WorldWideScience

Sample records for facilitate information sharing

  1. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating...... and the intermediaries regulating the exchange, and facilitating knowledge sharing should therefore be viewed as a continuum of practices under the influence of opportunistic behaviour, obedience or organizational citizenship behaviour. Keywords: Knowledge sharing, motivation, organizational settings, situations...

  2. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Holdt Christensen, Peter

    2005-01-01

    Abstract This paper argues that knowledge sharing can be conceptualized as different situations of exchange in which individuals relate to each other in different ways, involving different rules, norms and traditions of reciprocity regulating the exchange. The main challenge for facilitating knowledge sharing is to ensure that the exchange is seen as equitable for the parties involved, and by viewing the problems of knowledge sharing as motivational problems situated in different organization...

  3. How can clinical practice guidelines be adapted to facilitate shared decision making? A qualitative key-informant study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijden, T.T. van der; Pieterse, A.H.; Koelewijn-van Loon, M.S.; Knaapen, L.; Legare, F.; Boivin, A.; Burgers, J.S.; Stiggelbout, A.M.; Faber, M.J.; Elwyn, G.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: To explore how clinical practice guidelines can be adapted to facilitate shared decision making. METHODS: This was a qualitative key-informant study with group discussions and semi-structured interviews. First, 75 experts in guideline development or shared decision making participated in

  4. Developing a Cloud-Based Online Geospatial Information Sharing and Geoprocessing Platform to Facilitate Collaborative Education and Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Z. L.; Cao, J.; Hu, K.; Gui, Z. P.; Wu, H. Y.; You, L.

    2016-06-01

    Efficient online discovering and applying geospatial information resources (GIRs) is critical in Earth Science domain as while for cross-disciplinary applications. However, to achieve it is challenging due to the heterogeneity, complexity and privacy of online GIRs. In this article, GeoSquare, a collaborative online geospatial information sharing and geoprocessing platform, was developed to tackle this problem. Specifically, (1) GIRs registration and multi-view query functions allow users to publish and discover GIRs more effectively. (2) Online geoprocessing and real-time execution status checking help users process data and conduct analysis without pre-installation of cumbersome professional tools on their own machines. (3) A service chain orchestration function enables domain experts to contribute and share their domain knowledge with community members through workflow modeling. (4) User inventory management allows registered users to collect and manage their own GIRs, monitor their execution status, and track their own geoprocessing histories. Besides, to enhance the flexibility and capacity of GeoSquare, distributed storage and cloud computing technologies are employed. To support interactive teaching and training, GeoSquare adopts the rich internet application (RIA) technology to create user-friendly graphical user interface (GUI). Results show that GeoSquare can integrate and foster collaboration between dispersed GIRs, computing resources and people. Subsequently, educators and researchers can share and exchange resources in an efficient and harmonious way.

  5. Too Much Information Sharing?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ganuza, Juan José; Jansen, Jos

    2013-01-01

    By using general information structures and precision criteria based on the dispersion of conditional expectations, we study how oligopolists’ information acquisition decisions may change the effects of information sharing on the consumer surplus. Sharing information about individual cost...... parameters gives the following trade-off in Cournot oligopoly. On the one hand, it decreases the expected consumer surplus for a given information precision, as the literature shows. On the other hand, information sharing increases the firms’ incentives to acquire information, and the consumer surplus...... increases in the precision of the firms’ information. Interestingly, the latter effect may dominate the former effect....

  6. InformedTogether: Usability Evaluation of a Web-Based Decision Aid to Facilitate Shared Advance Care Planning for Severe Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uhler, Lauren M; Pérez Figueroa, Rafael E; Dickson, Mark; McCullagh, Lauren; Kushniruk, Andre; Monkman, Helen; Witteman, Holly O; Hajizadeh, Negin

    2015-02-25

    Advance care planning may help patients receive treatments that better align with their goals for care. We developed a Web-based decision aid called InformedTogether to facilitate shared advance care planning between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients and their doctors. Our objective was to assess the usability of the InformedTogether decision aid, including whether users could interact with the decision aid to engage in tasks required for shared decision making, whether users found the decision aid acceptable, and implications for redesign. We conducted an observational study with 15 patients and 8 doctors at two ethnically and socioeconomically diverse outpatient clinics. Data included quantitative and qualitative observations of patients and doctors using the decision aid on tablet or laptop computers and data from semistructured interviews. Patients were shown the decision aid by a researcher acting as the doctor. Pulmonary doctors were observed using the decision aid independently and asked to think aloud (ie, verbalize their thoughts). A thematic analysis was implemented to explore key issues related to decision aid usability. Although patients and doctors found InformedTogether acceptable and would recommend that doctors use the decision aid with COPD patients, many patients had difficulty understanding the icon arrays that were used to communicate estimated prognoses and could not articulate the definitions of the two treatment choices-Full Code and Do Not Resuscitate (DNR). Minor usability problems regarding content, links, layout, and consistency were also identified and corresponding recommendations were outlined. In particular, participants suggested including more information about potential changes in quality of life resulting from the alternative advance directives. Some doctor participants thought the decision aid was too long and some thought it may cause nervousness among patients due to the topic area. A decision aid for shared

  7. Policy enabled information sharing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jorgensen, Craig R.; Nelson, Brian D.; Ratheal, Steve W.

    2014-09-02

    A technique for dynamically sharing information includes executing a sharing policy indicating when to share a data object responsive to the occurrence of an event. The data object is created by formatting a data file to be shared with a receiving entity. The data object includes a file data portion and a sharing metadata portion. The data object is encrypted and then automatically transmitted to the receiving entity upon occurrence of the event. The sharing metadata portion includes metadata characterizing the data file and referenced in connection with the sharing policy to determine when to automatically transmit the data object to the receiving entity.

  8. Challenges in sharing information effectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2006-01-01

    were not recognized; implications of relevant information were not shared; differences in the role and expression of emotions when sharing information was not understood; and, the need to reestablish trust was not recognized. Conclusion. The challenges in information sharing identified here may extend...... to other high stress, unique and complex situations, such as natural disasters. Recommendations for more effective information behaviour techniques in dynamic group work situations are presented....

  9. Information Sharing among Untrustworthy Entities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamura, Shinsuke; Yanase, Tatsuro

    Most of current technologies that enable secure information sharing assume that entities that share information are mutually trustworthy. However, in recent applications this assumption is not realistic. As applications become sophisticated, information systems are required to share information securely even among untrustworthy entities. This paper discusses two kinds of problems about information sharing among untrustworthy entities, i.e. secure statistical data gathering and anonymous authentication, and proposes their solutions. The former is a problem to calculate statistics while ensuring that raw data are not disclosed to any entity including ones that calculate statistics, and the latter is a problem to authenticate entities while keeping their identities confidential.

  10. Facilitating networks of information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.M. van Mulligen (Erik); M. Diwersy; M.E. Schmidt (Marie); H. Buurman; B. Mons (Barend)

    2000-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we describe an approach to respond to a request for information with the identification and location of the appropriate person as a source of information for answering the question. The expertise of a person is characterized using a weighted pr

  11. Challenges in sharing information effectively

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnenwald, Diane H.

    2006-01-01

    Introduction. The goal of information sharing is to change a person's image of the world and to develop a shared working understanding. It is an essential component of collaboration. This paper examines barriers to sharing information effectively in dynamic group work situations. Method. Three...... to other high stress, unique and complex situations, such as natural disasters. Recommendations for more effective information behaviour techniques in dynamic group work situations are presented....

  12. Information partnerships--shared data, shared scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konsynski, B R; McFarlan, F W

    1990-01-01

    How can one company gain access to another's resources or customers without merging ownership, management, or plotting a takeover? The answer is found in new information partnerships, enabling diverse companies to develop strategic coalitions through the sharing of data. The key to cooperation is a quantum improvement in the hardware and software supporting relational databases: new computer speeds, cheaper mass-storage devices, the proliferation of fiber-optic networks, and networking architectures. Information partnerships mean that companies can distribute the technological and financial exposure that comes with huge investments. For the customer's part, partnerships inevitably lead to greater simplification on the desktop and more common standards around which vendors have to compete. The most common types of partnership are: joint marketing partnerships, such as American Airline's award of frequent flyer miles to customers who use Citibank's credit card; intraindustry partnerships, such as the insurance value-added network service (which links insurance and casualty companies to independent agents); customer-supplier partnerships, such as Baxter Healthcare's electronic channel to hospitals for medical and other equipment; and IT vendor-driven partnerships, exemplified by ESAB (a European welding supplies and equipment company), whose expansion strategy was premised on a technology platform offered by an IT vendor. Partnerships that succeed have shared vision at the top, reciprocal skills in information technology, concrete plans for an early success, persistence in the development of usable information for all partners, coordination on business policy, and a new and imaginative business architecture.

  13. 2012 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  14. 2013 Information Sharing Environment Performance Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    Information Sharing Environment — This is a survey of federal departments and agencies who share terrorism information and are therefore considered part of the Information Sharing Environment. The...

  15. Information Sharing and Environmental Policies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikos Tsakiris

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the assumption that in a standard eco-dumping model governments are uncertain about future product demand and allowing governments to obtain information from firms, we examine governments’ and firms’ incentives to share information. We show that when governments regulate polluting firms through emission standards, then governments and firms will reach an agreement concerning information sharing. The opposite holds when governments regulate pollution through emission taxes.

  16. Information Architectures for Information Sharing Management — A Literature Review

    OpenAIRE

    Shuyan Xie; Markus Helfert; Lukasz Ostrowski

    2012-01-01

    The struggle for commercial supremacy through information is being fought on two points: Information management and enabling technologies. Over the last years, there has been an increasing focus on information architecture (IA) to help organisations distinguish and manage information as corporate resource. As the information complexity increases, more IA studies show that IA could provide the structural and process design to facilitate enterprise interoperation under the information sharing e...

  17. Building a Shared Information Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanat, Ruth

    1991-01-01

    Discussion of information needs in a business environment focuses on how to build a shared information network. Highlights include the evolution of corporate intelligence systems; results of a survey that examined the information networking needs of large corporations; and a case study of the development of an information network at Citibank N.A.…

  18. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila

    2013-01-01

    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing the information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emerge of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regards to content.

  19. Information sharing promotes prosocial behaviour

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž

    2013-05-01

    More often than not, bad decisions are bad regardless of where and when they are made. Information sharing might thus be utilized to mitigate them. Here we show that sharing information about strategy choice between players residing on two different networks reinforces the evolution of cooperation. In evolutionary games, the strategy reflects the action of each individual that warrants the highest utility in a competitive setting. We therefore assume that identical strategies on the two networks reinforce themselves by lessening their propensity to change. Besides network reciprocity working in favour of cooperation on each individual network, we observe the spontaneous emergence of correlated behaviour between the two networks, which further deters defection. If information is shared not just between individuals but also between groups, the positive effect is even stronger, and this despite the fact that information sharing is implemented without any assumptions with regard to content.

  20. Communication from the Information Sharing Working Group: Agreement for Data Sharing Among Caribbean Foresters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamara Heartsill Scalley; Saara DeWalt; François Korysko; Guy Van Laere; Kasey Jacobs; Seth Panka; Joseph Torres

    2016-01-01

    We presented a new information-sharing platform at the 16th Caribbean Foresters Meeting in August 2013 to facilitate and promote collaboration among Caribbean foresters. The platform can be accessed through the Caribbean Foresters website where information and data on forest research sites can be shared. There is a special focus on identifying potential collaborations...

  1. Barriers to Cyber Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    initial areas; telecommunications, energy, banking and finance, transportation , water systems and emergency services, both government and private. PDD 63...protection/how-retailers-can- boost-security-through-information-sharing.html. 183 Lech Janczewski and Andrew M. Colarik, Cyber Warfare and Cyber...iSight Partners. 2014. What Is Cyber Threat Intelligence and Why Do I Need It? Dallas: iSIGHT Partners, 2014. Janczewski, Lech and Andrew M

  2. Technology Mediated Information Sharing (Monitor Sharing) in Primary Care Encounters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asan, Onur

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this dissertation study was to identify and describe the use of electronic health records (EHRs) for information sharing between patients and clinicians in primary-care encounters and to understand work system factors influencing information sharing. Ultimately, this will promote better design of EHR technologies and effective training…

  3. Facilitating Knowledge Sharing in Russian and Chinese Subsidiaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hutchings, Kate; Michailova, Snejina

    2003-01-01

    operations hasbecome an issue of increasing importance. Where the cultural distance between homeand host nations is great, as it is between Western industrialised economies and thetransition economies of the (former) Communist nations, there is even greatersaliency for achieving effective knowledge sharing......The unprecedented escalation in the number of organisations that have decided tointernationalise their operations in the last two decades, and the internationalmovement of labour that has accompanied such expansion, has meant thatunderstanding the process of knowledge sharing within subsidiary...... if its potential value for gainingorganisational competitive advantage is to be harnessed. In examining knowledgesharing in Russia and China, this paper specifically addresses how group membershipand personal networking in these countries facilitate and impede knowledge sharing.Ultimately, the paper...

  4. Principles of data management facilitating information sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Gordon, Keith

    2013-01-01

    Data is a valuable corporate asset and its effective management can be vital to success. This professional guide covers all the key areas of data management, including database development and corporate data modelling. The new edition covers web technology and its relation to databases and includes material on the management of master data.

  5. Attitudes to Sharing Personal Health Information in Living Kidney Donation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hizo-Abes, Patricia; Young, Ann; Reese, Peter P.; McFarlane, Phil; Wright, Linda; Cuerden, Meaghan

    2010-01-01

    Background and objectives: In living kidney donation, transplant professionals consider the rights of a living kidney donor and recipient to keep their personal health information confidential and the need to disclose this information to the other for informed consent. In incompatible kidney exchange, personal health information from multiple living donors and recipients may affect decision making and outcomes. Design, setting, participants, & measurements: We conducted a survey to understand and compare the preferences of potential donors (n = 43), potential recipients (n = 73), and health professionals (n = 41) toward sharing personal health information (in total 157 individuals). Results: When considering traditional live-donor transplantation, donors and recipients generally agreed that a recipient's health information should be shared with the donor (86 and 80%, respectively) and that a donor's information should be shared with the recipient (97 and 89%, respectively). When considering incompatible kidney exchange, donors and recipients generally agreed that a recipient's information should be shared with all donors and recipients involved in the transplant (85 and 85%, respectively) and that a donor's information should also be shared with all involved (95 and 90%, respectively). These results were contrary to attitudes expressed by transplant professionals, who frequently disagreed about whether such information should be shared. Conclusions: Future policies and practice could facilitate greater sharing of personal health information in living kidney donation. This requires a consideration of which information is relevant, how to put it in context, and a plan to obtain consent from all concerned. PMID:20299371

  6. Information Sharing for IT Security Professionals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Rodney J.

    2008-01-01

    Information sharing is a core value for information technology (IT) security professionals. It is also a familiar concept for those who work at institutions of higher education because of their long history of collaboration and openness. Information sharing has become part of the national fabric as IT security professionals attempt to secure cyber…

  7. Communications and Information Sharing (CIS) Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — TheCommunications and Information Sharing (CIS) Laboratory is a Public Safety interoperable communications technology laboratory with analog and digital radios, and...

  8. Facilitating Secure Sharing of Personal Health Data in the Cloud

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Surya; Glozier, Nick

    2016-01-01

    Background Internet-based applications are providing new ways of promoting health and reducing the cost of care. Although data can be kept encrypted in servers, the user does not have the ability to decide whom the data are shared with. Technically this is linked to the problem of who owns the data encryption keys required to decrypt the data. Currently, cloud service providers, rather than users, have full rights to the key. In practical terms this makes the users lose full control over their data. Trust and uptake of these applications can be increased by allowing patients to feel in control of their data, generally stored in cloud-based services. Objective This paper addresses this security challenge by providing the user a way of controlling encryption keys independently of the cloud service provider. We provide a secure and usable system that enables a patient to share health information with doctors and specialists. Methods We contribute a secure protocol for patients to share their data with doctors and others on the cloud while keeping complete ownership. We developed a simple, stereotypical health application and carried out security tests, performance tests, and usability tests with both students and doctors (N=15). Results We developed the health application as an app for Android mobile phones. We carried out the usability tests on potential participants and medical professionals. Of 20 participants, 14 (70%) either agreed or strongly agreed that they felt safer using our system. Using mixed methods, we show that participants agreed that privacy and security of health data are important and that our system addresses these issues. Conclusions We presented a security protocol that enables patients to securely share their eHealth data with doctors and nurses and developed a secure and usable system that enables patients to share mental health information with doctors. PMID:27234691

  9. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    OpenAIRE

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amorós Vicente, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt Cairols, José

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form desig...

  10. Sharing Research Models: Using Software Engineering Practices for Facilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryant, Stephanie P; Solano, Eric; Cantor, Susanna; Cooley, Philip C; Wagener, Diane K

    2011-03-01

    Increasingly, researchers are turning to computational models to understand the interplay of important variables on systems' behaviors. Although researchers may develop models that meet the needs of their investigation, application limitations-such as nonintuitive user interface features and data input specifications-may limit the sharing of these tools with other research groups. By removing these barriers, other research groups that perform related work can leverage these work products to expedite their own investigations. The use of software engineering practices can enable managed application production and shared research artifacts among multiple research groups by promoting consistent models, reducing redundant effort, encouraging rigorous peer review, and facilitating research collaborations that are supported by a common toolset. This report discusses three established software engineering practices- the iterative software development process, object-oriented methodology, and Unified Modeling Language-and the applicability of these practices to computational model development. Our efforts to modify the MIDAS TranStat application to make it more user-friendly are presented as an example of how computational models that are based on research and developed using software engineering practices can benefit a broader audience of researchers.

  11. Labelling : Security in Information Management and Sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schotanus, H.A.; Hartog, T.; Hut, D.H.; Boonstra, D.

    2011-01-01

    Military communication infrastructures are often deployed as stand-alone information systems operating at the System High mode. Network-Enabled Capabilities (NEC) and combined military operations lead to new requirements for information management and sharing which current communication architecture

  12. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype

    CERN Document Server

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-01-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  13. Hadron therapy information sharing prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Faustin Laurentiu; Abler, Daniel; Kanellopoulos, Vassiliki; Amoros, Gabriel; Davies, Jim; Dosanjh, Manjit; Jena, Raj; Kirkby, Norman; Peach, Ken; Salt, Jose

    2013-07-01

    The European PARTNER project developed a prototypical system for sharing hadron therapy data. This system allows doctors and patients to record and report treatment-related events during and after hadron therapy. It presents doctors and statisticians with an integrated view of adverse events across institutions, using open-source components for data federation, semantics, and analysis. There is a particular emphasis upon semantic consistency, achieved through intelligent, annotated form designs. The system as presented is ready for use in a clinical setting, and amenable to further customization. The essential contribution of the work reported here lies in the novel data integration and reporting methods, as well as the approach to software sustainability achieved through the use of community-supported open-source components.

  14. Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management. ... Journal Home > Vol 3, No 1 (2014) >. Log in or Register ... Raw materials required for the manufacturing industry which drives the economy are extracted from the land resource.

  15. Global games with noisy sharing of information

    KAUST Repository

    Touri, Behrouz

    2014-12-15

    We provide a framework for the study of global games with noisy sharing of information. In contrast to the previous works where it is shown that an intuitive threshold policy is an equilibrium for such games, we show that noisy sharing of information leads to non-existence of such an equilibrium. We also investigate the group best-response dynamics of two groups of agents sharing the same information to threshold policies based on each group\\'s observation and show the convergence of such dynamics.

  16. Information Sharing of the Virtual Community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-Hsin Tsai

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing is a natural and common behavior, which happens when a person passes on information he/she finds to others and/or exchanges information with others. Information sharing can occur when receiving information that is expected or unexpected. The Internet has helped the development of virtual communities, which increases greatly the opportunities for information sharing. When reviewing related literature in the field of Library and Information Science, the authors found that research studies on information behavior are developing steadily, yet with more emphasis on different client groups and contexts, few are focused on information sharing. This paper aims to review and synthesize literature with an interdisciplinary nature to increase the understanding of information sharing in the virtual community. Based on the analysis of the literature, virtual communities can be categorized into various types; common interests and goals is the most important factor for members to stay in and contribute to the community. Also, vibrant interaction among the virtual community is critical to the development of the virtual community.

  17. Understanding Interdependency Through Complex Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Rosas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions between three or more random variables are often nontrivial, poorly understood and, yet, are paramount for future advances in fields such as network information theory, neuroscience and genetics. In this work, we analyze these interactions as different modes of information sharing. Towards this end, and in contrast to most of the literature that focuses on analyzing the mutual information, we introduce an axiomatic framework for decomposing the joint entropy that characterizes the various ways in which random variables can share information. Our framework distinguishes between interdependencies where the information is shared redundantly and synergistic interdependencies where the sharing structure exists in the whole, but not between the parts. The key contribution of our approach is to focus on symmetric properties of this sharing, which do not depend on a specific point of view for differentiating roles between its components. We show that our axioms determine unique formulas for all of the terms of the proposed decomposition for systems of three variables in several cases of interest. Moreover, we show how these results can be applied to several network information theory problems, providing a more intuitive understanding of their fundamental limits.

  18. Enabling information sharing in a port

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Peter Bjerg; Hvolby, Hans-Henrik; Dukovska-Popovska, Iskra

    2012-01-01

    Ports are integral parts of many supply chains and are as such a contributing factor to the overall efficiency of the supply chain. Ports are also dynamic entities where things changes continuously. The dynamic nature of ports is also a problem when trying to optimise the utilisation of resources...... and ensure a low lead-time. Information sharing is a very important tool to reduce the effect of dynamism. This paper attempts to explain how information sharing is enabled in such an environment, and which considerations are relevant, both in regards to the information and required technology. The paper...

  19. Cooperative Games arising from Information Sharing Situations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brânzei, R.; Tijs, S.H.; Timmer, J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Relations are established between information sharing (IS) situations and IS-games on one hand and information collecting (IC) situations and IC-games on the other hand. It is shown that IC-games can be obtained as convex combinations of so-called local games. Properties are described which IC-games

  20. Information Sharing in a Multi-Echelon Inventory System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The influence of different information sharing scenarios in a single supplier-single retailer supply chain is analyzed. The five information sharing scenarios are centralized information sharing, full information sharing, supplier-dominated information sharing, retailer-dominated information sharing, and noninformation sharing. Iterative procedures are developed to obtain the inventory policies and the system costs at equilibrium points. Numerical examples show that the cost of a centralized inventory system is about 20% - 40% lower than that of a decentralized system with non-information sharing. Furthermore, a higher information sharing level does not always lead to a lower system cost in a decentralized supply chain due to inventory competition.

  1. Information Flow in Secret Sharing Protocols

    CERN Document Server

    Kashefi, Elham; Mhalla, Mehdi; Perdrix, Simon

    2009-01-01

    The entangled graph states have emerged as an elegant and powerful quantum resource, indeed almost all multiparty protocols can be written in terms of graph states including measurement based quantum computation (MBQC), error correction and secret sharing amongst others. In addition they are at the forefront in terms of implementations. As such they represent an excellent opportunity to move towards integrated protocols involving many of these elements. In this paper we look at expressing and extending graph state secret sharing and MBQC in a common framework and graphical language related to flow. We do so with two main contributions. First we express in entirely graphical terms which set of players can access which information in graph state secret sharing protocols. These succinct graphical descriptions of access allow us to take known results from graph theory to make statements on the generalisation of the previous schemes to present new secret sharing protocols. Second, we give a set of necessary condit...

  2. Sharing information among existing data sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    1999-01-01

    The sharing of information between law enforcement agencies is a premise for the success of all jurisdictions. A wealth of information resides in both the databases and infrastructures of local, state, and regional agencies. However, this information is often not available to the law enforcement professionals who require it. When the information is, available, individual investigators must not only know that it exists, but where it resides, and how to retrieve it. In many cases, these types of cross-jurisdictional communications are limited to personal relationships that result from telephone calls, faxes, and in some cases, e-mail. As criminal elements become more sophisticated and distributed, law enforcement agencies must begin to develop infrastructures and common sharing mechanisms that address a constantly evolving criminal threat. Historically, criminals have taken advantage of the lack of communication between law enforcement agencies. Examples of this are evident in the search for stolen property and monetary dealings. Pawned property, cash transactions, and failure to supply child support are three common cross- jurisdictional crimes that could be better enforced by strengthening the lines of communication. Criminal behavior demonstrates that it is easier to profit from their actions by dealing in separate jurisdictions. For example, stolen property is sold outside of the jurisdiction of its origin. In most cases, simply traveling a short distance to the adjoining county or municipality is sufficient to ensure that apprehension of the criminal or seizure of the stolen property is highly unlikely. In addition to the traditional burglar, fugitives often sell or pawn property to finance their continued evasion from the law. Sharing of information in a rapid manner would increase the ability of law enforcement personnel to track and capture fugitives, as well as criminals. In an example to combat this threat, the State of Florida recently acted on the need to

  3. [Barriers and facilitators to implementing shared decision-making in oncology: Patient perceptions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Moreno, M; Padilla-Garrido, N; Huelva-López, L; Aguado-Correa, F; Bayo-Calero, J; Bayo-Lozano, E

    To determine, from the point of view of the oncological patient, who made the decision about their treatment, as well as the major barriers and facilitators that enabled Shared Decision Making to be implemented. A cross-sectional, descriptive, sand association study using a self-report questionnaire to selected cancer patients, with casual sampling in different oncology clinics and random time periods. A total of 108 patients provided analysable data. The information was collected on sociodemographic and clinical variables, who made the decision about treatment, and level of agreement or disagreement with various barriers and facilitators. More than one-third (38.1%) of patients claimed to have participated in shared decision making with their doctor. Barriers such as, time, the difficulty of understanding, the paternalism, lack of fluid communication, and having preliminary and often erroneous information influenced the involvement in decision-making. However, to have or not have sufficient tools to aid decision making or the patient's interest to participate had no effect. As regards facilitators, physician motivation, their perception of improvement, and the interest of the patient had a positive influence. The exception was the possibility of financial incentives to doctors. The little, or no participation perceived by cancer patients in decisions about their health makes it necessary to introduce improvements in the health care model to overcome barriers and promote a more participatory attitude in the patient. Copyright © 2017 SECA. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Sharing Epigraphic Information as Linked Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez, Fernando-Luis; García-Barriocanal, Elena; Gómez-Pantoja, Joaquín-L.

    The diffusion of epigraphic data has evolved in the last years from printed catalogues to indexed digital databases shared through the Web. Recently, the open EpiDoc specifications have resulted in an XML-based schema for the interchange of ancient texts that uses XSLT to render typographic representations. However, these schemas and representation systems are still not providing a way to encode computational semantics and semantic relations between pieces of epigraphic data. This paper sketches an approach to bring these semantics into an EpiDoc based schema using the Ontology Web Language (OWL) and following the principles and methods of information sharing known as "linked data". The paper describes the general principles of the OWL mapping of the EpiDoc schema and how epigraphic data can be shared in RDF format via dereferenceable URIs that can be used to build advanced search, visualization and analysis systems.

  5. Information Sharing and Information Acqusition in Credit Markets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Karapetyan, A.; Stacescu, B.

    2009-01-01

    Since information asymmetries have been identified as an important source of bank profits, it may seem that the establishment of information sharing arrangements such as credit registers and bureaus will lead to lower investment in acquiring information. However, banks base their decisions on both h

  6. Facilitating consumer access to health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snowdon, Anne; Schnarr, Karin; Alessi, Charles

    2014-01-01

    The lead paper from Zelmer and Hagens details the substantive evolution occurring in health information technologies that has the potential to transform the relationship between consumers, health practitioners and health systems. In this commentary, the authors suggest that Canada is experiencing a shift in consumer behaviour toward a desire to actively manage one's health and wellness that is being facilitated through the advent of health applications on mobile and online technologies platforms. The result is that Canadians are now able to create personalized health solutions based on their individual health values and goals. However, before Canadians are able to derive a personal health benefit from these rapid changes in information technology, they require and are increasingly demanding greater real-time access to their own health information to better inform decision-making, as well as interoperability between their personal health tracking systems and those of their health practitioner team.

  7. Information Network Systems and Information Sharing on Administrative Websites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HIROTA Denjiro

    2004-01-01

    In Japanese "e-government" policy, called "e-Japan", the "administrative document management system" is functioning as information searching systems. On the other hand, this system has also generated the problem that it is not fully functioning as a means for the information sharing in a governmental agency. So, the purpose of this research is to find how the administrative document management system can function as information sharing in administrative organization. For this purpose,this paper considers the current status and some problems firstly. And secondary, this paper proposes the idea and constructs some information systems using administrative official Website. This is the method and approach of this research. As a conclusion, this proposal information system functions as information sharing support systems.

  8. Secure medical information sharing in cloud computing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Zhiyi; Yang, Bo; Zhang, Wenzheng; Zhao, Yi; Wu, Zhenqiang; Miao, Meixia

    2015-01-01

    Medical information sharing is one of the most attractive applications of cloud computing, where searchable encryption is a fascinating solution for securely and conveniently sharing medical data among different medical organizers. However, almost all previous works are designed in symmetric key encryption environment. The only works in public key encryption do not support keyword trapdoor security, have long ciphertext related to the number of receivers, do not support receiver revocation without re-encrypting, and do not preserve the membership of receivers. In this paper, we propose a searchable encryption supporting multiple receivers for medical information sharing based on bilinear maps in public key encryption environment. In the proposed protocol, data owner stores only one copy of his encrypted file and its corresponding encrypted keywords on cloud for multiple designated receivers. The keyword ciphertext is significantly shorter and its length is constant without relation to the number of designated receivers, i.e., for n receivers the ciphertext length is only twice the element length in the group. Only the owner knows that with whom his data is shared, and the access to his data is still under control after having been put on the cloud. We formally prove the security of keyword ciphertext based on the intractability of Bilinear Diffie-Hellman problem and the keyword trapdoor based on Decisional Diffie-Hellman problem.

  9. The role of shared visual information for joint action coordination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Cordula; Schmitz, Laura; Safra, Lou; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-08-01

    Previous research has identified a number of coordination processes that enable people to perform joint actions. But what determines which coordination processes joint action partners rely on in a given situation? The present study tested whether varying the shared visual information available to co-actors can trigger a shift in coordination processes. Pairs of participants performed a movement task that required them to synchronously arrive at a target from separate starting locations. When participants in a pair received only auditory feedback about the time their partner reached the target they held their movement duration constant to facilitate coordination. When they received additional visual information about each other's movements they switched to a fundamentally different coordination process, exaggerating the curvature of their movements to communicate their arrival time. These findings indicate that the availability of shared perceptual information is a major factor in determining how individuals coordinate their actions to obtain joint outcomes.

  10. CULTURAL FEATURES SHARED BY INFORMATION SYSTEMS USERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marilena Maldonado

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Problems may arise when organizational culture is not considered in the development of information systems, such as difficulties in system implementation, since users do not accept changes in their work cultures. However, current methodology designs do not contemplate cultural factors. The objective of this investigation was to identify the main cultural features shared by the users of information systems in an Argentinean university. As result of this work it was possible to identify the memes shared by the members of the community selected, and to categorize such memes according to their incidence grade. This work seeks to be an initial step towards the construction of systems that evolve along with the organizational culture they are an integral part of.

  11. Imperfect information facilitates the evolution of reciprocity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurokawa, Shun

    2016-06-01

    The existence of cooperation demands explanation since cooperation is costly to the actor. Reciprocity has long been regarded as a potential explanatory mechanism for the existence of cooperation. Reciprocity is a mechanism wherein a cooperator responds to an opponent's behavior by switching his/her own behavior. Hence, a possible problematic case relevant to the theory of reciprocity evolution arises when the mechanism is such that the information regarding an opponent's behavior is imperfect. Although it has been confirmed also by previous theoretical studies that imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity, this argument is based on the assumption that there are no mistakes in behavior. And, a previous study presumed that it might be expected that when such mistakes occur, reciprocity can more readily evolve in the case of imperfect information than in the case of perfect information. The reason why the previous study considers so is that in the former case, reciprocators can miss defections incurred by other reciprocators' mistakes due to imperfect information, allowing cooperation to persist when such reciprocators meet. However, contrary to this expectation, the previous study has shown that even when mistakes occur, imperfect information interferes with the evolution of reciprocity. Nevertheless, the previous study assumed that payoffs are linear (i.e., that the effect of behavior is additive and there are no synergetic effects). In this study, we revisited the same problem but removed the assumption that payoffs are linear. We used evolutionarily stable strategy analysis to compare the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is imperfect with the condition for reciprocity to evolve when mistakes occur and information is perfect. Our study revealed that when payoffs are not linear, imperfect information can facilitate the evolution of reciprocity when mistakes occur; while when payoffs are linear

  12. Share Information across the Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Wei

    2007-01-01

    @@ Ms.Mayo Tsirigotis Oge,Director of Office of Transportation and Air Quality,Environmental Protection Agency of United States"flew across the Pacifie Ocean to share the experiences and exchange information with China".That was what she said when interviewed by China's Foreign Trade.Yes,to ioin the International Forum on Chinese Automotive Industry Development was an important stagc to make communications across the cotmtries and continents.

  13. Information sharing in Quantum Complex Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Cardillo, Alessio; Zueco, David; Gómez-Gardeñes, Jesús

    2013-01-01

    We introduce the use of entanglement entropy as a tool for studying the amount of information shared between the nodes of quantum complex networks. By considering the ground state of a network of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators, we compute the information that each node has on the rest of the system. We show that the nodes storing the largest amount of information are not the ones with the highest connectivity, but those with intermediate connectivity thus breaking down the usual hierarchical picture of classical networks. We show both numerically and analytically that the mutual information characterizes the network topology. As a byproduct, our results point out that the amount of information available for an external node connecting to a quantum network allows to determine the network topology.

  14. Quantum information sharing between topologically distinct platforms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Chang-Yu; Refael, Gil; Shtengel, Kirill

    2016-12-01

    Can topological quantum entanglement between anyons in one topological medium "stray" into a different, topologically distinct medium? In other words, can quantum information encoded nonlocally in the combined state of non-Abelian anyons be shared between two distinct topological media? For one-dimensional topological superconductors with Majorana bound states at the end of system, the quantum information store in those Majorana bound states can be transfered by directly coupling nearby Majorana bound states. However, coupling of two one-dimensional Majorana states will produce a gap, indicating that distinct topological regions of one-dimensional wires unite into a single topological region through the information transfer process. In this paper, we consider a setup with two two-dimensional p -wave superconductors of opposite chirality adjacent to each other. Even two comoving chiral modes at the domain wall between them cannot be gapped through interactions; we demonstrate that information encoded in the fermionic parity of two Majorana zero modes, originally within the same superconducting domain, can be shared between the domains or moved entirely from one domain to another provided that vortices can tunnel between them in a controlled fashion.

  15. Technology and information sharing in disaster relief

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjerge, Benedikte; Clark, Nathan; Fisker, Peter;

    2016-01-01

    This paper seeks to examine the extent to which technological advances can enhance inter-organizational information sharing in disaster relief. Our case is the Virtual OSOCC (On-Site Operations Coordination Centre) which is a part of the Global Disaster Alert and Coordination System (GDACS) under...... database of user interaction including more than 20,000 users and 11,000 comments spread across approximately 300 disaster events. Controlling for types and severities of the events, location-specific vulnerabilities, and the overall trends, we find that the introduction of new features have led...

  16. Software Facilitates Sharing of Water Quality Data Worldwide

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    John Freighery was an environmental engineer at Johnson Space Center when a new, simplified version of the coliform bacteria test was developed for astronaut use on the International Space Station. Through his New York City-based mWater Foundation, Freighery is using the test to help rural communities monitor their water supplies for contamination. The organization has also developed a mobile phone app to make the information publicly available.

  17. A rhetorical approach to environmental information sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolf, Andrew

    2014-05-01

    `Faceted search' has recently been widely adopted as a powerful information discovery framework, enabling users to navigate a complex landscape of information by successive refinement along key dimensions. The compelling user experience that results has seen adoption of faceted search by online retailers, media outlets, and encyclopedic publishers. A key challenge with faceted browse is the choice of suitable search dimensions, or facets. Conventional facet analysis adopts principles of exclusivity and exhaustiveness; identifying facets on their relevance to the subject and discrimination ability (Spiteri, 1998). The rhetoricians of ancient Greece defined seven dimensions (`circumstances') of analytical enquiry: who, what, when, where, why, in what way, by what means. These provide a broadly applicable framework that may be seen in Ranganathan's classic (`PMEST') scheme for facet analysis. The utility of the `Five Ws' is also manifest through their adoption in daily discourse and pedagogical frameworks. If we apply the `Five Ws' to environmental information, we arrive at a model very close to the `O&M' (ISO 19156) conceptual model for standardised exchange of environmental observation and measurements data: * who: metadata * what: observed property * when: time of observation * where: feature of interest * why: metadata * how: procedure Thus, we adopt an approach for distributed environmental information sharing which factors the architecture into components aligned with the `Five Ws' (or O&M). We give an overview of this architecture and its information classes, components, interfaces and standards. We also describe how it extends the classic SDI architecture to provide additional specific benefit for environmental information. Finally, we offer a perspective on the architecture which may be seen as a `brokering' overlay to environmental information resources, enabling an O&M-conformant view. The approach to be presented is being adopted by the Australian Bureau

  18. Enhancing bird banding information sharing across the western hemishpere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojo, A.; Berlanga, H.; Howes, L.; Tomosy, M.

    2007-01-01

    Bird banding and marking provide indispensable tools for ornithological research, management, and conservation of migratory birds and their habitats along migratory routes, breeding and non-breeding grounds. With the growing interest in international coordination of tracking bird movements, coordination amongst developing and existing programs is essential for effective data management. The North American Bird Banding Program (Canadian Bird Banding Office and U.S. Bird Banding Laboratory and the Mexican government) has been working to enhance collaboration with other Western Hemisphere countries to establish a voluntary bird banding communication network. This network addresses challenges, such as: demonstrating how sharing banding expertise and information management can support the stewardship of Western Hemisphere migratory birds, ensuring that valuable banding and encounter data are captured and shared. With increasing numbers of international scientific and conservation initiatives, bird banding and marking programs must provide essential international coordination functions as well as support local activities by facilitating access to bands, training, data management and encounter reporting.

