WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitate patent applications

  1. Writing reports to facilitate patent applications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Libman, George H.; Doerry, Armin Walter

    2004-06-01

    Brief disclosures may often be sufficient for the filing of a Technical Advance with Sandia's Intellectual Property Center, but still be inadequate to facilitate an optimum patent application where more detail and explanation are required. Consequently, the crafting of a patent application may require considerably more additional interaction between the application preparer and the inventors. This inefficiency can be considerably mitigated if the inventors address some critical aspects of a patent application when they write a technical report.

  2. 37 CFR 1.5 - Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patent, patent application, or patent-related proceeding. 1.5 Section 1.5 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN...

  3. 37 CFR 3.21 - Identification of patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Identification of patents and patent applications. 3.21 Section 3.21 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... for Recording § 3.21 Identification of patents and patent applications. An assignment relating to...

  4. 78 FR 67339 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; Extension of Comment Period. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts... Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking Portal:...

  5. 75 FR 23227 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Initial Patent Applications ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing efforts to..., Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box...

  6. 15 CFR 734.10 - Patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent applications. 734.10 Section... EXPORT ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS § 734.10 Patent applications. The information referred to in § 734.3(b)(3)(iv) of this part is: (a) Information contained in a patent application prepared wholly...

  7. Economic valuation of patents methods and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Munari, F

    2011-01-01

    The Economic Valuation of Patents provides an original and essential analysis of patent valuation, presenting the main methodologies to value patents in different contexts. Starting with an analysis of the relevance of patent valuation from a strategic, economic and legal perspective, the book undertakes a thorough review of the existing financial and qualitative valuation methodologies. The contributing authors, IP experts from academia and business, discuss the application of valuation issues in various contexts such as patent portfolio management, licensing agreements, IP litigation, IP-bac

  8. 22 CFR 92.72 - Services in connection with patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Services in connection with patents and patent... RELATED SERVICES Miscellaneous Notarial Services § 92.72 Services in connection with patents and patent applications. (a) Affidavit of applicant. The form of the affidavit of an applicant for a United States...

  9. 76 FR 18194 - Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-01

    ... Department of the Army Notice of Patent Application Deadline for Advanced Battery Technology Related Patents for Exclusive, Partially Exclusive, or Non- Exclusive Licenses; Battery Day Patent Licensing Meeting... patent licensing meeting was subsequently held February 16, 2011 at the SAIC Enterprise Bldg...

  10. 37 CFR 1.81 - Drawings required in patent application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drawings required in patent application. 1.81 Section 1.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions The...

  11. 37 CFR 1.41 - Applicant for patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for patent. 1.41 Section 1.41 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May Apply for...

  12. 37 CFR 1.215 - Patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application publication. 1.215 Section 1.215 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions...

  13. Nikola Tesla’s Patent Applications for Which Patents Were Not Granted

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Šarboh

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper are presented the results of an investigation directed to discovering and identifying Nikola Tesla’s patent applications filed with the United States Patent Office, but for which appropriate patents were not granted to him. The investigation showed that Tesla had at least 33 American patent applications for which patents were not granted, that shed a new light on his inventive activities in the United States of America. The subject matter of these patent applications are different Tesla’s inventions in the fields of electrical engineering, mechanical engineering and processing technology, more precisely metallurgy.

  14. 37 CFR 3.24 - Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for documents and cover sheets relating to patents and patent applications. 3.24 Section 3.24 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL...

  15. Patented herbal formulations and their therapeutic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musthaba, Mohamed; Baboota, Sanjula; Athar, Tanwir M D; Thajudeen, Kamal Y; Ahmed, Sayeed; Ali, Javed

    2010-11-01

    Recently, there is a greater global interest in non synthetic, natural medicines derived from plant sources due to better tolerance and minimum adverse drug reactions as compared to synthetic medicines. Herbal products are also commonly used by the patients with certain chronic medical conditions, including breast cancer, liver disease, human immunodeficiency, asthma and rheumatological disorders. WHO estimates that about three-quarters of the world's population currently uses herbs and other forms of traditional medicines for the treatment of various diseases. The herbs are formulated in different modern dosage forms, such as Tablets, Capsules, Topical cream, Gel, Ointment and even some novel drug delivery forms, like extended release, sustained release, and microencapsules dosage forms. Patenting of herbal formulations has increased over the past few years and scientific evidence of therapeutic activity has been reported by performing various in vitro and in vivo experiments. This manuscript deals with various patented herbal formulations with their therapeutic application against various diseases.

  16. 25 CFR 152.4 - Application for patent in fee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Application for patent in fee. 152.4 Section 152.4 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER ISSUANCE OF PATENTS IN FEE, CERTIFICATES OF COMPETENCY, REMOVAL OF RESTRICTIONS, AND SALE OF CERTAIN INDIAN LANDS Issuing Patents in...

  17. Confidential patent application with an example of preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Obrad T. Čabarkapa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order that the invention solving a technical problem receives a patent protection, it is necessary to file a patent application. For the protection of confidential inventions which are important for defense and national security, a confidential patent application[1] must be filed. A confidential patent application is an important and complex document, the parts of which are,  in principle, exposed in an established order. For the preparation of patent applications, it is necessary to engage experts with higher education, primarily in the technical field the invention relates to. The contents of the patent application is a basis for examining whether the application meets the requirements for patentability and whether the right to patent protection is achieved. Besides theoretical discussions on patent application, the paper gives a short version of an example of an application regarding a protected confidential invention. Introduction The basic condition for the exercise of patent protection is filing a patent application, the test procedure and, eventually, depending on the test results - the recognition or rejection of the patent. The paper gives a description of all parts of the patent application on an example of a confidential invention already patented. The content of the confidential patent application The confidential patent application for confidential invention protection consists of the following parts: The application for a patent; description of the invention; the claims (indication of what is new and what is required to be protected by patenting; abstract (short summary of the invention  and a draft of the invention (to which the description and the claims are referred. The application for a patent The application for patent is filed on Form P-1 and a request for the petty patent on Form MP-1. The data entered in the file is, for example: the applicant; the lawyer; the name of the invention in Serbian and English; the inventor

  18. 75 FR 71072 - Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-22

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Extension of the Patent Application Backlog Reduction Stimulus Plan AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) provides a basis (the Patent Application Backlog...

  19. Patenting of university and non-university public research organisations in Germany: evidence from patent applications for medical research results.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Tinnemann

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Patents are one of the most important forms of intellectual property. They grant a time-limited exclusivity on the use of an invention allowing the recuperation of research costs. The use of patents is fiercely debated for medical innovation and especially controversial for publicly funded research, where the patent holder is an institution accountable to public interest. Despite this controversy, for the situation in Germany almost no empirical information exists. The purpose of this study is to examine the amount, types and trends of patent applications for health products submitted by German public research organisations. METHODS/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We conducted a systematic search for patent documents using the publicly accessible database search interface of the German Patent and Trademark Office. We defined keywords and search criteria and developed search patterns for the database request. We retrieved documents with application date between 1988 and 2006 and processed the collected data stepwise to compile the most relevant documents in patent families for further analysis. We developed a rationale and present individual steps of a systematic method to request and process patent data from a publicly accessible database. We retrieved and processed 10194 patent documents. Out of these, we identified 1772 relevant patent families, applied for by 193 different universities and non-university public research organisations. 827 (47% of these patent families contained granted patents. The number of patent applications submitted by universities and university-affiliated institutions more than tripled since the introduction of legal reforms in 2002, constituting almost half of all patent applications and accounting for most of the post-reform increase. Patenting of most non-university public research organisations remained stable. CONCLUSIONS: We search, process and analyse patent applications from publicly accessible databases

  20. A patent landscape on application of microorganisms in construction industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dapurkar, Dipti; Telang, Manasi

    2017-07-01

    Construction biotechnology includes research and development of construction materials and processes that make use of various microbes. The present technology landscape gives a perspective on how microbes have been used in construction industry as cement and concrete additives by analyzing patents filed in this technology arena. All patents related to the technology of interest published globally to date have been reviewed. The earliest patent filing in this technology domain was recorded in the year 1958 and the patenting activity reached its peak around mid to late 1990s. The early technology was mainly focused on microbial polysaccharides and other metabolic products as additives. Year 2002 onwards, biomineralization has taken precedence over the other technologies with consistent patent filings indicating a shift in innovation focus. Japan has been the global leader with highest number of patents filed on application of microbes in construction industry. Southeast University, China has topped the patent assignee list with maximum number of filings followed by Kajima Corp. and Shin-Etsu Chemical Co., Ltd. Most patent applications have claimed microbe based bio-products. Construction-related microbial technologies are mainly based on activity of different microorganisms such as urease-producing, acidogenic, halophilic, alkaliphilic, nitrate and iron-reducing bacteria. Sporosarcina pasteurii has been the most widely used microbe for biomineralization.

  1. 37 CFR 1.17 - Patent application and reexamination processing fees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent application and reexamination processing fees. 1.17 Section 1.17 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES General Provisions...

  2. 78 FR 2960 - Request for Comments on Preparation of Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-15

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Request for Comments on Preparation of Patent Applications AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Request for comments. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is seeking to improve the quality of issued patents....

  3. 37 CFR 1.178 - Original patent; continuing duty of applicant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Original patent; continuing duty of applicant. 1.178 Section 1.178 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National...

  4. Trends in genetic patent applications: The commercialization of academic intellectual property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, J.G.; Burg, van J.C.; Stoop, T.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications

  5. Trends in genetic patent applications: The commercialization of academic intellectual property

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kers, J.G.; Burg, van J.C.; Stoop, T.; Cornel, M.C.

    2014-01-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications

  6. 78 FR 60256 - Initial Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE... USPTO's system for electronic filing of patent correspondence. EFS-Web is accessible via the Internet on....41, 1.48, and 1.53(c)(2) can be filed electronically as well as in paper. The electronic options...

  7. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-06-30

    to Navy suppliers. F. Contact: Darryl Mexic, Esquire Patent Counsel Sughrue, Mion, Zinn , Macpeak & Seas 2100 Pennsylvania Avenue, NW Washington, DC...Bovernack Auoney, Agent. or Firm- Howard P. Terry; Seymour (75) Inventor: D d H. MeMa , Carlisle, Mass. Levine [73] Assignee: Sperry Corporatloin, New York

  8. 37 CFR 1.730 - Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicant for extension of patent term; signature requirements. 1.730 Section 1.730 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED... for extension of patent term; signature requirements. (a) Any application for extension of a...

  9. Trends in genetic patent applications: the commercialization of academic intellectual property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kers, Jannigje G; Van Burg, Elco; Stoop, Tom; Cornel, Martina C

    2014-10-01

    We studied trends in genetic patent applications in order to identify the trends in the commercialization of research findings in genetics. To define genetic patent applications, the European version (ECLA) of the International Patent Classification (IPC) codes was used. Genetic patent applications data from the PATSTAT database from 1990 until 2009 were analyzed for time trends and regional distribution. Overall, the number of patent applications has been growing. In 2009, 152 000 patent applications were submitted under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and within the EP (European Patent) system of the European Patent Office (EPO). The number of genetic patent applications increased until a peak was reached in the year 2000, with >8000 applications, after which it declined by almost 50%. Continents show different patterns over time, with the global peak in 2000 mainly explained by the USA and Europe, while Asia shows a stable number of >1000 per year. Nine countries together account for 98.9% of the total number of genetic patent applications. In The Netherlands, 26.7% of the genetic patent applications originate from public research institutions. After the year 2000, the number of genetic patent applications dropped significantly. Academic leadership and policy as well as patent regulations seem to have an important role in the trend differences. The ongoing investment in genetic research in the past decade is not reflected by an increase of patent applications.

  10. Ethics in scientific results application: Gene and life forms patenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinov Kosana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The remarkable development and application of new genetic technologies over the past decades has been accompanied by profound changes in the way in which research is commercialized in the life sciences. As results, new varieties of commercially grown crops with improved or new traits are developed. Many thousands of patents which assert rights over DNA sequences have been granted to researchers across the public and private sector. The effects of many of these patents are extensive, because inventors who assert rights over DNA sequences obtain protection on all uses of the sequences. Extremely valuable to breeders in the national agricultural research system is the ability to genotype their collections to get a clear picture of their diversity and how diversity could be enhanced through sharing and access to global collections. The issue of the eligibility for patenting of DNA sequences needs to be reopened. Patents that assert rights over DNA sequences and their uses are, in some cases, supportable, but in others, should be treated with great caution. Rights over DNA sequences as research tools should be discouraged. That the best way to discourage the award of such patents is by stringent application of the criteria for patenting, particularly utility. A more equitable, ethically - based food and agricultural system must incorporate concern for three accepted global goals: improved well being, protection of the environment and improved public health (particular point food from GMO. To mitigate conflict one of the approach to solve problem is ethical and truthful label of GM food, because consumers have a right to choose whether to eat genetically modified foods or not. Interesting examples and risks as consequences of free availability of genetic resources utilization, its transformation, patenting of 'new' organism and selling it back to the genetic resource owner are presented. Society has obligations to raise levels of nutrition and

  11. Decoding Patent Information Using Patent Maps

    OpenAIRE

    Chen-Yuan Liu; James Chingyu Yang

    2008-01-01

    Patent information is a derivative product from the legal patent system. This information, which includes patent applications, patent descriptions, patent gazettes, patent abstracts, and patent data, is prepared in exact compliance with the regulations and specifications of the patent acts. Patent information, different from other published circulating information, is legally well protected. For convenience, this study classifies patent information into bibliographic and numeric data to creat...

  12. 75 FR 30773 - United States Patent Applicant Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-02

    ... supported an ongoing forecasting program for patent application filings that includes the use of... using the survey as part of a comprehensive approach to forecasting, the USPTO is also using this tool... increased with expanding technological innovations. However, newly emerging technologies, evolving...

  13. 37 CFR 1.130 - Affidavit or declaration to disqualify commonly owned patent or published application as prior art.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... disqualify commonly owned patent or published application as prior art. 1.130 Section 1.130 Patents... or declaration to disqualify commonly owned patent or published application as prior art. (a) When.... patent or U.S. patent application publication which is not prior art under 35 U.S.C. 102(b), and...

  14. Specification Patent Management for Web Application Platform Ecosystem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Yoshiaki; Isshiki, Masao; Takeda, Hideaki; Ohmukai, Ikki; Kokuryo, Jiro

    Diversified usage of web applications has encouraged disintegration of web platform into management of identification and applications. Users make use of various kinds of data linked to their identity with multiple applications on certain social web platforms such as Facebook or MySpace. There has emerged competition among web application platforms. Platformers can design relationship with developers by controlling patent of their own specification and adopt open technologies developed external organizations. Platformers choose a way to open according to feature of the specification and their position. Patent management of specification come to be a key success factor to build competitive web application platforms. Each way to attract external developers such as standardization, open source has not discussed and analyzed all together.

  15. The lone inventor: low success rates and common errors associated with pro-se patent applications.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate S Gaudry

    Full Text Available A pro-se patent applicant is an inventor who chooses to represent himself while pursuing ("prosecuting" a patent application. To the author's knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study addressing how applications filed by pro-se inventors fare compared to applications in which inventors were represented by patent attorneys or agents. The prosecution history of 500 patent applications filed at the United States Patent and Trademark Office were analyzed: inventors were represented by a patent professional for 250 of the applications ("represented applications" but not in the other 250 ("pro-se applications". 76% of the pro-se applications became abandoned (not issuing as a patent, as compared to 35% of the represented applications. Further, among applications that issued as patents, pro-se patents' claims appear to be narrower and therefore of less value than claims in the represented patent set. Case-specific data suggests that a substantial portion of pro-se applicants unintentionally abandon their applications, terminate the examination process relatively early, and/or fail to take advantage of interview opportunities that may resolve issues stalling allowance of the application.

  16. The lone inventor: low success rates and common errors associated with pro-se patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudry, Kate S

    2012-01-01

    A pro-se patent applicant is an inventor who chooses to represent himself while pursuing ("prosecuting") a patent application. To the author's knowledge, this paper is the first empirical study addressing how applications filed by pro-se inventors fare compared to applications in which inventors were represented by patent attorneys or agents. The prosecution history of 500 patent applications filed at the United States Patent and Trademark Office were analyzed: inventors were represented by a patent professional for 250 of the applications ("represented applications") but not in the other 250 ("pro-se applications"). 76% of the pro-se applications became abandoned (not issuing as a patent), as compared to 35% of the represented applications. Further, among applications that issued as patents, pro-se patents' claims appear to be narrower and therefore of less value than claims in the represented patent set. Case-specific data suggests that a substantial portion of pro-se applicants unintentionally abandon their applications, terminate the examination process relatively early, and/or fail to take advantage of interview opportunities that may resolve issues stalling allowance of the application.

  17. International patent families: from application strategies to statistical indicators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dechezleprêtre, Antoine; Ménière, Yann; Mohnen, Myra

    2017-01-01

    This paper provides an in-depth analysis of the characteristics of international patent families, including their domestic component. We exploit a relatively under-studied feature of patent families, namely the number of patents covering the same invention within a given jurisdiction. Using this information, we highlight common patterns in the structure of international patent families, which reflect both the patenting strategies of innovators and the peculiarities of the different patent systems. While the literature has extensively used family size, i.e. the number of countries in which a given invention is protected, as a measure of patent value, our results suggest that the number of patent filings in the priority country within a patent family as well as the timespan between the first and last filings within a family are other insightful indicators of the value of patented innovations.

  18. 77 FR 65537 - Requirements for Patent Applications Containing Nucleotide Sequence and/or Amino Acid Sequence...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-29

    ... Amino Acid Sequence Disclosures ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States....'' SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Abstract Patent applications that contain nucleotide and/or amino acid...

  19. Assessment of analytical techniques for characterization of crystalline clopidogrel forms in patent applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Marcelo Lira

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate two important aspects of patent applications of crystalline forms of drugs: (i the physicochemical characterization of the crystalline forms; and (ii the procedure for preparing crystals of the blockbuster drug clopidogrel. To this end, searches were conducted using online patent databases. The results showed that: (i the majority of patent applications for clopidogrel crystalline forms failed to comply with proposed Brazilian Patent Office guidelines. This was primarily due to insufficient number of analytical techniques evaluating the crystalline phase. In addition, some patent applications lacked assessment of chemical/crystallography purity; (ii use of more than two analytical techniques is important; and (iii the crystallization procedure for clopidogrel bisulfate form II were irreproducible based on the procedure given in the patent application.

  20. 37 CFR 1.31 - Applicant may be represented by one or more patent practitioners or joint inventors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... by one or more patent practitioners or joint inventors. 1.31 Section 1.31 Patents, Trademarks, and... Agent § 1.31 Applicant may be represented by one or more patent practitioners or joint inventors. An... so as to be represented by one or more patent practitioners or joint inventors. The United...

  1. 37 CFR 1.221 - Voluntary publication or republication of patent application publication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES... published under § 1.211, must include a copy of the application in compliance with the Office electronic... or the copy of the application does not comply with the Office electronic filing system...

  2. Should ANVISA be permitted to reject pharmaceutical patent applications in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Lisa L; Taketsuma Costa, Silvia Moreira

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical manufacturers who seek new markets for expansion are particularly attracted to Brazil given its potential for growth and the expectation that it will be the fifth largest drug market by 2015. Given the significance of Brazil in the marketplace, strong patent protection for pharmaceutical products and processes is critical. In April 2013, a new workflow came into effect in Brazil which allows the National Sanitary Vigilance Agency (ANVISA), a government agency whose function is to protect public health, to examine and reject any patent application that claims a pharmaceutical product or process before any examination of the application by the Brazilian Patent Office. If a patent application is rejected by ANVISA, the application is returned to the Brazilian Patent Office and filed away, without any further examination, for an unknown period of time. Therefore, the examination of pharmaceutical product and process applications under this new workflow is problematic for local and global pharmaceutical manufacturers for multiple reasons.

  3. Recent patents on bacteriocins: food and biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmechernene, Zineb; Fernandez-No, Inmaculada; Kihal, Mebrouk; Böhme, Karola; Calo-Mata, Pilar; Barros-Velazquez, Jorge

    2013-04-01

    Most types of bacteria produce bacteriocins, which are proteinaceous extracellular compounds that can inhibit the growth of other undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are receiving increasing attention, due to their many applications, ranging from their initial application in strategies for food preservation to more recent proposed uses in biomedical strategies aimed at fighting certain bacterial infections. Thus, while nisin has a long history of use as a safe additive in certain food products for the purpose of food preservation, certain bacteriocin-producing lactic acid bacteria, which are generally recognised as safe microorganisms, or their extracellular extracts are receiving increased attention as protective cultures or antimicrobial extracts in minimally processed food products. More recently, a number of these bacteriocinproducing cultures have been proposed for use in other applications, such as in probiotics, for the inhibition of biofilms in the food industry, or even as coadjuvants of combined therapeutical strategies along with other antimicrobial agents in biomedical applications. This review aims to provide a brief overview of the most relevant recent patents in this field.

  4. Plant biotechnology patents: applications in agriculture and medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hefferon, Kathleen

    2010-06-01

    Recent advances in agricultural biotechnology have enabled the field of plant biology to move forward in great leaps and bounds. In particular, recent breakthroughs in molecular biology, plant genomics and crop science have brought about a paradigm shift of thought regarding the manner by which plants can be utilized both in agriculture and in medicine. Besides the more well known improvements in agronomic traits of crops such as disease resistance and drought tolerance, plants can now be associated with topics as diverse as biofuel production, phytoremediation, the improvement of nutritional qualities in edible plants, the identification of compounds for medicinal purposes in plants and the use of plants as therapeutic protein production platforms. This diversification of plant science has been accompanied by the great abundance of new patents issued in these fields and, as many of these inventions approach commercial realization, the subsequent increase in agriculturally-based industries. While this review chapter is written primarily for plant scientists who have great interest in the new directions being taken with respect to applications in agricultural biotechnology, those in other disciplines, such as medical researchers, environmental scientists and engineers, may find significant value in reading this article as well. The review attempts to provide an overview of the most recent patents issued for plant biotechnology with respect to both agriculture and medicine. The chapter concludes with the proposal that the combined driving forces of climate change, as well as the ever increasing needs for clean energy and food security will play a pivotal role in leading the direction for applied plant biotechnology research in the future.

  5. 43 CFR 6.10 - Publicity concerning the invention after patent application is filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publicity concerning the invention after... Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.10 Publicity concerning the invention after patent application is filed. In order that the public may obtain the greatest possible benefit from inventions in...

  6. 43 CFR 6.9 - Publication and public use of invention before patent application is filed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Publication and public use of invention... Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Inventions by Employees § 6.9 Publication and public use of invention before patent application is filed. (a) Publication or public use of an invention constitutes a statutory bar to...

  7. 48 CFR 52.227-10 - Filing of Patent Applications-Classified Subject Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... Applications-Classified Subject Matter. 52.227-10 Section 52.227-10 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.227-10 Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject Matter. As prescribed at 27.203-2, insert the following clause: Filing of Patent Applications—Classified Subject...

  8. 76 FR 70651 - Fee for Filing a Patent Application Other Than by the Electronic Filing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-15

    .... Information concerning electronic filing via EFS-Web is available from the USPTO's Patent Electronic Business... the Electronic Filing System AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION... for a design, plant, or provisional application, that is not filed by electronic means as...

  9. 48 CFR 27.203 - Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Security requirements for patent applications containing classified subject matter. 27.203 Section 27.203 Federal Acquisition... subject matter....

  10. Reviews on the Japanese Patent Applications Regarding Nickel/Metal Hydride Batteries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taihei Ouchi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The Japanese Patent Applications filed on the topic of nickel/metal hydride (Ni/MH batteries have been reviewed. Patent applications filed by the top nine battery manufacturers (Matsushita, Sanyo, Hitachi Maxell, Yuasa, Toshiba, FDK, Furukawa, Japan Storage, and Shin-kobe, five component suppliers (Tanaka, Mitsui, Santoku, Japan Metals & Chemicals Co. (JMC, and Shin-Etsu, and three research institutes (Industrial Research Institute (ISI, Agency of Industrial Science and Technology (AIST, and Toyota R & D were chosen as the main subjects for this review, based on their production volume and contribution to the field. By reviewing these patent applications, we can have a clear picture of the technology development in the Japanese battery industry. These patent applications also provide insights, know-how, and future directions for engineers and scientists working in the rechargeable battery field.

  11. Application of foresight methods in applications for patents and trademarks in Spain; Aplicacion de metodos de prevision en las solicitudes de patentes y marcas en Espana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo Nuchera, A.; Glabaly Marquez, S.

    2011-07-01

    Patent and trademark offices which run according to principles of new management have an inherent need for dependable forecasting data in planning capacity and service levels. The predictive approach adopted for the time series of Spanish patents and trademarks applications (1979-2009) has been the use of different techniques of time series prediction in a short-term time horizon. The methods used can be grouped into two specifics areas: regression models of trends and time series models advanced. The results of this study show that it is possible to model the series of patents and trademarks applications with different models, especially ARIMA, with satisfactory model adjustment and relatively low error. (Author) 33 refs.

  12. Taxation, R&D tax incentives and patent application in Europe

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Christof; Spengel, Christoph

    2011-01-01

    The focus of this paper is on effects from tax incentives for research and development inputs (R&D) and corporate income tax on business R&D and patenting behaviour. First, we provide a theoretical discussion of tax planning with R&D and intellectual property (IP) ownership. Further, we employ firm-specific micro-data on patent applications of European corporations at the European Patent Office to test reactions on changes in R&D tax incentives and corporate tax burden. We find a positive imp...

  13. Fighting against biopiracy : does the obligation to disclose in patent applications truly help ?

    OpenAIRE

    De Werra, Jacques

    2009-01-01

    In the global fight against biopiracy, one of the key issues is to prevent the grant and exploitation of patents on traditional knowledge and genetic resources by requiring that patent applicants for inventions involving traditional knowledge and genetic resources disclose the source of those resources and provide evidence that the prior informed consent of the local owners of such resources has been obtained and that benefit-sharing agreements have been entered into with those owners. This A...

  14. Patent Statistics and IPR Laws Update Online

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Patent Statistics Beginning from No.2 of 2005 of China Patents & Trademarks, the Statistics on Patent Applications & Grants in China, previously published under the column of Statistics, will be updated online, including the monthly Statistics on Patent Applications by Patent Category, the Patent Grants by Patent Category, the Domestic Patent Applications by Province, and the Overseas Patent Applications by Country, and their yearly statistics at www.cpt.cn or www.cpahkltd.com/cn/ Publications/staten.htm...

  15. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leitch, Megan E. [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Casman, Elizabeth [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Engineering and Public Policy, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States); Lowry, Gregory V., E-mail: glowry@cmu.edu [Carnegie Mellon University, Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology (CEINT) (United States)

    2012-12-15

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the 'Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies' (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative 'snapshot' of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially 'risky' nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  16. Nanotechnology patenting trends through an environmental lens: analysis of materials and applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leitch, Megan E.; Casman, Elizabeth; Lowry, Gregory V.

    2012-12-01

    Many international groups study environmental health and safety (EHS) concerns surrounding the use of engineered nanomaterials (ENMs). These researchers frequently use the "Project on Emerging Nanotechnologies" (PEN) inventory of nano-enabled consumer products to prioritize types of ENMs to study because estimates of life-cycle ENM releases to the environment can be extrapolated from the database. An alternative "snapshot" of nanomaterials likely to enter commerce can be determined from the patent literature. The goal of this research was to provide an overview of nanotechnology intellectual property trends, complementary to the PEN consumer product database, to help identify potentially "risky" nanomaterials for study by the nano-EHS community. Ten years of nanotechnology patents were examined to determine the types of nano-functional materials being patented, the chemical compositions of the ENMs, and the products in which they are likely to appear. Patenting trends indicated different distributions of nano-enabled products and materials compared to the PEN database. Recent nanotechnology patenting is dominated by electrical and information technology applications rather than the hygienic and anti-fouling applications shown by PEN. There is an increasing emphasis on patenting of nano-scale layers, coatings, and other surface modifications rather than traditional nanoparticles, and there is widespread use of nano-functional semiconductor, ceramic, magnetic, and biological materials that are currently less studied by EHS professionals. These commonly patented products and the nano-functional materials they contain may warrant life-cycle evaluations to determine the potential for environmental exposure and toxicity. The patent and consumer product lists contribute different and complementary insights into the emerging nanotechnology industry and its potential for introducing nanomaterials into the environment.

  17. Patent Database : A Methodology of Information Retrieval From PDF

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Sharma

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Patent document holds wealth of information in itself. A brief detail of Indian patent applicationinformation is published as eighteen month publication by Indian patent Office, in electronic gazetteweekly. To date, a proper database of Indian patents specifically for research determination has not beenavailable, making it complicated for researcher to use this data for measuring any kind of researchactivities in terms of patents in India. To facilitate this, we constructed a comprehensive patent databasewhich incorporates the information presented in the electronic gazette. This database includes informationsuch as technology class, applicant, inventor, country of origin etc., of the patent submitted. We present themethodology for the creation of this database, its basic features along with its accuracy and reliability inthis research paper. Patent based database has been developed and can be used for various innovationresearches and activities.

  18. Ontology-based content analysis of US patent applications from 2001-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Lutz; Böhme, Timo; Irmer, Matthias

    2013-01-01

    Ontology-based semantic text analysis methods allow to automatically extract knowledge relationships and data from text documents. In this review, we have applied these technologies for the systematic analysis of pharmaceutical patents. Hierarchical concepts from the knowledge domains of chemical compounds, diseases and proteins were used to annotate full-text US patent applications that deal with pharmacological activities of chemical compounds and filed in the years 2001-2010. Compounds claimed in these applications have been classified into their respective compound classes to review the distribution of scaffold types or general compound classes such as natural products in a time-dependent manner. Similarly, the target proteins and claimed utility of the compounds have been classified and the most relevant were extracted. The method presented allows the discovery of the main areas of innovation as well as emerging fields of patenting activities - providing a broad statistical basis for competitor analysis and decision-making efforts.

  19. Patent review of novel nanostructrued devices, nanofabrication methods and applications in nanofluidics and nanomedicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Chen, Che-Yang

    2012-06-01

    Over the past two decades, scientists and researchers have successfully developed MEMS (Micro-Electro- Mechanical Systems) technology and its applications that provide a stepping stone for nanotechnology and nanostructure fabrication. Nanostructured devices, which have higher efficiency, less weight and lower power consumption, have been applied in the fields of electronics, chemistry, energy, environmental science and medicine. This patent review focuses on novel nanostructure fabrication methods and nanostructure devices applied in nanofluidics and nanomedicine. We can reasonably expect that the number of nanostructure patents will continue to grow, especially in the fields of biomedical science and energy.

  20. The Impact of Patent Applications Filed on Sustainable Development of Selected Asian Countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.K. Saini

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Innovative activity underpins economic productivity and growth. Countries that generate innovation, create new technologies, and encourage adoption of these new technologies grow faster than those that do not. In some industries patenting is identified as the most important means of protecting IP and is increasingly used as a strategic asset by companies to create sustainable competitive advantage – although, in others, secrecy is used to safeguard proprietary knowledge. The basic purpose of this paper is to see the impact of patent filing on economic growth of the country leading to sustainable development of the economy. For this, the paper analyzed and tested the data of 9 countries for the period of 10 years (2000-2009. The results concluded that it was a mixed result in case of Asian countries. Only, technology based countries’ economies were affected by patent applications filed.

  1. Patent Assessment Quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Burke, Paul F.; Reitzig, Markus

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of patent applications worldwide and the extension of patenting to the areas of software and business methods have triggered a debate on "patent quality". While patent quality may have various dimensions, this paper argues that consistency in the decision making on the side...... of the patent office is one important dimension, particularly in new patenting areas (emerging technologies). In order to understand whether patent offices appear capable of providing consistent assessments of a patent's technological quality in such novel industries from the beginning, we study the concordance...... of the European Patent Office's (EPO's) granting and opoposition decisions for individual patents. We use the historical example of biotech patens filed between 1978 until 1986, the early stage of the industry. Our results indicate that the EPO shows systematically different assessments of technological quality...

  2. National patent applications in biotechnology, subclass C12N, in Brazil from 1998 to 2000

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Luiz Salgueiro Lage

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Only 11% of the activities of research and development in Brazil are carried out in private institutions. In the biotechnological field, an area of knowledge significantly closer to the basic sciences, there is a higher participation of public sectors, as might be expected. Among the public institutions, the universities were responsible for the highest number of applications in the evaluated time period, 56%. The national participation in the number of biotechnological patent applications in Brazil was 2.6% from 1998 to 2000. Among the countries with the highest number of biotechnological patent applications in Brazil, there is an obvious domination of the United States of America, representing 51.5% of all countries in 1999 and 42.3% of the 1057 C12N patent applications. Applications in the C12N 15 classification with 31.5% were the most frequent in comparison with the other C12N applications. This fact shows the fast increase of the number of applications in genetic engineering and fields of recombinant DNA technology. This result is a possible consequence of the genome race that is occurring at world level.

  3. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  4. Converting STEM Doctoral Dissertations into Patent Applications: A Study of Chemistry, Physics, Mathematics, and Chemical Engineering Dissertations from CIC Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butkovich, Nancy J.

    2015-01-01

    Doctoral candidates may request short-term embargoes on the release of their dissertations in order to apply for patents. This study examines how often inventions described in dissertations in chemical engineering, chemistry, physics, and mathematics are converted into U.S. patent applications, as well as the relationship between dissertation…

  5. Truth and falsity of patent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Gum Jin

    2006-10-15

    This book describes the process of the effect to build the business of patent strongly in difficult situation. The titles of this contents are finally, lawsuit if formed, the task of patent application introduction of tasks of patent negotiation, negotiation with Fujitsu, Mitsubishi, Oki and NEC, amalgamation between LG semiconductor and Hyundai Electronic Industry, life in incorporated company, current condition of application for a patent, the method to process strategy patent, how to make strong patent and effective negotiation strategy for a patent and strategy of patent application.

  6. Review of patents and application of spray drying in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Bhavesh B; Patel, Jayvadan K; Chakraborty, Subhashis

    2014-04-01

    Spray drying has always remained an energetic field of innovation in pharmaceutical, food and flavor industry since last couple of decades. The current communication embodies an in-depth application of spray drying in pulmonary drug delivery for production of uniform and respirable size particles suitable for nebulizers, dry powder inhalers (DPI) and pressurized metered dose inhalers (pMDI). The review also highlights spray drying application in the manufacturing of mucoadhesive formulation suitable for nasal cavities to improve the drug absorption and bioavailability. Recent research works and patents filed by various researchers on spray drying technology for solubility enhancement have also been accentuated. Benefits of spray drying in production of dry flavorings to meet a product with maximum yield and least flavor loss are also discussed. The use of spray drying in production of various food products like milk or soymilk powder, tomato pulp, dry fruit juice etc, and in encapsulation of vegetable oil or fish oil and dry creamer has been discussed. Current review also highlights the application of spray drying in the biotechnology field like production of dry influenza or measles vaccine as well as application in ceramic industry. Spray drying based patents issued by the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office in the area of drug delivery have also been included in the current review to emphasize importance of spray drying in the recent research scenario.

  7. Software Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, Edmund B.

    1994-01-01

    Outlines basic patent law information that pertains to computer software programs. Topics addressed include protection in other countries; how to obtain patents; kinds of patents; duration; classes of patentable subject matter, including machines and processes; patentability searches; experimental use prior to obtaining a patent; and patent…

  8. Modern evaluation of patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    The number of patents is not so important as the market value. The market value is especially important for licensing of patents, make-or-buy decisions for technology procurement, corporate finance. Patents can be used as collateral for financing. Patents and credit approvals: without patents only 46% and with patents 54%. The value share of knowledge-based components to industrial products already reached 50% and it is still rising. OECD called these developments under the slogan "knowledge economy”. German Norm-DIN 77100 provides a working method for monetary evaluation of a patent. The value of a patent arises from its use. A patent can be used to protect or to earn licensing revenues. An evaluation expertise is required in areas, such as marketing, finance, R & D and strategic planning. As an indicator of the value of a patent is often used the number of citations. The number of a patent citation refers to its meaning and value. Other indicators would be: size of the patent family, validity of the patent, result of objections against patent application, number and quality of claims. The analysis of 9.000 patents resulted that only 7.2% worth over 10 million euro and 68% below 1 million euro. The cost method: it is considered the cost that would be incurred for the development and patenting of a similar invention. The market method: are used the prices that have been achieved in comparable with recently transactions. The Income method: the potential reward is measured, which can arise from a patent. The evaluation will be in the following areas: legal status, technology, market conditions, finance and strategy. Each question relates to a different parameter of a value.

  9. Patente gera patente?

    OpenAIRE

    Joana Coeli Ribeiro Garcia

    2006-01-01

    A patente, fonte de informação e geradora de nova patente em condições e contexto favoráveis, constitui objeto desta pesquisa. Esta é respaldada em quadro teórico da Ciência da Informação e identifica os fatores intervenientes no fluxo das relações desde a patente-fonte até o registro de nova patente. Da amostra da pesquisa constam instituições privadas e públicas representadas por unidades situadas em Brasília, Belo Horizonte e Rio de Janeiro. A entrevista é a técnica usada para a coleta de ...

  10. Trademark or patent? The effects of market concentration, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups’ initial IP applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. de Vries (Geertjan); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); J.H. Block (Jörn); C.O. Fisch (Christian)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractWe analyse the initial IP applications of 4,703 start-ups in the U.S., distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. Our empirical results show that start-ups are more likely to file for trademarks instead of patents when entering markets with a higher market concentration. F

  11. Scientific production and technological production: transforming a scientific paper into patent applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Cleber Gustavo; de Almeida, Roberto Barbosa

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Brazil has been presenting in the last years a scientific production well-recognized in the international scenario, in several areas of knowledge, according to the impact of their publications in important events and especially in indexed journals of wide circulation. On the other hand, the country does not seem to be in the same direction regarding to the technological production and wealth creation from the established scientific development, and particularly from the applied research. The present paper covers such issue and discloses the main similarities and differences between a scientific paper and a patent application, in order to contribute to a better understanding of both types of documents and help the researchers to chose and select the results with technological potential, decide what is appropriated for industrial protection, as well as foster new business opportunities for each technology which has been created. PMID:23579737

  12. Application of Bibliographic Coupling versus Cited Titles Words in Patent Fuzzy Clustering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anahita Kermani

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Attribute selection is one of the steps before patent clustering. Various attributes can be used for clustering. In this study, the effect of using citation and citation title words, respectively, in form of bibliographic coupling and citation title words sharing, were measured and compared with each other, as patent attributes. This study was done in an experimental method, on a collection of 717 US Patent cited in the patents belong to 977/774 subclass of US Patent Classification. Fuzzy C-means was used for patent clustering and extended BCubed precision and extended BCubed recall were used as evaluation measure. The results showed that the clustering produced by bibliographic coupling had better performance than clustering used citation title words and existence of cluster structure were in a wider range of exhaustivity than citation title words.

  13. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  14. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    OpenAIRE

    Alireza Noruzi; Mohammadhiwa Abdekhoda

    2014-01-01

    Google Patents (www.google.com/patents) includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office), EPO (European Patent Office), etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several sug...

  15. 76 FR 72000 - Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-21

    ... Geological Survey Patent, Trademark & Copyright Acts AGENCY: U.S. Geological Survey, Interior. ACTION: Notice...., Suite 200, Kennesaw, GA 30144, on U.S. Patent Application Serial No. 12/133,666, and a divisional patent application to be filed shortly at the Patent and Trademark Office, both entitled ``Anaerobic...

  16. Used, Blocking and Sleeping Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Torrisi, Salvatore; Gambardella, Alfonso; Giuri, Paola

    2016-01-01

    and sleeping patents. We also examine the association between used and unused patents and their characteristics such as family size, scope, generality and overlapping claims, technology area, type of applicant, and the competitive environment from where these patents originate. We discuss our results...

  17. Cultivating Chinese Indigenous Innovation and Knowledge Creativity in Food Industry: Government Supports in Patent Application, Protection, Sharing and Utilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Luo

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the Chinese indigenous innovation and knowledge creativity in food industry. A set of Intellectual Property (IP policies and high-level strategies, established by Chinese central government, were evaluated to cultivate and encourage indigenous innovations and creation of knowledge in food industry through enhancing the application, transfer and protection of patents. This study surveyed 80 food production related enterprises located in Jiangsu province, including 60 private-owned, 11 state-owned and 9 joint ventures. Then, 200 questionnaires were distributed through the Intellectual Property Office of Jiangsu, 102 were returned, in which 98 were evaluated as valid. The data collected exhibit that patent application has been widely employed as an effective approach not only to protect food products and service innovations, but also to promote enterprises’ reputation, attract government financial and political supports, generate monetary or other profits from licensing or transferring patents and be eligible for tax reduction and exemption. Thus, the data analysis indicated that the governmental IP policies and strategies have strongly strengthened the indigenous innovations in food industry. However, the analysis also pointed out a series of problems and barriers in patent utilization. The conclusions thus advocate completing the national legislation system in IP and formulating specific supporting strategies at regional level by individual provincial IP administrative offices. The research study reported in this study is of interests to China IP policy makers and politicians, as well as the managers of Chinese enterprises interested in increasing organizational creativity and protecting their innovations.

  18. PATENT ACTIVITY IN THE AREA OF PNEUMATIC COUPLINGS DEVELOPMENT AND THEIR APPLICATION IN MECHANICAL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaroslav HOMIŠIN

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mechanical systems with combustion engines, compressors, pumps and fans, can be characterized as torsionally oscillating mechanical system (TOMS. It is therefore necessary to control their dangerous torsional vibrations. It was confirmed that dangerous torsional vibration can be reduced to acceptable level by an appropriate adjustment, respectively by tuning the TOMS. According to several authors, the most appropriate way of system tuning is application of suitable flexible element, which is flexible shaft coupling. It turned out that one of the types of shaft couplings, which are particularly suited to meeting this objective are pneumatic flexible shaft couplings, to act as so-called pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations. The issue of research and development of pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations, among other things is, long-term in the focus of the author. The existence of tuners creates the opportunity to develop new ways of tuning torsionally oscillating mechanical systems. The aim of article will highlight the author's patent activity in the development of pneumatic tuners of torsional oscillations and their applications in torsionally oscillating mechanical systems.

  19. 我院中成药应用分析%Application analysis of Chinese patent medicine in our hospital

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞国丽

    2015-01-01

    目的:评价本院中成药应用的现状和发展中存在的问题。方法对本院门诊所使用的中成药的金额、数量、种类进行统计分析。结果本院门诊应用的中成药占药品使用的比例很大,以清热类药居多(48.9%),其次为活血化瘀类(24.5%)和止血类(11.0%)。总体使用规范,但仍存在一些不合理现象。结论提高中成药疗效,规范合理使用中成药需全院全社会共同努力。%Objective To evaluate the problems in current condition and development of Chinese patent medicine application in our hospital.Methods The statistical analysis was made on the consumption sum, quantity, and category of Chinese patent medicine in outpatient service of our hospital.Results Chinese patent medicine accounted for a large proportion in outpatient drug use in our hospital, with a majority of heat-clearing drugs (48.9%) following by promoting circulation and removing stasis drugs (24.5%) and hemostasis drugs (11.0%). The application was basically standard with a few of irrational phenomena.Conclusion Improving the curative effect of Chinese patent medicine and standardizing the rational use of Chinese patent medicine require the concerted efforts in the hospital and society.

  20. Environmentally conscious patent histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crouch, Dennis D.; Crouch, Henry L.

