo; A. Pollard; A. Mavri

    2017-01-01

    In this work we present findings on non-patent literature use, and specifically scientific publications such as academic articles. We interview patent examiners and observe their prior art searching in order to provide insights into the perceived usage of non-patent literature and produce high level requirements for advancing non-patent literature search tools.

  11. 77 FR 4509 - Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-30

    ... patent fees. The publication of that Notice will open a comment window through which the public may...-P-2012-0002] Patent Public Advisory Committee Public Hearings on the Proposed Patent Fee Schedule... Trademark Office (USPTO) may set or adjust by rule any patent or trademark fee established, authorized, or...

  12. Exploring gender differences in patenting in Spain

    OpenAIRE

    Elba Mauleón; Cinzia Daraio; Maria Bordons

    2013-01-01

    The under-representation of women in science and technology is a matter of current great concern. Obtaining patent-based indicators by gender is crucial to analyse the situation of women in innovation, identify potential cases of gender inequalities, and support policy measures to promote gender balance. In this article we analyse men and women involvement in Spanish patents applied to the European Patent Office during 1990--2004. At least one female inventor is present in 18% of the patents;...

  13. Beyond Invention: Patent as Knowledge Law

    OpenAIRE

    Madison, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The decision of the Supreme Court of the United States in Bilski v. Kappos, concerning the legal standard for determining patentable subject matter under the American Patent Act, is used as a starting point for a brief review of historical, philosophical, and cultural influences on subject matter questions in both patent and copyright law. The article suggests that patent and copyright law jurisprudence was constructed initially by the Court with explicit attention to the relationship between...

  14. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the term...

  15. The patent, object of research in Information Science and Communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luc Quoniam

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study are addressed some dimensions of intellectual property, especially patents and their way of making some tangible outcomes of research and development, playing a key role in the field of strategy, involving the returns on investments and exploration rights to certain inventions. However, the general objective of this study is to present aspects of the information available in patent applications and the possibility of using them to transfer technology between countries, organizations, contribute to the research of social responsibility, valuing natural resources and provide access to medicines, once these are aspects little attention in the literature. Considering the patent as an object of study in the humanities and social sciences, is evidenced by the cases cited, the potential contribution to innovation, research and development organizations, regions and countries.

  16. Patentability aspects of computational cancer models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lishchuk, Iryna

    2017-07-01

    Multiscale cancer models, implemented in silico, simulate tumor progression at various spatial and temporal scales. Having the innovative substance and possessing the potential of being applied as decision support tools in clinical practice, patenting and obtaining patent rights in cancer models seems prima facie possible. What legal hurdles the cancer models need to overcome for being patented we inquire from this paper.

  17. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted to...

  18. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights. ...

  19. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights, see...

  20. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent Term...

  1. Imitation, patent protection and welfare

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mukherjee, A.; Pennings, H.P.G.

    2000-01-01

    Once a new technology has been invented it is shown that the innovator has an incentive to postpone technology adoption when the cost of imitation is high and patent protection is strong. With the possibility of licensing it is shown that licensing oftechnology instead of delaying technology

  2. CLASSICS UNITED STATES PATENT OFFICE

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    From the profits, he became a very rich man and was able ... The Schedule referred to in these Letters Patent and making part of the same. TO ALL ... This is the real character and purpose of my invention; and in order to enable others ... kneading, it is rubbed through a hair, silk, or brass-wire sieve, (iron corrodes) and any.

  3. Patents - Overlooked Source of Information

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matějíček, Jiří; Ilavský, J.

    2004-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 4 (2004), s. 473-476 ISSN 1059-9630 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z2043910 Keywords : patent * database * thermal spraying Subject RIV: JK - Corrosion ; Surface Treatment of Materials Impact factor: 1.068, year: 2004

  4. [How much does the backlog on drug patents cost for health in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Anna Haydée Lanzillotti; Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães

    2017-08-21

    The backlog in processing patent applications in Brazil has persisted since the enactment of Law 9,279/1996, when the country resumed granting patents on drugs. The agencies responsible for granting such patents, namely the Brazilian National Patent and Trademark Office (INPI) and the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) cite technical and administrative reasons for the backlog. However, little research has focused on the economic impacts for health due to the inefficiency of the Brazilian patent system. The current study thus proposes a methodology to estimate the extent to which government procurement of medicines is burdened by the backlog in drug patent applications. According to the results, a total of more than BRL 14 million (USD 4.5 million) is spent unnecessarily per year by the Federal Government on just one antiretroviral drug due to the extension of the respective patent's life. Measures to resolve this situation are urgently needed in the three branches of government. These include hiring more staff for the INPI, analysis of bills of law under review in the two houses of the Brazilian Congress to amend the Industrial Property Law, and ruling on direct class action claims of unconstitutionality to suppress the legal mechanisms that allow extending the life of patents.

  5. A contribuição de patentes para a inovação sustentável: o caso de um trocador de calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mamori Kono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are useful indicators of innovation, although still of a very limited use. In patenting, the need for the precise registration of a method, process, or system facilitates understanding it and eventually motivates the scientific community to carry out research in a given area, thus accelerating technological progress. Patent data are not static; patents cite other connected patents, providing a dynamic view of technological antecedents and descendants leading to state-of-the-art knowledge. This article is an exercise on the usefulness of patents as a source of technological innovation. To do this, we searched patent databases considered as sources of technological innovation in order to introduce improvements in a heat-exchanging device coupled to an electric shower. The results enabled finding the state-of-the-art of the technology and led to suggestions of possible innovations for the product. This allowed us to improve the sustainability potential of this technology.

  6. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    OpenAIRE

    Alba Betancourt, Ana

    2016-01-01

    Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC). This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent a...

  7. International patenting in ophthalmology: An analysis of its structure and relevance for the development of drugs and diagnostics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hermann AM Mucke

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Hermann AM Mucke, Peter Mucke, Eva MuckeHM Pharma Consultancy, Vienna, AustriaAbstract: While investigative ophthalmologists access peer-reviewed journals as part of their daily routine, and while they regularly visit scientific congresses, they rarely peruse patent documents as an information source. Among the reasons for this negligence are the incompatibility of patent search algorithms with those known from journal databases, a legalistic and frequently redundant language, and misconceptions about the nature of the patenting system. Here we present key data and analyses from the ophthalmology module of a patent database system that we are developing to address some of these problems. We show that international patent applications consistently reflect developer interest in the ocular drug and diagnostics field; that they are technically focused lead indicators of developments that frequently feature in peer-reviewed patenting only much later; and that patenting targets are well aligned with the unmet therapeutic needs of populations in industrialized countries. Most applications (74%–78% in years since 2006 are supported with experimental data, and most (on average, 80%–90% faced at least one objection to patentability during their initial stage of examination. In contrast to the peer-reviewed scenery that is highly diverse, the corresponding patenting arena shows a pronounced focus on the United States.Keywords: ophthalmology, eye diseases, iontophoresis, intellectual property, patents as topic, bibliographic databases

  8. Destructive hydrogenation. [British patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1929-07-15

    Liquid or readily liquefiable products are obtained from solid distillable carbonaceous materials such as coals, oil shales or other bituminous substances by subjecting the said initial materials to destructive hydrogenation under mild conditions so that the formation of benzine is substantially avoided, and then subjecting the treated material to extraction by solvents. By hydrogenating under mild conditions the heavy oils which prevent the asphaltic substances from being precipitated are preserved, and the separation of the liquid products from the solid residue is facilitated. Solid paraffins and high boiling point constituents suitable for the production of lubricating oils may be removed before or after the extraction process. The extraction is preferably carried out under pressure with solvents which do not precipitate asphaltic substances. Brown coal containing 11 per cent ash is passed at 450/sup 0/C, and 200 atmospheres pressure in counter current to hydrogen; 40 per cent of the coal is converted into liquid products which are condensed out of the hydrogen stream; the pasty residue, on extraction with benzene, yields 45 per cent of high molecular weight products suitable for the production of lubricating oil.

  9. Filed and granted Indian Patents in dentistry from 2005-2009: a critical analysis and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Patil, Shankargouda

    2013-01-01

    Patent policies have proved to be extremely important for several countries to develop. India has achieved its global status since 2005; a critical analysis of the patents at IPO will help us to identify the potential, available for patents with Indian Dental Fraternity. The aim of this study is to critically analyze and review Indian Patents in the field of Dentistry from 2005-2009 for evaluation of status of Indian Patents in Dentistry. A total of 110 patents were scrutinized from 2005-2009 available by IPO on www.patentoffice.nic.in. Following which a preliminary data were collected from individual patents and recorded in a record sheet. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software and were subjected to ANOVA test. All patents scrutinized were applied for dental materials (100%). Company applicants (70%) were the maximum followed by the individual applicants (27.2%). A total of 87.3% of patents had enrolled for International Application. Priority country had maximum favor with USA (39.2%) followed by Europe (36.1%). Single inventors (44.5%) were the maximum followed by two inventors (22.7%). Europe (37.3%) had the maximum first inventor, followed by United States of America (30%) and India (10.9%). Individual inventors were maximum in Europe (38.8%) followed by USA (20.4%) and India (16.3%). Contribution from Indian Nationals as inventors for patents in the field of Dentistry is limited, thus reducing the pace of progress and development. Indian inventors in the field of Dentistry have to go a long way to compete with the fellow mates of developed countries like USA and Europe. Continuing Dental Education programs on Intellectual property rights should be conducted on regular basis especially for Dentist's involved in research.

  10. Entrepreneurial patent management in pharmaceutical startups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holgersson, Marcus; Phan, Tai; Hedner, Thomas

    2016-07-01

    Startups fill an increasingly important role as innovators in the pharmaceutical industry, and patenting is typically central to their success. This article aims to explore patent management in pharmaceutical startups. The results show that startups need to deal with several challenges related to patenting and an 'entrepreneurial' approach to patent management is called for. Resource constraints, venture capital provision, exits and other conditions and events must be readily considered in the patent management process to build a successful pharmaceutical venture, something that could benefit the pharmaceutical industry as a whole. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Patent data mining method and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyack, Kevin W.; Grafe, V. Gerald; Johnson, David K.; Wylie, Brian N.

    2002-01-01

    A method of data mining represents related patents in a multidimensional space. Distance between patents in the multidimensional space corresponds to the extent of relationship between the patents. The relationship between pairings of patents can be expressed based on weighted combinations of several predicates. The user can select portions of the space to perceive. The user also can interact with and control the communication of the space, focusing attention on aspects of the space of most interest. The multidimensional spatial representation allows more ready comprehension of the structure of the relationships among the patents.

  12. Comparative analysis between academic and patent publications based on Fenton Technologies among China, Brazil, and the rest of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Airton José; Santos, Douglas Alves

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, year by year, Fenton's Technologies have been highlighted in both academic and patent scopes, in part due to their proven efficiency as environment-friendly technologies destined to the abatement of organic pollutants, and also by their growing interest to produce industrial applications. Thus, aiming to understand the effective dynamic between two worlds, academy vs patents, the present study performs a comparative analysis about publications on Fenton-based Technologies (FbT). Therefore, in this work, technological foresight techniques were adopted focusing on patent and non-patent databases, employing for this, the Web of Science (WoS) database as a prospecting tool. The main results for the last decade point out to a strong increment of the Fenton's Technologies, as much in R&D as in patent applications in the world. Chinese Universities and firms command the scenario. There is an expressive gap between the academic and patent issues.

  13. The global role of the European patent office, challenges and skills in the integration process; El papel global de la oficina Europea de Patentes retos y competencias en el proceso de integracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, B.

    2011-07-01

    The European Patent Office is one of the five main in the world. As such, it is involved in numerous initiatives aimed at meeting the challenges posed by the increase in the number of patent applications worldwide. To this end, the EPO co-operates closely with the patent offices in its member states and around the world. These initiatives aim at enhancing efficiency whilst maintaining very high quality standards. (Author) 4 refs.

  14. Studies of world carbon fiber industry from a perspective of patent analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳

    2016-01-01

    Patents are the manifestation of the industry R&D endeavor;therefore, World carbon fiber in-dustry from the perspective of patent analysis is studied .Findings from the analysis show a continual increase of carbon fibers patents since 1969 , and the growth rate began even faster after the year of 2005.Five countries (Japan, China, US, Germany and Korea) took dominant positions in global carbon fibers R&D , and the sum of patents applied in these five countries accounted for 80%of the total patents in the world .Corporations do play an active role in global carbon fibers R&D , and over 60%of patents were applied by corporations .Among them , the top 3 corporations were all from Ja-pan, which had much more patents than the other patent assignees .Furthermore, most corporations were not active in cooperation with others , except Toyota Motor Corp .Global carbon fibers R&D fo-cused on sheet manufacture cloth , core wire layer , heat connect provide and filter activated draw . And there is big difference between Japan and China in the R&D focus .China ’ s corporations have exhibited rapid growth in the number of patent applications in recent years , but there is still a large gap between China and foreign countries in view of global patent layout and influence .By providing the insight into the evolution of global carbon fibers industrial and technological development through the perspective of patent analysis , this study hopes to provide an objective statistic reference for fu-ture policy directions and academic researches .

  15. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun; Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs

  16. Analysis of US patents on spacer grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyung Kyu; Song, Kee Nam; Yoon, Kyung Ho; Kang, Hong Seok; Kim, Hyung Kyu; Jeon, Tae Hyun; Oh, Dong Seok; In, Wang Ki; Bang, Jae Keun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Seung Eun; Seo, Jeong Min; Lee, Jin Seok; Park, Seong Keun [Korea Nuclear Fuel Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-06-01

    The total of 137 US patents on spacer grids patented from 1968 through 1993 are analyzed and summarized. Database is constituted with designing the appropriate fields by which each patent can be identified. The fields consist of patent number, inventor, assignee, date of patent, title and major foci of the patent. The major foci are again classified by detailed subjects such as the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related, the strength-related, the fabrication-related as for mechanical subjects, while the cooling performance-related and the pressure drop-related as for thermal-hydraulic one. The 92% of the patents analyzed were issued form nuclear companies of USA, France and Germany. Among the patents dealing with mechanical subjects, the fretting failure and fuel rod support-related is more than the pressure drop-related among the patents of thermal-hydraulic subjects. The number of patents issued from Japan ranks just after Germany i.e., the 4th country. It is thought that much concern as well as investment should be increased in this field, the patent of nuclear components. (author). 2 tabs., 5 figs.

  17. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-03-01

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?

  18. 78 FR 46932 - Notice of Intent to Grant Exclusive Patent License; Safe Environment Engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-02

    ..., injury/harm, or damage; the field of use of industrial safety and monitoring to ensure plant and factory.... Patent Application No. 13/ 629,842: Method for Depicting Plume Arrival Times, Navy Case No. 101,728 and...

  19. Connecting NSF funding to patent innovation in nanotechnology (2001-2004)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zan; Chen Hsinchun; Li Xin; Roco, Mihail C.