  19. Barriers and facilitators to implementing Decision Boxes in primary healthcare teams to facilitate shared decisionmaking: a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giguere Anik

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Decision Boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of health interventions provided to clinicians before they meet the patient, to prepare them to help patients make informed and value-based decisions. Our objective is to explore the barriers and facilitators to using Decision Boxes in clinical practice, more precisely factors stemming from (1 the Decision Boxes themselves, (2 the primary healthcare team (PHT, and (3 the primary care practice environment. Methods/design A two-phase mixed methods study will be conducted. Eight Decision Boxes relevant to primary care, and written in both English and in French, will be hosted on a website together with a tutorial to introduce the Decision Box. The Decision Boxes will be delivered as weekly emails over a span of eight weeks to clinicians of PHTs (family physicians, residents and nurses in five primary care clinics located across two Canadian provinces. Using a web-questionnaire, clinicians will rate each Decision Box with the Information Assessment Method (cognitive impacts, relevance, usefulness, expected benefits and with a questionnaire based on the Theory of Planned Behavior to study the determinants of clinicians’ intention to use what they learned from that Decision Box in their patient encounter (attitude, social norm, perceived behavioral control. Web-log data will be used to monitor clinicians’ access to the website. Following the 8-week intervention, we will conduct semi-structured group interviews with clinicians and individual interviews with clinic administrators to explore contextual factors influencing the use of the Decision Boxes. Data collected from questionnaires, focus groups and individual interviews will be combined to identify factors potentially influencing implementation of Decision Boxes in clinical practice by clinicians of PHTs. Conclusions This project will allow tailoring of Decision Boxes and their delivery to overcome the

  20. Efficient and Secure Information Sharing For Security Personnels: A Role and Cooperation Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.K. Pradhan

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available To facilitate users to interact with and share information without difficulty and faultlessly across various networks and databases nationwide, a secure and trusted information-sharing environment has been recognized as an imperative requirement and to advance homeland security effort. The key incentive following this research is to build a secure and trusted information-sharing approach for governmentdepartments. This paper presents an efficient role and cooperation based information sharing approach for secure exchange of confidential and top secret information amongst security personnels and government departments within the national boundaries using public key cryptography. The devised approach makes use of cryptographic hash function; public key cryptosystem and a unique and complex mapping function for securely exchanging confidential information. Furthermore, the proposed approach facilitates privacy preserving information sharing with probable restrictions based on the rank of the security personnels. The developed role and cooperation based information sharing approach ensures secure and stream-lined information sharing among security personnels and government intelligence departments to avoid threatening activities. The experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of theproposed information sharing approach.

  1. Optimal Control Strategies in Delayed Sharing Information Structures

    CERN Document Server

    Nayyar, Ashutosh; Teneketzis, Demosthenis

    2010-01-01

    The $n$-step delayed sharing information structure is investigated. This information structure comprises of $K$ controllers that share their information with a delay of $n$ time steps. This information structure is a link between the classical information structure, where information is shared perfectly between the controllers, and a non-classical information structure, where there is no "lateral" sharing of information among the controllers. Structural results for optimal control strategies for systems with such information structures are presented. A sequential methodology for finding the optimal strategies is also derived. The solution approach provides an insight for identifying structural results and sequential decomposition for general decentralized stochastic control problems.

  2. Anonymity versus privacy: selective information sharing in online cancer communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frost, Jeana; Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-05-14

    Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients' prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F1,114=135.59, P=.001, η(2)=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Respondents' information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity information. The results suggest the need to focus on

  3. Anonymity Versus Privacy: Selective Information Sharing in Online Cancer Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeulen, Ivar E; Beekers, Nienke

    2014-01-01

    Background Active sharing in online cancer communities benefits patients. However, many patients refrain from sharing health information online due to privacy concerns. Existing research on privacy emphasizes data security and confidentiality, largely focusing on electronic medical records. Patient preferences around information sharing in online communities remain poorly understood. Consistent with the privacy calculus perspective adopted from e-commerce research, we suggest that patients approach online information sharing instrumentally, weighing privacy costs against participation benefits when deciding whether to share certain information. Consequently, we argue that patients prefer sharing clinical information over daily life and identity information that potentially compromises anonymity. Furthermore, we explore whether patients’ prior experiences, age, health, and gender affect perceived privacy costs and thus willingness to share information. Objective The goal of the present study is to document patient preferences for sharing information within online health platforms. Methods A total of 115 cancer patients reported sharing intentions for 15 different types of information, demographics, health status, prior privacy experiences, expected community utility, and privacy concerns. Results Factor analysis on the 15 information types revealed 3 factors coinciding with 3 proposed information categories: clinical, daily life, and identity information. A within-subject ANOVA showed a strong preference for sharing clinical information compared to daily life and identity information (F 1,114=135.59, P=.001, η2=.93). Also, adverse online privacy experiences, age, and health status negatively affected information-sharing intentions. Female patients shared information less willingly. Conclusions Respondents’ information-sharing intentions depend on dispositional and situational factors. Patients share medical details more willingly than daily life or identity

  4. Sharing and helping: predictors of adolescents' willingness to share diabetes personal health information with peers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaala, Sarah E; Lee, Joyce M; Hood, Korey K; Mulvaney, Shelagh A

    2017-05-29

    Sharing personal information about type 1 diabetes (T1D) can help adolescents obtain social support, enhance social learning, and improve self-care. Diabetes technologies, online communities, and health interventions increasingly feature data-sharing components. This study examines factors underlying adolescents' willingness to share personal T1D information with peers. Participants were 134 adolescents (12-17 years of age; 56% female) who completed an online survey regarding experiences helping others with T1D, perceived social resources, beliefs about the value of sharing information and helping others, and willingness to share T1D information. Hemoglobin A1c values were obtained from medical records. Adolescents were more willing to share how they accomplished T1D tasks than how often they completed them, and least willing to share glucose control status. In multivariate analyses, sharing/helping beliefs (β = 0.26, P  value; β = -0.26, P  personal health information. Glucose control moderated relationships such that adolescents with worse A1c values had stronger relationships between sharing/helping beliefs and willingness to share (β = 0.18, P  personal health information, particularly if they have better diabetes health status and a stronger belief in the benefits of sharing. Social learning and social media components may improve intervention participation, engagement, and outcomes by boosting adolescents' beliefs about the benefits of sharing information and helping others.

  5. 75 FR 56557 - Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    ... point for justice information systems integration activities in order to facilitate the coordination of... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Department of Justice's (DOJ's) Global Justice Information Sharing... meeting. SUMMARY: This is an announcement of a meeting of DOJ's Global Justice Information...

  6. Sharing Information among various organizations in relief efforts

    OpenAIRE

    Costur, Gurkan.

    2005-01-01

    Today, information sharing is critical to almost every institution and organization. There is no more pressing need for information sharing than during an international crisis, where multi-national military-civilian coordination is formed. Successful information technology implementation for international crises could be increased by analyzing prior relief efforts. The purpose of this thesis is to explore the role of information technology in enabling the sharing of actionable information amo...

  7. Environment Climate Data Sweden - Facilitating a wider sharing of environment and climate data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, T.; Langner, J.; Broman, B.; Svensson, J.; Frankenberg, B.; Langborg, T.; Bennet, C.

    2012-04-01

    The global society is facing significant challenges. Earth is a complex system of systems, where humankind's activities have become a critical parameter, as is demonstrated by global environmental and climate change. Full and open sharing of environment and climate data is a critical prerequisite to advance the scientific understanding of environment and climate and the connections to humankind's socioeconomic activities. In addition, data sharing is vital for the design, implementation, monitoring and evaluation of environmental policies, informed decision making and, eventually, sustainable development. Full and open data access facilitates new ways to analyze, integrate and combine data from many different sources. This is in particular evident in the geosciences, where the complexity and level of integration of Earth system models is advancing rapidly. At the same time, many research communities are lacking resources, knowledge and in some cases motivation to allow for a professional stewardship of data. Insufficient coordination and a low priority of tasks such as data collection, storage and documentation put many important research data at risk of being lost. A recent hearing of Swedish environment and climate researchers found that researchers often have difficulties to get a good overview of relevant data within and beyond their field of study. Furthermore, it can be difficult to access and integrate relevant data. As a consequence, Sweden is establishing a new research infrastructure for environment and climate data called ECDS (Environment Climate Data Sweden, www.ecds.se). ECDS is a joint undertaking of the Swedish Research Council and the Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute, in collaboration with the National Supercomputer Centre of Linköping University, Sweden. ECDS aims to facilitate the search, publication and long-term accessibility of data for research. The ECDS-infrastructure consists of a clearinghouse mechanism, allowing for the

  8. Challenges in sharing information effectively: examples from command and control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane H. Sonnenwald

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The goal of information sharing is to change a person's image of the world and to develop a shared working understanding. It is an essential component of collaboration. This paper examines barriers to sharing information effectively in dynamic group work situations.Three types of battlefield training simulations were observed and open-ended interviews with military personnel were conducted. Observation notes and interview transcripts were analysed to identify incidents when group members erroneously believed they had shared information effectively and were collaborating successfully, i.e., a deceptively false shared understanding had emerged. These incidents were analysed to discover what led to these unsuspected breakdowns in information sharing. Results. Unsuspected breakdowns in information sharing emerged when: differences in implementations of shared symbols were not recognized; implications of relevant information were not shared; differences in the role and expression of emotions when sharing information was not understood; and, the need to re-establish trust was not recognized. Conclusion. The challenges in information sharing identified here may extend to other high stress, unique and complex situations, such as natural disasters. Recommendations for more effective information behavior techniques in dynamic group work situations are presented.

  9. The role of governance structures in supply chain information sharing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Denolf, J.M.; Trienekens, J.H.; Vorst, Van Der J.G.A.J.; Omta, S.W.F.

    2015-01-01

    Information sharing in supply chains may result in concerns related to information security, information access privileges, and allocation of claimed benefits. To mitigate such concerns in order to efficiently and effectively share information, relationships among the supply chain actors need to

  10. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-06-01

    PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...Agency. 5 eCommerce and eProcurement, and possess an adequate knowledge of information technology. D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Primary Research... eCommerce , Information Technology, and eProcurement knowledge, and government and private industry reports utilizing numerous library and Internet

  11. Facilitating Physician Access to Medical Reference Information

    OpenAIRE

    2005-01-01

    Context: Computer-based medical reference information is augmenting—and in some cases, replacing—many traditional sources. For Kaiser Permanente (KP) physicians, this change presents both advantages and obstacles to finding medical reference information.

  12. Using Dedal to share and reuse distributed engineering design information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baya, Vinod; Baudin, Catherine; Mabogunje, Ade; Das, Aseem; Cannon, David M.; Leifer, Larry J.

    1994-01-01

    The overall goal of the project is to facilitate the reuse of previous design experience for the maintenance, repair and redesign of artifacts in the electromechanical engineering domain. An engineering team creates information in the form of meeting summaries, project memos, progress reports, engineering notes, spreadsheet calculations and CAD drawings. Design information captured in these media is difficult to reuse because the way design concepts are referred to evolve over the life of a project and because decisions, requirements and structure are interrelated but rarely explicitly linked. Based on protocol analysis of the information seeking behavior of designer's, we defined a language to describe the content and the form of design records and implemented this language in Dedal, a tool for indexing, modeling and retrieving design information. We first describe the approach to indexing and retrieval in Dedal. Next we describe ongoing work in extending Dedal's capabilities to a distributed environment by integrating it with World Wide Web. This will enable members of a design team who are not co-located to share and reuse information.

  13. Translating Evidence to Facilitate Shared Decision Making: Development and Usability of a Consult Decision Aid Prototype.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stacey, Dawn; Légaré, France; Lyddiatt, Anne; Giguere, Anik M C; Yoganathan, Manosila; Saarimaki, Anton; Pardo, Jordi Pardo; Rader, Tamara; Tugwell, Peter

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to translate evidence from Cochrane Reviews into a format that can be used to facilitate shared decision making during the consultation, namely patient decision aids. A systematic development process (a) established a stakeholder committee; (b) developed a prototype according to the International Patient Decision Aid Standards; (c) applied the prototype to a Cochrane Review and used an interview-guided survey to evaluate acceptability/usability; (d) created 12 consult decision aids; and (e) used a Delphi process to reach consensus on considerations for creating a consult decision aid. The 1-page prototype includes (a) a title specifying the decision; (b) information on the health condition, options, benefits/harms with probabilities; (c) an explicit values clarification exercise; and (d) questions to screen for decisional conflict. Hyperlinks provide additional information on definitions, probabilities presented graphically, and references. Fourteen Cochrane Consumer Network members and Cochrane Editorial Unit staff participated. Thirteen reported that it would help patient/clinician discussions and were willing to use and/or recommend it. Seven indicated the right amount of information, six not enough, and one too much. Changes to the prototype were more links to definitions, more white space, and details on GRADE evidence ratings. Creating 12 consult decision aids took about 4 h each. We identified ten considerations when selecting Cochrane Reviews for creating consult decision aids. Using a systematic process, we developed a consult decision aid prototype to be populated with evidence from Cochrane Reviews. It was acceptable and easy to apply. Future studies will evaluate implementation of consult decision aids.

  14. Digital Cadastres Facilitating Land Information Management

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    sekuru

    information and technology, database technology, digital storage media and local ..... alternative is suggested in this study as financial constraints are among the major impediments to .... The Journal of South African and American Studies, vol.

  15. The Study on the Value of Information Sharing with Correlated Market Demand and Cost of Information Sharing in Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bao-Feng Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available In a two-echelon supply chain system with 1 manufacture and N retailers, the two-stage stochastic dynamic program of whether manufacture to share information with n (0≤n ≤ N retailers is constructed when the market demand is correlated with AR (1 module and information sharing is costly. The value of information shared with n retailers is analyzed analytically. One numerical case is simulated to illustrate the magnitude of the value of information shared with n retailers in the supply chain at last.

  16. 38 CFR 17.241 - Sharing medical information services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... financial status of any user of such services shall be taken into consideration in establishing the amount... information services. 17.241 Section 17.241 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS MEDICAL Sharing of Medical Facilities, Equipment, and Information § 17.241 Sharing...

  17. Privacy and Information Sharing in Judicial Setting : A Wicked Problem

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bargh, M.S.; Choenni, R.; Meijer, R.

    2015-01-01

    Information sharing has become a means of gaining public trust for institutions such as governmental and scientific organizations. The transparency sought through information sharing contributes to the trust of various stakeholders such as citizens, other organizations and enterprises in such instit

  18. Shortcomings in Information Sharing Facilitates Transnational Organized Crime

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-09

    Despite a long and successful history of dismantling criminal organizations and developing common international standards for cooperation against...affect national economic and security interests.184 The impacts of these powerful criminal organizations prevent the development of weak states...TOC organizationally differ? Both terrorist and TOC organizations are criminal organizations . These criminal organizations are only distinguishable

  19. Supply chain forecasting when information is not shared

    OpenAIRE

    Ali, M.M.; Babai, M.Z.; Boylan, J. E.; Syntetos, Argyrios

    2017-01-01

    The operations management literature is abundant in discussions on the benefits of information sharing in supply chains. However, there are many supply chains where information may not be shared due to constraints such as compatibility of information systems, information quality, trust and confidentiality. Furthermore, a steady stream of papers has explored a phenomenon known as Downstream Demand Inference (DDI) where the upstream member in a supply chain can infer the downstream demand witho...

  20. Polyamine sharing between tubulin dimers favours microtubule nucleation and elongation via facilitated diffusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alain Mechulam

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We suggest for the first time that the action of multivalent cations on microtubule dynamics can result from facilitated diffusion of GTP-tubulin to the microtubule ends. Facilitated diffusion can promote microtubule assembly, because, upon encountering a growing nucleus or the microtubule wall, random GTP-tubulin sliding on their surfaces will increase the probability of association to the target sites (nucleation sites or MT ends. This is an original explanation for understanding the apparent discrepancy between the high rate of microtubule elongation and the low rate of tubulin association at the microtubule ends in the viscous cytoplasm. The mechanism of facilitated diffusion requires an attraction force between two tubulins, which can result from the sharing of multivalent counterions. Natural polyamines (putrescine, spermidine, and spermine are present in all living cells and are potent agents to trigger tubulin self-attraction. By using an analytical model, we analyze the implication of facilitated diffusion mediated by polyamines on nucleation and elongation of microtubules. In vitro experiments using pure tubulin indicate that the promotion of microtubule assembly by polyamines is typical of facilitated diffusion. The results presented here show that polyamines can be of particular importance for the regulation of the microtubule network in vivo and provide the basis for further investigations into the effects of facilitated diffusion on cytoskeleton dynamics.

  1. Towards Information Enrichment through Recommendation Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Li-Tung; Xu, Yue; Li, Yuefeng; Nayak, Richi

    Nowadays most existing recommender systems operate in a single organisational basis, i.e. a recommender system recommends items to customers of one organisation based on the organisation's datasets only. Very often the datasets of a single organisation do not have sufficient resources to be used to generate quality recommendations. Therefore, it would be beneficial if recommender systems of different organisations with similar nature can cooperate together to share their resources and recommendations. In this chapter, we present an Ecommerce-oriented Distributed Recommender System (EDRS) that consists of multiple recommender systems from different organisations. By sharing resources and recommendations with each other, these recommenders in the distributed recommendation system can provide better recommendation service to their users. As for most of the distributed systems, peer selection is often an important aspect. This chapter also presents a recommender selection technique for the proposed EDRS, and it selects and profiles recommenders based on their stability, average performance and selection frequency. Based on our experiments, it is shown that recommenders' recommendation quality can be effectively improved by adopting the proposed EDRS and the associated peer selection technique.

  2. Data Sharing Using Cloud Information Accountability Framework

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chaitanya Chavali

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cloud Information Accountability (CIA framework, based on the notion of information accountability. Unlike privacy protection technologies, information accountability focuses on keeping the data usage transparent and traceable. Our proposed CIA framework provides end-to end accountability in a highly distributed fashion. One of them an innovative feature of the CIA framework lies in its ability of maintaining lightweight and powerful accountability that combines aspects of access control, usage control and authentication, and security issues. Index Terms:

  3. Information Architecture: Sharing the Shareable Resource.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, Douglas R.; Wetherbe, James C.

    1991-01-01

    A methodology for developing a strategic, long-range organizational information architecture is described. The development of a plan to identify key categories of information to enhance decision making and operational productivity is detailed. Figures and tables detail the methodology's application at the University of Minnesota. (DB)

  4. A Strategic Analysis of Information Sharing Among Cyber Attackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available We build a game theory model where the market design is such that one firm invests in security to defend against cyber attacks by two hackers. The firm has an asset, which is allocated between the three market participants dependent on their contest success. Each hacker chooses an optimal attack, and they share information with each other about the firm’s vulnerabilities. Each hacker prefers to receive information, but delivering information gives competitive advantage to the other hacker. We find that each hacker’s attack and information sharing are strategic complements while one hacker’s attack and the other hacker’s information sharing are strategic substitutes. As the firm’s unit defense cost increases, the attack is inverse U-shaped and reaches zero, while the firm’s defense and profit decrease, and the hackers’ information sharing and profit increase. The firm’s profit increases in the hackers’ unit cost of attack, while the hackers’ information sharing and profit decrease. Our analysis also reveals the interesting result that the cumulative attack level of the hackers is not affected by the effectiveness of information sharing between them and moreover, is also unaffected by the intensity of joint information sharing. We also find that as the effectiveness of information sharing between hackers increases relative to the investment in attack, the firm’s investment in cyber security defense and profit are constant, the hackers’ investments in attacks decrease, and information sharing levels and hacker profits increase. In contrast, as the intensity of joint information sharing increases, while the firm’s investment in cyber security defense and profit remain constant, the hackers’ investments in attacks increase, and the hackers’ information sharing levels and profits decrease. Increasing the firm’s asset causes all the variables to increase linearly, except information sharing which is constant. We extend

  5. SHIFT: Shared Information Framework and Technology Concept

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-02-01

    As a result, the information has often been unsystematically gathered, has often been insufficient to meet needs, and in some cases has even led to...unnecessary risk -taking and overlapping or counterproductive actions. SHIFT differs from most of the earlier initiatives because of its emphasis on a...idea is that the SHIFT community will constitute a self- correcting environment. The SHIFT philosophy holds that the risk of false information is

  6. The importance of communication in collaborative decision making: facilitating shared mind and the management of uncertainty.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Politi, Mary C; Street, Richard L

    2011-08-01

    Quality medical decision making requires that clinicians and patients incorporate the best available clinical evidence with the patients' values and preferences to develop a mutually agreed upon treatment plan. The interactive process involved in medical decision making is complex and requires patients and clinicians to use both cognitive and communicative skills to reach a shared understanding of the decision. The purpose of this paper is to present a communication model to help better understand quality medical decision making, and how patient-centered, collaborative communication enhances the decision-making process. We present research on shared mind and cognitive and communicative skills to highlight how they can facilitate the management of uncertainty during the interactive process involved in medical decision making. We provide simple examples about how to frame messages to achieve shared mind and foster uncertainty tolerance. Strategies such as providing clear explanations, checking for understanding, eliciting the patient's values, concerns, needs, finding common ground, reaching consensus on a treatment plan, and establishing a mutually acceptable follow-up plan can facilitate collaborative decision making. Future research should explore ways to implement collaborative decision-making processes in existing health care systems. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  7. Preventing Terrorism Using Information Sharing Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-09-01

    in fusing information and providing valuable intelligence that thwarted a terrorist attack at Disneyland . A videotape was received that contained a...creditable threat of a Sarin gas attack at Disneyland . The LA TEW conducted the initial analysis of the tape and the initial investigation that

  8. 77 FR 7124 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-10

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders; Public Meeting... (APHIS) is soliciting feedback from our stakeholders in several areas having to do with our partnerships... modernization initiatives and to provide an opportunity for stakeholders to share their thoughts on...

  9. 78 FR 15680 - Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders: Public Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-12

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Information Sharing With Agency Stakeholders: Public Meeting...) is soliciting feedback from our stakeholders regarding cross-Agency strategic priorities. We are also... restructuring, as well as to provide an opportunity for stakeholders to ask questions and share...

  10. Information-seeking and sharing behavior following genomic testing for diabetes risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Rachel; Powell, Jill; Barry, William; Haga, Susanne B

    2015-02-01

    As the practice of medicine has become more patient-driven, patients are increasingly seeking health information within and outside of their doctor's office. Patients looking for information and support are often turning to the Internet as well as family and friends. As part of a study to understand the impact of delivery method of genomic testing for type 2 diabetes risk on comprehension and health-related behaviors, we assessed participants' information-seeking and sharing behaviors after receiving their results in-person with a genetic counselor or online through the testing company's website. We found that 32.6 % of participants sought information after receiving the genomic test results for T2DM; 80.8 % of those that did seek information turned to the Internet. Eighty-eight percent of participants reported that they shared their T2DM risk results, primarily with their spouse/partner (65 %) and other family members (57 %) and children (19 %); 14 % reported sharing results with their health provider. Sharing was significantly increased in those who received results in-person from the genetic counselor (p = 0.0001). Understanding patients' interests and needs for additional information after genomic testing and with whom they share details of their health is important as more information and clinical services are available and accessed outside the clinician's office. Genetic counselors' expertise and experience in creating educational materials and promoting sharing of genetic information can facilitate patient engagement and education.

  11. Externalising the autobiographical self: sharing personal memories online facilitated memory retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qi; Lee, Dasom; Hou, Yubo

    2017-07-01

    Internet technology provides a new means of recalling and sharing personal memories in the digital age. What is the mnemonic consequence of posting personal memories online? Theories of transactive memory and autobiographical memory would make contrasting predictions. In the present study, college students completed a daily diary for a week, listing at the end of each day all the events that happened to them on that day. They also reported whether they posted any of the events online. Participants received a surprise memory test after the completion of the diary recording and then another test a week later. At both tests, events posted online were significantly more likely than those not posted online to be recalled. It appears that sharing memories online may provide unique opportunities for rehearsal and meaning-making that facilitate memory retention.

  12. Current Efforts in European Projects to Facilitate the Sharing of Scientific Observation Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bredel, Henning; Rieke, Matthes; Maso, Joan; Jirka, Simon; Stasch, Christoph

    2017-04-01

    This presentation is intended to provide an overview of currently ongoing efforts in European projects to facilitate and promote the interoperable sharing of scientific observation data. This will be illustrated through two examples: a prototypical portal developed in the ConnectinGEO project for matching available (in-situ) data sources to the needs of users and a joint activity of several research projects to harmonise the usage of the OGC Sensor Web Enablement standards for providing access to marine observation data. ENEON is an activity initiated by the European ConnectinGEO project to coordinate in-situ Earth observation networks with the aim to harmonise the access to observations, improve discoverability, and identify/close gaps in European earth observation data resources. In this context, ENEON commons has been developed as a supporting Web portal for facilitating discovery, access, re-use and creation of knowledge about observations, networks, and related activities (e.g. projects). The portal is based on developments resulting from the European WaterInnEU project and has been extended to cover the requirements for handling knowledge about in-situ earth observation networks. A first prototype of the portal was completed in January 2017 which offers functionality for interactive discussion, information exchange and querying information about data delivered by different observation networks. Within this presentation, we will introduce the presented prototype and initiate a discussion about potential future work directions. The second example concerns the harmonisation of data exchange in the marine domain. There are many organisation who operate ocean observatories or data archives. In recent years, the application of the OGC Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) technology has become more and more popular to increase the interoperability between marine observation networks. However, as the SWE standards were intentionally designed in a domain independent manner

  13. I feel your fear: shared touch between faces facilitates recognition of fearful facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maister, Lara; Tsiakkas, Eleni; Tsakiris, Manos

    2013-02-01

    Embodied simulation accounts of emotion recognition claim that we vicariously activate somatosensory representations to simulate, and eventually understand, how others feel. Interestingly, mirror-touch synesthetes, who experience touch when observing others being touched, show both enhanced somatosensory simulation and superior recognition of emotional facial expressions. We employed synchronous visuotactile stimulation to experimentally induce a similar experience of "mirror touch" in nonsynesthetic participants. Seeing someone else's face being touched at the same time as one's own face results in the "enfacement illusion," which has been previously shown to blur self-other boundaries. We demonstrate that the enfacement illusion also facilitates emotion recognition, and, importantly, this facilitatory effect is specific to fearful facial expressions. Shared synchronous multisensory experiences may experimentally facilitate somatosensory simulation mechanisms involved in the recognition of fearful emotional expressions.

  14. Health information use in home care: brainstorming barriers, facilitators, and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolee, Paul; Steeves, Brandie; Manderson, Brooke L; Toscan, Justine L; Glenny, Christine; Berg, Katherine

    2010-01-01

    There is growing recognition of the importance of sharing health information in home care; however, limited research exists to identify appropriate strategies, especially with home care providers. We engaged home care stakeholders from three locations in Ontario to determine facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for using health information in home care. The results suggest that health professionals recognize the potential of these systems to enhance communication through several emergent themes; however, there was a lack of agreement on the current facilitators, barriers, and recommendations for future interventions. More research is needed to achieve consensus before strategies for improvement can be initiated.

  15. Sharing to Succeed: Lessons from Open Information-sharing Projects in Afghanistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-01

    NGOs], and private sector firms as appropriate to plan , prepare for, and conduct stability operations.”13 The directive also tasked the military...officer increased support for efforts to improve infor- mation-sharing connections among the disparate actors involved in postdisaster and postconflict ...insurgent influence, intimidation, and ideology. Jade-A was planned to support VSO by using ICT tools and Internet connectivity to facilitate both

  16. Information Sharing Policies for Coalition Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-10-01

    Le contexte crise(t) paix(t) occurence(e, Terrorisme , t).... Forme générale d’une règle : contexte → règle 1 2 A u t e u r é v é n e...A u t e u r é v é n e m e n t d a t e Un formalisme pour définir une politique de partage Exemples de règles (1) Dans un contexte de terrorisme ...tout observateur a l’obligation de diffuser immédiatement à son chef toute information relative au thème cible- terrorisme . ∀e ∀a ∀b ∀i ∀o∀t ∀t

  17. IMPROVING SUPPLY CHAIN INFORMATION SHARING USING DESIGN FOR SIX SIGMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitchell, Erin M.

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable information is needed to support decision-making processes. Due to the large number of participants typically involved in supply chain operations, organizations often find thatitis difficult to effectively share information within a supply chain; hence, this research examined ways to improve information sharing within supply chain operations for one marine transportation services organization. An action research, case study approach used the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS methodology to design an information technology solution that effectively communicates information between the layers within the supply chain regarding the movement of materials via inland tank barges. The comparative analysis of verification and baseline measurements conducted suggests this project was successful because the new process fulfilled the needs of the work environment for which it was designed. For the organization that participated in this research, the successful adoption of the new approach for information sharing improved communication and decision making within their supply chain.

  18. Improving supply chain information sharing using Design for Six Sigma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erin M. Mitchell

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Accurate and reliable information is needed to support decision-making processes. Due to the large number of participants typically involved in supply chain operations, organizations often find that it is difficult to effectively share information within a supply chain; hence, this research examined ways to improve information sharing within supply chain operations for one marine transportation services organization. An action research, case study approach used the Design for Six Sigma (DFSS methodology to design an information technology solution that effectively communicates information between the layers within the supply chain regarding the movement of materials via inland tank barges. The comparative analysis of verification and baseline measurements conducted suggests this project was successful because the new process fulfilled the needs of the work environment for which it was designed. For the organization that participated in this research, the successful adoption of the new approach for information sharing improved communication and decision making within their supply chain.

  19. INFORMATION SHARING AND STRATEGIC SIGNALING IN SUPPLY CHAINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Robert J. KAUFFMAN; Hamid MOHTADI

    2009-01-01

    Information sharing in procurement occurs in rich and varied industry contexts in which managerial decisions are made and organizational strategy is formulated. We explore how information sharing ought to work in procurement contexts that involve investments in inter-organizational information systems (IOS) and collaborative planning, forecasting and replenishment (CPFR) practices. How and under what circumstances does a firm that plays the role of a supply chain buyer decide to share information on key variables, such as point-of-sale consumer demand data with its supplier, up the supply chain? This is a key issue that crosses the boundary between supply chain management and information systems (IS) management. The answers that we provide are based on our use of a game-theoretic signaling model of buyer and supplier strategy in the presence of uncertainties about final consumer demand. We also explore the connection between operational costs that are associated with the firm's information sharing and information withholding strategies. Our results provide normative guidance to supply chain buyers about how to interpret different demand uncertainty scenarios to improve their decisions and generate high value. From the IS management perspective, we show the impacts on the firm of different information sharing approaches that are made possible by present day technologies.

  20. A qualitative analysis of information sharing for children with medical complexity within and across health care organizations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quigley, Laura; Lacombe-Duncan, Ashley; Adams, Sherri; Hepburn, Charlotte Moore; Cohen, Eyal

    2014-06-30

    Children with medical complexity (CMC) are characterized by substantial family-identified service needs, chronic and severe conditions, functional limitations, and high health care use. Information exchange is critically important in high quality care of complex patients at high risk for poor care coordination. Written care plans for CMC are an excellent test case for how well information sharing is currently occurring. The purpose of this study was to identify the barriers to and facilitators of information sharing for CMC across providers, care settings, and families. A qualitative study design with data analysis informed by a grounded theory approach was utilized. Two independent coders conducted secondary analysis of interviews with parents of CMC and health care professionals involved in the care of CMC, collected from two studies of healthcare service delivery for this population. Additional interviews were conducted with privacy officers of associated organizations to supplement these data. Emerging themes related to barriers and facilitators to information sharing were identified by the two coders and the research team, and a theory of facilitators and barriers to information exchange evolved. Barriers to information sharing were related to one of three major themes; 1) the lack of an integrated, accessible, secure platform on which summative health care information is stored, 2) fragmentation of the current health system, and 3) the lack of consistent policies, standards, and organizational priorities across organizations for information sharing. Facilitators of information sharing were related to improving accessibility to a common document, expanding the use of technology, and improving upon a structured communication plan. Findings informed a model of how various barriers to information sharing interact to prevent optimal information sharing both within and across organizations and how the use of technology to improve communication and access to

  1. Use of the Blue Button Online Tool for Sharing Health Information: Qualitative Interviews With Patients and Providers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Dawn M; Fix, Gemmae M; Hogan, Timothy P; Simon, Steven R; Nazi, Kim M; Turvey, Carolyn L

    2015-08-18

    Information sharing between providers is critical for care coordination, especially in health systems such as the United States Department of Veterans Affairs (VA), where many patients also receive care from other health care organizations. Patients can facilitate this sharing by using the Blue Button, an online tool that promotes patients' ability to view, print, and download their health records. The aim of this study was to characterize (1) patients' use of Blue Button, an online information-sharing tool in VA's patient portal, My HealtheVet, (2) information-sharing practices between VA and non-VA providers, and (3) how providers and patients use a printed Blue Button report during a clinical visit. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 34 VA patients, 10 VA providers, and 9 non-VA providers. Interviews focused on patients' use of Blue Button, information-sharing practices between VA and non-VA providers, and how patients and providers use a printed Blue Button report during a clinical visit. Qualitative themes were identified through iterative rounds of coding starting with an a priori schema based on technology adoption theory. Information sharing between VA and non-VA providers relied primarily on the patient. Patients most commonly used Blue Button to access and share VA laboratory results. Providers recognized the need for improved information sharing, valued the Blue Button printout, and expressed interest in a way to share information electronically across settings. Consumer-oriented technologies such as Blue Button can facilitate patients sharing health information with providers in other health care systems; however, more education is needed to inform patients of this use to facilitate care coordination. Additional research is needed to explore how personal health record documents, such as Blue Button reports, can be easily shared and incorporated into the clinical workflow of providers.

  2. Information-Theoretic Secure Verifiable Secret Sharing over RSA Modulus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIU Gang; WANG Hong; WEI Shimin; XIAO Guozhen

    2006-01-01

    The well-known non-interactive and information-theoretic secure verifiable secret sharing scheme presented by Pedersen is over a large prime. In this paper, we construct a novel non-interactive and information-theoretic verifiable secret sharing over RSA (Rivest,Shamir,Adleman) modulus and give the rigorous security proof. It is shown how to distribute a secret among a group such that any set of k parties get no information about the secret. The presented scheme is generally applied to constructions of secure distributed multiplication and threshold or forward-secure signature protocols.

  3. An interactive web tool for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks: a field study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marijke eSpan

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAn interactive web tool has been developed for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks. The DecideGuide provides a chat function for easier communication between network members, a deciding together function for step-by-step decision-making, and an individual opinion function for eight dementia-related life domains. The aim of this study was to gain insight in the user friendliness of the DecideGuide, user acceptance and satisfaction, and participants’ opinion of the DecideGuide for making decisions.Materials and methodsA 5-month field study included four dementia-care networks (19 participants in total. The data derived from structured interviews, observations, and information that participants logged in the DecideGuide. Structured interviews took place at the start, middle, and end of the field study with people with dementia, informal caregivers, and case managers. Results1. The user friendliness of the chat and individual opinion functions was adequate for case managers and most informal caregivers. Older participants, with or without dementia, had some difficulties using a tablet and the DecideGuide. The deciding together function does not yet provide adequate instructions for all. The user interface needs simplification. 2. User acceptance and satisfaction: everybody liked the chat’s easy communication, handling difficult issues for discussion, and the option of individual opinions. 3. The DecideGuide helped participants structure their thoughts. They felt more involved and shared more information about daily issues than before. ConclusionParticipants found the DecideGuide valuable in decision-making. The chat function seems powerful in helping members engage with one another constructively. Such engagement is a prerequisite for making shared decisions. Regardless of participants’ use of the tool, they saw the DecideGuide's added value.

  4. 78 FR 73407 - Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... is contained in the weekly report on Bank liquidity prepared by DBR; (4) Information about each Bank... FHFA, indicating whether each Bank has timely filed with FHFA the quarterly liquidity certification... AGENCY 12 CFR Part 1260 RIN 2590-AA35 Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks AGENCY:...

  5. Information Sharing During Crisis Management in Hierarchical vs. Network Teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, J.M.C.; Veld, M.H.I.T.; Koning, L. de

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences between hierarchical and network teams in emergency management. A controlled experimental environment was created in which we could study teams that differed in decision rights, availability of information, information sharing, and task division. Thirty-two teams

  6. Information sharing during crisis management in hierachival vs. network teams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schraagen, Jan Maarten; Huis in 't Veld, Mirjam; Koning, de Lisette

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the differences between hierarchical and network teams in emergency management. A controlled experimental environment was created in which we could study teams that differed in decision rights, availability of information, information sharing, and task division. Thirty-two teams

  7. Threshold policy for global games with noisy information sharing

    KAUST Repository

    Mahdavifar, Hessam

    2015-12-15

    It is known that global games with noisy sharing of information do not admit a certain type of threshold policies [1]. Motivated by this result, we investigate the existence of threshold-type policies on global games with noisy sharing of information and show that such equilibrium strategies exist and are unique if the sharing of information happens over a sufficiently noisy environment. To show this result, we establish that if a threshold function is an equilibrium strategy, then it will be a solution to a fixed point equation. Then, we show that for a sufficiently noisy environment, the functional fixed point equation leads to a contraction mapping, and hence, its iterations converge to a unique continuous threshold policy.

  8. Dynamic Capabilities for Information Sharing: XBRL Enabling Business-to-Government Information Exchange

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Tan, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Recent scandals have stressed the need for information sharing among companies and governments. The sharing of information is not easy as companies want to keep their administrative burden low, whereas governments need high information quality. These drivers have resulted in the initiating of progra

  9. Online GIS services for mapping and sharing disease information

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Sheng; Mioc, Darka; Anton, François

    2008-01-01

    Background Disease data sharing is important for the collaborative preparation, response, and recovery stages of disease control. Disease phenomena are strongly associated with spatial and temporal factors. Web-based Geographical Information Systems provide a real-time and dynamic way to represent...... and responding to disease outbreaks. To overcome these challenges in disease data mapping and sharing, the senior authors have designed an interoperable service oriented architecture based on Open Geospatial Consortium specifications to share the spatio-temporal disease information. Results A case study...... of infectious disease mapping across New Brunswick (Canada) and Maine (USA) was carried out to evaluate the proposed architecture, which uses standard Web Map Service, Styled Layer Descriptor and Web Map Context specifications. The case study shows the effectiveness of an infectious disease surveillance system...

  10. Sharing and communicating health care information: summary and recommendations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orthner, H F; Scherrer, J R; Dahlen, R

    1994-01-01

    Sharing and communicating information is a fundamental task in modern medicine. The health care system of the western world is based on teamwork of professionals who participate in the care of patients. Exchange of information (not just data) requires the communicating parties to agree on a communication channel, an exchange protocol, and a common language. The language includes an alphabet, words, phrases, and symbols that express and assign meaning, understood by all. The most common forms of communication are the spoken word and the paper-based patient record. Computers and communication systems improve the sharing of health care information by overcoming the limitations imposed by the dimensions of time and location. However, natural language is still too complex and too ambiguous for current computing devices to handle the complex interactions between health care professional and patients. A simpler 'language' is needed that uses domain specific vocabularies (and/or codes), well-defined exchange protocols for data, information, knowledge, and, in the future, perhaps even wisdom. This simpler 'language' is expected to handle most of the routine information exchange but not eliminate natural language. It is essential that health care information systems preserve and incorporate natural language expressions and integrate them with structured vocabularies. Today, agreeing on standard data exchange protocols and domain specific vocabularies and codes is our greatest challenge. However, standards alone are not sufficient. Acceptance of the standards by the health care professionals, verifications in clinical environments, and implementation agreements by the medical informatics industry are essential. The group on 'Sharing and Communication of Health Care Information' addressed the issues raised above and unanimously recommends a number of steps that will improve the sharing of information. In addition, specific recommendations are offered to governments, health

  11. 'OnePoint'--combining OneNote and SharePoint to facilitate knowledge transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Christopher G; Haque, Nuzrul; Gardner, Ben

    2009-09-01

    The identification and development of novel drugs requires a multidisciplinary team of individuals whose membership changes during the lifecycle of a project. Incomplete knowledge transfer across this team can be a barrier to effective decision-making and efficient drug discovery. We have deployed a new infrastructure supporting information storage and distribution within small teams using Microsoft's SharePoint server technology in conjunction with the desktop application OneNote. This delivers a user-friendly collaborative workspace that is fast, flexible and carries a low training burden. Demand from drug project teams for this 'solution' has now resulted in site-wide deployment to over 500 people across research.