    2004-02-01

    There is a need for investigators, legislators, and business leaders to understand the magnitude of innovation and discovery in the field of environmentally conscious technologies (ECTs). Knowledge of the "big picture" is important to providing a national and global account of actual environmental stewardship over the last twenty-five years. A recitation of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) supported Acts which have been enacted into law reveals one facet of the multifaceted dynamic of environmental consciousness. The popular discussion and debate, as well as partisan lobbying, which created the political forces leading to environmentally conscious legislation is another facet. A third facet is the corporate response to the threats and opportunities predicted by CEO"s and others through environmental scanning. This paper examines changes in environmentally conscious inventive effort by comparing data from United States Patents issued from 1976 through 2003. Patents are useful tool for measuring technological innovation because they are publicly available records of innovative activity. Although not all inventions result in patent applications, the monopoly rights granted on the invention give the inventor a strong incentive to obtain patents on any viable product or process. Among the results, we found a significant increase in patents relating to environmentally conscious products and processes during the period in question. Specifically, a dramatic increase in patent activity was seen for the decade of the 1990"s. Surprisingly, the patenting rate from 2000 to 2003 seems to have stabilized. Additionally public discussion of ECTs appears to have a positive impact on patent filings.

  1. 77 FR 4887 - DOE Patent Licensing Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 781 RIN 1990-AA41 DOE Patent Licensing Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel, Department of Energy. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The Department of Energy (DOE) is amending its patent... patents or patent applications vested in the United States of America, as represented by or in the...

  2. Google Patents: The global patent search engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alireza Noruzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Google Patents (www.google.com/patents includes over 8 million full-text patents. Google Patents works in the same way as the Google search engine. Google Patents is the global patent search engine that lets users search through patents from the USPTO (United States Patent and Trademark Office, EPO (European Patent Office, etc. This study begins with an overview of how to use Google Patent and identifies advanced search techniques not well-documented by Google Patent. It makes several suggestions for improving Google Patents. This study also compares the citation counts provided by Google Patents for journals in the field of library and information science (LIS. Finally, it concludes that Google Patents provides a free alternative or complement to other patent databases. It also addressed the advantages of Google Patents, for example, easy-use search interface and fast search engine; convenient access to patent images in PDF format; and fast downloads of PDF patent documents.

  3. The development of synthetic biology: a patent analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Doren, Davy; Koenigstein, Stefan; Reiss, Thomas

    2013-12-01

    In the past decades, synthetic biology has gained interest regarding research and development efforts within the biotechnology domain. However, it is unclear to what extent synthetic biology has matured already into being commercially exploitable. By means of a patent analysis, this study shows that there is an increasing trend regarding synthetic biology related patent applications. The majority of retrieved patents relates to innovations facilitating the realisation of synthetic biology through improved understanding of biological systems. In addition, there is increased activity concerning the development of synthetic biology based applications. When looking at potential application areas, the majority of synthetic biology patents seems most relevant for the medical, energy and industrial sector. Furthermore, the analysis shows that most activity has been carried out by the USA, with Japan and a number of European countries considerably trailing behind. In addition, both universities and companies are major patent applicant actor types. The results presented here form a starting point for follow-up studies concerning the identification of drivers explaining the observed patent application trends in synthetic biology.

  4. 专利情报分析在研发中的应用%Application of Patent Intelligence Analysis in Research and Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谭博天; 李祥松

    2015-01-01

    The patent is a unique information source to find new technical information. Patent data are trea-sures on the Internet. Turning patent data into patent intelligence can significantly promote patent strategies and es-tablish competitive advantages for China and its enterprises. How to extract information of technology, economy, and law from the patent literature to form effective intelligence? Aiming at this problem, this paper emphatically expounds the application of patent intelligence analysis in research and development on the basis of a deep analysis of patent intelligence analyzing methods and means.%专利是发现新技术信息独特的信息源,专利数据是堆在互联网上的一座“宝山”,把专利数据变成专利情报能显著地推动国家和企业实施专利战略和建立技术竞争优势。如何从专利文献中提取技术、经济、法律信息并形成有效情报,针对此问题,本文在深入分析了专利情报分析方法、手段的基础上,着重阐述了专利情报分析在研发中的应用。

  5. Reasons for Patent Protection and Cost-effective Patent Filing Options for SMEs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Art Brion

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Many innovative small and medium enterprises (SMEs do not seek patent protection for their innovations, either because they are skeptical about the perceived benefits or wary of the perceived costs. However, by failing to protect their intellectual property with patents, they leave themselves exposed to attack by other patent holders. This article explores arguments for patent protection as well as filing options that can protract the patenting process while simultaneously reducing patenting costs. By choosing their patent application filings wisely, SMEs can keep their patenting options open for as long as possible while delaying costs.

  6. Labor Mobility and Patenting Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaiser, Ulrich; Kongsted, Hans Christian; Rønde, Thomas

    We measure the quantitative importance of labor mobility as a vehicle for the transmission of knowledge and skills across firms. For this purpose we create a unique data set that matches all applications of Danish firms at the European Patent Office to linked employer-employee register data...... for the years 1999-2002. The Danish workforce is split into "R&D workers", who hold a bachelor's or a master's degree in a technical field, and "non{R&D workers". We find that mobile R&D workers ("R&D joiners"') contribute more to patenting activity than immobile R&D workers. Furthermore, R&D workers who have...... previously been employed by a patenting firm ("patent exposed workers") have a larger effect on patenting activity than R&D workers without this experience. Patent exposed R&D joiners constitute the most productive group of workers: for firms that patented prior to 1999, one additional worker of this type...

  7. Patents on Therapeutic and Cosmetic Applications of Bioactives of Crocus Sativus L. and their Production through Synthetic Biology Methods: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawalbhakta, Mitali; Telang, Manasi

    2017-01-01

    Saffron (Crocus sativus L.) has a long history of use as a food additive and a traditional medicine for treating a number of disorders. Prominent bioactives of saffron are crocin, crocetin and safranal. The aim of this study was to carry out an extensive patent search to collect information on saffron bioactives and their derivatives as therapeutic and cosmeceutical agents. All patents related to the area of interest published globally till date have been reviewed. Moreover, a recent synthetic biology approach to cost effective and consistent production of saffron bioactives has been highlighted. A patent search strategy was designed based on keywords and concepts related to Crocus sativus L. and its bioactives- safranal, crocin and crocetin in combination with different patent classification codes relevant to the technology areas. This search strategy was employed to retrieve patents from various patent databases. The patents which focused on therapeutic or cosmetic applications and claimed compositions comprising crocin, crocetin or safranal as the main active component were selected and analysed. Maximum patenting activity was noticed towards the use of these bioactives in the treatment of neurological disorders followed by multiple uses of the same compound, use in treatment of metabolic disorders and use as cosmeceuticals. Interestingly, there were no patent records related to use of these bioactives in treating infectious disorders. Our patent analysis points out the populous and less explored uses of saffron bioactives and areas where there is further scope for research and growth. Recently developed synthetic biology approach is contributory in improving availability, consistency and cost effectiveness of saffron bioactives. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  8. The role of patent and non-patent databases in patent research in universities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolstaya, A. M.; Suslina, I. V.; Tolstaya, P. M.

    2017-01-01

    This studies deal with the description and systematization of the popular patent retrieval resources. The importance of the non-patent information when conducting patent research for the intellectual property created in educational and scientific activity of the university is highlighted. The differences in the patent and non-patent information are found out. Based on the databases` analysis the authors conducted the patent research on "Wireless endoscopic capsules" (development of the NRNU MEPhI). This study can be used to facilitate the university work on the new product development in order to improve the efficiency of the process of the commercialization of the intellectual activity results, including the entering the international market.

  9. Patent monopoly : protecting your ideas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, R.B. [Bennett Jones LLB, Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2002-06-01

    A form of intellectual property, patents can be bought and sold, thereby having a lot of financial value. The petroleum industry is a sector very involved with patent protection. At some time, it is expected that most technical companies will be involved in obtaining patent protection or busy defending themselves against a patent suit. In this paper, the author focussed on the procedure to obtain patent protection. Progressing from the basic facts concerning patents, the author then briefly described the necessary steps in the procedure. The author began by distinguishing the three major intellectual properties of use in the petroleum industry, namely patents, trademarks, and copyrights. Words, symbols or designs, including the various combinations of those, which distinguish the services of one company from those of another, are considered trademarks. Creative works, on the other hand, are protected under copyrights from being copied without permission. Inventions are protected by patents. What should be known about inventions was the focus of the next section in the presentation, followed by a section entitled: seeking patent protection: the first steps. The filing of the formal patent applications was discussed, then the emphasis was placed on after filing: the examination. The issued patent, which can be enforced against competitors, was the very last section in the presentation.

  10. Applicability of Dynamic Facilitation Theory to Binary Hard Disk Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isobe, Masaharu; Keys, Aaron S.; Chandler, David; Garrahan, Juan P.

    2016-09-01

    We numerically investigate the applicability of dynamic facilitation (DF) theory for glass-forming binary hard disk systems where supercompression is controlled by pressure. By using novel efficient algorithms for hard disks, we are able to generate equilibrium supercompressed states in an additive nonequimolar binary mixture, where microcrystallization and size segregation do not emerge at high average packing fractions. Above an onset pressure where collective heterogeneous relaxation sets in, we find that relaxation times are well described by a "parabolic law" with pressure. We identify excitations, or soft spots, that give rise to structural relaxation and find that they are spatially localized, their average concentration decays exponentially with pressure, and their associated energy scale is logarithmic in the excitation size. These observations are consistent with the predictions of DF generalized to systems controlled by pressure rather than temperature.

  11. Biomedical applications of yeast- a patent view, part one: yeasts as workhorses for the production of therapeutics and vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roohvand, Farzin; Shokri, Mehdi; Abdollahpour-Alitappeh, Meghdad; Ehsani, Parastoo

    2017-08-01

    Yeasts, as Eukaryotes, offer unique features for ease of growth and genetic manipulation possibilities, making it an exceptional microbial host. Areas covered: This review provides general and patent-oriented insights into production of biopharmaceuticals by yeasts. Patents, wherever possible, were correlated to the original or review articles. The review describes applications of major GRAS (generally regarded as safe) yeasts for the production of therapeutic proteins and subunit vaccines; additionally, immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall components were reviewed for use of whole yeast cells as a new vaccine platform. The second part of the review will discuss yeast- humanization strategies and innovative applications. Expert opinion: Biomedical applications of yeasts were initiated by utilization of Saccharomyces cerevisiae, for production of leavened (fermented) products, and advanced to serve to produce biopharmaceuticals. Higher biomass production and expression/secretion yields, more similarity of glycosylation patterns to mammals and possibility of host-improvement strategies through application of synthetic biology might enhance selection of Pichia pastoris (instead of S. cerevisiae) as a host for production of biopharmaceutical in future. Immunomodulatory properties of yeast cell wall β-glucans and possibility of intracellular expression of heterologous pathogen/tumor antigens in yeast cells have expanded their application as a new platform, 'Whole Yeast Vaccines'.

  12. Spanish firms patenting in the European office. characteristics compared with non-applicant; Las empresas espanolas que patentan en la oficina Europea. Caracteristicas comparadas con las no solicitantes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barajas, A.; Huergo, E.; Moreno, L.

    2012-07-01

    The objective of this paper is to provide evidence about the features of Spanish firms applying for patents to the European Patent Office between 1998 and 2008. We compare these firms with a control sample of non-applicants during the same period and focus especially on firms that have been awarded public aid for R and D projects by the Centre for the Development of Industrial Technology. (Author) 14 refs.

  13. 21 CFR 314.53 - Submission of patent information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Submission of patent information. 314.53 Section... of patent information. (a) Who must submit patent information. This section applies to any applicant...)(2) of this section. (b) Patents for which information must be submitted and patents for...

  14. 37 CFR 3.81 - Issue of patent to assignee.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issue of patent to assignee. 3.81 Section 3.81 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE... of patent to assignee. (a) With payment of the issue fee: An application may issue in the name of...

  15. 基于WIPO专利分析的国际专利申请竞争态势研究%A Study on Competitive Situation of the International Patent Application Based on WIPO Patent Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉蓉; 张玉玲

    2016-01-01

    [目的/意义]面对WIPO快速增长的国际专利申请,掌握国际专利申请竞争态势是我国企业进行国际专利布局及参与国际市场竞争的关键。[方法/过程]基于WIPO专利数据库及专利统计文献,从国际专利申请总体变化趋势、区域分布、主要受理局等总体分析以及主要申请人、重点技术领域等具体内容的分析两个方面构建了分析框架。[结果/结论]分析结果表明,中国企业国际专利申请量近年来发展迅速,但两极分化明显,国际专利申请主要集中于少数企业。与美国、日本等发达国家相比,我国申请主要集中于数字通讯领域,在其他研发热点领域涉及较少。在此基础上,论文为我国企业进行国际专利布局及参与国际市场竞争提出三点建议:要在核心技术领域进行研发投入、实施开放式创新战略以及积极实施专利技术和产品输出相结合战略。%Purpose/Significance]Faced with the rapid growth of WIPO's international patent application,we must master competitive situation of international patent applications. Because it has great influence on studying innovation capability of enterprises and participation in competition in international market. [ Method/Process] This paper studies overall trends of international patent applications, regional distribution, the principal applicant, key technology areas based on WIPO’ s patent database, which grasps the competitive trend of inter-national patent applications by applying the general and the specific content analysis. [ Result/Conclusion] Some analysis results show that the amount of international patent applications of Chinese enterprises developed rapidly in recent years. However international patent appli-cation mainly concentrated on a few companies, which reveal polarization obviously. Compared with the United States of American, Japan and other developed countries, China's application focused on

  16. 论专利申请人之现有技术披露义务%The Duty of Prior Art Disclosure During Patent Application

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁志文

    2012-01-01

    问题专利产生了严重的社会后果,提高专利授权质量具有迫切性。高质量的现有技术检索是提高专利授权质量的前提,这在专利申请数量巨大的背景下显得尤为重要。专利申请人及其代理人在专利审查过程中,应向专利审查部门依诚信原则披露其所知悉的、对申请案之可专利性具有关键性价值的参考资料。建立具有法律效力的现有技术披露义务符合专利制度的立法目的和利益平衡原则,节约现有技术检索的社会成本,从而保障专利审查中现有技术检索的质量。我国《专利法》第36条规定了该义务,但没有规定相应的法律后果。我国应通过立法和司法两方面来完善申请人的现有技术披露义务。%Problem patents have resulted serious social consequences,which call for the improvement of patent quality.During the patent examination,the patent applicant associated with the filing of the patent are required to act with good faith,and to disclose all the known information to the patent office which is material to the patentability of their application.A binding duty meet the legal purpose of patent system and the doctrine of interests-balancing,it also may save the social costs and improve the quality of the search of prior art,which,in end,may safeguard the patent quality.Art.36 of the Patent Law,in which there are no corresponding legal liabilities,provides the duty of prior art disclosure for patent applicant.China shall establish and improve the duty of prior art disclosure thorough the legal reform and judiciary.

  17. The Change of Patent Application and Examination in U.S. Patent Law Reform%美国专利法改革中的专利申请与审查变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    詹爱岚

    2012-01-01

    The patent system played an important role when the United States grew to become a dominant power of science and technology. In 2011, the United States carried out the most powerful and comprehensive patent law reform since the establishment of patent system in 1952. The reform is comprehensive, and the changes on patent application and examination mainly include the following seven aspects: first-inventor-to-file principle; absolute novelty standard; grace of the invention disclosure; post-grant review; constraints on foreign priority fil- ings; reexamination and best mode.%专利制度在美国成长为科技大国的过程中始终扮演着重要角色。2011年,美国迎来了自1952年建立专利制度以来的最强劲而全面的专利法改革。此次改革内容宽泛,其中涉及专利申请与审查变化的内容主要包括:"先申请"原则、"绝对"新颖性审查标准、发明内容披露的宽限条件、授权后审查机制、国外优先权限制、补充审查以及最佳实施例等七个方面。

  18. Transferring diffractive optics from research to commercial applications: Part I - progress in the patent landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Robert

    2013-12-01

    In the last 20 years, diffractive optics experienced a strong research interest and was in the center of many development projects in applied optics. To offer a side view for optical engineers, here, we discuss selected, business-related aspects of the current status of the transfer process to bring diffractive optics into commercial products. The contribution is divided into two parts. Here, in part I, we focus on the patent landscape of diffractive optics with a closer look on the temporal development and the distribution over main players. As an important result, currently, new strong patent activities are observed especially in the context of imaging systems. In the second part, the business volumes of selected market segments are discussed.

  19. 医院发明专利申请流程及实务操作%Process and practical operation of pharmaceutical patent application for invention

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马旭; 王国臻; 张清奎

    2012-01-01

    Innovation and development in the field of medicine is inseparable from intellectual property protection. The awareness and skills of intellectual property protection and effective maintenance of patent rights for domestic pharmaceutical industry are very important. To help the domestic pharmaceutical research institutes and R&D personnel learn more about the patent application process and practical operation so that they can promptly apply for patent to get reasonable intellectual property protection and utilization of their research achievement, this article will give a popular explanation of pharmaceucal patent application from five aspects including patent application content, application process, writing application documents, examination standards and the maintenance of follow-up patent right. This article aims to improve the awareness of intellectual property protection and effective maintenance of patent knowledge and skills in China's pharmaceutical industry.%医药领域的创新发展离不开知识产权的保护,这种保护需要不断强化提高领域技术人员的保护意识和技巧.为帮助国内医药领域科研单位和企业研发人员进一步了解专利申请流程及实务操作,促使其科研成果及时申请发明专利并能够获得合理的保护和应用,文中从医药领域发明专利的申请内容、申请流程、申请文件撰写、审查标准以及后续权利的维护5方面进行普及性的解释说明,以促进我国医药产业提高知识产权保护意识和有效维护专利权的知识和技巧.

  20. Patent office Governance and Patent System Quality

    OpenAIRE

    Picard, Pierre; Pottelsberghe de la Potterie, Bruno van

    2011-01-01

    The present paper discusses the role of quality in patent systems from the perspective of patent offices' behavior and organization. After documenting original stylized facts, the paper presents a model in which patent offices set patent fees and the quality level of their examination processes. Various objectives of patent offices' governors are considered. We show that the quality of the patent system is maximal for the patent offices that maximises either the social welfare or its own prof...

  1. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical workof patent application,trademark registration and copyright protection in China;concrete examples of

  2. The political contradictions of incremental innovation: lessons from pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadlen, Kenneth C

    2011-01-01

    Neodevelopmental patent regimes aim to facilitate local actors’ access to knowledge and also encourage incremental innovations. The case of pharmaceutical patent examination in Brazil illustrates political contradictions between these objectives. Brazil’s patent law includes the Ministry of Health in the examination of pharmaceutical patent applications. Though widely celebrated as a health-oriented policy, the Brazilian experience has become fraught with tensions and subject to decreasing levels of both stability and enforcement. I show how one pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the array of initiatives to encourage incremental innovations, has fostered the acquisition of innovative capabilities in the Brazilian pharmaceutical sector, and how these new capabilities have altered actors’ policy preferences and thus contributed to the erosion of the coalition in support of the other pillar of the neodevelopmental regime, the health-oriented approach to examining pharmaceutical patents. The analysis of capability-derived preference formation points to an endogenous process of coalitional change.

  3. Applications of Motivational Interviewing in Career Counseling: Facilitating Career Transition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stoltz, Kevin B.; Young, Tabitha L.

    2013-01-01

    The Protean and Boundaryless career paradigms are calling for new ways to provide career counseling to clients. Career counselors need methods for facilitating client's career transition across all stages of career development. This facilitation requires career counselors to be armed with methods for promoting client's autonomy,…

  4. Exploiting structural information in patent specifications for key compound prediction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyrchan, Christian; Boström, Jonas; Giordanetto, Fabrizio; Winter, Jon; Muresan, Sorel

    2012-06-25

    Patent specifications are one of many information sources needed to progress drug discovery projects. Understanding compound prior art and novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting points for chemical explorations are a few areas where patent analysis is an important component. Cheminformatics methods can be used to facilitate the identification of so-called key compounds in patent specifications. Such methods, relying on structural information extracted from documents by expert curation or text mining, can complement or in some cases replace the traditional manual approach of searching for clues in the text. This paper describes and compares three different methods for the automatic prediction of key compounds in patent specifications using structural information alone. For this data set, the cluster seed analysis described by Hattori et al. (Hattori, K.; Wakabayashi, H.; Tamaki, K. Predicting key example compounds in competitors' patent applications using structural information alone. J. Chem. Inf. Model.2008, 48, 135-142) is superior in terms of prediction accuracy with 26 out of 48 drugs (54%) correctly predicted from their corresponding patents. Nevertheless, the two new methods, based on frequency of R-groups (FOG) and maximum common substructure (MCS) similarity measures, show significant advantages due to their inherent ability to visualize relevant structural features. The results of the FOG method can be enhanced by manual selection of the scaffolds used in the analysis. Finally, a successful example of applying FOG analysis for designing potent ATP-competitive AXL kinase inhibitors with improved properties is described.

  5. A Web Application to Facilitate Syphilis Reactor Grid Evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avoundjian, Tigran; Khosropour, Christine M; Golden, Matthew R; Barbee, Lindley A; Dombrowski, Julia C

    2017-08-28

    Many health departments use a "reactor grid" to determine which laboratory-reported syphilis serologic test results require investigation. We developed a Web-based tool, the Syphilis Reactor Grid Evaluator (SRGE), to facilitate health department reactor grid evaluations and test the tool using data from Seattle & King County, Washington. We developed SRGE using the R Shiny Web application framework. When populated with a data set including titer results and final disposition codes, SRGE displays the percent of verified early syphilis cases by serologic titer result and patient age in each cell of the grid. The results can be optionally stratified by sex, test type, and previous rapid plasma reagin titer. The impact of closing laboratory results without investigation in cells selected by the user is dynamically computed. The SRGE calculates the percent of all laboratory reports closed ("efficiency gained"), the proportion of all early syphilis cases closed without investigation ("case finding loss"), and the ratio of percent of cases identified for investigation to percent of all laboratory reports investigated ("efficiency ratio"). After defining algorithms, users can compare them side-by-side, combine subgroup-specific algorithms, and export results. We used SRGE to compare the current Public Health-Seattle & King County (PHSKC) reactor grid to 5 alternate algorithms. Of 13,504 rapid plasma reagin results reported to PHSKC from January 1, 2006, to December 31, 2015, 1565 were linked to verified early syphilis cases. Updating PHSKC's current reactor grid could result in an efficiency gain of 4.8% to 25.2% (653-3403 laboratory reports) and case finding loss of 1% to 8.4% (10-99 fewer cases investigated). The Syphilis Reactor Grid Evaluator can be used to rapidly evaluate alternative approaches to optimizing the reactor grid. Changing the reactor grid in King County to close more laboratory results without investigation could improve efficiency with minimal impact on

  6. [Application characteristics and situation analysis of volatile oils in database of Chinese patent medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sai-Jun; Wu, Zhen-Feng; Yang, Ming; Wang, Ya-Qi; Hu, Peng-Yi; Jie, Xiao-Lu; Han, Fei; Wang, Fang

    2014-09-01

    Aromatic traditional Chinese medicines have a long history in China, with wide varieties. Volatile oils are active ingredients extracted from aromatic herbal medicines, which usually contain tens or hundreds of ingredients, with many biological activities. Therefore, volatile oils are often used in combined prescriptions and made into various efficient preparations for oral administration or external use. Based on the sources from the database of Newly Edited National Chinese Traditional Patent Medicines (the second edition), the author selected 266 Chinese patent medicines containing volatile oils in this paper, and then established an information sheet covering such items as name, dosage, dosage form, specification and usage, and main functions. Subsequently, on the basis of the multidisciplinary knowledge of pharmaceutics, traditional Chinese pharmacology and basic theory of traditional Chinese medicine, efforts were also made in the statistics of the dosage form and usage, variety of volatile oils and main functions, as well as the status analysis on volatile oils in terms of the dosage form development, prescription development, drug instruction and quality control, in order to lay a foundation for the further exploration of the market development situations of volatile oils and the future development orientation.

  7. Application of nanotechnology in the treatment and diagnosis of gastrointestinal cancers: review of recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prados, Jose; Melguizo, Consolacion; Perazzoli, Gloria; Cabeza, Laura; Carrasco, Esther; Oliver, Jaime; Jiménez-Luna, Cristina; Leiva, Maria C; Ortiz, Raúl; Álvarez, Pablo J; Aranega, Antonia

    2014-01-01

    Gastrointestinal cancers remain one of the main causes of death in developed countries. The main obstacles to combating these diseases are the limitations of current diagnostic techniques and the low stability, availability, and/or specificity of pharmacological treatment. In recent years, nanotechnology has revolutionized many fields of medicine, including oncology. The association of chemotherapeutic agents with nanoparticles offers improvement in the solubility and stability of antitumor agents, avoidance of drug degradation, and reductions in therapeutic dose and toxicity, increasing drug levels in tumor tissue and decreasing them in healthy tissue. The use of specific molecules that drive nanoparticles to the tumor tissue represents a major advance in therapeutic specificity. In addition, the use of nanotechnology in contrast agents has yielded improvements in the diagnosis and the follow-up of tumors. These nanotechnologies have all been applied in gastrointestinal cancer treatment, first in vitro, and subsequently in vivo, with promising results reported in some clinical trials. A large number of patents have been generated by nanotechnology research over recent years. The objective of this paper is to review patents on the clinical use of nanoparticles for gastrointestinal cancer diagnosis and therapy and to offer an overview of the impact of nanotechnology on the management of this disease.

  8. 专利之产业应用性含义的逻辑展开%Study on the Logical Expansion of the Meaning of Patent Practical Applicability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨德桥

    2016-01-01

    实用性是专利授权的实质条件之一。我国专利审查指南将实用性定义为产业应用性。产业应用性意味着申请专利保护的发明创造具有直接的实践性,可为商业化经营,可稳定地再现,且具备技术性特征。产业应用性的逻辑含义,是对专利成文法、案例法和专利实践的分析总结,根本上来源于专利制度赖以生存的工商业自身规律性。%Utility is one of the essential conditions of patent .In Chinese Patent Examination Guidelines ,utility is defined as practical applicability .Practical applicability means that the invention can be directly used in practice ,can be used for com‐mercial operation ,can be stably reproduced ,and has the technical characteristics .T he logical meaning of practical applica‐bility is the analysis and summary of the patent law ,case law and patent practice ,w hich is originated from the law of the industry and Commerce for the survival of the patent system .

  9. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners' bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm's experience in patenting, the number of

  10. The backlog issue in patents: A look at the European case

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Backlogs can be caused by an increase in the number of patent applications and patent size. A large number of patents granted could be explained by patent examiners’ bonuses, legal and cultural contexts, claim forms, the geographical origin of patents, a firm’s experience in patenting, the number of

  11. 新中国《专利法》诞生后最早发明专利申请的认定研究%Study on the affirmation of application for the earliest patent of invention after the birth of Patent Law of People’s Republic of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁海德; 綦晓卿; 周晓梅

    2013-01-01

    The study analyzes the Chinese patent literatures on the patent application for the earliest patent of invention after the birth of Patent Law of People’s Republic of China. The result shows that the patents applied for on the day when Patent Law became effective (April 1, 1985) are the first applications on the first implementation day of the Patent Law, not“the earliest patent applications”after the birth of Patent Law. The earliest patent applications were presented by posting the patent application documents before the implementation day of Patent Law, including 6 pieces. Of the 6 applications, 3 were applied by domestic applicants, and 3 were applied by foreign applicants. The earliest domestic applications were made on January 13, 1985, and the earliest foreign applications were made on January 10, 1985. This affirmation is of great importance in the study of the history of patent and science in contemporary China.%对我国《专利法》诞生后最早提出专利申请的中国发明专利文献进行了研究,结果表明:我国《专利法》实施日(1985年4月1日)申请的专利是新中国《专利法》诞生后的“首日专利申请”,而非“最早专利申请”。最早的发明专利申请,当是申请人在《专利法》实施日之前,以邮寄专利申请文件的方式提出的,共计6件。按申请人国籍区分,包括国内申请3件,国外申请3件,其中国内最早的专利申请是在1985年1月13日,国外最早的专利申请是在1985年1月10日。这一认定研究对于我国现当代专利史、科技史研究具有重要的参考价值。

  12. Recent patents in RNA silencing in plants: constructs, methods and applications in plant biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Gomollón, Sara; Dalmay, Tamas

    2010-11-01

    RNA silencing is a recently discovered mechanism to regulate gene expression at transcriptional and posttranscriptional levels. It is based on the recognition and methylation of target genes or cleavage of target mRNAs by small RNA molecules, with length varying from 21 to 24 nucleotides. RNA silencing plays an important role modulating most of the important cell processes, such as growth, development or stress response. During the past few years, diverse strategies have been applied to exploit RNA silencing as a tool to create plants with enhanced economical properties or able to cope with pathogens or abiotic stress. This review describes the most important patents related to RNA silencing in plants, which disclose vectors designed to induce RNA silencing by hairpin RNAs, amplicons or virus-based plasmids, methods for detection and quantification of silencing as well as general uses in plant biotechnology.

  13. Drug repurposing and the prior art patents of competitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sternitzke, Christian

    2014-12-01

    Drug repurposing (i.e., finding novel indications for established substances) has received increasing attention in industry recently. One challenge of repositioned drugs is obtaining effective patent protection, especially if the 'novel' indications have already been claimed by competitors within the same drug class. Here, I report the case of patents relating to phosphodiesterase type 5 (PDE5) inhibitors. Patentees of later-filed patents on novel indications (even when they could not observe prior patenting of their direct competitors) filed patents for which patent examiners did not see the prior-filed patents of the competitors as relevant prior art, whereas these follower patent applications often failed because of other reasons.

  14. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...... containing 421 EPO-patenting firms in Denmark....

  15. Hypertensive intracranial hematomas: endoscopic-assisted keyhole evacuation and application of patent viewing dissector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱永明; 林毅兴; 田鑫; 罗其中

    2003-01-01

    Objective To study the effect of endoscopic-assisted keyhole operation (EAKO) on treating hypertensive intracranial hematomas and the value of our patent dissector appli ed during the operation.Methods A total of 25 patients with hypertensive intracranial hematomas underwent endos copic-assisted keyhole evacuation, during which, the viewing dissector, which h ad recently achieved national patent, was connected to the tip of endoscope and used to help dissect hematomas. The outcome of this procedure were compared wit h those of 22 comparable cases undergone conventional surgical treatment (large or smaller craniotomy). The items for comparison included the volum e of remaining hematoma, the duration of operation, postsurgical Glasgow Coma Sc ale (GCS) and Glasgow Outcome Scale (GOS).Results Remaining hematoma was ascertained 48 h after operation with the use of computerized tomography (CT) scans. In the case of EAKO, nearly complete evacuation (>84%) was achieved in 21 cases; GCS was evaluated at 7 d postsurgery result ing in GCS >12 in 9 patients, GCS 9-12 in 12 patients and GCS <9 in 4 patients. The follow-up period ranged from 6 to 21 mon. GOS was estimated at half a year and good recovery rate as defined by GOS was assigned to 76% of the EAKO pa tients. There are significant differences in the volumes of remaining hematomas and the duration of operation between the EAKO and craniotomy group (P<0.0 5). In addition, better clinical outcomes were obtained in EAKO. Conclusion EAKO has the advantage of being minimally invasive, improving surgical results and the prognosis of hypertensive intracranial hematoma patients. We conclude th at keyhole operation is a safe, effective alternative for removal of hypertensiv e intracranial hematoma, particularly during acute stages.

  16. Facilitating Conditions for School Motivation: Construct Validity and Applicability

    Science.gov (United States)

    McInerney, Dennis M.; Dowson, Martin; Yeung, Alexander Seeshing

    2005-01-01

    Elementary students (n = 277, in Grades 5-6) and high school students (n = 615, in Grades 7-12) responded to 26 items of McInerneys Facilitating Conditions Questionnaire (FCQ). Confirmatory factor analyses of the FCQ found seven distinct factors underlying these items. These were perceived value of schooling (Value), affect toward schooling…

  17. 企业专利申请的误区及策略∗%Mistakes and Strategies of Patent Applications for Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    华鹰

    2015-01-01

    企业申请专利的目的除了寻求法律保障以避免他人擅自使用外,也寻求技术授权或转让等路径来实现专利的商品化,以获得价值的最大化。当企业研发出一项新产品或新方法后,有无市场前景;是申请专利还是采用技术诀窍、有无后续研发的可能、能不能形成产品的专利布局、应何时提出专利申请、权利要求书怎么撰写,这都是企业决策层需要认真考量与谋划的。%Patent application of an enterprise not only aims to search for legal guarantee avoiding unauthorized use of the patent by others, but also intends to search for commercialization of patent by means of license or assignment of technology to achieve maximal value. When an enterprise develops a new product or method, decision⁃makers of the enterprise should carefully consider and plan for the following issues:whether the new product or method has market prospects;whether the enterprise should file patent application or adopt technical know⁃how;whether there is possibility for follow⁃up research and development;whether the enterprise can form patent portfolio of the product or method;when the enterprise shall file the patent application;and how the enterprise shall write the claims.

  18. Formulation Patents and Dermatology and Obviousness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josephine Liu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Most patents covering dermatologic products contain patent claims directed to the pharmaceutical formulation of the product. Such patents, known as formulation patents, are vulnerable to attacks based on the legal argument that the formulations covered are obvious over formulations already known prior to the filing of the patent application. Because obviousness is an important concept in patent law, recent court cases concerning obviousness and formulation patents were examined and discussed below. Courts have ruled that patent claims are obvious when features of the claimed formulation are found in the prior art, even if the features or characteristics of the formulation are not explicitly disclosed in the prior art. However, patentees have successfully overcome obviousness challenges where there were unexpected results or properties and/or the prior art taught away from the claimed invention.

  19. 75 FR 15419 - Notice of Intent To Grant Exclusive License of U.S. Patent Application No. 12/432,842 Filed April...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-29

    .... ADDRESSES: United States Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Waterways Experiment Station, Attn...-government inventors. The technology claimed in this patent application improves a soil's resistance to deformation, prevents complete rewetting of the soil which improves freeze-thaw resistance and durability,...

  20. Recent patents on molecular cytogenetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iourov, Ivan Y; Vorsanova, Svetlana G; Yurov, Yuri B

    2008-01-01

    The questions surrounding patenting of DNA sequences encoding specific proteins are relatively well reviewed in the available literature. However, neither applications nor molecular cytogenetic techniques, which use these sequences as a probe, have been reviewed in the light of the patenting. Furthermore, the patenting of the use of numerous probes, which are produced on different types of repetitive genome elements (i.e. satellite DNA or telomeric DNA sequences) and those generated by chromosome microdissection has not been reviewed. Molecular cytogenetic techniques are one of the most applied in current bioscience (as to June 2007, over 40,000 papers in browseable scientific databases mention one or several molecular cytogenetic techniques). Therefore, reviewing recent patents in this field is of general interest for numerous researchers in different areas of biology and medicine. Here, we address world-wide patents on DNA sequences used as molecular cytogenetic probes and molecular cytogenetic techniques to define current state and perspectives of this biomedical direction.

  1. Patents and the supply of therapeutic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayhurst, W L

    1992-01-01

    In some countries protests against the grant of exclusive rights in developments that benefit humanity have caused limits to be placed on the scope of patent rights. A characteristic of all modern patent systems is that the invention that one seeks to patent must have some practical utility and be new. The US is making patent protection available even for methods of medical treatment and for non human living things. A patent will expire in most developed countries 20 years from the filing of the application except in the US which grants patents from 17 years. India, China, and Brazil grant patents for shorter terms. In Australia and New Zealand, the term of a patent may be extended. In France and the US; extensions of term are possible only for medically related inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the right, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented inventions. A patent grants to the owner of the patent the rights, during its term, to exclude others from making, using, or selling the patented invention. A patent owner who attempts to enforce a patent may be faced with a challenge that the patentee has misbehaved. In the US an alleged infringer may argue that the patentee misled the Patent Office when applying for the patent. The Patent laws of many countries enable the government to use patented inventions but compensate patent owners. Under sections 37 and 38 of the French patent legislation the government may decree that licenses are available in the interests of public health. In connection with Roussel-Uclaf's mifepristone, RU-486 it has been reported that such a decree cannot be made for a medicine that has not been approved by the government for distribution. The Canadian government has announced its intention to cancel the provisions in the Canadian Patent Act relating to compulsory licensing of medicines. Negotiations are continuing under the General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade that may lead to an

  2. 48 CFR 31.205-30 - Patent costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent costs. 31.205-30....205-30 Patent costs. (a) The following patent costs are allowable to the extent that they are incurred... patent application where title or royalty-free license is to be conveyed to the Government. (b)...

  3. US photovoltaic patents: 1991--1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pohle, L

    1995-03-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1991 to 1993. The entries were located by searching USPA, the database of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors, and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaic. Some patents on these three subjects were included when ft appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  4. 75 FR 34749 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-18

    ... Patent Extension; BYSTOLIC; U.S. Patent Nos. 5,759,580 and 6,545,040 AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration... has made the determination because of the submission of applications to the Director of Patents and Trademarks, Department of Commerce, for the extension of a patent which claims that human drug...

  5. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  6. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Powder River Basin for the potential application of a production process patented by Jack W. McIntyre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kvasnicka, D.E.

    1993-08-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of a patented (US Patent Office No. 4,766,957) process developed by Jack W. McIntyre for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Powder River Basin. General research, based on a review of published literature from both private and public sources, indicates that the shallow, thick subbituminous coal seams found in the Powder River Basin exhibit significant potential for the application of this patented process. These coal deposits can be characterized, on the basis of established coalbed methane production, as being highly water productive. The desorption and economic recovery of coalbed methane, widely believed to be biogenic in origin, from these low-grade deposits will require the subsequent dewatering of these geologic formations. The patented process, developed by Mr. McIntyre and described in the compendium of this study, may offer a cost-effective means of methane recovery and downhole disposal of produced groundwaters.

  7. 中药在美国的专利申请与专利适格性探讨Δ%Discussion on Chinese Medicines’Patent Application and Eligibility in the United States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄踔基; 田思齐; 唐先博; 胡元佳

    2016-01-01

    目的:为中药在美国通过专利申请提供参考。方法:阐述美国对专利适格性的要求,分析近年来2起具有较大影响的专利案(“Mayo案”“Myriad案”)与“专利适格性指南”对中药在美国申请专利的影响,并结合中药申请专利的现状提出建议。结果与结论:美国的专利适格性,要求专利保护客体在专利法规定的可授予专利权的客体范围内。通过对“Mayo案”“Myriad案”与“专利适格性指南”的分析表明,中药相关专利要想在美国通过专利申请,必须明确指出该发明与自然规律、天然产物的显著区别,重点突出其技术属性,且不同类型的发明采用不同的专利申请思路,以确保其具有专利适格性。目前,我国在美国的中药专利数量较少,企业应走出“中药不具有专利适格性”这一认识误区。建议在申请有关中药专利时,应避免将第一独立权利要求写得过于具体,同时对药材进行更加全面的申请,加强对经典中药方剂的专利保护,突出中药的专利适格性。%OBJECTIVE:To provide reference for the approval of Chinese medicines’patent application in the United States. METHODS:The requirements of patent eligibility in the United States were interpreted;two important patent cases(“Mayo case”and“Myriad case”)were analyzed in recent years,and the effects of“patent eligibility guideline”on Chinese medicines’patent ap-plication in the United States were also analyzed;the suggestions were put forward according to the situation of Chinese medicines’ patent application. RESULTS & CONCLUSIONS:Patent eligibility required that patent protection objects should be included in ob-ject range which could be vested patent right stated in patent law. The analysis of“Mayo case”“Myriad case”and patent eligibility guideline indicated that if related Chinese medicines’patent was to obtain patent approval

  8. Application of the Honeybee Mating Optimization Algorithm to Patent Document Classification in Combination with the Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chui-Yu Chiu

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Patent rights have the property of exclusiveness. Inventors can protect their rights in the legal range and have monopoly for their open inventions. People are not allowed to use an invention before the inventors permit them to use it. Companies try to avoid the research and development investment in inventions that have been protected by patent. Patent retrieval and categorization technologies are used to uncover patent information to reduce the cost of torts. In this research, we propose a novel method which integrates the Honey-Bee Mating Optimization algorithm with Support Vector Machines for patent categorization. First, the CKIP method is utilized to extract phrases of the patent summary and title. Then we calculate the probability that a specific key phrase contains a certain concept based on Term Frequency - Inverse Document Frequency (TF-IDF methods. By combining frequencies and the probabilities of key phases generated by using the Honey-Bee Mating Optimization algorithm, our proposed method is expected to obtain better representative input values for the SVM model. Finally, this research uses patents from Chemical Mechanical Polishing (CMP as case examples to illustrate and demonstrate the superior results produced by the proposed methodology.

  9. A Database of EPO-Patenting Firms in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    1998-01-01

    The first section gives a brief introduction of the basic stages to be observed by the patent applicant from idea to the patent is granted. Section two presents three examples of how patents are registered in the online patent database INPADOC. Section three accounts for the initial analysis...... of the existing patent stock issued to firms with domicile in Denmark. Sections four and five report the basic characteristics of the EPO-patent sample and the procedures for linking the patent statistics to accounting data at the firm level, and finally they present the basic properties of the resulting database...

  10. Patent Law for Computer Scientists

    Science.gov (United States)

    Closa, Daniel; Gardiner, Alex; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    More than five centuries ago the first patent statute was passed by the Venetian senate. It already had most of the features of modern patent law, recognizing the public interest in innovation and granting exclusive right in exchange for a full disclosure. Some 350 years later the industrial revolution led to globalisation. The wish to protect intellectual property on a more international level evolved and supranational treaties were negotiated. Patent laws are still different in many countries, however, and inventors are sometimes at a loss to understand which basic requirements should be satisfied if an invention is to be granted a patent. This is particularly true for inventions implemented on a computer. While roughly a third of all applications (and granted patents) relate, in one way or another, to a computer, applications where the innovation mainly resides in software or in a business method are treated differently by the major patent offices. The procedures at the USPTO, JPO and EPO and, in particular, the differences in the treatment of applications centring on software are briefly explained. In later sections of this book, a wealth of examples will be presented. The methodology behind the treatment of these examples is explained.

  11. Ending the Patenting Monopoly

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Michael Abramowicz; John F. Duffy

    2009-01-01

    .... This patenting monopoly, which is almost certainly undesirable, is now being eroded. Rising global trade and technological sophistication have increased the number of patent filings in every country...

  12. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  13. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  14. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  15. How patent experts create patent breadth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    2014-01-01

    Science as an input to patented inventions is a fundamental of economic growth. However, our understanding of how science is transformed into patents is limited. In the present paper I seek to fill this gap by examining the micro-foundations of science-patent transformations. Using an inductive......, grounded theory approach to study the transformation of 12 scientific discoveries into patents I recast the relationship between science and patents: I show it as a particular process that affects patent breadth. Exploiting surplus patent breadth depends on the processes of abstraction and cognitive...... variety, which can be mobilized by patenting experts. The theory is tested using a recently published algebraic interpretive method for examining causal relationships in small-N studies....

  16. Motivation and Influencing Factor of Enterprise's Patent Application%企业专利申请动机及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    侯媛媛; 刘云; 谭龙

    2012-01-01

    Based on the literature review,this paper summarizes the motivation of enterprise's patent application and its influencing factors,and studies the effect of innovation subject behavior on patent application growth from the micro level.Then taking Huawei as the research example,it analyzes the incentive factors of its patent application.Finally it draws the conclusion that intellectual property system,RD input,reward mechanism,performance appraisal system,intellectual property management and intellectual property strategy are the important incentive factors of affecting patent application growth.%针对多年来我国企业专利申请量持续增长的现象,在对现有文献和相关政策系统梳理的基础上,归纳总结了企业专利申请的动机———市场化动机、非市场化动机和战略性动机。以华为技术有限公司为案例,研究了该公司专利申请的内部激励因素。研究结果表明:知识产权制度、研发投入、奖励机制、绩效考评体系、知识产权管理体系、知识产权战略等是企业申请专利的主要激励因素。

  17. 37 CFR 1.821 - Nucleotide and/or amino acid sequence disclosures in patent applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Biotechnology Invention Disclosures Application Disclosures Containing Nucleotide And/or Amino Acid Sequences... sequences are specifically excluded from this definition. Sequences with fewer than four specifically... acids are not intended to be embraced by this definition. Any amino acid sequence that contains...