    2006-01-01

    Nanotechnology research has experienced growth rapid in knowledge and innovations; it also attracted significant public funding in recent years. Several countries have recognized nanotechnology as a critical research domain that promises to revolutionize a wide range of fields of applications. In this paper, we present an analysis of the funding for nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its implications on technological innovation (number of patents) in this field from 2001 to 2004. Using a combination of basic bibliometric analysis and content visualization tools, we identify growth trends, research topic distribution, and the evolution in NSF funding and commercial patenting activities recorded at the United States Patent Office (USPTO). The patent citations are used to compare the impact of the NSF-funded research on nanotechnology development with research supported by other sources in the United States and abroad. The analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and patents authored by them have significantly higher impact based on patent citation measures in the four-year period than other comparison groups. The NSF-authored patent impact is growing faster with the lifetime of a patent, indicating the long-term importance of fundamental research

  20. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  1. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  2. 智能手机触摸屏专利分析%The Analysis of Smartphone Touchscreen Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓东; 谢伟峰

    2014-01-01

    Touchscreen patents are the focuses of the smartphones “patent race”. The patent retrieval and patent analysis can reveal the distribution and competitive advantage of touchscreen patents. This paper uses Derwent Innovation Index to search and analyze smartphone touchscreen patents from aspects such as the application date, patent concentration and patentees. It is found that the touchscreen patent concentration shows an inverted U-shaped curve; touchscreen patent has a trend of being fragmented in recent years;Apple has more ad-vantages in the quality of touchscreen patents.%触摸屏专利是智能手机领域“专利竞赛”的焦点。专利检索和分析能够揭示触摸屏专利的分布状态和竞争优势。利用德温特专利数据库对智能手机触摸屏技术进行专利检索,从申请时间、专利集中度和专利权人等方面进行分析。专利分析显示触摸屏专利集中度呈现倒U型曲线,触摸屏专利近年来具有分散趋势,苹果公司在专利质量方面更具优势。

  3. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    -examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  4. The Academic Advantage: Gender Disparities in Patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Cassidy R.; Ni, Chaoqun; West, Jevin D.; Larivière, Vincent

    2015-01-01

    We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO). Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women’s rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women’s patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women—and in particular academic women—contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC) codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed. PMID:26017626

  5. The academic advantage: gender disparities in patenting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassidy R Sugimoto

    Full Text Available We analyzed gender disparities in patenting by country, technological area, and type of assignee using the 4.6 million utility patents issued between 1976 and 2013 by the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO. Our analyses of fractionalized inventorships demonstrate that women's rate of patenting has increased from 2.7% of total patenting activity to 10.8% over the nearly 40-year period. Our results show that, in every technological area, female patenting is proportionally more likely to occur in academic institutions than in corporate or government environments. However, women's patents have a lower technological impact than that of men, and that gap is wider in the case of academic patents. We also provide evidence that patents to which women--and in particular academic women--contributed are associated with a higher number of International Patent Classification (IPC codes and co-inventors than men. The policy implications of these disparities and academic setting advantages are discussed.

  6. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    to specific logics of temporalisation and spatial expansion of a diverse set of social processes in relation to, for example, the economy, politics, science and the mass media. On this background, the paper will more concretely develop a conceptual framework for classifying different contextual orders...... that the essential functional and normative purpose of regulatory governance is to facilitate, stabilise and justify the transfer of condensed social components (such as economic capital and products, political decisions, legal judgements, religious beliefs and scientific knowledge) from one social contexts...

  7. Relating patenting and peer-review publications: an extended perspective on the vascular health and risk management literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucke, Hermann A M

    2011-01-01

    This investigation identifies patent applications published under the international Patent Convention Treaty between July 2010 and January 2011 in three significant fields of vascular risk management (arterial hypertension, atherosclerosis, and aneurysms) and investigates whether the inventors have also published peer reviewed papers directly describing their claimed invention. Out of only 48 patent documents that specifically addressed at least one of the above-mentioned fields, 15 had immediate companion papers of which 13 were published earlier than the corresponding patent applications; the majority of these papers were published by noncorporate patentees. Although the majority of patent applications (30 documents) had at least one corporate assignee, 18 came from academic environments. As expected, medical devices dominated in the aneurysm segment while pharmacology dominated hypertension and atherosclerosis. Although information related to hypertension, atherosclerosis, or aneurysms that was claimed in international patent applications reached the public quicker through the corresponding peer review document if one was published, more than two-thirds of the patent applications had no such companion paper in a scientific journal. The patent literature, which is freely available online as full text, offers information to scientists and developers in the fields of vascular risk management that is not available from the peer reviewed literature.

  8. Biological significance of facilitated diffusion in protein-DNA interactions. Applications to T4 endonuclease V-initiated DNA repair

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowd, D.R.; Lloyd, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Facilitated diffusion along nontarget DNA is employed by numerous DNA-interactive proteins to locate specific targets. Until now, the biological significance of DNA scanning has remained elusive. T4 endonuclease V is a DNA repair enzyme which scans nontarget DNA and processively incises DNA at the site of pyrimidine dimers which are produced by exposure to ultraviolet (UV) light. In this study we tested the hypothesis that there exists a direct correlation between the degree of processivity of wild type and mutant endonuclease V molecules and the degree of enhanced UV resistance which is conferred to repair-deficient Eshcerichia coli. This was accomplished by first creating a series of endonuclease V mutants whose in vitro catalytic activities were shown to be very similar to that of the wild type enzyme. However, when the mechanisms by which these enzymes search nontarget DNA for its substrate were analyzed in vitro and in vivo, the mutants displayed varying degrees of nontarget DNA scanning ranging from being nearly as processive as wild type to randomly incising dimers within the DNA population. The ability of these altered endonuclease V molecules to enhance UV survival in DNA repair-deficient E. coli then was assessed. The degree of enhanced UV survival was directly correlated with the level of facilitated diffusion. This is the first conclusive evidence directly relating a reduction of in vivo facilitated diffusion with a change in an observed phenotype. These results support the assertion that the mechanisms which DNA-interactive proteins employ in locating their target sites are of biological significance

  9. Facilitators and barriers to application of the Canadian C-spine rule by emergency department triage nurses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clement, Catherine M; Stiell, Ian G; Lowe, Maureen A; Brehaut, Jamie C; Calder, Lisa A; Vaillancourt, Christian; Perry, Jeffrey J

    2016-07-01

    We recently conducted a multicentre implementation study on the use of the Canadian C-Spine Rule (CCR) by emergency department (ED) nurses to clear the c-spine in alert and stable trauma patients (n = 4506). The objective of this study was to conduct a survey of nurses, physicians, and administrators to evaluate their views on the facilitators and barriers to the implementation of the CCR. We conducted both a paper-based and an electronic survey of the three different ED hospital staff groups of nine large teaching hospitals in Ontario, including six regional trauma centres. The content of this survey was informed by a qualitative evaluation of the opinions of the study nurses who had participated in the validation study. 57.5% (281/489) ED triage nurses, 50.2% ED physicians, and 82.8% of administrators responded. Nurse responses most often showed support from manager/educators and teamwork between physicians, nurses, and managers as being important facilitators to the use of the CCR. Physician responses most often identified the importance of a nurse leader/champion/educator, and presence of strong physician leaders. Administrator responses indicated the importance of nurse educators/champions, nurse engagement, and educational support. Barriers indicated by all three groups included busy department, lack of physician support, and lack of nursing support. Bringing about change in clinical practice is complex. Strong leadership, effective communication, and senior physician buy-in appear to be very important. Identification of system-specific barriers and facilitators are important components of successful knowledge translation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  11. Alienation from the Objectives of the Patent System: How to Remedy the Situation of Biotechnology Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Li

    2018-03-12

    Some fundamental biotechnologies hold unprecedented potential to eradicate many incurable diseases. However, in absence of regulations, the power of patent makes the future use of some important biotechnology in few institution's hands. The excessive patents restrict researcher access to the fundamental technologies. It generates concerns and complaints of deteriorating the public health and social welfare. Furthermore, intellectual curiosities, funding, respect among colleagues etc., rather than patents, are the real motivations driving a major ground-breaking discoveries in biotechnology. These phenomena reveal that some biotechnology patents are alienated from the purpose of patent system. Therefore, it is necessary to take some approaches to stop over-patenting these fundamental biotechnology inventions. This article proposes a model regulatory framework for controlling biotechnology patent alienating from the purpose of patent system.

  12. Facilitating participation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skøtt, Bo

    2018-01-01

    the resulting need for a redefinition of library competence. In doing this, I primarily address the first two questions from Chapter 1 and how they relate to the public’s informal, leisure-time activities in a networked society. In particular, I focus on the skills of reflexive self-perception and informed...... opinion formation. Further, I point out the significance which these informal leisure-time activities have for public library staff’s cultural dissemination skills. In this way, I take on the question of the skills required for facilitating the learning of a participatory public (cf. Chapter 1......), exemplifying with the competence required of library staff. My discussion will proceed by way of a literature review. In the next section, I shall explain how and what sources were chosen and section three and four present the theoretical framework and how the applied theories are related. In the fifth section...

  13. Facilitating Transfers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Poul F.

    2018-01-01

    Departing from the paradox that globalisation has implied an increase, rather than a decrease, in contextual diversity, this paper re-assesses the function, normative purpose and location of Regulatory Governance Frameworks in world society. Drawing on insights from sociology of law and world...... society studies, the argument advanced is that Regulatory Governance Frameworks are oriented towards facilitating transfers of condensed social components, such as economic capital and products, legal acts, political decisions and scientific knowledge, from one legally-constituted normative order, i.......e. contextual setting, to another. Against this background, it is suggested that Regulatory Governance Frameworks can be understood as schemes which act as ‘rites of passage’ aimed at providing legal stabilisation to social processes characterised by liminality, i.e ambiguity, hybridity and in-betweenness....

  14. A fruitful decade from 2005 to 2014 for anthraquinone patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Hidayat; Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Al-Rawahi, Ahmed; Green, Ivan R; Csuk, René; Ahmed, Ishtiaq; Shah, Afzah; Abbas, Ghulam; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Ullah, Riaz

    2015-01-01

    Anthraquinones are aromatic compounds whose structures are related to anthracene (parent structure: 9,10-dioxoanthracene) for which various methods for their synthesis have been developed. In the past decade (2005 - 2014), much work has been done regarding anthraquinone chemistry in order to discover new compounds related to this scaffold as anticancer, antibacterial, antidiabetic, antiviral, anti-HCV, antifibrotic, fungicidal and anti-inflammatory agents. This review covers the patents on therapeutic activities of anthraquinones and their derivatives in the years between 2005 and 2014. A large portion of the therapeutic applications that were reported in international patents will be presented and discussed. Although a large number of patents have been registered over the last decade, this review is focused on important patents related to cancer, inflammation, infectious diseases, diabetic conditions and hepatitis C. The tricyclic planar ring system of anthraquinones displays a wide range of important pharmaceutical properties. By linking active anthraquinone analogs to other important pharmacophores or conjugates such as oximes, N-heterocycles, benzodiazepines or glycosyl ethers, their anticancer potential is enhanced. The ability of anthraquinone analogs to become more prominent as novel pharmaceutical agents may further be enhanced by fusing functionalized heterocyclic rings onto established anthraquinone cores.

  15. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  16. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE...

  17. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue of...

  18. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non-patenting...... firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political...

  19. The History of Patenting Genetic Material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherkow, Jacob S; Greely, Henry T

    2015-01-01

    The US Supreme Court's recent decision in Association for Molecular Pathology v. Myriad Genetics, Inc. declared, for the first time, that isolated human genes cannot be patented. Many have wondered how genes were ever the subjects of patents. The answer lies in a nuanced understanding of both legal and scientific history. Since the early twentieth century, "products of nature" were not eligible to be patented unless they were "isolated and purified" from their surrounding environment. As molecular biology advanced, and the capability to isolate genes both physically and by sequence came to fruition, researchers (and patent offices) began to apply patent-law logic to genes themselves. These patents, along with other biological patents, generated substantial social and political criticism. Myriad Genetics, a company with patents on BRCA1 and BRCA2, two genes critical to assessing early-onset breast and ovarian cancer risk, and with a particularly controversial business approach, became the antagonist in an ultimately successful campaign to overturn gene patents in court. Despite Myriad's defeat, some questions concerning the rights to monopolize genetic information remain. The history leading to that defeat may be relevant to these future issues.

  20. Patents and Innovation: Friends or Foes?

    OpenAIRE

    Lévêque, François

    2007-01-01

    Over 2 million patents are currently in force in the EU and in the USA. Do they testify innovation is blockaded for they restrict freedom in research or do they give evidence innovation is flourishing for patent law provides incentives to invent new products and processes? In other terms do patents freeze or spur innovation? The question arises for massive anecdotal evidence shows the patent system may have turned on its head, e.g., USPTO and EPO examiners spend less than 30 hours pe...

  1. 48 CFR 970.5227-10 - Patent rights-management and operating contracts, nonprofit organization or small business firm...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... exceptional circumstance subject inventions. (3) Treaties and international agreements. Any rights acquired by..., or public use. The Contractor will file patent applications in additional countries or international... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights-management...

  2. 78 FR 31570 - Prospective Grant of a Start-Up Exclusive Patent License Agreement: Treatment of Graves' Disease...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-24

    ...-Up Exclusive Patent License Agreement: Treatment of Graves' Disease, Hyperthyroidism and Thyroid... Patent License Agreement may be worldwide and the field of use may be limited to: Treatment of Graves' Disease, hyperthyroidism and thyroid cancer. DATES: Only written comments or applications for a license...

  3. 76 FR 43631 - Revision of the Materiality to Patentability Standard for the Duty To Disclose Information in...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... 0651-AC58 Revision of the Materiality to Patentability Standard for the Duty To Disclose Information in... revise the standard for materiality for the duty to disclose information in patent applications and... revise the materiality standard for the duty to disclose to match the materiality standard, as defined in...

  4. 76 FR 63257 - Facilitating the Deployment of Text-to-911 and Other Next Generation 911 Applications; Framework...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-10-12

    ... 22, 2011. The full text of this document is available for public inspection during regular business... downloadable smartphone applications that both consumers and IP-capable PSAPs could acquire to support...

  5. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  6. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  7. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  8. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC AGENCY: Department of the Navy, DoD. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Department of the Navy hereby gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable...