  12. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chulwoo Park

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  13. Formation Flight of Multiple UAVs via Onboard Sensor Information Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Chulwoo; Cho, Namhoon; Lee, Kyunghyun; Kim, Youdan

    2015-07-17

    To monitor large areas or simultaneously measure multiple points, multiple unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) must be flown in formation. To perform such flights, sensor information generated by each UAV should be shared via communications. Although a variety of studies have focused on the algorithms for formation flight, these studies have mainly demonstrated the performance of formation flight using numerical simulations or ground robots, which do not reflect the dynamic characteristics of UAVs. In this study, an onboard sensor information sharing system and formation flight algorithms for multiple UAVs are proposed. The communication delays of radiofrequency (RF) telemetry are analyzed to enable the implementation of the onboard sensor information sharing system. Using the sensor information sharing, the formation guidance law for multiple UAVs, which includes both a circular and close formation, is designed. The hardware system, which includes avionics and an airframe, is constructed for the proposed multi-UAV platform. A numerical simulation is performed to demonstrate the performance of the formation flight guidance and control system for multiple UAVs. Finally, a flight test is conducted to verify the proposed algorithm for the multi-UAV system.

  14. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  15. Information Sharing in the Field of Design Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilerot, Ola

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports on an extensive research project which aimed at exploring information sharing activities in a scholarly context. The paper presents and synthesises findings from a literature review and three qualitative case studies. The empirical setting is a geographically distributed Nordic network of design scholars. Method:…

  16. Information sharing for consumption tax purposes : An empirical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ligthart, Jenny E.

    2007-01-01

    The paper studies the determinants of information sharing between Swedish tax authorities and 14 EU tax authorities for value-added tax (VAT) purposes. It is shown that trade-related variables (such as the partner country's net trade position and population size), reciprocity, and legal arrangements

  17. Social Technologies and Informal Knowledge Sharing within and across Organizations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrahi, Mohammad Hosein

    2013-01-01

    This doctoral dissertation is focused on both empirical and conceptual contributions relative to the roles social technologies play in informal knowledge sharing practices, both within and across organizations. Social technologies include (a) traditional social technologies (e.g., email, phone and instant messengers), (b) emerging social…

  18. Country Creditor Rights, Information Sharing, and Commercial Banks’ Profitability

    OpenAIRE

    Borja Amor-Tapia; María T. Tascón; José L. Fanluj

    2010-01-01

    The authors analyze commercial banks’ profitability (return on equity, ROE) at different levels of creditor rights and an aggregate score of information sharing in terms of credit bureaus. After controlling for bank size and some macroeconomic variables, the results indicate that profitability is higher and more persistent when creditors are well protected. Furthermore, the presence of a (public or private) credit bureau increases the persistence of ROE, but higher levels of information shari...

  19. Challenges and obstacles in sharing and coordinating information during multi-agency disaster response: Propositions from field exercises

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bharosa, N.; Lee, J.; Janssen, M.

    2009-01-01

    Although various scholars have researched issues regarding disaster management, few have studied the sharing and coordinating of information during disasters. Not much empirical data is available in this field and there is sparse insight into the factors that may impede or facilitate information sha

  20. Knowledge sharing among workers: a study on their contribution through informal communication in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norizzati Azudin

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic study of Informal Knowledge Sharing in Cyberjaya, Selangor, Malaysia. After twelve years, Cyberjaya is approximately 25% developed, gradually expanding with the establishment of multinational and international organizations. Several flagship applications have been developed in MSC Malaysia to accelerate its growth. However, the expertise and knowledge shared among the workers are doubtful, especially at its initial growth stage. As Knowledge Management (KM developed, Communities of Practice (Wenger, 1998 became popular, even dominant „KM‟ intervention. Soon it was supplemented with story-telling interventions encouraging knowledge workers to use stories to „sell‟ KM internally, share knowledge and facilitate collaboration. This study will focus on knowledge sharing among workers, particularly the approach used to share knowledge through informal communication outside their organizations.

  1. Registering multiple medical images using the shared chain mutual information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jing Jin; Qiang Wang; Yi Shen

    2007-01-01

    @@ A new approach to the simultaneous registration of multiple medical images is proposed using shared chain mutual information (SCMI) as the matching measure. The presented method applies SCMI to measure the shared information between the multiple images. Registration is achieved by adjusting the relative position of the floating image until the SCMI between all the images is maximized. Using this measure, we registered three and four simulated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images using downhill simplex optimization to search for the optimal transformation parameters. Accuracy and validity of the proposed method for multiple-image registration are testified by comparing the results with that of twoimage registration. Furthermore, the performance of the proposed method is validated by registering the real ultrasonic image sequence.

  2. The Nanomaterial Registry: facilitating the sharing and analysis of data in the diverse nanomaterial community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ostraat ML

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Michele L Ostraat, Karmann C Mills, Kimberly A Guzan, Damaris MurryRTI International, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The amount of data being generated in the nanotechnology research space is significant, and the coordination, sharing, and downstream analysis of the data is complex and consistently deliberated. The complexities of the data are due in large part to the inherently complicated characteristics of nanomaterials. Also, testing protocols and assays used for nanomaterials are diverse and lacking standardization. The Nanomaterial Registry has been developed to address such challenges as the need for standard methods, data formatting, and controlled vocabularies for data sharing. The Registry is an authoritative, web-based tool whose purpose is to simplify the community's level of effort in assessing nanomaterial data from environmental and biological interaction studies. Because the registry is meant to be an authoritative resource, all data-driven content is systematically archived and reviewed by subject-matter experts. To support and advance nanomaterial research, a set of minimal information about nanomaterials (MIAN has been developed and is foundational to the Registry data model. The MIAN has been used to create evaluation and similarity criteria for nanomaterials that are curated into the Registry. The Registry is a publicly available resource that is being built through collaborations with many stakeholder groups in the nanotechnology community, including industry, regulatory, government, and academia. Features of the Registry website (https://www.nanomaterialregistry.org/ currently include search, browse, side-by-side comparison of nanomaterials, compliance ratings based on the quality and quantity of data, and the ability to search for similar nanomaterials within the Registry. This paper is a modification and extension of a proceedings paper for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.Keywords: nanoinformatics

  3. Social Media Principles Applied to Critical Infrastructure Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-01

    information pieces (data, feeds, etc.). In mid-2013, the HSIN-CS platform migrated to the Microsoft SharePoint 2010 technology platform and is afforded the...other 120 Wayne Moses Burke, “GovLuv,” in The Big Book of Social Media, ed. Robert Fine (Tulsa, OK: Yorkshire Publishing, 2010). 121 Ellison...and 18 uses, respectively. While the remaining principles all were sourced to CI ISE characteristics, these frontrunners may yield a greater “ bang

  4. Efficient secure data publishing algorithms for supporting information sharing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XiaoChun; WANG Bin; YU Ge

    2009-01-01

    Many data sharing applications require that publishing data should protect sensitive information per-taining to individuals, such as diseases of patients, the credit rating of a customer, and the salary of an employee. Meanwhile, certain information Is required to be published. In this paper, we consider data-publishing applications where the publisher specifies both sensitive information and shared in-formation. An adversary can infer the real value of a sensitive entry with a high confidence by using publishing data. The goal is to protect sensitive information in the presence of data inference using de-rived association rules on publishing data. We formulate the inference attack framework, and develop complexity results. We show that computing a safe partial table is an NP-hard problem. We classify the general problem into subcases based on the requirements of publishing information, and propose algorithms for finding a safe partial table to publish. We have conducted an empirical study to eval-uate these algorithms on real data. The test results show that the proposed algorithms can produce approximate maximal published data and improve the performance of existing algorithms.

  5. Data Center Strategy to Increase Medical Information Sharing in Hospital Information Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karim Zarour

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The sharing of medical information among healthcare providers is a key factor in improving any health care system. By providing opportunities for sharing and exchanging information and knowledge, data center, agent and ontology play a very important role in the field of medical informatics. In this paper, we propose a design of architecture and data center for the development of a Hospital information system (HIS based on agents and ontology.

  6. An Interactive Web Tool for Facilitating Shared Decision-Making in Dementia-Care Networks: A Field Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, M.; Smits, C.; Jukema, J.; Groen-van de Ven, L.M.; Janssen, R.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Eefsting, J.; Hettinga, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An interactive web tool has been developed for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks. The DecideGuide provides a chat function for easier communication between network members, a deciding together function for step-by-step decision-making, and an individual opinio

  7. An Interactive Web Tool for Facilitating Shared Decision-Making in Dementia-Care Networks: A Field Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Span, M.; Smits, C.; Jukema, J.; Groen-van de Ven, L.M.; Janssen, R.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Eefsting, J.; Hettinga, M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: An interactive web tool has been developed for facilitating shared decision-making in dementia-care networks. The DecideGuide provides a chat function for easier communication between network members, a deciding together function for step-by-step decision-making, and an individual

  8. Aligning Learner Preferences for Information Seeking, Information Sharing and Mobile Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mills, Leila A.; Knezek, Gerald; Khaddage, Ferial

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports on the development of a new information communications technology (ICT) learning preference survey, its cross-validation with attitudes towards mobile learning, and new perspectives on information seeking, information sharing, and mobile access derived from the relationships uncovered. The Information and Communications…

  9. [Survey on Information Sharing and Approaches to Cooperation between Hospitals and Community Pharmacies in the Care of Outpatients Receiving Chemotherapy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Chika; Ogata, Kentaro; Nishida, Emi; Kakimoto, Hideki; Uchiyama, Masanobu; Fukuda, Mahiru; Oda, Mayumi; Tanaka, Toshihiro; Tamura, Kazuo; Takamatsu, Yasushi; Kamimura, Hidetoshi

    2016-11-01

    Outpatients undergoing chemotherapy receive oral anticancer drugs, supportive care medicine, and drugs for complications from health insurance pharmacies(ie, drugstores). Therefore, drugstore personnel and patients were surveyed using a questionnaire to ascertain the current conditions of information sharing between drugstores and hospitals. Only 31% of the patients surveyed responded that they received cancer chemotherapy via the drugstores, while a few of them understood the need for information sharing with the drugstore. We also found that the drugstores required a considerable amount of patient information including prescribed therapeutic drugs, treatment regimens, disease conditions, and test value. Therefore, we held a study session and clinical conference to facilitate the creation of an information-sharing system. In conclusion, it is imperative for drugstores and hospitals to cooperate and establish a strategy for information sharing in the future.

  10. Deterministic ants in labirynth -- information gained by map sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Malinowski, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    A few of ant robots are dropped to a labirynth, formed by a square lattice with a small number of nodes removed. Ants move according to a deterministic algorithm designed to explore all corridors. Each ant remembers the shape of corridors which she has visited. Once two ants met, they share the information acquired. We evaluate how the time of getting a complete information by an ant depends on the number of ants, and how the length known by an ant depends on time. Numerical results are presented in the form of scaling relations.

  11. Homeland security: sharing and managing critical incident information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashley, W. R., III

    2003-09-01

    Effective critical incident response for homeland security requires access to real-time information from many organizations. Command and control, as well as basic situational awareness, are all dependant on quickly communicating a dynamically changing picture to a variety of decision makers. For the most part, critical information management is not unfamiliar or new to the public safety community. However, new challenges present themselves when that information needs to be seamlessly shared across multiple organizations at the local, state and federal level in real-time. The homeland security problem does not lend itself to the traditional military joint forces planning model where activities shift from a deliberate planning process to a crisis action planning process. Rather, the homeland security problem is more similar to a traditional public safety model where the current activity state moves from complete inactivity or low-level attention to immediate crisis action planning. More often than not the escalation occurs with no warning or baseline information. This paper addresses the challenges of sharing critical incident information and the impacts new technologies will have on this problem. The value of current and proposed approaches will be critiqued for operational value and areas will be identified for further development.

  12. The Nanomaterial Registry: facilitating the sharing and analysis of data in the diverse nanomaterial community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostraat, Michele L; Mills, Karmann C; Guzan, Kimberly A; Murry, Damaris

    2013-01-01

    The amount of data being generated in the nanotechnology research space is significant, and the coordination, sharing, and downstream analysis of the data is complex and consistently deliberated. The complexities of the data are due in large part to the inherently complicated characteristics of nanomaterials. Also, testing protocols and assays used for nanomaterials are diverse and lacking standardization. The Nanomaterial Registry has been developed to address such challenges as the need for standard methods, data formatting, and controlled vocabularies for data sharing. The Registry is an authoritative, web-based tool whose purpose is to simplify the community's level of effort in assessing nanomaterial data from environmental and biological interaction studies. Because the Registry is meant to be an authoritative resource, all data-driven content is systematically archived and reviewed by subject-matter experts. To support and advance nanomaterial research, a set of minimal information about nanomaterials (MIAN) has been developed and is foundational to the Registry data model. The MIAN has been used to create evaluation and similarity criteria for nanomaterials that are curated into the Registry. The Registry is a publicly available resource that is being built through collaborations with many stakeholder groups in the nanotechnology community, including industry, regulatory, government, and academia. Features of the Registry website (http://www.nanomaterialregistry.org) currently include search, browse, side-by-side comparison of nanomaterials, compliance ratings based on the quality and quantity of data, and the ability to search for similar nanomaterials within the Registry. This paper is a modification and extension of a proceedings paper for the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers.

  13. Sharing Hydrologic Data with the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T.; Piasecki, M.; Goodall, J. L.; Valentine, D. W.; Whitenack, T.

    2009-12-01

    The CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System (HIS) is an internet based system to support the sharing of hydrologic data consisting of databases connected using the internet through web services as well as software for data discovery, access and publication. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. A data model, the CUAHSI Observations Data Model (ODM), provides community defined semantics needed to allow sharing information from diverse data sources. A defined set of CUAHSI HIS web services allows for the development of data services, which scale from centralized data services which support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and EPA Storage and Retrieval System (STORET), in a standard way; to distributed data services which allow users to establish their own server and publish their data. User data services are registered to a central HIS website, and they become searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. HIS utilizes both an XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML schema used for data transmission that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the ODM is implemented as relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and communicate using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user’s preferred analysis environment, using community defined semantics, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. Users wishing to share or publish their data through CUAHSI

  14. Information sharing in the brain indexes consciousness in noncommunicative patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Jean-Rémi; Sitt, Jacobo D; Faugeras, Frédéric; Rohaut, Benjamin; El Karoui, Imen; Cohen, Laurent; Naccache, Lionel; Dehaene, Stanislas

    2013-10-07

    Neuronal theories of conscious access tentatively relate conscious perception to the integration and global broadcasting of information across distant cortical and thalamic areas. Experiments contrasting visible and invisible stimuli support this view and suggest that global neuronal communication may be detectable using scalp electroencephalography (EEG). However, whether global information sharing across brain areas also provides a specific signature of conscious state in awake but noncommunicating patients remains an active topic of research. We designed a novel measure termed "weighted symbolic mutual information" (wSMI) and applied it to 181 high-density EEG recordings of awake patients recovering from coma and diagnosed in various states of consciousness. The results demonstrate that this measure of information sharing systematically increases with consciousness state, particularly across distant sites. This effect sharply distinguishes patients in vegetative state (VS), minimally conscious state (MCS), and conscious state (CS) and is observed regardless of etiology and delay since insult. The present findings support distributed theories of conscious processing and open up the possibility of an automatic detection of conscious states, which may be particularly important for the diagnosis of awake but noncommunicating patients.

  15. Shared and selective neural correlates of inhibition, facilitation, and shifting processes during executive control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedden, Trey; Gabrieli, John D E

    2010-05-15

    A network of prefrontal and parietal regions has been implicated in executive control processes. However, the extent to which individual regions within this network are engaged in component control processes, such as inhibition of task-irrelevant stimulus attributes or shifting (switching) between attentional foci, remains controversial. Participants (N=17) underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a global-local task in which the global and local levels could facilitate or interfere with one another. Stimuli were presented in blocks in which participants either constantly shifted between the global and local levels, or consistently responded to one level only. Activations related to inhibition and shifting processes were observed in a large network of bilateral prefrontal, parietal, and basal ganglia regions. Region of interest analyses were used to classify each region within this network as being common to inhibition and shifting, or preferential to one component process. Several regions were classified as being preferential to inhibition, including regions within the dorsolateral and ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, the parietal lobes, and the temporal-parietal junction. A limited set of regions in the parietal lobes and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were classified as preferential to shifting. There was a very large set of regions displaying activation common to both inhibition and shifting processes, including regions within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, anterior cingulate, and basal ganglia. Several of these common regions were also involved during facilitation, suggesting that they are responsive to the number of task-salient channels of information, rather than purely to demands on control processes. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Managing Climate Policy Information Facilitating Knowledge Transfer to Policy Makers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charikleia Karakosta

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the challenging context of intense negotiations and radical developments in the field of climate policy, informing stakeholders about opportunities and pathways and about scientific insights and warnings is important to help create positive dynamics. Policy makers need digestible information to design good policies, and understand their options and the possible impacts of these options. They need access to well-structured knowledge, as well as appropriate techniques to manage information and data. However, available information is often difficult to access, not in the right format and of limited use to stakeholders. The range of knowledge needs identified has to be effectively addressed by providing interested parties with suitable, to-the-point information, covering the identified gaps. This is the main aim of this article that proposes the design and development of a climate policy database, which contains all the resources that can cover the identified knowledge gaps. The resources are derived from a broad range of existing reports, research and climate policy decisions at different levels. The goal is to render climate policy associated stakeholders able to extract key policy conclusions. The added value of this database was verified by users and stakeholders that generally argued that the climate policy database facilitates solid understanding of climate policy implications and fosters collaborative knowledge exchange in the field.

  17. Balancing digital information-sharing and patient privacy when engaging families in the intensive care unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Samuel M; Aboumatar, Hanan J; Francis, Leslie; Halamka, John; Rozenblum, Ronen; Rubin, Eileen; Sarnoff Lee, Barbara; Sugarman, Jeremy; Turner, Kathleen; Vorwaller, Micah; Frosch, Dominick L

    2016-09-01

    Patients in intensive care units (ICUs) may lack decisional capacity and may depend on proxy decision makers (PDMs) to make medical decisions on their behalf. High-quality information-sharing with PDMs, including through such means as health information technology, could improve communication and decision making and could potentially minimize the psychological consequences of an ICU stay for both patients and their family members. However, alongside these anticipated benefits of information-sharing are risks of unwanted disclosure of sensitive information. Approaches to identifying the optimal balance between access to digital health information to facilitate engagement and protecting patient privacy are urgently needed. We identified eight themes that should be considered in balancing health information access and patient privacy: 1) potential benefits to patients from PDM data access; 2) potential harms to patients from such access; 3) the moral status of families within the patient-clinician relationship; 4) the scope of relevant information provided to PDMs; 5) issues around defining PDMs' authority; 6) methods for eliciting and documenting patient preferences about their family's information access; 7) the relevance of methods for ascertaining the identity of PDMs; and 8) the obligations of hospitals to prevent privacy breaches by PDMs. We conclude that PDMs should typically have access to health information from the current episode of care when the patient is decisionally impaired, unless the patient has previously expressed a clear preference that PDMs not have such access.

  18. Public/private information sharing in healthcare fraud investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheehan, J G

    1999-01-01

    Private insurers have good reason, both in their private interest and in the public interest, for pursuing and rooting out fraud in the healthcare system; moreover, they often have sophisticated data systems, substantial investigative information, and management expertise that can be useful to prosecutors. It makes sense, as a public policy matter, to undertake steps to encourage insurers to be aggressive in pursuing legitimate fraud cases, and to provide a framework for effective cooperation and information sharing with law enforcement. At the same time, prosecutors are responsible for enforcing equal justice under the law; thus, any such relationship must be handled in an appropriate manner, with safeguards to protect privacy and the reputation of investigative subjects. While the courts have not yet explored many of the relevant legal and factual issues in this area, the author surveys existing guidance under governing laws and policies applicable to state and federal prosecutors, and suggests techniques to prevent inappropriate communication or use of such information.

  19. Information Sharing and Channel Construction of Supply Chain under Asymmetric Demand Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangdong Wu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Information sharing and marketing channel building have become an important problem of supply chain management theory and practice. The research of information sharing focused on traditional channel of supply chain between upstream and downstream enterprises; however, the research ignores the behavior of information sharing with potential entrants and composite structure characteristics about traditional marketing channel with the direct channel. This paper uses the model to research the effects brought about sharing demand information with potential entrants and building marketing channel, which reveals information sharing and channel building mechanism in the supply chain. The study found that the five-force model of Porter regards potential entrants only as a threat that is one-sided. When the channel competitiveness meets certain conditions, manufacturer and retailer will share demand information with potential entrants. Building composite marketing channel is the manufacturer's absolute dominant strategy. Channel construction will increase the entry barriers for potential entrants and weaken the effect of double marginalization; meanwhile, the performance of supply chain will be augmented.

  20. Facilitating Oil Industry Access to Federal Lands through Interagency Data Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paul Jehn; Ben Grunewald

    2007-05-31

    -commerce. The next step beyond mere data sharing for facilitating the permitting process is to make it possible for industry to file those permit applications electronically. This process will involve the use of common XML schemas.

  1. Information sharing and relationships on social networking sites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steijn, Wouter M P; Schouten, Alexander P

    2013-08-01

    This article investigates the relationship between sharing personal information and relationship development in the context of social networking sites (SNSs). Information disclosed on these sites could affect relationships in a different manner compared to more traditional interactions, such as instant messaging or face-to-face interaction. Respondents in the age range of 12 to 83 were surveyed about experiences of relationship development as a consequence of contact through Facebook or Hyves-the most popular Dutch SNSs. Results showed a primarily positive effect of information sharing on SNSs on our relationships. Furthermore, relationship development mainly occurs among acquaintances and friends, and public posts are most strongly related to relationship development. These findings suggest that SNSs might affect relationships in a distinct fashion as acquaintances and friends gain access to public self-disclosures that might normally only be reserved for close friends and family. Overall, this study provides an insight into some of the positive aspects of the public nature of SNSs in contrast with the general negative associations.

  2. 77 FR 50712 - Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study; Proposed...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-22

    ... local sharing networks that structure contemporary subsistence-cash economies using research methods... Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Information Collection: Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence... in Alaska, ``Southern Alaska Sharing Network and Subsistence Study.'' DATES: Submit written...

  3. Automatic summary generating technology of vegetable traceability for information sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhenxuan, Zhang; Minjing, Peng

    2017-06-01

    In order to solve problems of excessive data entries and consequent high costs for data collection in vegetable traceablility for farmers in traceability applications, the automatic summary generating technology of vegetable traceability for information sharing was proposed. The proposed technology is an effective way for farmers to share real-time vegetable planting information in social networking platforms to enhance their brands and obtain more customers. In this research, the influencing factors in the vegetable traceablility for customers were analyzed to establish the sub-indicators and target indicators and propose a computing model based on the collected parameter values of the planted vegetables and standard legal systems on food safety. The proposed standard parameter model involves five steps: accessing database, establishing target indicators, establishing sub-indicators, establishing standard reference model and computing scores of indicators. On the basis of establishing and optimizing the standards of food safety and traceability system, this proposed technology could be accepted by more and more farmers and customers.

  4. Learning is in the facilitation: faculty perspectives with facilitated teaching and learning-recommendations from informal discussions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Prospero, Lisa; Bhimji-Hewitt, Sheena

    2011-01-01

    Small group learning is an interactive activity that requires a skilled teacher with the ability to facilitate and debrief. Approximately 250 students from seven health professions were enrolled in a first year interprofessional education course that focused on the importance of communication and collaboration. Weekly faculty debrief sessions were conducted and were utilized to share the teachers perspectives with facilitative teaching as well as for feedback and improvement strategies. Recommendations included linking the learning within the small group sessions back to clinical and professional practice in order to validate the course content and thereby increase student engagement; creation of facilitator guides with specific debrief instructions for the given objectives in order to encourage effective learning dialogue among all participants; and providing faculty with formalized facilitator training as well as debrief strategies in order to attain the skills to better guide student learning.

  5. Exploring Information Security and Shared Encrypted Spaces in Libraries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keith Engwall

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Libraries are sensitive to the need to protect patron data, but may not take measures to protect the data of the library. However, in an increasingly collaborative online environment, the protection of data is a concern that merits attention. As a follow-up to a new patron privacy policy, the Oakland University William Beaumont Medical Library evaluated information security tools for use in day-to-day operations in an attempt to identify ways to protect private information in communication and shared storage, as well as a means to manage passwords in a collaborative team environment. This article provides an overview of encryption measures, outlines the Medical Library’s evaluation of encryption tools, and reflects on the benefits and challenges in their adoption and use.

  6. Kinesthetic information facilitates saccades towards proprioceptive-tactile targets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voudouris, Dimitris; Goettker, Alexander; Mueller, Stefanie; Fiehler, Katja

    2016-05-01

    Saccades to somatosensory targets have longer latencies and are less accurate and precise than saccades to visual targets. Here we examined how different somatosensory information influences the planning and control of saccadic eye movements. Participants fixated a central cross and initiated a saccade as fast as possible in response to a tactile stimulus that was presented to either the index or the middle fingertip of their unseen left hand. In a static condition, the hand remained at a target location for the entire block of trials and the stimulus was presented at a fixed time after an auditory tone. Therefore, the target location was derived only from proprioceptive and tactile information. In a moving condition, the hand was first actively moved to the same target location and the stimulus was then presented immediately. Thus, in the moving condition additional kinesthetic information about the target location was available. We found shorter saccade latencies in the moving compared to the static condition, but no differences in accuracy or precision of saccadic endpoints. In a second experiment, we introduced variable delays after the auditory tone (static condition) or after the end of the hand movement (moving condition) in order to reduce the predictability of the moment of the stimulation and to allow more time to process the kinesthetic information. Again, we found shorter latencies in the moving compared to the static condition but no improvement in saccade accuracy or precision. In a third experiment, we showed that the shorter saccade latencies in the moving condition cannot be explained by the temporal proximity between the relevant event (auditory tone or end of hand movement) and the moment of the stimulation. Our findings suggest that kinesthetic information facilitates planning, but not control, of saccadic eye movements to proprioceptive-tactile targets.

  7. Can or can not? Electronic information sharing influence the participation behavior of the employees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohammed, M. A., E-mail: mhmdaldbag@yahoo.com; Eman, Y., E-mail: emaroof94@yahoo.com; Huda, I., E-mail: huda753@uum.edu.my; Thamer, A. [University Utara Malaysia, UUM Sintok (Malaysia)

    2015-12-11

    Information sharing refers to information being shared between employees inside or outside an agency, or by providing accessibility of their information and data to other agencies so as to allow effective decision making. Electronic information sharing is a key to effective government. This study is conducted to investigate the factors of electronic information sharing that influence the participation behavior so as to augment it amongst the employees in public organizations. Eleven domains of factors that are considered in this study are benefits, risk, social network, Information stewardship, information quality, trust, privacy, reciprocity. The paper proposes electronic information sharing factors in public sector to increase the participation.

  8. The Impact of Organizational Culture on the Sharing of Homeland Security Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-04-04

    IMPACT OF ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE ON THE SHARING OF HOMELAND SECURITY INFORMATION By Jeffery E. Bradey GS-15, Department of Defense...information sharing tool. 15. SUBJECT TERMS organizational culture , Homeland Security Information Network, information sharing 16. SECURITY...41 Organizational Culture .................................................................................................. 41

  9. Groupwise information sharing promotes ingroup favoritism in indirect reciprocity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nakamura Mitsuhiro

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Indirect reciprocity is a mechanism for cooperation in social dilemma situations. In indirect reciprocity, an individual is motivated to help another to acquire a good reputation and receive help from others afterwards. Another aspect of human cooperation is ingroup favoritism, whereby individuals help members in their own group more often than those in other groups. Ingroup favoritism is a puzzle for the theory of cooperation because it is not easily evolutionarily stable. In the context of indirect reciprocity, ingroup favoritism has been shown to be a consequence of employing a double standard when assigning reputations to ingroup and outgroup members. An example of such a double standard is the situation in which helping an ingroup member is regarded as good, whereas the same action toward an outgroup member is regarded as bad. Results We analyze a computational model of indirect reciprocity in which information sharing is conducted groupwise. In our model, individuals play social dilemma games within and across groups, and the information about their reputations is shared within each group. We show that evolutionarily stable ingroup favoritism emerges even if all the players use the same reputation assignment rule regardless of group (i.e., a single standard. Two reputation assignment rules called simple standing and stern judging yield ingroup favoritism; under these rules, cooperation with (defection against good individuals is regarded as good (bad and defection against bad individuals is regarded as good. Stern judging induces much stronger ingroup favoritism than does simple standing. Simple standing and stern judging are evolutionarily stable against each other when groups employing different assignment rules compete and the number of groups is sufficiently large. In addition, we analytically show as a limiting case that homogeneous populations of reciprocators that use reputations are unstable when individuals

  10. INTERFIRM COOPERATION AND INFORMATION SHARING THROUGH INTERLOCKING DIRECTORATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Belal UDDIN

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available When firms engage in cooperative efforts, interfirm relations get particular interest to be studied. A direct interlock occurs when an executive or director of one firm sits on the board of another firm, and an indirect interlock occurs when two firms have directors or executives who sit on the board of a third firm. The three commonly used theoretical models such as social network theory, learning theory, and theory of strategic choice are more relevant for the formation and management of interlocking directorates. Uncertainty, resource scarcity, mutual trust, dependency, etc. influence the formation of interlocking directorates. Consequently, interlocking directorates allow sharing of information and overall cooperation between partners through learning, collaboration, networking, and effective relationship, etc. Proper management of interlocking directorates requires communication and collaboration among partners that enhance exchange of knowledge and cooperation.

  11. The Impact of Group Size and Proportion of Shared Information on the Exchange and Integration of Information in Groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cruz, Michael G.; Boster, Franklin J.; Rodriguez, Jose I.

    1997-01-01

    Seeks conditions that improve group performance on "hidden profiles." Finds that, among undergraduate student groups, group information sharing and decision-making effectiveness were higher in small groups with a low percentage of shared information, and lower when groups either were large or shared a high percentage of information. Notes that…

  12. Information and shared decision-making are top patients' priorities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronstein Alexander

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The profound changes in medical care and the recent stress on a patient-centered approach mandate evaluation of current patient priorities. Methods Hospitalized and ambulatory patients at an academic medical center in central Israel were investigated. Consecutive patients (n = 274 indicated their first and second priority for a change or improvement in their medical care out of a mixed shortlist of 6 issues, 3 related to patient-physician relationship (being better informed and taking part in decisions; being seen by the same doctor each time; a longer consultation time and 3 issues related to the organizational aspect of care (easier access to specialists/hospital; shorter queue for tests; less charges for drugs. Results Getting more information from the physician and taking part in decisions was the most desirable patient choice, selected by 27.4% as their first priority. The next choices – access and queue – also relate to more patient autonomy and control over that of managed care regulations. Patients studied were least interested in continuity of care, consultation time or cost of drugs. Demographic or clinical variables were not significantly related to patients' choices. Conclusion Beyond its many benefits, being informed by their doctor and shared decision making is a top patient priority.

  13. Using Metadata to Build Geographic Information Sharing Environment on Internet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chih-hong Sun

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet provides a convenient environment to share geographic information. Web GIS (Geographic Information System even provides users a direct access environment to geographic databases through Internet. However, the complexity of geographic data makes it difficult for users to understand the real content and the limitation of geographic information. In some cases, users may misuse the geographic data and make wrong decisions. Meanwhile, geographic data are distributed across various government agencies, academic institutes, and private organizations, which make it even more difficult for users to fully understand the content of these complex data. To overcome these difficulties, this research uses metadata as a guiding mechanism for users to fully understand the content and the limitation of geographic data. We introduce three metadata standards commonly used for geographic data and metadata authoring tools available in the US. We also review the current development of geographic metadata standard in Taiwan. Two metadata authoring tools are developed in this research, which will enable users to build their own geographic metadata easily.[Article content in Chinese

  14. Facilitating Collaboration in Lecture-Based Learning through Shared Notes Using Wireless Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valtonen, T.; Havu-Nuutinen, S.; Dillon, P.; Vesisenaho, M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a case study for developing lecture teaching in higher education by connecting simultaneously the benefits of face-to-face teaching and social software for capturing and sharing students' lecture notes. The study was conducted with 12 university students taking a degree course on pre-primary education. Data were collected on (1)…

  15. Enhancing Preschool Educators' Ability to Facilitate Conversations during Shared Book Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milburn, Trelani F.; Girolametto, Luigi; Weitzman, Elaine; Greenberg, Janice

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether professional development enhanced educators' use of conversational strategies during shared book reading with small groups of preschoolers. Twenty preschool educators and small groups of children from each of their classrooms were randomly assigned to the experimental or control group. The…

  16. Shared decision-making in dementia care planning: barriers and facilitators in two European countries

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariani, E.; Vernooij-Dassen, M.; Koopmans, R.T.; Engels, Y.; Chattat, R.

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Shared decision-making (SDM) is a means of allowing people with dementia to take part in making choices, be autonomous and participate in social activities. Involving them in SDM is an important way of promoting social health. However, including families and dementia residents in

  17. A Preliminary Investigation into the Information Sharing Behavior of Social Media Users after a Natural Disaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maruyama, Yukiko

    2016-01-01

    The paper provides the results of a preliminary investigation into the information sharing behavior of social media users after a natural disaster. The results indicate that users shared information that they thought victims would find useful. On the other hand, they reported that they usually do not or never share information considered useful to…

  18. Developing and user-testing Decision boxes to facilitate shared decision making in primary care - a study protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rousseau François

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Applying evidence is one of the most challenging steps of evidence-based clinical practice. Healthcare professionals have difficulty interpreting evidence and translating it to patients. Decision boxes are summaries of the most important benefits and harms of diagnostic, therapeutic, and preventive health interventions provided to healthcare professionals before they meet the patient. Our hypothesis is that Decision boxes will prepare clinicians to help patients make informed value-based decisions. By acting as primers, the boxes will enhance the application of evidence-based practices and increase shared decision making during the clinical encounter. The objectives of this study are to provide a framework for developing Decision boxes and testing their value to users. Methods/Design We will begin by developing Decision box prototypes for 10 clinical conditions or topics based on a review of the research on risk communication. We will present two prototypes to purposeful samples of 16 family physicians distributed in two focus groups, and 32 patients distributed in four focus groups. We will use the User Experience Model framework to explore users' perceptions of the content and format of each prototype. All discussions will be transcribed, and two researchers will independently perform a hybrid deductive/inductive thematic qualitative analysis of the data. The coding scheme will be developed a priori from the User Experience Model's seven themes (valuable, usable, credible, useful, desirable, accessible and findable, and will include new themes suggested by the data (inductive analysis. Key findings will be triangulated using additional publications on the design of tools to improve risk communication. All 10 Decision boxes will be modified in light of our findings. Discussion This study will produce a robust framework for developing and testing Decision boxes that will serve healthcare professionals and patients alike. It

  19. Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making in regard to alternatives to animal testing: Report of an EPAA workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Tzutzuy; Beken, Sonja; Chlebus, Magda; Ellis, Graham; Griesinger, Claudius; De Jonghe, Sandra; Manou, Irene; Mehling, Annette; Reisinger, Kerstin; Rossi, Laura H; van Benthem, Jan; van der Laan, Jan Willem; Weissenhorn, Renate; Sauer, Ursula G

    2015-10-01

    The European Partnership for Alternative Approaches to Animal Testing (EPAA) convened a workshop Knowledge sharing to facilitate regulatory decision-making. Fifty invited participants from the European Commission, national and European agencies and bodies, different industry sectors (chemicals, cosmetics, fragrances, pharmaceuticals, vaccines), and animal protection organizations attended the workshop. Four case studies exemplarily revealed which procedures are in place to obtain regulatory acceptance of new test methods in different sectors. Breakout groups discussed the status quo identifying the following facilitators for regulatory acceptance of alternatives to animal testing: Networking and communication (including cross-sector collaboration, international cooperation and harmonization); involvement of regulatory agencies from the initial stages of test method development on; certainty on prerequisites for test method acceptance including the establishment of specific criteria for regulatory acceptance. Data sharing and intellectual property issues affect many aspects of test method development, validation and regulatory acceptance. In principle, all activities should address replacement, reduction and refinement methods (albeit animal testing is generally prohibited in the cosmetics sector). Provision of financial resources and education support all activities aiming at facilitating the acceptance and use of alternatives to animal testing. Overall, workshop participants recommended building confidence in new methodologies by applying and gaining experience with them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The Nanomaterial Registry: facilitating the sharing and analysis of data in the diverse nanomaterial community

    OpenAIRE

    Ostraat ML; Mills KC; Guzan KA; Murry D

    2013-01-01

    Michele L Ostraat, Karmann C Mills, Kimberly A Guzan, Damaris MurryRTI International, Durham, NC, USAAbstract: The amount of data being generated in the nanotechnology research space is significant, and the coordination, sharing, and downstream analysis of the data is complex and consistently deliberated. The complexities of the data are due in large part to the inherently complicated characteristics of nanomaterials. Also, testing protocols and assays used for nanomaterials are diverse and l...

  1. Novel Scientific Visualization Interfaces for Interactive Information Visualization and Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demir, I.; Krajewski, W. F.

    2012-12-01

    As geoscientists are confronted with increasingly massive datasets from environmental observations to simulations, one of the biggest challenges is having the right tools to gain scientific insight from the data and communicate the understanding to stakeholders. Recent developments in web technologies make it easy to manage, visualize and share large data sets with general public. Novel visualization techniques and dynamic user interfaces allow users to interact with data, and modify the parameters to create custom views of the data to gain insight from simulations and environmental observations. This requires developing new data models and intelligent knowledge discovery techniques to explore and extract information from complex computational simulations or large data repositories. Scientific visualization will be an increasingly important component to build comprehensive environmental information platforms. This presentation provides an overview of the trends and challenges in the field of scientific visualization, and demonstrates information visualization and communication tools in the Iowa Flood Information System (IFIS), developed within the light of these challenges. The IFIS is a web-based platform developed by the Iowa Flood Center (IFC) to provide access to and visualization of flood inundation maps, real-time flood conditions, flood forecasts both short-term and seasonal, and other flood-related data for communities in Iowa. The key element of the system's architecture is the notion of community. Locations of the communities, those near streams and rivers, define basin boundaries. The IFIS provides community-centric watershed and river characteristics, weather (rainfall) conditions, and streamflow data and visualization tools. Interactive interfaces allow access to inundation maps for different stage and return period values, and flooding scenarios with contributions from multiple rivers. Real-time and historical data of water levels, gauge heights, and

  2. How Do We Know What Information Sharing Is Really Worth? Exploring Methodologies to Measure the Value of Information Sharing and Fusion Efforts

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    privacy and civil liberties has also been raised, since the potential for information collected in one location to be broadly shared could be...expenditures is not clear.6 The intangible costs of information sharing efforts on personal privacy are similarly difficult to assess and compare... paradoxically increase the risk that the information fails to be noticed or understood given the potential for information overload (Figure 2). For new

  3. Accessing and Sharing Data Using the CUAHSI Hydrologic Information System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tarboton, D. G.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Whiteaker, T. L.; Maidment, D. R.; Zaslavsky, I.