  18. 75 FR 33584 - Request for Comments on Proposed Changes to Restriction Practice in Patent Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-14

    ... That Include Claims Containing Alternative Language, 72 FR 44992 (Aug. 10, 2007), 1322 Off. Gaz. Pat... characteristics (see MPEP Sec. Sec. 806 through 806.05(f)); (2) the inventions as claimed are not obvious variants... claims of an application define the same essential characteristics of a single invention, e.g.,...

  19. Pre-empted Patents, Infringed Patents and Firms’ Participation in Markets for Technology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk their patent applications to be pre-empted or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...... patents on firms’ engagement in in- and cross-licensing. Based on a sample of more than 1100 German manufacturing firms our results show that firms engage in in-licensing as a reaction to pre-empted patents and in cross-licensing if their protected IP was infringed upon. However, these effects vary...

  20. Trends in nanotechnology patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hsinchun; Roco, Mihail C.; Li, Xin; Lin, Yiling

    2008-03-01

    An analysis of 30 years of data on patent publications from the US Patent and Trademark Office, the European Patent Office and the Japan Patent Office confirms the dominance of companies and selected academic institutions from the US, Europe and Japan in the commercialization of nanotechnology.

  1. Are There Enduring Patents?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noma, Elliot; Olivastro, Dominic

    1985-01-01

    A study comparing citations received by patents in given year to number received in subsequent years found that, even though influential patents remain influential, both highly and infrequently cited patents age at same rate. Distribution of patents by number of citations received is stable over time. (17 references) (EJS)

  2. Protecting new ideas and inventions in nanomedicine with patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawa, Raj; Bawa, S R; Maebius, Stephen B; Flynn, Ted; Wei, Chiming

    2005-06-01

    New paradigms are shrinking our world. Tiny is in and patents are essential for success in nanomedicine. In fact, patents are already shaping this nascent and rapidly evolving field. For the past decade a swarm of patent applications pertaining to nanomedicine has been arriving at the US Patent and Trademark Office (PTO). As companies develop products and processes and begin to seek commercial applications for their inventions, securing valid and defensible patent protection will be vital to their long-term survival. As we enter the "golden era" of medicine, or nanomedicine, in the next decade with the field maturing and the promised breakthroughs accruing, patents will generate licensing revenue, provide leverage in deals and mergers, and reduce the likelihood of infringement. Because development of nanobiotechnology- and nanomedicine-related products is extremely research intensive, without the market exclusivity offered by a US patent, development of these products and their commercial viability in the marketplace will be significantly hampered. In this article, we highlight critical issues relating to patenting nanomedicine products. Effects of the "nanopatent land grab" that is underway in nanomedicine by "patent prospectors" are examined as startups and corporations compete to lock up broad patents in these critical early days. Because nanomedicine is multidisciplinary, patenting presents unique opportunities and poses numerous challenges. Although patents are being sought more actively and enforced more vigorously, the entire patent system is under greater scrutiny and strain, with the PTO continuing to struggle with evaluating nanomedicine-related patent applications.

  3. 78 FR 70294 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License Pursuant to the provisions of Part.... Provisional Patent Application No. 61/354,522, filed on June 14, 2010, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC AND...-provisional Patent Application No. 13/159,950, filed on June 14, 2011, entitled ``SUPERHYDROPHILIC...

  4. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioan C. Cucoranu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Materials and Methods: Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO database (www.uspto.gov (through January 2014 were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA. Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI, image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands. Results: A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18% were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82% included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12% patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75% more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus, quality (z-stacks, management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files, and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI

  5. Digital pathology: A systematic evaluation of the patent landscape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucoranu, Ioan C; Parwani, Anil V; Vepa, Suryanarayana; Weinstein, Ronald S; Pantanowitz, Liron

    2014-01-01

    Digital pathology is a relatively new field. Inventors of technology in this field typically file for patents to protect their intellectual property. An understanding of the patent landscape is crucial for companies wishing to secure patent protection and market dominance for their products. To our knowledge, there has been no prior systematic review of patents related to digital pathology. Therefore, the aim of this study was to systematically identify and evaluate United States patents and patent applications related to digital pathology. Issued patents and patent applications related to digital pathology published in the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) database (www.uspto.gov) (through January 2014) were searched using the Google Patents search engine (Google Inc., Mountain View, California, USA). Keywords and phrases related to digital pathology, whole-slide imaging (WSI), image analysis, and telepathology were used to query the USPTO database. Data were downloaded and analyzed using the Papers application (Mekentosj BV, Aalsmeer, Netherlands). A total of 588 United States patents that pertain to digital pathology were identified. In addition, 228 patent applications were identified, including 155 that were pending, 65 abandoned, and eight rejected. Of the 588 patents granted, 348 (59.18%) were specific to pathology, while 240 (40.82%) included more general patents also usable outside of pathology. There were 70 (21.12%) patents specific to pathology and 57 (23.75%) more general patents that had expired. Over 120 unique entities (individual inventors, academic institutions, and private companies) applied for pathology specific patents. Patents dealt largely with telepathology and image analysis. WSI related patents addressed image acquisition (scanning and focus), quality (z-stacks), management (storage, retrieval, and transmission of WSI files), and viewing (graphical user interface (GUI), workflow, slide navigation and remote control). An

  6. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric'' and the subclasses Photoelectric,'' Testing,'' and Applications.'' The search also located patents that contained the words photovoltaic(s)'' or solar cell(s)'' and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  7. US Photovoltaic Patents, 1988--1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1991-12-01

    This document contains US patents on terrestrial photovoltaic (PV) power applications, including systems, components, and materials, as well as manufacturing and support functions. The patent entries in this document were issued from 1988 through 1990. The entries were located by searching USPA, the data base of the US Patent Office. The final search retrieved all patents under the class ``Batteries, Thermoelectric and Photoelectric`` and the subclasses ``Photoelectric,`` ``Testing,`` and ``Applications.`` The search also located patents that contained the words ``photovoltaic(s)`` or ``solar cell(s)`` and their derivatives. A manual search of the patents in the Solar Energy Research Institute (SERI) patent file augmented the data base search. After the initial list was compiled, most of the patents on the following subjects were excluded: space photovoltaic technology, use of the photovoltaic effect for detectors and subjects only peripherally concerned with photovoltaics. Some patents on these three subjects were included when it appeared that those inventions might be of use in terrestrial PV power technologies.

  8. Patent analysis for competitive technical intelligence and innovative thinking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Dou

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are a very useful source of technical information. The public availability of patents over the Internet, with for some databases (eg. Espacenet the assurance of a constant format, allows the development of high value added products using this information source and provides an easy way to analyze patent information. This simple and powerful tool facilitates the use of patents in academic research, in SMEs and in developing countries providing a way to use patents as a ideas resource thus improving technological innovation.

  9. Analysis of Patent Databases Using VxInsight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYACK,KEVIN W.; WYLIE,BRIAN N.; DAVIDSON,GEORGE S.; JOHNSON,DAVID K.

    2000-12-12

    We present the application of a new knowledge visualization tool, VxInsight, to the mapping and analysis of patent databases. Patent data are mined and placed in a database, relationships between the patents are identified, primarily using the citation and classification structures, then the patents are clustered using a proprietary force-directed placement algorithm. Related patents cluster together to produce a 3-D landscape view of the tens of thousands of patents. The user can navigate the landscape by zooming into or out of regions of interest. Querying the underlying database places a colored marker on each patent matching the query. Automatically generated labels, showing landscape content, update continually upon zooming. Optionally, citation links between patents may be shown on the landscape. The combination of these features enables powerful analyses of patent databases.

  10. Application of patent retrieval in the enterprise of scientific research%论专利检索在企业科研工作中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖公平; 刘丹

    2014-01-01

    本文通过介绍专利检索在本企业科研工作中的实际应用,阐述了专利检索在企业科研工作中具有确定立项高起点、开拓技术新领域、规避技术侵权风险、实现技术借鉴和产品营销等重大作用,证明了专利检索在引领科研创新的发展新方向。%This paper introduces the practical application of patent retrieval in scientific research work of the enterprise, expounds the patent retrieval with high starting point, in the enterprise of scientific research projects in scientific research and open up a new field,technology of circumvention of technological infringement risk, reference and product marketing major role, proof of patent retrieval in a new direction for research and innovation.

  11. An Analysis of the Patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xijuan; LI; Qing; CHEN; Bingjiang; XU; Xinxin; REN; Huasun; HUANG; Qiong; LI

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly analyzes the application data of patents concerning Hevea brasiliensis in the world and China from the perspectives of time,research field,and the geographical distribution of applicants. It also interprets the patents for invention in China from time,research field,and types of applicants. Based on the study,it shows that although the patent applications fluctuate,the general trend is rising. And the patents are mostly concentrated in plant protection,and agricultural biotechnology. The Chinese applicants of patents for invention largely work in the research institutes,and most of these patents focus on the field of plant protection,agricultural biotechnology,and agro-processing.However,the foreign applicants mainly work in companies,and most of these patents only focus on plant protection. These findings will provide a reference for formulating development policies about natural rubber industry in China.

  12. U.S. Patent Pending, Information Security Analysis Using Game Theory and Simulation, U.S. Patent Application No.: 14/097,840

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abercrombie, Robert K [ORNL; Schlicher, Bob G [ORNL

    2013-01-01

    Vulnerability in security of an information system is quantitatively predicted. The information system may receive malicious actions against its security and may receive corrective actions for restoring the security. A game oriented agent based model is constructed in a simulator application. The game ABM model represents security activity in the information system. The game ABM model has two opposing participants including an attacker and a defender, probabilistic game rules and allowable game states. A specified number of simulations are run and a probabilistic number of the plurality of allowable game states are reached in each simulation run. The probability of reaching a specified game state is unknown prior to running each simulation. Data generated during the game states is collected to determine a probability of one or more aspects of security in the information system.

  13. The Definition and Legal Application of Common General Knowledge in Chinese Patent Practice%公知常识的概念以及法律适用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋海宁

    2015-01-01

    In evaluating the inventive step of a patent application, how to ap ̄ply “common general knowledge” is critical for examiners or judges in patent pros ̄ecution, patent invalidation or patent litigation proceedings. However, this concept is never clearly defined in the Chinese patent related laws or regulations. Accord ̄ingly, debates over this issue last for years among patent right holders, lawyers, patent examiners, judges, law professors and other practitioners. It is found that these debates largely focus on two key questions: ( 1 ) the definition and scope of“common general knowledge” and ( 2 ) the evidentiary rule related to “common general knowledge”. Actually, such debates arise from a policy choice, i. e. , which one has higher priority, efficiency or fair procedure? After studying the Chi ̄nese patent policy and recent judicial precedents, the author tries to give a balan ̄cing answer to said questions. A brief introduction of related rules in U. S. , Eu ̄rope, Japan, Korea on “common general knowledge” is also given in this paper.%公知常识这一概念在中国的专利法律、法规、行政规章中并没有清晰的定义。但是,公知常识在评价专利的创造性时起到了非常关键作用,因此在专利授权、确权的审查程序、无效程序、诉讼程序中常常成为争议的焦点。中国专利局、法院、学术界、实务界对公知常识的讨论一直比较多,本文对其进行了初步梳理,各方争议焦点主要集中在:(1)公知常识的概念及范围;(2)涉及公知常识的举证规则。事实上,对于公知常识举证规则的争议源于对效率和公平的取舍。从中国的实际情况出发,结合考虑当前的司法政策,本文对上述争议问题提出了相应的建议。本文还简单介绍了美国、欧洲、日本、韩国专利局对公知常识的相关规定。

  14. Herbal drug patenting in India: IP potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, Niharika; Manchikanti, Padmavati; Dey, Satya Hari

    2011-09-01

    Herbal drugs are gaining worldwide prominence due to their distinct advantages. Developing countries have started exploring the ethnopharmacological approach of drug discovery and have begun to file patents on herbal drugs. The expansion of R&D in Indian herbal research organizations and presence of manufacturing units at non-Indian sites is an indication of the capability to develop new products and processes. The present study attempts to identify innovations in the Indian herbal drug sector by analyzing the patenting trends in India, US and EU. Based on key word and IPC based search at the IPO, USPTO, Esp@cenet and WIPO databases, patent applications and grant in herbal drugs by Indian applicants/assignees was collected for the last ten years (from 1st January 2001 to 31st October 2010). From this collection patents related to human therapeutic use only were selected. Analysis was performed to identify filing trends, major applicants/assignees, disease area and major plant species used for various treatments. There is a gradual increase in patent filing through the years. In India, individual inventors have maximum applications and grants. CSIR, among research organizations and Hindustan Unilever, Avesthagen, Piramal Life Science, Sahajanand Biotech and Indus Biotech among the companies have the maximum granted patents in India, US and EU respectively. Diabetes, cancer and inflammatory disorders are the major areas for patenting in India and abroad. Recent patents are on new herbal formulations for treatment of AIDS, hepatitis, skin disorders and gastrointestinal disorders. A majority of the herbal patents applications and grants in India are with individual inventors. Claim analysis indicates that these patents include novel multi-herb compositions with synergistic action. Indian research organizations are more active than companies in filing for patents. CSIR has maximum numbers of applications not only in India but also in the US and EU. Patents by research

  15. Technical Analysis of upstream Patent Application on Beidou Industry Chain%北斗产业链上游专利申请技术分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李军; 张扬

    2015-01-01

    Beidou navigation system is a Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) with independent intellectual property rights in China, and is one of the top four GNSS. Presently, Beidou navigation industry is entering high speed development period. While the patent technology centered on Beidou chip locates leading position in the whole Beidou industry chain and is a hotspot of current development and future market competition. From the perspective of patent application analysis, by the means of diagram, the trend in patent application, regional distribution and important applicant of the upstream of Beidou industry chain are statistically analyzed and researched in this paper from the whole to the various branches.%北斗导航系统是我国具有自主知识产权的卫星定位系统,是全球四大卫星导航系统之一。目前,北斗导航产业正进入高速发展期,而以北斗芯片为核心的专利技术位于整个北斗产业链的龙头地位,是当前研发和将来市场争夺的热点。本文从专利申请分析的视角,以图表的方式,对北斗产业链上游从整体到各个分支的专利申请趋势、区域分布、重要申请人进行了统计分析和内容研究。

  16. Patent ductus arteriosus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001560.htm Patent ductus arteriosus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a condition in which the ductus ...

  17. Clean coal and patent policy in Romania

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Florin Popa [State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (Romania)

    2003-07-01

    The talk explained the importance of intellectual property protection to both industry and business. Applications for patents and utility models (for inventions), trademarks and industrial designs are filed with the State Office for Inventions and Trademarks (OSIM) in Romania; Trade secrets and how they can be kept, are discussed. The routes to follow before filing a patent application are outlined. An example is given of how to search for patents on 'clean coal' on the European Patents Office's database. The abstract of one patent is presented. This is entitled: 'Clean combustion of coal, utility of the concomitant products of the clean combustion and the product by using the concomitant products'. 23 PowerPoint slides are also available in the proceedings. 1 fig.

  18. 77 FR 65673 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... National Institute of Standards and Technology Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License AGENCY... patent license. SUMMARY: This is a notice in accordance with 35 U.S.C. 209(e) and 37 CFR 404.7(a)(1)(i... and commonwealths, to NIST's interest in the invention embodied in U.S. Patent Application No....

  19. 76 FR 57720 - Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-16

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent To Grant an Exclusive Patent License SUMMARY: Pursuant to the provisions... exclusive license in any right, title and interest the United States Air Force has in: U.S. Patent... license for the invention described in this patent application will be granted unless a written...

  20. Patent Blocking and Infringement and their Effects on Firms?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grimpe, Christoph; Hussinger, Katrin

    In recent years, firms have increasingly contributed to and been confronted with a patent landscape characterized by numerous but marginal inventions, overlapping claims and patent fences. As a result, firms risk to be blocked in their patent applications or to be infringed upon by rivals. While...

  1. 37 CFR 1.48 - Correction of inventorship in a patent application, other than a reissue application, pursuant to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... arose without any deceptive intention on the part of the person named as an inventor in error or on the part of the person who through error was not named as an inventor, the inventorship of the nonprovisional application may be amended to name only the actual inventor or inventors. Amendment of...

  2. Patent application in biotechnology at subclass C12N in Brazil at the period of 2001 to 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Elisa Buttow

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An analysis of Instituto Nacional de Propriedade Industrial (INPI patent database from 2001 to 2005 showed that less than 5% of the total patent deposited in the subclass C12N, which referred to "Microorganisms or Enzymes, Compositions thereof, Propagating, Preserving or Maintaining Microorganisms, Mutation or Genetic Engineering, Culture Media", were from national depositors. In contrast, more than 34% of all these deposits came from the United States of America during the same period. Among the national depositors, public universities and government research institutions contributed with 83% over all the deposits, demonstrating that research and development in the field of Biotechnology in Brazil has been concentrated within Brazilian public institutions during this period.

  3. Patent portfolio analysis model based on legal status information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xuezhao; WANG; Yajuan; ZHAO; Jing; ZHANG; Ping; ZHAO

    2014-01-01

    Purpose:This research proposes a patent portfolio analysis model based on the legal status information to chart out a competitive landscape in a particular field,enabling organizations to position themselves within the overall technology landscape.Design/methodology/approach:Three indicators were selected for the proposed model:Patent grant rate,valid patents rate and patent maintenance period.The model uses legal status information to perform a qualitative evaluation of relative values of the individual patents,countries or regions’ technological capabilities and competitiveness of patent applicants.The results are visualized by a four-quadrant bubble chart To test the effectiveness of the model,it is used to present a competitive landscape in the lithium ion battery field.Findings:The model can be used to evaluate the values of the individual patents,highlight countries or regions’ positions in the field,and rank the competitiveness of patent applicants in the field.Research limitations:The model currently takes into consideration only three legal status indicators.It is actually feasible to introduce more indicators such as the reason for invalid patents and the distribution of patent maintenance time and associate them with those in the proposed model.Practical implications:Analysis of legal status information in combination of patent application information can help an organization to spot gaps in its patent claim coverage,as well as evaluate patent quality and maintenance situation of its granted patents.The study results can be used to support technology assessment,technology innovation and intellectual property management.Originality/value:Prior studies attempted to assess patent quality or competitiveness by using either single patent legal status indicator or comparative analysis of the impacts of each indicator.However,they are insufficient in presenting the combined effects of the evaluation indicators.Using our model,it appears possible to get a

  4. A user-friendly tool for medical-related patent retrieval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Emilie; Gobeill, Julien; Teodoro, Douglas; Gaudinat, Arnaud; Vishnyakova, Dina; Lovis, Christian; Ruch, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Health-related information retrieval is complicated by the variety of nomenclatures available to name entities, since different communities of users will use different ways to name a same entity. We present in this report the development and evaluation of a user-friendly interactive Web application aiming at facilitating health-related patent search. Our tool, called TWINC, relies on a search engine tuned during several patent retrieval competitions, enhanced with intelligent interaction modules, such as chemical query, normalization and expansion. While the functionality of related article search showed promising performances, the ad hoc search results in fairly contrasted results. Nonetheless, TWINC performed well during the PatOlympics competition and was appreciated by intellectual property experts. This result should be balanced by the limited evaluation sample. We can also assume that it can be customized to be applied in corporate search environments to process domain and company-specific vocabularies, including non-English literature and patents reports.

  5. Gene and genetic diagnostic method patent claims: a comparison under current European and US patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huys, Isabelle; Van Overwalle, Geertrui; Matthijs, Gert

    2011-10-01

    The paper focuses on the fundamental debate that is going on in Europe and the United States about whether genes and genetic diagnostic methods are to be regarded as inventions or subject matter eligible for patent protection, or whether they are discoveries or principles of nature and thus excluded from patentability. The study further explores some possible scenarios of American influences on European patent applications with respect to genetic diagnostic methods. Our analysis points out that patent eligibility for genes and genetic diagnostic methods, as discussed in the United States in the Association of Molecular Pathology versus US Patent and Trademark Office decision, is based on a different reasoning compared with the European Patent Convention.

  6. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe: Applying the ‘medical methods exception’ to emerging technologies is based on the authors PhD dissertation, defended in March 2014, at the University of Copenhagen. The book debates restrictions on the patentability of medical methods in European Patent Law....... The main question addressed is whether it is viable and advisable the reinterpretation, reformulation or replacement of Article 53 (c) EPC – a provision restricting the patenting of medical methods. The subject is approached by reference to emerging technologies, and using nanomedicine innovation...... as example and point of departure. Nanotechnology inventions blur the lines between patentable subject matter and what may fall under the exception from patentability. It is a good example of how in recent years, emerging technologies have been challenging the patent system and exposing the need for re...

  7. Geohydrologic feasibility study of the Piceance Basin of Colorado for the potential applicability of Jack W. McIntyre`s patented gas/produced water separation process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kieffer, F.

    1994-02-01

    Geraghty & Miller, Inc. of Midland, Texas conducted geologic and hydrologic feasibility studies of the potential applicability of Jack McIntyre`s patented process for the recovery of natural gas from coalbed/sand formations in the Piceance Basin through literature surveys. Jack McIntyre`s tool separates produced water from gas and disposes of the water downhole into aquifers unused because of poor water quality, uneconomic lifting costs or poor aquifer deliverability. The beneficial aspects of this technology are two fold. The process increases the potential for recovering previously uneconomic gas resources by reducing produced water lifting, treatment and disposal costs. Of greater importance is the advantage of lessening the environmental impact of produced water by downhole disposal. Results from the survey indicate that research in the Piceance Basin includes studies of the geologic, hydrogeologic, conventional and unconventional recovery oil and gas technologies. Available information is mostly found centered upon the geology and hydrology for the Paleozoic and Mesozoic sediments. Lesser information is available on production technology because of the limited number of wells currently producing in the basin. Limited information is available on the baseline geochemistry of the coal/sand formation waters and that of the potential disposal zones. No determination was made of the compatibility of these waters. The study also indicates that water is often produced in variable quantities with gas from several gas productive formations which would indicate that there are potential applications for Jack McIntyre`s patented tool in the Piceance Basin.

  8. Neglected knowledge in geophysics: Patents - how to find them, how to use them and how to apply for them

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wollny, K. G.

    2013-12-01

    their time, but maybe useful now, and to explore the historical background and/or timelines of inventions. Patent documents can help to avoid pitfalls and mistakes other experts might already have experienced and documented in describing the state of the art or the inspiration for their invention. It will be shown how to get access to these databases, how to use them to solve scientific problems and how to leverage search results to improve expertise, work experience or facilitate personal patent application. Patent documents resemble journal articles a lot - they contain an abstract, a description regarding the state of the art, the applicant's motivation to overcome a deficit, technical figures and claims to protect the invention. This structure is used globally for all patent documents. Besides the technical facts, they include the name of the inventor, the company applying for the patent, patent validity information and potential 'family members', which cover the same invention but often in other languages than the original patent document. To summarize, patent documents are a highly useful tool to strengthen one's knowledge in a practically orientated geophysical field and to widen the horizon to adjacent technical areas.

  9. Nanotechnology patents in the automotive industry (a quantitative & qualitative analysis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasad, Raghavendra; Bandyopadhyay, Tapas K

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the article is to present a trend in patent filings for application of nanotechnology to the automobile sector across the world, using the keyword-based patent search. Overviews of the patents related to nano technology in the automobile industry have been provided. The current work has started from the worldwide patent search to find the patents on nanotechnology in the automobile industry and classify the patents according to the various parts of an automobile to which they are related and the solutions which they are providing. In the next step various graphs have been produced to get an insight into various trends. In next step, analysis of patents in various classifications, have been performed. The trends shown in graphs provide the quantitative analysis whereas; the qualitative analysis has been done in another section. The classifications of patents based on the solution they provide have been performed by reading the claims, titles, abstract and full texts separately. Patentability of nano technology inventions have been discussed in a view to give an idea of requirements and statutory bars to the patentability of nanotechnology inventions. Another objective of the current work is to suggest appropriate framework for the companies regarding use of nano technology in the automobile industry and a suggestive strategy for patenting of the inventions related to the same. For example, US Patent, with patent number US2008-019426A1 discusses the invention related to Lubricant composition. This patent has been studied and classified to fall under classification of automobile parts. After studying this patent, it is deduced that, the problem of friction in engine is being solved by this patent. One classification is the "automobile part" based while other is the basis of "problem being solved". Hence, two classifications, namely reduction in friction and engine were created. Similarly, after studying all the patents, a similar matrix has been created.

  10. Can patents prohibit research? On the social epistemology of patenting and licensing in science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biddle, Justin B

    2014-03-01

    A topic of growing importance within philosophy of science is the epistemic implications of the organization of research. This paper identifies a promising approach to social epistemology--nonideal systems design--and uses it to examine one important aspect of the organization of research, namely the system of patenting and licensing and its role in structuring the production and dissemination of knowledge. The primary justification of patenting in science and technology is consequentialist in nature. Patenting should incentivize research and thereby promote the development of knowledge, which in turn facilitates social progress. Some have disputed this argument, maintaining that patenting actually inhibits knowledge production. In this paper, I make a stronger argument; in some areas of research in the US--in particular, research on GM seeds--patents and patent licenses can be, and are in fact being, used to prohibit some research. I discuss three potential solutions to this problem: voluntary agreements, eliminating patents, and a research exemption. I argue against eliminating patents, and I show that while voluntary agreements and a research exemption could be helpful, they do not sufficiently address the problems of access that are discussed here. More extensive changes in the organization of research are necessary.

  11. NIH Patent Policy | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Public Health Service (PHS) may determine that it is necessary to seek patent protection on its inventions, when doing so would facilitate the commercial development of products or services that will benefit the public health, or when a patent will advance another PHS objective. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  12. Patent Deployment Strategies and Patent Value in LED Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Ming-Fu; Chang, Keng-Wei; Zhou, Wei; Hao, Juan; Yuan, Chien-Chung; Chang, Ke-Chiun

    2015-01-01

    This study applies two variables in the measurement of company patent deployment strategies: patent family depth and earn plan ratio. Patent family depth represents the degree to which certain fields and markets are valued by the patent owner. Earn plan ratio defined as the ratio of the number of patent forward citations to patent family size. Earn plan ratio indicates the degree to which a patent family could be cited by later innovators and competitors. This study applies a logistic regression model in the analysis LED industry data. The results demonstrate that patent value has a positive relationship with the patent family depth, and earn plan ratio.

  13. The patent activity of the Czech R

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kučera Zdeněk

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available An effective knowledge transfer between research institutions and industry is a significant bottleneck in the national innovation system. CR adopted in recent years a series of systemic measures aimed to stimulate the orientation of the R&D organizations towards the generation of knowledge directly applicable in the innovation process and more generally to improve the collaboration of the R&D establishment with the industry. In the majority of programs supporting the applied research patents and industrial designs and utility models are among the anticipated results. The Methodology of the evaluation of R&D organizations implemented in the second half of the last decade brought financial bonuses for the creation of the results in the category of industrial property. Despite of this stimulus CR lags behind the technologically advanced EU countries in the patent activities. The topic of this article is a comparison of the protection of the industrial property rights in the Czech higher education institutions and governmental R&D institutions with selected EU countries. We make use of a couple of quantitative indicators to assess the quality and the technological and the commercial potential of the produced industrial property. Despite a dynamic growth of the patent applications in the CR the number of patent applications relative to the country size is far below the EU-15 average. The Czech research organizations contribute to a higher extent to the number of patent applications then do the analogous institutions in EU-15 countries where the majority of patent applications come from the industrial sphere. The Czech research organizations mainly limit the patent rights to the Czech Republic whereas in the EU-15 countries the opposite is preponderant and only a small fraction of patent applications remains limited to the national environment. Thus the majority of the Czech patents created by research organizations cannot be commercialized on the

  14. Evaluation of Brazilian biotechnology patent activity from 1975 to 2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, F; Delfim, F; Drummond, I; Carmo, A O; Barroca, T M; Horta, C C; Kalapothakis, E

    2012-08-01

    The analysis of patent activity is one methodology used for technological monitoring. In this paper, the activity of biotechnology-related patents in Brazil were analyzed through 30 International Patent Classification (IPC) codes published by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD). We developed a program to analyse the dynamics of the major patent applicants, countries and IPC codes extracted from the Brazilian Patent Office (INPI) database. We also identified Brazilian patent applicants who tried to expand protection abroad via the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). We had access to all patents published online at the INPI from 1975 to July 2010, including 9,791 biotechnology patent applications in Brazil, and 163 PCTs published online at World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO) from 1997 to December 2010. To our knowledge, there are no other online reports of biotechnology patents previous to the years analyzed here. Most of the biotechnology patents filed in the INPI (10.9%) concerned measuring or testing processes involving nucleic acids. The second and third places belonged to patents involving agro-technologies (recombinant DNA technology for plant cells and new flowering plants, i.e. angiosperms, or processes for obtaining them, and reproduction of flowering plants by tissue culture techniques). The majority of patents (87.2%) were filed by nonresidents, with USA being responsible for 51.7% of all biotechnology patents deposited in Brazil. Analyzing the resident applicants per region, we found a hub in the southeast region of Brazil. Among the resident applicants for biotechnology patents filed in the INPI, 43.5% were from São Paulo, 18.3% were from Rio de Janeiro, and 9.7% were from Minas Gerais. Pfizer, Novartis, and Sanofi were the largest applicants in Brazil, with 339, 288, and 245 biotechnology patents filed, respectively. For residents, the largest applicant was the governmental institution FIOCRUZ (Oswaldo Cruz

  15. Performance of Patenting Firms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  16. Impact of gene patents and licensing practices on access to genetic testing for cystic fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasekharan, Subhashini; Heaney, Christopher; James, Tamara; Conover, Chris; Cook-Deegan, Robert

    2010-04-01

    Cystic fibrosis is one of the most commonly tested autosomal recessive disorders in the United States. Clinical cystic fibrosis is associated with mutations in the CFTR gene, of which the most common mutation among Caucasians, DeltaF508, was identified in 1989. The University of Michigan, Johns Hopkins University, and the Hospital for Sick Children, where much of the initial research occurred, hold key patents on cystic fibrosis genetic sequences, mutations, and methods for detecting them. Several patents, including the one that covers detection of the DeltaF508 mutation, are jointly held by the University of Michigan and the Hospital for Sick Children in Toronto, with Michigan administering patent licensing in the United States. The University of Michigan broadly licenses the DeltaF508 patent for genetic testing with >60 providers of genetic testing to date. Genetic testing is now used in newborn screening, diagnosis, and for carrier screening. Interviews with key researchers and intellectual property managers, a survey of laboratories' prices for cystic fibrosis genetic testing, a review of literature on cystic fibrosis tests' cost-effectiveness, and a review of the developing market for cystic fibrosis testing provide no evidence that patents have significantly hindered access to genetic tests for cystic fibrosis or prevented financially cost-effective screening. Current licensing practices for cystic fibrosis genetic testing seem to facilitate both academic research and commercial testing. More than 1000 different CFTR mutations have been identified, and research continues to determine their clinical significance. Patents have been nonexclusively licensed for diagnostic use and have been variably licensed for gene transfer and other therapeutic applications. The Cystic Fibrosis Foundation has been engaged in licensing decisions, making cystic fibrosis a model of collaborative and cooperative patenting and licensing practice.

  17. Patent law in dentistry: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Nadeem A Bijle

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dentistry in recent years has developed interest in the field of intellectual property rights (IPR and Patents due to extensive research in the fraternity and existing competition. There have been various patent applications and grants in the field of dentistry abroad due to better understanding of IPR but India still has very few patent grants and applications on the subject matter. This review article in particular deals with the understanding of IPR and Patents as a whole, especially for dental professionals involved in research and development. Hence, this would also act as an asset for dental researchers to explore and expand their scope of activities, with special privileges empowered for their work.

  18. A new model for gene patents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-04-02

    When the National Institutes of Health (NIH) filed for patents on thousands of gene fragments in 1991, it created a furor because it was attempting to assert broad rights to sequences whose functions were unknown. The cDNA fragments NIH researchers had discovered were simply short stretches of presumably expressed genes, yet the patent the agency was seeking would give it rights both to the full genes themselves and to all their possible future uses. If NIH prevailed, researchers argued, it would potentially discourage further work on those genes. Now the head of the genome project at the Department of Energy (DOE) - NIH's partner in the program - has proposed an alternative approach to gene patenting. At a meeting last week of a congressional Office of Technology Assessment panel that is preparing a report on this issue, DOE's David Galas revealed that University of Washington genome researcher Leroy Hood is preparing to file a patent application that could serve as a model for such patents in the future. Hood's team has been sequencing the genes encoding the beta chain of the human T cell receptor. Mutations in the T cell receptor genes may lead to any of a number of autoimmune diseases, including rheumatoid arthritis and multiple sclerosis. A broad patent on the genes could therefore conceivably cover not only techniques for diagnosing autoimmune diseases but also of therapies for the conditions, and indeed anything involving T cell activity. But Hood's patent application won't make such broad claims. Instead, Hood, with DOE's support, will not seek to patent the genes but will claim only the specific uses of developing the diagnostic and therapeutic tools for dealing with specific autoimmune diseases. By restricting patents just to known uses the problems of gene ownership are neatly avoided.

  19. Data anonymization patent landscape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirjana Pejić Bach

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The omnipresent, unstoppable increase in digital data has led to a greater understanding of the importance of data privacy. Different approaches are used to implement data privacy. The goal of this paper is to develop a data anonymization patent landscape, by determining the following: (i the trend in data anonymization patenting, (ii the type of technical content protected in data anonymization, (iii the organizations and countries most active in patenting data anonymization know-how; and (iv the topics emerging most often in patent titles. Patents from the PatSeer database relating to data anonymization from 2001 to 2015 were analyzed. We used the longitudinal approach in combination with text mining techniques to develop a data anonymization patent landscape. The results indicated the following. The number of single patent families is growing with a high increase after 2010, thus indicating a positive trend in the area of patenting data anonymization solutions. The majority of patenting activities relate to the G Physics section. Organizations from the USA and Japan assigned the majority of patents related to data anonymization. The results of text mining indicate that the most often used word in titles of data anonymization patents are “anonym*, “method”, “data” and “system”. Several additional words that indicated the most frequent topics related to data anonymization were: “equipment”, “software”, “protection”, “identification”, or “encryption”, and specific topics such as “community”, “medical”, or “service”.

  20. Patents | NCI Technology Transfer Center | TTC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timely reporting of discoveries is critical, because patent protection may be lost if an invention is publicly disclosed prior to filing a patent application. A public disclosure may include Talks, presentations, posters; Publications, including titles and abstracts posted on websites; Internet postings; Graduate student theses, job interviews; andDiscussions with non-NIH personnel without a Confidential Disclosure Agreement (CDA) in place. | [google6f4cd5334ac394ab.html

  1. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Patent Ductus Arteriosus? Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is a heart problem ... the lung arteries. Normal Heart and Heart With Patent Ductus Arteriosus Figure A shows the interior of a normal ...

  2. Traditional Knowledge and Patent Protection

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adam

    2 Defining indigenous people, traditional knowledge, patents and the concept of biopiracy .... However, under the Plant Patent Act, patent rights were granted only to. 24 ...... Countries like Costa Rica, Brazil, Panama, Thailand or Philippines.

  3. The Organization of Corporate Patent Management in US Companies: A Case Study of the Thomson-Houston Electric Company

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimura, Shigehiro; 西村, 成弘

    2011-01-01

    This paper aims to describe the process of internalization of patent control into the modern industrial enterprise, and to clarify the organization of the patent department of the Thomson-Houston Electric Company. Up until 1888 the patent application and related Thomson, for almost of all of the patents of the company were many competitors to become a big company having many investors and ingestions. Around 1891, the patent department was headed and supervised by patent attorneys as counsel w...

  4. Global patent landscape of programmed cell death 1: implications of the rapid expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Xiangjun; Zhang, Qianru; Lai, Yunfeng; Hu, Hao; Chen, Xin; Hu, Yuanjia

    2017-09-19

    Inhibitors of programmed cell death 1 (PD-1) and its ligands are producing a paradigm shift in cancer treatment. The promising clinical outcomes and a multi-billion dollar market have prompted active research and development and resulted in relentless patent protection. However, the global patent landscape in this field remains unclear. Areas covered: The patent landscape encompassing global patenting activities and developing trends in the field is discussed based on a data set of 1287 patent families. Patenting activities have expanded rapidly in the past three years. Specific trends in relevant aspects are presented, including patent filing countries, patent ownership, co-patents, technical areas, and technological connections in terms of patent citation relationships. Expert opinion: Together with patenting momentum in recent years, fragmented ownership and dense technological connections of PD-1-related inventions raise the possibility of a patent thicket. The explosion of patent applications and complex citation relationships could also lead to considerable patent conflicts and disputes on overlapping intellectual property rights, in addition to existing legal uncertainties. Patent applicants in this field are encouraged to be aware of these concerns when developing valid patent strategies.

  5. A Patent Dilemma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downes, Stephen

    2007-01-01

    When Blackboard unveiled its U.S. patent for 44 features of learning management systems and then filed a patent infringement suit against Design2Learn, the response of the educational technology community was negative and swift. Stephen Downes discusses why many educators oppose Blackboard's proprietary claims to technologies long considered in…

  6. Patenting Nanomedicine in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    chosen a different approach to integrate in patent law similar policy considerations. Observing how this issue was debated and solved differently is in itself important, but it also allows questioning whether in future patent reforms serious consideration should not be given to alternative solutions....

  7. Drugmakers struggle with Indian patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    Pharmaceutical companies continue their legal battles for intellectual property protection for their drugs in India after the country's patent office revoked Pfizer's local patent for Sutent (sunitinib malate).

  8. Recent survey on nanosuspension: a patent overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jethara, Sahilhusen I; Patel, Alpesh D; Patel, Mukesh R; Patel, Mukesh S; Patel, Kanu R

    2015-01-01

    The major goals of designing nanosuspension of nanosize materials are increasing due to their tremendous potential as a drug delivery system with the wide range of applications. Nanosuspension is a unique tool for improving the bioavailability of poorly soluble drugs. Nanosuspension drug delivery has wide range of application like oral, injectable, transdermal, inhalation, peroral, ocular, pulmonary and topical etc. by improviing the bioavailability, reducing the dose, gastric irritation, decreasing intra subject variability and increasing adhesivness with intestinal membrane. Recently, nanosuspension has been received much interest as a way to resolve solubility and stability problem because of their cost-effectiveness and technical simplicity compare to other liposome and colloidal drug carriers. Nanosuspensions are engaged to control particle size, surface properties and release of pharmacologically active agents in order to achieve the site-specific action of the drug at the therapeutically optimal rate, improve the bioavaibility of drug with poor solubility and dose regimen. Application and preparation method of nanosuspension has been reported by research articles and patented in different countries. Most of the marketed nanosuspensions are in preclinical and clinical based study for its application. More than 100 patents have been published on nanosuspensions by the recent days. This patent reviews covers different methods of pharmaceutical preparation and applications in drug delivery as well as the recent marketed published or granted patent surveys. This patent review is useful in enhance the knowledge of controlled drug delivery and applications.

  9. How do public health safeguards in Indian patent law affect pharmaceutical patenting in practice?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sampat, Bhaven N; Amin, Tahir

    2013-08-01

    The 1995 Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) agreement required developing countries to grant product patents in pharmaceuticals. Developing countries have since explored various measures to ameliorate potential negative effects of the new laws on public health. A prominent example is India, whose post-TRIPS patent laws include a provision, section 3(d), that restricts patents on incremental pharmaceutical innovations. Its critics and supporters alike suggest that this provision makes Indian patent law very different from that in other jurisdictions. Yet there are concerns that given resource constraints facing the Indian patent office, this novel feature of Indian patent laws on the books may not have an effect on Indian patent prosecution in practice. We test this by examining the prosecution outcomes of 2,803 applications filed in both India and Europe, coded by whether they include claims that trigger 3(d) considerations. We find that having the 3(d) provision on the books does not translate into very different patent outcomes in practice in India, relative to Europe, a jurisdiction without this provision.

  10. Spatial distribution of R&D expenditure and patent applications across EU regions and its impact on economic cohesion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Martín

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Este artículo analiza los indicadores regionales de tecnología en la UE en la última década y su impacto en la cohesión. De este modo, se encuentra que el gasto en I+D público y las patentes han convergido entre las regiones europeas en los noventa. Por el contrario, el gasto privado en I+D ha divergido, como resultado de su expansión asimétrica en la segunda parte de los noventa. Pues bien, los resultados muestran que cuando la dispersión del gasto público en I+D se redujo en la segunda mitad de los noventa, las disparidades regionales en la renta per capita también disminuyeron. De ahí que la conclusión de este artículo sea que la política tecnológica de la UE debe seguir persiguiendo la eficiencia como instrumento de crecimiento económico, al mismo tiempo que destine fondos para proyectos de I+D a las regiones menos desarrolladas para no perjudicar la cohesión.

  11. Domestic Enterprise Awarded Overseas Patents On Fiber Optical Technologies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Beijing Aerospace Times Optical-Electronic Technology Corp. Ltd was granted a patent for a fiber optical gyroscope using a low-polarization and polarization-maintaining hybrid light path in Ukraine. After filling an ordinary patent application for the technology domestically in 2006, the company filed a Paris Convention application in Ukraine to collaborate with a Ukrainian technical center in 2007.

  12. Japan's patent issues relating to life science therapeutic inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tessensohn, John A

    2014-09-01

    Japan has made 'innovation in science and technology' as one of its central pillars to ensure high growth in its next stage of economic development and its life sciences market which hosts regenerative medicine was proclaimed to be 'the best market in the world right now.' Although life science therapeutic inventions are patentable subject matter under Japanese patent law, there are nuanced obviousness and enablement challenges under Japanese patent law that can be surmounted in view of some encouraging Japanese court developments in fostering a pro-patent applicant environment in the life sciences therapeutic patent field. Nevertheless, great care must be taken when drafting and prosecuting such patent applications in the world's second most important life sciences therapeutic market.

  13. Applying patent information to tracking a specific technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Yuan Liu

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Patents in general contain much novel technological information. This paper demonstrates that the usage of patent analysis can facilitate a unique scheme for tracking technology development. In this paper, the walking technique of the Japanese biped robot is tracked as an example. The searching method of the FI (file index and F-term classification system developed by JPO (Japan Patent Office was employed in this study, where all the related patent data were searched from the IPDL (Intellectual Property Digital Library. This study investigated an important technique applied to the humanoid biped robot that imitates the walking behavior of the human beings on two legs. By analyzing the patent information obtained, the relative research capabilities, technical strengths, and patent citation conditions among patent competitors were compared. Furthermore, a formulated technical matrix of patent map is established in this paper to indicate that the ZMP (Zero Moment Point control means is the main technology to achieve stabilized walking control of the humanoid biped robot. This study also incorporates relevant academic journal findings and industrial information. Results presented herein demonstrate that patents can function not only as a map for tracking a technology trajectory, but also as a guide to the main development of a new technology in years to come.

  14. How the strengths of Lisp-family languages facilitate building complex and flexible bioinformatics applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khomtchouk, Bohdan B; Weitz, Edmund; Karp, Peter D; Wahlestedt, Claes

    2016-12-31

    We present a rationale for expanding the presence of the Lisp family of programming languages in bioinformatics and computational biology research. Put simply, Lisp-family languages enable programmers to more quickly write programs that run faster than in other languages. Languages such as Common Lisp, Scheme and Clojure facilitate the creation of powerful and flexible software that is required for complex and rapidly evolving domains like biology. We will point out several important key features that distinguish languages of the Lisp family from other programming languages, and we will explain how these features can aid researchers in becoming more productive and creating better code. We will also show how these features make these languages ideal tools for artificial intelligence and machine learning applications. We will specifically stress the advantages of domain-specific languages (DSLs): languages that are specialized to a particular area, and thus not only facilitate easier research problem formulation, but also aid in the establishment of standards and best programming practices as applied to the specific research field at hand. DSLs are particularly easy to build in Common Lisp, the most comprehensive Lisp dialect, which is commonly referred to as the 'programmable programming language'. We are convinced that Lisp grants programmers unprecedented power to build increasingly sophisticated artificial intelligence systems that may ultimately transform machine learning and artificial intelligence research in bioinformatics and computational biology. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press.