  9. Application of Rapid Prototyping Pelvic Model for Patients with DDH to Facilitate Arthroplasty Planning: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Deng; Ma, Ruo-fan; Barden, Bertram; Ding, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Total hip arthroplasty (THA) is challenging in cases of osteoarthritis secondary to developmental dysplasia of the hip (DDH). Acetabular deficiency makes the positioning of the acetabular component difficult. Computer tomography based, patient-individual three dimensional (3-D) rapid prototype technology (RPT)-models were used to plan the placement of acetabular cup so that a surgeon was able to identify pelvic structures, assess the ideal extent of reaming and determine the size of cup after a reconstructive procedure. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were used to analyze the agreement between the sizes of chosen components on the basis of preoperative planning and the actual sizes used in the operation. The use of the 3-D RPT-model facilitates the surgical procedures due to better planning and improved orientation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Human induced pluripotent stem cells: a review of the US patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgieva, Bilyana P; Love, Jane M

    2010-07-01

    Human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells and human embryonic stem cells are cells that have the ability to differentiate into a variety of cell types. Embryonic stem cells are derived from human embryos; however, by contrast, human iPS cells can be obtained from somatic cells that have undergone a process of 'reprogramming' via genetic manipulation such that they develop pluripotency. Since iPS cells are not derived from human embryos, they are a less complicated source of human pluripotent cells and are considered valuable research tools and potentially useful in therapeutic applications in regenerative medicine. Worldwide, there are only three issued patents concerning iPS cells. Therefore, the patent landscape in this field is largely undefined. This article provides an overview of the issued patents as well as the pending published patent applications in the field.

  11. Identification of patent in incentivizing innovation for sustainability in the construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Sharifah Akmam Syed; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd; Majid, Taksiah A.; Ghazali, Farid Ezanee Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    The increasing trend of research and innovation developments in the field of construction industry and their impacts on the national economy have raised much attention in the recent years. In this respect, through the relationship that exists between innovation and patent protection means that the education system of civil engineering has to gear itself to provide a sense of direction to facilitate future civil engineers to meet the challenges through innovation. The aim of this paper is to examine the educational experience and inclination of civil engineering students at Universiti Sains Malaysia in terms of their educational readiness to invent and innovate based on patents' exploration. Specifically, this paper presents research evidence using a quantitative method through questionnaire surveys in determining the dimension of patent information usage for innovation purposes, with attention to the hierarchy of each usage aspect and outcome measures reported. Results of this study revealed that majority of the participants have a "simplistic and superficial" ideas of patents identification as a source of innovation. Although a fair number of participants have relatively good knowledge of patents and innovation, lack of practical exposure and experience in construction industry are still a problem frequently encountered in the preparation to invent and innovate based on patents' exploration. It is recommended that the research model is tested using a greater number of research participants.

  12. A Framework for Treating Uncertainty to Facilitate Waste Disposal Decision Making - Application of the Approach to GCD Performance Assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, T.J.; Cochran, J.R.; Gallegos, D.P.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents an approach for treating uncertainty in the performance assessment process to efficiently address regulatory performance objectives for radioactive waste disposal and discusses the application of the approach at the Greater Confinement Disposal site. In this approach, the performance assessment methodology uses probabilistic risk assessment concepts to guide effective decisions about site characterization activities and provides a path toward reasonable assurance regarding regulatory compliance decisions. Although the approach is particularly amenable to requirements that are probabilistic in nature, the approach is also applicable to deterministic standards such as the dose-based and concentration-based requirements

  13. Research on Dongguan Mobile Phone Industry Development Status from the Patent Perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Qiu Yu

    2017-01-01

    [Purpose/significance] Through the analysis of the patent of five Dongguan mobile phone industries, this paper aims at providing information references for the development of Dongguan mobile phone industry. [Method/process] This paper first introduced the basic information of the mobile phone industry in our country, selected Dongguan mobile phone industry patents as the research object, and analyzed overall development trend--the general situation and the trend of applicants, inventors and I...

  14. NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manufacturing | News | NREL NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing News Release: NREL Patents Method for Continuous Monitoring of Materials During Manufacturing NREL's Energy Systems Integration Facility (ESIF). More information, including the published patent, can

  15. Origen y evolución de las patentes y marcas en biomecánica deportiva. (Origin and evolution of patents and trademarks in sports biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. González-Montesinos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Biomecánica es una disciplina científica cuyo origen se remonta varios siglos atrás, cuando distintos precursores utilizaron diferentes ciencias para analizar el movimiento humano y animal. El desarrollo tecnológico ha propiciado la invención de distintos dispositivos los cuales han sido utilizados en estudios biomecánicos. Dichos dispositivos han facilitado la toma y análisis de datos relacionados con el movimiento y sus causas. La Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas (O.E.P.M. es el organismo encargado de registrar y patentar las invenciones en España. Para ello, la patente presentada debe de cumplir con unos requisitos y superar una evaluación técnica. Actualmente podemos encontrar distintas patentes para realizar análisis cinemáticos y cinéticos del movimiento, formadas por emisores y receptores de láser, cámaras de alta velocidad, sensores de presión, etc. Numerosas investigaciones relacionadas con la biomecánica deportiva utilizan estos dispositivos para obtener datos más precisos, mejorando la calidad de la investigación y, en algunos casos, posibilitando la mejora del rendimiento físico y/o deportivo. El propósito del presente artículo, consiste en exponer la evolución de la biomecánica en general y deportiva en particular, realizar una revisión sobre patentes relacionadas con la biomecánica del deporte, y reflejar sobre cómo y donde registrar las invenciones. Para ello se han utilizado las plataformas digitales y bases de datos Esp@cenet, Invesnes para la revisión de patentes con origen español, y Google Patent para otras patentes registradas en oficinas de fuera de España.AbstractThe biomechanics is a science discipline that originated centuries ago when various precursors used different sciences to analyze human and animal movement. Technological development has led to the invention of various devices which have been used in biomechanical studies. Such devices have facilitated the collection

  16. Law machines: scale models, forensic materiality and the making of modern patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Early US patent law was machine made. Before the Patent Office took on the function of examining patent applications in 1836, questions of novelty and priority were determined in court, within the forum of the infringement action. And at all levels of litigation, from the circuit courts up to the Supreme Court, working models were the media through which doctrine, evidence and argument were made legible, communicated and interpreted. A model could be set on a table, pointed at, picked up, rotated or upended so as to display a point of interest to a particular audience within the courtroom, and, crucially, set in motion to reveal the 'mode of operation' of a machine. The immediate object of demonstration was to distinguish the intangible invention from its tangible embodiment, but models also'machined' patent law itself. Demonstrations of patent claims with models articulated and resolved a set of conceptual tensions that still make the definition and apprehension of the invention difficult, even today, but they resolved these tensions in the register of materiality, performativity and visibility, rather than the register of conceptuality. The story of models tells us something about how inventions emerge and subsist within the context of patent litigation and patent doctrine, and it offers a starting point for renewed reflection on the question of how technology becomes property.

  17. A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domicio Da Silva Souza, Ivan; Juliana Pinheiro, Bárbara; Passarini Takahashi, Vania

    2012-01-01

    Patents represent a free and open source of data for studying innovation and forecasting technological trends. Thus, we suggest that new discussions about the role of patent information are needed. To illustrate the relevance of this issue, we performed a survey of patents involving skin care products, which were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 2006 and 2010, to identify opportunities for innovation and technological trends. We quantified the use of technologies in 333 patents. We plotted a life cycle of technologies related to natural ingredients. We also determined the cross impact of the technologies identified. We observed technologies related to processes applied to cosmetics (2.2%), functional packaging and applicators (2.9%), excipients and active compounds (21.5%), and cosmetic preparations (73.5%). Further, 21.6% of the patents were related to the use of natural ingredients. Several opportunities for innovation were discussed throughout this paper, for example, the use of peptides as active compounds or intracellular carriers (only 3.9% of the technologies in cosmetic preparations). We also observed technological cross impacts that suggested a trend toward multifunctional cosmetics, among others. Patent surveys may help researchers with product innovation because they allow us to identify available and unexplored technologies and turn them into whole new concepts.

  18. Voltammetry of ion transfer across a polarized room-temperature ionic liquid membrane facilitated by valinomycin: theoretical aspects and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaier, Jan; Samec, Zdenek

    2009-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is used to investigate the transfer of alkali-metal cations, protons, and ammonium ions facilitated by the complex formation with valinomycin at the interface between an aqueous electrolyte solution and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) membrane. The membrane is made of a thin (approximately 112 microm) microporous filter impregnated with an RTIL that is composed of tridodecylmethylammonium cations and tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate anions. An extension of the existing theory of voltammetry of ion transfer across polarized liquid membranes makes it possible to evaluate the standard ion-transfer potentials for the hydrophilic cations studied, as well as the stability constants (K(i)) of their 1:1 complexes with valinomycin, as log K(i) = 9.0 (H(+)), 11.1 (Li(+)), 12.8 (Na(+)), 17.2 (K(+)), 15.7 (Rb(+)), 15.1 (Cs(+)), and 14.7 (NH(4)(+)). These data point to the remarkably enhanced stability of the valinomycin complexes within RTIL, and to the enhanced selectivity of valinomycin for K(+) over all other univalent ions studied, compared to the conventional K(+) ion-selective liquid-membrane electrodes. Selective complex formation allows one to resolve voltammetric responses of K(+) and Na(+) in the presence of an excess of Mg(2+) or Ca(2+), which is demonstrated by determination of K(+) and Na(+) in the table and tap water samples.

  19. The application of reduced-processing decision support systems to facilitate the acquisition of decision-making skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Nathan C; Wiggins, Mark W; Childs, Merilyn; Fogarty, Gerard

    2013-06-01

    The study was designed to examine whether the availability of reduced-processing decision support system interfaces could improve the decision making of inexperienced personnel in the context of Although research into reduced-processing decision support systems has demonstrated benefits in minimizing cognitive load, these benefits have not typically translated into direct improvements in decision accuracy because of the tendency for inexperienced personnel to focus on less-critical information. The authors investigated whether reduced-processing interfaces that direct users' attention toward the most critical cues for decision making can produce improvements in decision-making performance. Novice participants made incident command-related decisions in experimental conditions that differed according to the amount of information that was available within the interface, the level of control that they could exert over the presentation of information, and whether they had received decision training. The results revealed that despite receiving training, participants improved in decision accuracy only when they were provided with an interface that restricted information access to the most critical cues. It was concluded that an interface that restricts information access to only the most critical cues in the scenario can facilitate improvements in decision performance. Decision support system interfaces that encourage the processing of the most critical cues have the potential to improve the accuracy and timeliness of decisions made by inexperienced personnel.

  20. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  1. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for hum...... future evolution and the corresponding public policy choices. This article seeks to provide prospective patentees with guidance and awareness concerning the patentability of methods for human enhancement.......This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  2. Disclosure rules and declared essential patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bekkers, R.N.A.; Catalini, C.; Martinelli, Arianna; Righi, C.; Simcoe, T.

    Many standard setting organizations (SSOs) require participants to disclose patents that might be infringed by implementing a proposed standard, and commit to license their “essential” patents on terms that are at least fair, reasonable and non-discriminatory (FRAND). Data from these SSO

  3. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    Ave, Boulder, CO 80301 2. Compagnie Generale de Geophysique 6 Rue Galvani Paris, France 3. EIC Laboratories, Incorporated Newton, MA 02146 4. Edo...Co. 2 Compagnie de Geophysique , France 3 Cooper, Charles E. 2 M Crown Controls Corporation 1 ,6 Cyr, Reginald J. 1 DeltaLab Research, Incorporated 1...Int’l App ....... 7,5 [73) Assignees: Institut Francais du Petrole. OTHER PUBLICATIONS -" Rueil-Malmaison; Compagnie Generale de Geophysique , Massy

  4. Anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte battery. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Not Available

    1972-06-26

    It is an object of the invention to provide a primary cell or battery using ammonium fluoride--anhydrous hydrogen fluoride electrolyte having improved current and power production capabilities at low temperatures. It is operable at temperatures substantially above the boiling point of hydrogen fluoride. (GRA)

  5. Improved fermentative alcohol production. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilke, C.R.; Maiorella, B.L.; Blanch, H.W.; Cysewski, G.R.

    1980-11-26

    An improved fermentation process is described for producing alcohol which includes the combination of vacuum fermentation and vacuum distillation. Preferably, the vacuum distillation is carried out in two phases, one a fermentor proper operated at atmospheric pressure and a flash phase operated at reduced pressure with recycle of fermentation brew having a reduced alcohol content to the fermentor, using vapor recompression heating of the flash-pot recycle stream to heat the flash-pot or the distillation step, and using water load balancing (i.e., the molar ratio of water in the fermentor feed is the same as the molar ratio of water in the distillation overhead).

  6. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  7. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  8. On Sharks, Trolls, and Other Patent Animals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reitzig, Markus; Henkel, Joachim; Heath, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    Patent trolls (or sharks) are small patent holding individuals or firms who trap R&D intense manufacturers in patent infringement situations in order to receive damage awards for the illegitimate use of their technology. While of great concern to management, their existence and impact for both...... corporate decision makers and policy makers remains to be fully analyzed from an academic standpoint. In this paper we show why patent sharks can operate profitably, why they are of growing concern, how manufacturers can forearm themselves against them, and which issues policy makers need to address. To do...... so, we map international indemnification rules with strategic rationales of small patent-holding firms within a game-theoretical model. Our central finding is that the courts’ unrealistic consideration of the trade-offs faced by inadvertent infringers is a central condition for sharks to operate...

  9. Simultaneous invention and the patent law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    inventions they often find this to challenge the idea that patent law (which rewards only the first inventor with exclusive rights) is needed to encourage invention and innovation. We review the empirical evidence alleged to show that simultaneous invention is prevalent for important inventions. In general...... is typical of important pioneer inventions in both survey evidence and alleged illustrative cases of simultaneous invention. We show this in the cases of Edison, the Wright brothers, the Selden automobile patent vis a vis Ford, Watt and the steam engine. We then point out that patent law inherently ensures...... that patent protection is not extended to near simultaneous inventions. There remain a number of simultaneous inventions discovered through interference proceedings but we find the number too small to mount a serious challenge to the general operation of patent law....

  10. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate......This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  11. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  12. Section for Standard and Patents - Standardization and Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wojtowicz, S.; Trechcinski, R.; Rybka, M.; Ryszkowska, A.; Wardaszko, J.