    2008-12-01

    The Consortium of Universities for the Advancement of Hydrologic Science, Inc (CUAHSI) has a Hydrologic Information System (HIS) project, which is developing infrastructure to support the sharing of hydrologic data through web services and tools for data discovery, access and publication. Centralized data services support access to National Datasets such as the USGS National Water Information System (NWIS) and SNOTEL, in a standard way. Distributed data services allow users to establish their own server and publish their data through CUAHSI HIS web services. Once such a data service is registered within HIS Central, it becomes searchable and accessible through the centralized discovery and data access tools. The HIS is founded upon an information model for observations at stationary points that supports its data services. This is implemented as both XML and relational database schema for transmission and storage of data respectively. WaterML is the XML based data transmission model that underlies the machine to machine communications, while the Observations Data Model (ODM) is a relational database model for persistent data storage. Web services support access to hydrologic data stored in ODM and transmitted using WaterML directly from applications software such as Excel, MATLAB and ArcGIS that have Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP) capability. A significant value of web services derives from the capability to use them from within a user's preferred analysis environment, rather than requiring a user to learn new software. This allows a user to work with data from national and academic sources, almost as though it was on their local disk. This poster will be computer-based with internet access for demonstration of HIS tools and functionality.

  4. An Approach to Share Architectural Drawing Information and Document Information for Automated Code Checking System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jungsik Choi; Inhan Kim

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to suggest a way of optimized managing and sharing information be-tween standard architectural drawings and construction documents in Korea architectural industry for auto-mated code checking system by linked STEP and XML. To archive this purpose, the authors have analyzed current research and technical development for STEP and XML link and developed a prototype system for sharing information between model based drawings and XML based construction documents. Finally, the authors have suggested practical use scenario of sharing information through linked STEP and XML using test case of automatic code checking. In the paper, the possibility of constructing integrated architectural computing environment through exchange and sharing of drawing information and external data for the whole building life-cycle, from the conceptual design stage to the construction and maintenance stage has been examined. Automated code checking through linked STEP and XML could be enhanced through col-laboration business, more completed code, improved building performance, and reduced construction costs.

  5. RESEARCH ON VALUE OF INFORMATION SHARING IN ONE SUPPLIER-MULTIPLE RETAILER SUPPLY CHAIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUANGPin; WANGNing-sheng

    2004-01-01

    Prior research has generally focused on models involving a single or multiple retailers with independent demands. The value of demand information sharing is analyzed in a two-level supply chain involving one supplier-multiple retailer model in which retailer demands may be correlated. Each member in the supply chain forecasts its demand using an AR (1) demand process. Two conditions of the information sharing are considered (1) Without the information sharing, the retailers only communicate their orders to the supplier. (2) With the information sharing, retailers communicate their orders and forecasting models to the supplier. Analyses showthat the reductions of supplier's average inventory and average costs are substantial with the information sharing. However, the retailers donot get direct benefit from the information sharing. The retailers may ask the supplier to reduce the replenishment leadtime, so that the retailers will obtain substantial cost savings and inventory reduction. Both partners may obtain benefits when information sharing and leadtime reduction are implemented together.

  6. PROPOSED INFORMATION SHARING SECURITY APPROACH FOR SECURITY PERSONNELS, VERTICAL INTEGRATION, SEMANTIC INTEROPERABILITY ARCHITECTURE AND FRAMEWORK FOR DIGITAL GOVERNMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Headayetullah

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly depicts the conceptual overview of vertical integration, semantic interoperability architecture such as Educational Sector Architectural Framework (ESAF for New Zealand governmentand different interoperability framework solution for digital government. In this paper, we try to develop a secure information sharing approach for digital government to improve home land security. This approach is a role and cooperation based approach for security personnel of different government departments. In order to run any successful digital government of any country in the world, it is necessary to interact with their citizen and to share secure information via different network among the citizen or other government. Consequently, in order to smooth the progress of users to cooperate with and share information without darkness and flawlessly transversely different networks and databases universally, a safe and trusted information-sharing environment has been renowned as a very important requirement and to press forward homeland security endeavor. The key incentive following this research is to put up a secure and trusted information-sharing approach for government departments. This paper presents a proficient function and teamwork based information sharing approach for safe exchange of hush-hush and privileged information amid security personnels and government departments inside the national boundaries by means of public key cryptography. The expanded approach makes use of cryptographic hash function; public key cryptosystem and a unique and complex mapping function for securely swapping over secret information. Moreover, the projected approach facilitates privacy preserving information sharing with probable restrictions based on the rank of the security personnels. The projected function and collaboration based information sharing approach ensures protected and updated information sharing between security personnels and government

  7. Sharing for Health: A Study of Chinese Adolescents' Experiences and Perspectives on Using Social Network Sites to Share Health Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Teti, Michele; Stanfield, Kellie; Campo, Shelly

    2017-07-01

    This exploratory qualitative study examines Chinese adolescents' health information sharing habits on social network sites. Ten focus group meetings with 76 adolescents, ages 12 to 17 years, were conducted at community-based organizations in Chicago's Chinatown. The research team transcribed the recording and analyzed the transcripts using ATLAS.ti. Chinese adolescents are using different social network sites for various topics of health information including food, physical activity, and so on. Adolescents would share useful and/or interesting health information. Many adolescents raised credibility concerns regarding health information and suggested evaluating the information based on self-experience or intuition, word-of-mouth, or information online. The findings shed lights on future intervention using social network sites to promote health among Chinese adolescents in the United States. Future interventions should provide adolescents with interesting and culturally sensitive health information and educate them to critically evaluate health information on social network sites.

  8. Facilitating the development of a shared purpose in a university department: the first stage towards developing a culture of shared governance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian McGowan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Background and context: The structure of higher education departments tends to be hierarchical or, at the other extreme, characterised as ‘a galaxy of individual stars’ (Handy, 1993 p 190. Ours was no exception. However, changes in the way nursing education was provided, internal growth and development followed by a period of austerity, presented our school with an unprecedented opportunity. We found ourselves in a position where we had the possibility to change. Aims: The aim of the paper is to share our reflections on the process and outcomes to date of a culture change project in a university department. The purpose of this opening part of the project was to enable creative and collegial opportunities to work together. Conclusions: An inclusive culture can make a difference to peoples’ lives and reflect the underpinning principles of person-centred practice. This project has enabled us to define our shared purpose, clarify our values, make commitments and set standards. Overall, though it has allowed us to see each other as people who have emerged from behind a faceless organisational structure. Implications for practice: The values of inclusiveness, integrity and professionalism are important for a shared understanding and effective collaborative functioning within university departments internationally, especially those that espouse person-centredness Staff teams can be structured around professional and personal development needs but these also provide a direct link to both departmental and organisational purposes aligned to education Managerial support, staff participation and an experienced facilitator are vital for successful cultural change. Our project has been UK based but we believe these experiences to be transferable and of interest to university departments elsewhere that aspire to create cultures that enable staff, and therefore students and the wider community, to flourish

  9. Contributing to Sustainable Mountain Development by Facilitating Networking and Knowledge Sharing through ICT - Collaboration between Rocky Mountain States and Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baktybek Abdrisaev

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights new opportunities for sharing knowledge and networking through the use of information and communication technologies to better contribute to Sustainable Mountain Development and Millennium Development Goals. It analyzes current challenges in mountain countries in Central Asia where political instability and weak governance, in addition to their challenging natural conditions, constitute major constraints for peoples’ lives. The authors examine possible ways to tackle the major obstacles through IT-enabled knowledge sharing and networking. They discuss a number of collaborative initiatives between Rocky Mountain States in the United States and mountain nations in Central Asia aimed at promoting the values of a democratic society and good governance through networking between educators, legislators. Also, these initiatives are aimed at fostering critical thinking through independent e-media. Based on the analysis, they suggest further ways in facilitating networking and knowledge sharing for Sustainable Mountain Development through the use of information and communication technologies by joining the efforts of all active players and also eliciting more contribution from the mountainous communities of the United States.

  10. Sharing Information the Cheap Way: A Look at "Caveman Networking."

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekhaml, Leticia

    1994-01-01

    Describes four peer networking projects initiated by school library media specialists in Georgia that promoted curriculum development, collection development and library services, cooperation between school and public libraries to share online resources, and cooperation between public and school libraries to share magazine articles. (LRW)

  11. Consumer Information Sharing : Understanding Psychological Drivers of Social Transmission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E. Akpinar (Ezgi)

    2013-01-01

    textabstractConsumers often share experiences, opinions or certain content with others. For example, they suggest restaurants, recommend article posts, share online videos, pass along rumors and complain about customer services. Such word of mouth determines what catches on and become popular among

  12. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we describe a prototype application that utilizes the embedded sensors in advanced mobile phones to infer meaningful contextual information, with the potential to support the users in managing their personal information. Contextual information such as time, location, movement...... in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  13. Security Investment, Hacking, and Information Sharing between Firms and between Hackers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kjell Hausken

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available A four period game between two firms and two hackers is analyzed. The firms first defend and the hackers thereafter attack and share information. Each hacker seeks financial gain, beneficial information exchange, and reputation gain. The two hackers’ attacks and the firms’ defenses are inverse U-shaped in each other. A hacker shifts from attack to information sharing when attack is costly or the firm’s defense is cheap. The two hackers share information, but a second more disadvantaged hacker receives less information, and mixed motives may exist between information sharing and own reputation gain. The second hacker’s attack is deterred by the first hacker’s reputation gain. Increasing information sharing effectiveness causes firms to substitute from defense to information sharing, which also increases in the firms’ unit defense cost, decreases in each firm’s unit cost of own information leakage, and increases in the unit benefit of joint leakage. Increasing interdependence between firms causes more information sharing between hackers caused by larger aggregate attacks, which firms should be conscious about. We consider three corner solutions. First and second, the firms deter disadvantaged hackers. When the second hacker is deterred, the first hacker does not share information. Third, the first hacker shares a maximum amount of information when certain conditions are met. Policy and managerial implications are provided for how firms should defend against hackers with various characteristics.

  14. Infectious Cognition: Risk Perception Affects Socially Shared Retrieval-Induced Forgetting of Medical Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coman, Alin; Berry, Jessica N

    2015-12-01

    When speakers selectively retrieve previously learned information, listeners often concurrently, and covertly, retrieve their memories of that information. This concurrent retrieval typically enhances memory for mentioned information (the rehearsal effect) and impairs memory for unmentioned but related information (socially shared retrieval-induced forgetting, SSRIF), relative to memory for unmentioned and unrelated information. Building on research showing that anxiety leads to increased attention to threat-relevant information, we explored whether concurrent retrieval is facilitated in high-anxiety real-world contexts. Participants first learned category-exemplar facts about meningococcal disease. Following a manipulation of perceived risk of infection (low vs. high risk), they listened to a mock radio show in which some of the facts were selectively practiced. Final recall tests showed that the rehearsal effect was equivalent between the two risk conditions, but SSRIF was significantly larger in the high-risk than in the low-risk condition. Thus, the tendency to exaggerate consequences of news events was found to have deleterious consequences.

  15. Library Learning: Undergraduate Students’ Informal, Self-directed, and Information Sharing Strategies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jo Ann Murphy

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available A focus group study of fourteen University of Saskatchewan second to fourth year humanities and social science undergraduate students was conducted in the fall of 2011. The purpose of the research was to determine how students learn about library resources and services. Findings indicate that the participants often use a variety of informal, self-directed and information sharing strategies. Seeking help from professors, peers, friends, and family members is a common practice. Convenience, familiarity, and perceived knowledge are key factors that determine who and how these students learn about the library. Formal instruction and seeking assistance from librarians did not resonate for participants as a typical approach for learning about the library. The author suggests that undergraduate students engage in informal learning and information sharing as many ‘adult learners’ do, similar to an employment setting. The library, within the formal educational structure, lends itself to a more informal learning context. The study concludes that libraries must continue to develop resources, services, and innovative programs that support students’ informal learning styles, while also providing formal instruction as part of the undergraduate curriculum ensuring students are exposed early on to core foundational skills that contribute to their success as informal and self-directed learners.

  16. Using mobile phone contextual information to facilitate managing image collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jakob Eg; Luniewski, Maciej

    2009-01-01

    in personal information management. We hypothesize that information inferred from embedded mobile phone sensors can offer useful contextual information for managing personal information, including the domain of interest here, namely image collections. This has potential for individuals as well as groups...

  17. The enemy of my enemy is my friend: intraguild predation between invaders and natives facilitates coexistence with shared invasive prey

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacNeil, Calum; Dick, Jaimie T. A.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and predicting the outcomes of biological invasions is challenging where multiple invader and native species interact. We hypothesize that antagonistic interactions between invaders and natives could divert their impact on subsequent invasive species, thus facilitating coexistence. From field data, we found that, when existing together in freshwater sites, the native amphipod Gammarus duebeni celticus and a previous invader G. pulex appear to facilitate the establishment of a second invader, their shared prey Crangonyx pseudogracilis. Indeed, the latter species was rarely found at sites where each Gammarus species was present on its own. Experiments indicated that this may be the result of G. d. celticus and G. pulex engaging in more intraguild predation (IGP) than cannibalism; when the ‘enemy’ of either Gammarus species was present, that is, the other Gammarus species, C. pseudogracilis significantly more often escaped predation. Thus, the presence of mutual enemies and the stronger inter- than intraspecific interactions they engage in can facilitate other invaders. With some invasive species such as C. pseudogracilis having no known detrimental effects on native species, and indeed having some positive ecological effects, we also conclude that some invasions could promote biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. PMID:25122739

  18. The I3I Model; Identifying Cultural Determinants of Information Sharing via C2 Information Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-06-01

    phenomenon. We follow a positivist approach, implying an a priori assumption of discoverable factors explaining information sharing behavior. However, the...theory remains a leading and widely used paradigm of national culture. Therefore in this paper we use Hofstede’s theory to demonstrate some of the... Positivist Case Research: Current Practices, Trends, and Recommendations. MIS Quarterly, 27 (4), 597- 636. Fishbein, M. & Ajzen, I. (1975). Belief

  19. Creating the sustainable conditions for knowledge information sharing in virtual community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiangtao; Yang, Jianmei; Chen, Quan; Tsai, Sang-Bing

    2016-01-01

    Encyclopedias are not a new platform for the distribution of knowledge, but they have recently drawn a great deal of attention in their online iteration. Peer production in particular has emerged as a new mode of providing information with value and offering competitive advantage in information production. Large numbers of volunteers actively share their knowledge by continuously editing articles in Baidu encyclopedias. Most articles in the online communities are the cumulative and integrated products of the contributions of many coauthors. Email-based surveys and objective data mining were here used to collect analytical data. Critical mass theory is here used to analyze the characteristics of these collective actions and to explain the emergence and sustainability of these actions in the Baidu Encyclopedia communities. These results show that, based on the collective action framework, the contributors group satisfied the two key characteristics that ensure the collective action of knowledge contribution will both take place and become self-sustaining. This analysis not only facilitates the identification of collective actions related to individuals sharing knowledge in virtual communities, but also can provide an insight for other similar virtual communities' management and development.

  20. ISBP: Understanding the Security Rule of Users' Information-Sharing Behaviors in Partnership.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hongchen; Wang, Xinjun

    2016-01-01

    The rapid growth of social network data has given rise to high security awareness among users, especially when they exchange and share their personal information. However, because users have different feelings about sharing their information, they are often puzzled about who their partners for exchanging information can be and what information they can share. Is it possible to assist users in forming a partnership network in which they can exchange and share information with little worry? We propose a modified information sharing behavior prediction (ISBP) model that can help in understanding the underlying rules by which users share their information with partners in light of three common aspects: what types of items users are likely to share, what characteristics of users make them likely to share information, and what features of users' sharing behavior are easy to predict. This model is applied with machine learning techniques in WEKA to predict users' decisions pertaining to information sharing behavior and form them into trustable partnership networks by learning their features. In the experiment section, by using two real-life datasets consisting of citizens' sharing behavior, we identify the effect of highly sensitive requests on sharing behavior adjacent to individual variables: the younger participants' partners are more difficult to predict than those of the older participants, whereas the partners of people who are not computer majors are easier to predict than those of people who are computer majors. Based on these findings, we believe that it is necessary and feasible to offer users personalized suggestions on information sharing decisions, and this is pioneering work that could benefit college researchers focusing on user-centric strategies and website owners who want to collect more user information without raising their privacy awareness or losing their trustworthiness.

  1. Fuzzy-rule-based Adaptive Resource Control for Information Sharing in P2P Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Zhengping; Wu, Hao

    With more and more peer-to-peer (P2P) technologies available for online collaboration and information sharing, people can launch more and more collaborative work in online social networks with friends, colleagues, and even strangers. Without face-to-face interactions, the question of who can be trusted and then share information with becomes a big concern of a user in these online social networks. This paper introduces an adaptive control service using fuzzy logic in preference definition for P2P information sharing control, and designs a novel decision-making mechanism using formal fuzzy rules and reasoning mechanisms adjusting P2P information sharing status following individual users' preferences. Applications of this adaptive control service into different information sharing environments show that this service can provide a convenient and accurate P2P information sharing control for individual users in P2P networks.

  2. Incentive Mechanism Model Design for Sharing of Information Resources in Rural Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xirong; GAO; Lingling; SHAN

    2013-01-01

    In order to solve the issues concerning the cross-unit sharing of information resources in rural areas, we analyze the incentive problem of the sharing of information resources in rural areas using the incentive theory method; establish corresponding incentive mechanism model (It is divided into positive incentive model and negative incentive model, and only when the two models guarantee each other and are used at the same time can they be effective). Based on this, we put forward the institutional design for sharing of information resources in rural areas as follows: firstly, establishing an administrative agency of rural information resources sharing, above the authority of all units, responsible for related work on sharing of information resources in rural areas; secondly, establishing and improving the positive and negative incentive mechanisms, to ensure the realization of sharing of information resources in rural areas.

  3. INTEROPERABILITY, TRUST BASED INFORMATION SHARING PROTOCOL AND SECURITY: DIGITAL GOVERNMENT KEY ISSUES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md.Headayetullah

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digitalgovernment newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol andsecurity are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawlessinteroperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisationsin several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure securityfor its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens.Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration forsolving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery andmanage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demandinformation sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country andacross national borders. A number of daunting challenges survive to the progress of an efficientinformation sharing protocol. A secure and trusted information-sharing protocol is required to enableusers to interact and share information easily and perfectly across many diverse networks and databasesglobally. This article presents (1 literature review of digital government security and interoperabilityand, (2 key research issue trust based information sharing protocol for seamless interoperability amongdiverse government organizations or agencies around the world. While trust-based information access iswell studied in the literature, presented secure information sharing technologies and protocols cannotoffer enough incentives for government agencies to share information amid them without harming theirown national interest. To overcome the drawbacks of the exiting technology, an innovative and proficienttrust-based security protocol is proposed in this

  4. Making Sense of Information Sharing in E-Government Inter-Organizational Collaborations: A Malaysian Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harold, Dolly Amy

    2011-01-01

    Information sharing is a fundamental goal of information systems (IS). Yet information sharing, although critical and much acclaimed, is complex in terms of its concepts and implementation. How to leverage this phenomenon while implementing an IS is discussed at length in the literature. Both academics and practitioners in IS are striving to…

  5. Information-Seeking and Sharing Behaviors among Fire Service Field Staff Instructors: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruan, Lian J.

    2011-01-01

    Fire service field staff instructors seek and share information and use information sources during their instructional work of teaching, training and curriculum development. This study is the first attempt to study their information-seeking and sharing behaviors, which have not previously been investigated empirically. Twenty-five fire service…

  6. 77 FR 58412 - Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory Committee

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    ... the meeting. Purpose The GAC will act as the focal point for justice information systems integration... of Justice Programs Meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative Federal Advisory... announcement of a meeting of the Global Justice Information Sharing Initiative (Global) Federal...

  7. Business Value of Information Sharing and the Role of Emerging Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sanjeev

    2009-01-01

    Information Technology has brought significant benefits to organizations by allowing greater information sharing within and across firm boundaries leading to performance improvements. Emerging technologies such as Service Oriented Architecture (SOA) and Web2.0 have transformed the volume and process of information sharing. However, a comprehensive…

  8. Graduating to Postdoc: Information-Sharing in Support of Organizational Structures and Needs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keller, Richard M.; Lucas, Paul J.; Compton, Michael M.; Stewart, Helen J.; Baya, Vinod; DelAlto, Martha

    1999-01-01

    The deployment of information-sharing systems in large organizations can significantly impact existing policies and procedures with regard to authority and control over information. Unless information-sharing systems explicitly support organizational structures and needs, these systems will be rejected summarily. The Postdoc system is a deployed Web-based information-sharing system created specifically to address organizational needs. Postdoc contains various organizational support features including a shared, globally navigable document space, as well as specialized access control, distributed administration, and mailing list features built around the key notion of hierarchical group structures. We review successes and difficulties in supporting organizational needs with Postdoc

  9. Secure Peer-to-Peer Networks for Scientific Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimabadi, Homa

    2012-01-01

    The most common means of remote scientific collaboration today includes the trio of e-mail for electronic communication, FTP for file sharing, and personalized Web sites for dissemination of papers and research results. With the growth of broadband Internet, there has been a desire to share large files (movies, files, scientific data files) over the Internet. Email has limits on the size of files that can be attached and transmitted. FTP is often used to share large files, but this requires the user to set up an FTP site for which it is hard to set group privileges, it is not straightforward for everyone, and the content is not searchable. Peer-to-peer technology (P2P), which has been overwhelmingly successful in popular content distribution, is the basis for development of a scientific collaboratory called Scientific Peer Network (SciPerNet). This technology combines social networking with P2P file sharing. SciPerNet will be a standalone application, written in Java and Swing, thus insuring portability to a number of different platforms. Some of the features include user authentication, search capability, seamless integration with a data center, the ability to create groups and social networks, and on-line chat. In contrast to P2P networks such as Gnutella, Bit Torrent, and others, SciPerNet incorporates three design elements that are critical to application of P2P for scientific purposes: User authentication, Data integrity validation, Reliable searching SciPerNet also provides a complementary solution to virtual observatories by enabling distributed collaboration and sharing of downloaded and/or processed data among scientists. This will, in turn, increase scientific returns from NASA missions. As such, SciPerNet can serve a two-fold purpose for NASA: a cost-savings software as well as a productivity tool for scientists working with data from NASA missions.

  10. Volunteered Geographic Information for Disaster Management with Application to Earthquake Disaster Databank & Sharing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, H.; Zhang, W. C.; Deng, C.; Nie, N.; Yi, L.

    2017-02-01

    All phases of disaster management require up-to-date and accurate information. Different in-situ and remote sensor systems help to monitor dynamic properties such as air quality, water level or inundated areas. The rapid emergence of web-based services has facilitated the collection, dissemination, and cartographic representation of spatial information from the public, giving rise to the idea of using Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) to aid disaster management. In this study, with a brief review on the concept and the development of disaster management, opportunities and challenges for applying VGI in disaster management were explored. The challenges, including Data availability, Data quality, Data management and Legal issues of using VGI for disaster management, were discussed in detail with particular emphasis on the actual needs of disaster management practice in China. Three different approaches to assure VGI data quality, namely the classification and authority design of volunteers, a government-led VGI data acquisition framework for disaster management and a quality assessment system for VGI, respectively, were presented and discussed. As a case study, a prototype of VGI oriented earthquake disaster databank & sharing platform, an open WebGIS system for volunteers and other interested individuals collaboratively create and manage the earthquake disaster related information, was proposed, to provide references for improving the level of earthquake emergency response and disaster mitigation in China.

  11. Information delivery manuals to facilitate it supported energy analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mondrup, Thomas Fænø; Karlshøj, Jan; Vestergaard, Flemming

    In response to continuing Building Information Modeling (BIM) progress, building performance simulation tools such as IESVE are being utilized to explore construction projects and influence design decisions with increasing frequency. To maximize the potential of these tools, a specification...... of information exchange and digital workflows is required. This paper presents the preliminary findings of an ongoing study aimed at developing an Information Delivery Manual (IDM) for IT supported energy analysis at concept design phase. The IDM development is based on: (1) a review of current approaches (2...

  12. Shared vision, shared vulnerability: A content analysis of corporate social responsibility information on tobacco industry websites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDaniel, Patricia A; Cadman, Brie; Malone, Ruth E

    2016-08-01

    Tobacco companies rely on corporate social responsibility (CSR) initiatives to improve their public image and advance their political objectives, which include thwarting or undermining tobacco control policies. For these reasons, implementation guidelines for the World Health Organization's Framework Convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) recommend curtailing or prohibiting tobacco industry CSR. To understand how and where major tobacco companies focus their CSR resources, we explored CSR-related content on 4 US and 4 multinational tobacco company websites in February 2014. The websites described a range of CSR-related activities, many common across all companies, and no programs were unique to a particular company. The websites mentioned CSR activities in 58 countries, representing nearly every region of the world. Tobacco companies appear to have a shared vision about what constitutes CSR, due perhaps to shared vulnerabilities. Most countries that host tobacco company CSR programs are parties to the FCTC, highlighting the need for full implementation of the treaty, and for funding to monitor CSR activity, replace industry philanthropy, and enforce existing bans. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yann Joly

    Full Text Available Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants' information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public's opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public.Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents' concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers' institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models for

  14. Fair Shares and Sharing Fairly: A Survey of Public Views on Open Science, Informed Consent and Participatory Research in Biobanking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joly, Yann; Dalpé, Gratien; So, Derek; Birko, Stanislav

    2015-01-01

    Context Biobanks are important resources which enable large-scale genomic research with human samples and data, raising significant ethical concerns about how participants’ information is managed and shared. Three previous studies of the Canadian public’s opinion about these topics have been conducted. Building on those results, an online survey representing the first study of public perceptions about biobanking spanning all Canadian provinces was conducted. Specifically, this study examined qualitative views about biobank objectives, governance structure, control and ownership of samples and data, benefit sharing, consent practices and data sharing norms, as well as additional questions and ethical concerns expressed by the public. Results Over half the respondents preferred to give a one-time general consent for the future sharing of their samples among researchers. Most expressed willingness for their data to be shared with the international scientific community rather than used by one or more Canadian institutions. Whereas more respondents indicated a preference for one-time general consent than any other model of consent, they constituted less than half of the total responses, revealing a lack of consensus among survey respondents regarding this question. Respondents identified biobank objectives, governance structure and accountability as the most important information to provide participants. Respondents’ concerns about biobanking generally centred around the control and ownership of biological samples and data, especially with respect to potential misuse by insurers, the government and other third parties. Although almost half the respondents suggested that these should be managed by the researchers’ institutions, results indicate that the public is interested in being well-informed about these projects and suggest the importance of increased involvement from participants. In conclusion, the study discusses the viability of several proposed models

  15. Balancing Value and Risk in Information Sharing Through Obfuscation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-20

    Locaccino [18] for sensor data, and others such as Virtual Individual Servers [20], Lockr [19], Persona [21] and Microsoft Health Vault [22] for more generic...tion during sharing,” ser . IEEE Statistical Signal Processing Workshop (Submitted), 2012. [3] A. Raij, A. Ghosh, S. Kumar, and M. Srivastava, “Privacy...risks emerging from the adoption of innocuous wearable sensors in the mobile environ- ment,” ser . CHI, 2011. [4] H. Ahmadi, N. Pham, R. Ganti, T

  16. Information sharing and collaborative forecasting in retail supply chains

    OpenAIRE

    Småros, Johanna

    2005-01-01

    Demand distortion, also known as the bullwhip effect, is an important problem encountered in a wide range of supply chains. To counteract this problem, it has been recommended that downstream sales data be shared with upstream members of supply chains. Furthermore, it has been suggested that even greater benefits would be attained through the implementation of collaborative forecasting in supply chains. In practice, however, many companies have found it difficult to realize the suggested bene...

  17. The influence of locative media on social information sharing: a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijl, Edwin; Klaassen, Randy; Akker, op den Rieks

    2013-01-01

    Mobile phones and social media enable people to share information with others whenever they want, wherever they want. More recent developments allow people to augment their sharing experience by geo-tagging their information through GPS enabled phones. These 'locative media' can be used to facilitat

  18. Exploring the Use of Wikis for Information Sharing in Interdisciplinary Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phuwanartnurak, Jiranida

    2013-01-01

    Interdisciplinary design presents challenges in design collaboration due to the difficulty in communicating and coordinating among disciplines. Many tools have been developed and used to support information sharing in design, and the use of Web technology is becoming increasingly important for the sharing of information within design teams. Wikis…

  19. A Practice Theoretical Exploration of Information Sharing and Trust in a Dispersed Community of Design Scholars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilerot, Ola

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: This paper presents an exploration of information sharing and trust in a geographically dispersed network of design scholars. Method: The study used a practice theory approach to identify aspects of trust in relation to information sharing. The empirical material consists of 15 in-depth interviews with design scholars from four…

  20. Design of a Business-to-Government Information Sharing Architecture Using Business Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engelenburg, S.H.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Information sharing between businesses and government agencies is of vital importance, yet business are often reluctant to share information, e.g. as it might be misused. Taking this into account is however often overlooked in the design of software architectures. In this research we apply a design

  1. Design of a Business-to-Government Information Sharing Architecture Using Business Rules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Engelenburg, S.H.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Klievink, A.J.

    2016-01-01

    Information sharing between businesses and government agencies is of vital importance, yet business are often reluctant to share information, e.g. as it might be misused. Taking this into account is however often overlooked in the design of software architectures. In this research we apply a design

  2. Three Essays on Law Enforcement and Emergency Response Information Sharing and Collaboration: An Insider Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treglia, Joseph V.

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation identifies what may be done to overcome barriers to information sharing among federal, tribal, state, and local law enforcement agencies and emergency responders. Social, technical, and policy factors related to information sharing and collaboration in the law enforcement and emergency response communities are examined. This…

  3. Improving the safety of health information technology requires shared responsibility: It is time we all step up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sittig, Dean F; Belmont, Elisabeth; Singh, Hardeep

    2017-07-14

    In 2011, an Institute of Medicine report on health information technology (IT) and patient safety highlighted that building health-IT for safer use is a shared responsibility between key stakeholders including: "vendors, care providers, healthcare organizations, health-IT departments, and public and private agencies". Use of electronic health records (EHRs) involves all these stakeholders, but they often have conflicting priorities and requirements. Since 2011, the concept of shared responsibility has gained little traction and EHR developers and users continue to attribute the substantial, long list of problems to each other. In this article, we discuss how these key stakeholders have complementary roles in improving EHR safety and must share responsibility to improve the current state of EHR use. We use real-world safety examples and outline a comprehensive shared responsibility approach to help guide development of future rules, regulations, and standards for EHR usability, interoperability and security as outlined in the 21st Century Cures Act. This approach clearly defines the responsibilities of each party and helps create appropriate measures for success. National and international policymakers must facilitate the local organizational and socio-political climate to stimulate the adoption of shared responsibility principles. When all major stakeholders are sharing responsibility, we will be more likely to usher in a new age of progress and innovation related to health IT. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Open Informational Ecosystems: The Missing Link for Sharing Educational Resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerres, Michael; Heinen, Richard

    2015-01-01

    Open educational resources are not available "as such". Their provision relies on a technological infrastructure of related services that can be described as an informational ecosystem. A closed informational ecosystem keeps educational resources within its boundary. An open informational ecosystem relies on the concurrence of…

  5. PKI-based security for peer-to-peer information sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berket, Karlo; Essiari, Abdelilah; Muratas, Artur

    2004-05-02

    The free flow of information is the feature that has made peer-to-peer information sharing applications popular. However, this very feature holds back the acceptance of these applications by the corporate and scientific communities. In these communities it is important to provide confidentiality and integrity of communication and to enforce access control to shared resources. We present a number of security mechanisms that can be used to satisfy these security requirements. Our solutions are based on established and proven security techniques and we utilize existing technologies when possible. As a proof of concept, we have developed an information sharing system, called scishare, which integrates a number of these security mechanisms to provide a secure environment for information sharing. This system will allow a broader set of user communities to benefit from peer-to-peer information sharing.

  6. SocialCloudShare: a Facebook Application for a Relationship-based Information Sharing in the Cloud

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davide Albertini

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In last few years, Online Social Networks (OSNs have become one of the most used platforms for sharing data (e.g., pictures, short texts on the Internet. Nowadays Facebook and Twitter are the most popular OSN providers, though they implement different social models. However, independently from the social model they implement, OSN platforms have become a widespread repository of personal information. All these data (e.g., profile information, shared elements, users’ likes are stored in a centralized repository that can be exploited for data mining and marketing analysis. With this data collection process, lots of sensitive information are gathered by OSN providers that, in time, have become more and more targeted by malicious attackers. To overcome this problem, in this paper we present an architectural framework that, by means of a Social Application registered in Facebook, allows users to move their data (e.g., relationships, resources outside the OSN realm and to store them in the public Cloud. Given that the public Cloud is not a secure and private environment, our proposal provides users security and privacy guarantees over their data by encrypting the resources and by anonymizing their social graphs. The presented framework enforces Relationship-Based Access Control (ReBAC rules over the anonymized social graph, providing OSN users the possibility to selectively share information and resources as they are used to do in Facebook.

  7. Implication of information sharing on Bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales) and retail......Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales......) and retailers who did not share. Bullwhip effect is reduced when the shared volume of retailers who shared downstream demand information increased; however, fill rate performance is not improved. Key causes of Bullwhip effect are identified - forecast updating, timeliness of demand signal, limited use of shared...

  8. Semantic information can facilitate covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivolta, Davide; Schmalzl, Laura; Coltheart, Max; Palermo, Romina

    2010-11-01

    People with congenital prosopagnosia have never developed the ability to accurately recognize faces. This single case investigation systematically investigates covert and overt face recognition in "C.," a 69 year-old woman with congenital prosopagnosia. Specifically, we: (a) describe the first assessment of covert face recognition in congenital prosopagnosia using multiple tasks; (b) show that semantic information can contribute to covert recognition; and (c) provide a theoretical explanation for the mechanisms underlying covert face recognition.

  9. Perspectives on Cybersecurity Information Sharing among Multiple Stakeholders Using a Decision-Theoretic Approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Meilin; Devine, Laura; Zhuang, Jun

    2017-08-11

    The government, private sectors, and others users of the Internet are increasingly faced with the risk of cyber incidents. Damage to computer systems and theft of sensitive data caused by cyber attacks have the potential to result in lasting harm to entities under attack, or to society as a whole. The effects of cyber attacks are not always obvious, and detecting them is not a simple proposition. As the U.S. federal government believes that information sharing on cybersecurity issues among organizations is essential to safety, security, and resilience, the importance of trusted information exchange has been emphasized to support public and private decision making by encouraging the creation of the Information Sharing and Analysis Center (ISAC). Through a decision-theoretic approach, this article provides new perspectives on ISAC, and the advent of the new Information Sharing and Analysis Organizations (ISAOs), which are intended to provide similar benefits to organizations that cannot fit easily into the ISAC structure. To help understand the processes of information sharing against cyber threats, this article illustrates 15 representative information sharing structures between ISAC, government, and other participating entities, and provide discussions on the strategic interactions between different stakeholders. This article also identifies the costs of information sharing and information security borne by different parties in this public-private partnership both before and after cyber attacks, as well as the two main benefits. This article provides perspectives on the mechanism of information sharing and some detailed cost-benefit analysis. © 2017 Society for Risk Analysis.

  10. Improvement of Resilience to Disasters in Local Community Using Information Sharing Platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayama, Toru; Suzuki, Yuji; Park, Wonho; Hayashi, Akira

    This paper presents a proposal for Disaster Information Sharing Platform, which enable local government and residents to share the disaster information, and to cope with the disaster under the proper balance of Self-help, Mutual-help and Public-help. Informagic, which has been developed as a concrete example of the information sharing platform, enable us to collect information from variety of sources, such as government, local government, research institutes, private contents providers and so forth, and to transmit these information to residents through multi-media, such as internet, mobile-phone network and wireless system. An experiment was conducted under the cooperation of City of Fujisawa, to investigate the effectiveness of such platform for the disaster mitigation. Further, the platform was utilized to provide information to refugees at refuges for the Iwate-Miyagi Inland Earthquake. Through these experiments, effectiveness and issues of the platform and information sharing were investigated.

  11. Application description and policy model in collaborative environment for sharing of information on epidemiological and clinical research data sets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias César Araujo de Carvalho

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Sharing of epidemiological and clinical data sets among researchers is poor at best, in detriment of science and community at large. The purpose of this paper is therefore to (1 describe a novel Web application designed to share information on study data sets focusing on epidemiological clinical research in a collaborative environment and (2 create a policy model placing this collaborative environment into the current scientific social context. METHODOLOGY: The Database of Databases application was developed based on feedback from epidemiologists and clinical researchers requiring a Web-based platform that would allow for sharing of information about epidemiological and clinical study data sets in a collaborative environment. This platform should ensure that researchers can modify the information. A Model-based predictions of number of publications and funding resulting from combinations of different policy implementation strategies (for metadata and data sharing were generated using System Dynamics modeling. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The application allows researchers to easily upload information about clinical study data sets, which is searchable and modifiable by other users in a wiki environment. All modifications are filtered by the database principal investigator in order to maintain quality control. The application has been extensively tested and currently contains 130 clinical study data sets from the United States, Australia, China and Singapore. Model results indicated that any policy implementation would be better than the current strategy, that metadata sharing is better than data-sharing, and that combined policies achieve the best results in terms of publications. CONCLUSIONS: Based on our empirical observations and resulting model, the social network environment surrounding the application can assist epidemiologists and clinical researchers contribute and search for metadata in a collaborative environment, thus potentially

  12. The Design of Individual Knowledge Sharing Platform Based on Blog for Online Information Literacy Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qun, Zeng; Xiaocheng, Zhong

    Knowledge sharing means that an individual, team and organization share the knowledge with other members of the organization in the course of activities through the various ways. This paper analyzes the obstacle factors in knowledge sharing based on the technical point, and chooses the Blog technology to build a platform for improving knowledge sharing between individuals. The construction of the platform is an important foundation for information literacy education, and it also can be used to achieve online information literacy education. Finally, it gives a detailed analysis of its functions, advantages and disadvantages.