  15. Development of an Automated Bone Mineral Density Software Application: Facilitation Radiologic Reporting and Improvement of Accuracy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, I-Ta; Tsai, Meng-Yuan; Wu, Ming-Ting; Chen, Clement Kuen-Huang

    2016-06-01

    The conventional method of bone mineral density (BMD) report production by dictation and transcription is time consuming and prone to error. We developed an automated BMD reporting system based on the raw data from a dual energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) scanner for facilitating the report generation. The automated BMD reporting system, a web application, digests the DXA's raw data and automatically generates preliminary reports. In Jan. 2014, 500 examinations were randomized into an automatic group (AG) and a manual group (MG), and the speed of report generation was compared. For evaluation of the accuracy and analysis of errors, 5120 examinations during Jan. 2013 and Dec. 2013 were enrolled retrospectively, and the context of automatically generated reports (AR) was compared with the formal manual reports (MR). The average time spent for report generation in AG and in MG was 264 and 1452 s, respectively (p Z scores in AR is 100 %. The overall accuracy of AR and MR is 98.8 and 93.7 %, respectively (p < 0.001). The mis-categorization rate in AR and MR is 0.039 and 0.273 %, respectively (p = 0.0013). Errors occurred in AR and can be grouped into key-in errors by technicians and need for additional judgements. We constructed an efficient and reliable automated BMD reporting system. It facilitates current clinical service and potentially prevents human errors from technicians, transcriptionists, and radiologists.

  16. The dynamics of patent citations

    OpenAIRE

    Marco, Alan C.

    2006-01-01

    The use of patent citations as a measure of patent "quality" increased dramatically in recent years. I estimate the hazard of patent citation, and find evidence of unobserved heterogeneity. Hazard estimation provides a means to separate patent quality from citation "inflation."

  17. Facilitating mental health screening of war-torn populations using mobile applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemi, Bahar; Ali, Sara; Awaad, Rania; Soudi, Laila; Housel, Lawrence; Sosebee, Stephen J

    2017-01-01

    War-torn populations are often hard to screen for mental health disorders. Classical data collection approaches, such as paper-based, online, or SMS-operated, are either infeasible or lack accuracy due to a variety of challenges associated with dynamics and consequences of war. In this paper, we introduce a novel approach for accurate and fast screening using free open-source software, Open Data Kit (ODK) mobile application. This approach was developed by the Palestine Children's Relief Fund (PCRF) to assess the mental health symptoms of 986 Palestinian children (age 6-18) in the aftermath of Israel's Operation Protective Edge (OPE) in 2014. The organization developed assessment questionnaires and trained local field workers on the use of the mobile application, and on recruiting and interviewing war victims. War-affected children were found to suffer from several alarming symptoms associated with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), depression, and somatic symptoms. Children with highest number of psychological symptoms were referred for further evaluation and treatment. The use of ODK mobile technologies facilitated efficient screening of affected children in war zones. The offline data collection capability was crucial for handling the difficult conditions associated with war-torn areas, enabling timely intervention for urgent cases. Further applications of the novel mobile technology are to be explored.

  18. How Important are Noncorporate Patents?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    This article analyses the innovative performances of noncorporate inventors using patent citations data from the European Patent Office. The results show that inventions patented outside an established corporate framework are on average less ‘important’ than corporate patents, but with large...... variations across technology classes. Patents applied for by independent inventors, start-ups and corporate firms are of comparable ‘quality’ in emerging technologies. The results also highlight that in these fields noncorporate patents are more ‘radical’ than corporate patents....

  19. Patent law for the dermatologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mei, Dan Feng; Liu, Josephine

    2013-12-01

    An exciting discovery in the laboratory may translate to a commercial product. How does the patent system fit into the picture? We first discuss the circumstances under which an invention is granted a patent. What is the purpose of a patent and what are the functions of the patent system? Who can apply for a patent? What makes an invention patentable? A patent does not automatically grant a right to make or sell a product. This is because multiple patents can cover a single pharmaceutical product. Understanding the patent landscape covering a product of interest is key to evaluating the risk of infringing another's exclusivity rights. We use a hypothetical example relating to skin cancer to guide a discussion of patent law.

  20. Patents and licensing in pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katerina Ancevska Netkovska

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Intellectual property rights (IPR have been defined as ideas, inventions, and creative expressions based on which there is a public willingness to bestow the status of property. IPR provide certain exclusive rights to the inventors or creators of that property, in order to enable them to reap commercial benefits from their creative efforts or reputation. There are several types of intellectual property protection like patent, copyright, trademark, etc. Patent is recognition for an invention, which satisfies the criteria of global novelty, non-obviousness, and industrial application. IPR is prerequisite for better identification, planning, commercialization, rendering, and thereby protection of invention or creativity. Each industry should evolve its own IPR policies, management style, strategies, and so on depending on its area of specialty. Pharmaceutical industry currently has an evolving IPR strategy requiring a better focus and approach in the coming era. The protection of inventions with patents in the pharmaceutical industry have a specific role in the development of society and represent one of the drivers of economic development. The license agreements are considered as one of the most common types of transfer of industrial property rights. The right holders often transfer their rights to patents by concluding licensing agreement. While the patent license may give the license a right to use the technology many license agreements have provisions for the transfer of know-how in addition to the patent.

  1. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms

    OpenAIRE

    Justus Baron; Tim Pohlmann

    2010-01-01

    This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical investigation of the effectiveness of...

  2. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart

    identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  3. 76 FR 36927 - Determination of Regulatory Review Period for Purposes of Patent Extension; Fusilev, Levoleucovorin

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ... overdosage of folic acid antagonists. Subsequent to this approval, the Patent and Trademark Office received a... extension, this applicant seeks 797 days of patent term extension. Anyone with knowledge that any of the...

  4. Patent protection strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Gupta

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available It is widely recognized that the pharmaceutical industry faces serious financial challenges. Large numbers of blockbuster drugs are losing patent protection and going generic. The pipeline of new drugs is too sparse to fill the gap and generate a platform for future growth. Moreover, many of the new products are biologics with much narrower target patient populations and comparatively higher prices relative to traditional pharmaceuticals. So now the time has come for pharmaceutical scientists to have a better understanding of patent fundamentals. This need is illustrated by analyses of key scientific and legal issues that arose during recent patent infringement cases involving Prozac, Prilosec, and Buspar. Facing this scenario, the pharmaceutical industry has moved to accelerate drug development process and to adopt at the same time different strategies to extend the life time of the patent monopoly to provide the economic incentives and utilizing it for drug discovery and development. This review covers the need of patent protection and various strategies to extend the patent.

  5. 75 FR 39667 - Availability for Non-Exclusive or Partially Exclusive Licensing of a U.S. Patent Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-12

    ... for preparing multivalent vaccines, recombinant DNA expression ] products and more particularly to..., Dr. Paul Mele, Office of Research and Technology Applications (ORTA), (301) 619- 6664, both...

  6. Regulation and the circulation of knowledge: penicillin patents in Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero de Pablos, Ana

    2011-01-01

    This paper tells the early history of penicillin patenting in Spain. Patents turn out to be useful instruments for analysing the management of knowledge and its circulation in different professional and geographical domains. They protected knowledge while contributing to standardisation. Patents also ensured quality and guaranteed reliability in manufacturing, delivering and prescribing new drugs. They gained special prominence by allowing the creation of a network in which political, economic and business, industrial power, public health and international cooperation fields came together. The main source of information used for this purpose has been the earliest patent applications for penicillin in Spain between 1948 and 1950, which are kept in the Historical Archives of the Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas. The study of these patents for penicillin shows their role as agents in introducing this drug in Spain.

  7. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation, the gover......This paper surveys some of the patent literature, in particular, it focuses on optimal patent policies. We compare two situations. The first where the government only has a single policy tool to design the optimal patent policy, namely the optimal patent length. In the second situation...... of research outputs as well as the degree of compettition in the R&D sector. The actual law on intellectual property, which advocates a unique patent length of 20 years is in general not supported by theoretical models....

  8. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães; Morel, Carlos Medicis

    2012-01-01

    New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI) and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country, will also contribute to effective dealing with public health

  9. Enabling policy planning and innovation management through patent information and co-authorship network analyses: a study of tuberculosis in Brazil.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Guimarães Vasconcellos

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: New tools and approaches are necessary to facilitate public policy planning and foster the management of innovation in countries' public health systems. To this end, an understanding of the integrated way in which the various actors who produce scientific knowledge and inventions in technological areas of interest operate, where they are located and how they relate to one another is of great relevance. Tuberculosis has been chosen as a model for the present study as it is a current challenge for Brazilian research and innovation. METHODOLOGY: Publications about tuberculosis written by Brazilian authors were accessed from international databases, analyzed, processed with text searching tools and networks of coauthors were constructed and visualized. Patent applications about tuberculosis in Brazil were retrieved from the Brazilian National Institute of Industrial Property (INPI and the European Patent Office databases, through the use of International Patent Classification and keywords and then categorized and analyzed. RESULTS/CONCLUSIONS: Brazilian authorship of articles about tuberculosis jumped from 1% in 1995 to 5% in 2010. Article production and patent filings of national origin have been concentrated in public universities and research institutions while the participation of private industry in the filing of Brazilian patents has remained limited. The goals of national patenting efforts have still not been reached, as up to the present none of the applications filed have been granted a patent. The analysis of all this data about TB publishing and patents clearly demonstrates the importance of maintaining the continuity of Brazil's production development policies as well as government support for infrastructure projects to be employed in transforming the potential of research. This policy, which already exists for the promotion of new products and processes that, in addition to bringing diverse economic benefits to the country

  10. Brief Talk on Technique Progress of Slow-controlled-release Fertilizer in China Based on Corporate Patent Application%从企业专利申请浅谈我国缓/控释肥料的技术发展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余爱丽

    2011-01-01

    From the definition,classification of slow/controlled-release fertilizer,based on situation of the patent application by corporations,the technique progress of slow-controlled-release fertilizer are introduced,furthermore,from the angle of corporate patent applications,the development trend of slow controlled release fertilizer at present are analysised briefly.%从缓/控释肥料的定义、分类,根据缓/控释肥料在我国的企业专利申请状况,简单地介绍了我国缓/控释肥料的技术发展;另外从企业专利申请的角度,对目前我国缓/控释肥料的发展趋势进行了简要的分析。

  11. The new patent regime and disease priorities in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Indrani; Guin, Pradeep; Trivedi, Mayur

    2013-01-01

    The World Trade Organization (WTO) and Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS), which made product patents compulsory for countries to follow, meant that the entire market for generic drugs was out of bounds for manufacturing till the time the products went off-patent. The TRIPS has generated widespread discussions and debates around the costs and benefits of new patent regimes on countries such as India. This article analyses whether the post-WTO system was consistent with, and conducive to, improved public health in India. It is a first-of-its-kind effort in which the data on pharmaceutical patents applications were collected, collated, cleaned and classified according to IPC codes, to enable preliminary understanding of the nature and type of the applications. The patent applications that are filed in India are not found to be consistent with the disease burden of the country.

  12. 76 FR 55364 - Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-07

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Rules for Patent Maintenance Fees ACTION: Proposed collection... or after December 12, 1980. Payment of these maintenance fees is due at 3\\1/2\\, 7\\1/2\\, and 11\\1/2... maintenance fee and any applicable surcharge within a grace period of six months following each of the...

  13. 77 FR 55027 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    .... Also, despite increases in some fees, applicants who meet the new micro entity definition will pay less... right to the invention sooner, which would increase the private value of that patent. Because the..., faster dissemination of information, and certainty in patented inventions; and (3) help recover...

  14. 78 FR 4211 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-18

    ..., applicants who meet the new micro entity definition will pay less than the amount paid for small entity fees... right to the invention sooner, which increases the private value of that patent. Because the outcomes of... regarding the claimed invention and scope of patent rights for patentees, competitors, and new...

  15. Annotated chemical patent corpus: A gold standard for text mining

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S.A. Akhondi (Saber); A.G. Klenner (Alexander G.); C. Tyrchan (Christian); A.K. Manchala (Anil K.); K. Boppana (Kiran); D. Lowe (Daniel); M. Zimmermann (Marc); S.A.R.P. Jagarlapudi (Sarma A. R. P.); R. Sayle (Roger); J.A. Kors (Jan); C. Muresan (Cornelia)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractExploring the chemical and biological space covered by patent applications is crucial in early-stage medicinal chemistry activities. Patent analysis can provide understanding of compound prior art, novelty checking, validation of biological assays, and identification of new starting poin

  16. 37 CFR 1.740 - Formal requirements for application for extension of patent term; correction of informalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... manufacturing the approved product; (10) A statement beginning on a new page of the relevant dates and... on which the application for product approval or notice of completion of a product development... product as by appropriate chemical and generic name, physical structure or characteristics; (2) A...

  17. Contribution of Latin American Countries to Cancer Research and Patent Generation: Recent Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Santos, Martin; Anaya-Ruiz, Maricruz; Bandala, Cindy

    2017-01-01

    Data mining publications and patent data can provide decision support for scientists, inventors and industry in the field of cancer research. The main objective of this article it to identify trends of research and patent generation productivity originating from Latin American countries in the field of cancer. Publications were collected from the Scopus, Web of Science, PubMed database; and patents were collected from Latipat Espacenet databases. Data from January 1, 2000 until December 31, 2014 were searched for documents with specific words in cancer as a ''topic'' and a list of 20 Latin American countries as affiliation country. A total of 12,989 items published and 244 patent applications including "cancer" were retrieved. Brazil, Mexico, Argentina, Chile and Peru were highest contributors in cancer research, while Brazil, Mexico, Cuba and Argentina were highest contributors in cancer patent applications. The analysis of the data from this study provides an overview of research and patent activity in Latin America in the cancer field, which can be useful to help health policy makers and people in academia to shape up cancer research in the future. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. Technology Trends Analysis Using Patent Landscaping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergey Vsevolodovich Kortov

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The article is devoted to the analysis and the choice of the priorities in technology development and, particularly, to the use of patent landscaping as a tool for the study of technology trends. Currently, patent activity indicators are often used for technology foresight and for competitive intelligence as well. Nevertheless, causal relationship between these indicators, on the one hand, and strategic and tactical decisions in the sphere of technological development on meso- and microeconomic level, on the other hand, are not adequately investigated to solve practical tasks. The goal of the work is to systemize the challenges of technology trends analysis, which could be effectively solved on the base of patent landscape analysis. The article analyses the patent landscaping methodology and tools, as well as their use for evaluating the current competitive environment and technology foresight. The authors formulated the generalized classification for the criteria of promising technologies for a selected region. To assess the compliance of a technology with these criteria, we propose a system of corresponding indicators of patenting activity. Using the proposed methodology, we have analysed the patent landscape to select promising technologies for the Sverdlovsk region. The research confirmed the hypothesis of the patent landscapes performance in evaluating such technology indicators as stages of the life cycle stage, universality (applicability in different industries, pace of worldwide development, innovations and science availability in the region and potential possibilities for scientific collaboration with international research institutions and universities. The results of the research may be useful to the wide audience, including representatives small and medium enterprises, large companies and regional authorities for the tasks concerned with the technology trends analysis and technology strategy design

  19. Do patents impede the provision of genetic tests in Australia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicol, Dianne; Liddicoat, John

    2013-06-01

    Health policy and law reform agencies lack a sound evidence base of the impacts of patents on innovation and access to healthcare to assist them in their deliberations. This paper reports the results of a survey of managers of Australian genetic testing laboratories that asked a series of questions relating to the tests they perform, whether they pay to access patented inventions and whether they have received notifications from patent holders about patents associated with particular tests. Some diagnostics facilities are exposed to patent costs, but they are all located in the private sector. No public hospitals reported paying licence fees or royalties beyond those included in the price of commercial test kits. Some respondents reported having received enforcement notices from patent holders, but almost all related to the widely known breast cancer-associated patents. Respondents were also asked for their views on the most effective mechanisms to protect their ability to provide genetic tests now and in the future. Going to the media, paying licence fees, ignoring patent rights and relying on the government to take action were widely seen as most effective. Litigation and applications for compulsory licences were seen as some of the least effective mechanisms. These results provide an evidence base for development of health policy and law reform. What is known about the topic? The impact of patents on the delivery of genetic testing services remains unclear in Australia. What does this paper add? The survey reported in this paper suggests that, aside from well-known enforcement actions relating to the breast cancer associated patents, there is little evidence that providers of genetic testing services are being exposed to aggressive patent-enforcement practices. What are the implications for practitioners? Although patent-enforcement actions may increase in the future, a range of strategies are available to providers of testing services to protect them against

  20. Patent Races and Market Value

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Leten, Bart;

    Patent races are models of strategic interactions between firms competing to develop an invention. The winning firm secures a patent, protecting the invention from imitation. This paper tests the assumption made about the reward structure in patent races, both in discrete and complex industries. We...... identify patent race winners using detailed information from the patent examination reports at the European Patent Office (EPO). Estimates of a market value equation featuring large, R&D-intensive U.S., European and Japanese firms, show that if firms win patent races, their market value increases...... significantly. We further show that the gain in market value is significantly larger for patent race winners in discrete industries than for firms in complex industries....

  1. Recent patents relating to bird flu infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiwanitkit, Viroj

    2007-01-01

    Bird flu or H5N1 infection is a new emerging zoonosis. With the pandemic in avian species in Asia, it is now under surveillance for a possible new public health threat to human. There are many present researches focusing on several aspects of bird flu. There are some recent patents and patent applications published within a few years. In this article, the recent patients relating to bird flu infection covering the diagnostic and treatment aspects for both avian species and human are reviewed and discussed.

  2. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.

    2008-01-01

    Intercropping is the simultaneous cultivation of more than one crop species on the same piece of land and is regarded as the practical application of basic ecological principles such as diversity, competition and facilitation. Field experiments were carried out on a sandy loam soil and a sandy so...

  3. Savannah River Site Patented Technologies Summaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rabold, D.E.

    1995-07-18

    This information represents SRS`s contribution of the DOE technology information network, an internet service coordinated out of Los Alamos. The information provided is strictly DOE-SR-titled and-issued patented technologies including environmental remediation, robotics, sensors, materials science, biomedical applications, hydrogen, and consumer products.

  4. 医学影像设备的中国专利申请现状分析%The Analysis of Chinese Patent Application Situation in the Field of Medical Imaging Device

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谈泉; 邢伟

    2013-01-01

      医学影像设备是重要的医学诊断设备。本文针对医学影像设备领域的中国专利申请进行了深入的分析,从中了解该领域的技术领先国家、重点申请人及其相关技术发展方向,目的在于摸清国内外医学影像设备行业的专利技术发展状况和趋势,为我国医学影像技术领域的专利战略提出参考建议。%Medical imaging device is an important medical diagnosis device. This paper takes the deep analysis on the chinese patent applications in the field of medical imaging device, finding the advanced technology country, the main applicants and the orientation of technical development in the field. The purpose is to understand the development and trend of domestic and abroad patent situation about the medical imaging device industry and give suggestions for the Chinese medical imaging patent strategy.

  5. 专利组合理论及应用研究分析%Analysis on Theory and Application Research on Patent Portfolio

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟华; 安新颖

    2011-01-01

    在对国内外专利组合理论进行分析总结的基础上,归纳了专利组合分析的概念,对专利组合分析指标进行梳理,同时整理了企业层面、技术层面、发明人层面以及专利与市场一体化这四个层面的专利组合模型,从而为战略决策提供了制定合理专利策略的新方法.%Based on the conclusion of the patent portfolio analysis, this paper defined the principal meaning of the patent portfolio analysis. Then it established a patent portfolio evaluation index system, and summarized four levels of patent portfolio analysis model, such as technology level, enterprise level, inventor level and market level. It provided a new method for decision -makers to formulate an effective patent strategy.

  6. Technological indicators of nanocellulose advances obtained from data and text mining applied to patent documents

    OpenAIRE

    Milanez,Douglas Henrique; Amaral, Roniberto Morato do; Faria,Leandro Innocentini Lopes de; Gregolin,José Angelo Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Nanocellulose is remarkable cellulose-based nanomaterials that have a potential for innovation and sustainable appeal. Their advances can be assessed using patent indicators and text mining techniques. The aim of this study was at analyzing the advances in nanocellulose based on indicators compiled from patents filed at the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) from 2000 to 2012. Assignees, technological subjects, highly cited patents, applications and types of nanocellulose were ...

  7. A Brief Discussion on the Application and Writing of an Invention Patent in the Field of Coatings%浅谈涂料领域发明专利的申请和撰写

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱岩

    2012-01-01

    分析了涂料领域发明专利申请的特点。介绍了专利申请前的准备工作。阐述了说明书和权利要求书的撰写方法,并列出权利要求书中常见的形式缺陷和应对方法。%The characteristics of the invention patent in the field of coatings were analyzed. The preparation work before the application of a patent was introduced. The writing methods of claims and description were described. The common defects in the form of the claim and the corresponding solution were listed.

  8. Framing the patent troll debate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risch, Michael

    2014-02-01

    The patent troll debate has reached a fevered pitch in the USA. This editorial seeks to frame the debate by pointing out the lack of clarity in defining patent trolls and their allegedly harmful actions. It then frames the debate by asking currently unanswered questions: Where do troll patents come from? What are the effects of troll assertions? Will policy changes improve the system?

  9. [The Glivec® case: the first example of a global debate on the drug patent system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moital, Inês; Bosch, Fèlix; Farré, Magí; Maddaleno, Mariano; Baños, Josep-E

    2014-01-01

    To describe the sequence of events involving the Glivec® case in India and to analyze the opinions generated in distinct settings. We performed a systematic search for articles concerning the imatinib (Glivec®) patent in India. We selected those sources that described the events, decisions of the authorities involved, and press and scientific opinions. Dates and arguments presented by the involved parties were clearly identified. Of 886 documents initially obtained, we selected 40 documents published between 2003 and 2013. Most of them were press news and commentaries. The process lasted 7 years, starting in 2006 when the Indian Patent Office rejected the patent application filed by Novartis. It ended in 2013 when the Indian Supreme Court upheld this decision. It was argued that the Indian Patent Law would facilitate access to medicines in the Third World and the final decision has received support by the general population. Although the court's final decision has been supported by several institutions, an objective analysis should also take into account the arguments of the pharmaceutical companies and other entities. The Glivec® case gave rise to an intense debate on the appropriateness of international standards on patents, their applicability and how they should be adopted in each country. This case, as well as other cases, should serve to stimulate reflection on the international patent system and to achieve scenarios in which the health of the poorest populations is protected but also balanced against intellectual property protection and innovation. Copyright © 2014 SESPAS. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  10. Isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase inhibitors: a brief review including recent patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Woo Seok; Yeo, Seung-Gu; Yang, Sungjae; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Yoo, Byong Chul; Cho, Jae Youl

    2017-06-19

    Among the enzymes involved in the post-translational modification of Ras, isoprenyl carboxyl methyltransferase (ICMT) has been explored by a number of researchers as a significant enzyme controlling the activation of Ras. Indeed, inhibition of ICMT exhibited promising anti-cancer activity against various cancer cell lines. This paper reviews patents and research articles published between 2009 and 2016 that reported inhibitors of ICMT as potential chemotherapeutic agents targeting Ras-induced growth factor signaling. Since ICMT inhibitors can modulate Ras signaling pathway, it might be possible to develop a new class of anti-cancer drugs targeting Ras-related cancers. Researchers have discovered indole-based small-molecular ICMT inhibitors through high-throughput screening. Researchers at Duke University identified a prototypical inhibitor, cysmethynil. At Singapore University, Ramanujulu and his colleagues patented more potent compounds by optimizing cysmethynil. In addition, Rodriguez and Stevenson at Universidad Complutense De Madrid and Cancer Therapeutics CRC PTY Ltd., respectively, have developed inhibitors based on formulas other than the indole base. However, further optimization of chemicals targeted to functional groups is needed to improve the characteristics of ICMT inhibitors related to their application as drugs, such as solubility, effectiveness, and safety, to facilitate clinical use.

  11. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  12. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  13. Patent pools: Intellectual property rights and competition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez, V.F.

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major

  14. METRICS DEVELOPMENT FOR PATENTS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veiga, Daniela Francescato; Ferreira, Lydia Masako

    2015-01-01

    To develop a proposal for metrics for patents to be applied in assessing the postgraduate programs of Medicine III - Capes. From the reading and analysis of the 2013 area documents of all the 48 areas of Capes, a proposal for metrics for patents was developed to be applied in Medicine III programs. Except for the areas Biotechnology, Food Science, Biological Sciences III, Physical Education, Engineering I, III and IV and Interdisciplinary, most areas do not adopt a scoring system for patents. The proposal developed was based on the criteria of Biotechnology, with adaptations. In general, it will be valued, in ascending order, the deposit, the granting and licensing/production. It will also be assigned higher scores to patents registered abroad and whenever there is a participation of students. This proposal can be applied to the item Intellectual Production of the evaluation form, in subsection Technical Production/Patents. The percentage of 10% for academic programs and 40% for Masters Professionals should be maintained. The program will be scored as Very Good when it reaches 400 points or over; Good, between 200 and 399 points; Regular, between 71 and 199 points; Weak up to 70 points; Insufficient, no punctuation. Desenvolver uma proposta de métricas para patentes a serem aplicadas na avaliação dos Programas de Pós-Graduação da Área Medicina III - Capes. A partir da leitura e análise dos documentos de área de 2013 de todas as 48 Áreas da Capes, desenvolveu-se uma proposta de métricas para patentes, a ser aplicada na avaliação dos programas da área. Constatou-se que, com exceção das áreas Biotecnologia, Ciência de Alimentos, Ciências Biológicas III, Educação Física, Engenharias I, III e IV e Interdisciplinar, a maioria não adota sistema de pontuação para patentes. A proposta desenvolvida baseou-se nos critérios da Biotecnologia, com adaptações. De uma forma geral, foi valorizado, em ordem crescente, o depósito, a concessão e o

  15. In vivo application of chitosan to facilitate intestinal acyclovir absorption in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuda, Ayumi; Goto, Yuko; Kurosaki, Yuji; Aiba, Tetsuya

    2012-07-01

    The effect of chitosan on the intestinal absorption of acyclovir (ACV) was evaluated in rats, and factors influencing its facilitative effect on the ACV absorption were examined. When ACV solution containing 1% chitosan with an average molecular weight of 150 kDa was administered into the upper jejunum, a significant increase in the plasma ACV concentration was observed, with the peak ACV concentration being eight times greater than that observed with the chitosan-free solution. The chitosan-free ACV solution, whose viscosity was adjusted to remain unchanged with polyethylene glycol, did not cause an increase in the plasma concentration, and neither did the chitosan-free solutions substitutionally containing low molecular cationic compounds, triethanolamine and kanamycin. When chitosan was digested with chitosanase to shorten its polycationic polysaccharide structure, chitosan subjected to 150-min digestion retained its facilitative effect on ACV absorption, but that subjected to 420-min digestion no longer caused facilitation, in which its average molecular weight was reduced to around 10 kDa. It is therefore indicated that intestinal ACV absorption can be facilitated with chitosan, and that it is necessary for chitosan to have a certain length of polycationic polysaccharide structure to exert such facilitation.

  16. Patent activity in biotechnology

    OpenAIRE

    Ekaterina, Streltsova

    2014-01-01

    Biotechnologies are a priority area of development due to the scope of global challenges and social problems they help to resolve. There is demand for updated information about the the current state of research and challenges faced. This paper discusses the potential of patent analysis and surveys the Russian biotechnological market with both quantitative and qualitative methods. It reviews key statistical and analytical findings of empirical research. The main finding is that the Russian bio...

  17. Do Military Personnel Patent

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    of its PCAS technology, which allows a Joint Terminal Attack Controller (JTAC) to call in air strikes using a specially configured Android tablet...rankings.aspx McGarry, B. (2015, September 18). JTAC calls in A-10 airstrike with android tablet. Retrieved from http://www.defensetech.org/2015/09/18/jtac...calls-in- a-10-airstrike-with- android -tablet/ 66 Moser, P. (2013). Patents and innovation: evidence from economic history. Journal of Economic

  18. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  19. How Patent Function Integration with R&D Influence the Value of Patents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin; Valentin, Finn

    Patent strategies are endogenous to firm appropriability. However, to what extent does firm’s R&D teams’ engagement with patent experts influence the value of patents? We estimate the relationship between firm’s R&D use of patent functions on patent value in Biotech firms. Controlling...... for characteristics of scientific team, firm effects, and other patent value indicators, we find that having a firm specific (in-house) internal patent function is a driver of patent value. In addition, we find that the way in which patent functions create patent value differs dependent on whether the firm has...... internal patent function or not. In-house patent functions create value through narrow patents, whereas, firms with no in-house patent function create valuable patents by the use of broader scoped patents. Our results point to a strong effect of firm specific patent functions, but also explain how firms...

  20. Click chemistry patents and their impact on drug discovery and chemical biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Hua; Jones, Lyn H

    2015-01-01

    First introduced by K Barry Sharpless in 2001, the term 'click chemistry' soon became a widely used description of chemical reactions that proceed rapidly, cleanly and in a manner that is often compatible with aqueous solutions. Click chemistry is frequently employed throughout the process of drug discovery, and greatly helps advance research programs in the pharmaceutical industry. It facilitates library synthesis to support medicinal chemistry optimization, helps identify the targets and off-targets of drug candidates, and can facilitate the determination of drug efficacy in clinical trials. In the last decade, a large number of patent applications covering the various types and utilities of click chemistry have been filed. In this review, we provide the first analysis of click chemistry applications.

  1. A method for understanding generic procurement of HIV medicines by developing countries with patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Reed F; Attaran, Amir

    2017-07-01

    Patent protection on medicines may frustrate access by blocking generic competition. Nevertheless, circumstances may still allow for generic procurement to occur anyway, especially for humanitarian cause. But to what extent does this occur? And which legal flexibilities may facilitate such procurement? We attempted to design a replicable methodology that involved linking antiretroviral (ARV) patent data (1260 patents for 12 medicines) from a World Intellectual Property Organization patent study on the 2013 World Health Organization's (WHO) Model List of Essential Medicines to all available matching procurement records in the WHO's Global Price Reporting Mechanism. We then cross-referenced these with lists of legal flexibilities which facilitate generic access where patents have been granted (e.g., supplier companies' patent non-enforcement policies, voluntary and compulsory licenses) to estimate plausible relevance. The patent data corresponded to 1924 generic procurement transactions (1.34 billion units) from 85 countries. While patents were relatively less common in these countries (the median coverage was 20%), over half (53%) of the generic procurements nevertheless aligned with patent protection in the exporting and/or importing country. The disproportionately high relevance of patents despite their lower numbers can be explained by their presence in key medicine-exporting countries and/or those with larger populations. We noted, however, that developing countries still seemed able to buy generic versions of these essential ARVs. A combination of legal flexibilities may have played important roles, but voluntary licensing agreements (VLs) between originator companies and generic ones appeared to align with the largest volumes of generic procurement where we estimated patent protection. If true, VLs may warrant proportionate attention from observers as a heavily relied upon international mechanism for facilitating generic access so that the implications can be

  2. Assessment of Patentability of Inventions Relating to "Rules and Methods for Mental Activities"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Examination of whether an invention is a patentable subject matter or not is one of the main parts of the patent examination. In the recently revised Guidelines for Examination a relatively major change has been made of the benchmark for the examination of inventions relating to "rules and methods for mental activities", for example, limiting the scope of application of Article 25.1 (2) of the Patent Law. As a result, the hitherto non-patentable subject matters are still excluded from patentability. That...

  3. Liposomal drug delivery: recent patents and emerging opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Murray S; Rebstein, Patrick; Lamson, Wendy; Bally, Marcel B

    2007-01-01

    It is challenging to develop innovative, as well as commercially viable, lipid-based drug delivery systems for the treatment of cancer because of the breadth of existing intellectual property that limits freedom-to-operate. For example, novel compositions can be described in which a new chemical entity is associated with a lipid based carrier, but if the loading method or components of the lipid compositions are proprietary then the ability to develop novel compositions will require access to the appropriate intellectual property. We believe it is useful to present a review of the patent literature describing novel liposomal drug delivery systems given by parenteral administration to humans for the treatment of serious medical conditions such as cancer. This review is intended to: (i) identify and describe novel approaches that have recently been protected by US or international patents and patent applications, and; (ii) identify founding technology in the field which is recently off-patent, thus presenting emerging opportunities for the development of new therapeutic options for patients. Issued patents, and selected patent applications, having publication dates in 2005 or 2006 were retrieved from searches of the US, European, German, Japanese, INPADOC and WIPO PCT databases. Liposomal delivery systems patented for systemic administration in the treatment of human medical conditions were reviewed in detail.

  4. Recent advances in therapeutics and drug delivery for the treatment of inner ear diseases: a patent review (2011-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Kim; Kempfle, Judith S; Jung, David H; McKenna, Charles E

    2017-02-01

    Inner ear disorders such as hearing loss, tinnitus, and Ménière's disease significantly impact the quality of life of affected individuals. Treatment of such disorders is an ongoing challenge. Current clinical approaches relieve symptoms but do not fully restore hearing, and the search for more effective therapeutic methods represents an area of urgent current interest. Areas covered: Thirty four patents and patent applications published from 2011 to 2015 were selected from the database of the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) and World Intellectual Property Organization (WIPO), covering new approaches for the treatment of inner ear disorders described in the patent literature: 1) identification of new therapeutic agents, 2) development of sustained release formulations, and 3) medical devices that facilitate delivery of such agents to the inner ear. Expert opinion: The search for effective treatments of inner ear disorders is ongoing. Increased understanding of the molecular mechanisms of hearing loss, Ménière's disease, and tinnitus is driving development of new therapeutic agents. However, delivery of these agents to the inner ear is a continuing challenge. At present, combination of a suitable drug with an appropriate mode of drug delivery is the key focus of innovative research to cure inner ear disorders.

  5. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent (H.K.) Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  6. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publicationsponsored by China Patent Agent(H.K.)Ltd.The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and hasbeen edited and published in Hong Kong for distribution in China and abroad.The main contents carried by China Patents & Trademarks are:guidelines,policies,laws and regula-tions relevant to intellectual property,economy and trade in China;matters related to the practical work

  7. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume III.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-09-01

    FOR TIlE MULTIPURPOSE 4.122,675 10/1978 Polyak ........................... 60/641 X UTILIZATION OF SOLAR ENERGY FOREIGN PATENT DOCUMENTS 1761 Inventor...contained in Ohio 40"menf .of em W arat thot such use be fro* ffe Pivately owned riht. A 00300 AFSC ar*P7 79c R&LD RECORD (PatentI Abet...., lv PATENT

  8. Solid waste management in primary healthcare centers: application of a facilitation tool.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreira, Ana Maria Maniero; Günther, Wanda Maria Risso

    2016-08-18

    to propose a tool to facilitate diagnosis, formulation and evaluation of the Waste Management Plan in Primary Healthcare Centers and to present the results of the application in four selected units. descriptive research, covering the stages of formulation /application of the proposed instrument and the evaluation of waste management performance at the units. the tool consists in five forms; specific indicators of waste generation for outpatients healthcare units were proposed, and performance indicators that give scores for compliance with current legislation. In the studied units it is generated common waste (52-60%), infectious-sharps (31-42%) and recyclable (5-17%). The average rates of generation are: 0,09kg of total waste/outpatient assistance and 0,09kg of infectious-sharps waste/outpatient procedure. The compliance with regulations, initially 26-30%, then reached 30-38% a year later. the tool showed to be easy to use, bypassing the existence of a complex range of existing regulatory requirements, allowed to identify non-conformities, pointed out corrective measures and evaluated the performance of waste management. In this sense, it contributes to decision making and management practices relating to waste, tasks usually assigned to nurses. It is recommended that the tool be applied in similar healthcare units for comparative studies, and implementation of necessary adaptations for other medical services. propor instrumento para facilitar diagnóstico, elaboração e avaliação de Plano de Gerenciamento de Resíduos em Unidades Básicas de Saúde e apresentar os resultados da aplicação em quatro unidades selecionadas. pesquisa descritiva que contemplou as etapas de construção/aplicação do instrumento proposto e a avaliação de desempenho do gerenciamento de resíduos nas unidades estudadas. geração de instrumento composto por cinco formulários; proposta de indicadores específicos de geração de resíduos para unidades assistenciais de saúde sem

  9. 43 CFR 6.52 - Patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents. 6.52 Section 6.52 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior PATENT REGULATIONS Licenses § 6.52 Patents. Patents in... sublicenses, are classified as follows: (a) Class A. Patents, other than those referred to in paragraph (c)...

  10. 37 CFR 501.9 - Patent protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent protection. 501.9 Section 501.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNDER SECRETARY FOR TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE UNIFORM PATENT POLICY FOR RIGHTS IN INVENTIONS MADE BY GOVERNMENT EMPLOYEES § 501.9 Patent protection....

  11. The application of natural language processing in retrieval system of pharmaceutical patent abstracts%自然语言处理技术在药物专利检索中的应用研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓静; 程文堂

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to develop a semiautomatic method for the translation of assignment statements into their corresponding GSCCT expressions, and thus to facilitate automatic creation of database of generic chemical structures in patents.%本文研究了自然语言处理技术在药物专利检索中的应用,开发出一套翻译软件,能够将药物专利中对族性变量的文本描述半自动化地转化为符合规则的GSCCT格式,为准确、高效地建立药物专利检索数据库打下了基础.

  12. 78 FR 51177 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-20

    ... No. 6,384,953: Micro-Dynamic Optical Device.//U.S. Patent No. 6,433,465: Energy- Harvesting Device... September 4, 2013. ADDRESSES: Written objections are to be filed with the Office of Research and Technology... Technology Applications, Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center Pacific, Code 72120, 53560 Hull St, Bldg...

  13. Scope of claim coverage in patents of fufang Chinese herbal drugs: Substitution of ingredients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tian Jiaher

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Herbal ingredients in a Chinese fufang prescription are often replaced by one or several other herbal combinations. As there have been very few Chinese herbal patent infringement cases, it is still unclear how the Doctrine of Equivalents should be applied to determine the scope of 'equivalents' in Chinese fufang prescriptions. Case law principles from cases in other technical areas such as chemical patents and biological drug patents can be borrowed to ascertain a precise scope of a fufang patent. This article summarizes and discusses several chemical and biopharmaceutical patent cases. In cases where a certain herbal ingredient is substituted by another herb or a combination of herbs, accused infringers are likely to relate herbal drug patents to chemical drug patents with strict interpretation whereas patent owners may take advantage of the liberal application of Doctrine of Equivalence in biopharmaceutical patents by analogizing the complex nature of herbal drugs with biological drugs. Therefore, consideration should be given to the purpose of an ingredient in a patent, the qualities when combined with the other ingredients and the intended function. The scope of equivalents also depends on the stage of the prior art. Moreover, it is desirable to disclose any potential substitutes when drafting the application. Claims should be drafted in such a way that all foreseeable modifications are encompassed for the protection of the patent owner's intellectual property.

  14. 37 CFR 1.710 - Patents subject to extension of the patent term.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patents subject to extension of the patent term. 1.710 Section 1.710 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension...

  15. Recent patents and patented technology platforms for pharmaceutical taste masking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaushik, Deepak; Dureja, Harish

    2014-04-01

    Taste masking is an important factor in the development of oral dosage forms containing bitter active pharmaceutical ingredients. Currently numerous techniques are being applied to overcome this problem. Realizing this, several researchers and pharmaceutical companies are now engaged in developing novel techniques to address the problem of taste masking evident by numerous patents filed in this area in recent times. In this review the most recent patents for taste masking are discussed and how these patents overcome the limitations of conventional approaches of taste masking is also highlighted. Novel techniques based on some recent patents such as nanohybrid, melt extrusion, non-complex cyclodextrin compositions and off taste masking are providing new realms to taste masking of bitter drugs. The present article also provides an overview of various patented platform technologies based on different techniques/mechanisms employed for taste masking. The unique features and principles of taste-masking approaches used in various patented technologies are also discussed. A better understanding of these new patents and patented technologies will help researchers and pharmaceutical industries to select the appropriate platform, or to develop innovative products with improved taste masking properties.

  16. Comparison of the effects of hamstring stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation with prior application of cryotherapy or ultrasound therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães, Francisco Elezier Xavier; Junior, Arlindo Rodrigues de Mesquita; Meneses, Harnold's Tyson de Sousa; Moreira Dos Santos, Rayele Pricila; Rodrigues, Ezaine Costa; Gouveia, Samara Sousa Vasconcelos; Gouveia, Guilherme Pertinni de Morais; Orsini, Marco; Bastos, Victor Hugo do Vale; Machado, Dionis de Castro Dutra

    2015-05-01

    [Purpose] Stretching using proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation involve physiological reflex mechanisms through submaximal contraction of agonists which activate Golgi organ, promoting the relaxation reflex. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation alone and with prior application of cryotherapy and thermotherapy on hamstring stretching. [Subjects and Methods] The sample comprised of 32 young subjects with hamstring retraction of the right limb. The subjects were randomly allocated to four groups: the control, flexibility PNF, flexibility PNF associated with cryotherapy, flexibility PNF in association with ultrasound therapy. [Results] After 12 stretching sessions, experimental groups showed significant improvements compared to the control group. Moreover, we did not find any significant differences among the experimental groups indicating PNF stretching alone elicits similar results to PNF stretching with prior administration of cryotherapy or thermotherapy. [Conclusion] PNF without other therapy may be a more practical and less expensive choice for clinical care.

  17. 多国植物药专利申请状况比较研究及我国企业应对%Comparative Study of Patent Application Situation for Herbal Drugs in Different Countries and its Revelation of Enterprises in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张晓东; 徐嘉慧

    2014-01-01

    Patent protection system has a profound impact on the sustainable development and internationalization of herbal drugs based on the traditional medicine.However,the ability of Chinese enterprises in applying the current system of patent protection is still weak.In this article,the patent application situation for herbal drugs is analyzed and compared,by using the data of China,Japan,Republic of Korea,the United States,European Union and India,based on their domestic patent applications,Chinese patent applications and the foreign patent applications.In the meantime,combined with patent port-folio of key Chinese medicine enterprises in Europe and US,this article also gives some suggestions for strengthening the awareness of intellectual property protection of traditional Chinese medicine and the global layout.%现代专利保护对以传统药物为基础的植物药产业的可持续发展和国际化有着深刻的影响。我国中药大部分可归为植物药范畴,但目前中药企业应用专利保护制度的能力还较为薄弱。分析中国、日本、韩国、美国、欧盟、印度等国家和地区针对植物药专利在其母国的申请情况、在中国的申请情况以及向外申请情况。同时,结合我国重点中药企业在欧美的专利布局提出建议,以期加强企业对于中药知识产权的保护意识,重视全球布局。

  18. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ting; Chen, Juan; Jia, Xiaofeng

    2015-01-01

    This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis. Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC) and the International Patent Classification (IPC), respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012) and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year) and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012) was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones. The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and discover new

  19. Identification of the Key Fields and Their Key Technical Points of Oncology by Patent Analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting Zhang

    Full Text Available This paper aims to identify the key fields and their key technical points of oncology by patent analysis.Patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were searched in the Thomson Innovation database. The key fields and their key technical points were determined by analyzing the Derwent Classification (DC and the International Patent Classification (IPC, respectively. Patent applications in the top ten DC occupied 80% of all the patent applications of oncology, which were the ten fields of oncology to be analyzed. The number of patent applications in these ten fields of oncology was standardized based on patent applications of oncology from 2006 to 2012. For each field, standardization was conducted separately for each of the seven years (2006-2012 and the mean of the seven standardized values was calculated to reflect the relative amount of patent applications in that field; meanwhile, regression analysis using time (year and the standardized values of patent applications in seven years (2006-2012 was conducted so as to evaluate the trend of patent applications in each field. Two-dimensional quadrant analysis, together with the professional knowledge of oncology, was taken into consideration in determining the key fields of oncology. The fields located in the quadrant with high relative amount or increasing trend of patent applications are identified as key ones. By using the same method, the key technical points in each key field were identified. Altogether 116,820 patents of oncology applied from 2006 to 2012 were retrieved, and four key fields with twenty-nine key technical points were identified, including "natural products and polymers" with nine key technical points, "fermentation industry" with twelve ones, "electrical medical equipment" with four ones, and "diagnosis, surgery" with four ones.The results of this study could provide guidance on the development direction of oncology, and also help researchers broaden innovative ideas and

  20. Microbubbles shunting via a patent foramen ovale impair endothelial function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Fok

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Exposure to intravascular microbubbles after diving and during medical procedures alters endothelial function. The aim of this study was to investigate whether a patent foramen ovale altered forearm endothelial function by facilitating microbubbles transfer. Design Patients attended on two separate visits, at least seven days apart receiving agitated saline or no active intervention in random order. On both days, flow-mediated dilatation of the brachial artery was measured using vascular ultrasound. On the intervention visit, agitated saline was injected and the passage of microbubbles into the arterial circulation was confirmed by echocardiography. Serial flow-mediated dilatation measurements were made after agitated saline and at the same time points after no intervention. Setting St Thomas’ Hospital in London. Participants Patients with a patent foramen ovale (PFO+n = 14, 9 male, mean ± SD age 42.2 ± 10.5 years and patients without a patent foramen ovale (PFO− n = 10, 7 male, mean ± SD age 49.4 ± 18.4 years were recruited. Main outcome measures Change in brachial artery flow-mediated dilatation. Results In patent foramen ovale + patients, flow-mediated dilatation did not change significantly on the control day but after agitated saline reduced by 2.3 ± 0.3%, 20 minutes after bubble injection (P < 0.005 vs. corresponding change in flow-mediated dilatation during control study. There was no significant change in flow-mediated dilatation for patent foramen ovale− patients at either visit. Conclusion These results suggest that the presence of a patent foramen ovale facilitated impairment of endothelial function acutely by the transfer of microbubbles into the arterial circulation. As a patent foramen ovale is a common condition, this may be relevant to microbubbles exposure in medical procedures and in decompression illness.