    1997-01-01

    Standardization; cooperation with the Patent Office Republic of Poland in the areas of inventiveness and patents. (author)

  13. IMPROVEMENT OF LIFE SUPPORT SYSTEMS OF PASSENGER ROLLING STOCK: PATENT REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. R. Kolesnykov

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Inventors and researchers of the world are focused on improvements of basic life support systems including provision of quality microclimate parameters in a car of the rolling stock. The research is aimed at reviewing and analyzing patents in the field of climate comfort, heating, ventilation and air conditioning (CCHVAC of railway passenger cars (the chronological framework: 2011-2017 from the date of publication. Мethodology. During the study there were reviewed patents (foreign and domestic ones in the field of CCHVAC in passenger vehicles, in particular railway cars, their optimization and ways of managing them. Patent search was carried out according to certain search criteria: keywords, time frames and in various patent systems of the world. An interdisciplinary approach was used. Findings. Based on the search results, 157 patents were found, 21 documents of which were selected for analysis. Patents are systematized into three groups: "New technical and technological solutions in systems and functioning facilities of HVAC ", "New and improved solutions for HVAC system management in a vehicle", "Air ozonation in passenger cars". It is established that all patents have one of the aspects that have solutions to the issues of more environmentally friendly, energy efficient and safe application of CCHVAC systems in railway transport. Originality. It was proved a high level of link penetration in various technical fields, which include patents with CCHVAC. It is established that it is characteristic for them to designate the majority of patent solutions for use not in the purely railway industry, but in transport in general. Practical value. Confirmation of the high level of link penetration in various technical fields will make it possible to reflect technical problems with CCHVAC and technologies for their solution throughout the world. This will contribute to a more intensive technological upgrade in the improvement of life support

  14. A spatial econometric panel data examination of endogenous versus exogenous interaction in Chinese province-level patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, James P.; Sheng, Yuxue

    2014-07-01

    We examine the provincial-level relationship between domestic Chinese intellectual property (IP) and knowledge stocks using a space-time panel model and data set covering monthly patent activity over the period 2002-2010. The goal of the modeling exercise is to explore the elasticity response of IP to knowledge stocks classified by type of creator (universities and research institutes, enterprises, and individuals). A focus is on spatial and time dependence in the relationship between knowledge stocks and IP, which implies spatial spillovers and diffusion over time. Many past studies of regional knowledge production have focused on patent applications as a proxy for regional output from the knowledge production process. However, this ignores the distinction between patent applications and patents granted, with the latter reflecting a decision and ability to convert knowledge produced into IP. This study differs in its focus on the regional relation between IP and knowledge stocks and the space-time dynamics of these. Using patents granted as a proxy for IP, and past patent applications as a proxy for regional knowledge stocks, allows us to explore the implied quality of knowledge production by various types of creators. Because Chinese patent applications have grown by 22 %, questions have been raised about the quantity versus quality of these applications. Our findings shed light on this issue.

  15. Patent Keyword Extraction for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jongchan Kim

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Recently, sustainable growth and development has become an important issue for governments and corporations. However, maintaining sustainable development is very difficult. These difficulties can be attributed to sociocultural and political backgrounds that change over time [1]. Because of these changes, the technologies for sustainability also change, so governments and companies attempt to predict and manage technology using patent analyses, but it is very difficult to predict the rapidly changing technology markets. The best way to achieve insight into technology management in this rapidly changing market is to build a technology management direction and strategy that is flexible and adaptable to the volatile market environment through continuous monitoring and analysis. Quantitative patent analysis using text mining is an effective method for sustainable technology management. There have been many studies that have used text mining and word-based patent analyses to extract keywords and remove noise words. Because the extracted keywords are considered to have a significant effect on the further analysis, researchers need to carefully check out whether they are valid or not. However, most prior studies assume that the extracted keywords are appropriate, without evaluating their validity. Therefore, the criteria used to extract keywords needs to change. Until now, these criteria have focused on how well a patent can be classified according to its technical characteristics in the collected patent data set, typically using term frequency–inverse document frequency weights that are calculated by comparing the words in patents. However, this is not suitable when analyzing a single patent. Therefore, we need keyword selection criteria and an extraction method capable of representing the technical characteristics of a single patent without comparing them with other patents. In this study, we proposed a methodology to extract valid keywords from

  16. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav; Duras, Petr; Třeška, Vladislav; Matoušková, Táňa; Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub; Lysák, Daniel; Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan

    2017-01-01

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  17. Portal Vein Embolization with Contralateral Application of Stem Cells Facilitates Increase of Future Liver Remnant Volume in Patients with Liver Metastases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ludvík, Jaroslav, E-mail: ludvikj@fnplzen.cz; Duras, Petr [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Třeška, Vladislav [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Matoušková, Táňa [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Brůha, Jan; Fichtl, Jakub [Charles University, Department of Surgery, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Lysák, Daniel [Charles University, Department of Haemato-Oncology, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic); Ferda, Jiří; Baxa, Jan [Charles University, Department of Imaging Methods, University Hospital and Faculty of Medicine in Pilsen (Czech Republic)

    2017-05-15

    ObjectivesThis study aimed to evaluate the progress of future liver remnant volume (FLRV) in patients with liver metastases after portal vein embolization (PVE) with the application of hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) and compare it with a patients control group after PVE only.MethodsTwenty patients (group 1) underwent PVE with contralateral HSC application. Subsequently, CT volumetry with the determination of FLRV was performed at weekly intervals, in total three weeks. A sample of twenty patients (group 2) who underwent PVE without HSC application was used as a control group.ResultsThe mean of FLRV increased by 173.2 mL during three weeks after the PVE/HSC procedure, whereas by 98.9 mL after PVE only (p = 0.015). Furthermore, the mean daily growth of FLRV by 7.6 mL in group 1 was significantly higher in comparison with 4.1 mL in group 2 (p = 0.007).ConclusionsPVE with the application of HSC significantly facilitates growth of FLRV in comparison with PVE only. This method could be one of the new suitable approaches to increase the resectability of liver tumours.

  18. Consultants Group Meeting on Improvement of Codling Moth SIT to Facilitate Expansion of Field Application. Working Material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-01-01

    SIT currently has only limited application in Lepidoptera control. Prospects for improvement of the technique however are good, and the species with the best immediate prospect is the codling moth (Cydia pomonella). Codling moth is the key pest of most apple and pear orchards in the world and the cause of intensive insecticide use during the whole fruiting season. As a result of increasing development of insecticide resistance in codling moth, the banning of essential insecticides, as well as public concerns about the environment and food safety, the Subprogramme continues to receive enquiries from a number of countries as to the applicability of SIT as a suppression method for this species. SIT is currently used as part of areawide codling moth control in British Columbia, Canada and in the border area with Washington State, USA. The SIT can be integrated with a number of other techniques, including mating disruption as in the trial in Washington State. The Canadian programme is co-funded by growers, local and national government. The programme is proving effective at controlling the moth in an environmental friendly way. Currently the programme is only financially attractive with government subsidy although in view of the replacement of insecticide use with SIT, growers will be able to access the rapidly growing and very lucrative market for organic fruit. A new CRP is proposed with the objective of improving the efficiency of all stages of the SIT for codling moth. This will cover reducing the cost of production, product and process quality control, genetic sexing, strain compatibility and field monitoring among others.

  19. Evolution of Industry Knowledge in the Public Domain: Prior Art Searching for Software Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinseok Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching prior art is a key part of the patent application and examination processes. A comprehensive prior art search gives the inventor ideas as to how he can improve or circumvent existing technology by providing up to date knowledge on the state of the art. It also enables the patent applicant to minimise the likelihood of an objection from the patent office. This article explores the characteristics of prior art associated with software patents, dealing with difficulties in searching prior art due to the lack of resources, and considers public contribution to the formation of prior art databases. It addresses the evolution of electronic prior art in line with technological development, and discusses laws and practices in the EPO, USPTO, and the JPO in relation to the validity of prior art resources on the Internet. This article also investigates the main features of searching sources and tools in the three patent offices as well as non-patent literature databases. Based on the analysis of various searching databases, it provides some strategies of efficient prior art searching that should be considered for software-related inventions.

  20. Teaching Chemistry Students How To Use Patent Databases and Glean Patent Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacMillan, Margy; Shaw, Lawton

    2008-07-01

    Patent literature is an important source of chemical information that is often neglected by chemical educators. This paper describes an effort to teach chemistry students how to use patent databases to search for information on applied chemical technology related to the manufacture of industrial and specialty chemicals. Students in a second-year-level organic chemistry class were shown how to search patent literature as part of a group research paper assignment that involved determining the feasibility of starting an industrial chemical operation to manufacture a given industrial chemical. Students who were assigned high value or specialty chemicals were most likely to cite patent literature in their final papers. Students who were assigned plastics or bulk commodity chemicals were less likely to cite patents. It is suggested that students made choices about the usefulness of patent literature and that patents were most useful when current patents existed and provided the patent owner a competitive advantage. For plastics or commodity chemicals, manufacturing technologies tend to be mature and are well described by more accessible information sources. Suggestions are made for effective introduction of patent literature instruction into upper-level chemistry courses.

  1. Products with Natural Components to Heal Dermal Burns: A Patent Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Melo Costa, Aida Carla Santana; Pereira Ramos, Karen Perez; Serafini, Mairim Russo; de Carvalho, Fernanda Oliveira; Teixeira, Luciana Garcez Barretto; Garcao, Diogo Costa; Shanmugam, Saravanan; de Souza Araujo, Adriano Antunes; Nunes, Paula Santos

    2015-01-01

    Burns are a global public health problem, and non-fatal burn injuries are a leading cause of morbidity. The scale of the problem has led researchers to seek to develop new prod- ucts (both synthetic and natural) for use in the treatment of burn lesions. The aim of this study was to examine all patents in databases between 2010 and 2015 related to natural prod- ucts for the treatment of burn-related wounds that targeted tissue repair and healing. The search term "burn" and the code A61K36/00 (plant and other natural derivatives used in medicinal prepara- tions) from the international classification of patents were used to identify treatments. The search was performed in the WIPO, ESPACENET and USPTO databases. The highest number of patent ap- plications was found in the WIPO data base (617), followed by ESPACENET(23) and USPTO(6). The USA and China were the countries with the most patent applications, and 2008 was the year that had the highest number of applications. Patent applications written in Spanish, English and Portuguese and that were published between 2010 and 2015 were se- lected. 559 patent applications in other languages, and 63 that did not result in the creation of new products between 2010 and 2015 were excluded and the remaining 13 patents application were selected for full reading of the text. Through this study we were able to identify and summarize the new active natural compounds that can be used in the treatment of burns, both in terms of tissue recovery and analgesia.

  2. Managing expectations: assessment of chemistry databases generated by automated extraction of chemical structures from patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senger, Stefan; Bartek, Luca; Papadatos, George; Gaulton, Anna

    2015-12-01

    First public disclosure of new chemical entities often takes place in patents, which makes them an important source of information. However, with an ever increasing number of patent applications, manual processing and curation on such a large scale becomes even more challenging. An alternative approach better suited for this large corpus of documents is the automated extraction of chemical structures. A number of patent chemistry databases generated by using the latter approach are now available but little is known that can help to manage expectations when using them. This study aims to address this by comparing two such freely available sources, SureChEMBL and IBM SIIP (IBM Strategic Intellectual Property Insight Platform), with manually curated commercial databases. When looking at the percentage of chemical structures successfully extracted from a set of patents, using SciFinder as our reference, 59 and 51 % were also found in our comparison in SureChEMBL and IBM SIIP, respectively. When performing this comparison with compounds as starting point, i.e. establishing if for a list of compounds the databases provide the links between chemical structures and patents they appear in, we obtained similar results. SureChEMBL and IBM SIIP found 62 and 59 %, respectively, of the compound-patent pairs obtained from Reaxys. In our comparison of automatically generated vs. manually curated patent chemistry databases, the former successfully provided approximately 60 % of links between chemical structure and patents. It needs to be stressed that only a very limited number of patents and compound-patent pairs were used for our comparison. Nevertheless, our results will hopefully help to manage expectations of users of patent chemistry databases of this type and provide a useful framework for more studies like ours as well as guide future developments of the workflows used for the automated extraction of chemical structures from patents. The challenges we have encountered

  3. AVC/H.264 patent portfolio license

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skandalis, Dean A.

    2006-08-01

    MPEG LA, LLC offers a joint patent license for the AVC (a/k/a H.264) Standard (ISO/IEC IS 14496-10:2004). Like MPEG LA's other licenses, the AVC Patent Portfolio License is offered for the convenience of the marketplace as an alternative enabling users to access essential intellectual property owned by many patent holders under a single license rather than negotiating licenses with each of them individually. The AVC Patent Portfolio License includes essential patents owned by DAEWOO Electronics Corporation; Electronics and Telecommunications Research Institute (ETRI); France Telecom, societe anonyme; Fujitsu Limited; Hitachi, Ltd.; Koninklijke Philips Electronics N.V.; LG Electronics Inc.; Matsushita Electric Industrial Co., Ltd.; Microsoft Corporation; Mitsubishi Electric Corporation; Robert Bosch GmbH; Samsung Electronics Co., Ltd.; Sedna Patent Services, LLC; Sharp Kabushiki Kaisha; Siemens AG; Sony Corporation; The Trustees of Columbia University in the City of New York; Toshiba Corporation; UB Video Inc.; and Victor Company of Japan, Limited. Another is expected also to join as of August 1, 2006. MPEG LA's objective is to provide worldwide access to as much AVC essential intellectual property as possible for the benefit of AVC users. Therefore, any party that believes it has essential patents is welcome to submit them for evaluation of their essentiality and inclusion in the License if found essential.

  4. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety......, which can be mobilized by patent experts with both an in-depth understanding of the scientific discovery, due to their educational background in the life sciences, and capabilities within the legal framework for patenting. More specifically, the findings reveal previously unreported aspects...

  5. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  6. The role of the clean development mechanism in facilitating the application of biomass renewable energy technologies in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kheng, Wong Hwee; Hvid, Joergen

    2003-01-01

    The Malaysian Government's move to ratify the Kyoto Protocol in September 2001 reaffirms the country's support to combat global climate change. Although Malaysia is not bound by any commitments to reduce its greenhouse gas emissions, the opportunities that exist through the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) could be two-fold: to contribute to the country's sustainable development objectives and to improve the energy supply security through the application of clean energy technologies such as renewable energy technologies. Malaysia is very dependent on fossil fuel based technologies for electricity generation and energy production. In 2001 almost 90% of the total energy input to power stations was derived from fossil fuels. Although the energy mix will continue to be predominantly based on fossil fuels, indigenous renewable energy resources may come to play a noticeable role in complementing the depleting fossil fuels. This paper focuses on how best to utilize the oil palm residues for electricity generation and energy production as these residues are the 'low hanging fruits' that are readily available. It compares the use of two different technological uses of residues: distributes power generation and co-firing with coal in large-scale power plants. The paper analyses the financial, economic and environmental impacts of these technologies, and it discusses the relative benefits of the technologies. In addition, the paper look into the barriers associated with each of the technologies, and it suggests possible policy interventions to be adopted in order to promote a viable and environmentally efficient use of the limited biomass resources. (au)

  7. Development and Application of a Stakeholder Assisted Dynamic Model to Facilitate Socio Hydrological Groundwater Management on Watershed Scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baig, A. I.; Adamowski, J. F.; Malard, J. J.; Peng, G.