  13. Sharing by Design: Understanding and Supporting Personal Health Information Sharing and Collaboration within Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skeels, Meredith McLain

    2010-01-01

    Friends, family, and community provide important support and help to patients who face an illness. Unfortunately, keeping a social network informed about a patient's health status and needs takes effort, making it difficult for people who are sick and exhausted from illness. Members of a patient's social network are often eager to help, but can be…

  14. Revenue Sharing and Information Exchange under Non-Discriminatory Taxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keen, M.; Ligthart, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    The international exchange of tax information, and its merits compared to withholding taxes, is the central topic in current debates in international tax policy.The purpose of this paper is to characterize and compare the tax regimes that emerge with and without information exchange, under the assum

  15. The implications of information sharing on bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed Mostafa; Johansen, John

    2007-01-01

    This paper compares actual bullwhip effects provided by retailers who shared downstream demand information and retailers who did not share in a three-level (divergent) toy supply chain. The toy supply chain faces high forecast errors and bullwhip effects due to unpredictable and seasonal demand...... demand information. To reduce the bullwhip effect, two solutions using the shared information are tested. They are a proposed premature replenishment rule and a simple forecast updating mechanism. Both solutions are proven capable in reducing bullwhip effects of the toy supply chain even without...... patterns. The results indicate a reduction of the bullwhip effect and an improvement of the fill rate due to the increase of retailers who shared downstream demand information. This paper also addresses two main causes of the bullwhip effect, which are the supply variability and limited use of the shared...

  16. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  17. Informative Cues Facilitate Saccadic Localization in Blindsight Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Masatoshi; Hafed, Ziad M.; Isa, Tadashi

    2017-01-01

    Patients with damage to the primary visual cortex (V1) demonstrate residual visual performance during laboratory tasks despite denying having a conscious percept. The mechanisms behind such performance, often called blindsight, are not fully understood, but the use of surgically-induced unilateral V1 lesions in macaque monkeys provides a useful animal model for exploring such mechanisms. For example, V1-lesioned monkeys localize stimuli in a forced-choice condition while at the same time failing to report awareness of identical stimuli in a yes-no detection condition, similar to human patients. Moreover, residual cognitive processes, including saliency-guided eye movements, bottom-up attention with peripheral non-informative cues, and spatial short-term memory, have all been demonstrated in these animals. Here we examined whether post-lesion residual visuomotor processing can be modulated by top-down task knowledge. We tested two V1-lesioned monkeys with a visually guided saccade task in which we provided an informative foveal pre-cue about upcoming target location. Our monkeys fixated while we presented a leftward or rightward arrow (serving as a pre-cue) superimposed on the fixation point (FP). After various cue-target onset asynchronies (CTOAs), a saccadic target (of variable contrast across trials) was presented either in the affected (contra-lesional) or seeing (ipsi-lesional) hemifield. Critically, target location was in the same hemifield that the arrow pre-cue pointed towards in 80% of the trials (valid-cue trials), making the cue highly useful for task performance. In both monkeys, correct saccade reaction times were shorter during valid than invalid trials. Moreover, in one monkey, the ratio of correct saccades towards the affected hemifield was higher during valid than invalid trials. We replicated both reaction time and correct ratio effects in the same monkey using a symbolic color cue. These results suggest that V1-lesion monkeys can use informative

  18. Patterns of Knowledge Sharing and Knowledge Creation in New Information Environments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jørgen Lerche; Meyer, Kirsten

    2006-01-01

    and creation processes. The aim is to obtain a deeper comprehension of which factors determine whether the use of information technology becomes a success or a failure in relation to knowledge sharing and creation. The paper is based on three previous studies investigating the use of information technology......Do the knowledge sharing and creation processes in collaborating groups benefit from the use of new information environments or are the environments rather inhibitive to the development of these processes? A number of different studies have shown quite varied results when it comes to appraising...... the importance and value of using new information technology in knowledge sharing and creation processes. In this paper we will try to unveil the patterns appearing in the use of new information environment and the users' understanding of the significance of using information technology in knowledge sharing...

  19. Adaptive topology evolution in information-sharing social networks

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Duanbing; Lu, Linyuan; Medo, Matus; Zhang, Yi-Cheng; Zhou, Tao

    2011-01-01

    The advent of Internet and World Wide Web has led to unprecedent growth of the information available. People usually face the information overload by following a limited number of sources which best fit their interests. In order to get the picture it is important to address issues like who people do follow and how they search for better information sources. In this work we conduct an empirical analysis on different on-line social networking sites, and draw inspiration from its results to present different source selection strategies in an adaptive model for social recommendation. We show that local search rules which enhance the typical topological features of real social communities give rise to network configurations that are globally optimal. Hence these abstract rules help to create networks which are both effective in information diffusion and people friendly.

  20. The Evaluation of Two Methods to Facilitate Shared Decision Making for Men Considering the Prostate-Specific Antigen Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frosch, Dominick L; Kaplan, Robert M; Felitti, Vincent

    2001-01-01

    OBJECTIVE California law (Grant H. Kenyon Prostate Cancer Detection Act) requires physicians to inform all patients older than aged 50 years who receive a prostate examination about the availability of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test. Physicians are not given guidance on how this information should be presented. We sought to evaluate the effects upon PSA screening rates of informing patients about PSA testing by 2 different techniques. DESIGN Factorial comparison of discussion versus video formats for presenting information about the PSA test. SETTING Patients were recruited through the Health Appraisal screening program in the Department for Preventive Medicine, Kaiser Permanente, San Diego, Calif. PARTICIPANTS Male patients undergoing health appraisal screening participated in 1 of 4 groups providing information about PSA screening: usual care ( n =43), discussion about risks and benefits of PSA ( n =45), shared decision-making video ( n =46), or video plus discussion ( n =42). Participants were sequentially assigned to 1 of the 4 groups. RESULTS No significant differences in demographics or family history was demonstrated between the groups at the time of group assignment. Participants in the intervention groups rated the information as clear, balanced, and fair. There were significant differences in the number of men requesting a PSA test, with the highest rate in the usual care group (97.7%), followed by discussion (82.2%), video (60.0%), and video plus discussion (50.0%). CONCLUSION Providing information about PSA screening in the form of video or discussion is feasible and significantly alters PSA screening rates. PMID:11422636

  1. Cloud computing: a new business paradigm for biomedical information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenthal, Arnon; Mork, Peter; Li, Maya Hao; Stanford, Jean; Koester, David; Reynolds, Patti

    2010-04-01

    We examine how the biomedical informatics (BMI) community, especially consortia that share data and applications, can take advantage of a new resource called "cloud computing". Clouds generally offer resources on demand. In most clouds, charges are pay per use, based on large farms of inexpensive, dedicated servers, sometimes supporting parallel computing. Substantial economies of scale potentially yield costs much lower than dedicated laboratory systems or even institutional data centers. Overall, even with conservative assumptions, for applications that are not I/O intensive and do not demand a fully mature environment, the numbers suggested that clouds can sometimes provide major improvements, and should be seriously considered for BMI. Methodologically, it was very advantageous to formulate analyses in terms of component technologies; focusing on these specifics enabled us to bypass the cacophony of alternative definitions (e.g., exactly what does a cloud include) and to analyze alternatives that employ some of the component technologies (e.g., an institution's data center). Relative analyses were another great simplifier. Rather than listing the absolute strengths and weaknesses of cloud-based systems (e.g., for security or data preservation), we focus on the changes from a particular starting point, e.g., individual lab systems. We often find a rough parity (in principle), but one needs to examine individual acquisitions--is a loosely managed lab moving to a well managed cloud, or a tightly managed hospital data center moving to a poorly safeguarded cloud? 2009 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. The Mediating Role of Knowledge Sharing on Information Technology and Innovation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onwika Kaewchur

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the relationship between information technology, knowledge sharing, and a firm’s innovation. Knowledge sharing as a mediating effect is also simultaneously investigated with regard to the relationship between information technology and a firm’s innovation. In this research, the quantitative method was mainly employed. The data was collected with a survey. A total of 224 respondents from herbal manufacturing companies were included in the research. The results presented in this paper demonstrate that knowledge sharing and information technology can critically influence the organization’s innovation and can play a vital role as a significant success factor in this process.

  3. Interoperability, Trust Based Information Sharing Protocol and Security: Digital Government Key Issues

    CERN Document Server

    Headayetullah, Md; 10.5121/ijcsit.2010.2306

    2010-01-01

    Improved interoperability between public and private organizations is of key significance to make digital government newest triumphant. Digital Government interoperability, information sharing protocol and security are measured the key issue for achieving a refined stage of digital government. Flawless interoperability is essential to share the information between diverse and merely dispersed organisations in several network environments by using computer based tools. Digital government must ensure security for its information systems, including computers and networks for providing better service to the citizens. Governments around the world are increasingly revolving to information sharing and integration for solving problems in programs and policy areas. Evils of global worry such as syndrome discovery and manage, terror campaign, immigration and border control, prohibited drug trafficking, and more demand information sharing, harmonization and cooperation amid government agencies within a country and acros...

  4. A collaborative framework to exchange and share product information within a supply chain context

    CERN Document Server

    Geryville, Hichem; Bouras, Abdelaziz; Sapidis, Nikolaos

    2007-01-01

    The new requirement for "collaboration" between multidisciplinary collaborators induces to exchange and share adequate information on the product, processes throughout the products' lifecycle. Thus, effective capture of information, and also its extraction, recording, exchange, sharing, and reuse become increasingly critical. These lead companies to adopt new improved methodologies in managing the exchange and sharing of information. The aim of this paper is to describe a collaborative framework system to exchange and share information, which is based on: (i) The Product Process Collaboration Organization model (PPCO) which defines product and process information, and the various collaboration methods for the organizations involved in the supply chain. (ii) Viewpoint model describes relationships between each actor and the comprehensive Product/Process model, defining each actor's "domain of interest" within the evolving product definition. (iii) A layer which defines the comprehensive organization and collab...

  5. 12 CFR 334.32 - Sharing medical information with affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 334.32 Section 334.32 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION REGULATIONS AND... affiliate— (1) In connection with the business of insurance or annuities (including the activities described in section 18B of the model Privacy of Consumer Financial and Health Information Regulation issued...

  6. 12 CFR 41.32 - Sharing medical information with affiliates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... (b) to an affiliate: (1) In connection with the business of insurance or annuities (including the activities described in section 18B of the model Privacy of Consumer Financial and Health Information Regulation issued by the National Association of Insurance Commissioners, as in effect on January 1,...

  7. Improving Document Accesibility through Ontology-Based Information Sharing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kim, Sanghee; Ahmed, Saeema; Wallace, Ken

    2006-01-01

    Information plays a crucial role in the entire life cycle of a product, i.e. from conceptual design through use and maintenance to eventual disposal. Once key personnel move on from a company, vital know-how may only exist in archived product documents, leading to great interest in ways of extrac...

  8. 45 CFR 400.27 - Safeguarding and sharing of information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ..., ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REFUGEE RESETTLEMENT PROGRAM... connected with, and necessary to, the administration of the program, a State must ensure that no information... directly connected with, and necessary to, the administration of the program during the first 36...

  9. 78 FR 6045 - Information Sharing Among Federal Home Loan Banks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-29

    ... the weekly report on Bank liquidity prepared by DBR; and (4) information relating to the quarterly..., indicating whether each Bank has timely filed with FHFA the quarterly liquidity certification required... required to carry out the examination process effectively. Banks' Quarterly Liquidity Certifications...

  10. Knowledge-Sharing Intention among Information Professionals in Nigeria: A Statistical Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tella, Adeyinka

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the researcher administered a survey and developed and tested a statistical model to examine the factors that determine the intention of information professionals in Nigeria to share knowledge with their colleagues. The result revealed correlations between the overall score for intending to share knowledge and other…

  11. Knowledge Sharing and Dialogue among Information Technology Workers: A Case Study Using a Public Works Department

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, Priscilla

    2013-01-01

    The problem addressed in this study is the willingness or reluctance of information technology (IT) knowledge workers and managers to share knowledge. The purpose of the study was to examine the willingness or unwillingness of technical personnel in IT to share technical knowledge and the issues surrounding their reluctance, if any. The study…

  12. A Foundation for Understanding Knowledge Sharing: Organizational Culture, Informal Workplace Learning, Performance Support, and Knowledge Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caruso, Shirley J.

    2017-01-01

    This paper serves as an exploration into some of the ways in which organizations can promote, capture, share, and manage the valuable knowledge of their employees. The problem is that employees typically do not share valuable information, skills, or expertise with other employees or with the entire organization. The author uses research as well as…

  13. 1. round table. Information and knowledge sharing; 1. table ronde - information et partage des connaissances

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The law from December 30, 1991, precisely defines 3 axes of researches for the management of high level and long-lived radioactive wastes: separation/transmutation, surface storage and underground disposal. A global evaluation report about these researches is to be supplied in 2006 by the French government to the Parliament. A first synthesis of the knowledge gained after 14 years of research has led the national commission of the public debate (CNDP) to organize a national debate about the general options of management of high-level and long-lived radioactive wastes before the 2006 date line. The debate comprises 4 public hearings (September 2005: Bar-le-Duc, Saint-Dizier, Pont-du-Gard, Cherbourg), 12 round-tables (October and November 2005: Paris, Joinville, Caen, Nancy, Marseille), a synthesis meeting (December 2005, Dunkerque) and a closing meeting (January 2006, Lyon). This document is the synthesis of the first round table debates about the information dissemination and the sharing of knowledge which took place at Caen. The main discussions of this session concerns the political decisions and the information of the public, and the transparency of this information as it should be in a western democracy. (J.S.)

  14. Data governance and data sharing agreements for community-wide health information exchange: lessons from the beacon communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, Claudia; Des Jardins, Terrisca R; Heider, Arvela; Lyman, Kristin A; McWilliams, Lee; Rein, Alison L; Schachter, Abigail A; Singh, Ranjit; Sorondo, Barbara; Topper, Joan; Turske, Scott A

    2014-01-01

    Unprecedented efforts are underway across the United States to electronically capture and exchange health information to improve health care and population health, and reduce costs. This increased collection and sharing of electronic patient data raises several governance issues, including privacy, security, liability, and market competition. Those engaged in such efforts have had to develop data sharing agreements (DSAs) among entities involved in information exchange, many of whom are "nontraditional" health care entities and/or new partners. This paper shares lessons learned based on the experiences of six federally funded communities participating in the Beacon Community Cooperative Agreement Program, and offers guidance for navigating data governance issues and developing DSAs to facilitate community-wide health information exchange. While all entities involved in electronic data sharing must address governance issues and create DSAs accordingly, until recently little formal guidance existed for doing so - particularly for community-based initiatives. Despite this lack of guidance, together the Beacon Communities' experiences highlight promising strategies for navigating complex governance issues, which may be useful to other entities or communities initiating information exchange efforts to support delivery system transformation. For the past three years, AcademyHealth has provided technical assistance to most of the 17 Beacon Communities, 6 of whom contributed to this collaborative writing effort. Though these communities varied widely in terms of their demographics, resources, and Beacon-driven priorities, common themes emerged as they described their approaches to data governance and DSA development. The 6 Beacon Communities confirmed that DSAs are necessary to satisfy legal and market-based concerns, and they identified several specific issues, many of which have been noted by others involved in network data sharing initiatives. More importantly, these

  15. Pathways to a Shared European Information Infrastructure for Cultural Heritage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Kenny

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available The ARENA project was created to confront issues of data preservation and archiving, dissemination and European information interoperability in archaeology. In achieving these goals the project raised many issues that deserve deeper discussion. This paper provides some of this discourse considering aspects of: European identity and projects funded by European money; The importance of technical and human networking to interoperability; Dealing with Language; Spatial Issues; Describing Data, the role of Metadata; Digitisation of historic data; Preservation and Publication. This paper sets out to draw together these vital pathways that must all be followed if archaeology and heritage management in Europe is to be served by a suitable network and information infrastrucure. Some of the issues raised here have a resonance in other papers in this ARENA special edition of Internet Archaeology, others are discussed in greater detail elsewhere.

  16. A Framework for Managing the Assured Information Sharing Lifecycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    hoc networks. They developed an implementation of he g-SIS group-centric access control model and demonstrate its usefulness to use cases in...effectively used to devise better privacy control mechanisms to control information flow between users in such dynamic mobile systems. Mobile Ad- hoc ...Networks ( MANETs ) are extremely vulnerable to a variety of misbehaviors because of their basic features, including lack of communication infrastructure

  17. Self-Protecting Security for Assured Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-29

    Security . We considered Android security a critical part of the self-protecting security framework especially for mobile and cloud computing. A summer...for a secure interoperable cloud-based Personal Health Record service, 2012 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing Technology and...protecting security could be applied to protect sensitive information in cloud computing and mobile devices environments. Therefore, we viewed this area as

  18. Are Patients With Cancer Less Willing to Share Their Health Information? Privacy, Sensitivity, and Social Purpose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grande, David; Asch, David A.; Wan, Fei; Bradbury, Angela R.; Jagsi, Reshma; Mitra, Nandita

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: Growing use of electronic health information increases opportunities to build population cancer databases for research and care delivery. Understanding patient views on reuse of health information is essential to shape privacy policies and build trust in these initiatives. Methods: We randomly assigned nationally representative participants (N = 3,336) with and without prior cancer to six of 18 scenarios describing different uses of electronic health information. The scenarios varied the user, use, and sensitivity of the information. Participants rated each scenario on a scale of 1 to 10 assessing their willingness to share their electronic health information. We used conjoint analysis to measure the relative importance of each attribute (ie, use, user, and sensitivity). Results: Participants with and without a prior diagnosis of cancer had a similar willingness to share health information (0.27; P = .42). Both cancer and noncancer participants rated the purpose of information use as the most important factor (importance weights, 67.1% and 45.6%, respectively). For cancer participants, the sensitivity of the information was more important (importance weights, 29.8% v 1.2%). However, cancer participants were more willing to share their health information when the information included more sensitive genetic information (0.48; P = .015). Cancer and noncancer respondents rated uses and users similarly. Conclusion: The information sharing preferences of participants with and without a prior diagnosis of cancer were driven mainly by the purpose of information reuse. Although conventional thinking suggests patients with cancer might be less willing to share their health information, we found participants with cancer were more willing to share their inherited genetic information. PMID:26265174

  19. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2009-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. Presentation at the ICWL 2008 conference. August, 20, 2008, Jinhua, China.

  20. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry,the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry.However,information sharing is the basis of supply chain management.For this purpose,on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management,the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail.It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of information-sharing mechanisms in the food industry green supply chain management and operation process and analyzes the necessity of using information sharing mechanism among the members of the food industry green supply chain management mode by game theory,so as to strengthen the competitiveness of enterprises through supply chain management.

  1. Resourceful blogging: using a blog for information sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Daniel T; Yowell, Susan S

    2008-01-01

    In an effort to help raise awareness about the need for disaster planning in health sciences libraries, emergency response planners at the Claude Moore Health Sciences Library at the University of Virginia considered how best to promote the idea and provide a forum for gathering and exchanging information, while maintaining control over content in order to keep the focus and the quality of the entries consistent. The blog they created has been successful in providing much-needed assistance to hospital libraries and other libraries, both large and small, as well as for individuals and other organizations worldwide.

  2. Information Sharing In Shipbuilding based on the Product State Model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Michael Holm

    1999-01-01

    The paper provides a review of product modelling technologies and the overall architecture for the Product State Model (PSM) environment as a basis for how dynamically updated product data can improve control of production activities. Especially, the paper focuses on the circumstances prevailing...... in a one-of-a-kind manufacturing environment like the shipbuilding industry, where product modelling technologies already have proved their worth in the design and engineering phases of shipbuilding and in the operation phase. However, the handling of product information on the shop floor is not yet...

  3. Enhancing FBI Terrorism and Homeland Security Information Sharing With State, Local and Tribal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    ensuring maximum privacy protection for any information sharing system. Shared information and privacy protection are at opposite ends of the same...capabilities:  Nationwide searches from a single access point;  Searches by “modus operandi” and for clothing, tattoos , associates, cars, etc...divergent spellings of names, sex , date of birth, place of birth, country of birth, current and previous nationalities, current and previous addresses

  4. Analysis of Information Sharing Mechanism in the Food Industry Green Supply Chain Management and Operation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Ye-ming; Yin, Fang-Fang; Fu, Xian-zhi

    2010-01-01

    In order to effectively address the issues of environmental pollution and food safety in food industry, the green supply chain management should be used in the food industry. However, information sharing is the basis of supply chain management. For this purpose, on the basis of describing the connotation of food industry green supply chain management, the paper introduces the contents and the effects of information sharing mode in detail. It focuses on the barriers of the implementation of in...

  5. A study on relationship between organizational culture and information technology on knowledge sharing

    OpenAIRE

    Vahid Ghasemi; Hamid Ghasemi; Fatemeh farahani

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of organizational culture and information technology on knowledge sharing in national foundation of computer games (NFCG) located in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 55 selected people who work for NFCG, which consists of three categories of organizational culture, information technology and knowledge sharing and Cronbach alphas are calculated as 0.869, 0.7...

  6. An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber-threat Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-09

    An Evolutionary Game-Theoretic Framework for Cyber-threat Information Sharing Deepak Tosh, Shamik Sengupta Dept of Computer Science and Engineering...situation. Index Terms—Cybersecurity, CYBEX, Evolutionary Game Theory, Incentive Model, Information Sharing I. INTRODUCTION A robust cybersecurity...Charles.Kamhoua.1@us.af.mil Kevin.Kwiat@us.af.mil Andrew Martin Department of Computer Science University of Oxford Andrew.Martin@cs.ox.ac.uk Abstract

  7. Sharing sensitive health information through social media in the Arab world.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Eman; Khalifa, Mohamed; Shabir, Syed-Abdul; Hossain, Md Nassif; Iqbal, Usman; Househ, Mowafa

    2017-02-01

    Sharing daily activities on social media has become a part of our lifestyle, but little is known about sharing sensitive health information in the Arab world. The objective of this study is to explore how social media users in the Arab world share sensitive health information through Facebook. A retrospective qualitative analysis was used in the study. A total of 110 Facebook groups, related to HIV, sickle cell and depression were screened between 5 June and 1 December 2014. Forty four Facebook groups met the inclusion criteria. 28 471 posts were extracted, of which 649 met inclusion criteria. Forty two percent of health information exchanged were related to HIV, 34% to depression and 24% to sickle cell diseases. The majority of postings were from Egypt 21.1%, Saudi Arabia 20%, Algeria 10% and Libya 9.2%. Male posts were 54.2% while 45.8% were posted by females. Individuals utilized Facebook groups to share personal experiences of their disease 31%, in addition to being used for seeking queries 13.6%, offering explicit advice 8.3%, reporting signs and symptoms of the disease 7.3% and posting their communication with the health-care provider 6.6%. Users in the Arab world use social media to exchange sensitive health information, which could have serious implications regarding the privacy of the information shared with other members of the group. On the other hand, sharing health information could have positive effects for patients, such as sharing disease experiences and peer support. However, more work is needed to ensure that Facebook users in the Arab world are aware of the potential consequences of sharing sensitive health information through social media.

  8. Information sharing between the National Health Service and criminal justice system in the United Kingdom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennox, Charlotte; Mason, Julie; McDonnell, Sharon; Shaw, Jenny; Senior, Jane

    2012-09-01

    Offenders with mental health problems often have complex and interrelated needs which separately challenge the criminal justice system (CJS) and National Health Service (NHS) in the United Kingdom (U.K.). Consequently, interagency collaboration and timely information sharing are essential. This study focused on the sharing of information about people with mental health problems in contact with the CJS. Questionnaires were distributed to a range of health and criminal justice personnel. The results showed that there was a mismatch between what service user information criminal justice agencies felt they needed and what was routinely received. Prison Service staff received more information (between 15% and 37%) from health agencies than the police (between 6% and 22%). Health professionals received most of the information they needed from criminal justice agencies (between 55% and 85%). Sharing service user information was impeded by incompatible computer systems and restrictions due to data protection/confidentiality requirements. In the U.K., recent governmental publications have highlighted the importance of information sharing; however there remains a clear mismatch between what health related information about service users criminal justice agencies need, and what is actually received. Better guidance is required to encourage and empower people to share.

  9. Towards facilitating circular product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    Kurilova-Palisaitiene, Jelena; Lindkvist, Louise; Sundin, Erik

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve a sustainable development, circular economy approaches and circular material flows are explored in industry. However, circular information flows remain essentially unestablished. The aim of this paper is to: 1) explore categories and types of product life-cycle information available for remanufacturing; 2) identify constraints for efficient product life-cycle information flow via remanufacturing; and 3) propose initiatives to facilitate product life-cycle information flow ...

  10. Sharing personal health information via service-oriented computing: a case of long-term care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yung-Hsiu; Chen, Rong-Rong; Guo, Sophie Huey-Ming; Chiang, Su-Chien; Chang, Her-Kun

    2012-12-01

    Sharing personal health information among healthcare providers is a crucial business process not only for saving limited healthcare resources but also for increasing patient's healthcare quality. Building an effective personal health information sharing process from established healthcare systems is a challenge in terms of coordination different business operations among healthcare providers and restructuring technical details existed in different healthcare information systems. This study responds this challenge with a service-oriented approach and develops a business software application to describe how the challenge can be alleviated from both managerial and technical perspectives. The software application in this study depicts personal health information sharing process among different providers in a long-term care setting. The information sharing scenario is based on an industrial initiative, such as Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) from healthcare domain and the technologies for implementing the scenario are Web Service technologies from Service-oriented computing paradigm. The implementation in this study can inform healthcare researchers and practitioners applying technologies from service-oriented computing to design and develop healthcare collaborative systems to meet the increasing need for personal health information sharing.

  11. TOFIR: A Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval - Introduce a Visual Retrieval Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a new method for the visualization of information retrieval called TOFIR (Tool of Facilitating Information Retrieval). Discusses the use of angle attributes of a document to construct the angle-based visual space; two-dimensional and three-dimensional visual tools; ambiguity; and future research directions. (Author/LRW)

  12. Optimal global value of information trials: better aligning manufacturer and decision maker interests and enabling feasible risk sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eckermann, Simon; Willan, Andrew R

    2013-05-01

    Risk sharing arrangements relate to adjusting payments for new health technologies given evidence of their performance over time. Such arrangements rely on prospective information regarding the incremental net benefit of the new technology, and its use in practice. However, once the new technology has been adopted in a particular jurisdiction, randomized clinical trials within that jurisdiction are likely to be infeasible and unethical in the cases where they would be most helpful, i.e. with current evidence of positive while uncertain incremental health and net monetary benefit. Informed patients in these cases would likely be reluctant to participate in a trial, preferring instead to receive the new technology with certainty. Consequently, informing risk sharing arrangements within a jurisdiction is problematic given the infeasibility of collecting prospective trial data. To overcome such problems, we demonstrate that global trials facilitate trialling post adoption, leading to more complete and robust risk sharing arrangements that mitigate the impact of costs of reversal on expected value of information in jurisdictions who adopt while a global trial is undertaken. More generally, optimally designed global trials offer distinct advantages over locally optimal solutions for decision makers and manufacturers alike: avoiding opportunity costs of delay in jurisdictions that adopt; overcoming barriers to evidence collection; and improving levels of expected implementation. Further, the greater strength and translatability of evidence across jurisdictions inherent in optimal global trial design reduces barriers to translation across jurisdictions characteristic of local trials. Consequently, efficiently designed global trials better align the interests of decision makers and manufacturers, increasing the feasibility of risk sharing and the expected strength of evidence over local trials, up until the point that current evidence is globally sufficient.

  13. 76 FR 79114 - Privacy Act of 1974: Implementation of Exemptions; DOT/ALL 23-Information Sharing Environment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-21

    ...-- Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious Activity Reporting (SAR) Initiative System of Records AGENCY... established system of records titled, ``DOT/ALL 23--Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious Activity... Department exempts portions of the ``DOT/ALL 23--Information Sharing Environment (ISE) Suspicious...

  14. Ports of Delaware Bay: Industry And Public Sector Cooperation For Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-01

    meetings to socialize the MIST process, formatting flip chart sheets prior to the workshop to capture specific feedback, and including two researchers...the small groups are also very valuable in allowing quieter people to participate. The additional structure provided by preformatted flip charts was...beneficial. The formatting of the flip chart pads facilitated more consistent sharing of small group outcomes. Recommendation  Rework flip charts by

  15. The effects of shared information on semantic calculations in the gene ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bible, Paul W; Sun, Hong-Wei; Morasso, Maria I; Loganantharaj, Rasiah; Wei, Lai

    2017-01-01

    The structured vocabulary that describes gene function, the gene ontology (GO), serves as a powerful tool in biological research. One application of GO in computational biology calculates semantic similarity between two concepts to make inferences about the functional similarity of genes. A class of term similarity algorithms explicitly calculates the shared information (SI) between concepts then substitutes this calculation into traditional term similarity measures such as Resnik, Lin, and Jiang-Conrath. Alternative SI approaches, when combined with ontology choice and term similarity type, lead to many gene-to-gene similarity measures. No thorough investigation has been made into the behavior, complexity, and performance of semantic methods derived from distinct SI approaches. We apply bootstrapping to compare the generalized performance of 57 gene-to-gene semantic measures across six benchmarks. Considering the number of measures, we additionally evaluate whether these methods can be leveraged through ensemble machine learning to improve prediction performance. Results showed that the choice of ontology type most strongly influenced performance across all evaluations. Combining measures into an ensemble classifier reduces cross-validation error beyond any individual measure for protein interaction prediction. This improvement resulted from information gained through the combination of ontology types as ensemble methods within each GO type offered no improvement. These results demonstrate that multiple SI measures can be leveraged for machine learning tasks such as automated gene function prediction by incorporating methods from across the ontologies. To facilitate future research in this area, we developed the GO Graph Tool Kit (GGTK), an open source C++ library with Python interface (github.com/paulbible/ggtk).

  16. Research on Cost Information Sharing and Channel Choice in a Dual-Channel Supply Chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huihui Liu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Many studies examine information sharing in an uncertain demand environment in a supply chain. However there is little literature on cost information sharing in a dual-channel structure consisting of a retail channel and a direct sales channel. Assuming that the retail sale cost and direct sale cost are random variables with a general distribution, the paper investigates the retailer’s choice on cost information sharing in a Bertrand competition model. Based on the equilibrium outcome of information sharing, the manufacturer’s channel choice is discussed in detail. Our paper provides several interesting conclusions. In both single- and dual-channel structures, the retailer has little motivation to share its private cost information which is verified to be valuable for the manufacturer. When the cost correlation between the two channels increases, our analyses show that the manufacturer’s profit improves. However, when channel choice is involved, the value of information could play a different role. The paper finds that a dual-channel structure can benefit the manufacturer only when the cost correlation is sufficiently low. In addition, if the cost correlation is weak, the cost fluctuation will bring out the advantage of a dual-channel structure and adding a new direct channel will help in risk pooling.

  17. The Spatial Dynamics of Predators and the Benefits and Costs of Sharing Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed. We derive a feeding functional response that accounts for both spatio-temporal heterogeneity and communication, and validate this mathematical analysis with a computational agent-based model. This agent-based model has an explicit yet minimal representation of space, as well as information sharing about the location of prey. The analytical model simplifies predator behavior into a few discrete states and one essential trade-off, between the individual benefit of acquiring information and the cost of creating spatial and temporal correlation between predators. Despite the absence of an explicit spatial dimension in these equations, they quantitatively predict the predator consumption rates measured in the agent-based simulations across the explored parameter space. Together, the mathematical analysis and agent-based simulations identify the conditions for when there is a benefit to sharing information, and also when there is a cost. PMID:27764098

  18. Exploring the concepts of privacy and the sharing of sensitive health information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiri, Eman; Asiri, Hanan; Househ, Mowafa

    2014-01-01

    People are increasingly sharing their personal information on social networks such as Facebook. Patients, in particular, join online support groups for specific conditions to get support and share their experience with other members of a social media group. Throughout this process, sensitive health information could be shared by group members as a part of this information exchange and privacy concerns can arise as a result. The purpose of this study is to explore various aspects relating to privacy and the sharing of sensitive health information through social media platforms. Our review found that social media such as Facebook already plays a large role in patients' lives as it helps patients to understand their health conditions and gain support from other people who suffer from the same condition. However, there are major concerns for those patients as their privacy and confidentiality can be harmed by improper use of their posted sensitive health information by governments, hospitals or individuals. More importantly, there is an increased need for laws and legislations that protect and empower patients. We recommend that healthcare organizations collaborate with social media software companies and create educational and awareness campaigns on the impacts of sharing sensitive health information through social media.

  19. The Spatial Dynamics of Predators and the Benefits and Costs of Sharing Information.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthieu Barbier

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Predators of all kinds, be they lions hunting in the Serengeti or fishermen searching for their catch, display various collective strategies. A common strategy is to share information about the location of prey. However, depending on the spatial characteristics and mobility of predators and prey, information sharing can either improve or hinder individual success. Here, our goal is to investigate the interacting effects of space and information sharing on predation efficiency, represented by the expected rate at which prey are found and consumed. We derive a feeding functional response that accounts for both spatio-temporal heterogeneity and communication, and validate this mathematical analysis with a computational agent-based model. This agent-based model has an explicit yet minimal representation of space, as well as information sharing about the location of prey. The analytical model simplifies predator behavior into a few discrete states and one essential trade-off, between the individual benefit of acquiring information and the cost of creating spatial and temporal correlation between predators. Despite the absence of an explicit spatial dimension in these equations, they quantitatively predict the predator consumption rates measured in the agent-based simulations across the explored parameter space. Together, the mathematical analysis and agent-based simulations identify the conditions for when there is a benefit to sharing information, and also when there is a cost.

  20. Comprehensive Study on Wastages of Supply Chain Information Sharing in Automotive Industries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sendhil Kumar, R.; Pugazhendhi, S.; Muralidharan, C.; Murali, S.

    2017-03-01

    A supply chain is a very extensive concept, which encompasses many problems and features when it comes to controlling. Now a day’s lean concept is a very common method to several areas, such as service sectors and manufacturing. Applying the lean concept to supply chain management is a very popular study part, it has attracted many industrial practices and researchers with different applications. Information sharing and technology remain one of the key factors of integrating the supply chain members. Current scenario the competition is no longer between the competing companies, but it happens between the supply chains. So the efficiency of the supply chain is very important. And the effective sharing of information can enhance the supply chain efficiency through minimizing the inventories and Information sharing can increase supply chain efficiency by reducing inventories and stabilizing the production. This paper describes and discusses about the seven deadly wastes of supply chain information with the comparative principle of Toyota production system (TPS) principle approach. How the TPS can be applied to supply chain information sharing And lean tool of 5S concept possibility improve the information sharing.

  1. Knowledge Sharing among University Students Facilitated with a Creative Commons Licensing Mechanism: A Case Study in a Programming Course

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chen-Chung; Lin, Chia-Ching; Chang, Chun-Yi; Chao, Po-Yao

    2014-01-01

    Creative Commons (CC) mechanism has been suggested as a potential means to foster a reliable environment for online knowledge sharing activity. This study investigates the role of the CC mechanism in supporting knowledge sharing among a group of university students studying programming from the perspectives of social cognitive and social capital…

  2. Trust, Respect, and Reciprocity: Informing Culturally Appropriate Data-Sharing Practice in Vietnam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merson, Laura; Phong, Tran Viet; Nhan, Le Nguyen Thanh; Dung, Nguyen Thanh; Ngan, Ta Thi Dieu; Kinh, Nguyen Van; Parker, Michael; Bull, Susan

    2015-07-01

    International science funders and publishers are driving a growing trend in data sharing. There is mounting pressure on researchers in low- and middle-income settings to conform to new sharing policies, despite minimal empirically grounded accounts of the ethical challenges of implementing the policies in these settings. This study used in-depth interviews and focus group discussions with 48 stakeholders in Vietnam to explore the experiences, attitudes, and expectations that inform ethical and effective approaches to sharing clinical research data. Distinct views on the role of trust, respect, and reciprocity were among those that emerged to inform culturally appropriate best practices. We conclude by discussing the challenges that authors of data-sharing policies should consider in this unique context.

  3. Massive information sharing among global data centers based on satellite laser communication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Longteng; Li, Cong; Liu, Naijin

    2015-10-01

    With the development of big data and information globalization, the requirements of massive information transmitting and sharing among data centers are expanding, especially among those data centers which are extremely far away from each other. In the above field, conventional optical fiber transmission faces many problems such as complex networking, poor security, long node switching delay, high lease and maintain cost and low migration flexibility. Besides, in the near future, data centers may tend to be built in the remote Polar Regions or on the sea for natural cooling. For the above situation, sharing the massive information among global data centers based on satellite laser communication is proposed in this paper. This proposal includes advantage analysis, research of restraining atmosphere interference, etc. At last, by comparison with conventional technology, the research result shows that massive information transmitting and sharing among global data centers based on satellite laser communication has far reaching application potential.

  4. Information Sharing and Credit Rationing : Evidence from the Introduction of a Public Credit Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, X.; Degryse, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    We provide the first evidence on how the introduction of information sharing via a public credit registry affects banks’ lending decisions. We employ a unique dataset containing detailed information on credit card applications and decisions from one of the leading banks in China. While we do not

  5. Information Sharing and Credit Rationing : Evidence from the Introduction of a Public Credit Registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cheng, X.; Degryse, H.A.

    2010-01-01

    We provide the first evidence on how the introduction of information sharing via a public credit registry affects banks’ lending decisions. We employ a unique dataset containing detailed information on credit card applications and decisions from one of the leading banks in China. While we do not fin

  6. 17 CFR 160.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... number information for marketing purposes. 160.12 Section 160.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges....12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on... use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing or other marketing through electronic mail to the...

  7. Why Do Firms Evade Taxes? The Role of Information Sharing and Financial Sector Outreach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Lin, C.; Ma, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Informality is a wide-spread phenomenon across the globe. We show that firms in countries with better information sharing systems and greater financial sector outreach evade taxes to a lesser degree, an effect that is stronger for smaller firms, firms in smaller cities and towns, and firms in indust

  8. Why Do Firms Evade Taxes? The Role of Information Sharing and Financial Sector Outreach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beck, T.H.L.; Lin, C.; Ma, Y.

    2010-01-01

    Informality is a wide-spread phenomenon across the globe. We show that firms in countries with better information sharing systems and greater financial sector outreach evade taxes to a lesser degree, an effect that is stronger for smaller firms, firms in smaller cities and towns, and firms in indust

  9. Facilitators on networks reveal the optimal interplay between information exchange and reciprocity

    CERN Document Server

    Szolnoki, Attila; Mobilia, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    Reciprocity is firmly established as an important mechanism that promotes cooperation. An efficient information exchange is likewise important, especially on structured populations, where interactions between players are limited. Motivated by these two facts, we explore the role of facilitators in social dilemmas on networks. Facilitators are here mirrors to their neighbors -- they cooperate with cooperators and defect with defectors -- but they do not participate in the exchange of strategies. As such, in addition to introducing direct reciprocity, they also obstruct information exchange. In well-mixed populations, facilitators favor the replacement and invasion of defection by cooperation as long as their number exceeds a critical value. In structured populations, on the other hand, there exists a delicate balance between the benefits of reciprocity and the deterioration of information exchange. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of social dilemmas on various interaction networks reveal that there exists an ...