  1. ZTE Attains Global No.1 Spot for PCT Patent Filings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    According to the website of the World Intellectual Property Organization, ZTE filed for 2826 applications in 2011. The company moved up from its No. 2 spot in 2010 The statistics also show consistent growth in the number of international patents that ZTE has filed over the past five years. The number of patents ZTE filed for grew more than 50 per cent yearonyear in 2011.

  2. Ethical limitations in patenting biotechnological inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugagnani, V

    1999-01-01

    In order to connect ethical considerations with practical limits to patentability, the moral judgement should possibly move from the exploitation of the invention to the nature and/or objectives of Research and Development (R&D) projects which have produced it: in other words, it appears quite reasonable and logical that Society is not rewarding unethical R&D activities by granting intellectual property rights. As far as biotechnology R&D is concerned, ethical guidance can be derived from the 1996 Council of EuropeOs OConvention for the protection of human rights and dignity of the human being with regard to the application of biology and medicineO, whose Chapter V - Scientific research - provides guidelines on: i. protection of persons undergoing research (e.g. informed consent); ii. protection of persons not able to consent to research; iii. research on embryos in vitro. As far as the specific point of patenting biotechnology inventions is concerned, the four exclusions prescribed by Directive 98/44/EC (i.e. human cloning, human germ-line gene therapy, use of human embryos for commercial purposes, unjustified animal suffering for medical purposes) are all we have in Europe in terms of ethical guidance to patentability. In Italy, in particular, we certainly need far more comprehensive legislation, expressing SocietyOs demand to provide ethical control of modern biotechnology. However it is quite difficult to claim that ethical concerns are being raised by currently awarded biotechnology patents related to living organisms and material thereof; they largely deal with the results of genomic R&D, purposely and usefully oriented toward improving health-care and agri-food processes, products and services. ONo patents on lifeOO can be an appealing slogan of militants against modern biotechnology, but it is far too much of an over-simplified abstraction to become the Eleventh Commandment our Society.

  3. Patent Overlay Mapping: Visualizing Technological Distance

    CERN Document Server

    Kay, Luciano; Youtie, Jan; Porter, Alan L; Rafols, Ismael

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to present a new global patent map that represents all technological categories, and a method to locate patent data of individual organizations and technological fields on the global map. This second patent overlay map technique is shown to be of potential interest to support competitive intelligence and policy decision-making. The global patent map is based on similarities in citing-to-cited relationships between categories of the International Patent Classification (IPC) of European Patent Office (EPO) patents from 2000 to 2006. This patent dataset, extracted from PatStat database, represents more than 760,000 patent records in more than 400 IPC categories. To illustrate the kind of analytical support offered by this approach, the paper shows the overlay of nanotechnology-related patenting activities of two companies and two different nanotechnology subfields on to the global patent map. The exercise shows the potential of patent overlay maps to visualize technological areas and...

  4. Patent and product piracy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignat, V.

    2016-08-01

    Advanced industrial countries are affected by technology theft. German industry annually loses more than 50 billion euros. The main causes are industrial espionage and fraudulent copying patents and industrial products. Many Asian countries are profiteering saving up to 65% of production costs. Most affected are small medium enterprises, who do not have sufficient economic power to assert themselves against some powerful countries. International organizations, such as Interpol and World Customs Organization - WCO - work together to combat international economic crime. Several methods of protection can be achieved by registering patents or specific technical methods for recognition of product originality. They have developed more suitable protection, like Hologram, magnetic stripe, barcode, CE marking, digital watermarks, DNA or Nano-technologies, security labels, radio frequency identification, micro color codes, matrix code, cryptographic encodings. The automotive industry has developed the method “Manufactures against Product Piracy”. A sticker on the package features original products and it uses a Data Matrix verifiable barcode. The code can be recorded with a smartphone camera. The smartphone is connected via Internet to a database, where the identification numbers of the original parts are stored.

  5. DNA as patentable subject matter and a narrow framework for addressing the perceived problems caused by gene patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schilling, Stephen H

    2011-12-01

    Concerns about the alleged harmful effects of gene patents--including hindered research and innovation and impeded patient access to high-quality genetic diagnostic tests--have resulted in overreactions from the public and throughout the legal profession. These overreactions are exemplified by Association for Molecular Pathology v. U.S. Patent and Trademark Office, a 2010 case in the Southern District of New York that held that isolated DNA is unpatentable subject matter under 35 U.S.C. § 101. The problem with these responses is that they fail to adequately consider the role that gene patents and patents on similar biomolecules play in facilitating investment in the costly and risky developmental processes required to transform the underlying inventions into marketable products. Accordingly, a more precisely refined solution is advisable. This Note proposes a narrowly tailored set of solutions to address the concerns about gene patents without destroying the incentives for companies to create and commercialize inventions derived from these and similar patents.

  6. Patent production is a prerequisite for successful exit of a biopharmaceutical company.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saotome, Chikako; Nakaya, Yurie; Abe, Seiji

    2016-03-01

    Patents are especially important for the business of drug discovery; however, their importance for biopharmaceutical companies has not been revealed quantitatively yet. To examine the correlation between patents and long-term business outcome of biopharmaceutical companies we analyze annual number of patent families and business conditions of 123 public-listed biopharmaceutical companies established from 1990 to 1995 in the USA. Our results show the number of patent families per year correlates well with the business condition: average of the bankruptcy group is significantly smaller than those of the continuing and the merger and acquisitions (M&A) groups. In the M&A by big pharma group, the acquisition cost correlates with the number of annual patent families. However, patentability and strategy of foreign patent application are not different among the groups. Therefore, the productivity of invention is the key factor for success of biopharmaceutical companies.

  7. Facilitating students' application of the integral and the area under the curve concepts in physics problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dong-Hai

    This research project investigates the difficulties students encounter when solving physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the strategies to facilitate students learning to solve those types of problems. The research contexts of this project are calculus-based physics courses covering mechanics and electromagnetism. In phase I of the project, individual teaching/learning interviews were conducted with 20 students in mechanics and 15 students from the same cohort in electromagnetism. The students were asked to solve problems on several topics of mechanics and electromagnetism. These problems involved calculating physical quantities (e.g. velocity, acceleration, work, electric field, electric resistance, electric current) by integrating or finding the area under the curve of functions of related quantities (e.g. position, velocity, force, charge density, resistivity, current density). Verbal hints were provided when students made an error or were unable to proceed. A total number of 140 one-hour interviews were conducted in this phase, which provided insights into students' difficulties when solving the problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts and the hints to help students overcome those difficulties. In phase II of the project, tutorials were created to facilitate students' learning to solve physics problems involving the integral and the area under the curve concepts. Each tutorial consisted of a set of exercises and a protocol that incorporated the helpful hints to target the difficulties that students expressed in phase I of the project. Focus group learning interviews were conducted to test the effectiveness of the tutorials in comparison with standard learning materials (i.e. textbook problems and solutions). Overall results indicated that students learning with our tutorials outperformed students learning with standard materials in applying the integral and the area under the curve

  8. Wacky Patents Meet Economic Indicators

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czarnitzki, Dirk; Hussinger, Katrin; Schneider, Cédric

    2011-01-01

    We investigate whether standard indicators can distinguish between “wacky” patents and a control group. Forward citations are good predictors of importance. However, “wacky” patents have higher originality, generality and citation lags, suggesting that these indicators should be interpreted...

  9. Subscribe to China Patents & Trademarks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1996-01-01

    The Chinese/English bilingual quarterly China Patents & Trademarks is a professional publication sponsored by ChinaPatent Agent(H.K.)Ltd. The journal commenced publication in April 1985 and has been edited and published in HongKong for distribution in China and abroad.

  10. Pesticides and the Patent Bargain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Timmermann, C.A.

    2015-01-01

    In order to enlarge the pool of knowledge available in the public domain, temporary exclusive rights (i.e. patents) are granted to innovators who are willing to fully disclose the information needed to reproduce their invention. After the 20-year patent protection period elapses, society should be

  11. Optimal patent policies: A survey

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Odile

    2002-01-01

    , the government uses two policy tools, the optimal breadth and length. We show that theoretical models give very different answers to what is the optimal patent policy. In particular, we show that the optimal patent policy depends among othet things on the price elasticity of demand, the intersectoral elasticity...

  12. Reciprocal inhibition becomes facilitation after spinal cord injury: clinical application of a system identification approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirbagheri, M M; Duffell, L D; Kotsapouikis, D; Rogers, L M

    2014-01-01

    Alteration in spinal inputs from descending pathways following spinal cord injury (SCI) affects different mechanisms including reciprocal Ia inhibition. However, whether there is a consistent pattern of change in reciprocal inhibition following SCI is uncertain. Typical attempts to evaluate reciprocal inhibition have been restricted to electrophysiological measurements, which may have limited translation to function. Our objective was to address the uncertainty regarding changes in reciprocal inhibition after SCI by quantitatively evaluating reciprocal inhibition of ankle extensors from ankle flexors using our novel, more functionally relevant system identification approach. To evaluate reciprocal inhibition using the system identification technique, a series of small-amplitude PseudoRandom Binary Sequence (PRBS) perturbations were applied to the ankle when subjects contracted their dorsiflexors. Depression of reflex stiffness with tibialis anterior (TA) activation was evaluated as reciprocal inhibition. Our results showed that reflex stiffness decreased continuously as dorsiflexor torque increased in the healthy control subjects whereas it remained almost unchanged in the SCI subjects, indicating the absence of reciprocal inhibition in patients. This pattern was consistent with the results obtained from electrophysiological measures in a exploratory control experiment revealing depression of the control H-reflex but no change to the SCI H-reflex. These findings suggest that our system identification mechanical technique is a reliable and valid approach for evaluating reciprocal inhibition. Furthermore, our results demonstrate that reciprocal inhibition can diminish or change to reciprocal facilitation after SCI, which in turn can result in reflex hyperexcitability and unwanted activity of ankle extensors triggered by TA activity. This suggests that reciprocal facilitation may play a major role in pathophysiology of spasticity and impaired function.

  13. Patent Pools: Intellectual Property Rights and Competition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Victor

    2010-01-01

    Patent pools do not correct all problems associated with patent thickets. In this respect, patent pools might not stop the outsider problem from striking pools. Moreover, patent pools can be expensive to negotiate, can exclude patent holders with smaller numbers of patents or enable a group of major players to form a cartel that excludes new competitors. For all the above reasons, patent pools are subject to regulatory clearance because they could result in a monopoly. The aim of this article is to present the relationship between patents and competition in a broad context. PMID:20200607

  14. Rational Phosphorus Application Facilitates the Sustainability of the Wheat/Maize/Soybean Relay Strip Intercropping System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanxue Chen

    Full Text Available Wheat (Triticum aestivum L./maize (Zea mays L./soybean (Glycine max L. relay strip intercropping (W/M/S system is commonly used by the smallholders in the Southwest of China. However, little known is how to manage phosphorus (P to enhance P use efficiency of the W/M/S system and to mitigate P leaching that is a major source of pollution. Field experiments were carried out in 2011, 2012, and 2013 to test the impact of five P application rates on yield and P use efficiency of the W/M/S system. The study measured grain yield, shoot P uptake, apparent P recovery efficiency (PRE and soil P content. A linear-plateau model was used to determine the critical P rate that maximizes gains in the indexes of system productivity. The results show that increase in P application rates aggrandized shoot P uptake and crops yields at threshold rates of 70 and 71.5 kg P ha-1 respectively. With P application rates increasing, the W/M/S system decreased the PRE from 35.9% to 12.3% averaged over the three years. A rational P application rate, 72 kg P ha-1, or an appropriate soil Olsen-P level, 19.1 mg kg-1, drives the W/M/S system to maximize total grain yield while minimizing P surplus, as a result of the PRE up to 28.0%. We conclude that rational P application is an important approach for relay intercropping to produce high yield while mitigating P pollution and the rational P application-based integrated P fertilizer management is vital for sustainable intensification of agriculture in the Southwest of China.

  15. Advanced Analyses of Technology Innovations, Patents, and Intellectual Property

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy J. C. Trappey

    2013-08-01

    conduct their hybrid analyses. Their findings provide recommendations for technology development strategies. The paper, entitled “Ontology-based Patent Licensing and Litigation Strategic Knowledge System for the Light Emitting Diode Industry” co-authored by Amy J.C. Trappey, Yu-Hui Wang, Charles V. Trappey,    Chun-Yi Wu, and Tzu-Hsuan Lin, develops a scientific and analytical approach for strategic cross-licensing decision support, particularly for the extremely competitive global companies in LED industry. Yu-Hui Wang and Benjamin Liu present their research in the paper entitled “Innovation Effect on Patent Pool Formation: Empirical Case of Philips’ Patents in Digital Versatile Disc 3C.” The paper evaluates both the quantity and quality of Philips’ patents in a leading DVD patent pool. The legitimacy of patent pools and their strategic value are discussed and investigated using the DVD 3C patent pool as the case example. In the paper “Application of the Honeybee Mating Optimization Algorithm to Patent Document Classification in Combination with the Support Vector Machine (SVM,” co-authors Chui-Yu Chiu and Pei-Ting Huang combine the honeybee mating optimization algorithm with SVM as a novel  patent categorization approach with accurate results. The paper, entitled “Exploring the Innovative Value of the RFID Industry” co-authored by Pei-Shu Fan, Cheng-Chin Tsao and Yi-Ching Liaw, examines a number of patent indicators to predict and explain future technological developments in the RFID industry. The research identifies the relative regional technological advantages in RFID development using relevant patent indicators and clustering analysis.

  16. Piperazine derivatives for therapeutic use: a patent review (2010-present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rathi, Anuj K; Syed, Riyaz; Shin, Han-Seung; Patel, Rahul V

    2016-07-01

    Piperazine, a six membered nitrogen containing heterocycle, is of great significance to the rational design of drugs. This moiety can be found in a plethora of well-known drugs with various therapeutic uses, such as antipsychotic, antihistamine, antianginal, antidepressant, anticancer, antiviral, cardio protectors, anti-inflammatory, and imaging agents. Slight modification to the substitution pattern on the piperazine nucleus facilitates a recognizable difference in the medicinal potential of the resultant molecules. Scifinder was the main source used to search for patents containing piperazine compounds with therapeutic uses. The article describes a variety of molecular designs bearing piperazine entity furnishing CNS agents, anticancer, cardio-protective agents, antiviral, anti-tuberculosis, anti-inflammatory, antidiabetic, and antihistamine profiles, as well as agents relieving pain and useful in imaging applications. The great interest gathered to explore piperazine based molecules in relatively few years reflects the broad potential of the entity. Earlier, this scaffold was considered to express CNS activity only. However, a significant increase in research covering studies of several different activities of piperazine ring suggest a successful emergence of the pharmacophore. Certain patents outlined in the present article recommend that piperazines can be a flexible building block to discover drug-like elements and modification of substituents present on the piperazine ring may have a significant impact on the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamics factors of the resulting molecules. This article aims to provide insights to piperazine based molecular fragments that would assist drug discoverers to rationally design molecules for various diseases. We anticipate, and highly recommend, further therapeutic investigations on this motif.

  17. An Approach for R&D Partner Selection in Alliances between Large Companies, and Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs: Application of Bayesian Network and Patent Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keeeun Lee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The enhanced R&D cooperative efforts between large firms and small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs have been emphasized to perform innovation projects and succeed in deploying profitable businesses. In order to promote such win-win alliances, it is necessary to consider the capabilities of large firms and SMEs, respectively. Thus, this paper proposes a new approach of partner selection when a large firm assesses SMEs as potential candidates for R&D collaboration. The first step of the suggested approach is to define the necessary technology for a firm by referring to a structured technology roadmap, which is a useful technique in the partner selection from the perspectives of a large firm. Second, a list of appropriate SME candidates is generated by patent information. Finally, a Bayesian network model is formulated to select an SME as an R&D collaboration partner which fits in the industry and the large firm by utilizing a bibliography with United States patents. This paper applies the proposed approach to the semiconductor industry and selects potential R&D partners for a large firm. This paper will explain how to use the model as a systematic and analytic approach for creating effective partnerships between large firms and SMEs.

  18. 超声造影在卵圆孔未闭诊断中的应用%Application of Contrast Enhanced Ultrasound in Patent Foramen Ovale

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文燕; 何文; 杜丽娟; 张惠琴; 隗冬梅

    2011-01-01

    There are three major examination methods of diagnosis patent foramen ovale (PFO):transesophageal echocardiography (TEE), transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) and transcranial Doppler ultrasonography (TCD).Recently, contrast ultrasonography is applied extensively in clinical diagnosis, and it improves the diagnostic accuracy of PFO significantly.The paper will summarize the value of three contrast enhanced ultrasound methods in diagnosing of PFO, and provide more accurate and effective information for the clinicians.%目前评价缺血性卒中患者卵圆孔未闭(patent foramen ovale,PFO)的影像学检查方法主要有经食管超声心动图、经胸超声心动图及经颅多普勒超声等。近年来随着超声造影技术的发展,超声造影技术已被用于PFO疾病的诊断,明显提高了PF0诊断的准确率。本文旨在综述超声造影技术的原理以及PFO的各种超声检查技术利弊,为临床医生提供更加确切有效的信息。

  19. “云电视”的发展状况及专利申请态势分析%Analysis for the Development Situation and Patent Application Trend of Cloud TV

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于利娜; 盛建军; 王剑

    2012-01-01

    从云、云计算、云技术等相关概念出发,引申到对云电视的解读,然后介绍了我国具有里程碑意义的云电视的行业标准,之后通过对比分析国内外云技术、云电视的发展状况及专利申请态势,给出了我国云电视技术的发展建议.%mination Cooperation Center of the Patent Office, SIPO, Beijing 100190, China) [Abstract] This article begins with the conceptions of Cloud, Cloud computing and Cloud technology, extends to the Cloud TV ' s interpretation, and then introduces the landmark significant industry standard of Cloud TV, based on the analysis of the Cloud technology and the Cloud TV ' s development situation and patent application trend, presents the development proposal of Chinese Cloud TV.

  20. Research Progress and Application of Small Forest Fruit Picking Patented Devices%小林果实采收专利装置研究进展与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁建平; 韩益博; 肖志红

    2013-01-01

    The characteristics of small forest fruit picking equipment and domestic patent research status are stated, several typical forest fruit picking mechanical patents are introduced and factor restricting the application and research of small forest fruit picking equipment are analyzed, with the modernized design concept and direction based on the combination of mechanized picking, an intelligent recognition system and positioning technology of future small forest fruit picking equipment presented.%综述了小林果实采摘的特点和国内专利研究现状,介绍了几种典型的小林果实采摘机械专利,分析了制约小林果实采摘机械应用与研究的因素,提出了未来小林果实采收装置机械式采摘、智能识别系统、定位技术三者相结合的现代设计理念与方向。

  1. Facilitation of cervical dilatation by intracervical application of sulprostone gel prior to hysteroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rath, W; Kuhn, W; Hilgers, R

    1985-09-01

    In a prospective, randomized study, 10 patients with primary sterility received an intracervical application of 0.1 mg Sulprostone-Tylose gel for cervical priming 12 hours prior to panoramic CO2-hysteroscopy and pelviscopy with chromopertubation. Ten patients who served as controls were not treated with the local prostaglandin. The force required to overcome the cervical canal was measured with a special tonometer for Hegar 3 before application of the gel in the group treated with Sulprostone and was 3-8 mm in both groups of patients immediately preoperatively. Cervical priming led to a significant reduction in the force required to dilate the cervix. After priming with Sulprostone, the cervical canal was freely passable for an average of 6.7 mm. In none of these patients was a force of 7 Newton exceeded for Hegar 8, whereas in the control group a mean force of 8.2 Newton was required to dilate the cervix for Hegar 6. Haemorrhage and epithelial lesions of the cervix caused by the dilatation can largely be avoided, and the risk of uterine damage reduced by local priming of the cervix. The intracervical application of prostaglandin gel is an easy, efficient and gentle method of dilatation for hysteroscopy, particularly in patients with a firmly closed and rigid cervix.

  2. Bio-inspired motion planning algorithms for autonomous robots facilitating greater plasticity for security applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yi; Hohil, Myron; Desai, Sachi V.

    2007-10-01

    Proposed are techniques toward using collaborative robots for infrastructure security applications by utilizing them for mobile sensor suites. A vast number of critical facilities/technologies must be protected against unauthorized intruders. Employing a team of mobile robots working cooperatively can alleviate valuable human resources. Addressed are the technical challenges for multi-robot teams in security applications and the implementation of multi-robot motion planning algorithm based on the patrolling and threat response scenario. A neural network based methodology is exploited to plan a patrolling path with complete coverage. Also described is a proof-of-principle experimental setup with a group of Pioneer 3-AT and Centibot robots. A block diagram of the system integration of sensing and planning will illustrate the robot to robot interaction to operate as a collaborative unit. The proposed approach singular goal is to overcome the limits of previous approaches of robots in security applications and enabling systems to be deployed for autonomous operation in an unaltered environment providing access to an all encompassing sensor suite.

  3. Technology Clusters Exploration for Patent Portfolio through Patent Abstract Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabjo Kim

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study explores technology clusters through patent analysis. The aim of exploring technology clusters is to grasp competitors’ levels of sustainable research and development (R&D and establish a sustainable strategy for entering an industry. To achieve this, we first grouped the patent documents with similar technologies by applying affinity propagation (AP clustering, which is effective while grouping large amounts of data. Next, in order to define the technology clusters, we adopted the term frequency-inverse document frequency (TF-IDF weight, which lists the terms in order of importance. We collected the patent data of Korean electric car companies from the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO to verify our proposed methodology. As a result, our proposed methodology presents more detailed information on the Korean electric car industry than previous studies.

  4. Recent patents and designs on hip replacement prostheses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derar, H; Shahinpoor, M

    2015-01-01

    Hip replacement surgery has gone through tremendous evolution since the first procedure in 1840. In the past five decades the advances that have been made in technology, advanced and smart materials innovations, surgical techniques, robotic surgery and methods of fixations and sterilization, facilitated hip implants that undergo multiple design revolutions seeking the least problematic implants and a longer survivorship. Hip surgery has become a solution for many in need of hip joint remedy and replacement across the globe. Nevertheless, there are still long-term problems that are essential to search and resolve to find the optimum implant. This paper reviews several recent patents on hip replacement surgery. The patents present various designs of prostheses, different materials as well as methods of fixation. Each of the patents presents a new design as a solution to different issues ranging from the longevity of the hip prostheses to discomfort and inconvenience experienced by patients in the long-term.

  5. 14 CFR 1260.28 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent rights. 1260.28 Section 1260.28... Provisions § 1260.28 Patent rights. Patent Rights May 2006 As stated at § 1260.136, this award is subject to... “Patent Rights (Small Business Firms and Nonprofit Organizations)” and the following: (a) Where the...

  6. 75 FR 20561 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce... the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450,...

  7. 78 FR 31885 - Patent Term Extension

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-28

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent Term Extension ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing effort to reduce...: Susan K. Fawcett, Records Officer, Office of the Chief Information Officer, United States Patent...

  8. Patent classifications as indicators of intellectual organization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff

    2008-01-01

    Using the 138,751 patents filed in 2006 under the Patent Cooperation Treaty, co-classification analysis is pursued on the basis of three- and four-digit codes in the International Patent Classification (IPC, 8th ed.). The co-classifications among the patents enable us to analyze and visualize the re

  9. Application of imaging mass spectrometry approaches to facilitate metal-based anticancer drug research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ronald F S; Theiner, Sarah; Meibom, Anders; Koellensperger, Gunda; Keppler, Bernhard K; Dyson, Paul J

    2017-02-03

    Mass spectrometry imaging is being increasingly used in metal-based anticancer drug development to study elemental and/or molecular drug distributions in different biological systems. The main analytical tools employed are SIMS (especially nanoSIMS), LA-ICP-MSI and MALDI-MSI as well as a combination of complementary imaging techniques. Main challenges are appropriate sample preparation methods, reliable and validated quantification strategies and a trade-off between sensitivity and spatial resolution. So far, research has mostly focused on the development of analytical methods for imaging with the long term goal to study drug uptake into tumor tissue and toxicity affected organs and to identify cellular targets of metal-based drugs. In this review we cover the technological features of the mass spectrometry imaging methods used and give an overview of the applications in metal-based anticancer drug research as well as some future perspectives.

  10. Theoretical modeling of masking DNA application in aptamer-facilitated biomarker discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherney, Leonid T; Obrecht, Natalia M; Krylov, Sergey N

    2013-04-16

    In aptamer-facilitated biomarker discovery (AptaBiD), aptamers are selected from a library of random DNA (or RNA) sequences for their ability to specifically bind cell-surface biomarkers. The library is incubated with intact cells, and cell-bound DNA molecules are separated from those unbound and amplified by the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). The partitioning/amplification cycle is repeated multiple times while alternating target cells and control cells. Efficient aptamer selection in AptaBiD relies on the inclusion of masking DNA within the cell and library mixture. Masking DNA lacks primer regions for PCR amplification and is typically taken in excess to the library. The role of masking DNA within the selection mixture is to outcompete any nonspecific binding sequences within the initial library, thus allowing specific DNA sequences (i.e., aptamers) to be selected more efficiently. Efficient AptaBiD requires an optimum ratio of masking DNA to library DNA, at which aptamers still bind specific binding sites but nonaptamers within the library do not bind nonspecific binding sites. Here, we have developed a mathematical model that describes the binding processes taking place within the equilibrium mixture of masking DNA, library DNA, and target cells. An obtained mathematical solution allows one to estimate the concentration of masking DNA that is required to outcompete the library DNA at a desirable ratio of bound masking DNA to bound library DNA. The required concentration depends on concentrations of the library and cells as well as on unknown cell characteristics. These characteristics include the concentration of total binding sites on the cell surface, N, and equilibrium dissociation constants, K(nsL) and K(nsM), for nonspecific binding of the library DNA and masking DNA, respectively. We developed a theory that allows the determination of N, K(nsL), and K(nsM) based on measurements of EC50 values for cells mixed separately with the library and masking DNA

  11. Patent data mining: a tool for accelerating HIV vaccine innovation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, K; Cavicchi, J; Jensen, K; Fitzgerald, R; Bennett, A; Kowalski, S P

    2011-05-31

    Global access to advanced vaccine technologies is challenged by the interrelated components of intellectual property (IP) management strategies, technology transfer (legal and technical) capabilities and the capacity necessary for accelerating R&D, commercialization and delivery of vaccines. Due to a negative association with the management of IP, patents are often overlooked as a vast resource of freely available, information akin to scientific journals as well as business and technological information and trends fundamental for formulating policies and IP management strategies. Therefore, a fundamental step towards facilitating global vaccine access will be the assembly, organization and analysis of patent landscapes, to identify the amount of patenting, ownership (assignees) and fields of technology covered. This is critical for making informed decisions (e.g., identifying licensees, building research and product development collaborations, and ascertaining freedom to operate). Such information is of particular interest to the HIV vaccine community where the HIV Vaccine Enterprise, have voiced concern that IP rights (particularly patents and trade secrets) may prevent data and materials sharing, delaying progress in research and development of a HIV vaccine. We have compiled and analyzed a representative HIV vaccine patent landscape for a prime-boost, DNA/adenoviral vaccine platform, as an example for identifying obstacles, maximizing opportunities and making informed IP management strategy decisions towards the development and deployment of an efficacious HIV vaccine.

  12. Recent Patents in Pulmonary Delivery of Macromolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ray, Animikh; Mandal, Abhirup; Mitra, Ashim K

    2015-01-01

    Pulmonary delivery is a non-invasive form of delivery that holds tremendous therapeutic promise for topical and systemic administration of several macromolecules. Oral administration of macromolecules has several limitations such as low bioavailability, degradation of drug before reaching circulation and insufficient absorption across intestinal membrane. Administration of macromolecules such as proteins, peptides and nucleic acids via inhalation offers great potential due to the avoidance of first pass metabolism, higher surface area and rapid clinical response. However, delivery of reproducible, uniform and safe doses of inhaled particles remains a major challenge for clinical translation. Recent advances in the fields of biotechnology and particle engineering led to progress in novel pulmonary drug delivery systems. Moreover, significant developments in carriers and delivery devices prevent denaturation of macromolecules and control their release within the lungs. This article reviews the advances in pulmonary drug delivery systems by focusing on the recent patents in delivery of macromolecules. Furthermore, recent patents in gene delivery to the lungs have also been discussed. List of patents included in this review is comprehensive in terms of pulmonary delivery of therapeutics. It includes inventions related to proteins and peptides, DNA therapeutics, siRNA and other genetic materials with therapeutic applications. The diseases targeted by these therapeutic molecules are varied including but not limited to different forms of cancer, respiratory diseases etc.

  13. On Management Crisis, Innovation and Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈荣莲

    2005-01-01

    There are lots of management crisises in chinese enterprises with development of china' s economy. There exists a bottle neck in the transition from middle-level to international level group for Chinese companies. While the general principles behind wise competition policy are well understood, their application in particular industries and particular cases calls for careful analytical thinking. That thinking often includes economics. Innovation competition policy can be analyzed using the same general principles as other parts of competition policy. It is important to understand innovation competition policy, because several kinds of innovation are important in the modern economy. How could such industries as software, semiconductors, and computers have been so innovative despite historically weak patent protection? We argue that if innovation is both sequential and complementary- as it certainly has been in those industries-competition can increase firms' future profits thus offsetting short-term dissipation of rents. A simple model also shows that in such a dynamic industry, patent protection may reduce overall innovation and social welfare. Standard arguments would predict that R&D intensity and productivity should have increased among patenting firms.

  14. Why Is Hard To Patent An Invention?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available When employed by a company, in almost all the cases a new employee has to sign an agreement giving the company exclusive rights to any intellectual property developed as part of their work assignments. This agreement could extend beyond a change of jobs and cause conflict of interests in new employment situations. A patent is a government-granted monopoly given to an inventor as both a reward for the intellectual and financial investment, and a stimulus to innovate. As a monopoly, the patent has legal power to exclude others from exploiting the invention in any way for a period of 20 years from the time the patent application has been filed. A trademark provides instant recognition of a product or company; a service mark provides instant recognition of a service. They both have unlimited lifetime. But the owner must renew or confirm continuous use at the end of five years, and every 10 years thereafter. A trade secret is information keep secret by the owner to give him advantage over competitors. Since it is secret, a trade secret protection has unlimited lifetime.

  15. "Patent Activity and Technical Change"

    OpenAIRE

    Robert L. Basmann; Michael, McAleer; Daniel, Slottje

    2003-01-01

    As creations of the mind, intellectual property includes industrial property and copyrights. This paper presents an aggregate production function of the generalized Fechner-Thurstone (GFT) form to analyze the impact of an important component of intellectual industrial property, namely patent activity, on technical change in the USA for the period 1947-1981. Patents should alter isoquant maps, and measuring their elasticities is both intuitively and empirically appealing. We define a technolog...

  16. Genetic improvement of biofuel plants: recent progress and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, T Sudhakar; Badri, Jyothi; Sastry, R Kalpana; Shrivastava, Anshul; Kishor, P B Kavi; Sujatha, M

    2013-04-01

    Due to depleting reserves of fossil fuels, political uncertainties, increase in demand of energy needs and growing concerns of environmental effects, bioenergy as an alternative source of energy needs had taken centre stage globally. In this report, we review the progress made in lignocellulose, cellulose and fermentation based biofuels in addition to tree borne oil seeds. Algae as a source of feedstock for the biofuel has also been reviewed. Recent efforts in genome sequencing of biofuel crops and molecular breeding approaches have increased our understanding towards crop improvement of major feedstocks. Besides, patenting trends in bioenergy sector were assessed by patent landscape analysis. The results showed an increasing trend in published patents during the last decade which is maximum during 2011. A conceptual framework of "transgenesis in biofuels to industrial application" was developed based on the patent analytics viz., International Patent Classification (IPC) analysis and Theme Maps. A detailed claim analysis based on the conceptual framework assessed the patenting trends that provided an exhaustive dimension of the technology. The study emphasizes the current thrust in bioenergy sector by various public and private institutions to expedite the process of biofuel production.

  17. Universities and Patent Demands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordova, Andrew K; Feldman, Robin

    2015-11-01

    Research universities have made enormous contributions to the field of medicine and the treatment of human disease. Alone or in collaboration with pharmaceutical companies, academic researchers have added to the store of knowledge that has led to numerous life science breakthroughs. A new chapter may be opening for academic researchers, however, that could lead to a darker tale. 'The mouse that trolled: the long and tortuous history of a gene mutation patent that became an expensive impediment to Alzheimer's research, by Bubela et al., chronicles one such tale.' The authors do an excellent job of bringing to life the twisting saga that engulfed numerous academic and non-profit Alzheimer's researchers over many years. The authors note that the story is an outlier, but sadly, that may not be the case. There are increasing signs that academic researchers and their institutions are being caught up in the rush for gold that is accompanying the proliferation of the non-practicing entity business model. As I have noted before, academic institutions have a dual role, as keepers of the academic flame and guardians of the public monies entrusted to them through state and federal research funding. The specter of taxpayer money being used, not to advance research and for the betterment of society, but as part of schemes to extract money from productive companies may not sit well with voters, and ultimately, with legislators. In that case, researchers and institutions themselves may have much to lose.

  18. Constructing an Intelligent Patent Network Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao-Chan Wu

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Patent network analysis, an advanced method of patent analysis, is a useful tool for technology management. This method visually displays all the relationships among the patents and enables the analysts to intuitively comprehend the overview of a set of patents in the field of the technology being studied. Although patent network analysis possesses relative advantages different from traditional methods of patent analysis, it is subject to several crucial limitations. To overcome the drawbacks of the current method, this study proposes a novel patent analysis method, called the intelligent patent network analysis method, to make a visual network with great precision. Based on artificial intelligence techniques, the proposed method provides an automated procedure for searching patent documents, extracting patent keywords, and determining the weight of each patent keyword in order to generate a sophisticated visualization of the patent network. This study proposes a detailed procedure for generating an intelligent patent network that is helpful for improving the efficiency and quality of patent analysis. Furthermore, patents in the field of Carbon Nanotube Backlight Unit (CNT-BLU were analyzed to verify the utility of the proposed method.

  19. Patent Analysis of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels for the Fuel Cladding in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Woo Gon; Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Dae Whan; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Chan Bock

    2007-09-15

    The Korean, Japanese, U.S. and European patents related to the ferritic/martensitic steels were systematically surveyed to evaluate their patent status, which would be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). From the surveys, totally 38 patents were finally selected for the quantitative and qualitative analysis. Among them, 28 patents (74%) were processed by Japanese companies and Sumitomo Metal industries Ltd. was top-ranked in the number (9) of priority patents. On the basis of these surveys, most patents could be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for SFR and, especially, some useful patents as the cladding were registered by the Russian and the Korean.

  20. Patent Analysis of Ferritic/Martensitic Steels for the Fuel Cladding in Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baek, Jong Hyuk; Kim, Sung Ho; Kim, Tae Kyu; Kim, Woo Gon; Jang, Jin Sung; Kim, Dae Whan; Han, Chang Hee; Lee, Chan Bock

    2007-09-15

    The Korean, Japanese, U.S. and European patents related to the ferritic/martensitic steels were systematically surveyed to evaluate their patent status, which would be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for the Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR). From the surveys, totally 38 patents were finally selected for the quantitative and qualitative analysis. Among them, 28 patents (74%) were processed by Japanese companies and Sumitomo Metal industries Ltd. was top-ranked in the number (9) of priority patents. On the basis of these surveys, most patents could be applicable to the fuel cladding materials for SFR and, especially, some useful patents as the cladding were registered by the Russian and the Korean.

  1. Trends of Thermal Spray Technology in Steel Industry from the View Point of Patent Applications in Japan%由日本专利应用看热喷涂技术在钢铁业中的发展趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y. Namba; K. Tani; Akashi/J

    2012-01-01

    Trends of thermal spraying technology in Japanese steel industry is summarized by investigating the patent applications filed in Japan Patent Office in the past 20 years from FY1990 to FY2009. The total number of patents filed in 8 Patent Offices (Japan, United States, Europe, China, Korea, Russia, Brazil and India), retrieved by the International Patent Classification symbol C23C4/00 (IPC index key: Coating by spraying the coating material in the molten state), is 15,082. The ratio of patent applications filed in each Patent Office is as follows: JP (39%), US (22%), EP (17%), CN (9%), KR (6%), RU (3%), BR (3%)and IN (1%). The database used in this study is from commercially available "PatBase". Number of patent applications of thermal spray technology (C23C4/00) in Japan is 4,369. Among these patents, the ratio of patents related to steel industry filed by major Japanese steel companies is 13% of total patents of every industrial segment in Japan. These patents are classified according to (1) coating applications in the process of steel production lines, (2) performances and effects obtained by coatings, .and (3) coating materials. In this paper, current status and future trend of thermal spray technology in Japanese steel industry is discussed.%从13本专利局20年(FY1990~FY2009)来申请的专利情况,可以看出日本钢铁领域热喷涂技术的发展趋势。以C23C4/00为分类号进行国际专利检索(IPC检索关键词:喷涂熔融态涂层材料),对8家专利局(日本,美国,欧洲,中国,韩国,俄罗斯,巴西和印度)共15,082篇专利进行检索,各局提交的专利申请比例如下:日本(39%)、美国(22%)、欧洲(17%)、中国(9%)、韩国(6%)、俄罗斯(3%)、巴西(3%)和印度(1%),本文中所引用的数据来自商业数据库。日本关于热喷涂技术申请的专利数量4

  2. Collaborative networks and patent production in Andean Community of Nations universities (UCANS, 2005-2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Enrique Agüero Aguilar

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The competitiveness and technological development of a region are measured by the degree of innovation supporting them. The quantity and quality of patents generated and applied in production dynamics serve as an element for evaluation. In this sense, universities play a role as generators and transmitters of knowledge. So it is important to identify the level of their collaboration and the trends in terms of technology application in order to establish future policies for development in this sector. This article identifies the degree of collaboration, types of patents, actors (primary and secondary and dynamics of patents produced at the Andean Community of Nations universities during the period 2005-2015 and present in the European Patent Office database. In conclusion, there is a great disparity between CAN universities regarding patent production, so it is necessary to strengthen the collaborative level among universities in this community. Nevertheless, an increase is seen in the production of patents.

  3. Analysis of opportunities and challenges in patenting of Bacillus thuringiensis insecticidal crystal protein genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swamy, H M Mahadeva; Asokan, R; Rajasekaran, P E; Mahmood, Riaz; Nagesha, S N; Arora, D K

    2012-04-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is the most widely used microbial control agent. The broad spectrum of susceptible hosts, production on artificial media and ease of application has caused the widespread use of this bacterium against several pests in agriculture, forest and vectors of human diseases. B.thuringiensis toxins are highly species specific which provide economic, environmental benefits, potential for future control and spread of the technology worldwide. This makes the B. thuringiensis crystal proteins an interesting tool for the implementation in integrated pest management programs. It has gained importance over the last 100 years for its biocontrol properties which is used in this review as a case study and analysis of the patents granted on B. thuringiensis was carried out. This study categorizes a number of patents related to B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins, application of B.thuringiensis insecticidal crystal proteins and the development of patentable technologies. The analyses were done using various criteria like patenting trends over the years, assignees playing a major role, comparison of the technology used in different patents and the patenting activity across the insect orders. Patent documents related to bacterium B.thuringiensis contain a trove of technical and commercial information and thus, patent analysis is considered as a useful tool for R management and techno economical development. Patent analysis also helps identifying and evaluating new and alternate technologies, keeping abreast with latest technologies for business interests, finding solutions to technical problems and ideas for new innovative trends.

  4. Patents, Inducement Prizes, and Contestant Strategy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davis, Jerome; Davis, Lee N.

    2006-01-01

    Debate over the merits of patents versus inducement prizes has tended to ignore the signaling roles of patents, and totally ignores the impact of patent signaling on prize contests. This paper asks: How does patent signaling affect the strategic choices of firms considering entering prize contests......? First, we consider contests that do not allow patenting, then contests that do. If patenting is not allowed, we argue, patent-holders, both internal and external to the contest, can adversely impact prize contests by claiming prize winner violation of their patents, and suing for damages. The likelihood...... of such challenges being made can deter entry, particularly in contests requiring large sunk costs. Furthermore, the firm's decisionmaking process will discriminate against entering prize contests and favor R&D projects with patentable outcomes. Together, these problems may circumscribe any future wider role...

  5. The Unified Patent Court (UPC), Compulsory Licensing and Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    Competition law and rules on compulsory licensing are considered as indispensable instruments to balance patent rights. In this article, we examine the room for using such balancing instruments in the context of the UPC. We analyse whether the balancing instruments will remain applicable to Europ......Competition law and rules on compulsory licensing are considered as indispensable instruments to balance patent rights. In this article, we examine the room for using such balancing instruments in the context of the UPC. We analyse whether the balancing instruments will remain applicable...... that the UPC is likely to be less inclined to use them. To redress that problem we suggest that the UPC acknowledges the institutional biases of the court and looks for ways to include other values and interests than the proprietary values and interests of patent law....

  6. Compulsory licensing of patents in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhry, Rahul

    2016-09-01

    This article deals with compulsory licensing scenarios in India, provides a background of relevant provisions in the Patents Act and examines how these provisions are Trade-Related Aspects of Intellectual Property Rights compliant. This article further discusses the procedure followed by India in granting a compulsory license, provides an overview of compulsory license applications filed in India to date and judicial precedence regarding the same. This article also highlights how compulsory licensing is a great safeguard that balances the interests of the innovators and the public at large.

  7. The written description rejection as a barrier to biotech patent prosecution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Shyh-Jen

    2011-05-01

    Biotech firms always pursue broad claims to secure new discoveries, new technologies and even as yet undiscovered results of future research. However, expansive claims without sufficient description violate the principal of granting the patentee the right to exclude others from using the technical development for a certain amount of time in return for disclosing the innovation. Based on this investigation, a written description can be a barrier to biotech patents with broad claims. To avoid a written description rejection during patent prosecution or invalidation in litigation, the patent applicant or assignee should demonstrate possession of the claimed invention by describing the claimed invention with all of its limitations using descriptive means such as words, structures, figures, diagrams, and formulas that fully set forth the claimed invention. Although the court cases analyzed in this study were not directly related to vaccines, the guideline indeed is applicable to patents of vaccine. Furthermore, a vaccine patent application is also demonstrated.