    2017-12-01

    Groundwater resource, especially in canal downstream areas are under direct threat due to over extraction by farming community. The resource is easily exploitable and no regulatory policies are enforced effectively in the region. Therefore, there is an urgent need to manage the resource judiciously through policy implementation and stakeholder engagement. In developing countries such as Pakistan, effective management solutions need consideration of some addition factors such as small land holdings, the poor economic status of farmers, and limited modeling and mathematical skills. This presentation will discuss development and application of a comprehensive but simple stakeholder assisted dynamic model to address such challenges. Two major components of the dynamic model were: (i) a system dynamics model that describes socio-economic factors such as market values; and ii) a physically based model that simulates the salt balance in the root zone with conjunctive use of canal and tube well irrigation water. Stakeholder proposed policy scenarios such as canal lining, government-sponsored tubewell installation schemes were tested and optimized through economic and environmental tradeoff criteria. After 20 years of simulation, government subsidies on tubewells appear as a short term policy that resulted 37% increase in water availability with 12% increase in farmer income. However, it showed detrimental effects on groundwater sustainability in long terms, with 10% drop in groundwater levels.

  8. Karhunen-Loève treatment to remove noise and facilitate data analysis in sensing, spectroscopy and other applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharov, V V; Farahi, R H; Snyder, P J; Davison, B H; Passian, A

    2014-11-21

    Resolving weak spectral variations in the dynamic response of materials that are either dominated or excited by stochastic processes remains a challenge. Responses that are thermal in origin are particularly relevant examples due to the delocalized nature of heat. Despite its inherent properties in dealing with stochastic processes, the Karhunen-Loève expansion has not been fully exploited in measurement of systems that are driven solely by random forces or can exhibit large thermally driven random fluctuations. Here, we present experimental results and analysis of the archetypes (a) the resonant excitation and transient response of an atomic force microscope probe by the ambient random fluctuations and nanoscale photothermal sample response, and (b) the photothermally scattered photons in pump-probe spectroscopy. In each case, the dynamic process is represented as an infinite series with random coefficients to obtain pertinent frequency shifts and spectral peaks and demonstrate spectral enhancement for a set of compounds including the spectrally complex biomass. The considered cases find important applications in nanoscale material characterization, biosensing, and spectral identification of biological and chemical agents.

  9. Exploring Contextual Models in Chemical Patent Search

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urbain, Jay; Frieder, Ophir

    We explore the development of probabilistic retrieval models for integrating term statistics with entity search using multiple levels of document context to improve the performance of chemical patent search. A distributed indexing model was developed to enable efficient named entity search and aggregation of term statistics at multiple levels of patent structure including individual words, sentences, claims, descriptions, abstracts, and titles. The system can be scaled to an arbitrary number of compute instances in a cloud computing environment to support concurrent indexing and query processing operations on large patent collections.

  10. BUSCAS DE INFORMAÇÕES TECNOLÓGICAS COM BASE EM DADOS DE PATENTES: ESTUDO DE CASO DOS LÍQUIDOS IÔNICOS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Speziali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the application of the Art of Scientific and Technological Search to strategically analyze areas of technological and industrial development. Application of scientific search strategies such as the creation of Patent Landscape has been shown to be useful for writing research projects, earning grants, publishing papers, drafting patent applications, and analyzing the market and economic potentials of a previous determined subject. The Patent Landscape regards a simplified analysis of technologies concerning ionic liquids patents applied in Brazil and published by Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial(INPI. A total of 93 patent applications using the keywords "ionic liquids" were found in the INPI database. Among these, 75% were nonresident applications and 25% were Brazilian resident applications. Interestingly, BASF, Chevron Industries, and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS were discovered as higher patent applicant assignees. Differences in the patent application areas were also observed between these applicants, with new solvents and petrochemical applications as the areas of focus for the industrial applications (BASF and Chevron Industries, and energy production, catalysis, and chemical reaction media as the focus for the university applications.

  11. Drug delivery via porous silicon: a focused patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyavtsev, Paulina A; Spencer, Roxanne P

    2017-03-01

    Although silicon is more commonly associated with computer chips than with drug delivery, with the discovery that porous silicon is a viable biocompatible material, mesoporous silicon with pores between 2 and 50 nm has been loaded with small molecule and biomolecule therapeutics and safely implanted for controlled release. As porous silicon is readily oxidized, porous silica must also be considered for drug delivery applications. Since 2010, only a limited number of US patents have been granted, primarily for ophthalmologic and immunotherapy applications, in contrast to the growing body of technical literature in this area.

  12. Using the Technology Acceptance Model to explore community dwelling older adults' perceptions of a 3D interior design application to facilitate pre-discharge home adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Young, Katherine L; Day, Yasmin; Wilson, Lesley; Money, Kevin G

    2015-08-26

    In the UK occupational therapy pre-discharge home visits are routinely carried out as a means of facilitating safe transfer from the hospital to home. Whilst they are an integral part of practice, there is little evidence to demonstrate they have a positive outcome on the discharge process. Current issues for patients are around the speed of home visits and the lack of shared decision making in the process, resulting in less than 50 % of the specialist equipment installed actually being used by patients on follow-up. To improve practice there is an urgent need to examine other ways of conducting home visits to facilitate safe discharge. We believe that Computerised 3D Interior Design Applications (CIDAs) could be a means to support more efficient, effective and collaborative practice. A previous study explored practitioners perceptions of using CIDAs; however it is important to ascertain older adult's views about the usability of technology and to compare findings. This study explores the perceptions of community dwelling older adults with regards to adopting and using CIDAs as an assistive tool for the home adaptations process. Ten community dwelling older adults participated in individual interactive task-focused usability sessions with a customised CIDA, utilising the think-aloud protocol and individual semi-structured interviews. Template analysis was used to carry out both deductive and inductive analysis of the think-aloud and interview data. Initially, a deductive stance was adopted, using the three pre-determined high-level themes of the technology acceptance model (TAM): Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), Actual Use (AU). Inductive template analysis was then carried out on the data within these themes, from which a number of sub-thmes emerged. Regarding PU, participants believed CIDAs served as a useful visual tool and saw clear potential to facilitate shared understanding and partnership in care delivery. For PEOU, participants were

  13. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information

  14. Valuing patents on cost-reducing technology: A case study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Triest, S.P.; van de Vis, Wim

    2007-01-01

    We present an approach for valuing patents on production process improvements. Specifically, we focus on valuing a patent on cost-reducing process improvements from the viewpoint of the patent holding firm. We do this by considering the relevant cash flows that result from owning the patent. The

  15. 78 FR 62367 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-21

    ... Office 37 CFR Parts 1, 3 and 11 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal... 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends...

  16. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0...-0007] RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties...

  17. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent and...

  18. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  19. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts to...

  20. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities for...

  1. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office... Matters Related to Patent Appeals comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K. Fawcett...

  2. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and... ``Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K...

  3. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and the...

  4. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoen, Ellen 't; Berger, Jonathan; Calmy, Alexandra; Moon, Suerie

    2011-03-27

    Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines.Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale.Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required.One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism. However, the Pool is just one of a

  5. Driving a decade of change: HIV/AIDS, patents and access to medicines for all

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Since 2000, access to antiretroviral drugs to treat HIV infection has dramatically increased to reach more than five million people in developing countries. Essential to this achievement was the dramatic reduction in antiretroviral prices, a result of global political mobilization that cleared the way for competitive production of generic versions of widely patented medicines. Global trade rules agreed upon in 1994 required many developing countries to begin offering patents on medicines for the first time. Government and civil society reaction to expected increases in drug prices precipitated a series of events challenging these rules, culminating in the 2001 World Trade Organization's Doha Declaration on the Agreement on Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights and Public Health. The Declaration affirmed that patent rules should be interpreted and implemented to protect public health and to promote access to medicines for all. Since Doha, more than 60 low- and middle-income countries have procured generic versions of patented medicines on a large scale. Despite these changes, however, a "treatment timebomb" awaits. First, increasing numbers of people need access to newer antiretrovirals, but treatment costs are rising since new ARVs are likely to be more widely patented in developing countries. Second, policy space to produce or import generic versions of patented medicines is shrinking in some developing countries. Third, funding for medicines is falling far short of needs. Expanded use of the existing flexibilities in patent law and new models to address the second wave of the access to medicines crisis are required. One promising new mechanism is the UNITAID-supported Medicines Patent Pool, which seeks to facilitate access to patents to enable competitive generic medicines production and the development of improved products. Such innovative approaches are possible today due to the previous decade of AIDS activism. However, the Pool is just one of

  6. Managing the patent thicket and maximizing patent lifetime in vaccine technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mertes, Maria M M; Stötter, Gerd

    2010-10-01

    Patents are exclusive rights for a limited period of time that are granted to provide an incentive for innovation and in exchange for the public disclosure of an invention. Patenting in the medical field, especially in the field of human vaccine technologies, is full of pitfalls, because the products that finally access the market are often covered by a multitude of exclusive IP rights. This commentary gives an overview on obstacles in vaccine patenting and how to overcome them, and intends to provide a patenting guideline for researchers.

  7. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...... - the Wright brothers' warped-wing patent; second, that strict development block, defined as the prevention, or retardation of the development of technology understood to be capable of useful development, was not illustrated by any of their examples. Therefore I conclude that their general thesis...

  8. Turning Technology into Business Using University Patents

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2014-01-01

    We present an education paradigm that stimulates innovation and entrepreneurship through a master's-level university course: "Turning Technology into Business". The course was specifically designed to connect technological research with education using patented technologies developed at the research

  9. Off-Patent Transgenic Events: Challenges and Opportunities for New Actors and Markets in Agriculture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Rüdelsheim

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available More than 20 years ago, the first genetically modified (GM plants entered the seed market. The patents covering the first GM plants have begun to expire and these can now be considered as Off-Patent Events. Here we describe the challenges that will be faced by a Secondary Party by further use and development of these Off-Patent Events. Indeed, the conditions for Off-Patent Events are not available yet to form the basis for a new viable industry similar to the generic manufacturers of agrochemicals or pharmaceutical products, primarily because of (i unharmonized global regulatory requirements for GM organisms, (ii inaccessibility of regulatory submissions and data, and (iii potential difficulties to obtain seeds and genetic material of the unique genotypes used to generate regulatory data. We propose certain adaptations by comparing what has been done in the agrochemical and pharmaceutical markets to facilitate the development of generics. Finally, we present opportunities that still exist for further development of Off-Patent Events in collaboration with Proprietary Regulatory Property Holders in emerging markets, provided (i various countries approve these events without additional regulatory burdens (i.e., acceptance of the concept of data transportability, and (ii local breeders agree to meet product stewardship requirements.

  10. The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gajos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.

  11. Patent analysis to identify shale gas development in China and the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Woo Jin; Sohn, So Young

    2014-01-01

    Shale gas has become an increasingly important form of hydrocarbon energy, and related technologies reflect the geographical characteristics of the countries where the gas is extracted and stored. The United States (U.S.) produces most of the world’s shale gas, while China has the world’s largest shale gas reserves. In this research, we focused on identifying the trends in shale-gas related technologies registered to the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and to the State Intellectual Property Office of the People’s Republic of China (SIPO) respectively. To cluster shale-gas related technologies, we text-mined the abstracts of patent specifications. It was found that in the U.S., the key advanced technologies were related to hydraulic fracturing, horizontal drilling, and slick water areas, whereas China had a focus on proppants. The results of our study are expected to assist energy experts in designing energy policies related to technology importation. - Highlights: • We analyzed shale gas-related patent applications in the USPTO and SIPO. • We clustered shale gas patents by text mining patent abstract. • Differences were observed in shale gas technologies developed in the U.S. and China. • We proposed the policies of shale gas exploration and development based on patent analysis

  12. Past, present and future of pharmaceutical patents under Korea-US Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Suk

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of substance patents in 1987 was viewed with apprehension as it was believed that the system would only reinforce the domination of the technology of advanced countries based on the trade agreement between Korea and the USA. However, substance patents provided the Korean pharmaceutical industry with the driving force required to develop new substances, and the Korean pharmaceutical industry has been constantly improving its research and development capability. The patent-approval linkage system was implemented according to the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement in 2015. The system comprises the following: registering the drugs in the Green List, notifying the listed patent and marketing approval holders about the application for generic marketing approval, patent holder's request for staying generic sales and first generic exclusivity. Korean generic companies are expected to have opportunities that enable them to challenge the global market by accumulating experience of designing of generic products, making patent challenges and strategically developing of new drugs or incrementally modified drugs through the linkage system.

  13. Optimal Selection Method of Process Patents for Technology Transfer Using Fuzzy Linguistic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the open innovation paradigm, technology transfer of process patents is one of the most important mechanisms for manufacturing companies to implement process innovation and enhance the competitive edge. To achieve promising technology transfers, we need to evaluate the feasibility of process patents and optimally select the most appropriate patent according to the actual manufacturing situation. Hence, this paper proposes an optimal selection method of process patents using multiple criteria decision-making and 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic computing to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. An evaluation index system for technology transfer feasibility of process patents is designed initially. Then, fuzzy linguistic computing approach is applied to aggregate the evaluations of criteria weights for each criterion and corresponding subcriteria. Furthermore, performance ratings for subcriteria and fuzzy aggregated ratings of criteria are calculated. Thus, we obtain the overall technology transfer feasibility of patent alternatives. Finally, a case study of aeroengine turbine manufacturing is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  14. Patent portfolio structure for single technology companies

    OpenAIRE

    Hartwell, Ian P.

    2004-01-01

    Single technology companies (STCs) are defined in this thesis as companies that (a) have the fundamental rights to a new technology, (b) have development of that technology as their core competence, (c) seek to exploit that technology primarily by licensing the patent rights, and (d) are driven primarily by 'technology push'. These factors often result in much of the value of the STC residing in its patent portfolio. This in turn may place significant - and often conflicting - ...

  15. Competition policy in patent cases and antitrust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobel, Gerald

    2003-01-01

    The article that follows examines the competition policy reflected in the decisions of the Court of Appeals for the Federal Circuit in its patent cases. The court's views on this subject have been manifested most plainly in decisions that have transformed the law concerning infringement under the doctrine of equivalents and claim construction. In both categories, the court narrowed patent scope by reason of its desire to protect competitors. The article argues that the court's premise in prescribing narrower claim scope reflected an incomplete view of competition policy. The court's analysis overlooked the benefits to competition provided by patents, which stimulate inventions and their development. The article traces the development of antitrust jurisprudence and demonstrates how respect for the contribution of patents to competition and skepticism of free-riding has evolved, particularly beginning in the 1970s. The article draws a parallel between the Court's reasoning about competition policy, on the one hand, and the rejected views of Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas and abandoned patent-antitrust jurisprudence, on the other. The Federal Circuit's decision in Festo Corp. v. Shoketsu Kinzoku Kogyo Kabushiki Co., Ltd., 234 F.3d 558 (Fed. Cir. 2000), on the subject of equivalents is considered in the paper. In that decision, the majority adopted a new rule that completely barred infringement under the doctrine of equivalents of any claim limitation where, in prosecution, there had been a narrowing amendment relating to patentability. In the past, prosecution estoppel foreclosing equivalents had been subject to a "flexible bar," which, in some circumstances, allowed for equivalence notwithstanding such an amendment. The article points out that because almost all patents are amended during prosecution, the effect would be to allow widespread copying of patented inventions by trivial modifications of any narrowed claim limitation. The incentive to innovate

  16. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    OpenAIRE

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-01-01

    In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage tech...