  10. A study on relationship between organizational culture and information technology on knowledge sharing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahid Ghasemi

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an empirical investigation to study the effects of organizational culture and information technology on knowledge sharing in national foundation of computer games (NFCG located in city of Tehran, Iran. The proposed study designs a questionnaire in Likert scale, distributes it among 55 selected people who work for NFCG, which consists of three categories of organizational culture, information technology and knowledge sharing and Cronbach alphas are calculated as 0.869, 0.707 and 0.773, respectively. Using ANOVA test, the study has determined a positive and meaningful relationship between organizational cultures and knowledge sharing. However, the study has not determined any positive and meaningful relationship between information technology and knowledge sharing. Furthermore, while the results of the study have not indicated any meaningful relationships between trust, employee communication on one side and knowledge sharing on the other side, there were positive and meaningful relationships between reward system and organizational structure on one side and knowledge sharing on the other side.

  11. Linking attentional processes and conceptual problem solving: Visual cues facilitate the automaticity of extracting relevant information from diagrams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy eRouinfar

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated links between lower-level visual attention processes and higher-level problem solving. This was done by overlaying visual cues on conceptual physics problem diagrams to direct participants’ attention to relevant areas to facilitate problem solving. Participants (N = 80 individually worked through four problem sets, each containing a diagram, while their eye movements were recorded. Each diagram contained regions that were relevant to solving the problem correctly and separate regions related to common incorrect responses. Problem sets contained an initial problem, six isomorphic training problems, and a transfer problem. The cued condition saw visual cues overlaid on the training problems. Participants’ verbal responses were used to determine their accuracy. The study produced two major findings. First, short duration visual cues can improve problem solving performance on a variety of insight physics problems, including transfer problems not sharing the surface features of the training problems, but instead sharing the underlying solution path. Thus, visual cues can facilitate re-representing a problem and overcoming impasse, enabling a correct solution. Importantly, these cueing effects on problem solving did not involve the solvers’ attention necessarily embodying the solution to the problem. Instead, the cueing effects were caused by solvers attending to and integrating relevant information in the problems into a solution path. Second, these short duration visual cues when administered repeatedly over multiple training problems resulted in participants becoming more efficient at extracting the relevant information on the transfer problem, showing that such cues can improve the automaticity with which solvers extract relevant information from a problem. Both of these results converge on the conclusion that lower-order visual processes driven by attentional cues can influence higher-order cognitive processes

  12. The public production and sharing of medical information. An Australian perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry C.H. Ko

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available There is a wealth of medical information now available to the public through various sources that are not necessarily controlled by medical or healthcare professionals. In Australia there has been a strong movement in the health consumer arena of consumer-led sharing and production of medical information and in healthcare decision-making. This has led to empowerment of the public as well as increased knowledge-sharing. There are some successful initiatives and strategies on consumer- and public-led sharing of medical information, including the formation of specialised consumer groups, independent medical information organisations, consumer peer tutoring, and email lists and consumer networking events. With well-organised public initiatives and networks, there tends to be fairly balanced information being shared. However, there needs to be caution about the use of publicly available scientific information to further the agenda of special-interest groups and lobbying groups to advance often biased and unproven opinions or for scaremongering. With the adoption of more accountability of medical research, and the increased public scrutiny of private and public research, the validity and quality of medical information reaching the public is achieving higher standards.

  13. The influence of logistics integration on information sharing and business performance: The case of small and medium enterprises in South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Chinomona

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Logistics integration across partnering firms has become the backbone of supply chain management as it facilitates information sharing, which is required in order to enhance business performance. This study investigated the mediatory role of information sharing on the relationships between logistics integration and business performance within the small and medium enterprise (SME context. Five research hypotheses were postulated and the hypotheses were empirically tested using sample data from the SME sector in South Africa’s Gauteng Province. The results indicated that logistics integration positively influences information sharing and business performance in a significant way within the context of South African SMEs. Managerial implications of the findings are discussed, whilst limitations and future research directions are indicated.

  14. Facilitators on networks reveal optimal interplay between information exchange and reciprocity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szolnoki, Attila; Perc, Matjaž; Mobilia, Mauro

    2014-04-01

    Reciprocity is firmly established as an important mechanism that promotes cooperation. An efficient information exchange is likewise important, especially on structured populations, where interactions between players are limited. Motivated by these two facts, we explore the role of facilitators in social dilemmas on networks. Facilitators are here mirrors to their neighbors—they cooperate with cooperators and defect with defectors—but they do not participate in the exchange of strategies. As such, in addition to introducing direct reciprocity, they also obstruct information exchange. In well-mixed populations, facilitators favor the replacement and invasion of defection by cooperation as long as their number exceeds a critical value. In structured populations, on the other hand, there exists a delicate balance between the benefits of reciprocity and the deterioration of information exchange. Extensive Monte Carlo simulations of social dilemmas on various interaction networks reveal that there exists an optimal interplay between reciprocity and information exchange, which sets in only when a small number of facilitators occupy the main hubs of the scale-free network. The drawbacks of missing cooperative hubs are more than compensated for by reciprocity and, at the same time, the compromised information exchange is routed via the auxiliary hubs with only marginal losses in effectivity. These results indicate that it is not always optimal for the main hubs to become leaders of the masses, but rather to exploit their highly connected state to promote tit-for-tat-like behavior.

  15. An exploratory study of knowledge brokering in hospital settings: facilitating knowledge sharing and learning for patient safety?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waring, Justin; Currie, Graeme; Crompton, Amanda; Bishop, Simon

    2013-12-01

    This paper reports on an exploratory study of intra-organisational knowledge brokers working within three large acute hospitals in the English National Health Services. Knowledge brokering is promoted as a strategy for supporting knowledge sharing and learning in healthcare, especially in the diffusion of research evidence into practice. Less attention has been given to brokers who support knowledge sharing and learning within healthcare organisations. With specific reference to the need for learning around patient safety, this paper focuses on the structural position and role of four types of intra-organisational brokers. Through ethnographic research it examines how variations in formal role, location and relationships shape how they share and support the use of knowledge across organisational and occupational boundaries. It suggests those occupying hybrid organisational roles, such as clinical-managers, are often best positioned to support knowledge sharing and learning because of their 'ambassadorial' type position and legitimacy to participate in multiple communities through dual-directed relationships.

  16. Technology and Research Requirements for Combating Human Trafficking: Enhancing Communication, Analysis, Reporting, and Information Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kreyling, Sean J.; West, Curtis L.; Olson, Jarrod

    2011-03-17

    DHS’ Science & Technology Directorate directed PNNL to conduct an exploratory study on the domain of human trafficking in the Pacific Northwest in order to examine and identify technology and research requirements for enhancing communication, analysis, reporting, and information sharing – activities that directly support efforts to track, identify, deter, and prosecute human trafficking – including identification of potential national threats from smuggling and trafficking networks. This effort was conducted under the Knowledge Management Technologies Portfolio as part of the Integrated Federal, State, and Local/Regional Information Sharing (RISC) and Collaboration Program.

  17. [IHE ITI-ATNA profile-based solution for the security of regional healthcare information sharing].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Ye-hong; Zhang, Jian-guo

    2008-09-01

    In designing and implementing regional healthcare information sharing systems, the security problem is a very important issue. According to the Audit Trail and Node Authentication (ATNA) Profile of Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE) and the practical experiences in several hospitals in Shanghai, a Proxy/Server based security solution for the integration of regional healthcare information sharing systems is proposed, which can solve the cross-platform security problems of integration, providing some security measures such as Central User Authentication, Audit Trail and Node Authentication.

  18. The Impact of Corporate Reputation and Information Sharing on Value Creation for Organizational Customers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Žabkar Vesna

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The importance of corporate communication to build, protect and maintain corporate reputation has been advocated in numerous publications in recent years. The main goal of this paper is to provide an understanding of the impact of corporate reputation and information sharing on value creation. Both reputation and information sharing represent signals that customers observe in the process of value creation, which is seen as the end focus for corporate marketing. The paper draws on signaling theory and corporate marketing literature from the European and American schools of thought.

  19. Meetings: From the transmission of information to the sharing of actionable knowledge

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ravn, Ib

    2015-01-01

    . A more viable model of human communication has people sharing knowledge that leads to action. To generate such actionable knowledge, meetings must enable participants to be active, to interpret and discuss the presentations, to be autonomously motivated, to engage in social relations with peers......1. Most large meetings and conferences share a particular format: Multiple presentations, often backed by PowerPoints, are given to an audience of passive listeners. 2. Such one-way communication taxes participants’ attention and energy and is unlikely to produce major changes in their knowledge...... and strangers at the meeting and to clarify the value they can create for others after the meeting. 5. Three design principles for knowledge-sharing meetings are offered: Meetings must transform (1) information delivered in presentations, through (2) knowledge sharing into (3) action that creates results....

  20. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information Versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g.. Cohen et al.. 1990: Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects oil response time (RT) both

  1. Attention and Facilitation: Converging Information Versus Inadvertent Reading in Stroop Task Performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelofs, A.P.A.

    2010-01-01

    Disagreement exists about whether color-word Stroop facilitation is caused by converging information (e.g.. Cohen et al.. 1990: Roelofs, 2003) or inadvertent reading (MacLeod & MacDonald, 2000). Four experiments tested between these hypotheses by examining Stroop effects oil response time (RT) both

  2. Cooperative Information Sharing to Improve Distributed Learning in Multi-Agent Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Dutta, P S; Moreau, L; 10.1613/jair.1735

    2011-01-01

    Effective coordination of agents actions in partially-observable domains is a major challenge of multi-agent systems research. To address this, many researchers have developed techniques that allow the agents to make decisions based on estimates of the states and actions of other agents that are typically learnt using some form of machine learning algorithm. Nevertheless, many of these approaches fail to provide an actual means by which the necessary information is made available so that the estimates can be learnt. To this end, we argue that cooperative communication of state information between agents is one such mechanism. However, in a dynamically changing environment, the accuracy and timeliness of this communicated information determine the fidelity of the learned estimates and the usefulness of the actions taken based on these. Given this, we propose a novel information-sharing protocol, post-task-completion sharing, for the distribution of state information. We then show, through a formal analysis, th...

  3. Information Sharing Process Between Teachers And Academicians In Web-Based Context

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih BAŞ

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, information sharing process in a Web-based Communication Context (WBCC formed between teachers and academicians was investigated in order to let teachers and academicians use and share their knowledge and experiences with communication both between groups and one on one. Within the scope of aim, the study adopted a holistic multidimensional case study approach, and 72 teachers and 13 academicians in the WBCC participated in the study. The information sharing process lasting 12 months in the WBCC was recorded and the data were descriptively analyzed. During the data collection duration, 37 topics were opened in the WBCC, 295 messages were written as responses to these topics and these messages were viewed 1616 times by the participants. Findings showed that the teachers focused on the cases which they met during instruction processes and concrete solution suggestions, the academicians focused on the theoretical information contents and the cases which they plan to examine. In addition, findings indicated that the participants abstained from sharing their views and the sharing levels of both groups were considerably low.

  4. Public Trust in Health Information Sharing: A Measure of System Trust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Platt, Jodyn E; Jacobson, Peter D; Kardia, Sharon L R

    2017-01-18

    To measure public trust in a health information sharing in a broadly defined health system (system trust), inclusive of health care, public health, and research; to identify individual characteristics that predict system trust; and to consider these findings in the context of national health initiatives (e.g., learning health systems and precision medicine) that will expand the scope of data sharing. Survey data (n = 1,011) were collected in February 2014. We constructed a composite index of four dimensions of system trust-competency, fidelity, integrity, and trustworthiness. The index was used in linear regression evaluating demographic and psychosocial predictors of system trust. Data were collected by GfK Custom using a nationally representative sample and analyzed in Stata 13.0. Our findings suggest the public's trust may not meet the needs of health systems as they enter an era of expanded data sharing. We found that a majority of the U.S. public does not trust the organizations that have health information and share it (i.e., the health system) in one or more dimensions. Together, demographic and psychosocial factors accounted for ~18 percent of the observed variability in system trust. Future research should consider additional predictors of system trust such as knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs to inform policies and practices for health data sharing. © Health Research and Educational Trust.

  5. Facebook for Health Promotion: Female College Students' Perspectives on Sharing HPV Vaccine Information Through Facebook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ni; Tsark, JoAnn; Campo, Shelly; Teti, Michelle

    2015-04-01

    Facebook, a social network site, has been widely used among young adults. However, its potential to be used as a health promotion medium has not been fully examined. This study explored Facebook's potential for sharing human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine information among female college students in Hawai'i. Culturally tailored flyers and handouts were developed and distributed at one large university in Hawai'i to recruit female college students between the age of 18 and 26 having an active Facebook account. Three focus group meetings were conducted to gather student perspectives about how information about HPV vaccine may be best shared via Facebook. We found that students believed Facebook is a good awareness tool but they needed more knowledge about the HPV vaccine to feel comfortable sharing the information. Participants preferred forwarding information to chatting about HPV. Some participants expressed concern that their Facebook friends would think the HPV vaccine information they forwarded on Facebook is spam. Participants suggested prefacing the posted HPV vaccine information with a personal note in their own words to make the message more interesting and relevant to their Facebook friends. Future interventions using Facebook to promote HPV vaccine could provide students with HPV vaccine information from credible sources and ask students to attach personal testimonials or endorsements while forwarding the information on Facebook.

  6. Confidence sharing: an economic strategy for efficient information flows in animal groups.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amos Korman

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Social animals may share information to obtain a more complete and accurate picture of their surroundings. However, physical constraints on communication limit the flow of information between interacting individuals in a way that can cause an accumulation of errors and deteriorated collective behaviors. Here, we theoretically study a general model of information sharing within animal groups. We take an algorithmic perspective to identify efficient communication schemes that are, nevertheless, economic in terms of communication, memory and individual internal computation. We present a simple and natural algorithm in which each agent compresses all information it has gathered into a single parameter that represents its confidence in its behavior. Confidence is communicated between agents by means of active signaling. We motivate this model by novel and existing empirical evidences for confidence sharing in animal groups. We rigorously show that this algorithm competes extremely well with the best possible algorithm that operates without any computational constraints. We also show that this algorithm is minimal, in the sense that further reduction in communication may significantly reduce performances. Our proofs rely on the Cramér-Rao bound and on our definition of a Fisher Channel Capacity. We use these concepts to quantify information flows within the group which are then used to obtain lower bounds on collective performance. The abstract nature of our model makes it rigorously solvable and its conclusions highly general. Indeed, our results suggest confidence sharing as a central notion in the context of animal communication.

  7. Look Who's Talking. Explaining Water-Related Information Sharing and Demand for Action Among Ugandan Villagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holvoet, Nathalie; Dewachter, Sara; Molenaers, Nadia

    2016-11-01

    Many national water policies propagate community-based participatory approaches to overcome weaknesses in supply-driven rural water provision, operation, and maintenance. Citizen involvement is thought to stimulate bottom-up accountability and broaden the information base, which may enrich design and implementation processes and foster improved water accessibility and sustainability. Practices on the ground, however, are embedded in socio-political realities which mediate possible beneficial effects of participatory approaches. This paper builds on full social network data collected in a Ugandan village to study the social and political reality of two distinct levels of participation, i.e. local information sharing among citizens and a more active appeal to fellow citizens to improve water services. We use Logistic Regression Quadratic Assignment Procedure to explore what type of actor and network traits influence information sharing and whether the same factors are in play in the demand for action to remedy water-related problems. Whereas social aspects (social support relations) and homophily (using the same water source, the same gender) play an important role in information sharing, it is the educational level, in particular, of the villager who is called upon that is important when villagers demand action. Our findings also demonstrate that those most in need of safe water do not mobilize their information sharing ties to demand for action. This indicates that building local water policies and practice exclusively on locally existing demand for action may fail to capture the needs of the most deprived citizens.

  8. Confidence sharing: an economic strategy for efficient information flows in animal groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korman, Amos; Greenwald, Efrat; Feinerman, Ofer

    2014-10-01

    Social animals may share information to obtain a more complete and accurate picture of their surroundings. However, physical constraints on communication limit the flow of information between interacting individuals in a way that can cause an accumulation of errors and deteriorated collective behaviors. Here, we theoretically study a general model of information sharing within animal groups. We take an algorithmic perspective to identify efficient communication schemes that are, nevertheless, economic in terms of communication, memory and individual internal computation. We present a simple and natural algorithm in which each agent compresses all information it has gathered into a single parameter that represents its confidence in its behavior. Confidence is communicated between agents by means of active signaling. We motivate this model by novel and existing empirical evidences for confidence sharing in animal groups. We rigorously show that this algorithm competes extremely well with the best possible algorithm that operates without any computational constraints. We also show that this algorithm is minimal, in the sense that further reduction in communication may significantly reduce performances. Our proofs rely on the Cramér-Rao bound and on our definition of a Fisher Channel Capacity. We use these concepts to quantify information flows within the group which are then used to obtain lower bounds on collective performance. The abstract nature of our model makes it rigorously solvable and its conclusions highly general. Indeed, our results suggest confidence sharing as a central notion in the context of animal communication.

  9. Benefits of testing for nontested information: retrieval-induced facilitation of episodically bound material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowland, Christopher A; DeLosh, Edward L

    2014-12-01

    Testing is a powerful means to boost the retention of information. The extent to which the benefits of testing generalize to nontested information, however, is not clear. In three experiments, we found that completing cued-recall tests for a subset of studied materials enhanced retention for the specific information tested, as well as for associated, nontested information during later free-recall testing. In Experiment 1, this generalized benefit was revealed for lists of category-exemplar pairs. Experiment 2 extended the effect to unrelated words, suggesting that retrieval can enhance later free recall of nontested information that is bound solely through episodic context. In Experiment 3, we manipulated the format of the final test and found facilitation in free-recall, but not in cued-recall, testing. The results suggest that testing may facilitate later free recall in part by enhancing access to information that is present during a prior temporal or list context. More generally, these findings suggest that retrieval-induced facilitation extends to a broader range of conditions than has previously been suggested, and they further motivate the adoption of testing as a practical and effective learning tool.

  10. The Effect of Shared Information on Pilot/Controller And Controller/Controller Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansman, R. John

    1999-01-01

    In order to respond to the increasing demand on limited airspace system resources, a number of applications of information technology have been proposed, or are under investigation, to improve the efficiency, capacity and reliability of ATM (Asynchronous Transfer Mode) operations. Much of the attention in advanced ATM technology has focused on advanced automation systems or decision aiding systems to improve the performance of individual Pilots or Controllers. However, the most significant overall potential for information technology appears to he in increasing the shared information between human agents such as Pilots, Controllers or between interacting Controllers or traffic flow managers. Examples of proposed shared information systems in the US include; Controller Pilot Databank Communication (CPDLC), Traffic Management Advisor (TMA); Automatic Dependent Surveillance (ADS); Collaborative Decision Making (CDM) and NAS Level Common Information Exchange. Air Traffic Management is fundamentally a human centered process consisting of the negotiation, execution and monitoring of contracts between human agents for the allocation of limited airspace, runway and airport surface resources. The decision processes within ATM tend to be Semistructured. Many of the routine elements in ATM decision making on the part of the Controllers or Pilots are well Structured and can be represented by well defined rules or procedures. However in disrupted conditions, the ATM decision processes are often Unstructured and cannot be reduced to a set of discrete rules. As a consequence, the ability to automate ATM processes will be limited and ATM will continue to be a human centric process where the responsibility and the authority for the negotiation will continue to rest with human Controllers and Pilots. The use of information technology to support the human decision process will therefore be an important aspect of ATM modernization. The premise of many of the proposed shared

  11. Facilitating consumer clinical information seeking by maintaining referential context: evaluation of a prototypic approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobach, David F; Waters, Andrew; Silvey, Garry M; Clark, Shelly J; Kalyanaraman, Sri; Kawamoto, Kensaku; Lipkus, Isaac

    2009-11-14

    Millions of consumers seek health information on the Internet. Unfortunately, this searching often falls short because of design limitations of many consumer-oriented Web sites. In this paper, we describe an approach that addresses several known barriers to consumer health information seeking. This approach primarily involves maintaining the referential context throughout a consumer's search for information. To maintain referential context, this approach uses multiple levels of hierarchical constructs to organize complex information, and data elements are toggled to minimize the need for scrolling. An information resource based on this approach was implemented for information about smoking using standard Web technologies. The resource was evaluated by 31 diverse consumers through standardized usability instruments. Consumers found the resource to be easy to navigate and to use. We conclude that the approach described in this manuscript could be applied more broadly to facilitate the organization and presentation of consumer health information.

  12. Sharing Health Information and Influencing Behavioral Intentions: The Role of Health Literacy, Information Overload, and the Internet in the Diffusion of Healthy Heart Information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crook, Brittani; Stephens, Keri K; Pastorek, Angie E; Mackert, Michael; Donovan, Erin E

    2016-01-01

    Low health literacy remains an extremely common and problematic issue, given that individuals with lower health literacy are more likely to experience health challenges and negative health outcomes. In this study, we use the first three stages of the innovation-decision process found in the theory of diffusion of innovations (Rogers, 2003). We incorporate health literacy into a model explaining how perceived health knowledge, information sharing, attitudes, and behavior are related. Results show that health information sharing explains 33% of the variance in behavioral intentions, indicating that the communicative practice of sharing information can positively impact health outcomes. Further, individuals with high health literacy tend to share less information about heart health than those with lower health literacy. Findings also reveal that perceived heart-health knowledge operates differently than health literacy to predict health outcomes.

  13. Fishers sharing real-time information about “bad” fishing locations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eliasen, Søren Qvist; Bichel, Nikolaj

    2016-01-01

    combinations and to be size selective in order to optimise the economic outcome of the available quota. This paper proposes a strategy of time-place selectivity by sharing real-time data and information between vessels about areas with high abundance of unwanted species and sizes (hotspots). The paper examines...

  14. Sharing Information in Teams: Giving Up Privacy or Compromising on Team Performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Aydogan, R.; Jonker, C.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Human teamwork can be supported by agent technology by providing each human team member with an agent that monitors, supports and advices the human. The agent can, for example, monitor the human’s workload, and share that information with (agents of) other team members so that work can be distribute

  15. Sharing information in teams : Giving up privacy or compromising on team performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harbers, M.; Aydogan, R.; Jonker, C.M.; Neerincx, M.A.

    2014-01-01

    Human teamwork can be supported by agent technology by providing each human team member with an agent that monitors, supports and advices the human. The agent can, for example, monitor the human's workload, and share that information with (agents of) other team members so that work can be distribute

  16. Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miao, Yongwu; Sloep, Peter; Koper, Rob

    2008-01-01

    Miao, Y., Sloep, P. B., & Koper, R. (2008). Modeling Units of Assessment for Sharing Assessment Process Information: towards an Assessment Process Specification. In F. W. B. Li, J. Zhao, T. K. Shih, R. W. H. Lau, Q. Li & D. McLeod (Eds.), Advances in Web Based Learning - Proceedings of the 7th

  17. 75 FR 33324 - MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010-NEW, Study of Sharing To Assess Community Resilience...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-11

    ... Federal Register notice (75 FR 1648) announcing that we would submit this ICR to OMB for approval. The... Minerals Management Service MMS Information Collection Activity: 1010--NEW, Study of Sharing To Assess... collection (1010--NEW). SUMMARY: To comply with the Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (PRA), we are...

  18. 31 CFR 103.100 - Information sharing between Federal law enforcement agencies and financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... FOREIGN TRANSACTIONS Special Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist... money laundering—(1) In general. A law enforcement agency investigating terrorist activity or money... suspected based on credible evidence of engaging in, terrorist activity or money laundering; include enough...

  19. 31 CFR 103.110 - Voluntary information sharing among financial institutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Information Sharing Procedures To Deter Money Laundering and Terrorist Activity § 103.110 Voluntary.... 5312(a)(2) that is required under this part to establish and maintain an anti-money laundering program... suspects may involve possible terrorist activity or money laundering. (2) Notice requirement. A financial...

  20. 47 CFR 25.263 - Information sharing requirements for SDARS terrestrial repeater operators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... terrestrial repeater operators. 25.263 Section 25.263 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION... requirements for SDARS terrestrial repeater operators. This section requires SDARS licensees in the 2320-2345 MHz band to share information regarding the location and operation of terrestrial repeaters with...

  1. Improving Service Delivery: Investigating the Role of Information Sharing, Job Characteristics, and Employee Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, Nick; Richards, David; Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model designed to investigate the impact of job characteristics, employee satisfaction, and information sharing on two key indicators of quality service delivery, such as worker perceptions of their efficiency and customer focus. Design/methodology/approach: During the project, 9,060…

  2. Creating and Sharing: Teens' Information Practices in Digital Communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harlan, Mary Ann; Bruce, Christine; Lupton, Mandy

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: In a connected world youth are participating in digital content creating communities. This paper introduces a description of teens' information practices in digital content creating and sharing communities. Method: The research design was a constructivist grounded theory methodology. Seventeen interviews with eleven teens were…

  3. The Effects of Social Capital Levels in Elementary Schools on Organizational Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekinci, Abdurrahman

    2012-01-01

    This study aims to assess the effects of social capital levels at elementary schools on organizational information sharing as reported by teachers. Participants were 267 teachers selected randomly from 16 elementary schools; schools also selected randomly among 42 elementary schools located in the city center of Batman. The data were analyzed by…

  4. 12 CFR 40.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for marketing purposes. 40.12 Section 40.12 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT... sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of... telemarketing, direct mail marketing, or other marketing through electronic mail to the consumer. (b)...

  5. 12 CFR 573.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for marketing purposes. 573.12 Section 573.12 Banks and Banking OFFICE OF THRIFT SUPERVISION... sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of... telemarketing, direct mail marketing, or other marketing through electronic mail to the consumer. (b)...

  6. 16 CFR 313.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for marketing purposes. 313.12 Section 313.12 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION... § 313.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on... use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing, or other marketing through electronic mail to...

  7. 12 CFR 716.12 - Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for marketing purposes. 716.12 Section 716.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION... Limits on sharing of account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on... in telemarketing, direct mail marketing or other marketing through electronic mail to the...

  8. 12 CFR 216.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for marketing purposes. 216.12 Section 216.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM BOARD OF... Disclosures § 216.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General... third party for use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing, or other marketing through electronic...

  9. 12 CFR 332.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for marketing purposes. 332.12 Section 332.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION... § 332.12 Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on... use in telemarketing, direct mail marketing, or other marketing through electronic mail to...

  10. Implication of information sharing on Bullwhip effects in a toy supply chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wong, Chee Yew; El-Beheiry, Mohamed; Johansen, John

    2004-01-01

    Coordination of toy supply chains is challenged by volatile and seasonal demand with high forecast errors and bullwhip effects. This paper compares Bullwhip effects in a three-level divergent a toy supply chain between retailers who shared downstream demand information (consumer sales...

  11. Improving Service Delivery: Investigating the Role of Information Sharing, Job Characteristics, and Employee Satisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bontis, Nick; Richards, David; Serenko, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study is to propose and test a model designed to investigate the impact of job characteristics, employee satisfaction, and information sharing on two key indicators of quality service delivery, such as worker perceptions of their efficiency and customer focus. Design/methodology/approach: During the project, 9,060…

  12. Perceived Progress, Risks of Information Sharing and Interoperability between Military Organizations and Federal Agencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aburto, Rafael

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study examined efforts by the military organizations and federal agencies to improve information sharing, interoperability, and systems integration in all business practices. More specifically, a survey instrument with six open-ended and eight demographic questions was used to measure the perceived progress, issues, challenges of…

  13. Trustworthy information sharing for biosecurity incident management - The AU2EU project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zic, John

    2013-10-01

    Managing sensitive information between partners collaborating to address an exotic disease outbreak is crucial in preserving the medical, economic and social well-being of the affected population (whether it is human, animal or plant). Further, the ability to respond quickly to the outbreak by providing real-time, interactive access to shared (collaborative) information will minimise the impact of an outbreak. The sharing of information must be done carefully, with agreement between the partners and enforced by specific protocols. This paper presents an overview of a new joint project between EU partners and AU partners, total value of around €8.64 million, which is examining the issue of authentication and authorisation required to ensure that collaborative information in such situations is kept within the control of the collaborating partners and that accidental (or deliberate) release to unauthorised partners can be mitigated.

  14. Research on Digital Agricultural Information Resources Sharing Plan Based on Cloud Computing

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Part 1: Decision Support Systems, Intelligent Systems and Artificial Intelligence Applications; International audience; In order to provide the agricultural works with customized, visual, multi-perspective and multi-level active service, we conduct a research of digital agricultural information resources sharing plan based on cloud computing to integrate and publish the digital agricultural information resources efficiently and timely. Based on cloud computing and virtualization technology, w...

  15. The DeepTree Exhibit: Visualizing the Tree of Life to Facilitate Informal Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block, F; Horn, M S; Phillips, B C; Diamond, J; Evans, E M; Shen, Chia

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we present the DeepTree exhibit, a multi-user, multi-touch interactive visualization of the Tree of Life. We developed DeepTree to facilitate collaborative learning of evolutionary concepts. We will describe an iterative process in which a team of computer scientists, learning scientists, biologists, and museum curators worked together throughout design, development, and evaluation. We present the importance of designing the interactions and the visualization hand-in-hand in order to facilitate active learning. The outcome of this process is a fractal-based tree layout that reduces visual complexity while being able to capture all life on earth; a custom rendering and navigation engine that prioritizes visual appeal and smooth fly-through; and a multi-user interface that encourages collaborative exploration while offering guided discovery. We present an evaluation showing that the large dataset encouraged free exploration, triggers emotional responses, and facilitates visitor engagement and informal learning.

  16. Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs (SWITCH-ON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2015-04-01

    Recently, a collaborative EU project started called SWITCH-ON (EU FP7 project No 603587) coordinated by SMHI to support the INSPIRE directive and the Open Data Strategy. The overall goal of the project is to establish a "one-stop-shop" web portal for easy access to European water information. The project will use open data, provide infrastructure for sharing and collaboration, and add value to society and research by repurposing and refining data from various sources. The SWITCH-ON project http://www.water-switch-on.eu/ will establish new forms of water research and facilitate the development of new products and services based on principles of sharing and community building in the water society. The SWITCH-ON objectives are to use open data for implementing: 1) an innovative spatial information platform (SIP) to find, bind, transform and publish data, 2) entirely new forms of collaborative research organised in a Virtual Water-Science Laboratory, open for any research group, 3) fourteen new operational products for water management and awareness, 4) outreach facilities for new water business and knowledge in line with the Europe's smart growth and environmental objectives. This poster will describe the overall project goals and especially the recent progress on developing a Virtual Water-Science Laboratory. Contact: waterswitchon@gmail.com

  17. A Game-Theoretic Approach for Opportunistic Spectrum Sharing in Cognitive Radio Networks with Incomplete Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Xuesong Jonathan; Li, Liang; Guo, Wei

    One important issue in cognitive transmission is for multiple secondary users to dynamically acquire spare spectrum from the single primary user. The existing spectrum sharing scheme adopts a deterministic Cournot game to formulate this problem, of which the solution is the Nash equilibrium. This formulation is based on two implicit assumptions. First, each secondary user is willing to fully exchange transmission parameters with all others and hence knows their complete information. Second, the unused spectrum of the primary user for spectrum sharing is always larger than the total frequency demand of all secondary users at the Nash equilibrium. However, both assumptions may not be true in general. To remedy this, the present paper considers a more realistic assumption of incomplete information, i.e., each secondary user may choose to conceal their private information for achieving higher transmission benefit. Following this assumption and given that the unused bandwidth of the primary user is large enough, we adopt a probabilistic Cournot game to formulate an opportunistic spectrum sharing scheme for maximizing the total benefit of all secondary users. Bayesian equilibrium is considered as the solution of this game. Moreover, we prove that a secondary user can improve their expected benefit by actively hiding its transmission parameters and increasing their variance. On the other hand, when the unused spectrum of the primary user is smaller than the maximal total frequency demand of all secondary users at the Bayesian equilibrium, we formulate a constrained optimization problem for the primary user to maximize its profit in spectrum sharing and revise the proposed spectrum sharing scheme to solve this problem heuristically. This provides a unified approach to overcome the aforementioned two limitations of the existing spectrum sharing scheme.

  18. Joint Action: Mental Representations, Shared Information and General Mechanisms for Coordinating with Others

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vesper, Cordula; Abramova, Ekaterina; Bütepage, Judith; Ciardo, Francesca; Crossey, Benjamin; Effenberg, Alfred; Hristova, Dayana; Karlinsky, April; McEllin, Luke; Nijssen, Sari R. R.; Schmitz, Laura; Wahn, Basil

    2017-01-01

    In joint action, multiple people coordinate their actions to perform a task together. This often requires precise temporal and spatial coordination. How do co-actors achieve this? How do they coordinate their actions toward a shared task goal? Here, we provide an overview of the mental representations involved in joint action, discuss how co-actors share sensorimotor information and what general mechanisms support coordination with others. By deliberately extending the review to aspects such as the cultural context in which a joint action takes place, we pay tribute to the complex and variable nature of this social phenomenon. PMID:28101077

  19. Information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two Finnish firms: an exploration using activity theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunilla Widén-Wulff

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. In this paper, we discuss the link between information sharing and organizational knowledge production in two very different organizations - a company that handles insurance claims and a small entrepreneurial hi-tech company. We suggest that this link has not been adequately addressed by studies of information behaviour, though a number of recent papers (e.g. Wilson, 2005; Bartlett and Toms, 2005 have proposed that human information behaviour research should appropriate methods from workplace studies and CSCW to provide a richer account of organizational information and knowledge work. Method. Two case studies of sharing practices in Finnish firms were carried out. Analysis. The version of activity theory that has been developed by Engeström (1999 and other Finnish researchers (Kuutti, 1996 was used to analyse the data. This has provided highly specific accounts of information sharing as a constituent of the varied processes that contribute to the development of organizational knowledge. Results. The overall analysis has allowed us to explain how and why organizational information sharing happens in terms that go beyond the cognitive and descriptive accounts (e.g. Widen-Wulff and Ginman, 2004; Widen-Wulff and Davenport, 2005; ; Widen-Wulff, 2006 of our earlier studies. Conclusion. . Information behaviour is a repertoire of actions and operations and judgements about timing and ethics that are brought into play across work cycles and routines. From this perspective, the duality of organizational knowledge becomes clear: it is both individual and collective judgements about how to behave, and the incremental outcome of these judgements, embedded in decisions that support the objects of activity systems.

  20. Constructing global view with an ontology-based method for information sharing in the virtual organization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    The problem of constructing global view of heterogeneous information sources for information sharing is becoming more and more important due to the availability of multiple information sources within the virtual organization. Global view is defined to provide a unified representation of the information in the different sources by analyzing concept schemas associated with them and resolving possible semantic heterogeneity. An ontology-based method for global view construction is proposed. In the method, ( 1 ) Based on the formal ontologies, the concept of semantic affinity is introduced to assess the level of semantic relationship between information classes from different information sources; (2) Information classes are classified by semantic affinity levels using clustering procedures so that their different representations can be analyzed for unification; (3) Global view is constructed starting from selected clusters by unifying representation of their elements. The application example of using the method in the joint-aerial defense organization is illustrated and the result shows that the proposed method is feasible.

  1. The Impacts of Information-Sharing Mechanisms on Spatial Market Formation Based on Agent-Based Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianqian; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Erbo; Xia, Xing’ang; Han, Zhangang

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the geographic aspects of economic development, exemplified by P. Krugman’s logical analysis. We show in this paper that the geographic aspects of economic development can be modeled using multi-agent systems that incorporate multiple underlying factors. The extent of information sharing is assumed to be a driving force that leads to economic geographic heterogeneity across locations without geographic advantages or disadvantages. We propose an agent-based market model that considers a spectrum of different information-sharing mechanisms: no information sharing, information sharing among friends and pheromone-like information sharing. Finally, we build a unified model that accommodates all three of these information-sharing mechanisms based on the number of friends who can share information. We find that the no information-sharing model does not yield large economic zones, and more information sharing can give rise to a power-law distribution of market size that corresponds to the stylized fact of city size and firm size distributions. The simulations show that this model is robust. This paper provides an alternative approach to studying economic geographic development, and this model could be used as a test bed to validate the detailed assumptions that regulate real economic agglomeration. PMID:23484007

  2. The impacts of information-sharing mechanisms on spatial market formation based on agent-based modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qianqian; Yang, Tao; Zhao, Erbo; Xia, Xing'ang; Han, Zhangang

    2013-01-01

    There has been an increasing interest in the geographic aspects of economic development, exemplified by P. Krugman's logical analysis. We show in this paper that the geographic aspects of economic development can be modeled using multi-agent systems that incorporate multiple underlying factors. The extent of information sharing is assumed to be a driving force that leads to economic geographic heterogeneity across locations without geographic advantages or disadvantages. We propose an agent-based market model that considers a spectrum of different information-sharing mechanisms: no information sharing, information sharing among friends and pheromone-like information sharing. Finally, we build a unified model that accommodates all three of these information-sharing mechanisms based on the number of friends who can share information. We find that the no information-sharing model does not yield large economic zones, and more information sharing can give rise to a power-law distribution of market size that corresponds to the stylized fact of city size and firm size distributions. The simulations show that this model is robust. This paper provides an alternative approach to studying economic geographic development, and this model could be used as a test bed to validate the detailed assumptions that regulate real economic agglomeration.

  3. The Influence of Health Literacy and Patient Activation on Patient Information Seeking and Sharing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Christy J W; Cafferty, Lauren A; Russell, Travis C

    2015-01-01

    This study provided an assessment of how patients looked for information to prepare for a clinical appointment and whether they shared those findings with their provider. A cross-sectional survey allowed insight into patient attitudes, motivations, and behavior in clinical real time. At two hospital-based clinics, 243 patients completed surveys before and after clinical appointments. Younger patients with higher communicative and critical health literacy prepared for clinical appointments with information searches. The predicted association of health literacy and patient activation with information sharing was not supported. This study shows that patients with higher patient activation perceived that their providers responded more positively to patient-obtained medical information. The role of critical health literacy may show that individuals choosing to seek information are considering not just their ability to conduct the search but also their ability to synthesize and critically analyze the results of the information search. An implication for providers is to become skilled in directly asking or passively surveying what outside information sources the patient has engaged with, no matter if the patient does or does not introduce the information.

  4. Between information seeking and sharing – use of social media in a young learner context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2013-01-01

    This presentation addresses information seeking behavior among young learners and ,in particular, their use of social media in an educational context. The focus is on young learners’ use of social media as information sources in the intersection between information seeking and sharing of user...... and skills. However, only minor attention is generally paid to social media and Internet searching by the developers. Further, use of social media requires a meta-literacy approach by educators to guide young learners’ use of social media. The aim of the paper is twofold; to further inform librarians......-generated content: Which activities are associated with social media as information sources? What are the motivations and constraints for using social media as information sources? The presentation is based on a systematic review of a selected number of core LIS journals in addition to results from recent research...