  8. 77 FR 29617 - Intent to Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-18

    ... Department of the Air Force Intent to Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License AGENCY: The United States..., title and interest the Air Force has in: U.S. Patent Application No. 13/190,520, filed July 26, 2011.... Kimball. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: The Air Force intends to grant a license for the...

  9. Patent law for computer scientists steps to protect computer-implemented inventions

    CERN Document Server

    Closa, Daniel; Giemsa, Falk; Machek, Jörg

    2010-01-01

    Written from over 70 years of experience, this overview explains patent laws across Europe, the US and Japan, and teaches readers how to think from a patent examiner's perspective. Over 10 detailed case studies are presented from different computer science applications.

  10. Power Law Distributions of Patents as Indicators of Innovation

    CERN Document Server

    O'Neale, D R J

    2012-01-01

    The total number of patents produced by a country (or the number of patents produced per capita) is often used as an indicator for innovation. Here we present evidence that the distribution of patents amongst applicants within many OECD countries is well-described by power laws with exponents that vary between 1.66 (Japan) and 2.37 (Poland). Using simulations based on simple preferential attachment-type rules that generate power laws, we find we can explain some of the variation in exponents between countries, with countries that have larger numbers of patents per applicant generally exhibiting smaller exponents in both the simulated and actual data. Similarly we find that the exponents for most countries are inversely correlated with other indicators of innovation, such as R&D intensity or the ubiquity of export baskets. This suggests that in more advanced economies, which tend to have smaller values of the exponent, a greater proportion of the total number of patents are filed by large companies than in...

  11. Power law distributions of patents as indicators of innovation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dion R J O'Neale

    Full Text Available The total number of patents produced by a country (or the number of patents produced per capita is often used as an indicator for innovation. Here we present evidence that the distribution of patents amongst applicants within many countries is well-described by power laws with exponents that vary between 1.66 (Japan and 2.37 (Poland. We suggest that this exponent is a useful new metric for studying innovation. Using simulations based on simple preferential attachment-type rules that generate power laws, we find we can explain some of the variation in exponents between countries, with countries that have larger numbers of patents per applicant generally exhibiting smaller exponents in both the simulated and actual data. Similarly we find that the exponents for most countries are inversely correlated with other indicators of innovation, such as research and development intensity or the ubiquity of export baskets. This suggests that in more advanced economies, which tend to have smaller values of the exponent, a greater proportion of the total number of patents are filed by large companies than in less advanced countries.

  12. Patents to Exclude vs. Include: Rethinking the Management of Intellectual Property Rights in a Knowledge-Based Economy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Pénin

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditional patent theory emphasizes the importance of patents for excluding imitators. This view is far too restrictive and is at odds with many empirical and theoretical works. Therefore, we propose an analysis of patent management that considers the properties of knowledge-based economies explicitly. Patents are thus shown to be critical instruments for coordinating innovative activities between firms. They not only exclude potential infringers, but also “include” all the heterogeneous stakeholders of the innovation process. Patents facilitate coordination via two mechanisms: they encourage the emergence of markets for technology (market coordination and they play an important role in formal and informal inter-firm collaboration (non-market coordination. We also link firms’ patenting strategy with the characteristics of the technological regime of their sector.

  13. Research Funding, Patent Search Training and Technology Transfer: a collaboration

    KAUST Repository

    Tyhurst, Janis

    2016-01-01

    This paper will focus on the collaboration efforts of three different university departments to create, teach and evaluate the benefits of a joint patent training series, as well as the future directions this collaboration will take. KAUST has as one of its goals the diversification of the Saudi economy. There is a strong focus at the university on developing entrepreneurial ideas and commercializing research done. The University Library supports this goal through the provision of electronic resources and introductory patent search training skills. However, the patent training class offered by the University Library is only one step in a process that faculty and students need when starting or taking their research to the next level. In the Fall of 2015, I met with representatives of the two major stakeholders in the patent arena, the office of Sponsored Research (OSR) and the Technology Transfer Office (TTO), to develop a patent training program to meet the needs of researchers. The OSR provides funding to researchers who have demonstrated that their ideas have merit with potential applications, the TTO works with researchers who are at the point of needing IP protection. The resulting discussion led us to collaborate on creating a workshop series that benefit the researcher’s information needs and each of our departments as well. In the first of the series of three 2 hour workshops, the Manager of TTO and the Lead Integrative Specialist from the OSR presented a workshop on an overview of Intellectual Property and the patenting process. These presentations focused on when and how to determine whether research is potentially patentable, why a researcher needs to protect his/her research and how to go about protecting it. The second workshop focused on introductory patent search skills and tools, how to expand a literature search to include the information found in patents, and how this kind of research will improve not only the literature search but the research

  14. A clearing house for diagnostic testing: the solution to ensure access to and use of patented genetic inventions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Zimmeren, Esther; Verbeure, Birgit; Matthijs, Gert; Van Overwalle, Geertrui

    2006-01-01

    In genetic diagnostics, the emergence of a so-called "patent thicket" is imminent. Such an overlapping set of patent rights may have restrictive effects on further research and development of diagnostic tests, and the provision of clinical diagnostic services. Currently, two models that may facilitate access to and use of patented genetic inventions are attracting much debate in various national and international fora: patent pools and clearing houses. In this article, we explore the concept of clearing houses. Several types of clearing houses are identified. First, we describe and discuss two types that would provide access to information on the patented inventions: the information clearing house and the technology exchange clearing house. Second, three types of clearing houses are analysed that not only offer access to information but also provide an instrument to facilitate the use of the patented inventions: the open access clearing house, the standardized licences clearing house and the royalty collection clearing house. A royalty collection clearing house for genetic diagnostic testing would be the most comprehensive as it would serve several functions: identifying patents and patent claims essential to diagnostic testing, matching licensees with licensors, developing and supplying standardized licences, collecting royalties, monitoring whether users respect licensing conditions, and providing dispute resolution services such as mediation and arbitration. In this way, it might function as an effective model for users to facilitate access to and use of the patented inventions. However, it remains to be seen whether patent holders with a strong patent portfolio will be convinced by the advantages of the royalty collection clearing house and be willing to participate. PMID:16710543

  15. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrão, Júlio C; Mezêncio, Bruno; Claudino, João G; Soncin, Rafael; Miyashiro, Pedro L Sampaio; Sousa, Eric P; Borges, Eduardo; Zanetti, Vinícius; Phillip, Igor; Mochizuki, Luiz; Amadio, Alberto C

    2016-09-01

    Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko(®) in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo) on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects.

  16. A novel classification method for aid decision of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yufeng; Liu, Bo; He, Liyun; Bai, Wenjing; Yu, Xueyun; Cao, Xinyu; Luo, Lin; Rong, Peijing; Zhao, Yuxue; Li, Guozheng; Liu, Baoyan

    2017-09-01

    Traditional Chinese patent medicines are widely used to treat stroke because it has good efficacy in the clinical environment. However, because of the lack of knowledge on traditional Chinese patent medicines, many Western physicians, who are accountable for the majority of clinical prescriptions for such medicine, are confused with the use of traditional Chinese patent medicines. Therefore, the aid-decision method is critical and necessary to help Western physicians rationally use traditional Chinese patent medicines. In this paper, Manifold Ranking is employed to develop the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. First, 115 stroke patients from three hospitals are recruited in the cross-sectional survey. Simultaneously, traditional Chinese physicians determine the traditional Chinese patent medicines appropriate for each patient. Second, particular indicators are explored to characterize the population feature of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment. Moreover, these particular indicators can be easily obtained byWestern physicians and are feasible for widespread clinical application in the future. Third, the aid-decision model of traditional Chinese patent medicines for stroke treatment is constructed based on Manifold Ranking. Experimental results reveal that traditional Chinese patent medicines can be differentiated. Moreover, the proposed model can obtain high accuracy of aid decision.

  17. How drug life-cycle management patent strategies may impact formulary management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Jan; Dunn, Jeffrey D; Johnson, Margaret M; Karst, Kurt R; Shear, W Chad

    2016-10-01

    Drug manufacturers may employ various life-cycle management patent strategies, which may impact managed care decision making regarding formulary planning and management strategies when single-source, branded oral pharmaceutical products move to generic status. Passage of the Hatch-Waxman Act enabled more rapid access to generic medications through the abbreviated new drug application process. Patent expirations of small-molecule medications and approvals of generic versions have led to substantial cost savings for health plans, government programs, insurers, pharmacy benefits managers, and their customers. However, considering that the cost of developing a single medication is estimated at $2.6 billion (2013 dollars), pharmaceutical patent protection enables companies to recoup investments, creating an incentive for innovation. Under current law, patent protection holds for 20 years from time of patent filing, although much of this time is spent in product development and regulatory review, leaving an effective remaining patent life of 7 to 10 years at the time of approval. To extend the product life cycle, drug manufacturers may develop variations of originator products and file for patents on isomers, metabolites, prodrugs, new drug formulations (eg, extended-release versions), and fixed-dose combinations. These additional patents and the complexities surrounding the timing of generic availability create challenges for managed care stakeholders attempting to gauge when generics may enter the market. An understanding of pharmaceutical patents and how intellectual property protection may be extended would benefit managed care stakeholders and help inform decisions regarding benefit management.

  18. 48 CFR 1427.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... INTERIOR GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1427.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  19. 48 CFR 1227.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... TRANSPORTATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1227.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  20. 48 CFR 1327.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 1327.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  1. 48 CFR 2427.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Administration of patent... AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights Under Government Contracts 2427.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  2. 48 CFR 27.305 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of patent... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 27.305 Administration of patent rights clauses....

  3. 7 CFR 1210.367 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications....367 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents, copyrights, inventions, product... such patents, copyrights, inventions, product formulations, or publications shall be considered...

  4. 48 CFR 27.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright... REGULATION GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 27.201 Patent and copyright infringement liability....

  5. The Mining Research of Technical Efficiency and Application Map of Patent Information%专利信息的技术功效与应用图挖掘研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟东升; 陈展; 张杰; 黄鲁成; 阮平南

    2012-01-01

    目前,专利技术功效图与技术应用图的构造方法主要通过专家或学者的主观判断来对技术、功效或应用进行分类,因此比较耗费人力,结果也不够全面。针对以上问题,提出一种基于文本挖掘的、相对客观的解决方案,首先对专利信息进行文本挖掘并从中提取专利文献中涉及的技术、应用和功效,再由专家对文本挖掘后的结果进行评估以确定较全面、准确的技术、功效、应用的特征,得到的特征将能直接用于统计其对应包含文献数量并最终构造技术功效图与技术应用图。实验结果表明,得到的技术功效等特征比专家预想的特征更全面、准确,技术功效图与技术应用图更加完整。%Currently, the research of patent technology effect matrix and technology application map is primarily depend on the judgement of experts in classification of technology, effect and application terms, which requires many labors and the result seems to be not comprehensive. Therefore, the paper proposes a relatively objective solution based on text min- ing. This solution mainly focuses on the extraction of patent information about technology, effect and application terms, and then the experts make decisions based on the results of extraction to define the relatively comprehensive and accurate terms. With these terms, the maps by calculating the numbers of terms and the times of occurrences among them can be built. Experimental results show that the finally statistics are more comprehensive relative to experts' ways.

  6. Patent Eligibility of Business Methods in Canada

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng Li; Brian Lee

    2011-01-01

    @@ While the same fundamental principles underlining patent law are generally accepted in every major jurisdiction in the world, the patent eligibility of computer-implemented business method inventions ("business methods") has received different treatment between jurisdictions.

  7. Current challenges in patent information retrieval

    CERN Document Server

    Lupu, Mihai; Kando, Noriko

    2017-01-01

    Intellectual property in the form of patents plays a vital role in today's increasingly knowledge-based economy. This book assembles state-of-the art research and is intended to illustrate innovative approaches to patent information retrieval.

  8. Effect of firm variables on patent price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam Sreekumaran Nair

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, using singleton patent auction price data from Ocean Tomo, LLC, we analyse the effect of firm variables on patent price. Patents owned by small firms attract higher price than patents owned by large firms, if they engage in multi-country filings. The patents owned by small firms get cited more than the patents owned by large firms. The patents owned by individual inventors attract a higher price than the patents owned by organisations when multi-country filings are not included. We believe that the lack of resources is preventing individual inventors from engaging in multi-country filings and maximising the revenue from their invention. A larger representative data should be used to replicate the results before generalising it.

  9. On the Nature of Standards and Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bing WANG; Xu LI; Lanxi XIONG

    2008-01-01

    @@ Introduction 'Standard' and 'patent' are the buzz words in China's information and communication technology (ICT) industry. While the government has expressed its intention to promote standardization and patent protec-tion, what direction should enterprises especially domestic ICT companies take?

  10. A Transformation from "Invention First" Principle to "Application First" Principle: Comment on American Patent Reform Bill%破旧立新:从先发明原则到先申请原则——兼评美国专利改革法案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    易玲; 易亮

    2012-01-01

    专利权作为私权,须明定其权利归属,同一个发明创造只能授予一项专利权,世界通行的做法采先申请原则,对最先提出专利申请的人以优先取得专利的权利,而美国一直以来采先发明原则。但是,受国际专利调和化运动影响,美国国会开始逐步努力转向采先申请原则,此次美国专利法变革即为其最终结果,尽管学界对于此次变革的前途争议不停,但从整体上来说,采先申请原则相较于先发明原则仍有其进步之处。%Patent right, as a type of private rights, must has its ownership. Each invention can only apply for one patent right. While the popular practice in the world follows "application first" principle, which renders the per- son patent right for specific invention who applies first, America has always been adopting "invention first" prin- ciple. However, affected by international patent harmonization movement, U.S. congress is beginning to pursue "application first" principle, marked by American patent right reform as its final results. Despite unceasing aca- demic disputes over the future of this reform, preference to application first principle instead of invention first princiole marks certain nro~re~ in an n,.rr~r~ll

  11. Natural compounds for solar photoprotection: a patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serafini, Mairim R; Guimarães, Adriana G; Quintans, Jullyana S S; Araújo, Adriano A S; Nunes, Paula S; Quintans-Júnior, Lucindo J

    2015-04-01

    Ultraviolet irradiation has deleterious effects on human skin, including tanning, sunburn, cancer and connective tissue degradation (photoaging). Botanical antioxidants have been shown to be associated with reduced incidence of photocarcinogenesis and photoaging through their photoprotective profile. Here, the authors summarized therapeutic patent applications concerning the employment of medicinal plants on the technological development of a formulation with photoprotective or photoaging application. So, the patent search was conducted in the databases WIPO, Espacenet, USPTO and Derwent, using the keywords - photoaging, photoprotection and the IPC A61K 8/97 (cosmetics or similar cleaning supplies obtained from vegetable origin, for example, plant extracts) and A61K 36/00 (medicinal preparations of undetermined constitution containing material from algae, lichens, fungi or plants, or derivatives thereof, for example, traditional herbal medicines). We found 180 patents, out of which 25 were evaluated using inclusion criteria as application of natural products with photoprotective or photoaging application. We found that some patents related to the cosmetic compositions for improving skin wrinkle and either preventing or reducing the signs of photoaging and sunburn. The cosmetic compositions are manufactured in the form of a lotion, gel, soluble liquid, cream, essence, oil-in-water-type or water-in-oil-type formulation, containing the vegetal extracts as an active ingredient.

  12. PCT Reforms Its Patent Filing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    As of January 1,2004,the first critical steps in seekingpatent protection in multiple countries will be easier as aresult of reforms to the international patent filing system.Aseries of reforms to the World Intellectual PropertyOrganisation's(WIPO)Patent Cooperation Treaty(PCT),ranging from a new simplified system of designatingcountries in which patent protection is sought to an enhancedsearch and preliminary examination system,will simplify thecomplex procedure of obtaining patent protection in severa...

  13. Research use of patented inventions: opening remarks

    OpenAIRE

    Fernández de Labastida, José M.

    2006-01-01

    Opening remarks for the 2006 conference in Madrid on the research use of patented inventions. The conference, which was held at CSIC on 18-19 May 2006, was jointly organised by the Spanish National Research Council (CSIC), the Spanish Patent and Trademark Office (OEPM) and the OECD, with support from the European Patent Office (EPO) through its European Patent Academy. The conference brochure is also included as an attachment to the Opening remarks file.

  14. Objectives and Incentives at the European Patent Office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friebel, Guido; Koch, Alexander Karl; Prady, Delphine

    This report examines the effectiveness of the current system of incentives within the European Patent Office (EPO) and considers the possible consequences of placing greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff. It reviews the relevant scientific literature...... this appropriate patentability standard in the patent examination process. Several developments have led to a perception that the Human Resource System should be adjusted to place greater emphasis on quantitative measures of productivity in rewarding EPO staff. Among these are most notably the growth...... in application numbers over the last few years, the accumulated backlog, and concerns regarding the future financial situation of the Office. Chapter 3 analyzes the potential consequences of such measures. The main findings of the report are as follows: 1. Although there are costs from too stringent...

  15. Some consideration about how to provide experimental evidence in pharmaceutical patent applications%关于药物领域专利申请如何提供实验数据的思考

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈红霞; 王克伟; 姚云; 何朝辉

    2012-01-01

    发明的技术效果以及说明书中是否有相应的实验数据对于化学领域的发明是否充分公开以及是否具备创造性具有重要的意义.本文通过案例分析了在药物领域尤其是涉及剂型改进以及联合用药发明中如何根据发明要解决的技术问题以及现有技术提供实验数据,对申请人撰写申请文件具有现实的指导意义.%The technical effects and the related experimental evidence in the description of patents are of great importance for judging whether the said invention has been disclosed sufficiently and whether it involves an inventive step in chemical field. In this paper, several cases of inventions in pharmaceutical field, especially inventions in respect of dosage improvement and drug combination, are analyzed in order to explain how to provide experimental evidence on the basis of describing the target technical problem the invention intended to solve and the prior art. This article has practical significance for applicants to write their applications.

  16. 48 CFR 970.2703 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 970.2703 Section 970.2703 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY AGENCY SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2703 Patent rights....

  17. 43 CFR 402.10 - Patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent. 402.10 Section 402.10 Public Lands... LANDS IN FEDERAL RECLAMATION PROJECTS Public Lands § 402.10 Patent. When a purchaser has complied fully... and patent and shall state the statutory authority for such liens. The receipt shall be submitted...

  18. 77 FR 4885 - Patent Compensation Board Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-01

    ... Part 780 RIN 1990-AA33 Patent Compensation Board Regulations AGENCY: Office of the General Counsel... Patent ] Compensation Board regulations to provide that the Secretary of Energy, or a person acting in that position, shall appoint, as needed, a three member panel to serve as the Patent Compensation...

  19. 48 CFR 35.012 - Patent rights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent rights. 35.012 Section 35.012 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SPECIAL CATEGORIES OF CONTRACTING RESEARCH AND DEVELOPMENT CONTRACTING 35.012 Patent rights. For a discussion of patent rights,...

  20. Patentering af det humane genom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Tine

    2004-01-01

    Direktiv 98/44/EF om retlig beskyttelse af bioteknologiske opfindelser blev gennemført i dansk ret med ikrafttrædelse den 30. juli 2000. Direktivet indeholder i artikel 5 en central bestemmelse som giver adgang til patent på humane gener. I artikel 5, stk. 3, er indføjet et skærpet krav til...

  1. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  2. Patents in the pharmaceutical industry

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Slobodanka

    2003-01-01

    The pharmaceutical industry is characterized by dynamic development, the existence of big multinational companies and a global market. Such development of the pharmaceutical industry was highly influenced by the introduction of patent protection and compliance with intellectual property regulations. One of the most important international obligations is the TRIPS Agreement.

  3. The Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE Study: Developing risk models for application to ongoing randomized trials of percutaneous patent foramen ovale closure for cryptogenic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaler David E

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite the diffusion into practice of percutaneous closure of a patent foramen ovale (PFO in patients with cryptogenic stroke (CS, the benefits have not been demonstrated, and remain unclear. For any individual presenting with a PFO in the setting of CS, it is not clear whether the PFO is pathogenically-related to the index event or an incidental finding. Further, the overall rate of stroke recurrence is low in patients with CS and PFO. How patient-specific factors affect the likelihood that a discovered PFO is related to an index stroke or affect the risk of recurrence is not well understood. These probabilities are likely to be important determinants of the benefits of PFO closure in CS. Design/Methods The goal of the Risk of Paradoxical Embolism (RoPE Study is to develop and test a set of predictive models that can identify those patients most likely to benefit from preventive treatments for PFO-related stroke recurrence, such as PFO closure. To do this, we will construct a database of patients with CS, both with and without PFO, by combining existing cohort studies. We will use this pooled database to identify patient characteristics associated with the presence (versus the absence of a PFO, and to use this "PFO propensity" to estimate the patient-specific probability that a PFO was pathogenically related to the index stroke (Model #1. We will also develop, among patients with both a CS and a PFO, a predictive model to estimate patient-specific stroke recurrence risk based on clinical, radiographic and echocardiographic characteristics. (Model #2. We will then combine Models #1 and #2 into a composite index that can rank patients with CS and PFO by their conditional probability that their PFO was pathogenically related to the index stroke and the risk of stroke recurrence. Finally, we will apply this composite index to completed clinical trials (currently on-going testing endovascular PFO closure against medical therapy

  4. 37 CFR 1.705 - Patent term adjustment determination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Patent term adjustment determination. 1.705 Section 1.705 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES Adjustment and Extension of Patent...

  5. [How much does the backlog on drug patents cost for health in Brazil?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jannuzzi, Anna Haydée Lanzillotti; Vasconcellos, Alexandre Guimarães

    2017-08-21

    The backlog in processing patent applications in Brazil has persisted since the enactment of Law 9,279/1996, when the country resumed granting patents on drugs. The agencies responsible for granting such patents, namely the Brazilian National Patent and Trademark Office (INPI) and the Brazilian National Health Surveillance Agency (Anvisa) cite technical and administrative reasons for the backlog. However, little research has focused on the economic impacts for health due to the inefficiency of the Brazilian patent system. The current study thus proposes a methodology to estimate the extent to which government procurement of medicines is burdened by the backlog in drug patent applications. According to the results, a total of more than BRL 14 million (USD 4.5 million) is spent unnecessarily per year by the Federal Government on just one antiretroviral drug due to the extension of the respective patent's life. Measures to resolve this situation are urgently needed in the three branches of government. These include hiring more staff for the INPI, analysis of bills of law under review in the two houses of the Brazilian Congress to amend the Industrial Property Law, and ruling on direct class action claims of unconstitutionality to suppress the legal mechanisms that allow extending the life of patents.

  6. A contribuição de patentes para a inovação sustentável: o caso de um trocador de calor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Mamori Kono

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patents are useful indicators of innovation, although still of a very limited use. In patenting, the need for the precise registration of a method, process, or system facilitates understanding it and eventually motivates the scientific community to carry out research in a given area, thus accelerating technological progress. Patent data are not static; patents cite other connected patents, providing a dynamic view of technological antecedents and descendants leading to state-of-the-art knowledge. This article is an exercise on the usefulness of patents as a source of technological innovation. To do this, we searched patent databases considered as sources of technological innovation in order to introduce improvements in a heat-exchanging device coupled to an electric shower. The results enabled finding the state-of-the-art of the technology and led to suggestions of possible innovations for the product. This allowed us to improve the sustainability potential of this technology.

  7. Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saffer, Shelley (Sam) I.

    2014-12-01

    This is a final report of the DOE award DE-SC0001132, Advanced Artificial Science. The development of an artificial science and engineering research infrastructure to facilitate innovative computational modeling, analysis, and application to interdisciplinary areas of scientific investigation. This document describes the achievements of the goals, and resulting research made possible by this award.

  8. 37 CFR 1.294 - Examination of request for publication of a statutory invention registration and patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... publication of a statutory invention registration and patent application to which the request is directed. 1... Public Use Proceedings § 1.294 Examination of request for publication of a statutory invention registration and patent application to which the request is directed. (a) Any request for a statutory invention...

  9. 78 FR 70955 - Prospective Grant of Exclusive Patent License: GMCSF-BclxL-Derived Chimeric Therapeutics for Use...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-27

    ... inventions embodied in technology family E-150-2005/0, including U.S. Patent application 11/991,692 [HHS Ref.../or applications for a license which are received by the NIH Office of Technology Transfer on or... directed to: Surekha Vathyam, Ph.D., Senior Licensing and Patenting Manager, Office of Technology...

  10. 75 FR 20828 - Availability for Non-Exclusive, Exclusive, or Partially Exclusive Licensing of U.S. Patent...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-21

    .... Patent Application Concerning a Chimeric Ebola and Marburg Virus Glycoproteins Virus Like Particle Vaccine To Protect Against Diverse Ebola and Marburg Viruses AGENCY: Department of the Army, DoD. ACTION.... Patent Application Serial No. 61/338,967, entitled ``A Chimeric Ebola and Marburg Virus...

  11. Design and application of a new series of gallbladder endoscopes that facilitate gallstone removal without gallbladder excision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiao, Tie; Huang, Wan-Chao; Luo, Xiao-Bing; Zhang, Yang-De

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, some Chinese doctors have proposed a new concept, gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, along with transition of the medical model. As there is no specialized endoscope for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision, we designed and produced a new series of gallbladder endoscopes and accessories that have already been given a Chinese invention patent (No. ZL200810199041.2). The design of these gallbladder endoscopes was based on the anatomy and physiology of the gallbladder, characteristics of gallbladder disease, ergonomics, and industrial design. This series of gallbladder endoscopes underwent clinical trials in two hospitals appointed by the State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine. The clinical trials showed that surgeries of gallstones, gallbladder polyps, and cystic duct calculus could be smoothly performed with these products. In summary, this series of gallbladder endoscopes is safe, reliable, and effective for gallstone removal without gallbladder excision. This note comprehensively introduces the research and design of this series of gallbladder endoscopes.

  12. Genome-scale reconstruction and analysis of the Pseudomonas putida KT2440 metabolic network facilitates applications in biotechnology.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Puchałka

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A cornerstone of biotechnology is the use of microorganisms for the efficient production of chemicals and the elimination of harmful waste. Pseudomonas putida is an archetype of such microbes due to its metabolic versatility, stress resistance, amenability to genetic modifications, and vast potential for environmental and industrial applications. To address both the elucidation of the metabolic wiring in P. putida and its uses in biocatalysis, in particular for the production of non-growth-related biochemicals, we developed and present here a genome-scale constraint-based model of the metabolism of P. putida KT2440. Network reconstruction and flux balance analysis (FBA enabled definition of the structure of the metabolic network, identification of knowledge gaps, and pin-pointing of essential metabolic functions, facilitating thereby the refinement of gene annotations. FBA and flux variability analysis were used to analyze the properties, potential, and limits of the model. These analyses allowed identification, under various conditions, of key features of metabolism such as growth yield, resource distribution, network robustness, and gene essentiality. The model was validated with data from continuous cell cultures, high-throughput phenotyping data, (13C-measurement of internal flux distributions, and specifically generated knock-out mutants. Auxotrophy was correctly predicted in 75% of the cases. These systematic analyses revealed that the metabolic network structure is the main factor determining the accuracy of predictions, whereas biomass composition has negligible influence. Finally, we drew on the model to devise metabolic engineering strategies to improve production of polyhydroxyalkanoates, a class of biotechnologically useful compounds whose synthesis is not coupled to cell survival. The solidly validated model yields valuable insights into genotype-phenotype relationships and provides a sound framework to explore this versatile

  13. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human...... enhancement. Patents will be instrumental for companies to protect investment in innovation and tap into this potentially valuable market. The European patent system contains, in Article 53(c) EPC, an exception from patentability for methods for treatment and diagnostic methods. Such rule was created...

  14. Patentability of methods of human enhancement

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordberg, Ana

    2015-01-01

    This article explores how to apply patentability rules to human enhancement, particularly focusing on Article 53(c) of the European Patent Convention (EPC). The global size and value of the cosmetic and wellness market and industry allow for the prediction of considerable market potential for human......, and subsequently developed through European Patent Office (EPO) case law, by reference to the dichotomy between therapeutic and cosmetic methods. Subsuming enhancement methods under this patentability rule may be challenging. Ultimately, patentability of human enhancement will depend on the concept of health, its...

  15. Filed and granted Indian Patents in dentistry from 2005-2009: a critical analysis and review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bijle, Mohammed Nadeem Ahmed; Patil, Shankargouda

    2013-01-01

    Patent policies have proved to be extremely important for several countries to develop. India has achieved its global status since 2005; a critical analysis of the patents at IPO will help us to identify the potential, available for patents with Indian Dental Fraternity. The aim of this study is to critically analyze and review Indian Patents in the field of Dentistry from 2005-2009 for evaluation of status of Indian Patents in Dentistry. A total of 110 patents were scrutinized from 2005-2009 available by IPO on www.patentoffice.nic.in. Following which a preliminary data were collected from individual patents and recorded in a record sheet. The data collected were analyzed using SPSS 16.0 software and were subjected to ANOVA test. All patents scrutinized were applied for dental materials (100%). Company applicants (70%) were the maximum followed by the individual applicants (27.2%). A total of 87.3% of patents had enrolled for International Application. Priority country had maximum favor with USA (39.2%) followed by Europe (36.1%). Single inventors (44.5%) were the maximum followed by two inventors (22.7%). Europe (37.3%) had the maximum first inventor, followed by United States of America (30%) and India (10.9%). Individual inventors were maximum in Europe (38.8%) followed by USA (20.4%) and India (16.3%). Contribution from Indian Nationals as inventors for patents in the field of Dentistry is limited, thus reducing the pace of progress and development. Indian inventors in the field of Dentistry have to go a long way to compete with the fellow mates of developed countries like USA and Europe. Continuing Dental Education programs on Intellectual property rights should be conducted on regular basis especially for Dentist's involved in research.

  16. Of patents and patent disputes: The TNFα patent files. Part 1: Humira.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Storz, Ulrich

    2017-01-01

    This article discusses the patent strategy underlying the world's best selling drug, AbbVie's Humira®. Despite a non-optimal starting position, AbbVie has established an extensive portfolio to fend off biosimilar competition. This article is the first part of a trilogy that discusses IP issues related to anti-Tumor Necrosis factor α (TNFα) biologics.

  17. Comparative analysis between academic and patent publications based on Fenton Technologies among China, Brazil, and the rest of the world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Luna, Airton José; Santos, Douglas Alves

    2017-03-01

    Worldwide, year by year, Fenton's Technologies have been highlighted in both academic and patent scopes, in part due to their proven efficiency as environment-friendly technologies destined to the abatement of organic pollutants, and also by their growing interest to produce industrial applications. Thus, aiming to understand the effective dynamic between two worlds, academy vs patents, the present study performs a comparative analysis about publications on Fenton-based Technologies (FbT). Therefore, in this work, technological foresight techniques were adopted focusing on patent and non-patent databases, employing for this, the Web of Science (WoS) database as a prospecting tool. The main results for the last decade point out to a strong increment of the Fenton's Technologies, as much in R&D as in patent applications in the world. Chinese Universities and firms command the scenario. There is an expressive gap between the academic and patent issues.

  18. The global role of the European patent office, challenges and skills in the integration process; El papel global de la oficina Europea de Patentes retos y competencias en el proceso de integracion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Battistelli, B.

    2011-07-01

    The European Patent Office is one of the five main in the world. As such, it is involved in numerous initiatives aimed at meeting the challenges posed by the increase in the number of patent applications worldwide. To this end, the EPO co-operates closely with the patent offices in its member states and around the world. These initiatives aim at enhancing efficiency whilst maintaining very high quality standards. (Author) 4 refs.

  19. Studies of world carbon fiber industry from a perspective of patent analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑佳

    2016-01-01

    Patents are the manifestation of the industry R&D endeavor;therefore, World carbon fiber in-dustry from the perspective of patent analysis is studied .Findings from the analysis show a continual increase of carbon fibers patents since 1969 , and the growth rate began even faster after the year of 2005.Five countries (Japan, China, US, Germany and Korea) took dominant positions in global carbon fibers R&D , and the sum of patents applied in these five countries accounted for 80%of the total patents in the world .Corporations do play an active role in global carbon fibers R&D , and over 60%of patents were applied by corporations .Among them , the top 3 corporations were all from Ja-pan, which had much more patents than the other patent assignees .Furthermore, most corporations were not active in cooperation with others , except Toyota Motor Corp .Global carbon fibers R&D fo-cused on sheet manufacture cloth , core wire layer , heat connect provide and filter activated draw . And there is big difference between Japan and China in the R&D focus .China ’ s corporations have exhibited rapid growth in the number of patent applications in recent years , but there is still a large gap between China and foreign countries in view of global patent layout and influence .By providing the insight into the evolution of global carbon fibers industrial and technological development through the perspective of patent analysis , this study hopes to provide an objective statistic reference for fu-ture policy directions and academic researches .

  20. An overview of recent patents on nanosuspension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modh, Nirav; Mehta, Dharmik; Parejiya, Punit; Popat, Amirali; Barot, Bhavesh

    2014-01-01

    Pharmaceutical scientists involved in drug discovery and drug development are facing serious problems with newer poorly water soluble drugs with respect to their dissolution and bioavailability. Reducing the particle size of active pharmaceutical ingredient has been an efficient and reliable method for improving the bioavailability of insoluble drugs. Nanosuspension has emerged as an efficient and promising strategy for delivery of insoluble drugs due to its unique advantages such as ease of modification, process flexibility, targeting capabilities, altered pharmacokinetic profile leading to safety and efficacy. These unique features of nanosuspension have enabled its use in various dosage forms, including specialized delivery systems such as oral, parenteral, peroral, ocular and pulmonary routes. Currently, efforts are being directed to extend their applications in site-specific drug delivery. Large numbers of products based on nanosuspension are in the market and few are under clinical trials. The commercialization potential of nanosuspension based formulation for oral route is well established and products for other routes will enter the market within short span. Among the various techniques available, only wet milling technique has been successfully used for commercial production of nanosuspension. Nanosuspension based patents have extensive potential of reaching faster in the market as compared to other nanotechnology based formulations. This review covers various aspects of techniques of preparation, route of administration and commercialization of nanosuspension with main focus on the recent patents granted in the field.

  1. An updated patent therapeutic agents targeting MMPs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Zheng-gao; Li, Jin-pei; Shi, Lei-lei; Li, Xun

    2012-01-01

    The traditional consensus that matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) has correlation with various pathological and physiological processes led to the exploitation of a vast number of natural or synthetic broad-spectrum MMP inhibitors (MMPIs) for the prophylaxis or treatment of various MMP-related disorders, such as autoimmune, inflammatory, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, respiratory diseases, and malignant cancer as well. Yet the unsatisfactory preclinical and/or clinical results motivated further investigation of the physiological roles of certain MMP subtypes. Despite the intricate and complicated MMP functions in normal physiology and disease pathology, the effort of designing specific inhibitors that can selectively target certain MMP family members for individualized therapy is ongoing and remains an arduous task. Success will rely on continued insight into the biological roles of these multifaced proteases. In our previous effort, we summarized various MMPIs that have entered preclinical or clinical trials as well as the patents in regard to MMPIs (Recent Pat Anticancer Drug Discov. 2010; 5(2): 109-41). In our on-going review, to illustrate the major challenges in MMP validation as druggable targets, we highlighted the physiological and pathological roles of representative MMPs, with an emphasis on description of the newly emerging MMPI-based patents, in particular, the inhibitors containing sulfonamide or sulfone motif. By analyzing the structural characteristics and selectivity profiles of these supplementary inhibitors, we hereby described their pharmaceutical application, and also expanded the strategies for potent MMPI design.

  2. 77 FR 34030 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; Lumedyne Technologies, Inc.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-08

    ... Navy Case No. 101330: Tuning Fork Gyroscope Time Domain Inertial Sensor.//Navy Case No. 101472: Auto... Integrated Clock.//U.S. Patent Application No. 11/272588: Auto-Ranging for Time Domain Inertial...

  3. Idea on patent ; It is high time to stress quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2012-03-15

    This book deals with patent stressing on the quality, which includes from idea to technical business, It's simple to register the computer program, why do patent lawyer appoint the patent attorney's office? construction of patent right range, a good patent and a bad patent, strong patent and weak patent. It doesn't allow for Dus to use as we like, each patent has different value, Let's write technical specifications, advice on talking for invention with a patent attorney's office and what kind of task do intellectual property division do?.

  4. 基于专利引用的社会网络分析在知识管理研究中的应用%Application of Social Network Analysis Based on Patent Citation in Knowledge Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    向希尧; 蔡虹

    2012-01-01

    在分析总结社会网络分析的研究范式和特点的基础上,详细论述了基于专利引用的社会网络分析在国外知识管理实证分析中的应用与研究演进.探讨了影响该方法研究效度的主要因素以及目前对研究效度的检验.在此基础上,提出了提高效度的方法.最后,展望了基于专利引用的社会网络分析的应用前景以及对我国知识管理研究的启示.%Based on the analysis of the paradigm and characters of social network analysis, we summarize the empirical research and its track of development. Then, the factors which could influence the validity of this method have been illuminated and the present tests of the validity have also been introduced. We then propose methods which could enhance the validity. At last, we expect the future application of social network analysis based on patent citation in knowledge management research and suggest its advance improvement in our research.

  5. The application of transthoracic echocardiography in performing transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus%经胸超声心动图在动脉导管未闭封堵术中的应用价值

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李国英; 李叶阔; 徐明; 罗国新; 何建新; 袁桂忠

    2013-01-01

    目的 评价经胸超声心动图(TTE)指导动脉导管未闭(patent ductus arteriosus,PDA)封堵术术前及术中的应用价值.方法 2008年5月至2012年5月收治132例PDA患者,术前用彩色多普勒超声诊断仪经胸观察PDA形态,并测量各切面PDA内径,据此结果直接选择相应封堵器.经心导管PDA封堵术中应用TTE监测介入过程,确定封堵器牢固程度及有无残余分流.结果 TTE术前检查PDA直径为2 ~ 12mm,平均(5.49±1.93)mm,选用PDA封堵器大小为4~ 22 mm,平均(10.43±2.91)mm.超声测量PDA直径与封堵器大小相关性良好(r=0.74,P< 0.001).手术成功率100%,封堵器牢固,无脱落,无分流.结论 TTE术前及术中直接指导PDA封堵术是一种可行、有效、便捷的方法,尤其适用于小儿.%Objective To discuss the application value of transthoracic echocardiography (TTE) in guiding the performance of transcatheter occlusion of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA). Methods During the period from May 2008 to May 2012, a total of one hundred and thirty-two patients with PDA were admitted to authors' hospital. The patient's age ranged from 7 months to 67 years. Before operation the size and shape of PDA were measured by TTE (GE vivid7 and Philips IE33). The inner diameter of the relevant cross - sections were determined, based on which the proper occluder was selected for each patient. With the help of TIE monitoring the transcatheter occlusion of PDA was carried out. The fixation degree of the occluder was estimated, and the presence or absence of residual shunt was determined. Results Preoperative TTE examination showed that the diameter of PDA was 2-12 mm with a mean of (5.49 ± 1.93 )mm. The size of occluder used in the operation was 4-22 mm with a mean of (10.43 ± 2.91) mm. A significant correlation existed between the PDA diameter measured by TTE and the size of the used occluder (r = 0.74, P < 0.001). The success rate of the operation was 100%. All the occluders were fixed

  6. Connecting NSF funding to patent innovation in nanotechnology (2001-2004)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Zan [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Supply Chain and Information Systems, Smeal College of Business (United States)], E-mail: zanhuang@psu.edu; Chen Hsinchun; Li Xin [University of Arizona, Artificial Intelligence Lab, Department of Management Information Systems, Eller College of Management (United States); Roco, Mihail C. [National Science Foundation (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Nanotechnology research has experienced growth rapid in knowledge and innovations; it also attracted significant public funding in recent years. Several countries have recognized nanotechnology as a critical research domain that promises to revolutionize a wide range of fields of applications. In this paper, we present an analysis of the funding for nanoscale science and engineering (NSE) at the National Science Foundation (NSF) and its implications on technological innovation (number of patents) in this field from 2001 to 2004. Using a combination of basic bibliometric analysis and content visualization tools, we identify growth trends, research topic distribution, and the evolution in NSF funding and commercial patenting activities recorded at the United States Patent Office (USPTO). The patent citations are used to compare the impact of the NSF-funded research on nanotechnology development with research supported by other sources in the United States and abroad. The analysis shows that the NSF-funded researchers and patents authored by them have significantly higher impact based on patent citation measures in the four-year period than other comparison groups. The NSF-authored patent impact is growing faster with the lifetime of a patent, indicating the long-term importance of fundamental research.

  7. Nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings: global patent scenario.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivudu, Kurva S; Mahajan, Yashwant R; Joshi, Shrikant V

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to present current status and future prospects of nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings based on worldwide patent landscape analysis. The study also presents an overview of technological trends by carrying out state-of-the-art literature analysis, including survey of corporate websites. Nanostructured tribological coatings encompass a wide spectrum of nanoscale microstructures, including nanocrystalline, nanolayered, nano-multilayered, nanocomposite, nanogradient structures or their unique combinations, which are composed of single or multi-component phases. The distinct microstructural features of the coatings impart outstanding tribological properties combined with multifunctional attributes to the coated components. Their unique combination of remarkable properties make them ideal candidates for a wide range of applications in diverse fields such as cutting and metalworking tools, biomedical devices, automotive engine components, wear parts, hard disc drives etc. The patent landscape analysis has revealed that nano-enabled tribological thin film coatings have significant potential for commercial applications in view of the lion's share of corporate industry in patenting activity. The largest patent portfolio is held by Japan followed by USA, Germany, Sweden and China. The prominent players involved in this field are Mitsubishi Materials Corp., Sandvik Aktiebolag, Hitachi Ltd., Sumitomo Electric Industries Ltd., OC Oerlikon Corp., and so on. The outstanding potential of nanostructured thin film tribological coatings is yet to be fully unravelled and, therefore, immense opportunities are available in future for microstructurally engineered novel coatings to enhance their performance and functionality by many folds.

  8. The Unified Patent Court (UPC), Compulsory Licensing and Competition Law

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Riis, Thomas; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen

    2014-01-01

    Competition law and rules on compulsory licensing are considered as indispensable instruments to balance patent rights. In this article, we examine the room for using such balancing instruments in the context of the UPC. We analyse whether the balancing instruments will remain applicable to Europ......Competition law and rules on compulsory licensing are considered as indispensable instruments to balance patent rights. In this article, we examine the room for using such balancing instruments in the context of the UPC. We analyse whether the balancing instruments will remain applicable...... to European patents (with or without unitary effect) and to what extent the UPC will have competence to use these balancing instruments in cases brought before it. Our analysis shows that the UPC to some extent will have competence to use the balancing instruments mentioned, but also that there is a risk...... that the UPC is likely to be less inclined to use them. To redress that problem we suggest that the UPC acknowledges the institutional biases of the court and looks for ways to include other values and interests than the proprietary values and interests of patent law....

  9. Information Extraction From Chemical Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Bergmann

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of new chemicals or pharmaceuticals is preceded by an indepth analysis of published patents in this field. This information retrieval is a costly and time inefficient step when done by a human reader, yet it is mandatory for potential success of an investment. The goal of the research project UIMA-HPC is to automate and hence speed-up the process of knowledge mining about patents. Multi-threaded analysis engines, developed according to UIMA (Unstructured Information Management Architecture standards, process texts and images in thousands of documents in parallel. UNICORE (UNiform Interface to COmputing Resources workflow control structures make it possible to dynamically allocate resources for every given task to gain best cpu-time/realtime ratios in an HPC environment.

  10. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    OpenAIRE

    Namdeo R Jadhav; Trupti Powar; Santosh Shinde; Sameer Nadaf

    2014-01-01

    Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have...