  17. 37 CFR 1.56 - Duty to disclose information material to patentability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... application, and (1) It establishes, by itself or in combination with other information, a prima facie case of... patentability. A prima facie case of unpatentability is established when the information compels a conclusion... inventor, with the assignee or with anyone to whom there is an obligation to assign the application. (d...

  18. Heat pipes. (Latest citations from the US Patent Bibliographic file with exemplary claims). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The bibliography contains citations of selected patents concerning the design, manufacture, and applications of heat pipes. The use of heat pipes in heat exchange systems for heat storage, heat transfer, and heat utilization is discussed. Applications include semiconductor cooling, use in engine components, and building cooling and heating. (Contains 250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  19. Prospects and trends in the development of terahertz technologies: patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. А. Usanov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The article is dedicated to the analysis of areas where terahertz radiation is applicable with the hwlp of a patent papers review, as well as to obtaining knowledge about the invention activity changes in this area over the past 35 years.Orbit patent databases’ capabilities were used to complete this analysis. Data search was conducted by keywords “terahertz” or “THz.” The searches were neither limited by submission dates, by priorities, nor by the country. A comprehensive analysis will allow to determine a more than 7389 patent-analog families’ aplications submitted in the period between 1980 and 2017 years. Statistical processing of obtained documents has been completed with the assistance of program software, indicated in the database. It was revealed that terahertz technologies have significant prospects to be applied in various areas; a fact, that is confirmed by an identified range of fields, where electromagnetic radiation of terahertz spectrum is applicable and is constantly growing. The dynamics of patenting is characterized by annual stable positive growth in the number of applications for inventions in the researched area. The highest number of inventions was identified in the field of instrumentation technologies, optics, telecommunications, semiconductor technologies, and medicine. Additionally, there was analyzed the state of patenting over the course of last five years. Examples of inventions were given. There were identified leading countries and companies in the researched area.

  20. What is your reasonable expectation of success in obtaining pharmaceutical or biotechnology patents having nonobvious claimed inventions that the courts will uphold? An overview of obviousness court decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Daniel J; Kunin, Stephen G

    2014-12-04

    This article explores the legal basis for establishing the nonobviousness of patent claims in the life sciences fields of technology drawn from the guidance provided in published decisions of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office's Patent Trial and Appeal Board, federal district courts, the Federal Circuit Court of Appeals, and the U.S. Supreme Court. Our analysis, although equally applicable to all disciplines and technologies, focuses primarily on decisions of greatest import affecting patents in the fields of pharmaceutical chemistry and biotechnology. Copyright © 2015 Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press; all rights reserved.

  1. p38 MAPK inhibitors: a patent review (2012 - 2013).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bühler, Stefanie; Laufer, Stefan A

    2014-05-01

    The p38 MAPK is a ubiquitous target in the research-based pharmaceutical industry. It plays a decisive role in the regulation of the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Since novel biological therapies have revolutionized the treatment of chronic inflammatory diseases, an intensive global search is underway for small molecules for the same application. Herein, the patents and the corresponding publications of international companies, which focus on the development and identification of a new generation of small-molecule p38 inhibitors, are summarized. The most promising approach is the development of linear binders, which induce a glycine flip at Gly110 of the kinase hinge region by a carbonyl oxygen atom of the respective ligand. The major focus of the patent works was the application of molecules in new indications. Previous applications were in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis; currently, there are several new applications, including pulmonary diseases, cancer and Alzheimer's disease. Targeting p38 upstream kinases and downstream effectors has also proved to be a very promising step in the development of more effective inhibitors. A further trend is drug combination, applied to a wide range of indications, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and cancer.

  2. The diffusion of patented oil and gas technology with environmental uses: A forward patent citation analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duch-Brown, Néstor; Costa-Campi, María Teresa

    2015-01-01

    Relevant advances in the mitigation of environmental impact could be obtained by the appropriate diffusion of existing environmental technologies. In this paper, we look at the diffusion of knowledge related to environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. To assess knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions as a measure of technology diffusion, we rely on forward patent citations methodology. Results show that there is a strong likelihood that the citing patent will be eventually linked to environmental technologies if the original oil and gas invention has already environmental uses. Moreover, both intra and intersectoral spillovers produce a “turnabout” effect, meaning that citing patents show the opposite quality level of the cited patent. Our results support the idea that more sector-specific environmental policies, with an emphasis on diffusion, would significantly improve the use of environmental technologies developed within the oil and gas industry. -- Highlights: •Knowledge spillovers from oil and gas inventions are of an intrasectoral nature. •Environmental uses in original patents diffuse to patents with environmental uses. •The “turnabout” effect converts low quality patents into high quality citing patents. •Diffusion of oil and gas inventions need more ad hoc instruments

  3. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  4. Biological diversity in the patent system.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul Oldham

    Full Text Available Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL. We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8-1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on

  5. Patent landscape of neglected tropical diseases: an analysis of worldwide patent families.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinsolu, Folahanmi Tomiwa; de Paiva, Vitor Nobre; Souza, Samuel Santos; Varga, Orsolya

    2017-11-14

    "Neglected Tropical Diseases" (NTDs) affect millions of people in Africa, Asia and South America. The two primary ways of strategic interventions are "preventive chemotherapy and transmission control" (PCT), and "innovative and intensified disease management" (IDM). In the last 5 years, phenomenal progress has been achieved. However, it is crucial to intensify research effort into NTDs, because of the emerging drug resistance. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), the term NTDs covers 17 diseases, namely buruli ulcer, Chagas disease, dengue, dracunculiasis, echinococcosis, trematodiasis, human African trypanosomiasis, leishmaniasis, leprosy, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis, rabies, schistosomiasis, soil-transmitted helminthes, taeniasis, trachoma, and yaws. The aim of this study is to map out research and development (R&D) landscape through patent analysis of these identified NTDs. To achieve this, analysis and evaluation have been conducted on patenting trends, current legal status of patent families, priority countries by earliest priority years and their assignee types, technological fields of patent families over time, and original and current patent assignees. Patent families were extracted from Patseer, an international database of patents from over 100 patent issuing authorities worldwide. Evaluation of the patents was carried out using the combination of different search terms related to each identified NTD. In this paper, a total number of 12,350 patent families were analyzed. The main countries with sources of inventions were identified to be the United States (US) and China. The main technological fields covered by NTDs patent landscape are pharmaceuticals, biotechnology, organic fine chemistry, analysis of biological materials, basic materials chemistry, and medical technology. Governmental institutions and universities are the primary original assignees. Among the NTDs, leishmaniasis, dengue, and rabies received the highest number of

  6. The Seductive-Plausibility of Patent Hold-Up Myths — A Flawed Historiography of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D

    In previous work we have shown that a flawed historiography of patents continues to be the basis for patent policy advocacy. We set out objective standards of evidence that allegations of development block due to assertion of patents must meet. We show the extent of the errors in the historical...... record in the aircraft, automobile, radio and incandescent lamp technologies. We then evaluate how they measure against the objective standards. We find many simple errors and that an absence of indicia of development block characterise scholarship alleging that assertion of patents blocked development...... of multiple case studies subjected to such standards justifies the rebuttable presumption that “pioneer patents have never blocked development”....

  7. The "Novelty" Requirements for Gene and Genetically-Modified Organisms Inventions and the Potential Benefits of a Peer-to-Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Margoni, T.

    2012-01-01

    The paper focuses on the patentability requirements applicable to the case of biotechnological inventions (gene patents and other genetically modified organisms). The paper takes a comparative standpoint and analyzes North-American, European, and Japanese landscapes. Attention will be also paid to

  8. El Sistema de patentes en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Viana Barceló

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available En este documento se realiza un análisis económico del Sistema de Patentes de Colombia. Para ello, se establece el efecto que tienen las patentes concedidas a los inventores foráneos sobre la Inversión Extranjera Directa y el Producto Interno Bruto Nacional, a través de la técnica de regresión de data panel. De igual manera, se identifican los sectores económicos que registran mayores tasas de innovación por parte de los inventores nacionales y extranjeros. Se muestra que el sistema nacional de propiedad intelectual tiene un grado de fortaleza acorde con el resto de países latinoamericanos; para ello, se construye un índice de grado de fortalecimiento de sistema de patente nacional que luego será comparado con el de otros países latinos.Palabras Clave: Sistema de Patentes; Derechos de Propiedad Intelectual; Inversión Directa extranjera; Producto Interno Bruto e innovación tecnológica. The system of patents in ColombiaAbstractIn this document an economic analysis of the System of Patents of Colombia is made. For it, the effect that has the patents granted to the foreign inventors on the Direct Foreign Investment and the Internal Product Gross National, through the technique of regression of data settles down panel. Of equal way, the economic sectors are identified that register greater rates of innovation on the part of the national and foreign inventors.Sample that the national system of intellectual property has a degree of agreed strength with the rest of Latin American countries; for it, an index of degree of fortification of system of national patent is constructed that soon will be compared with the one of other Latin countries.Keywords: System Patent; Rights of Intellectual Property; Foreign Direct Investment; Gross Domestic Product and Technology Innovation.

  9. Ontwikkelingen in octrooien die invloed hebben op het gebruiksrecht van dieren in de veehouderij = Developments in patents that impact on the right of use of animals in animal production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Napel, ten J.; Oonk, H.B.; Hiemstra, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    European and Dutch legislation allow applications for patenting animals, provided that certain criteria are met. In practice, the precise interpretation of these criteria is not clear en it takes relatively long before an application is granted or rejected. Analysis of patent applications concerning

  10. In-depth research of domestic nuclear patent information

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mo Dan; Gao Anna; Li Dongbin; Lu Yanjia; Ren Chao

    2014-01-01

    Based on the domestic patent information, combined with examples, this article makes an in-depth discussion on the domestic nuclear patent information. The author puts forward for the patent information research, the appropriate retrieval of patent documents is the basis,and the correct quantitative statistical analysis of patent documents is the key, and in-depth qualitative analysis of patent documents is the core. It is expected to provide information support and guarantee for the technical innovation and scientific research personnel in the nuclear field through in-depth study of domestic nuclear information. (authors)

  11. Patent Medicine Sellers: How Can They Help Control Childhood Malaria?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosamund M. Akuse

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Roll Back Malaria Initiative encourages participation of private health providers in malaria control because mothers seek care for sick children from them. This study investigated Patent Medicine Sellers (PMS management of presumptive malaria in children in order to identify how they can assist malaria control. A cross-sectional survey of 491 PMS in Kaduna, Nigeria, was done using interviews and observation of shop activities. Most (80% customers bought drugs without prescriptions. Only 29.5% were given instructions about doses. Between 40–100% doses of recommended antimalarials were incorrect. Some (22% PMS did not ask questions about illness for which they were consulted. Most children treated in shops received injections. PMS facilitate homecare but have deficiencies in knowledge and practice. Interventions must focus on training them to accurately determine doses, give advice about drug administration, use oral medication, and ask about illness. Training should be made a prerequisite for registering and reregistering shops.

  12. Profile of medicinal plants utilization through patent documents: the andiroba example

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciene F. Gaspar Amaral

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Today, one of the trends of the pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food market is the development of products with components of natural origin, rationally exploiting biodiversity. Brazilian population makes secular use of medicinal plants including andiroba, whose oil is used in folk medicine as febrifuge, pain-relieving, anti-parasitic, anti-allergic as well as insect repellant. The present study attempts to evaluate the profile of utilization of andiroba by analyzing the patenting trends based on information collected on the databases of the World Intellectual Property Organization, European Patent Office and Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property in the period from 1990 to 2011. The following parameters were analyzed: chronological aspect of the applications, countries of priority, international patent classification, technologies and actors in the technological platform. The temporal analysis of the applications shows an evident increase despite a discontinuous evolution of the number of applications. Pharmaceutical, chemical and cosmetic areas were identified as the main areas for commercial application of the plant. Brazil is the country with the largest number of applications even though the majority of the patent technologies are already in public domain, indicating that the technological information contained in these documents could be used for research and investment in several areas.

  13. [The patents game. Generic and biosimilar drugs].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villamañán, E; González, D; Armada, E; Ruano, M; Álvarez-Sala, R; Herrero, A

    2016-01-01

    The protection provided by patents on medicines has a limited duration. The expiry of patents expiration allows copies of the drugs to be released, competing with original. At first, they were identical to the original, known as generic drugs, but in recent years, due to the marketing of biological therapies and the expiry of many of their patents, biosimilar drugs have also emerged. These are not exact copies of the original, but, like generic drugs, biosimilar drugs have to demonstrate equivalence to the reference drugs in quality, safety and efficacy. Nevertheless, despite their importance and contribution to sustainability of health system, doctors are sometimes unaware of differences between them, and their impact in terms of clinical and economic effects. An attempt is made to review and clarify certain aspects often unknown by physicians, despite their involvement in their use. Copyright © 2015 SECA. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  14. Patents, antibiotics, and autarky in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero De Pablos, Ana

    2014-01-01

    Patents on antibiotics were introduced in Spain in 1949. Preliminary research reveals diversification in the types of antibiotics: patents relating to penicillin were followed by those relating to streptomycin, erythromycin and tetracycline. There was also diversification in the firms that applied for patents: while Merck & Co. Incorporated and Schenley Industries Inc. were the main partners with Spanish antibiotics manufacturers in the late 1940s, this industrial space also included many others, such as Eli Lilly & Company, Abbott Laboratories, Chas. Pfizer & Co. Incorporated, and American Cyanamid Company in the mid-1970s. The introduction of these drugs in Spain adds new elements to a re-evaluation of the autarkic politics of the early years of the Franco dictatorship.

  15. Patent portfolio management: literature review and a proposed model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conegundes De Jesus, Camila Kiyomi; Salerno, Mario Sergio

    2018-05-09

    Patents and patent portfolios are gaining attention in the last decades, from the called 'pro-patent era' to the recent billionaire transactions involving patent portfolios. The field is growing in importance, both theoretically and practically and despite having substantial literature on new product development portfolio management, we have not found an article relating this theory to patent portfolios. Areas covered: The paper develops a systematic literature review on patent portfolio management to organize the evolution and tendencies of patent portfolio management, highlighting distinctive features of patent portfolio management. Interview with IP manager of three life sciences companies, including a leading multinational group provided relevant information about patent portfolio management. Expert opinion: Based on the systematic literature review on portfolio management, more specifically, on new product development portfolio theory, and interview the paper proposes the paper proposes a reference model to manage patent portfolios. The model comprises four stages aligned with the three goals of the NPD portfolio management: 1 - Linking strategy of the Company's NPD Portfolio to Patent Portfolio; 2 - Balancing the portfolio in buckets; 3 - Patent Valuation (maximizing valuation); 4 - Regularly reviewing the patent portfolio.