  5. Experiences of Parent Peer Nutrition Educators Sharing Child Feeding and Nutrition Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Richard; Collins, Clare

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe the experiences of parents as peer educators disseminating nutrition and child feeding information. Parents of infants aged from birth to three years were trained as peer educators in a face-to-face workshop, and then shared evidence-based child feeding and nutrition information via Facebook, email, and printed resources for six months to peers, family, and social media contacts. Semi-structured telephone or group interviews were conducted after a six-month online and face-to-face peer nutrition intervention period investigating peer educator experiences, barriers, enablers of information dissemination, and the acceptability of the peer educator model. Transcripts from interviews were independently coded by two researchers and thematically analysed. Twenty-eight participants completed the study and were assigned to either group or individual interviews. The cohort consenting to the study were predominantly female, aged between 25 and 34 years, non-indigenous, tertiary educated, and employed or on maternity leave. Dominant themes to emerge from the interviews included that the information was trustworthy, child feeding practice information was considered most helpful, newer parents were the most receptive and family members the least receptive to child feeding and nutrition information, and sharing and receiving information verbally and via social media were preferred over print and email. In conclusion, parents reported positive experiences as peer nutrition educators, and considered it acceptable for sharing evidence-based nutrition information. Further research may determine the impact on diet quality and the food-related behaviours of babies and young children on a population level. PMID:28850096

  6. You Should Know Better: Can Self-Affirmation Facilitate Information-Seeking Behavior and Interpersonal Discussion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demetriades, Stefanie Z; Walter, Nathan

    2016-11-01

    This study explores whether self-affirmation has the capacity not merely to reduce the perceived threat associated with health-related information but also to facilitate interpersonal discussion and affect health information-seeking behavior. The context for the study is the ongoing California drought, which serves as suitable context to examine the intersection of self-affirmation and information-seeking behavior because it involves a threatening message (the destructive consequences of the drought) and highlights discrepancies between actual (water waste) and prosocial (water conservation) behavior. Results of a month-long longitudinal panel study demonstrate significant effects of self-affirmation on interpersonal discussion, information seeking, knowledge, and water-conserving behavior across time. Implications for theorizing longer term effects of self-affirmation and practical implications for promoting behavioral change through the enhancement of knowledge and self-esteem are considered.

  7. Interoperability Matter: Levels of Data Sharing, Starting from a 3d Information Modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasi, C.; Achille, C.

    2017-02-01

    Nowadays, the adoption of BIM processes in the AEC (Architecture, Engineering and Construction) industry means to be oriented towards synergistic workflows, based on informative instruments capable of realizing the virtual model of the building. The target of this article is to speak about the interoperability matter, approaching the subject through a theoretical part and also a practice example, in order to show how these notions are applicable in real situations. In particular, the case study analysed belongs to the Cultural Heritage field, where it is possible to find some difficulties - both in the modelling and sharing phases - due to the complexity of shapes and elements. Focusing on the interoperability between different software, the questions are: What and how many kind of information can I share? Given that this process leads also to a standardization of the modelled parts, is there the possibility of an accuracy loss?

  8. Luhmann meets the Matrix Exchanging and sharing information in network-centric environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben Van Lier

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available A fast-paced process of hybridization of man and technology, organization and technology and society and technology is currently sweeping the world. This process requires a way of (scientific thinking that takes hybrid systems as the starting point. This way of thinking gives hybrid systems an increasing need to be interlinked, which enables them to exchange and share information through these links. This development of linking (hybrid systems to enable them to exchange and share information, can also be denoted as the realization of interoperability between (hybrid systems. Five principles from Luhmann’s systems theory can be of help to understand interoperability. Interoperability enables (hybrid systems to join random coalitions and networks. The network centric warfare concept is currently the basis for international efforts for the development and application of interoperability that would enable armed forces to act effectively and efficiently. In this paper is demonstrated what Luhmann’s system’s theory can learn us.

  9. A recovery method using recently updated record information in shared-nothing spatial database cluster

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JEONG Myeong-ho; JANG Yong-ll; PARK Soon-young; BAE Hae-young

    2004-01-01

    A shared-nothing spatial database cluster is system that provides continuous service even if some system failure happens in any node. So, an efficient recovery of system failure is very important. Generally, the existing method recovers the failed node by using both cluster log and local log. This method, however, cause several problems that increase communication cost and size of cluster log. This paper proposes novel recovery method using recently updated record information in shared-nothing spatial database cluster. The proposed technique utilizes update information of records and pointers of actual data. This makes a reduction of log size and communication cost.Consequently, this reduces recovery time of failed node due to less processing of update operations.

  10. A Framework of Environmental Modelling and Information Sharing for Urban Air Pollution Control and Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Gang-jun; FU Er-jiang; WANG Yun-jia; ZHANG Ke-fei; HAN Bao-ping; ARROWSMITH Colin

    2007-01-01

    More effective environmental pollution control and management are needed due to the increasing environmental impacts from a range of human activities and the growing public demands for a better living environment. Urban air pollution is a serious environmental issue that poses adverse impacts on the health of people and the environment in most metropolitan areas. In this paper, we propose a geoinformatics augmented framework of environmental modelling and information sharing for supporting effective urban air pollution control and management. This framework is outlined in terms of its key components and processes including: 1) an integrated, adaptive network of sensors for environmental monitoring; 2) a set of distributed, interoperable databases for data management; 3) a set of intelligent, robust algorithms and models for environmental modelling; 4) a set of flexible, efficient user interfaces for data access and information sharing; and 5) a reliable, high capacity, high performance computing and communication infrastructure for integrating and supporting other framework components and processes.

  11. Facilitating the improved management of waste in South Africa through a national waste information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godfrey, Linda

    2008-01-01

    Developing a waste information system (WIS) for a country is more than just about collecting routine data on waste; it is about facilitating the improved management of waste by providing timely, reliable information to the relevant role-players. It is a means of supporting the waste governance challenges facing South Africa - challenges ranging from strategic waste management issues at national government to basic operational challenges at local government. The paper addresses two hypotheses. The first is that the identified needs of government can provide a platform from which to design a national WIS framework for a developing country such as South Africa, and the second is that the needs for waste information reflect greater, currently unfulfilled challenges in the sustainable management of waste. Through a participatory needs analysis process, it is shown that waste information is needed by the three spheres of government, to support amongst others, informed planning and decision-making, compliance monitoring and enforcement, community participation through public access to information, human, infrastructure and financial resource management and policy development. These needs for waste information correspond closely with key waste management challenges currently facing the country. A shift in governments approach to waste, in line with national and international policy, is evident from identified current and future waste information needs. However, the need for information on landfilling remains entrenched within government, possibly due to the poor compliance of landfill sites in South Africa and the problems around the illegal disposal of both general and hazardous waste.

  12. Information-sharing ethical dilemmas and decision-making for public health nurses in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Chisato; Ota, Katsumasa; Matsuda, Masami

    2015-08-01

    Information sharing is one of the most important means of public health nurses collaborating with other healthcare professionals and community members. There are complicated ethical issues in the process. To describe the ethical dilemmas associated with client information sharing that Japanese public health nurses experience in daily practice and to clarify their decision-making process to resolve these dilemmas. Data were collected using a three-phase consensus method consisting of semi-structured interviews, self-administered questionnaires and a group interview. We surveyed administrative public health nurses in Shizuoka Prefecture, Japan. The semi-structured interviews were carried out with 12 administrative public health nurses, and the self-administered questionnaires were sent to all 899 administrative public health nurses. The group interview was carried out with eight administrative public health nurses. Ethical approval was granted by the ethics committee of the School of Health Sciences, Nagoya University, Japan (8-158, 9-130). Information-sharing ethical dilemmas occurred most often when clients' decisions did not coincide with the nurses' own professional assessments, particularly when they faced clinical issues that were inherently ambiguous. In their decision-making processes, nurses prioritised 'protection of health and life'. These findings suggest that, above all, they sought to address urgent risks to clients' lives while upholding the principle of client autonomy as much as possible. In such cases, the nurses made decisions regarding whether to share information about the client depending on the individual situation. Public health nurses should protect the client's health while taking into consideration their relationship with the client. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Mutual Influence Potential Networks: Enabling Information Sharing in Loosely-Coupled Extended-Duration Teamwork

    OpenAIRE

    Amir, Ofra; Grosz, Barbara J.; Gajos, Krzysztof Z.

    2016-01-01

    Complex collaborative activities such as treating patients, co-authoring documents and developing software are often characterized by teamwork that is loosely coupled and extends in time. To remain coordinated and avoid conflicts, team members need to identify dependencies between their activities — which though loosely coupled may interact — and share information appropriately. The loose-coupling of tasks increases the difficulty of identifying dependencies, with the result that team members...

  14. Balancing entrepreneurship and business practices for e-collaboration: responsible information sharing in academic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porter, Mark W; Porter, Mark William; Milley, David; Oliveti, Kristyn; Ladd, Allen; O'Hara, Ryan J; Desai, Bimal R; White, Peter S

    2008-11-06

    Flexible, highly accessible collaboration tools can inherently conflict with controls placed on information sharing by offices charged with privacy protection, compliance, and maintenance of the general business environment. Our implementation of a commercial enterprise wiki within the academic research environment addresses concerns of all involved through the development of a robust user training program, a suite of software customizations that enhance security elements, a robust auditing program, allowance for inter-institutional wiki collaboration, and wiki-specific governance.

  15. Commonly Shared Foundation of Mathematics, Information Science, Natural Science, Social Science, and Theology

    OpenAIRE

    Wayne, James J.

    2014-01-01

    Through a simple thought experiment, this paper shows that there must be a shared foundation of mathematics, information science, natural science, social science, and theology. The thought experiment is to ask a volunteer to write down an arbitrary real number between 0 and 1 with many digits. For example, 0.19823765010367129462…. would be one of such numbers. Then we analyze this experiment result by asking five simple questions: Is the real number a random real? Can the observed real numbe...

  16. Moving beyond Bermuda: sharing data to build a medical information commons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; McGuire, Amy L

    2017-06-01

    The ubiquity of DNA sequencing and the advent of medical imaging, electronic health records, and "omics" technologies have produced a deluge of data. Making meaning of those data-creating scientific knowledge and useful clinical information-will vastly exceed the capacity of even the largest institutions. Data must be shared to achieve the promises of genomic science and precision medicine. © 2017 Cook-Deegan and McGuire; Published by Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press.

  17. Cyber security: a critical examination of information sharing versus data sensitivity issues for organisations at risk of cyber attack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallinder, Jason; Drabwell, Peter

    Cyber threats are growing and evolving at an unprecedented rate.Consequently, it is becoming vitally important that organisations share information internally and externally before, during and after incidents they encounter so that lessons can be learned, good practice identified and new cyber resilience capabilities developed. Many organisations are reluctant to share such information for fear of divulging sensitive information or because it may be vague or incomplete. This provides organisations with a complex dilemma: how to share information as openly as possibly about cyber incidents, while protecting their confidentiality and focusing on service recovery from such incidents. This paper explores the dilemma of information sharing versus sensitivity and provides a practical overview of considerations every business continuity plan should address to plan effectively for information sharing in the event of a cyber incident.

  18. Digitising the Archaeological Process at the Swedish National Heritage Board: producing, managing and sharing archaeological information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Åsa Larsson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The Digital Archaeological Process (DAP programme was initiated by the Swedish National Heritage Board in order to create a more seamless process for storing and sharing digital information generated through archaeological surveys and excavations. The programme aims to increase the availability of digital data as well as the quality and usefulness of the information. The Cultural Environment Register is being developed, which will contain and/or link to information about where fieldwork has been done and what was found: archaeological sites, field documentation, finds, as well as the reports and publications. In addition to creating a new system for storing this information, a large amount of old digital projects previously kept by museums and archaeological contractors is being collected to be made publicly available. Our goal is to make heritage management more efficient, and in the process the information will also become more useful to researchers, museums and the general public.

  19. An approach to medical knowledge sharing in a hospital information system using MCLink.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shibuya, Akiko; Inoue, Ryusuke; Nakayama, Masaharu; Kasahara, Shin; Maeda, Yukihiro; Umesato, Yoshimasa; Kondo, Yoshiaki

    2013-08-01

    Clinicians often need access to electronic information resources that answer questions that occur in daily clinical practice. This information generally comes from publicly available resources. However, clinicians also need knowledge on institution-specific information (e.g., institution-specific guidelines, choice of drug, choice of laboratory test, information on adverse events, and advice from professional colleagues). This information needs to be available in real time. This study characterizes these needs in order to build a prototype hospital information system (HIS) that can help clinicians get timely answers to questions. We previously designed medical knowledge units called Medical Cells (MCs). We developed a portal server of MCs that can create and store medical information such as institution-specific information. We then developed a prototype HIS that embeds MCs as links (MCLink); these links are based on specific terms (e.g., drug, laboratory test, and disease). This prototype HIS presents clinicians with institution-specific information. The HIS clients (e.g., clinicians, nurses, pharmacists, and laboratory technicians) can also create an MCLink in the HIS using the portal server in the hospital. The prototype HIS allowed efficient sharing and use of institution-specific information to clinicians at the point of care. This study included institution-specific information resources and advice from professional colleagues, both of which might have an important role in supporting good clinical decision making.

  20. 75 FR 2557 - Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide Automatic...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-15

    ... SECURITY Coast Guard Interim Policy for the Sharing of Information Collected by the Coast Guard Nationwide.... SUMMARY: The Coast Guard has developed an interim policy for the access and sharing of information... reach the Docket Management Facility by that date. ADDRESSES: This notice and the interim policy...

  1. 19 CFR 10.552 - Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and... Determinations § 10.552 Information sharing by CBP regarding textile and apparel goods produced in the United... textile or apparel goods are imported, if such action results in the avoidance of tariffs,...

  2. You and me, how (in-)active are we? The potential of sharing physical activity information to increase motivation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wijngaarden, J.; Van Halteren, A.T.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the theoretical background and development of an application to share physical activity information, as well as the results of a four-week field study in which people shared physical activity information as measured by the Philips Activity Monitor. The existing web-service Dir

  3. Complex New Product Development projects - How the Project Manager’s Information Sharing With Core Actors Changes Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    2013-01-01

    A heavily burdened project manager must ensure effective information sharing with actors inside and outside the organization because this is a necessary condition for a new product development (NPD) project to achieve its objectives. Knowledge, however, on who actually assists a project manager...... and outside the organization to promote the information sharing....

  4. 25 CFR 12.42 - Do Indian country law enforcement programs share information with their own communities or other...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Do Indian country law enforcement programs share..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAW AND ORDER INDIAN COUNTRY LAW ENFORCEMENT Records and Information § 12.42 Do Indian country law enforcement programs share information with their own communities or other agencies...

  5. DEVELOPMENT OF IT TRIAGE SYSTEM (TRACY) TO SHARE REGIONAL DISASTER MEDICAL INFORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numada, Muneyoshi; Hada, Yasunori; Ohara, Miho; Meguro, Kimiro

    We developed an IT triage system for collecting disaster medical information in real time. FeliCa cards and card readers are used to obtain the number and cond ition of patients. The system is composed of two elements. First, the number of patie nts for each triage level and the accepted number of patients in each diagnosis and treatment department are obtained in real time, including response for changing triage level. Second, this information can be shared among hospitals, the administration, and residents in real time who are searching for their family. A disaster drill utiliz ing this system was held at the University of Yamanashi Hospital with 450 participants.

  6. Outage Analysis of Spectrum-Sharing over M-Block Fading with Sensing Information

    KAUST Repository

    Alabbasi, Abdulrahman

    2016-07-13

    Future wireless technologies, such as, 5G, are expected to support real-time applications with high data throughput, e.g., holographic meetings. From a bandwidth perspective, cognitive radio is a promising technology to enhance the system’s throughput via sharing the licensed spectrum. From a delay perspective, it is well known that increasing the number of decoding blocks will improve the system robustness against errors, while increasing the delay. Therefore, optimally allocating the resources to determine the tradeoff of tuning the length of decoding blocks while sharing the spectrum is a critical challenge for future wireless systems. In this work, we minimize the targeted outage probability over the block-fading channels while utilizing the spectrum-sharing concept. The secondary user’s outage region and the corresponding optimal power are derived, over twoblocks and M-blocks fading channels. We propose two suboptimal power strategies and derive the associated asymptotic lower and upper bounds on the outage probability with tractable expressions. These bounds allow us to derive the exact diversity order of the secondary user’s outage probability. To further enhance the system’s performance, we also investigate the impact of including the sensing information on the outage problem. The outage problem is then solved via proposing an alternating optimization algorithm, which utilizes the verified strict quasiconvex structure of the problem. Selected numerical results are presented to characterize the system’s behavior and show the improvements of several sharing concepts.

  7. Information sharing systems and teamwork between sub-teams: a mathematical modeling perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohidi, Hamid; Namdari, Alireza; Keyser, Thomas K.; Drzymalski, Julie

    2017-04-01

    Teamwork contributes to a considerable improvement in quality and quantity of the ultimate outcome. Collaboration and alliance between team members bring a substantial progress for any business. However, it is imperative to acquire an appropriate team since many factors must be considered in this regard. Team size may represent the effectiveness of a team and it is of paramount importance to determine what the ideal team size exactly should be. In addition, information technology increasingly plays a differentiating role in productivity and adopting appropriate information sharing systems may contribute to improvement in efficiency especially in competitive markets when there are numerous producers that compete with each other. The significance of transmitting information to individuals is inevitable to assure an improvement in team performance. In this paper, a model of teamwork and its organizational structure are presented. Furthermore, a mathematical model is proposed in order to characterize a group of sub-teams according to two criteria: team size and information technology. The effect of information technology on performance of team and sub-teams as well as optimum size of those team and sub-teams from a productivity perspective are studied. Moreover, a quantitative sensitivity analysis is presented in order to analyze the interaction between these two factors through a sharing system.

  8. Facilitating access to information in large documents with an intelligent hypertext system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathe, Nathalie

    1993-01-01

    Retrieving specific information from large amounts of documentation is not an easy task. It could be facilitated if information relevant in the current problem solving context could be automatically supplied to the user. As a first step towards this goal, we have developed an intelligent hypertext system called CID (Computer Integrated Documentation) and tested it on the Space Station Freedom requirement documents. The CID system enables integration of various technical documents in a hypertext framework and includes an intelligent context-sensitive indexing and retrieval mechanism. This mechanism utilizes on-line user information requirements and relevance feedback either to reinforce current indexing in case of success or to generate new knowledge in case of failure. This allows the CID system to provide helpful responses, based on previous usage of the documentation, and to improve its performance over time.

  9. From unwanted pregnancy to safe abortion: Sharing information about abortion in Asia through animation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Shweta; Dalvie, Suchitra

    2015-05-01

    Although unsafe abortion continues to be a leading cause of maternal mortality in many countries in Asia, the right to safe abortion remains highly stigmatized across the region. The Asia Safe Abortion Partnership, a regional network advocating for safe abortion, produced an animated short film entitled From Unwanted Pregnancy to Safe Abortion to show in conferences, schools and meetings in order to share knowledge about the barriers to safe abortion in Asia and to facilitate conversations on the right to safe abortion. This paper describes the making of this film, its objectives, content, dissemination and how it has been used. Our experience highlights the advantages of using animated films in addressing highly politicized and sensitive issues like abortion. Animation helped to create powerful advocacy material that does not homogenize the experiences of women across a diverse region, and at the same time emphasize the need for joint activities that express solidarity.

  10. An Inter-Personal Information Sharing Model Based on Personalized Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamei, Koji; Funakoshi, Kaname; Akahani, Jun-Ichi; Satoh, Tetsuji

    In this paper, we propose an inter-personal information sharing model among individuals based on personalized recommendations. In the proposed model, we define an information resource as shared between people when both of them consider it important --- not merely when they both possess it. In other words, the model defines the importance of information resources based on personalized recommendations from identifiable acquaintances. The proposed method is based on a collaborative filtering system that focuses on evaluations from identifiable acquaintances. It utilizes both user evaluations for documents and their contents. In other words, each user profile is represented as a matrix of credibility to the other users' evaluations on each domain of interests. We extended the content-based collaborative filtering method to distinguish other users to whom the documents should be recommended. We also applied a concept-based vector space model to represent the domain of interests instead of the previous method which represented them by a term-based vector space model. We introduce a personalized concept-base compiled from each user's information repository to improve the information retrieval in the user's environment. Furthermore, the concept-spaces change from user to user since they reflect the personalities of the users. Because of different concept-spaces, the similarity between a document and a user's interest varies for each user. As a result, a user receives recommendations from other users who have different view points, achieving inter-personal information sharing based on personalized recommendations. This paper also describes an experimental simulation of our information sharing model. In our laboratory, five participants accumulated a personal repository of e-mails and web pages from which they built their own concept-base. Then we estimated the user profiles according to personalized concept-bases and sets of documents which others evaluated. We simulated

  11. The Role of Shared Information Models for Software Reuse in Cross-Disciplinary Data Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, J. S.; Crichton, D. J.; Mattmann, C. A.; Joyner, R.; Rye, E.; Hardman, S.; Ramirez, P.; Kelly, S.; Law, E.

    2011-12-01

    A shared information model is vital for enabling correlative science, data system interoperability, and effective cross-discipline search. The use of common terminology enables scientists to communicate more precisely about their data and machines to inter-operate at levels far above the simple exchange of data structures. Furthermore research has shown that a shared information model is important for developing successful cross-disciplinary systems since the attempt to harmonize disparate information models is essentially cryptography. The Apache Object Oriented Data Technology (OODT) software framework developed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) supports the development of cross-disciplinary science data systems following an open source implementation. This framework has been applied to various areas in earth, planetary, lunar, astrophysics and biomedical scientific research. In addition multi-institutional and international data systems have resulted by developing around this software product line. To enable this versatility, appropriate architectural boundaries had to be observed that separate the common data management components from the discipline specific requirements. A shared information model can capture most of the discipline specific requirements by formally and unambiguously defining the science discipline's concepts and their relationships. It is developed using a knowledge acquisition process and software such as an ontology modeling tool. The contents of the information model can be extracted to produce the artifacts necessary for configuring the various data management components of the system. This paper will present the Planetary Data System (PDS) Information Model as a use case and describes how it functions as the source for the majority of the discipline specific requirements for the PDS4 data system. The information model, as a knowledge base of common terms, attributes, and classes, is used to generate XML Schema for data collection

  12. Simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for spectrum sharing in cognitive radio communication systems

    KAUST Repository

    Benkhelifa, Fatma

    2016-07-26

    In this paper, we consider the simultaneous wireless information and power transfer for the spectrum sharing (SS) in cognitive radio (CR) systems with a multi-antenna energy harvesting (EH) primary receiver (PR). The PR uses the antenna switching (AS) technique that assigns a subset of the PR\\'s antennas to harvest the energy from the radio frequency (RF) signals sent by the secondary transmitter (ST), and assigns the rest of the PR\\'s antennas to decode the information data. In this context, the primary network allows the secondary network to use the spectrum as long as the interference induced by the secondary transmitter (ST)\\'s signals is beneficial for the energy harvesting process at the PR side. The objective of this work is to show that the spectrum sharing is beneficial for both the SR and PR sides and leads to a win-win situation. To illustrate the incentive of the spectrum sharing cognitive system, we evaluate the mutual outage probability (MOP) introduced in [1] which declares an outage event if the PR or the secondary receiver (SR) is in an outage. Through the simulation results, we show that the performance of our system in terms of the MOP is always better than the performance of the system in the absence of ST and improves as the ST-PR interference increases. © 2016 IEEE.

  13. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Shunrong; Zhu, Xiaoyan; Wang, Liangmin

    2015-01-01

    Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs) have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI) is shared with other parities. To ensure patients’ full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE). Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs. PMID:26404300

  14. EPPS: Efficient and Privacy-Preserving Personal Health Information Sharing in Mobile Healthcare Social Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shunrong Jiang

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Mobile healthcare social networks (MHSNs have emerged as a promising next-generation healthcare system, which will significantly improve the quality of life. However, there are many security and privacy concerns before personal health information (PHI is shared with other parities. To ensure patients’ full control over their PHI, we propose a fine-grained and scalable data access control scheme based on attribute-based encryption (ABE. Besides, policies themselves for PHI sharing may be sensitive and may reveal information about underlying PHI or about data owners or recipients. In our scheme, we let each attribute contain an attribute name and its value and adopt the Bloom filter to efficiently check attributes before decryption. Thus, the data privacy and policy privacy can be preserved in our proposed scheme. Moreover, considering the fact that the computational cost grows with the complexity of the access policy and the limitation of the resource and energy in a smart phone, we outsource ABE decryption to the cloud while preventing the cloud from learning anything about the content and access policy. The security and performance analysis is carried out to demonstrate that our proposed scheme can achieve fine-grained access policies for PHI sharing in MHSNs.

  15. Evaluating information literacy educators' practices before and after the course facilitating information literacy education: from tutor to learner-centred.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, Susie

    2011-09-01

    The article gives an account of a study on the impact of facilitating information literacy education (FILE) on its participants, health librarians who have attended this course between 2007 and 2010. The analysis presented here is based on the first stage of the research, funded by the Higher Education Academy Information and Computer Sciences and consisting of an online survey. This survey was conducted in Autumn 2010 and examined the respondents' examples of information literacy practice before and after FILE. Two main outcomes can be drawn from the data. First, that overall the respondents' provision of information literacy education has shifted from a tutor-centred approach (where the trainer decides what the learner needs) to a learner-centred approach (where the learner decides what he/she needs). And secondly, that the impact of FILE should be seen in terms of a self-perpetuating professional development, rather than measured in terms of specific changes that occur at set times (e.g., at the end of the course or 6 months after completion). As one FILE participant puts it: 'When FILE ends your career as an information literacy professional starts.' © 2011 The authors. Health Information and Libraries Journal © 2011 Health Libraries Group.

  16. Sharing Data to Build a Medical Information Commons: From Bermuda to the Global Alliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook-Deegan, Robert; Ankeny, Rachel A; Maxson Jones, Kathryn

    2017-08-31

    The Human Genome Project modeled its open science ethos on nematode biology, most famously through daily release of DNA sequence data based on the 1996 Bermuda Principles. That open science philosophy persists, but daily, unfettered release of data has had to adapt to constraints occasioned by the use of data from individual people, broader use of data not only by scientists but also by clinicians and individuals, the global reach of genomic applications and diverse national privacy and research ethics laws, and the rising prominence of a diverse commercial genomics sector. The Global Alliance for Genomics and Health was established to enable the data sharing that is essential for making meaning of genomic variation. Data-sharing policies and practices will continue to evolve as researchers, health professionals, and individuals strive to construct a global medical and scientific information commons.

  17. Facilitating Out-of-Home Caregiving Through Health Information Technology: Survey of Informal Caregivers’ Current Practices, Interests, and Perceived Barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piette, John D; Jenchura, Emily C; Asch, Steven M; Rosland, Ann-Marie

    2013-01-01

    Background Many patients with chronic conditions are supported by out-of-home informal caregivers—family members, friends, and other individuals who provide care and support without pay—who, if armed with effective consumer health information technology, could inexpensively facilitate their care. Objective We sought to understand caregivers’ use of, interest in, and perceived barriers to health information technology for out-of-home caregiving. Methods We conducted 2 sequential Web-based surveys with a national sample of individuals who provide out-of-home caregiving to an adult family member or friend with a chronic illness. We queried respondents about their use of health information technology for out-of-home caregiving and used multivariable regression to investigate caregiver and care-recipient characteristics associated with caregivers’ technology use for caregiving. Results Among 316 out-of-home caregiver respondents, 34.5% (109/316) reported using health information technology for caregiving activities. The likelihood of a caregiver using technology increased significantly with intensity of caregiving (as measured by number of out-of-home caregiving activities). Compared with very low intensity caregivers, the adjusted odds ratio (OR) of technology use was 1.88 (95% CI 1.01-3.50) for low intensity caregivers, 2.39 (95% CI 1.11-5.15) for moderate intensity caregivers, and 3.70 (95% CI 1.62-8.45) for high intensity caregivers. Over 70% (149/207) of technology nonusers reported interest in using technology in the future to support caregiving. The most commonly cited barriers to technology use for caregiving were health system privacy rules that restrict access to care-recipients’ health information and lack of familiarity with programs or websites that facilitate out-of-home caregiving. Conclusions Health information technology use for out-of-home caregiving is common, especially among individuals who provide more intense caregiving. Health care

  18. Facilitating resident information seeking regarding meals in a special care unit: an environmental design intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Beth A D; Mathews, R Mark

    2004-10-01

    Repetitive questions and requests for information are common in older adults with dementia. The purpose of this environmental design intervention was to provide residents continuous access to information about common mealtime questions with the intent of decreasing agitation around mealtimes and facilitating more pleasant patient-staff and patient-patient interactions. A special care unit for residents with dementia of the Alzheimer's type was the setting. During the intervention conditions, a large clock and a sign with large lettering that identified mealtimes were hung in the dining area. Direct observations of 35 residents were conducted at mealtimes for a 5-month period. Results showed reductions from baseline to the intervention phase in food-related questions or requests. These results suggest a simple, inexpensive environmental change intervention can reduce repetitive questions commonly exhibited by individuals with dementia.

  19. Integrating genome-based informatics to modernize global disease monitoring, information sharing, and response

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Brown, Eric W; Detter, Chris

    2012-01-01

    The rapid advancement of genome technologies holds great promise for improving the quality and speed of clinical and public health laboratory investigations and for decreasing their cost. The latest generation of genome DNA sequencers can provide highly detailed and robust information on disease......-causing microbes, and in the near future these technologies will be suitable for routine use in national, regional, and global public health laboratories. With additional improvements in instrumentation, these next- or third-generation sequencers are likely to replace conventional culture-based and molecular...... typing methods to provide point-of-care clinical diagnosis and other essential information for quicker and better treatment of patients. Provided there is free-sharing of information by all clinical and public health laboratories, these genomic tools could spawn a global system of linked databases...

  20. Can I help you? Information sharing in online discussion forums by people living with a long-term condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Carol S; Ahmed, Osman Hassan

    2016-11-10

    Peer-to-peer health care is increasing, especially amongst people living with a long-term condition. How information is shared is, however, sometimes of concern to health care professionals. This study explored what information is being shared on health-related discussion boards and identified the approaches people used to signpost their peers to information. This study was conducted using a qualitative content analysis methodology to explore information shared on discussion boards for people living with diabetes. Whilst there is debate about the best ethical lens to view research carried out on data posted on online discussion boards, the researchers chose to adopt the stance of treating this type of information as "personal health text", a specific type of research data in its own right. Qualitative content analysis and basic descriptive statistics were used to analyse the selected posts. Two major themes were identified: 'Information Sharing from Experience' and 'Signposting Other Sources of Information'.Conclusions People were actively engaging in information sharing in online discussion forums, mainly through direct signposting. The quality of the information shared was important, with reasons for recommendations being given. Much of the information sharing was based on experience, which also brought in information from external sources such as health care professionals and other acknowledged experts in the field.With the rise in peer-to-peer support networks, the nature of health knowledge and expertise needs to be redefined. People online are combining external information with their own personal experiences and sharing that for others to take and develop as they wish.

  1. Modeling of Information Sharing Enablers for building Trust in Indian Manufacturing Industry: An Integrated ISM and Fuzzy MICMAC Approach

    OpenAIRE

    M K KHURANA; Mishra, P.K.; Mr. RAJEEV JAIN; A R Singh

    2010-01-01

    Trust is regarded as one of the most critical and essential ingredient in most of business activities for collaborative relationship among the supply chain members. Maintaining and building trust among supply chain members depends mainly upon continued commitment to communication together with sharing information. Trust becomes critical when uncertainty and asymmetric information are present in the transaction of a supply chain. Information sharing system has very critical importance for the ...

  2. A Scheme to Share Information via Employing Discrete Algorithm to Quantum States*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KANG Guo-Dong; FANG Mao-Fa

    2011-01-01

    We propose a protocol for information sharing between two legitimate parties (Bob and Alice) via public-key cryptography. In particular, we specialize the protocol by employing discrete algorithm under mod that maps integers to quantum states via photon rotations. Based on this algorithm, we find that the protocol is secure under various classes of attacks. Specially, owe to the algorithm, the security of the classical privacy contained in the quantum public-key and the corresponding ciphertext is guaranteed. And the protocol is robust against the impersonation attack and the active wiretapping attack by designing particular checking processing, thus the protocol is valid.

  3. General A Scheme to Share Information via Employing Discrete Algorithm to Quantum States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Guo-Dong; Fang, Mao-Fa

    2011-02-01

    We propose a protocol for information sharing between two legitimate parties (Bob and Alice) via public-key cryptography. In particular, we specialize the protocol by employing discrete algorithm under mod that maps integers to quantum states via photon rotations. Based on this algorithm, we find that the protocol is secure under various classes of attacks. Specially, owe to the algorithm, the security of the classical privacy contained in the quantum public-key and the corresponding ciphertext is guaranteed. And the protocol is robust against the impersonation attack and the active wiretapping attack by designing particular checking processing, thus the protocol is valid.

  4. Open Data Strategies and Experiences to Improve Sharing and Publication of Public Sector Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura María Gutiérrez Medina

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The Canary Islands receive 10 million tourists every year. Tourism represents a key sector for economic development in the Canaries. This work presents the benefits of open data usages in the tourism sector both in municipalities and in the island government. These public institutions have valuable information that should be shared with other institutions: 600 hotels and apartments, 10,000 bars and restaurants, and more than 15,000 retail businesses. This article describes an open data project to validate and to publish such data across multiple administrations. The main benefits for the public sector are the improvement of the data quality and the interoperability between different administrations.

  5. Research and development of models and instruments to define, measure, and improve shared information processing with government oversight agencies. An analysis of the literature, August 1990--January 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-12-31

    This document identifies elements of sharing, plus key variables of each and their interrelationships. The document`s model of sharing is intended to help management systems` users understand what sharing is and how to integrate it with information processing.

  6. A Stakeholder Analysis of Business-to-Government Information Sharing: the Governance of a Public-Private Platform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klievink, A.J.; Janssen, M.F.W.H.A.; Tan, Y.H.

    2012-01-01

    ICT enables business-to-government (b-to-g) information exchange, which can be used to enhance control and compliance by businesses. However, sharing information can cause resistance by businesses, as for them information is key to competitive advantage, whereas governments need this information to

  7. A Web-based multi-database system supporting distributed collaborative management and sharing of microarray experiment information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgarella, Sarah; Cattaneo, Dario; Masseroli, Marco

    2006-01-01

    We developed MicroGen, a multi-database Web based system for managing all the information characterizing spotted microarray experiments. It supports information gathering and storing according to the Minimum Information About Microarray Experiments (MIAME) standard. It also allows easy sharing of information and data among all multidisciplinary actors involved in spotted microarray experiments.

  8. Sharing Information: Report on the LIBER Library Security Network (LSN Since 2002

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erland Kolding Nielsen

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available On 2 July 2002, the Executive Board of LIBER, in line with the Copenhagen Principles of 14 May 2002, endorsed the establishment of a Library Security Network to facilitate the exchange of confidential security information among European national, university and other important research libraries with valuable collections. The Network came into being at the end of 2002. It has now been running for more than five years. The objective was, and is, to create a safe information and communication network, based on e-mail, for European library directors and security managers. This paper aims to review the experience: Has the system worked? Has it helped in terms of preventing crime, in solving crimes, in raising security awareness among the member institutions? Furthermore, the aim is to contribute to a revision in the broader perspective of a European context: Is it enough? Should it work otherwise? Are there other channels of information? Should the Network be expanded?

  9. DESIGNING A SUPPLY CHAIN MODEL WITH CONSIDERATION DEMAND FORECASTING AND INFORMATION SHARING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M.T. Fatemi Ghomi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available

    ENGLISH ABSTRACT: In traditional supply chain inventory management, orders are the only information firms exchange, but information technology now allows firms to share demand and inventory data quickly and inexpensively. To have an integrated plan, a manufacturer not only needs to know demand information from its customers but also supply information from its suppliers. In this paper, information flow is incorporated in a three-echelon supply chain model. Also to decrease the risk of the supply chain system, the customers’ demands are predicted first and this prediction is then used as an input to the supply chain model. In this paper a proposed evolving fuzzy predictor model will be used to predict the customers’ demands. For solving the supply chain model, a hybrid heuristic combining tabu search with simulated annealing sharing the same tabu list is developed.

    AFRIKAANSE OPSOMMING: In tradisionele voorsieningskettingvoorraadbestuur verteenwoordig bestellings die enigste vorm van van inligting wat deur ondernemings uitgeruil word. Inligtingstegnologie laat ondernemings egter deesdae toe om vraag- en voorraadata vinnig en goedkoop uit te ruil. Om 'n geïntegreerde plan te hê, het 'n vervaardiger nie alleen aanvraaginligting nodig van sy klante nie, maar ook aanbodinligting van sy leweransiers. In hierdie artikel word inligtingvloei geinkorporeer in 'n drie-vlakvoorsieningskettingmodel. Voorts, om die risiko in die voorsieningskettingmodel te verminder, word die klante se aanvraag eers vooruitgeskat en die vooruitskatting word dan gebruik as 'n inset tot die model. Hierdie artikel gebruik 'n groeiende wasige vooruitskattingsmodel om die klantebehoeftes voor uit te skat. Om die model op te los, word 'n hibriede heuristiese metode gekombineer met 'n "tabu"-soektog gebruik.

  10. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  11. Effects of Information Technologies, Department Characteristics and Individual Roles on Improving Knowledge Sharing Visibility: A Qualitative Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xi; Vogel, Douglas R.; Zhou, Zhongyun

    2012-01-01

    Knowledge sharing visibility (KSV) is a critical environmental factor which can reduce social loafing in knowledge sharing (KS). This is especially true in ICT [information and communication technology]-based KS in learning organisations. As such, it is imperative that we better understand how to design technology enabled knowledge management…

  12. Modeling of Information Sharing Enablers for building Trust in Indian Manufacturing Industry: An Integrated ISM and Fuzzy MICMAC Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M K KHURANA

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Trust is regarded as one of the most critical and essential ingredient in most of business activities for collaborative relationship among the supply chain members. Maintaining and building trust among supply chain members depends mainly upon continued commitment to communication together with sharing information. Trust becomes critical when uncertainty and asymmetric information are present in the transaction of a supply chain. Information sharing system has very critical importance for the creation and maintenance of Trust. Trust is concerned with both the receipt and the dissemination of information. The present research aims to provide a comprehensive framework for the various important factors of information sharing system affecting the level of trust in supply chain management. ISM and Fuzzy MICMAC have been deployed to identify and classify the key criterion of information sharing enablers that influence trust based on their direct and indirect relationship. In this paper role of different factors of information sharing those responsible for infusing trust has been analyzed. In this research, an integrated model of information sharing enablers has been developed which may be helpful to supply chain managers to employ this model in order to identify and classify the important criteria for their needs and to reveal the direct and indirect effects of each criterion on the trust building process in supply chain management.