  11. 智能手机触摸屏专利分析%The Analysis of Smartphone Touchscreen Patents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁晓东; 谢伟峰

    2014-01-01

    Touchscreen patents are the focuses of the smartphones “patent race”. The patent retrieval and patent analysis can reveal the distribution and competitive advantage of touchscreen patents. This paper uses Derwent Innovation Index to search and analyze smartphone touchscreen patents from aspects such as the application date, patent concentration and patentees. It is found that the touchscreen patent concentration shows an inverted U-shaped curve; touchscreen patent has a trend of being fragmented in recent years;Apple has more ad-vantages in the quality of touchscreen patents.%触摸屏专利是智能手机领域“专利竞赛”的焦点。专利检索和分析能够揭示触摸屏专利的分布状态和竞争优势。利用德温特专利数据库对智能手机触摸屏技术进行专利检索,从申请时间、专利集中度和专利权人等方面进行分析。专利分析显示触摸屏专利集中度呈现倒U型曲线,触摸屏专利近年来具有分散趋势,苹果公司在专利质量方面更具优势。

  12. Research on Enterprise R & D Cooperation Network Based on Joint Application for Patents%基于联合申请专利的企业研发合作网络研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    顾力刚; 张文帝

    2015-01-01

    Japanese auto industry has rapidly developed after the war,and it has become the world's big and strong country of car production.Japanese three auto companies as the research object,by using the information of the year 2006-2010 co-applicants from joint patent applications in the J-GLOBAL database,combined three major R&D cooperation network. And then apply the theory and method of social network analysis to calculate and analyze different indexes.Research shows that:research and development cooperation network of Japanese three auto companies have characteristics of star network structure;Most nodes of three R&D cooperation network are suppliers of raw materials,spare parts,and impor-tant suppliers are always in important positions.%以日本三大汽车公司为研究对象,利用J-GLOBAL 数据库中2006-2010年联合申请专利中的共同申请人信息,构建了丰田、日产和本田3个汽车生产企业的研发合作网络,运用社会网络分析理论与方法对研发合作网络特征指标进行了计算与分析。研究表明:日本三大汽车公司的研发合作网络具有星形网络结构特征;日本三大汽车公司研发合作网络中的大部分节点是其原材料、零部件等供应商,重要供应商在网络中处于重要地位。

  13. 支持产品创新的专利知识库系统构建及应用%Construction and application of the patent knowledge system for supporting product innovation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚健文; 李彦; 李文强

    2013-01-01

    As a knowledge carrier involving the most abundant information ,patents are the main resources to support innovative design .Based on the analysis and arrange of patent information in the mechanical and electrical fields ,with the aid of TRIZ inventive principles and FBS's solving processes ,the technical parameters ,functional and inventive principle of the patent knowledge can be extracted as the innovative attributes of patent .Patent knowledge can be linked and organ-ized through calculating the relational grade of the patent .Designers can use semantic retrieval methods to obtain patent information from the system and be helped to produce various innovative design schemes .Finally ,an instance of the folding bike was demonstrated .%  专利作为一种包含信息较为丰富的知识载体,是支持创新设计的重要资源。基于对机电领域专利信息的分析与整理,结合TRIZ理论及FBS求解过程,对专利文件中所涉及的技术参数、功能以及发明原理进行分析和提取,通过计算专利知识间的关联度将提取后的专利知识进行关联组织,并构建了相应专利知识库原型系统。设计人员可以通过多种检索方式在系统中获得所需的专利知识信息,从而为产品创新设计提供支持。最后通过折叠自行车设计实例说明专利知识库的应用。

  14. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrão, Júlio C.; Mezêncio, Bruno; Claudino, João G.; Soncin, Rafael; Miyashiro, Pedro L. Sampaio; Sousa, Eric P.; Borges, Eduardo; Zanetti, Vinícius; Phillip, Igor; Mochizuki, Luiz; Amadio, Alberto C.

    2016-01-01

    Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko® in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo) on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects. Methods: It was a randomized, single-blinded and controlled study in which 18 males (28.0 ± 6.7 years old; 85.8 ± 8.2 kg mass; 1.80 ± 0.07 m tall; 0.97 ± 0.04 m lower limb length) performed barbell back squat exercise with different conditions of Kinesio Taping Denko® applications: Facilitation, inhibition and placebo. Previous to the mentioned conditions, all individuals were assessed without applying kinesio Taping Denko® during the exercise. OMNI scale was used after each set for perceived exertion evaluation. No differences (p electromyography activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris during the squat exercise. Furthermore, the perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesio taping denko® application. Key points Researchers involved in collecting data in this study have no financial or personal interest in the outcome of results or the sponsor. The perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesiology taping application. Kinesiology taping application may not alter the magnitude of EMG activity of vastuslateralis, vastusmedialis, and biceps femoris during the barbell back squat exercise. Electromyographic activity of kinesiology taping application on other muscle groups and in other cohorts, such as healthy elderly subjects and patients under a rehabilitation program require further investigation.

  15. Recent patents in flavor controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2010-06-01

    In recent years, considerable effort has been directed toward the preparation of flavoring materials specifically, flavor materials have been sought that provide greater flavor intensity coupled with controlled flavor release for long periods of time. Here, some recent patents related to controlled flavor release are reviewed from the angle of its application field, its mechanism and its determination method. It is found that controlled flavor release often depends not only on materials' chemical and physical properties, such as melting point, solution properties and so on, but also on flavors' chemical and physical properties, such as diffusion capacity, its stability in different media etc. Meanwhile, flavor release is also controlled by an electric reducing device according to the flavor generation condition. It might be also known that flavor release rate could be determined by using a purge-and-trap/gas chromatographic procedure. In future, it's necessary to use mathematical model to study the kinetic behavior of controlled flavor release.

  16. An Overview on Indian Patents on Biotechnology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallick, Anusaya; Chandra Santra, Subhas; Samal, Alok Chandra

    2015-01-01

    The application of biotechnology is a potential tool for mitigating the present and future fooding and clothing demands in developing countries like India. The commercialization of biotechnological products might benefiting the poor`s in developing countries are unlikely to be developed. Biotechnology has the potential to provide a wide range of products and the existing production skills in the industrial, pharmaceuticals and the agricultural sector. Ownership of the intellectual property rights is the key factors in determining the success of any technological invention, which was introduced in the market. It provides the means for technological progress to continue of the industry of the country. The new plans, animal varieties, new methods of treatments, new crops producing food articles as such are the inventions of biotechnology. Biotechnology is the result of the application of human intelligence and knowledge to the biological processes. Most of the tools of biotechnology have been developed, by companies, governments, research in- stitutes and universities in developed nations. These human intellectual efforts deserve protection. India is a developing country with advance biotechnology based segments of pharmaceutical and agricultural industries. The Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights (TRIPS) is not likely to have a significant impact on incentives for innovation creation in the biotechnology sectors. In the recent years, the world has seen the biotechnology sector as one of greatest investment area through the Patent Law and will giving huge profit in future. The Research and Development in the field of biotechnology should be encouraged for explor- ing new tools and improve the biological systems for interest of the common people. Priority should be given to generation, evaluation, protection and effective commercial utilization of tangible products of intellectual property in agriculture and pharmaceuticals. To support the future growth and

  17. Human embryonic stem cells and patent protection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Sanja M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Given the importance of biotechnological research in modern diagnostics and therapeutics, on the one hand, and stimulative function of a patent, on the other hand, this work deals with the question of the possibility of pa-tent protection of human embryonic stem cells. Taking into account that this is a biotechnological invention, the key question that this paper highlights is the interpretation of the provisions of their patentability. Namely, thanks to the advanced methods of isolation, purification and preparation for implementation, modern patent systems do not exclude a priori living organisms from patent protection. Therefore, the analysis of representative administrative decisions or court rulings sought to define the criteria that would be applied in order to give patent protection to a certain biotechnological invention (stem cells while others do not.

  18. Inventions and patents: a practical tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tidwell, J Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2012-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and costly clinical testing necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, nonobviousness, and usefulness. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions of technology transfer: inventions, inventorship, and patent filing, which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  19. Will Gay Sex–Seeking Mobile Phone Applications Facilitate Group Sex? A Cross-Sectional Online Survey among Men Who Have Sex with Men in China

    OpenAIRE

    Tang, Weiming; Tang, Songyuan; Qin, Yilu; Zhang, Ye; Zhang, Wei; Liu, Chuncheng; Tso, Lai Sze; Wei, Chongyi; Yang, Ligang; Huang, Shujie; Yang, Bin; Tucker, Joseph

    2016-01-01

    Introduction China is amidst a sexual revolution, with changing sexual practices and behaviors. Sex–seeking mobile phone applications (gay apps) that allow multiple people to meet up quickly may facilitate group sex. This study was therefore undertaken to evaluate group sex among Chinese MSM and to better understand factors associated with group sex. Methods An online survey was conducted from September-October 2014, collecting data on socio-demographics, sexual behaviors, use of gay apps and...

  20. X线机专利技术分析%Analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张红梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To make the better understanding on the status of patent application to technical staff and enterprises worked on X-ray field,provide reference for technical development and patent application though the analysis on patent technology of X-ray instrument.Methods:Combined international patent classification with keywords for searching the patents related X-ray instrument both in domestic and international and analyzed patent application amount,area distribution,principal applicant and important technology for the searched patents.Results:Some information about global amount of patent application over the years,country and area distribution of the patent technology,patent application status of principal applicant is obtained in the X-ray technology field.Conclusion:The amount of patent application in the field of X-ray instrument technology is rising year by year both around the world and in china.There is a big gap between domestic corporations and large foreign companies in the amount of patent application,patent validity and integrity of patent layout.%目的:通过对X线机专利技术进行分析,使X线机技术领域人员以及相关企业了解该领域的专利申请状况,为国内申请人在该领域的技术开发以及进行专利申请提供参考.方法:结合国际专利分类号和关键词检索出国内外涉及X线机的专利,并对所检索的专利申请量、区域分布、主要申请人以及重点技术专利进行分析.结果:获得了全球X线机技术领域的历年专利申请量、专利技术的国家和地区分布、重点申请人的专利申请情况以及在中国申请的X线机技术的专利申请状况信息.结论:X线机技术领域中的专利申请量在全球和中国范围内均呈现逐年上升趋势,我国企业在专利数量、专利的有效性及布局的完整性等方面与国外大公司相比存在较大差距.

  1. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re......-examines the legal trajectories and entrepreneurial exploitation of these patents with a focus on vacuum tube technology where Fleming’s diode patent ‘overlapped’ with earlier prior art and, dependent on court decisions, with later commercial implementations of De Forest’s triode patents. We show, by means...... of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio...

  2. Persistent Confusion and Controversy Surrounding Gene Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrini, Christi J.; Majumder, Mary A.; McGuire, Amy L.

    2016-01-01

    There is persistent confusion and controversy surrounding basic issues of patent law relevant to the genomics industry. Uncertainty and conflict can lead to the adoption of inefficient practices and exposure to liability. The development of patent-specific educational resources for industry members, as well as the prompt resolution of patentability rules unsettled by recent U.S. Supreme Court decisions, are therefore urgently needed. PMID:26849516

  3. Knowledge transfer and university patents in Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    María Guadalupe Calderón-Martínez; José García-Quevedo

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The aim of this paper is to examine the factors that influence the ability of Mexican public universities to generate patents. Academic patents are deserving of increasing interest as channels for the transfer of knowledge from universities to firms. Design/methodology/approach A review of the international literature on the main factors that explain the production of patents was undertaken. On the basis of this information, a database for 80 Mexican universities was built and a mod...

  4. 37 CFR 1.177 - Issuance of multiple reissue patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of multiple reissue patents. 1.177 Section 1.177 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Reissues §...

  5. 37 CFR 1.315 - Delivery of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Delivery of patent. 1.315 Section 1.315 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  6. 77 FR 37879 - Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-25

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Cooperative Patent Classification External User Day AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) is hosting a Cooperative Patent Classification (CPC) External User Day event at...

  7. 37 CFR 1.314 - Issuance of patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Issuance of patent. 1.314 Section 1.314 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Allowance and Issue...

  8. 37 CFR 11.9 - Limited recognition in patent matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limited recognition in patent matters. 11.9 Section 11.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE REPRESENTATION OF OTHERS BEFORE THE UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK...

  9. 37 CFR 1.46 - Assigned inventions and patents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Assigned inventions and patents. 1.46 Section 1.46 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES OF PRACTICE IN PATENT CASES National Processing Provisions Who May...

  10. Inventions and Patents: A Practical Tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Hina; Tidwell, Lille; Liotta, Lance A

    2017-01-01

    Patents are designed to protect and encourage creativity and innovation. Patenting a biomedical discovery can be a requirement before a pharmaceutical company or biotech entity will invest in the lengthy and capital-intensive drug development and clinical trials necessary to achieve patient benefit. Although scientists and clinicians are well versed in research publication requirements, patent descriptions and claims are formatted in a manner quite different from a research paper. Patents require (a) a series of logical statements clearly delineating the boundaries of the novel aspects of the invention and (b) sufficient disclosure of the invention so that it can be reproduced by others. Patents are granted only for inventions that meet three conditions: novelty, non-obviousness, and usefulness. Recent changes to US patent law limit the scope of patentable material. Products of nature such as nucleic acids and proteins, or steps used to observe natural events, are no longer patent eligible. This chapter provides basic guidelines and definitions for inventions, inventorship, and patent filing which are summarized using a question and answer format.

  11. Performance of Patenting Firms in Danish Manufacturing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Erik Strøjer; Smith, Valdemar; Nielsen, Anders Østergaard

    2000-01-01

    -patenting firms within the manufacturing sector in Denmark. Performance is measured both by growth in employment as well as in the return on equity and profit share in turnover. The results suggest that differences in performance of patenting and non-patenting firms are very small, which questions the political......Most countries focus on industries with high technology and the governments grant subsidies to innovating firms. However, there has been remarkable few studies of the performance of innovative firms or industries. This study examines the performance of patent active firms compared to the non...

  12. Capturing Nanotechnology's Current State of Development via Analysis of Patents. OECD Science, Technology and Industry Working Papers, 2007/4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Igami, Masatsura; Okazaki, Teruo

    2007-01-01

    This analysis aims at capturing current inventive activities in nanotechnologies based on the analysis of patent applications to the European Patent Office (EPO). Reported findings include: (1) Nanotechnology is a multifaceted technology, currently consisting of a set of technologies on the nanometre scale rather than a single technological field;…

  13. Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.B. de Vries (Geertjan); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); J.H. Block (Jörn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the initial intellectual property (IP) right of 4,703 start-up entrants in the US, distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. The results show that start-ups are more likely to file for a trademark instead of a patent when entering into more competitive market s

  14. 76 FR 21712 - Notice of Intent To Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License; PopTest Cortisol LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-18

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant a Partially Exclusive Patent License; PopTest Cortisol LLC... notice of its intent to grant to PopTest Cortisol LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive... biomarkers including cortisol by fluorescence polarization''; and U.S. Patent Application Serial No....

  15. Trademark or patent? The effects of market structure, customer type and venture capital financing on start-ups' IP decisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.G.B. de Vries (Geertjan); H.P.G. Pennings (Enrico); J.H. Block (Jörn)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractWe analyze the initial intellectual property (IP) right of 4,703 start-up entrants in the US, distinguishing between trademark and patent applications. The results show that start-ups are more likely to file for a trademark instead of a patent when entering into more competitive market

  16. Using Patent Classification to Discover Chemical Information in a Free Patent Database: Challenges and Opportunities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha¨rtinger, Stefan; Clarke, Nigel

    2016-01-01

    Developing skills for searching the patent literature is an essential element of chemical information literacy programs at the university level. The present article creates awareness of patents as a rich source of chemical information. Patent classification is introduced as a key-component in comprehensive search strategies. The free Espacenet…

  17. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L. Leydesdorff; D. Kushnir; I. Rafols

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  18. 78 FR 72872 - Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-04

    ... Department of the Navy Notice of Intent To Grant Partially Exclusive Patent License; ICAP Patent Brokerage... gives notice of its intent to grant to ICAP Patent Brokerage, LLC, a revocable, nonassignable, partially exclusive license in the United States to practice the Government-Owned inventions described in U.S....

  19. Interactive overlay maps for US Patent (USPTO) data based on International Patent Classifications (IPC)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leydesdorff, L.; Kushnir, D.; Rafols, I.

    2014-01-01

    We report on the development of an interface to the US Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) that allows for the mapping of patent portfolios as overlays to basemaps constructed from citation relations among all patents contained in this database during the period 1976-2011. Both the interface and the

  20. 我国中成药处方中重点保护野生药材的应用状况分析%Analysis on application of key-protected wild medicinal materials in prescription of Chinese patent medicine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周跃华; 路金才

    2013-01-01

    以《国家重点保护野生药材物种名录》、《国家重点保护野生动物名录》、《国家重点保护野生植物名录(第一批)》、华盛顿公约(CITES)附录1和附录2等名录中收载且具有法定药材标准的动植物物种所对应的药材品种作为国家重点保护野生药材,对其在我国中成药质量标准“处方”项下出现的频次进行了查询,并结合相关药材人工栽培及养殖的文献,对相关重点保护野生药材在中成药中的应用状况进行初步分析,为其可持续利用提供参考.%As state key-protected wild medicinal materials, their species are collected in State Key-protected Wild Medicinal Species List, State Key-protected Wild Animals List, and State Key-protected Wild Plants List {the first) and Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) Appendix Ⅰ/Ⅱ, and there are legal medicinal material standards. Based on the statistical results of the existence frequency in Chinese patent medicine and the literatures of medicinal materials cultivation and breeding situation, the application of key-protected wild medicinal materials is preliminarily estimated, which would provide the reference for their sustainable utilization.

  1. Patent Abstract Digest. Volume IV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-11-01

    insert for high strength. ’The 339130ft.130C;361/390, 391, 399, 415 epoxy-glems bushing is machlied fromo poat stock With 339/30 .1 C;the grain...United States Patent [p91 [I 4,280,135 Siosabers [45] Jul 21, 1981 [541 REMOTE POINTING SYSTEM A’mary Examiner- Joseph A. Orsino, Jr. 176] Inventor...ward looking intruder detection system are eliminated MEASUREMENTS by look-up sensor instrumentation that utilizus mono- (751 Inventor: JOsePh L

  2. Facilitating clinical decision-making about the use of virtual reality within paediatric motor rehabilitation: application of a classification framework.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levac, Danielle E; Galvin, Jane

    2011-01-01

    Multiple virtual reality (VR) systems are used to improve motor function in children and youth with neurological impairments. Galvin and Levac developed a classification framework to facilitate clinical decision-making about VR system use. This paper applies the classification framework to identify its strengths and limitations. The classification framework is applied to three case studies where therapists may consider using VR with children involved in paediatric rehabilitation programmes. The classification framework identified VR systems that met each child's individual needs. The relevance of each category to clinical decision-making varied depending on each child's goals. Categories requiring further development and suggestions for additional categories are discussed. The classification framework facilitates child-centred decision-making about the use of VR as a therapeutic intervention. It has shown initial utility but requires further validation with clinicians working in a variety of clinical settings and with a range of client populations.

  3. Identifying the trends in wound-healing patents for successful investment strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gwak, Jae Ha; Sohn, So Young

    2017-01-01

    Recently, the need for rapid wound-healing has significantly increased because of the increasing number of patients who are diagnosed with diabetes and obesity. These conditions have contributed to a surge in the number of patients with chronic wounds worldwide. Furthermore, many cost-effective wound-healing technologies have been developed in order to keep up with the increased demand. In this paper, we performed a quantitative study of the trends associated with wound-healing technologies using patent data. We analyzed the trends considering four different groups of patent applicants: firms, universities, research institutes, and individuals using a structural topic model. In addition, we analyzed the knowledge flow between patent applicants using citation analysis, and confirmed the role of applicants in the knowledge-flow network using k-means clustering. As a result, the primary wound-healing technology patents applied for by the four groups varied considerably, and we classified the roles of patent applicants were found in the knowledge-flow network. Our results showed the organizations that are leading each area of wound-healing technology. Furthermore, from the results, we identified specific institutions that are efficient for spreading knowledge related to wound-healing technology based on the patents. This information can contribute to the planning of investment strategies and technology policies related to wound-healing.

  4. 37 CFR 1.378 - Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Acceptance of delayed payment of maintenance fee in expired patent to reinstate patent. 1.378 Section 1.378 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND TRADEMARK OFFICE, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL RULES...

  5. Valuable Patents for U.S. Businesses: A Catalog of DTRC Patents Available for Licensing by the Private Sector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-10-01

    Veazey PATENT NO: 4,553,037 DATE OF PATENT Nov. 12, 1985 TITLE: Transverse Waterjet Propulsion with Auxiliary Inlets and Impellers INVENTOR(S): John G...Lee PATENT NO: 4,398,687 DATE OF PATENT: Aug. 16, 1983 DTRC-91 /CT07 19 Valuable Patents, A Catalog TITLE: Mono-Element Combined Supercritical High

  6. Recent patents on the use of antioxidant agents in food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonilla, Jeannine; Atarés, Lorena; Chiralt, Amparo; Vargas, Maria

    2011-05-01

    The application of antioxidant ingredients is one of the most common ways to delay and prevent the detrimental effect of oxygen in foods. Some of the most widely used and studied antioxidants are carboxylic acids, tocopherols and thiol-containing compounds. However, consumer trends towards healthier and safer foods, together with the increasing concern for the potential toxicity of some antioxidants are leading research efforts towards the use of antioxidants obtained from natural sources, such as plant phenols, essential oils and chitosan. This paper reviews the latest published studies and issued patents on the use of antioxidants agents in foodstuffs. The properties of the most commonly used antioxidants as well as natural antioxidants are revised. Moreover, examples of recent patents on the application of antioxidants to different foodstuffs (meat, fish, vegetables, fruits and beverages) are given.

  7. Identification of patent in incentivizing innovation for sustainability in the construction industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Sharifah Akmam Syed; Sadullah, Ahmad Farhan Mohd; Majid, Taksiah A.; Ghazali, Farid Ezanee Mohamed

    2017-07-01

    The increasing trend of research and innovation developments in the field of construction industry and their impacts on the national economy have raised much attention in the recent years. In this respect, through the relationship that exists between innovation and patent protection means that the education system of civil engineering has to gear itself to provide a sense of direction to facilitate future civil engineers to meet the challenges through innovation. The aim of this paper is to examine the educational experience and inclination of civil engineering students at Universiti Sains Malaysia in terms of their educational readiness to invent and innovate based on patents' exploration. Specifically, this paper presents research evidence using a quantitative method through questionnaire surveys in determining the dimension of patent information usage for innovation purposes, with attention to the hierarchy of each usage aspect and outcome measures reported. Results of this study revealed that majority of the participants have a "simplistic and superficial" ideas of patents identification as a source of innovation. Although a fair number of participants have relatively good knowledge of patents and innovation, lack of practical exposure and experience in construction industry are still a problem frequently encountered in the preparation to invent and innovate based on patents' exploration. It is recommended that the research model is tested using a greater number of research participants.

  8. Copyright, Patent, and Trade Secret Protection of Software

    Science.gov (United States)

    1986-06-01

    claim passes muster under section 101. However, if theI mathemacical algocithm is merely presented and solved by the claimed invencion , as was the case in...case of copyright infringement or ma- merits. See Midway Mfg. Co. v. Bandai- sonable likelihood of success on the merits America , Inc., 546 F.Supp. 125...in Mackay Radio & Telegraph Co. v. Radio Corp. of America , 306 U. S. 86, the applicant sought a patent on a directional antenna system in which the

  9. 78 FR 30304 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Patents

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-22

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Patents AGENCY: Department of Defense (DOD), General Services... requirement concerning patents. DATES: Submit comments on or before July 22, 2013. ADDRESSES: Submit comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0096, Patents, by any of the following methods:...

  10. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating pat...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers.......The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...

  11. Origen y evolución de las patentes y marcas en biomecánica deportiva. (Origin and evolution of patents and trademarks in sports biomechanics.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José L. González-Montesinos

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ResumenLa Biomecánica es una disciplina científica cuyo origen se remonta varios siglos atrás, cuando distintos precursores utilizaron diferentes ciencias para analizar el movimiento humano y animal. El desarrollo tecnológico ha propiciado la invención de distintos dispositivos los cuales han sido utilizados en estudios biomecánicos. Dichos dispositivos han facilitado la toma y análisis de datos relacionados con el movimiento y sus causas. La Oficina Española de Patentes y Marcas (O.E.P.M. es el organismo encargado de registrar y patentar las invenciones en España. Para ello, la patente presentada debe de cumplir con unos requisitos y superar una evaluación técnica. Actualmente podemos encontrar distintas patentes para realizar análisis cinemáticos y cinéticos del movimiento, formadas por emisores y receptores de láser, cámaras de alta velocidad, sensores de presión, etc. Numerosas investigaciones relacionadas con la biomecánica deportiva utilizan estos dispositivos para obtener datos más precisos, mejorando la calidad de la investigación y, en algunos casos, posibilitando la mejora del rendimiento físico y/o deportivo. El propósito del presente artículo, consiste en exponer la evolución de la biomecánica en general y deportiva en particular, realizar una revisión sobre patentes relacionadas con la biomecánica del deporte, y reflejar sobre cómo y donde registrar las invenciones. Para ello se han utilizado las plataformas digitales y bases de datos Esp@cenet, Invesnes para la revisión de patentes con origen español, y Google Patent para otras patentes registradas en oficinas de fuera de España.AbstractThe biomechanics is a science discipline that originated centuries ago when various precursors used different sciences to analyze human and animal movement. Technological development has led to the invention of various devices which have been used in biomechanical studies. Such devices have facilitated the collection

  12. Patent foramen ovale: Unanswered questions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mojadidi, Mohammad Khalid; Christia, Panagiota; Salamon, Jason; Liebelt, Jared; Zaman, Tarique; Gevorgyan, Rubine; Nezami, Nariman; Mojaddedi, Sanaullah; Elgendy, Islam Y; Tobis, Jonathan M; Faillace, Robert

    2015-12-01

    The foramen ovale is a remnant of the fetal circulation that remains patent in 20-25% of the adult population. Although long overlooked as a potential pathway that could produce pathologic conditions, the presence of a patent foramen ovale (PFO) has been associated with a higher than expected frequency in a variety of clinical syndromes including cryptogenic stroke, migraines, sleep apnea, platypnea-orthodeoxia, deep sea diving associated decompression illness, and high altitude pulmonary edema. A unifying hypothesis is that a chemical or particulate matter from the venous circulation crosses the PFO conduit between the right and left atria to produce a variety of clinical syndromes. Although observational studies suggest a therapeutic benefit of PFO closure compared to medical therapy alone in patients with cryptogenic stroke, 3 randomized controlled trials (RCTs) did not confirm the superiority of PFO closure for the secondary prevention of stroke. However, meta-analyses of these RCTs demonstrate a significant benefit of PFO closure over medical therapy alone. Similarly, observational studies provide support for PFO closure for symptomatic relief of migraines. But one controversial randomized study failed to replicate the results of the observational studies while another two demonstrated a partial benefit. The goal of this review is to discuss the clinical conditions associated with PFO and provide internists and primary care physicians with current data on PFO trials, and clinical insight to help guide their patients who are found to have a PFO on echocardiographic testing.

  13. Recent patents in flavor microencapsulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Tao; Xiao, Zuobing; Tian, Huaixiang

    2009-11-01

    Many aroma compounds, used to flavor food products, are used in a solid state, after encapsulation. Synthetic or natural polymers are the common matrices used to entrap these volatiles. This paper reviews the recent patents of versatile matrices and methods used in flavor microencapsulation. The encapsulation ratio depends on both the carriers' physicochemical properties and the characteristics of the aroma compound. The patents about flavor encapsulation methods are spray drying, fluidized bed coating, melt extrusion, complex coacervation, aqueous diffusion and novel fat-coating etc. All these methods have both advantages and disadvantages. In brief, spray drying is very convenient but unsuitable for heat sensitive flavor and stored with moisture instability. Fluidized bed coating is costly but having better storage stability. Melt extrusion is suitable for large-scale production but having bad particle size distribution. Complex coacervation has good capsule size uniformity but controversial safety. Aqueous diffusion has excellent safety but low efficient encapsulation. Novel fat-coating has good encapsulation efficiency but uncontrollable size distribution.

  14. Law machines: scale models, forensic materiality and the making of modern patent law.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pottage, Alain

    2011-10-01

    Early US patent law was machine made. Before the Patent Office took on the function of examining patent applications in 1836, questions of novelty and priority were determined in court, within the forum of the infringement action. And at all levels of litigation, from the circuit courts up to the Supreme Court, working models were the media through which doctrine, evidence and argument were made legible, communicated and interpreted. A model could be set on a table, pointed at, picked up, rotated or upended so as to display a point of interest to a particular audience within the courtroom, and, crucially, set in motion to reveal the 'mode of operation' of a machine. The immediate object of demonstration was to distinguish the intangible invention from its tangible embodiment, but models also'machined' patent law itself. Demonstrations of patent claims with models articulated and resolved a set of conceptual tensions that still make the definition and apprehension of the invention difficult, even today, but they resolved these tensions in the register of materiality, performativity and visibility, rather than the register of conceptuality. The story of models tells us something about how inventions emerge and subsist within the context of patent litigation and patent doctrine, and it offers a starting point for renewed reflection on the question of how technology becomes property.

  15. A patent survey case: how could technological forecasting help cosmetic chemists with product innovation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domicio Da Silva Souza, Ivan; Juliana Pinheiro, Bárbara; Passarini Takahashi, Vania

    2012-01-01

    Patents represent a free and open source of data for studying innovation and forecasting technological trends. Thus, we suggest that new discussions about the role of patent information are needed. To illustrate the relevance of this issue, we performed a survey of patents involving skin care products, which were granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO) between 2006 and 2010, to identify opportunities for innovation and technological trends. We quantified the use of technologies in 333 patents. We plotted a life cycle of technologies related to natural ingredients. We also determined the cross impact of the technologies identified. We observed technologies related to processes applied to cosmetics (2.2%), functional packaging and applicators (2.9%), excipients and active compounds (21.5%), and cosmetic preparations (73.5%). Further, 21.6% of the patents were related to the use of natural ingredients. Several opportunities for innovation were discussed throughout this paper, for example, the use of peptides as active compounds or intracellular carriers (only 3.9% of the technologies in cosmetic preparations). We also observed technological cross impacts that suggested a trend toward multifunctional cosmetics, among others. Patent surveys may help researchers with product innovation because they allow us to identify available and unexplored technologies and turn them into whole new concepts.

  16. Effect of 3 Different Applications of Kinesio Taping Denko® on Electromyographic Activity: Inhibition or Facilitation of the Quadriceps of Males During Squat Exercise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júlio C. Serrão, Bruno Mezêncio, João G. Claudino, Rafael Soncin, Pedro L. Sampaio Miyashiro, Eric P. Sousa, Eduardo Borges, Vinícius Zanetti, Igor Phillip, Luiz Mochizuki, Alberto C. Amadio

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Kinesio taping consists of a technique which uses the application of an elastic adhesive tape. It has become a widely used rehabilitation modality for the prevention and treatment of musculoskeletal disorders. The objective of this study was to verify the effect of the application of Kinesio Taping Denko® in three conditions (facilitation, inhibition, and placebo on the electromyographic activity of the quadriceps and hamstrings muscles on facilitating or inhibiting the muscle function and on the perceived exertion during the barbell back squat exercise in healthy male subjects. Methods: It was a randomized, single-blinded and controlled study in which 18 males (28.0 ± 6.7 years old; 85.8 ± 8.2 kg mass; 1.80 ± 0.07 m tall; 0.97 ± 0.04 m lower limb length performed barbell back squat exercise with different conditions of Kinesio Taping Denko® applications: Facilitation, inhibition and placebo. Previous to the mentioned conditions, all individuals were assessed without applying kinesio Taping Denko® during the exercise. OMNI scale was used after each set for perceived exertion evaluation. No differences (p < 0.05 in the electromyographic activity of the biceps femoris, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis or OMNI scale were recorded under any conditions. Conclusion: The results show that the kinesio taping denko®may not alter the magnitude of the electromyography activity of vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, and biceps femoris during the squat exercise. Furthermore, the perceived exertion was not affected by the kinesio taping denko® application.

  17. Patenting life forms and preserving human values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisson, E L

    1981-01-01

    Utilitarian, pragmatic, and legal considerations, while valid, must not overshadow Catholic moral theology's concern about patenting life in view of natural law. The fundamental issues remain: Does technology diminish human values? Does the patent system's own monopolistic power pose its own risk?

  18. The Unified Patent Court (UPC) in Action

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Clement Salung; Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Riis, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    The new common judiciary for European patents (UPC) will play a crucial role in the future European patent system. The UPC will be a very specialised court that i.a. recruits judges from specialists’ circles and has as part of its mission to develop a coherent and autonomous body of case law...

  19. Revising the Complex Economics of Patent Scope

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory that...... of development. This interpretation restores the credibility of Kitch's prospect theory of patent function and emphasises that the administration of the patent institution should be designed to support the prospect function of patents.......Merges and Nelson claim to have provided an empirically grounded argument that pioneer patents of 'broad' scope are used to block technological development. It is widely understood in both law and economics that they have, as they claim, faulted Kitch's 'prospect theory' of patents, a theory...... that a function of patents is to enable the coordinated development of novel technical ideas. This article is a critical review of Merges and Nelson's historical empirical evidence. I find that, first, 'broad' scope is only implicated in one of the examples cited by Merges and Nelson as supportive evidence...

  20. Patent Office Hands Blackboard a Setback

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangan, Katherine

    2008-01-01

    In March the U.S. Patent and Trademark Office issued a preliminary decision that could have significant ramifications for universities that use course-management software, as well as for the companies that make it. The "nonfinal" decision rejects all 44 claims Blackboard Inc. made for its controversial patent of an online-learning system.…

  1. The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, Cees

    2016-01-01

    The Cross-Referenced Patent Cooperation Treaty covers the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT) and the Regulations under the PCT. The large number of references in the articles and rules makes the PCT difficult to read. The idea behind the book is to add cross-references to the articles and rules,

  2. Patent information retrieval: approaching a method and analysing nanotechnology patent collaborations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Sercan; Islam, Nazrul

    2017-01-01

    Many challenges still remain in the processing of explicit technological knowledge documents such as patents. Given the limitations and drawbacks of the existing approaches, this research sets out to develop an improved method for searching patent databases and extracting patent information to increase the efficiency and reliability of nanotechnology patent information retrieval process and to empirically analyse patent collaboration. A tech-mining method was applied and the subsequent analysis was performed using Thomson data analyser software. The findings show that nations such as Korea and Japan are highly collaborative in sharing technological knowledge across academic and corporate organisations within their national boundaries, and China presents, in some cases, a great illustration of effective patent collaboration and co-inventorship. This study also analyses key patent strengths by country, organisation and technology.

  3. When patents matter: The impact of competition and patent age on the performance contribution of intellectual property rights protection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maresch, Daniela; Fink, Matthias; Harms, Rainer

    2016-01-01

    The question whether patenting impacts patenting firms' subsequent financial performance is important for technology-oriented companies. However, relevant research has led to contradictory results. We strive to overcome this impasse by introducing innovation competition and patent age as moderators

  4. Patent for Invention of Guilin Rubber Machinery Transla- tional Vulcanizer Awarded the Honorary Title of China Excel- lent Patent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wenguang; Li Li

    2011-01-01

    Recently, the results of the 13th China Patent Awards were publicized. The patent for invention of "translational vulcanizer" applied by Guilin Rubber Machinery Factory was appraised as China Excellent Patent.

  5. Can drug patents be morally justified?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sterckx, Sigrid

    2005-01-01

    This paper offers a few elements of an answer to the question to what extent drug patents can be morally justified. Justifications based on natural rights, distributive justice and utilitarian arguments are discussed and criticized. The author recognizes the potential of the patents to benefit society but argues that the system is currently evolving in the wrong direction, particularly in the field of drugs. More than a third of the world's population has no access to essential drugs. The working of the patent system is an important determinant of access to drugs. This paper argues that drug patents are not easily justified and that the 'architecture' of the patent system should be rethought in view of its mission of benefiting society.

  6. The Transformation of Science Into Patented Inventions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beukel, Karin

    This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested. The fin......This paper presents the results of a grounded theory study of the transformation of scientific discoveries into patented inventions. Using an algebraic interpretive approach, the narratives collected during interviews are analyzed as Bayesian inferences and the developed theory is tested....... The findings recast the relationship between science and patents as a process in which the way the transformation of the scientific invention is handled has an effect on the breadth of the patent scope. Unleashing patent scope surplus is dependent on processes related to abstraction and cognitive variety...... for searching in new directions for solutions if challenges of exploitation with regard to the scientific invention arise....

  7. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    This article examines the evidence behind claims that innovation is hindered or blocked (termed technology suppression) by corporations' use of patents. In other words, are there ways in which the exploitation of the exclusive development right of the patent can be shown to retard the process...... of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  8. Barriers and facilitators to the use of an immunization application: a qualitative study supplemented with Google Analytics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgess, Kathleen; Atkinson, Katherine M; Westeinde, Jacqueline; Crowcroft, Natasha; Deeks, Shelley L; Wilson, Kumanan

    2017-09-01

    Barriers and facilitators of mobile app adoption are not known. This study examined usage of a new Pan-Canadian immunization app to identify factors that contributed to usage. Women in their third trimester of pregnancy or had given birth in the previous 3 months were recruited from a hospital obstetrical unit. Fifty-five participants were instructed to download the ImmunizeCA app. After at least 6 months, 10 interviews were conducted, transcribed and coded. Themes identified were compared with aggregate ImmunizeCA usage data (n = 74 212 users). Facilitators included features that address logistical challenges, improved convenience and information access. Barriers included absence of system integration. Concerns regarding the privacy and security of personal health information were not an inhibitor as long as best practices are followed. Google Analytics data on usage supported qualitative findings. Future studies should evaluate the quantitative impact of factors we identified on app uptake and usage. Subsequent mobile app studies may benefit from the use of analytic data as they were found to be effective in helping to validate qualitative data derived from interviews with study participants.

  9. Canada's Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Proceedings and Intellectual Property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Henry; McCourt, Conor

    2015-01-08

    Canada's Patent Register is a tool created by the Patented Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations to help innovators protect their inventions relating to pharmaceuticals. This tool exists at the intersection between the intellectual property and drug approval regimes. By listing a patent on the Patent Register, an innovator can prevent a generic manufacturer from entering the marketplace rather than having to wait for his or her patent to be infringed. This article provides information on the requirements for listing a patent on the Patent Register and an overview of how the Patent Medicines (Notice of Compliance) Regulations affect the drug approval process.

  10. The Patent Literature As A Shortcut To Identify Knowledge Suppliers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søberg, Peder Veng

    The present paper explores characteristics of valuable patents that have been subject to litigation which resulted in some of the largest fines to patent infringers reported in history. The valuable patents are compared with less valuable patents in order to identify new methods of evaluating...... patents which decreases the time span between a patent is filed and its value can be evaluated when searching the patent literature. A potential benefit thereof could be that the patent literature could become relevant in order to identify potential knowledge suppliers....

  11. Facilitating Code Reuse for the Rapid Deployment of Web Mapping Applications at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helm, C. W.; Sparks, W.; Levene, J.; Hostetler, M.

    2008-12-01

    The National Renewable Energy Laboratory in Golden, CO has developed a software platform that provides for the development of fully customized and unique web mapping applications that reuse a common base of software code. The application capabilities that have been developed within this platform include spatial data visualization, large-scale data retrieval and the analysis of various renewable energy resource data-sets. The platform consists of three primary components of reusable code: the back-end data storage and retrieval engine, a user-customizable Data Styling Engine, and front end user interface code. Each component of the platform represents a reusable code base from which new applications can be generated with a minimal amount of new code. This reusable code base can be thought of in the same vein as object oriented development: the reusable code is analogous to a base class that specific applications inherit from and extend. The architecture was motivated by a requirement to rapidly develop and deploy multiple web-based mapping applications for varying renewable energy and alternative fuel technologies, and for different customers. It was observed that these applications share a significant set of core features and functionality, with varying degrees of customization required for each application. A series of needs instigated the development of the architecture: * New applications should not require re-implementation of existing functionality (either through re-coding or "copy and paste" reuse) * Enhancements to the base functionality could automatically propagate through all derived applications * All applications should be able to utilize a common, internal (to NREL) Web Mapping Service (WMS), or any external WMS * The framework must support user authentication, role-based access control to specific data layers, and user customization of layer styling. This requirement led to the development of the Data Styling Engine. * A developer should be able to

  12. Essential Patents and Coordination Mechanisms : The effects of patent pools and industry consortia on the interplay between patents and technological standards

    OpenAIRE

    Baron, Justus; Pohlmann, Tim

    2010-01-01

    CERNA WORKING PAPER SERIES 2010-13; This article investigates the interplay between formal standards, essential patents and informal industry alliances such as consortia and patent pools. Building upon more than 6.200 declarations of essential patents to major international Standard Development Organizations (SDO), we investigate how informal standardization consortia and patent pools influence the number and timing of patent declarations to formal SDOs. This is the first thorough empirical i...

  13. A spatial econometric panel data examination of endogenous versus exogenous interaction in Chinese province-level patenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeSage, James P.; Sheng, Yuxue

    2014-07-01

    We examine the provincial-level relationship between domestic Chinese intellectual property (IP) and knowledge stocks using a space-time panel model and data set covering monthly patent activity over the period 2002-2010. The goal of the modeling exercise is to explore the elasticity response of IP to knowledge stocks classified by type of creator (universities and research institutes, enterprises, and individuals). A focus is on spatial and time dependence in the relationship between knowledge stocks and IP, which implies spatial spillovers and diffusion over time. Many past studies of regional knowledge production have focused on patent applications as a proxy for regional output from the knowledge production process. However, this ignores the distinction between patent applications and patents granted, with the latter reflecting a decision and ability to convert knowledge produced into IP. This study differs in its focus on the regional relation between IP and knowledge stocks and the space-time dynamics of these. Using patents granted as a proxy for IP, and past patent applications as a proxy for regional knowledge stocks, allows us to explore the implied quality of knowledge production by various types of creators. Because Chinese patent applications have grown by 22 %, questions have been raised about the quantity versus quality of these applications. Our findings shed light on this issue.

  14. Herbal nanoparticles: A patent review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Namdeo R Jadhav

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Design and development of herbal nanoparticles has become a frontier research in the nanoformulation arena. To update researchers, an attempt has been made to review nanoformulation-based herbal patents. This article mainly covers herbal medicines are used for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases, Parkinsonism, pulmonary diseases, proliferative diseases, Alzheimer′s disease, diabetes, cancer therapy, anti-osteoporosis, and the like. It has been revealed that nanoparticles of Curcumin have been widely designed to increase its bioavailability and for treatment of cancers like breast cancer, lung cancer, pancreatic cancer, and so on. The common nanoformulated herbal medicines are Panax ginseng, Curcuma longa, Silybum marianum, Withania somnifera, Gymnema sylvestre, Salvia miltiorrhiza, and the like, having a profound future potential.

  15. 辨明Patent Troll

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳建朋

    2012-01-01

    它,究竟是凶恶的巨怪,还是可爱的精灵? 它,竟究是正当的手段,还是无赖的工具? 长久以来,patent troll便是国外学术圈、实务界探讨的焦点话题之一,如今其又转到了国内,而近来表现的越发激烈。各派对其是否应当存在、存在合法与否等等进行了持续不休的讨论与争吵,

  16. The Applicability of Patented Technologies to Sonobuoys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-06-30

    4.186.374 1/1910 OWC0lcut ... .. . .......... 367/4 [751 Inventors Vito Suppa; Daalel Viallc., both or Primary Examiner-Richard A. Farley Pans. France...around 50% where the information content of the signal 3,6Q 446 ’(/1972 Sainte -Beuve 375/27 3,806.806 4/1974 Brolin .................. 375/30 s

  17. High voltage pulse generator. [Patent application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasching, G.E.

    1975-06-12

    An improved high-voltage pulse generator is described which is especially useful in ultrasonic testing of rock core samples. An N number of capacitors are charged in parallel to V volts and at the proper instance are coupled in series to produce a high-voltage pulse of N times V volts. Rapid switching of the capacitors from the paralleled charging configuration to the series discharging configuration is accomplished by using silicon-controlled rectifiers which are chain self-triggered following the initial triggering of the first rectifier connected between the first and second capacitors. A timing and triggering circuit is provided to properly synchronize triggering pulses to the first SCR at a time when the charging voltage is not being applied to the parallel-connected charging capacitors. The output voltage can be readily increased by adding additional charging networks. The circuit allows the peak level of the output to be easily varied over a wide range by using a variable autotransformer in the charging circuit.