  16. Cross-Border Patent Disputes: Unified Patent Court or International Commercial Arbitration?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Alba Betancourt

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Currently, the enforcement of a patent that is registered in several countries involves the risk of getting different and conflicting decisions from the national courts. In 2013, 25 European countries entered in an agreement that aims to homogenise the patent system by creating the European patent with unitary effect and a Unified Patent Court (UPC. This article focuses on the UPC, which aims to have a single court proceeding for cross-border patent conflicts. Does the UPC system represent an advantage compared to the current litigation system? The paper argues that it does and explores what it considers to be the two main advantages of a UPC over the current system of cross-border litigation of patents: the ability to drag several conflicts to a single procedure and the neutrality of the decision makers. These advantages are consequently compared to the characteristics of arbitration. Then, an explanation is provided with regards to how the UPC system is going to work in terms of jurisdiction, preliminary injunctions, the choice of law and enforcement of decisions, comparing those same procedural aspects to arbitration. The article finds that arbitration involves many of the same advantages (as compared to the UPC and that the procedural issues studied in both means are, so too, similar. Therefore, arbitration represents a viable alternative to the UPC when it comes to reducing the risks in solving cross-border patent conflicts.

  17. Patent Keyword Extraction Algorithm Based on Distributed Representation for Patent Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Hu

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Many text mining tasks such as text retrieval, text summarization, and text comparisons depend on the extraction of representative keywords from the main text. Most existing keyword extraction algorithms are based on discrete bag-of-words type of word representation of the text. In this paper, we propose a patent keyword extraction algorithm (PKEA based on the distributed Skip-gram model for patent classification. We also develop a set of quantitative performance measures for keyword extraction evaluation based on information gain and cross-validation, based on Support Vector Machine (SVM classification, which are valuable when human-annotated keywords are not available. We used a standard benchmark dataset and a homemade patent dataset to evaluate the performance of PKEA. Our patent dataset includes 2500 patents from five distinct technological fields related to autonomous cars (GPS systems, lidar systems, object recognition systems, radar systems, and vehicle control systems. We compared our method with Frequency, Term Frequency-Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF, TextRank and Rapid Automatic Keyword Extraction (RAKE. The experimental results show that our proposed algorithm provides a promising way to extract keywords from patent texts for patent classification.

  18. Measuring science–technology interactions using patent citations and author-inventor links: an exploration analysis from Chinese nanotechnology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Gangbo; Guan Jiancheng

    2011-01-01

    This article contributes to the growing study on the interactions between science and technology with China’s evidence in the field of nanotechnology, based on the database of United States Patent and Trademark Office. The analysis is focused during the period of 1991–2008, a rapid increasing period for the development of nanotechnology. Using the non-patent references cited by patents, we first investigate the science–technology connections in the context of Chinese nanotechnology, especially in institutional sectors and its application fields. Those patents, produced by academic researchers and directed towards basic scientific knowledge, generally cite more scientific references with a higher proportion of self-citations. It is interesting to find that patents contributed by collaborations between public organizations and corporations seldom contain scientific references. Following an interesting path on matching the data of publications and patents, we establish the author-inventor links in this emerging field. Author-inventors, who are co-active in publishing and patenting, are at the very top of the most prolific and highly cited researchers. Finally, we employ social network analysis to explore the characteristics of scientific and technological networks generated by co-authorship and co-invention data, to investigate the position and the role of patenting–publishing scientists in these research networks.

  19. The governance of the European patent system:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Borras, Susana

    2006-01-01

    at the formal and informal dimensions of interactions in economic systems. This is further developed into an analytical framework which is then used in the assessment of the structural features of the current European patent system, one of the most advanced, complex, and contested economic systems in Europe....... The conclusions elaborate on the normative implications regarding the current weaknesses of the European patent system, and examine the general theoretical implications of the findings, particularly looking at the effectiveness and legitimacy of technically complex governance systems....

  20. Ghosts of inventions: Patent law's digital mediations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyo Yoon

    2018-04-01

    This article examines the shifts in the material ordering of inventions in patent law organization and their effects on the meaning and scope of inventions as intellectual property. Formats and media are constitutive of the establishment and stabilization of inventions as objects of intellectual property. Modern patent law's materiality had been dominated by paper documents but ever more consists of digital images, files, and networked data. The article traces and analyzes such effects of digital media on the meaning of intellectual/intangible property and argues that inventions increasingly matter as digital data in the legal realm.

  1. CIVIL PROTECTION MECHANISM OF THE ASSIGNEE RIGHTS BASED ON THE PATENT CLAIM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Marchenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Statistical analysis of inventive activity in Ukraine shows that the largest number of applications is submitted by employees of universities and research institutions – almost 60% of all inventions. Practice of inventions execution proves that for researchers, especially for students, the most difficult part of the application and author documents is the claim. The purpose of research is a synthesis and supplying the general principles of quality drafting the patent claim, providing further legal protection of the patent. Methodology. Monitoring and analysis of the world documentary informational flow through the civil protection mechanism of the assignee rights on the basis of the patent claim allows us to compare the world systems of formulas development and summarize some key moments concerning the point in question. The example analysis of the correct patent claim drafting and its interpretation in court cases on intellectual property was made. Findings. The specific properties of the patent claim were described. They are conciseness, latitude, completeness and certainty, compliance with unity requirements and novelty of the invention. On the basis of the research it is established that there is a great difference between Ukrainian and American patent claims. A number of common mistakes and shortcomings during the claim drafting were identified. The need to restore the various forms of the invention training in universities of Ukraine was emphasized, since on this basis one should train a number of specialists who are able to carry out the commercialization of intellectual property results into productive findings. Originality. A number of issues and techniques was investigated and summarized. They can be applied by the courts in interpreting of the patent claim in the processing of intellectual property cases. Especially it concerns determining the correct drafting of the patent claim. Practical value. This work may be used

  2. Mapping patent classifications: Portfolio and statistical analysis, and the comparison of strengths and weaknesses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kogler, D.F.; Yan, B.

    The Cooperative Patent Classifications (CPC) recently developed cooperatively by the European and US Patent Offices provide a new basis for mapping patents and portfolio analysis. CPC replaces International Patent Classifications (IPC) of the World Intellectual Property Organization. In this study,

  3. Constructing a unitary title regime for the European Patent System

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2011-01-01

    The European Patent System without any unitary title allows Member States to retain institutional arrangements within their borders and to prevent any moves to delegate responsibility outside the national sphere. This intergovernmental patent regime suffers from fragmentation due to national

  4. Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intellectual property rights in china: patents and economic development. ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search · USING ... there are still patents and other IP related rights infringement and enforcement issues.

  5. An advanced search engine for patent analytics in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnykova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Patent collections contain an important amount of medical-related knowledge, but existing tools were reported to lack of useful functionalities. We present here the development of TWINC, an advanced search engine dedicated to patent retrieval in the domain of health and life sciences. Our tool embeds two search modes: an ad hoc search to retrieve relevant patents given a short query and a related patent search to retrieve similar patents given a patent. Both search modes rely on tuning experiments performed during several patent retrieval competitions. Moreover, TWINC is enhanced with interactive modules, such as chemical query expansion, which is of prior importance to cope with various ways of naming biomedical entities. While the related patent search showed promising performances, the ad-hoc search resulted in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the Chemathlon task of the PatOlympics competition and experts appreciated its usability.

  6. The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The availability of Misoprostol in pharmacies and patent medicine stores in two Nigerian ... AFRICAN JOURNALS ONLINE (AJOL) · Journals · Advanced Search ... pharmacists or vendors of pharmaceutical and patent medicine outlets in two ...

  7. Patent medicine vendors are major providers antimalaria treatment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    management of malaria by this informal sector of healthcare delivery is however ... Methods: Fifty-five patent medicine vendors selected through a multistage sampling ... training of the patent medicine vendors, the overall appropriate treatment ...

  8. 48 CFR 27.204 - Patented technology under trade agreements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patented technology under trade agreements. 27.204 Section 27.204 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION... Patented technology under trade agreements. ...

  9. 48 CFR 1852.227-11 - Patent Rights-Retention by the Contractor (Short Form).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... subparagraph (c)(1). NASA prefers that the contractor use either the electronic or paper version of NASA Form.... Both the electronic and paper versions of NASA Form 1679 may be accessed at the electronic New... copies of the patent application file, by the Government, when a Federal Government employee is a...

  10. 76 FR 37296 - Revision of Patent Fees for Fiscal Year 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-27

    ...) $1,175 $2,360, (SE) $1,180 $10, (SE) $5. within Fifth Month. 1.17(l) Petition to Revive $540, (SE... to Revive $1,620, (SE) $810 $1,660, (SE) $830 $40, (SE) $20. Unintentionally Abandoned Application. 1... revive fee, issue fee, or patent maintenance fee. The USPTO has been advised that a number of small...

  11. "Environmental Technology Strengths: International Rankings Based on US Patent Data"

    OpenAIRE

    Dora Marinova; Michael McAleer

    2003-01-01

    Patent information has been used by economists and researchers in the field of innovation to analyse current and forecast future technological directions. The recent surge in patenting activities in developed countries reaffirms the strong position of the patent system in a globalised world dominated by market mechanisms. This paper analyses the technological position of the top twelve foreign patenting countries in the USA, namely Australia, Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, Korea, the ...

  12. Longitudinal Nanotechnology Development (1991-2002): National Science Foundation Funding and its Impact on Patents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Zan; Chen Hsinchun; Yan Lijun; Roco, Mihail C.

    2005-01-01

    Nanotechnology holds the promise to revolutionize a wide range of products, processes and applications. It is recognized by over sixty countries as critical for their development at the beginning of the 21st century. A significant public investment of over $1 billion annually is devoted to nanotechnology research in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and its relationship to the innovation as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patent data. Using a combination of bibliometric analysis and visualization tools, we have identified several general trends, the key players, and the evolution of technology topics in the NSF funding and commercial patenting activities. This study documents the rapid growth of innovation in the field of nanotechnology and its correlation to funding. Statistical analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and their patents have higher impact factors than other private and publicly funded reference groups. This suggests the importance of fundamental research on nanotechnology development. The number of cites per NSF-funded inventor is about 10 as compared to 2 for all inventors of NSE-related patents recorded at USPTO, and the corresponding Authority Score is 20 as compared to 1.8

  13. Longitudinal Nanotechnology Development (1991-2002): National Science Foundation Funding and its Impact on Patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zan, E-mail: zhuang@eller.arizona.edu; Chen Hsinchun; Yan Lijun [University of Arizona, Department of Management Information Systems, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2005-10-15

    Nanotechnology holds the promise to revolutionize a wide range of products, processes and applications. It is recognized by over sixty countries as critical for their development at the beginning of the 21st century. A significant public investment of over $1 billion annually is devoted to nanotechnology research in the United States. This paper provides an analysis of the National Science Foundation (NSF) funding of nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) and its relationship to the innovation as reflected in the United States Patent and Trade Office (USPTO) patent data. Using a combination of bibliometric analysis and visualization tools, we have identified several general trends, the key players, and the evolution of technology topics in the NSF funding and commercial patenting activities. This study documents the rapid growth of innovation in the field of nanotechnology and its correlation to funding. Statistical analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and their patents have higher impact factors than other private and publicly funded reference groups. This suggests the importance of fundamental research on nanotechnology development. The number of cites per NSF-funded inventor is about 10 as compared to 2 for all inventors of NSE-related patents recorded at USPTO, and the corresponding Authority Score is 20 as compared to 1.8.

  14. The Investigation of the European and Eurasian Markets for Technologies: Ukraine in Regional Patent Spaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grytsulenko Svitlana I.

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The exclusive right to intellectual property acts as a universally recognized tool of the modern competitive struggle for the markets for goods and technologies, which actualizes the issue of Ukraine’s participation in this process. For this purpose, based on the data from the European, Eurasian and world patent statistics, the article measures the level of inventive activity of Ukraine in the nearest regional markets for technologies. Among the relevant quantitative and qualitative indicators for the evaluation of the patenting in Ukraine and leading countries of Europe and Eurasia there analyzed: the total volume and dynamics of filing patent applications; the total volume and specific weight of patent portfolios; the high-tech patenting. Based on the results of the study, the corresponding conclusions are drawn. In particular, the huge gap between Ukraine and leaders of inventive activity predetermined the absence of any significant influence of the country on the development of innovative markets in Europe and Eurasia. The decrease in Ukraine’s striving to succeed in the above mentioned ones leads to the loss of both promising markets and entire sectors of the national economy.

  15. Development of an English-language version of a Japanese iPad application to facilitate collaborative goal setting in rehabilitation: a Delphi study and field test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levack, William; Tomori, Kounosuke; Takahashi, Kayoko; Sherrington, Aidan J

    2018-03-01

    This study aimed to investigate the content of an English-language version of a Japanese iPad application designed to facilitate shared decision-making around goal setting in rehabilitation: Aid for Decision-making in Occupational Choice-English (ADOC-E). Phase 1: Delphi methods to reach consensus with an international group of expert occupational therapists on the text and images in ADOC-E. Phase 2: Testing correct recognition (unprompted and prompted) of images in ADOC-E by health service users in inpatient rehabilitation and residential care. Phase 1: International, online. Phase 2: Three healthcare services in New Zealand-(1) a residential rehabilitation service for traumatic brain injury, (2) a nursing home for frail older adults and (3) an inpatient rehabilitation ward in a public hospital. Phase 1: Fourteen experienced occupational therapists from New Zealand (4), Australia (4), UK (2) and USA (4). Phase 2: Twenty-four rehabilitation and residential care service users (10 men, 14 women; 20-95 years; Mini-Mental State Exam scores 13-30). Four Delphi rounds were required to reach consensus with the experienced occupational therapists on the content of ADOC-E, ending with 100 items covering daily activities that people do and social roles they participate in. Ninety-five per cent (95/100) of ADOC-E items could each be correctly identified by over 80% of service user participants with either unprompted or prompted recognition. While a few of the more abstract concepts in ADOC-E (related to complex social roles) were less likely to be correctly recognised by all participants, the text and images ADOC-E were deemed to be fit for purpose overall and ready for future clinical testing. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2018. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  16. Investigation of Strategic Changes Using Patent Co-Inventor Network Analysis: The Case of Samsung Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sungchul Choi

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to propose a method to investigate a firm’s strategic changes. Technologies or technological capabilities are a major resource for achieving competitive advantages, so a firm’s R&D effort to improve capabilities on specific technologies is aligned with strategic direction. Therefore, this research analyzes changes in R&D efforts by identifying key R&D personnel using patent co-inventor network and social network analysis. Based on characteristics of application and granted patents, the method analyzes current and future R&D efforts and so identifies strategic changes of a firm. We conducted an empirical analysis using the patents of Samsung Electronics. Our method analyzed the current and future strategies of Samsung Electronics and the result shows clear strategic changes in their focal technologies and business.

  17. Why do firms give away their patents for free?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ziegler, Nicole; Gassmann, Oliver; Friesike, Sascha

    2013-01-01

    Within the trend of increasing patent commercialisation and open innovation, a recent phenomenon where firms give away their patents free of charge can be observed. This seems contradictory to the original intention of the patent system (enabling firms to create temporary monopolies to appropriate

  18. Languages, Fees and the International Scope of Patenting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harhoff, Dietmar; Hoisl, Karin; Van Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno

    2016-01-01

    Pottelsberghe, 2006; von Graevenitz et al., 2013) and on potential implications of their behaviour for the effectiveness of the patent system. Lately, a number of researchers have started to explore the design of the patent system itself, i.e. the role of fees and costs of patenting (Archontopoulos et al., 2007...

  19. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K. C.; Kim, B. H.; Kim, T. J.; Choi, J. H.

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan

  20. Analysis of patents on extinguishing agent for sodium fires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Ji Young; Jeong, K C; Kim, B H; Kim, T J; Choi, J H

    2002-02-01

    This report relates to the extinction of sodium fires, particularly where the burning sodium is in liquid form. The total of 14 patents on extinguishing agents for sodium fires patented from 1969 to 1997 are analyzed and summarized. All of the patents analyzed were issued from USA, France and Japan.

  1. Reforming South Africa's procedures for granting patents to improve ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    requires SA to grant 20 years of patent protection on products and processes ... 2010 in SA. However, secondary, evergreening patents prevented generic versions from being brought to the market at a 30% price reduction when the initial patent expired. ... and new uses (new clinical uses of medicines other than those for.

  2. 48 CFR 2527.7002 - NSF patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true NSF patent policy. 2527... CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Disposition of Rights in Inventions 2527.7002 NSF patent policy. As authorized by the National Science Board at its 230th meeting, October 15-16, 1981, the...

  3. 25 CFR 152.5 - Issuance of patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Issuance of patent in fee. 152.5 Section 152.5 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in Fee...

  4. 9 CFR 124.20 - Patent term extension calculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent term extension calculation. 124... OF AGRICULTURE VIRUSES, SERUMS, TOXINS, AND ANALOGOUS PRODUCTS; ORGANISMS AND VECTORS PATENT TERM RESTORATION Regulatory Review Period § 124.20 Patent term extension calculation. (a) As provided in 37 CFR 1...

  5. Use of Patent Information : Empirical Evidence from Innovative SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Masurel, Enno

    2005-01-01

    This paper discusses the use of patent information by innovative SMEs. The standard literature tends to focus on obtaining patents; studies of using patent information for different purposes are underrepresented in the innovation literature. Studying the case of SMEs is especially interesting,

  6. 76 FR 40339 - Patent Prosecution Highway (PPH) Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-08

    ... any of the following methods: E-mail: [email protected] . Include ``0651- 0058 comment... Singapore (IPOS), German Patent and Trade Mark Office (DPMA), National Board of Patents and Registration of... being planned with the USPTO: CIPO, SIPO, and the Nordic Patent Institute (NPI). II. Method of...

  7. 78 FR 64925 - Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-30

    ...] Request for Comments on Proposed Elimination of Patents Search Templates AGENCY: United States Patent and... Patents Search Templates from the USPTO Web site. In 2006, the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) implemented Patents Search Templates, which are United States Patent Classification (USPC...

  8. Update on Brazil's pharma patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosain, Rana

    2016-09-01

    Brazil's Pharma market is a dynamic and promising one. It ranks within the top ten market. There are peculiar hurdles that patentees have to overcome, such as, a two-tier examination, a serious backlog at the Brazilian Patent and Trademark Office. Several measures to accelerate examination have been adopted given the meager number of Examiners.

  9. Patent, Nanotechnology, and the Role of University

    OpenAIRE

    Sardjono, Agus

    2011-01-01

    University has significant contribution tot the development of nanotechnology, The role of university can be implemented through the TTLO, particulary in an effort to build a bridge for bottom-up nanotechnology for commercial purposes. There will be an increasingly significant link betweent the patent system on the university role in the development of nanotechnology.

  10. Careers in Patent Law for Physics Majors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliver, Douglas L.

    2010-01-01

    An important question that many undergraduate physics students ask is, "What can one do with a physics degree?" Of course there are many answers to this question. Often a general reference to becoming a lawyer is given as a possible answer. This paper is intended to explain the field of patent law and how a physics degree can lead to an…

  11. Patent ductus arteriosus and brain volume

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lemmers, Petra M A; Benders, Manon J N L; D'Ascenzo, Rita; Zethof, Jorine; Alderliesten, Thomas; Kersbergen, Karina J; Isgum, Ivana; de Vries, Linda S; Groenendaal, Floris; van Bel, Frank

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A hemodynamically significant patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) can compromise perfusion and oxygenation of the preterm brain. Reports suggest that PDA is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. We hypothesize that long-standing low cerebral oxygenation due to PDA

  12. Report on the achievements in the Sunshine Project in fiscal 1986. Surveys and studies on patent information (liquefaction and gasification of coal); 1986 nendo tokkyo joho chosa kenkyu. Sekitan no ekika gas ka

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1987-03-01

    It is intended to extract patents related to the Sunshine Project, and identify movements in research and development as seen from the patent aspect. This paper describes the summary and technological trends in patents on the coal related new technologies disclosed during fiscal 1986. While the total number of patents was the same as that in the last year at 334 patents, the contents show marks of remarkable progress in several points. The first point is that the patent application fields are concentrated, where the majority is accounted for by patent applications in liquefying devices related to solvent, catalyst and reaction for the direct hydrogenation liquefaction in the field of liquefaction; preparation of CWM and surface active agent in the field of mixed fuels; and jet flow bed gasification furnaces in the field of gasification. The second point is that the patent application has increased in element technologies and system technologies based on actual records in each department, showing the marks of steady progress in the development stage. The third points is that the patent applications are systematized and performed in correspondence with issue points, which are the common trends among the applying companies. While this is thought because of technological levels in the companies having risen, the focuses of applications have become considerably clear. (NEDO)

  13. [Expert consensus on prescription comment of Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting the rational use of drugs in Beijing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Rui; Zhao, Kui-Jun; Guo, Gui-Ming; Zhang, Bing; Wang, Yu-Guang; Xue, Chun-Miao; Yang, Yi-Heng; Wang, Li-Xia; Li, Guo-Hui; Tang, Jin-Fa; Nie, Li-Xing; Zhang, Xiang-Lin; Zhao, Ting-Ting; Zhang, Yi; Yan, Can; Yuan, Suo-Zhong; Sun, Lu-Lu; Feng, Xing-Zhong; Yan, Dan

    2018-03-01

    With the growth of number of Chinese patent medicines and clinical use, the rational use of Chinese medicine is becoming more and more serious. Due to the complexity of Chinese medicine theory and the uncertainty of clinical application, the prescription review of Chinese patent medicine always relied on experience in their respective, leading to the uncontrolled of clinical rational use. According to the traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) theory and characteristics of the unique clinical therapeutics, based on the practice experience and expertise comments, our paper formed the expert consensus on the prescription review of Chinese traditional patent medicine for promoting the rational use of drugs in Beijing. The objective, methods and key points of prescription review of Chinese patent medicine, were included in this expert consensus, in order to regulate the behavior of prescription and promote rational drug use. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  14. The A to Z of pharmaceutical cocrystals: a decade of fast-moving new science and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almarsson, Örn; Peterson, Matthew L; Zaworotko, Michael

    2012-07-01

    From aspirin to zoledronic acid, pharmaceutical cocrystals emerged in the past decade as a promising new weapon in the arsenal of drug development. Resurgence of interest in multicomponent crystal compositions has led to significant advances in the science of cocrystal design and discovery. These advances have built upon crystal engineering, which provides a deep understanding of supramolecular interactions between molecules that govern crystal packing and physicochemical properties of crystalline materials. Concomitantly, the patent landscape of pharmaceutical cocrystals developed rapidly in the last decade. This review presents a broad survey of patents issued in the area of pharmaceutical cocrystals. In addition, the review contains analyses of key patents in the area involving compositions and methodologies. Along the way, the main events of the past decade representing a renaissance of cocrystals of pharmaceutical materials are chronicled. Future directions in the area are discussed in light of key pending patent applications and recent publications of seminal interest.

  15. Development and tuning of an original search engine for patent libraries in medicinal chemistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Kreim, Olivier; Oezdemir-Zaech, Fatma; Vachon, Therese; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The large increase in the size of patent collections has led to the need of efficient search strategies. But the development of advanced text-mining applications dedicated to patents of the biomedical field remains rare, in particular to address the needs of the pharmaceutical & biotech industry, which intensively uses patent libraries for competitive intelligence and drug development. We describe here the development of an advanced retrieval engine to search information in patent collections in the field of medicinal chemistry. We investigate and combine different strategies and evaluate their respective impact on the performance of the search engine applied to various search tasks, which covers the putatively most frequent search behaviours of intellectual property officers in medical chemistry: 1) a prior art search task; 2) a technical survey task; and 3) a variant of the technical survey task, sometimes called known-item search task, where a single patent is targeted. The optimal tuning of our engine resulted in a top-precision of 6.76% for the prior art search task, 23.28% for the technical survey task and 46.02% for the variant of the technical survey task. We observed that co-citation boosting was an appropriate strategy to improve prior art search tasks, while IPC classification of queries was improving retrieval effectiveness for technical survey tasks. Surprisingly, the use of the full body of the patent was always detrimental for search effectiveness. It was also observed that normalizing biomedical entities using curated dictionaries had simply no impact on the search tasks we evaluate. The search engine was finally implemented as a web-application within Novartis Pharma. The application is briefly described in the report. We have presented the development of a search engine dedicated to patent search, based on state of the art methods applied to patent corpora. We have shown that a proper tuning of the system to adapt to the various search tasks

  16. A Patent Analysis for Sustainable Technology Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junhyeog Choi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Technology analysis (TA is an important issue in the management of technology. Most R&D (Research & Development policies have depended on diverse TA results. Traditional TA results have been obtained through qualitative approaches such as the Delphi expert survey, scenario analysis, or technology road mapping. Although they are representative methods for TA, they are not stable because their results are dependent on the experts’ knowledge and subjective experience. To solve this problem, recently many studies on TA have been focused on quantitative approaches, such as patent analysis. A patent document has diverse information of developed technologies, and thus, patent is one form of objective data for TA. In addition, sustainable technology has been a big issue in the TA fields, because most companies have their technological competitiveness through the sustainable technology. Sustainable technology is a technology keeping the technological superiority of a company. So a country as well as a company should consider sustainable technology for technological competition and continuous economic growth. Also it is important to manage sustainable technology in a given technology domain. In this paper, we propose a new patent analysis approach based on statistical analysis for the management of sustainable technology (MOST. Our proposed methodology for the MOST is to extract a technological structure and relationship for knowing the sustainable technology. To do this, we develop a hierarchical diagram of technology for finding the causal relationships among technological keywords of a given domain. The aim of the paper is to select the sustainable technology and to create the hierarchical technology paths to sustainable technology for the MOST. This contributes to planning R&D strategy for the sustainability of a company. To show how the methodology can be applied to real problem, we perform a case study using retrieved patent documents related to

  17. Evaluating patent portfolios by means of multicriteria analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Wang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Valuation of intangible assets is a complex topic where traditional methodologies are not always successful. Nevertheless, intangible assets, like patents, have become of great importance to companies, as their value is considered to be relevant economic and strategic information, so it is necessary to evaluate firms’ patent portfolios. The present research introduces an extended goal programming model to calculate the relative importance of the patents of companies in a patent pool. This information may be useful for patent valuation as well as for management purposes. The proposed multicriteria methodology has been applied to the 19 companies in the MPEG2 patent pool, with a total of 770 valid patents, using 7 criteria to obtain a composite measure of the relative position of the firms in the patent pool.RESUMENLa valoración de activos intangibles constituye un área compleja donde los métodos tradicionales no siempre obtienen buenos resultados. Sin embargo, los activos intangibles, entre ellos las patentes, han ganado importancia en las empresas, de forma que el cálculo de su valor se ha convertido en una cuestión estratégica en muchos casos. Este hecho requiere que las empresas valoren la cartera de patentes en su conjunto. La presente investigación presenta un modelo extendido de programación por metas y su aplicación para el cálculo de la importancia relativa de las patentes. Este modelo puede resultar importante tanto para la valoración de las patentes como para la gestión empresarial. La metodología multicriterio propuesta ha sido aplicado a 19 empresas en el sector de las patentes del formato MPEG2, con un total de 770 patentes válidas, y utilizando 7 criterios con el objetivo de obtener una medida compuesta de la posición relativa de las empresas en el conjunto de patentes.

  18. Inventing around Edison’s Incandescent Lamp Patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Katznelson, Ron D.

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  19. Inventing around Edison’s incandescent lamp patent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    ’s ‘898 patent. Third, by analysis of forward citation to these patents we show that regardless of these inventions’ commercial viability in the incandescent lamp market, some became important prior art for new technological fields and some laid the groundwork for the later successful substitute...... for Edison’s carbon filament. Fourthly, we show that the recent view that Edison’s patent gave the patent holder General Electric (GE) a dominant position in the incandescent lamp market is incorrect: we show that besides commercially-successful invention around the claims of this patent, data for GE...

  20. Patent Value: A Business Perspective for Technology Startups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela de Wilton

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the last year, news headlines have highlighted record patent infringement settlements, multibillion dollar auctions of large corporate patent portfolios, and ongoing patent battles between key technology industry players. Despite this acknowledgment of the significant value of patents for large corporations, many small technology companies are understandably more focused on the near-term costs of obtaining a patent rather than future value. Costs may seem prohibitive to an early stage technology startup. Some software startups question whether patents are relevant to their business. In practice, effective intellectual property (IP strategy and management is dependent on many factors, such as technology or industry sector, size and maturity of the business, technology lifecycle, and the business and market environment. IP strategy must be aligned to business strategy from the outset. By considering IP in the broader context of the overall business plan and the competitive environment, opportunities for generating increased return on R&D investment and added business value through patents or other forms of IP can be recognized early on. This approach ensures that a decision about whether or not to patent is driven by business reasons rather than budget constraints. This article examines the costs and benefits of patents from the perspective of early-stage technology startups and growing businesses, and it provides some general guidance on best practices for developing an IP and patent activity plan and for building a patent portfolio that appropriately supports business objectives.