  18. Metal nitrate conversion method, patent application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A method for converting a supported metal nitrate into the corresponding supported metal comprises heating the metal nitrate to effect its decomposition under a gas mixture that contains nitric oxide and has an oxygen content of

  19. Inhibitors of cathepsin G: a patent review (2005 to present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kosikowska, Paulina; Lesner, Adam

    2013-12-01

    Cathepsin G (CatG) is a neutral proteinase originating from human neutrophils. It displays a unique dual specificity (trypsin- and chymotrypsin-like); thus, its enzymatic activity is difficult to control. CatG is involved in the pathophysiology of several serious human diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), Crohn's disease, rheumatoid arthritis, cystic fibrosis and other conditions clinically manifested by excessive inflammatory reactions. For mentioned reasons, CatG was considered as good molecular target for the development of novel drugs. However, none of them have yet entered the market as novel therapeutic agents. This article presents an in-depth and detailed analysis of the therapeutic potential of CatG inhibitors based on a review of patent applications and academic publishing disclosed in patents and patent applications (1991 - 2012), with several exceptions for inhibitors retrieved from academic articles. Among the discussed inhibitors of CatG, examples corresponding to derivatives of β-ketophosphonic acids, aminoalkylphosphonic esters and boswellic acids (BAs) could be regarded as the most promising. The most promising one seems to be analogues of compounds of Nature's origin (peptidic and BA derivates). Nevertheless, nothing is currently known about the clinical disposition of any of the CatG inhibitors discovered so far. This latter point suggests that there is still a lot of work to do in the design of stable, pharmacologically active compounds able to specifically regulate the in vivo activity of cathepsin G.

  20. Evolution of Industry Knowledge in the Public Domain: Prior Art Searching for Software Patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jinseok Park

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching prior art is a key part of the patent application and examination processes. A comprehensive prior art search gives the inventor ideas as to how he can improve or circumvent existing technology by providing up to date knowledge on the state of the art. It also enables the patent applicant to minimise the likelihood of an objection from the patent office. This article explores the characteristics of prior art associated with software patents, dealing with difficulties in searching prior art due to the lack of resources, and considers public contribution to the formation of prior art databases. It addresses the evolution of electronic prior art in line with technological development, and discusses laws and practices in the EPO, USPTO, and the JPO in relation to the validity of prior art resources on the Internet. This article also investigates the main features of searching sources and tools in the three patent offices as well as non-patent literature databases. Based on the analysis of various searching databases, it provides some strategies of efficient prior art searching that should be considered for software-related inventions.

  1. Patent literature on mosquito repellent inventions which contain plant essential oils--a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pohlit, Adrian Martin; Lopes, Norberto Peporine; Gama, Renata Antonaci; Tadei, Wanderli Pedro; Neto, Valter Ferreira de Andrade

    2011-04-01

    Bites Bites of mosquitoes belonging to the genera Anopheles Meigen, Aedes Meigen, Culex L. and Haemagogus L. are a general nuisance and are responsible for the transmission of important tropical diseases such as malaria, hemorrhagic dengue and yellow fevers and filariasis (elephantiasis). Plants are traditional sources of mosquito repelling essential oils (EOs), glyceridic oils and repellent and synergistic chemicals. A Chemical Abstracts search on mosquito repellent inventions containing plant-derived EOs revealed 144 active patents mostly from Asia. Chinese, Japanese and Korean language patents and those of India (in English) accounted for roughly 3/4 of all patents. Since 1998 patents on EO-containing mosquito repellent inventions have almost doubled about every 4 years. In general, these patents describe repellent compositions for use in topical agents, cosmetic products, incense, fumigants, indoor and outdoor sprays, fibers, textiles among other applications. 67 EOs and 9 glyceridic oils were individually cited in at least 2 patents. Over 1/2 of all patents named just one EO. Citronella [Cymbopogon nardus (L.) Rendle, C.winterianus Jowitt ex Bor] and eucalyptus (Eucalyptus LʼHér. spp.) EOs were each cited in approximately 1/3 of all patents. Camphor [Cinnamomum camphora (L.) J. Presl], cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum Blume), clove [Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry], geranium (Pelargonium graveolens LʼHér.), lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.), lemon [Citrus × limon (L.) Osbeck], lemongrass [Cymbopogon citratus (DC.) Stapf] and peppermint (Mentha × piperita L.) EOs were each cited in > 10% of patents. Repellent chemicals present in EO compositions or added as pure “natural” ingredients such as geraniol, limonene, p-menthane-3,8-diol, nepetalactone and vanillin were described in approximately 40% of all patents. About 25% of EO-containing inventions included or were made to be used with synthetic insect control agents having mosquito

  2. Research and Development Strategy in Biological Technologies: A Patent Data Analysis of Japanese Manufacturing Firms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidemichi Fujii

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Biological technology allows us to invent new medical approaches, create effective food production methods and reserves and develop new materials for industrial production. There is a diversity of biological technology types, and different technologies have different priorities for invention. This study examines the factors that are important for the invention of biology-related technologies in Japan using patent application data and a decomposition analysis framework. As the results show, patent applications related to biochemistry and biotechnology increased until 1995 because of the expanded scale of R&D activities and the high priority assigned to biological technology. However, the number of patent applications stagnated after 1995, because the importance of biochemistry, especially waste-gas treatment technologies, decreased. Additionally, patent applications for medicines and disease-related technologies increased rapidly from 1971 to 1995. The primary determinant of rapid growth is an increase in research priority, especially among firms in the chemical industry whose technologies are related to supplemental foods and foods with health-promoting benefits. Finally, patent applications involving foodstuff- and agriculture-related technologies increased from 1971 to 1995 due to increased R&D and the increased priority of biological technology.

  3. On the Patent Data Measurement in the Field of Management Science in China:Its Application and Research Status%专利数据测度在管理学领域的研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    樊霞; 李怡

    2014-01-01

    Based on co-word analysis, using cluster analysis and strategic diagram, this paper studied the research advance and fields on patent measurement in the field of management science based on CSSCI. The result shows that the study on patent measurement is in the stage of continuous growth proved by the increasing number of documents year by year, and the research focuses lie in five research fields including scientific research, macro-economy study, business management, library-information and intellectual property management. The main topics are enterprise technology innovation, college invention &model of determinants, intellectual property strategy &patent map, evaluation mechanism, patent value analysis and industry alliance. Meanwhile, index measure on patent information used as opera-tional definition, analytical instrument for patent technology and empirical study are becoming a new trend of development.%运用CSSCI文献数据,基于共词分析法,利用聚类分析和战略坐标图,对我国管理学专利数据测度研究进展及领域进行了实证分析。结果表明,从逐年递增的文献数量看,我国专利数据测度研究正处于不断发展的阶段,研究主题主要集中在科学研究、宏观经济、企业管理、图书情报及知识产权管理等五大领域,企业技术创新、高校发明及影响因素模型、知识产权战略与专利地图、评价指标体系、专利价值分析和产业联盟等成为有关专利研究的六大热点主题。同时,基于专利数据的信息优势,以专利信息为操作性定义的指标测度、专利技术分析工具以及实证研究成为新的发展趋势。

  4. Are Patents used to Suppress Useful Technology?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John

    2006-01-01

    of innovation, other than in the trivial sense of excluding third parties from the right to develop the technology covered by the patent? There are many references to this possibility in the management, economic and legal literatures, but two highly-cited papers stand out for grounding their claims of corporate...... and the difference between economic monopoly and an exclusive right. It is argued here that what is at issue in this work is the proper function of the patent institution. It is shown early in this paper that the understanding of the patent institution as a system of development prospects makes better sense...

  5. Voltammetry of ion transfer across a polarized room-temperature ionic liquid membrane facilitated by valinomycin: theoretical aspects and application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langmaier, Jan; Samec, Zdenek

    2009-08-01

    Cyclic voltammetry is used to investigate the transfer of alkali-metal cations, protons, and ammonium ions facilitated by the complex formation with valinomycin at the interface between an aqueous electrolyte solution and a room-temperature ionic liquid (RTIL) membrane. The membrane is made of a thin (approximately 112 microm) microporous filter impregnated with an RTIL that is composed of tridodecylmethylammonium cations and tetrakis[3,5-bis(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]borate anions. An extension of the existing theory of voltammetry of ion transfer across polarized liquid membranes makes it possible to evaluate the standard ion-transfer potentials for the hydrophilic cations studied, as well as the stability constants (K(i)) of their 1:1 complexes with valinomycin, as log K(i) = 9.0 (H(+)), 11.1 (Li(+)), 12.8 (Na(+)), 17.2 (K(+)), 15.7 (Rb(+)), 15.1 (Cs(+)), and 14.7 (NH(4)(+)). These data point to the remarkably enhanced stability of the valinomycin complexes within RTIL, and to the enhanced selectivity of valinomycin for K(+) over all other univalent ions studied, compared to the conventional K(+) ion-selective liquid-membrane electrodes. Selective complex formation allows one to resolve voltammetric responses of K(+) and Na(+) in the presence of an excess of Mg(2+) or Ca(2+), which is demonstrated by determination of K(+) and Na(+) in the table and tap water samples.

  6. BUSCAS DE INFORMAÇÕES TECNOLÓGICAS COM BASE EM DADOS DE PATENTES: ESTUDO DE CASO DOS LÍQUIDOS IÔNICOS NO BRASIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Gomes Speziali

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available This study describes the application of the Art of Scientific and Technological Search to strategically analyze areas of technological and industrial development. Application of scientific search strategies such as the creation of Patent Landscape has been shown to be useful for writing research projects, earning grants, publishing papers, drafting patent applications, and analyzing the market and economic potentials of a previous determined subject. The Patent Landscape regards a simplified analysis of technologies concerning ionic liquids patents applied in Brazil and published by Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial(INPI. A total of 93 patent applications using the keywords "ionic liquids" were found in the INPI database. Among these, 75% were nonresident applications and 25% were Brazilian resident applications. Interestingly, BASF, Chevron Industries, and the Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul (UFRGS were discovered as higher patent applicant assignees. Differences in the patent application areas were also observed between these applicants, with new solvents and petrochemical applications as the areas of focus for the industrial applications (BASF and Chevron Industries, and energy production, catalysis, and chemical reaction media as the focus for the university applications.

  7. Drug delivery via porous silicon: a focused patent review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulyavtsev, Paulina A; Spencer, Roxanne P

    2017-03-01

    Although silicon is more commonly associated with computer chips than with drug delivery, with the discovery that porous silicon is a viable biocompatible material, mesoporous silicon with pores between 2 and 50 nm has been loaded with small molecule and biomolecule therapeutics and safely implanted for controlled release. As porous silicon is readily oxidized, porous silica must also be considered for drug delivery applications. Since 2010, only a limited number of US patents have been granted, primarily for ophthalmologic and immunotherapy applications, in contrast to the growing body of technical literature in this area.

  8. The Coordination of Independently-Owned Vacuum Tube Patents in the Alleged Early Radio Patent Thicket

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Ron D, Katznelson

    of the relevant historical record, patent claims, litigation records and other relevant law, how the ‘overlapping’ patent rights were resolved by the courts and by the immunity of suppliers to the Government from patent infringement liability. We trace the cross-licensing agreements between the different radio......It has been proposed that when multiple, independently-owned and ‘over-lapping’ patents must be licensed for legal technology development the difficulty of negotiating cross-licenses may lead entrepreneurs to hold-up or deter that development. Our literature review finds these features allegedly...... present in radio development, 1905-1920, with numerous allegations of an impasse in bargaining the necessary patent rights for legal development. This paper seeks to determine with new precision how entrepreneurs and managers actually managed patent rights in this scenario. Accordingly, this paper re...

  9. Patenting in Europe: The Jurisdiction of the CJEU over European Patent Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minn Mari

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper will deal with EU competence over patent law, especially in the context of the TRIPS Agreement with reference to the ruling of CJEU in the Daiichi Sankyo case (CJEU case C-414/11 Daiichi Sankyo v DEMO Anonimos. The first part will explain the process of claiming patents at the national as well as the European level in order to understand the complexity of patent law, the second part will deal with the implications of jurisdiction and developments in EU patent regulations, the third part will deal with the effects of EU competence over the TRIPS patent provisions and the forth part will deal with the interpretation of substantive patent law in the light of the Daiichi Sankyo case.

  10. Are life patents ethical? Conflict between Catholic social teaching and agricultural biotechnology's patent regime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, K D

    2001-09-01

    Patents for genetic material in the industrialized North have expanded significantly over the past twenty years, playing a crucial role in the current configuration of the agricultural biotechnology industries, and raising significant ethical issues. Patents have been claimed for genes, gene sequences, engineered crop species, and the technical processes to engineer them. Most critics have addressed the human and ecosystem health implications of genetically engineered crops, but these broad patents raise economic issues as well. The Catholic social teaching tradition offers guidelines for critiquing the economic implications of this new patent regime. The Catholic principle of the universal destination of goods implies that genes, gene sequences, and engineered crop varieties are ineligible for patent protection, although the processes to engineer these should be eligible. Religious leaders are likely to make a more substantive contribution to debates about agricultural biotechnology by addressing these life patents than by speculating that genetic engineering is "playing God."

  11. Policy Options for the Improvement of the European Patent System

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schovsbo, Jens Hemmingsen; Cowin, Robin; Van de Eijck, Wim

    2007-01-01

    for the improvement of the European patent system are presented and discussed fully at the end of the report. Below is a simple list of the titles of the options: Insertion of the economic mission of the patent system in the European Patent Convention; Enhancing governance within the European patent system; Improving...

  12. 37 CFR 401.13 - Administration of patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Administration of patent rights clauses. 401.13 Section 401.13 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR... patent rights clauses. (a) In the event a subject invention is made under funding agreements of more...

  13. 48 CFR 1327.201 - Patent and copyright infringement liability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent and copyright infringement liability. 1327.201 Section 1327.201 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patents and Copyrights 1327.201 Patent...

  14. 76 FR 53885 - Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-30

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Resource Centers Metrics ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its... following methods: E-mail: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``Patent and Trademark Resource...

  15. 50 CFR 401.21 - Patents and inventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patents and inventions. 401.21 Section 401... CONSERVATION, DEVELOPMENT AND ENHANCEMENT § 401.21 Patents and inventions. Determination of the patent rights... to the Act shall be consistent with the “Government Patent Policy” (President's memorandum for...

  16. 45 CFR 650.2 - National Science Foundation patent policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false National Science Foundation patent policy. 650.2... FOUNDATION PATENTS § 650.2 National Science Foundation patent policy. As authorized by the National Science... adopted the following statement of NSF patent policy. (a) In accordance with the Bayh-Dole Act and...

  17. 78 FR 17102 - Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 41 RIN 0651-AC86 Setting and Adjusting Patent Fees; Correction AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Department of Commerce. ACTION: Interim rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is correcting...

  18. 77 FR 14766 - Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-13

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Patents for Humanity Program (Formerly Humanitarian Program) ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office...- 0066 Patents for Humanity Program comment'' in the subject line of the message. Mail: Susan K....

  19. 48 CFR 970.2702-3 - Patent indemnity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Patent indemnity. 970.2702... SUPPLEMENTARY REGULATIONS DOE MANAGEMENT AND OPERATING CONTRACTS Patents, Data, and Copyrights 970.2702-3 Patent indemnity. (a) Contracting officers must use the clause at 970.5227-6, Patent Indemnity—Subcontracts...

  20. 78 FR 19416 - Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-01

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office 37 CFR Part 1 RIN 0651-AC84 Revisions to Patent Term Adjustment AGENCY: United States Patent and Trademark Office, Commerce. ACTION: Interim final rule. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (Office) is revising the rules of practice to implement...

  1. 7 CFR 1250.542 - Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information... AGRICULTURE EGG RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Rules and Regulations Patents, Copyrights, Trademarks, and Information § 1250.542 Patents, copyrights, trademarks, and information. Patents, copyrights, trademarks,...

  2. 77 FR 269 - Matters Related to Patent Appeals

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ... United States Patent and Trademark Office Matters Related to Patent Appeals ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing...: Email: InformationCollection@uspto.gov . Include ``0651- 00xx Matters Related to Patent Appeals...

  3. 76 FR 34062 - Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-10

    ... Patent and Trademark Office Patent and Trademark Financial Transactions ACTION: Proposed collection; comment request. SUMMARY: The United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), as part of its continuing... States Patent and Trademark Office, P.O. Box 1450, Alexandria, VA 22313-1450. Federal Rulemaking...

  4. 48 CFR 3027.305 - Administration of Patent Rights Clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Administration of Patent... SECURITY, HOMELAND SECURITY ACQUISITION REGULATION (HSAR) SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS PATENTS, DATA, AND COPYRIGHTS Patent Rights under Government Contracts 3027.305 Administration of Patent Rights Clauses....

  5. 7 CFR 1220.254 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Miscellaneous § 1220.254 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. (a) Any patents, copyrights..., franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications, inure to the benefit...

  6. 7 CFR 1230.88 - Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications... Information Order Miscellaneous § 1230.88 Patents, copyrights, inventions, and publications. Any patents..., leasing, franchising, or other uses of such patents, copyrights, inventions, or publications inure to...

  7. 48 CFR 1852.227-84 - Patent rights clauses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Patent rights clauses. 1852... 1852.227-84 Patent rights clauses. The contracting officer shall insert the following provision as prescribed in 1827.303-70(e): Patent Rights Clauses (DEC 1989) This solicitation contains the patent...

  8. 14 CFR 1214.112 - Patent, data and information matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Patent, data and information matters. 1214... Customers § 1214.112 Patent, data and information matters. (a) Patent and data rights. NASA will not acquire rights to inventions, patents or proprietary data which may be used in, or arise from, activities...

  9. Preliminary analysis of patent trends for magnetic fusion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levine, L.O.; Ashton, W.B.; Campbell, R.S.

    1984-02-01

    This study presents a preliminary analysis of development trends in magnetic fusion technology based on data from US patents. The research is limited to identification and description of general patent activity and ownership characteristics for 373 patents. The results suggest that more detailed studies of fusion patents could provide useful R and D planning information.

  10. The European Patent System: Dealing with emerging technologies.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kica, Evisa; Groenendijk, Nico

    2011-01-01

    In light of recent controversial patent decisions in biotechnology, this article argues that the current European patent examination and opposition procedures do not suffice to balance the patent system These procedures do not provide sufficient guidance for patent examiners to deal effectively with

  11. Intellectual Property Strategies of Multinational Companies Patenting in China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolfram, Pierre; Schuster, Gerd; Brem, Alexander

    2014-01-01

    systems in those countries are mostly not able to effectively protect intellectual property rights of multinational companies. Still, we observe the phenomenon of a strongly increasing rate of technology patenting in countries with weak appropriability regimes. This article studies patenting strategy...... clustering reveals the existence of five patent strategy archetypes of companies patenting in economies with weak appropriability regimes....

  12. 78 FR 21787 - Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-11

    ... and 3 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No... and Trademark Office 37 CFR Parts 1 and 3 RIN 0651-AC85 Changes To Implement the Patent Law Treaty.... SUMMARY: The Patent Law Treaties Implementation Act of 2012 (PLTIA) amends the patent laws to...

  13. How do Firms Use the Information in Patent Disclosures?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Howells, John; Scholderer, Joachim

    that the patent specification should disclose sufficient information to identify the invention with respect to the prior art and therefore make the patent defensible against rival patents in court - they need not enable the making of the invention. Our research design gathers data on how firms use the information...... disclosed in patent specifications and relates this to the predictions of the different types of current theories of patent function. We intend to test and refine theory in one current patent controversy, that concerning patent information usage. [ii] [i] See Cohen, W., A. Goto, et al. (2002). "R...

  14. Patent Ethics: The Misalignment of Views Between the Patent System and the Wider Society.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsberg, Ellen-Marie; Hanssen, Anders Braarud; Nielsen, Hanne Marie; Olesen, Ingrid

    2017-08-15

    Concerns have been voiced about the ethical implications of patenting practices in the field of biotechnology. Some of these have also been incorporated into regulation, such as the European Commission Directive 98/44 on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions. However, the incorporation of ethically based restrictions into patent legislation has not had the effect of satisfying all concerns. In this article, we will systematically compare the richness of ethical concerns surrounding biotech patenting, with the limited scope of ethical concerns actually addressed in the patent system. As sources of our analyses we will use literature and document studies and a survey with important stakeholders and experts related to Norwegian patenting in the aquacultural biotechnology sector. We will structure the analyses with an ethical matrix, developed for this purpose. Showing the misalignment of the discussions within and outside the patent system, we suggest that an important reason for the ethical controversy still surrounding patenting is that ethical questions keep being framed in a narrow way within the system. Until a richer set of ethical considerations is addressed head-on within the patent system, the patent system will continue to evoke academic and interest group criticism, potentially contributing to a legitimacy crisis of the whole system.

  15. A rare case report of patent vitellointestinal duct causing bowel obstruction in an adult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Tika Ram; Shahi, Sudha; Gautam, Manish; Pandey, Sanjay

    2017-08-24

    Patent vitellointestinal duct occurs in about 2% of the population which unusually leads to small intestinal obstruction associated with high morbidity and mortality. Here we are reporting an unusual case of patent vitellointestinal duct causing small intestinal obstruction in an adult patient. A 22-year-old male without any medical illness presented as an emergency with a 3day hystory of abdominal pain, multiple episode of vomiting and abdominal distention. Distended abdomen and sign of peritonitis were found on abdominal examination. Abdominal X-rays revealed multiple small intestinal air-fluid levels. A patent vitellointestinal duct extending from distal ileum to the posterior wall of the umbilicus was found causing closed loop ileal obstruction during laparotomy. Resection of a vitellointestinal duct along with gangrenous distal ileum and cecum with ileocolostomy was performed. He was discharged on the 8 th postoperative day. Diagnosing and management of cause of intestinal obstruction in patients without history of abdominal surgery is very challenging. Early resuscitation and timely surgical intervention of intestinal obstruction due to a rare patent vitellointestinal duct can be life-saving measure. The patent vitellointestinal duct is an uncommon entity in adults and moreover this disorder leading to intestinal obstruction is very rare. Surgeons should be aware of this infrequent cause of small bowel obstruction to allow for early diagnosis and to facilitate better patient outcomes. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Fair drug prices and the patent system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Resnik, David B

    2004-06-01

    This paper uses John Rawls' theory of justice to defend the patent system against charges that it has an unfair effect on access to medications,from the perspective of national and international justice. The paper argues that the patent system is fair in a national context because it respects intellectual property rights and it benefits the least advantaged members of society by providing incentives for inventors, investors, and entrepreneurs. The paper also argues that the patent system is fair in an international context, provided that developed nations take steps to help disease-stricken countries secure internal justice. Fairness in a national or international context also requires that the patent system should include emergency exceptions to deal with short-term inequities.

  17. Commercialization, patenting and genomics: researcher perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murdoch, Cj; Caulfield, Timothy

    2009-02-19

    The impact of commercialization and patenting pressure on genomics research is still a topic of considerable debate in academic, policy and popular literature. We interviewed genomic researchers to see if their perspectives offered fresh insights. Regional Genome Canada centers provided us with relevant researcher contact information, and in-depth structured interviews were conducted. Researcher perspectives were sharply divided, with both support and concern for commercialization regimes surfacing in interviews. Data withholding and publication delays were commonly reported, but the aggressive enforcement of patents was not. There are parallels to the Stem Cell community in Canada in these respects. Genomic researchers, as individuals directly implicated in the field of controversy, have developed varied and often novel insights which should be incorporated into the ongoing debates surrounding commercialization and patenting. Many researchers continue to raise concerns, particularly in relation to data withholding, thus emphasizing the need for a continued exploration of the complex issues associated with commercialization and patenting.

  18. ACTA Technology Presents EPA with Patent Copy

    Science.gov (United States)

    US EPA SBIR awardee, ACTA Technology, presented James H. Johnson, Director of the US EPA National Center for Environmental Research, and April Richards, Program Manager of the US EPA's SBIR Program, with a copy of their Red Ribbon patent.

  19. Mining chemical information from open patents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jessop David M

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Linked Open Data presents an opportunity to vastly improve the quality of science in all fields by increasing the availability and usability of the data upon which it is based. In the chemical field, there is a huge amount of information available in the published literature, the vast majority of which is not available in machine-understandable formats. PatentEye, a prototype system for the extraction and semantification of chemical reactions from the patent literature has been implemented and is discussed. A total of 4444 reactions were extracted from 667 patent documents that comprised 10 weeks' worth of publications from the European Patent Office (EPO, with a precision of 78% and recall of 64% with regards to determining the identity and amount of reactants employed and an accuracy of 92% with regards to product identification. NMR spectra reported as product characterisation data are additionally captured.

  20. Internet patent databases: a comparative study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borja González-Albo Manglano

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The patent is an essential document in the evaluation of technological investigation that has been used as approximation of innovation. The patent databases on the Internet are one principal source of information for this kind of analysis. However they are many databases and they are very different; reason why the election of one of them in the accomplishment of bibliometric analysis is a crucial aspect. In this sense, this survey studies some of main free –Esp@cenet, PatentScope, national databases and commercial –Derwent Innovatios Index, Chemical Abstracts Plus, Thomson Delphion Intellectual Property Network– patent databases. The results show that commercial systems provide value-added –data revision, analysis tools, etc.–; althought the free ones are going to become trustworthy resources thanks to the improvements and options that are introduced in them.

  1. The therapeutic potential of truffle fungi: a patent survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Gajos

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this article is to research and retrieve patent information regarding the therapeutic use of truffles. Truffles have a unique value as a foodstuff and impact positively on human health and well-being. They are applied in such industries as the pharmaceutical industry and the cosmetic industry. Patent documentation available in the Espacenet network and the Patentscope service were analyzed by key word and patent specifications were examined to describe state of the art and to identify scientific research trends in therapeutic applications of truffles. Medicinal properties of truffles such as the anticancer or cardiovascular effect, a reduction in blood lipids, immunological resistance and increased energy were identified. Other therapeutic benefits include sedative action, prevention of hormonal imbalances in women, pre-menopause symptom relief, senile urethritis and prostate disorders, sleep disorders and increased absorption of calcium from milk. Truffles can also be used to alleviate symptoms of milk intolerance such as diarrhoea or bloating, to ease rheumatic pains and to treat and prevent further development or recurrence of senile cataract.

  2. [Patentability of DNA sequences: the debate remains open].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín Uranga, Amelia

    2013-01-01

    The patentability of human genes was from the beginning of the discussion concerning the Directive on the legal protection of biotechnological inventions, an issue that provoked debates among politicians, scientists, lawyers and civil society itself. Although Directive 98/44 tried to settle the matter by stating that to support the patentability of human genes, it should know what role they fulfill, which protein they encode, all of this as an essential requirement to test its industrial application. However, following the judgment of 13 June 2013 (Supreme Court of the United States of America in the case of Association for Molecular Pathology et al. versus Myriad Genetics Inc.) the debate on this issue has been reopened. There are several issues to be considered, taking into account that the patents on DNA & Gene Sequences have played an important incentive to increase the interest in biotechnology applied to human health. On the other hand, this is a paradigm shift in the R & D of biopharmaceutical companies, and it has moved from an in house research model to a model of open innovation, a model of collaboration between large corporations with biotech SMEs and public and private research centers. This model of innovation, impacts on the issue of the industrial property, and therefore it will be necessary to clearly define what each party brings to the relationship and how they are expected to share the results. But all of this, with the ultimate goal that the patients have access to treatments and medications most innovative, safe and effective.

  3. Paying for On-Patent Pharmaceuticals

    OpenAIRE

    Fuller, Richard L.; Goldfield, Norbert

    2016-01-01

    In this article we propose a new approach to pricing for patent-protected (on-patent) pharmaceuticals. We describe and define limit pricing as a method for drug companies to maximize revenue for their investment by offering budget-neutral pricing to encourage early adoption by payers. Under this approach, payers are incentivized to adopt innovative but expensive drugs more quickly if drug companies provide detailed analyses of the net impact of the new pharmaceutical upon total health budgets...

  4. Using heterogeneous patent network features to rank and discover influential inventors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-ping DU; Chang-qing YAO; Nan LI

    2015-01-01

    Most classic network entity sorting algorithms are implemented in a homogeneous network, and they are not appli-cable to a heterogeneous network. Registered patent history data denotes the innovations and the achievements in different re-search fields. In this paper, we present an iteration algorithm called inventor-ranking, to sort the influences of patent inventors in heterogeneous networks constructed based on their patent data. This approach is a flexible rule-based method, making full use of the features of network topology. We sort the inventors and patents by a set of rules, and the algorithm iterates continuously until it meets a certain convergence condition. We also give a detailed analysis of influential inventor’s interesting topics using a latent Dirichlet allocation (LDA) model. Compared with the traditional methods such as PageRank, our approach takes full ad-vantage of the information in the heterogeneous network, including the relationship between inventors and the relationship be-tween the inventor and the patent. Experimental results show that our method can effectively identify the inventors with high influence in patent data, and that it converges faster than PageRank.

  5. Past, present and future of pharmaceutical patents under Korea-US Trade Agreement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yoon Suk

    2016-07-01

    The introduction of substance patents in 1987 was viewed with apprehension as it was believed that the system would only reinforce the domination of the technology of advanced countries based on the trade agreement between Korea and the USA. However, substance patents provided the Korean pharmaceutical industry with the driving force required to develop new substances, and the Korean pharmaceutical industry has been constantly improving its research and development capability. The patent-approval linkage system was implemented according to the Korea-US Free Trade Agreement in 2015. The system comprises the following: registering the drugs in the Green List, notifying the listed patent and marketing approval holders about the application for generic marketing approval, patent holder's request for staying generic sales and first generic exclusivity. Korean generic companies are expected to have opportunities that enable them to challenge the global market by accumulating experience of designing of generic products, making patent challenges and strategically developing of new drugs or incrementally modified drugs through the linkage system.

  6. Optimal Selection Method of Process Patents for Technology Transfer Using Fuzzy Linguistic Computing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gangfeng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Under the open innovation paradigm, technology transfer of process patents is one of the most important mechanisms for manufacturing companies to implement process innovation and enhance the competitive edge. To achieve promising technology transfers, we need to evaluate the feasibility of process patents and optimally select the most appropriate patent according to the actual manufacturing situation. Hence, this paper proposes an optimal selection method of process patents using multiple criteria decision-making and 2-tuple fuzzy linguistic computing to avoid information loss during the processes of evaluation integration. An evaluation index system for technology transfer feasibility of process patents is designed initially. Then, fuzzy linguistic computing approach is applied to aggregate the evaluations of criteria weights for each criterion and corresponding subcriteria. Furthermore, performance ratings for subcriteria and fuzzy aggregated ratings of criteria are calculated. Thus, we obtain the overall technology transfer feasibility of patent alternatives. Finally, a case study of aeroengine turbine manufacturing is presented to demonstrate the applicability of the proposed method.

  7. 碳纤维制造产业的专利分析%Analysis of patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冀小强; 易方方

    2012-01-01

    对碳纤维制造技术专利文献进行了检索统计,分别从年度发展趋势、专利申请国分布、申请人状况和中美日欧四局共同申请的重点专利布局等方面对碳纤维制造产业的国内外技术专利进行了分析,揭示了国内外碳纤维专利申请的现状,分析了主要专利申请人专利的国际专利分类领域和技术重点,为我国科研院所和企业提出了专利申请布局的相关建议.提出了我国应利用已公开的专利技术,研发特种碳纤维的制造技术,强化碳纤维的应用技术,促进碳纤维的产业化和工程化.%The relevant patents of carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were retrieved. The China and international patents on carbon fiber manufacturing technologies were analyzed from the aspects of annual trend and geographical spread of patent applications, statistics of patent applicants, distribution of key patents filed in US, Japan, Europe and China patent offices. The status of carbon fiber patent application was explored is China and abroad. The international classification and focal points of patent technology were analyzed according to the dominant patent applicants. Some suggestion on the patent application strategy was put forward for China science research institutes and enterprises. It was pointed out that China should develop the manufacturing technology of special carbon fiber, strengthen the application technology and stimulate the industrialization and engineering technology of carbon fiber using the published patent technologies.

  8. Severallssues in the Practice of Design Patent Examination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Hua

    2005-01-01

    @@ Subject Matter Protected by the Design Patent Right For any legal relation to be viable there must be three elements; the subject,subject matter and content. What the subject matter protected by the design patent right is one of the basic issues of the design patent system in China. However,in the design patent examination, we have found that many parties and even senior patent attorneys have many misconceptions about the issue.

  9. Empirical studies on the private value of Finnish patents

    OpenAIRE

    Grönqvist, Charlotta

    2009-01-01

    It is a commonly accepted fact that innovation is important for economic growth and that a well-designed patent system increases research and development investments. Patents are unfortunately a second best solution. While the benefits of the patent system are increased incentives to innovation, diffusion of new knowledge, and easier commercialization of patented innovations; the drawback of the patent system is the monopolies it creates. Therefore, the fundamental question that has intereste...

  10. Grain legume-cereal intercropping: The practical application of diversity, competition and facilitation in arable and organic cropping systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hauggaard-Nielsen, Henrik; Jørnsgaard, B.; Kinane, J.;

    2008-01-01

    in Denmark over three consecutive cropping seasons including dual grain legume (pea, faba bean and lupin)-barley intercropping as compared to the respective sole crops (SC). Yield stability of intercrops (IC) was not greater than that of grain legume SC, with the exception of the IC containing faba bean....... Faba bean and lupin had lower yield stability than pea and fertilized barley. However, the different IC used environmental resources for plant growth up to 50% (LER=0.91-1.51) more effectively as compared to the respective SC, but with considerable variation over location, years and crops. The SC...... was comparable; however, it tended to be the highest in sole cropped faba bean, lupin and unfertilized barley, where the application of urea to barley reduced the weed infestation by around 50%. Reduction in disease was observed in all IC systems compared to the corresponding SC, with a general disease reduction...

  11. The development and validation of the Virtual Tissue Matrix, a software application that facilitates the review of tissue microarrays on line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gallagher William M

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Tissue Microarray (TMA facilitates high-throughput analysis of hundreds of tissue specimens simultaneously. However, bottlenecks in the storage and manipulation of the data generated from TMA reviews have become apparent. A number of software applications have been developed to assist in image and data management; however no solution currently facilitates the easy online review, scoring and subsequent storage of images and data associated with TMA experimentation. Results This paper describes the design, development and validation of the Virtual Tissue Matrix (VTM. Through an intuitive HTML driven user interface, the VTM provides digital/virtual slide based images of each TMA core and a means to record observations on each TMA spot. Data generated from a TMA review is stored in an associated relational database, which facilitates the use of flexible scoring forms. The system allows multiple users to record their interpretation of each TMA spot for any parameters assessed. Images generated for the VTM were captured using a standard background lighting intensity and corrective algorithms were applied to each image to eliminate any background lighting hue inconsistencies or vignetting. Validation of the VTM involved examination of inter-and intra-observer variability between microscope and digital TMA reviews. Six bladder TMAs were immunohistochemically stained for E-Cadherin, β-Catenin and PhosphoMet and were assessed by two reviewers for the amount of core and tumour present, the amount and intensity of membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear staining. Conclusion Results show that digital VTM images are representative of the original tissue viewed with a microscope. There were equivalent levels of inter-and intra-observer agreement for five out of the eight parameters assessed. Results also suggest that digital reviews may correct potential problems experienced when reviewing TMAs using a microscope, for example, removal of

  12. A Patent Analysis on Realistic Media for R&D Projects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Sung-Hyun; Yeon, Seung-Jun

    In this paper, we use patent statistics as the recent status of R&D in international patents. The number of patents was used to compare different countries' share in the overall number of technology patents. Using the degree of patent citations, the influence and technological prowess of patents were examined. Also, implications were drawn from an analysis of patent contents for realistic media.

  13. The ”opt out” and “opt in” provisions in the Unified Patent Court Agreement – Impact and strategies for European patent portfolios

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Minssen, Timo; Lundqvist, Björn

    2014-01-01

    Many questions concerning the UPC’s jurisdiction during the transitional period for European Patents under Article 83 UPCA remain unsolved. Focusing on the “opt in” and “opt out” choices under Article 83 (3) & (4), this paper discusses the legal nature and prerequisites of these provisions, as well...... as the options and strategic choices that patent proprietors and applicants are facing. Considering the pros and cons of the emerging unitary system in light of a persisting uncertainty of how to interpret relevant stipulations, it is emphasized that there will be no clear-cut solutions. Rather the suitability...... of each approach will have to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis, taking into account all circumstances surrounding an invention, its patent-claims and the underlying business strategy. Recognizing that the worst thing to do is to do nothing at all, we conclude with a summary and some general remarks....

  14. Using the Technology Acceptance Model to explore community dwelling older adults' perceptions of a 3D interior design application to facilitate pre-discharge home adaptations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Money, Arthur G; Atwal, Anita; Young, Katherine L; Day, Yasmin; Wilson, Lesley; Money, Kevin G

    2015-08-26

    In the UK occupational therapy pre-discharge home visits are routinely carried out as a means of facilitating safe transfer from the hospital to home. Whilst they are an integral part of practice, there is little evidence to demonstrate they have a positive outcome on the discharge process. Current issues for patients are around the speed of home visits and the lack of shared decision making in the process, resulting in less than 50 % of the specialist equipment installed actually being used by patients on follow-up. To improve practice there is an urgent need to examine other ways of conducting home visits to facilitate safe discharge. We believe that Computerised 3D Interior Design Applications (CIDAs) could be a means to support more efficient, effective and collaborative practice. A previous study explored practitioners perceptions of using CIDAs; however it is important to ascertain older adult's views about the usability of technology and to compare findings. This study explores the perceptions of community dwelling older adults with regards to adopting and using CIDAs as an assistive tool for the home adaptations process. Ten community dwelling older adults participated in individual interactive task-focused usability sessions with a customised CIDA, utilising the think-aloud protocol and individual semi-structured interviews. Template analysis was used to carry out both deductive and inductive analysis of the think-aloud and interview data. Initially, a deductive stance was adopted, using the three pre-determined high-level themes of the technology acceptance model (TAM): Perceived Usefulness (PU), Perceived Ease of Use (PEOU), Actual Use (AU). Inductive template analysis was then carried out on the data within these themes, from which a number of sub-thmes emerged. Regarding PU, participants believed CIDAs served as a useful visual tool and saw clear potential to facilitate shared understanding and partnership in care delivery. For PEOU, participants were

  15. The child's perspective as a guiding principle: Young children as co-designers in the design of an interactive application meant to facilitate participation in healthcare situations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stålberg, Anna; Sandberg, Anette; Söderbäck, Maja; Larsson, Thomas

    2016-06-01

    During the last decade, interactive technology has entered mainstream society. Its many users also include children, even the youngest ones, who use the technology in different situations for both fun and learning. When designing technology for children, it is crucial to involve children in the process in order to arrive at an age-appropriate end product. In this study we describe the specific iterative process by which an interactive application was developed. This application is intended to facilitate young children's, three-to five years old, participation in healthcare situations. We also describe the specific contributions of the children, who tested the prototypes in a preschool, a primary health care clinic and an outpatient unit at a hospital, during the development process. The iterative phases enabled the children to be involved at different stages of the process and to evaluate modifications and improvements made after each prior iteration. The children contributed their own perspectives (the child's perspective) on the usability, content and graphic design of the application, substantially improving the software and resulting in an age-appropriate product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. A Moral Economy of Patents: Case of Finnish Research Universities' Patent Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kauppinen, Ilkka

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this paper is to demonstrate the usefulness of the concept of moral economy for higher education studies through a study of Finnish research universities' patent policies. Patent policies not only stimulate the commercialization of research, they also set norms for behavior and aim to clarify how to distribute rights and…

  17. 浅谈专利代理的发展与现状%Development and Status of Patent Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秋红

    2011-01-01

    专利代理是一个新兴行业,是专利保护、专利实施许可、专利诉讼中不可缺少的部分,专利代理机构和专利代理人是连接专利申请人与国家知识产权局之间的桥梁。专利代理人要求精通专利法及其相关法律法规、要求具有理工科的专业技术能力、具有一定写作能力。但是专利代理行业有着广阔的前景,但也面临着缺少代理人、代理人业务素质亟待提高、培训成本高、人员流失严重的困难。%Patent agent is an emerging industry, is an integral part of patent protection, patent licensing, patent litigation. Patent agency and patent agents are bridges connected with the State Intellectual Property Office and patent applicants.Patent agents arc required to be versed in patent law and related laws and regulations, expertise in science and engineering capabilities, with some writing skills.The patent agency industry has broad prospects, but also face the difficulties of lacking of agents, the agents' quality of service needs to be improved, training costs are high, serious staff turnover.

  18. Biological Diversity in the Patent System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldham, Paul; Hall, Stephen; Forero, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Biological diversity in the patent system is an enduring focus of controversy but empirical analysis of the presence of biodiversity in the patent system has been limited. To address this problem we text mined 11 million patent documents for 6 million Latin species names from the Global Names Index (GNI) established by the Global Biodiversity Information Facility (GBIF) and Encyclopedia of Life (EOL). We identified 76,274 full Latin species names from 23,882 genera in 767,955 patent documents. 25,595 species appeared in the claims section of 136,880 patent documents. This reveals that human innovative activity involving biodiversity in the patent system focuses on approximately 4% of taxonomically described species and between 0.8–1% of predicted global species. In this article we identify the major features of the patent landscape for biological diversity by focusing on key areas including pharmaceuticals, neglected diseases, traditional medicines, genetic engineering, foods, biocides, marine genetic resources and Antarctica. We conclude that the narrow focus of human innovative activity and ownership of genetic resources is unlikely to be in the long term interest of humanity. We argue that a broader spectrum of biodiversity needs to be opened up to research and development based on the principles of equitable benefit-sharing, respect for the objectives of the Convention on Biological Diversity, human rights and ethics. Finally, we argue that alternative models of innovation, such as open source and commons models, are required to open up biodiversity for research that addresses actual and neglected areas of human need. The research aims to inform the implementation of the 2010 Nagoya Protocol on Access to Genetic Resources and the Equitable Sharing of Benefits Arising from their Utilization and international debates directed to the governance of genetic resources. Our research also aims to inform debates under the Intergovernmental Committee on Intellectual

  19. Patenting human pluripotent cells: balancing commercial, academic and ethical interests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahadur, G; Morrison, M

    2010-01-01

    The article addresses the issue of the ethics of patenting in human embryonic stem (hES) cells. The current stance of the European Patent Office in citing moral objections to patents on hES cells and the monopolistic scope of the Wisconsin Research Alumni Fund/Geron patents granted by the United States Patent and Trademark Office represent twin obstacles to achieving an ethical balance in patent rights in this field. The particular issues and strategies around granting patents on hES cells can be better understood by placing them in the context of the biotechnology industry and its role in the global bioeconomy. Some possible avenues of redress are considered based on the potential to open up cell pluripotency as new terrain for intellectual property offered by new technological breakthroughs such as induced pluripotent cells. Any changes in patent law should be accompanied by increased collaboration through devices such as patent pools.

  20. ILDC 2010, 1464 (NL 2009), (2009 EPO Case, X v European Patent Organisation, Final appeal judgment, Case No 08/00118, LJ BI9632)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Brölmann

    2009-01-01

    Whether the European Patent Organisation was entitled to immunity from jurisdiction before the courts of the Netherlands in the course of a dispute with a former employee. Whether immunity from jurisdiction of the European Patent Organisation before the courts of the Netherlands denied the applicant