  13. The impact of shared domain knowledge on strategic information systems planning and alignment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simla Maharaj

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Lack of alignment or harmony between information technology (IT and business imperatives continues to plague organisations despite decades of research. Strategic information systems planning (SISP is the process of coordinating the relationship between IT and the business in order to steer alignment. Shared domain knowledge (SDK is a factor that is posited as important for improving both SISP and alignment, which is theorised to be the main outcome of SISP. Objectives: The aim of this article is to examine the impact of SDK on SISP and alignment. Method: Data were gathered from management consultants in a large, global IT organisation, through the use of a structured questionnaire, and analysed. Results: It was shown that SDK positively influences SISP characteristics and the alignment outcome. Specifically, it was found that high levels of rationality in SISP positively influenced the intellectual dimension of alignment, whilst IT manager participation in business planning influenced the social dimension of alignment. SDK was found to have a bearing on all of the SISP characteristics measured (i.e. rationality, adaptation, business planning-SISP integration and IT manager participation in business planning. SDK was also found to positively impact both the intellectual and social dimensions of alignment.Conclusion: The implications of the findings are that fostering a knowledge sharing environment in organisations will help improve alignment, as well as the formal processes designed to steer alignment such as SISP.

  14. Information technologies and the sharing of disaster knowledge: the critical role of professional culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marincioni, Fausto

    2007-12-01

    A comparative survey of a diverse sample of 96 US and Italian emergency management agencies shows that the diffusion of new information technologies (IT) has transformed disaster communications. Although these technologies permit access to and the dissemination of massive amounts of disaster information with unprecedented speed and efficiency, barriers rooted in the various professional cultures still hinder the sharing of disaster knowledge. To be effective the available IT must be attuned to the unique settings and professional cultures of the local emergency management communities. Findings show that available technology, context, professional culture and interaction are key factors that affect the knowledge transfer process. Cultural filters appear to influence emergency managers' perceptions of their own professional roles, their vision of the applicability of technology to social issues, and their perspective on the transferability of disaster knowledge. Four cultural approaches to the application of IT to disaster communications are defined: technocentric; geographic,; anthropocentric; and ecocentric.

  15. Performance Optimization of Multiple Interconnected Heterogeneous Sensor Networks via Collaborative Information Sharing

    CERN Document Server

    Pal, Sougata; Bellalta, Boris; Oliver, Miquel

    2012-01-01

    Interconnecting multiple sensor networks is a relatively new research field which has emerged in the Wireless Sensor Network domain. Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) have typically been seen as logically separate, and few works have considered interconnection and interaction between them. Interconnecting multiple heterogeneous sensor networks therefore opens up a new field besides more traditional research on, e.g., routing, self organization, or MAC layer development. Up to now, some approaches have been proposed for interconnecting multiple sensor networks with goals like information sharing or monitoring multiple sensor networks. In this paper, we propose to utilize inter-WSN communication to enable Collaborative Performance Optimization, i.e., our approach aims to optimize the performance of individual WSNs by taking into account measured information from others. The parameters to be optimized are energy consumption on the one hand and sensing quality on the other.

  16. Unlimited Sharing Model of Network Information Resources%网络信息资源的无限共享模式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄郴

    2001-01-01

    Network is a new environment of information resources sharing. This paper analyzes the problems now existing in the construction of network information resources and in network information resources sharing. It also puts forward some proposals for constructing a pattern of unlimited sharing of network information resources.

  17. Proposed Information Sharing Security Approach for Security Personnels, Vertical Integration, Semantic Interoperability Architecture and Framework for Digital Government

    CERN Document Server

    Headayetullah, Md; Biswas, Sanjay; Puthal, B

    2011-01-01

    This paper mainly depicts the conceptual overview of vertical integration, semantic interoperability architecture such as Educational Sector Architectural Framework (ESAF) for New Zealand government and different interoperability framework solution for digital government. In this paper, we try to develop a secure information sharing approach for digital government to improve home land security. This approach is a role and cooperation based approach for security personnel of different government departments. In order to run any successful digital government of any country in the world, it is necessary to interact with their citizen and to share secure information via different network among the citizen or other government. Consequently, in order to smooth the progress of users to cooperate with and share information without darkness and flawlessly transversely different networks and databases universally, a safe and trusted information-sharing environment has been renowned as a very important requirement and t...

  18. Innovative Information and Knowledge Sharing Platform for Business Sector: Focus on Intranet-based Social Network Service

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Jimin; Chang, Younghoon; Lee, Sangman; Park, Myeong-cheol

    2012-01-01

    Recently, ICT ecosystems are changing rapidly due to the increasing number of innovative products and services in these ecosystems. Among them, SNS is one of the most important elements that make up the ICT ecosystem. With the phenomenal boom of personal SNS, information and knowledge sharing within an organization through enterprise SNS is increasing exponentially. Many companies are adopting and using intranet-based SNS for communicating and sharing information within the firm. However, the...

  19. Sharing Water-related Information to Tackle Changes in the Hydrosphere - for Operational Needs (SWITCH-ON)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arheimer, Berit

    2014-05-01

    A recently started EU project (FP7 project No 603587) called SWITCH-ON will establish new infrastructure for water research in Europe. The overall goal of the project is to make use of open data, and add value to society by repurposing and refining data from various sources. SWITCH-ON will establish new forms of water research and facilitate the development of new products and services based on principles of sharing and community building. The basic for this work is a virtual water-science laboratory, which consists of open data, dedicated software tools and a set of protocols, hosted at the "SWITCH-ON water information" portal at http://water-switch-on.eu/. The laboratory will seamlessly integrate the open data with harmonised modelling tools and facilities the performance of virtual experiments of comparative science. Comparative science is a new form of research, which will advance science by contrasting water related processes in different environments and help understand complex processes in a more holistic way than individual studies The SWITCH-ON objectives are to use open data for implementing: 1) an innovative spatial information platform with open data tailored for direct water assessments, 2) an entirely new form of collaborative research for water-related sciences, 3) fourteen new operational products and services dedicated to appointed end-users, 4) new business and knowledge to inform individual and collective decisions in line with the Europe's smart growth and environmental objectives. The SWITCH-ON project will be one trigger in a contemporary global movement to better address environmental and societal challenges through openness and collaboration. The poster will present the project visions and achievements so far, and invite more research groups to use the virtual water-science laboratory.

  20. Incentive mechanism based on cooperative advertising for cost information sharing in a supply chain with competing retailers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setak, Mostafa; Kafshian Ahar, Hajar; Alaei, Saeed

    2017-09-01

    This paper proposes a new motivation for information sharing in a decentralized channel consisting of a single manufacturer and two competing retailers. The manufacturer provides a common product to the retailers at the same wholesale price. Both retailers add their own values to the product and distribute it to consumers. Factors such as retail prices, values added to the product, and local advertising of the retailers simultaneously have effect on market demand. Each retailer has full information about the own added value which is unknown to the manufacturer and other retailer. The manufacturer uses a cooperative advertising program for motivating the retailers to disclose their private information. A numerical study is presented to compare different scenarios of information sharing. Computational results show that there is a condition in which full information sharing is beneficial for all members of the supply chain through cooperative advertising program and, therefore, retailers have enough incentive to disclose their cost information to the manufacturer.

  1. Trust in smart systems: sharing driving goals and giving information to increase trustworthiness and acceptability of smart systems in cars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verberne, Frank M F; Ham, Jaap; Midden, Cees J H

    2012-10-01

    We examine whether trust in smart systems is generated analogously to trust in humans and whether the automation level of smart systems affects trustworthiness and acceptability of those systems. Trust is an important factor when considering acceptability of automation technology. As shared goals lead to social trust, and intelligent machines tend to be treated like humans, the authors expected that shared driving goals would also lead to increased trustworthiness and acceptability of adaptive cruise control (ACC) systems. In an experiment, participants (N = 57) were presented with descriptions of three ACCs with different automation levels that were described as systems that either shared their driving goals or did not. Trustworthiness and acceptability of all the ACCs were measured. ACCs sharing the driving goals of the user were more trustworthy and acceptable than were ACCs not sharing the driving goals of the user. Furthermore, ACCs that took over driving tasks while providing information were more trustworthy and acceptable than were ACCs that took over driving tasks without providing information. Trustworthiness mediated the effects of both driving goals and automation level on acceptability of ACCs. As when trusting other humans, trusting smart systems depends on those systems sharing the user's goals. Furthermore, based on their description, smart systems that take over tasks are judged more trustworthy and acceptable when they also provide information. For optimal acceptability of smart systems, goals of the user should be shared by the smart systems, and smart systems should provide information to their user.

  2. Management and share of regulatory information through web; development of regulatory information management system for Korea next generation reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J. S.; Lee, J. H.; Jeong, Y. H.; Lee, S. H. [KINS, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Yun, Y. C.; Park, M. I. [LG-EDS Systems, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-05-01

    The Regulatory Information Management System developed by the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety supports researchers who are in charge of developing SRRG for the Korea Next Generation Reactors, manage the developed SRRG and development process, and make it possible to share the SRRG information and background knowledge through the internet with the nuclear-related personnel and the public. From the experience of the system operation, the search engine is repalced to manage the native SRRG files directly. This change eliminates the inconsistency between native files and database files and improve the search exactness by automatic indexing function. The user interface of the internet homepage (http://kngr.kins.re.kr) is completely rebuilded and allows SRRG developers to manage the search system and the atomic energy regulations database on the Web without the help of the client programs. General users are also able to utilize more convenient search function and additional information by the improved interface. The system is running under the backup system and firewall system for the data protection and security.

  3. Trust, confidentiality, and the acceptability of sharing HIV-related patient data: lessons learned from a mixed methods study about Health Information Exchanges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maiorana Andre

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Concerns about the confidentiality of personal health information have been identified as a potential obstacle to implementation of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs. Considering the stigma and confidentiality issues historically associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV disease, we examine how trust—in technology, processes, and people—influenced the acceptability of data sharing among stakeholders prior to implementation of six HIEs intended to improve HIV care in parts of the United States. Our analyses identify the kinds of concerns expressed by stakeholders about electronic data sharing and focus on the factors that ultimately facilitated acceptability of the new exchanges. Methods We conducted 549 surveys with patients and 66 semi-structured interviews with providers and other stakeholders prior to implementation of the HIEs to assess concerns about confidentiality in the electronic sharing of patient data. The patient quantitative data were analyzed using SAS 9.2 to yield sample descriptive statistics. The analysis of the qualitative interviews with providers and other stakeholders followed an open-coding process, and convergent and divergent perspectives emerging from those data were examined within and across the HIEs. Results We found widespread acceptability for electronic sharing of HIV-related patient data through HIEs. This acceptability appeared to be driven by growing comfort with information technologies, confidence in the security protocols utilized to protect data, trust in the providers and institutions who use the technologies, belief in the benefits to the patients, and awareness that electronic exchange represents an enhancement of data sharing already taking place by other means. HIE acceptability depended both on preexisting trust among patients, providers, and institutions and on building consensus and trust in the HIEs as part of preparation for implementation. The process of HIE

  4. Trust, confidentiality, and the acceptability of sharing HIV-related patient data: lessons learned from a mixed methods study about Health Information Exchanges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maiorana, Andre; Steward, Wayne T; Koester, Kimberly A; Pearson, Charles; Shade, Starley B; Chakravarty, Deepalika; Myers, Janet J

    2012-04-19

    Concerns about the confidentiality of personal health information have been identified as a potential obstacle to implementation of Health Information Exchanges (HIEs). Considering the stigma and confidentiality issues historically associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disease, we examine how trust-in technology, processes, and people-influenced the acceptability of data sharing among stakeholders prior to implementation of six HIEs intended to improve HIV care in parts of the United States. Our analyses identify the kinds of concerns expressed by stakeholders about electronic data sharing and focus on the factors that ultimately facilitated acceptability of the new exchanges. We conducted 549 surveys with patients and 66 semi-structured interviews with providers and other stakeholders prior to implementation of the HIEs to assess concerns about confidentiality in the electronic sharing of patient data. The patient quantitative data were analyzed using SAS 9.2 to yield sample descriptive statistics. The analysis of the qualitative interviews with providers and other stakeholders followed an open-coding process, and convergent and divergent perspectives emerging from those data were examined within and across the HIEs. We found widespread acceptability for electronic sharing of HIV-related patient data through HIEs. This acceptability appeared to be driven by growing comfort with information technologies, confidence in the security protocols utilized to protect data, trust in the providers and institutions who use the technologies, belief in the benefits to the patients, and awareness that electronic exchange represents an enhancement of data sharing already taking place by other means. HIE acceptability depended both on preexisting trust among patients, providers, and institutions and on building consensus and trust in the HIEs as part of preparation for implementation. The process of HIE development also resulted in forging shared vision among

  5. DOD Task Force for Business and Stability Operations: Actions Needed to Establish Project Management Guidelines and Enhance Information Sharing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    Task Force has ongoing activities in banking and finance, energy, software industry development, and information and communication technology ...Afghanistan, including Citibank , IBM, JP Morgan, Sweet Dried Fruit, Case New Holland, and Harrods of London. With respect to facilitating private

  6. MAKOCI: A WEB PORTAL FOR INTEGRATING AND SHARING GEOGRAPHIC INFORMATION SERVICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin-Te Jung

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The lack of integration and communication of various geographic information services (GI services has resulted in many duplication collection of earth observation data, and challenges of semantic interoperability. This paper proposes an ontology-based multi-agents platform, called MAKOCI (multi-agent knowledge oriented cyberinfrastructure, which acts as GI service one stop to manage, publish, share, and discover GI services semantically. By ontologies, formal meanings of concepts are defined to annotate and discover GI services on a conceptual level for semantic interoperability. With the assistance of multi-agents, the processes in MAKOCI can be divided into various modules and be communicated based on the same semantics in ontologies. A prototype was implemented to test MAKOCI. Finally, we conclude the advantages and disadvantages of MAKOCI and point out several future works.

  7. Informed shared decision-making in planning for the end of life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, Jane

    In recent years, a number of shortcomings in the NHS have been identified in end-of-life care delivered in hospital for people with long-term conditions other than terminal cancer. This article gives an overview of the findings of a Dignity in Care travel scholarship, which was undertaken to establish whether an American shared informed decision aid, specifically designed to initiate therapeutic conversations for this patient group, might reasonably be adopted in an NHS setting. One tool specifically for this purpose was in use in the USA at the time, and its efficacy formed part of a broader research study being carried out at Dartmouth Hitchcock Medical Center (DHMC) in New England. Concurrently in the UK, The Health Foundation supported a 3-year study that focused exclusively on the development of a range of 'option grids' for clinical interventions and did not include an end-of-life model.

  8. Information Sharing for Strong Neutrals on Social Networks - Exact Solutions for Consensus Times

    CERN Document Server

    Lim, Chjan

    2014-01-01

    To analyze the nuances of the root concept of neutral in social networks, we focus on several related interpretations and suggest corresponding mathematical models for each of them from the family of information-sharing multi-agents network games known as Voter models and the Naming Games (NG). We solve the case of the strong neutrals known as the middle-roaders for global quantities such as expected times to consensus and local times. By using generating functions and treating the two extreme and middle opinions in this modification as a two balls, three urns version of the Voter model, we give closed-form expressions for the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of its Markov propagator. This modification of the two-opinions Naming Games is applicable to the roles and behaviour of neutrals in social forums or blogs, and represent a significant departure from the linguistic roots of the original NG.

  9. Single supplier single retailer inventory model controlled by the reorder and shipping points with sharing information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Wen-Tsung; Hsiao, Yu-Cheng

    2012-04-01

    This study investigated the integrated stochastic inventory problem for a two-stage supply chain consisting of a single retailer and a single supplier. By using batch shipment policy, the expected total cost can be significantly reduced. An equally sized batch shipment model, controlled by both the reorder and shipping points, with sharing information by enterprise resource planning and radio frequency identification is constructed. The problem is solved optimally by the proposed algorithm that determines the economic lot size, the optimal batch sizes and number of batches. A numerical example is included to illustrate the algorithmic procedures and to prove that the model controlled both by the reorder and shipping points is superior to the classic model controlled only by the reorder point.

  10. Shared function knowledge: infants' attention to function information in communicative contexts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träuble, Birgit; Bätz, Johannes

    2014-08-01

    Humans are specifically adapted to knowledge acquisition and transfer by social communication. According to natural pedagogy theory, infants are highly sensitive to signals that indicate a teacher's communicative intention and are biased to interpret communicative contexts as conveying relevant and generalizable knowledge that is also shared by other conspecifics. We investigated whether infants as young as 12 months interpret ostensively communicated object-directed emotion expressions as generalizable and shareable with others. Given that young infants pay particular attention to information about objects' functions, we were interested in whether the shareability assumption also holds for emotional attitudes toward functional features of unfamiliar objects. The results suggest that 12-month-olds (N=80) flexibly interpret another person's emotion displays toward unfamiliar artifacts either as object-centered and generalizable attitudes or as person-centered subjective attitudes, depending on the communicative characteristics of the learning context. Furthermore, the transfer of ostensively communicated information about the artifacts depended on their functional usability, which is consistent with infants' early sensitivity to function information in various areas of cognitive development.

  11. The development of the Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS: a large-scale data sharing initiative.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer E Lutomski

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: In 2008, the Ministry of Health, Welfare and Sport commissioned the National Care for the Elderly Programme. While numerous research projects in older persons' health care were to be conducted under this national agenda, the Programme further advocated the development of The Older Persons and Informal Caregivers Survey Minimum DataSet (TOPICS-MDS which would be integrated into all funded research protocols. In this context, we describe TOPICS data sharing initiative (www.topics-mds.eu. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A working group drafted TOPICS-MDS prototype, which was subsequently approved by a multidisciplinary panel. Using instruments validated for older populations, information was collected on demographics, morbidity, quality of life, functional limitations, mental health, social functioning and health service utilisation. For informal caregivers, information was collected on demographics, hours of informal care and quality of life (including subjective care-related burden. RESULTS: Between 2010 and 2013, a total of 41 research projects contributed data to TOPICS-MDS, resulting in preliminary data available for 32,310 older persons and 3,940 informal caregivers. The majority of studies sampled were from primary care settings and inclusion criteria differed across studies. DISCUSSION: TOPICS-MDS is a public data repository which contains essential data to better understand health challenges experienced by older persons and informal caregivers. Such findings are relevant for countries where increasing health-related expenditure has necessitated the evaluation of contemporary health care delivery. Although open sharing of data can be difficult to achieve in practice, proactively addressing issues of data protection, conflicting data analysis requests and funding limitations during TOPICS-MDS developmental phase has fostered a data sharing culture. To date, TOPICS-MDS has been successfully incorporated into 41 research projects, thus

  12. Folksonomical P2P File Sharing Networks Using Vectorized KANSEI Information as Search Tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Kei; Yoshida, Kaori; Oie, Yuji

    We present the concept of folksonomical peer-to-peer (P2P) file sharing networks that allow participants (peers) to freely assign structured search tags to files. These networks are similar to folksonomies in the present Web from the point of view that users assign search tags to information distributed over a network. As a concrete example, we consider an unstructured P2P network using vectorized Kansei (human sensitivity) information as structured search tags for file search. Vectorized Kansei information as search tags indicates what participants feel about their files and is assigned by the participant to each of their files. A search query also has the same form of search tags and indicates what participants want to feel about files that they will eventually obtain. A method that enables file search using vectorized Kansei information is the Kansei query-forwarding method, which probabilistically propagates a search query to peers that are likely to hold more files having search tags that are similar to the query. The similarity between the search query and the search tags is measured in terms of their dot product. The simulation experiments examine if the Kansei query-forwarding method can provide equal search performance for all peers in a network in which only the Kansei information and the tendency with respect to file collection are different among all of the peers. The simulation results show that the Kansei query forwarding method and a random-walk-based query forwarding method, for comparison, work effectively in different situations and are complementary. Furthermore, the Kansei query forwarding method is shown, through simulations, to be superior to or equal to the random-walk based one in terms of search speed.

  13. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-01-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice. PMID:27158302

  14. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cara Gormally

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs, often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1 TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2 TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3 student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice.

  15. Uncovering Barriers to Teaching Assistants (TAs) Implementing Inquiry Teaching: Inconsistent Facilitation Techniques, Student Resistance, and Reluctance to Share Control over Learning with Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gormally, Cara; Sullivan, Carol Subiño; Szeinbaum, Nadia

    2016-05-01

    Inquiry-based teaching approaches are increasingly being adopted in biology laboratories. Yet teaching assistants (TAs), often novice teachers, teach the majority of laboratory courses in US research universities. This study analyzed the perspectives of TAs and their students and used classroom observations to uncover challenges faced by TAs during their first year of inquiry-based teaching. Our study revealed three insights about barriers to effective inquiry teaching practices: 1) TAs lack sufficient facilitation skills; 2) TAs struggle to share control over learning with students as they reconcile long-standing teaching beliefs with newly learned approaches, consequently undermining their fledgling ability to use inquiry approaches; and 3) student evaluations reinforce teacher-centered behaviors as TAs receive positive feedback conflicting with inquiry approaches. We make recommendations, including changing instructional feedback to focus on learner-centered teaching practices. We urge TA mentors to engage TAs in discussions to uncover teaching beliefs underlying teaching choices and support TAs through targeted feedback and practice.

  16. Shared Management Information in Buyer/Supplier Relationships: Its Usefulness and its Influence on Continuity Expectations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Manuel Ramón Jerónimo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper is focused on the effect that the exchange of management information has on client and/or supplier relationships. Moreover, this study extends the concept of the usefulness of management control information to inter-organizational relationships, analysing how the scope of such information affects continuity expectations, and how these in turn influence opportunistic behaviour and the mutual adaptation of production systems. The data was gathered from 104 purchasing and 90 sales managers of equipment manufacturers on the nature of their respective relationships with their suppliers/ clients. The results confirm that the use of broad-scope management control information sharing in buyer-supplier relationships increases continuity expectations and reduces opportunistic behaviour.El objetivo de este trabajo es analizar el efecto que ejerce el intercambio de información de gestión sobre las relaciones con clientes y/o proveedores. Para ello, se extiende el concepto de la utilidad de información de control de gestión a las relaciones ínter-organizativas, analizando cómo su contenido afecta a las expectativas de continuidad y éstas a su vez influyen en el comportamiento oportunista y en la adaptación mutua de sistemas de producción. Los datos analizados se han obtenido de las relaciones entre 104 directores de compras y 90 directores de ventas de empresas industriales con sus proveedores y clientes. Los resultados confirman que utilizar información compartida de control de gestión con un contenido más amplio en las relaciones compredor/proveedor favorece la creación de expectativas de continuidad y reduce comportamientos oportunistas.

  17. A Systematic Process to Facilitate Evidence-Informed Decisionmaking Regarding Program Expansion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Laurie T; Farris, Coreen; Adamson, David M; Weinick, Robin M

    2014-01-01

    While the Department of Defense supports more than 200 psychological health and traumatic brain injury programs, it lacks an approach and process to systematically develop, track, and assess the performance of this portfolio of programs. Further, there is not yet a uniform approach to decisionmaking around program support and expansion of particularly promising, evidence-based programs. This lack of centralized oversight may result in the proliferation of untested programs that are developed without an evidence base; an inefficient use of resources; and added cost and administrative inefficiencies. RAND researchers developed a potential model and tools to support a centralized, systematic, and ongoing process to help in making decisions around continued program support, and by which expansion can be facilitated. This study includes two tools. The first is a Program Abstraction Form, which collects relevant background information from programs and asks explicitly about program effectiveness and the design of the program evaluation used to assess program effectiveness, as a poor evaluation design may lead to incorrect conclusions about the effectiveness of the program. The second is the RAND Program Expansion Tool, which provides a standardized summary of the quality and outcome of a program evaluation. The focus of these tools is on decisionmaking around program expansion, and does not preclude or address initial funding decisions of particularly promising new programs that may not yet have a solid evidence base.

  18. Tracking down the path of memory: eye scanpaths facilitate retrieval of visuospatial information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bochynska, Agata; Laeng, Bruno

    2015-09-01

    Recent research points to a crucial role of eye fixations on the same spatial locations where an item appeared when learned, for the successful retrieval of stored information (e.g., Laeng et al. in Cognition 131:263-283, 2014. doi: 10.1016/j.cognition.2014.01.003 ). However, evidence about whether the specific temporal sequence (i.e., scanpath) of these eye fixations is also relevant for the accuracy of memory remains unclear. In the current study, eye fixations were recorded while looking at a checkerboard-like pattern. In a recognition session (48 h later), animations were shown where each square that formed the pattern was presented one by one, either according to the same, idiosyncratic, temporal sequence in which they were originally viewed by each participant or in a shuffled sequence although the squares were, in both conditions, always in their correct positions. Afterward, participants judged whether they had seen the same pattern before or not. Showing the elements serially according to the original scanpath's sequence yielded a significantly better recognition performance than the shuffled condition. In a forced fixation condition, where the gaze was maintained on the center of the screen, the advantage of memory accuracy for same versus shuffled scanpaths disappeared. Concluding, gaze scanpaths (i.e., the order of fixations and not simply their positions) are functional to visual memory and physical reenacting of the original, embodied, perception can facilitate retrieval.

  19. Energy Security and Restoration Exercise Program/Best Practices and Information Sharing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbara McCabe; John Kovach

    2009-03-30

    The first year of this cooperative agreement focused on the following elements: curriculum development and presentation, curriculum maintenance, enhancements, and effectiveness, and smart card initiative. During the second year of this grant, with redirection from DOE, the IUOE modified its mission statement under the cooperative agreement. It states: 'The mission of the IUOE is to provide expertise to provide best practices, information sharing, and develop scenarios and conduct exercises ranging in size and complexity from table top to national level to prepare all stakeholders to protect and restore energy infrastructure should an event, terrorist or natural, occur'. The Program developed a number of products under this Cooperative Agreement. These products include: FOSTER (Facility Operations Safety Training Event Response) Curriculum and Training Models, Alternative Energy Supply - Generators Training Module, Liquefied Natural Gas Training Module, Education Program - Distributed Generations, Compendium of Resources and References, Energy Security and Restoration Training Manual, Manual of Situations and Scenarios Developed for Emergency Exercises, Manual of Best Practices/Lessons Learned for Energy Load Management, Training Plan, Strategic Information and Exercise Plan, National Certification Plan Report, and a Smart Card Project Report.

  20. A Comparison of Users' Personal Information Sharing Awareness, Habits, and Practices in Social Networking Sites and E-Learning Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, Albert L.

    2012-01-01

    Although reports of identity theft continue to be widely published, users continue to post an increasing amount of personal information online, especially within social networking sites (SNS) and e-learning systems (ELS). Research has suggested that many users lack awareness of the threats that risky online personal information sharing poses to…

  1. Barriers and enablers to good communication and information-sharing practices in care planning for chronic condition management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawn, Sharon; Delany, Toni; Sweet, Linda; Battersby, Malcolm; Skinner, Timothy

    2015-01-01

    Our aim was to document current communication and information-sharing practices and to identify the barriers and enablers to good practices within the context of care planning for chronic condition management. Further aims were to make recommendations about how changes to policy and practice can improve communication and information sharing in primary health care. A mixed-method approach was applied to seek the perspectives of patients and primary health-care workers across Australia. Data was collected via interviews, focus groups, non-participant observations and a national survey. Data analysis was performed using a mix of thematic, discourse and statistical approaches. Central barriers to effective communication and information sharing included fragmented communication, uncertainty around client and interagency consent, and the unacknowledged existence of overlapping care plans. To be most effective, communication and information sharing should be open, two-way and inclusive of all members of health-care teams. It must also only be undertaken with the appropriate participant consent, otherwise this has the potential to cause patients harm. Improvements in care planning as a communication and information-sharing tool may be achieved through practice initiatives that reflect the rhetoric of collaborative person-centred care, which is already supported through existing policy in Australia. General practitioners and other primary care providers should operationalise care planning, and the expectation of collaborative and effective communication of care that underpins it, within their practice with patients and all members of the care team. To assist in meeting these aims, we make several recommendations.

  2. D and D knowledge management information tool - a web based system developed to share D and D knowledge worldwide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lagos, L.; Upadhyay, H.; Shoffner, P. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 W. Flagler Street,EC2100, Miami, FL (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Deactivation and decommissioning (D and D) work is a high risk and technically challenging enterprise within the U.S. Department of Energy complex. During the past three decades, the DOE's Office of Environmental Management has been in charge of carrying out one of the largest environmental restoration efforts in the world: the cleanup of the Manhattan Project legacy. In today's corporate world, worker experiences and knowledge that have developed over time represent a valuable corporate asset. The ever-dynamic workplace, coupled with an aging workforce, presents corporations with the ongoing challenge of preserving work-related experiences and knowledge for cross-generational knowledge transfer to the future workforce [5]. To prevent the D and D knowledge base and expertise from being lost over time, the DOE and the Applied Research Center at Florida International University (FIU) have developed the web-based Knowledge Management Information Tool (KM-IT) to capture and maintain this valuable information in a universally available and easily accessible and usable system. The D and D KM-IT was developed in collaboration with DOE Headquarters (HQ), the Energy Facility Contractors Group (EFCOG), and the ALARA [as low as reasonably achievable] Centers at Savannah River Sites to preserve the D and D information generated and collected by the D and D community. This is an open secured system that can be accessed from https://www.dndkm.org over the web and through mobile devices at https://m.dndkm.org. This knowledge system serves as a centralized repository and provides a common interface for D and D-related activities. It also improves efficiency by reducing the need to rediscover knowledge and promotes the reuse of existing knowledge. It is a community-driven system that facilitates the gathering, analyzing, storing, and sharing of knowledge and information within the D and D community. It assists the DOE D and D community in identifying potential solutions

  3. Enabling information sharing by establishing trust in supply chains: A case study in the South African automotive industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roxanne Piderit

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: The significant economic importance of the country’s automotive industry provided the context for this study. The success of the industry relies on the effectiveness and efficiency of the supply chain, which can be significantly affected by the strength of the supply chain relationships. The role of trust and information sharing in relation to two key theories was considered, namely: organisational information processing theory and game theory. Previous studies have recognised the importance of trust and information sharing in supply chain relationships and considered the effect of trust on information sharing, or the effect of information sharing on trust in a single direction. Thus, the potential cyclical relationship between the two factors has been largely ignored.Objectives: This paper explored the relationship between trust and information sharing in South African automotive supply chains, and establishes the importance of nurturing a cyclical relationship between these two factors. In addition, the role of information technology (IT in supporting this relationship was considered. By improving both trust and information sharing, the performance and competitiveness of the supply chain can be improved.Method: An examination of the effects of a lack of trust in a supply chain relationship, and the consequential lack of information flow, was conducted by means of a case study of an Eastern Cape-based automotive supplier. A case study research method was followed for this study, which made use of multiple data collection methods, including document survey and participant observations. The case selected is an East London based subsidiary of a larger multinational automotive component supplier to both local and international automotive original equipment manufacturers.Results: The findings led to the conclusion that the way forward for competitive supply chains is to build trust in the supply chain in order to improve information

  4. Sharing Remote and Local Information for Tracking Spring Breakup in the Mackenzie Delta and Beaufort Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, D. L.; Whalen, D.; Fraser, P.

    2015-12-01

    The Mackenzie Delta is the second largest on the Arctic Ocean, covering 13 000 km2. The annual flood regime in the delta is dominated by the spring snowmelt freshet and associated ice breakup, as water from the south arrives in the ice-covered delta and spreads over bottomfast and adjacent floating sea ice at the delta front. The complex processes of water-ice interaction, flow partitioning, and overbank flooding to replenish waters in 43 000 delta lakes threaten community, transportation, subsistence, and energy infrastructure in the delta. The annual breakup season is a time of rejuvenation, excitement, and anxiety for delta residents and stakeholders. To track the progress of breakup and meet the need for knowledge dissemination to the local communities, a Mackenzie-Beaufort breakup newsletter has been produced by Natural Resources Canada on a quasi-daily basis during the May-June spring flood season for 10 years, and distributed to an e-mail list that grew to over 300 subscribers. This provides near real-time tracking of water levels and breakup using on-line gauges (Environment Canada), daily MODIS satellite imagery (NASA), Landsat imagery (USGS) and intermittent radar imagery (various sources). In earlier years, information was also supplied from field programs operating in the delta during breakup, but changing priorities and funding have reduced the number of outside researchers present during these critical weeks. Meanwhile the number of local contributors has grown, providing observations and photographs to share with the local, regional and global readership. In this way the newsletter evolved into a two-way communication tool and community portal. The newsletter is a chronicle of each breakup season and a key resource for territorial and municipal managers, subsistence organizations, and emergency response agencies, with routine requests for specific imagery in areas of concern. With the completion of 10 years under the present model, we are exploring

  5. Using GTO-Velo to Facilitate Communication and Sharing of Simulation Results in Support of the Geothermal Technologies Office Code Comparison Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, Signe K.; Purohit, Sumit; Boyd, Lauren W.

    2015-01-26

    defined, the problem creator can provide a description using a template on the metadata page corresponding to the benchmark problem folder. Project documents, references and videos of the weekly online meetings are shared via GTO-Velo. A results comparison tool allows users to plot their uploaded simulation results on the fly, along with those of other teams, to facilitate weekly discussions of the benchmark problem results being generated by the teams. GTO-Velo is an invaluable tool providing the project coordinators and team members with a framework for collaboration among geographically dispersed organizations.

  6. Technology Uncertainty and Project Managers' Information Sharing - A comparative case study of two new product development projects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde; Dietrich, Perttu

    2014-01-01

    uncertainty during various phases of new product development (NPD) projects. In this study, we compare two longitudinal NPD sub-projects that differ in uncertainty within the same large NPD project, in which the data source is the complete email exchange between a project manager and various actors...... (consisting of 3979 emails). The results show high levels of information sharing with the customer in both the early and late phases of high uncertainty. Interestingly, in the low uncertainty project, information sharing with the production department and the supplier is higher during the late phase...... of the NPD project. Unexpectedly, in both sub-projects, the project manager shares information with a wider range of both intra- and inter-organization actors in the early phases of the projects than in the late phases....

  7. Wanna know about vaping? Patterns of message exposure, seeking and sharing information about e-cigarettes across media platforms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emery, Sherry L; Vera, Lisa; Huang, Jidong; Szczypka, Glen

    2014-07-01

    Awareness and use of electronic cigarettes has rapidly grown in the USA recently, in step with increased product marketing. Using responses to a population survey of US adults, we analysed demographic patterns of exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information across media platforms. An online survey of 17,522 US adults was conducted in 2013. The nationally representative sample was drawn from GfK Group's KnowledgePanel plus off-panel recruitment. Fixed effects logit models were applied to analyse relationships between exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette-related information and demographic characteristics, e-cigarette and tobacco use, and media behaviours. High levels of awareness about e-cigarettes were indicated (86% aware; 47% heard through media channels). Exposure to e-cigarette-related information was associated with tobacco use, age, gender, more education, social media use and time spent online. Although relatively small proportions of the sample had searched for (∼5%) or shared (∼2%) e-cigarette information, our analyses indicated demographic patterns to those behaviours. Gender, high income and using social media were associated with searching for e-cigarette information; lesbian, gay and bisexual and less education were associated with sharing. Current tobacco use, age, being Hispanic and time spent online were associated with both searching and sharing. US adults are widely exposed to e-cigarette marketing through the media; such marketing may differentially target specific demographic groups. Further research should longitudinally examine how exposure to, searching for and sharing of e-cigarette information relate to subsequent use of e-cigarettes and/or combustible tobacco. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  8. Assessing the ability of current climate information to facilitate local climate services for the water sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutroulis, Aristeidis; Tsanis, Ioannis; Grillakis, Manolis; Jacob, Daniela

    2014-05-01

    In the frame of ECLISE EU FP6 project researchers, in close cooperation with local users of the water sector from the area of Crete, Greece, explored the ability of current climate information to develop and support local climate services water resources management and climate adaption policies. A wealth of climate modeling output ranging from event scale to decadal and centennial experiments, at temporal scales ranging from hourly to monthly, and at spatial scales from very high resolution regional climate models (2 km) to typical GCMs, were used in order to practically assess climate change impacts on water resources. Water resources availability issues analysed and facilitated within the project, focusing on estimates of the future water demands of the island, and comparing with seven "state of the art" CMIP5 simulations within COMBINE framework (under RCPs 2.6, 4.5 and 8.5) to estimate water resources availability, during 21st century. The ability of decadal GCM prediction experiments to reproduce basic hydrometeorological variables like precipitation and temperature for local impact studies, was also examined. Water availability for the whole island at basin scale until 2100 is estimated using the SAC-SMA rainfall-runoff model for a range of different scenarios of projected hydro-climatological regime, demand and supply potential. A robust signal of temperature increase and precipitation decrease is projected for all the pathways. Several messages could be extracted from this provider - user interaction such as the communication of basic concepts and uncertainties, user skepticism and feedback. The main user concern was the coarse spatial scale of climate information and in order to cope with this feedback a special case was framed in collaboration with the project modeling groups for demonstrating a high resolution climate modeling application of an extreme precipitation-flood event over the study area. This effort provided a realistic reproduction of the

  9. Adaptive rate transmission for spectrum sharing system with quantized channel state information

    KAUST Repository

    Abdallah, Mohamed M.

    2011-03-01

    The capacity of a secondary link in spectrum sharing systems has been recently investigated in fading environments. In particular, the secondary transmitter is allowed to adapt its power and rate to maximize its capacity subject to the constraint of maximum interference level allowed at the primary receiver. In most of the literature, it was assumed that estimates of the channel state information (CSI) of the secondary link and the interference level are made available at the secondary transmitter via an infinite-resolution feedback links between the secondary/primary receivers and the secondary transmitter. However, the assumption of having infinite resolution feedback links is not always practical as it requires an excessive amount of bandwidth. In this paper we develop a framework for optimizing the performance of the secondary link in terms of the average spectral efficiency assuming quantized CSI available at the secondary transmitter. We develop a computationally efficient algorithm for optimally quantizing the CSI and finding the optimal power and rate employed at the cognitive transmitter for each quantized CSI level so as to maximize the average spectral efficiency. Our results give the number of bits required to represent the CSI sufficient to achieve almost the maximum average spectral efficiency attained using full knowledge of the CSI for Rayleigh fading channels. © 2011 IEEE.

  10. Information-sharing system for disaster recovery of dialysis therapy in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Toshio; Yamakawa, Tomoyuki; Shin, Jeongsoo; Sugisaki, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Toyohiko; Yamazaki, Chikao; Uchino, Junji; Morigami, Tatsuya; Kawasaki, Tadayuki

    2009-01-01

    If a natural disaster or other event causes damage that makes dialysis therapy impossible, what steps should be taken? Many actions will be required, including disaster recovery activities in the affected area as well as the performance of dialysis at substitute dialysis facilities outside the affected area. The Japanese Association of Dialysis Physicians (JADP), in collaboration with the Japan Association for Clinical Engineering Technologists (JACET), operates an "information sharing system" that will be essential when carrying out post-disaster activities. This system consists of a website and mailing lists on the Internet, and it has been used in 11 disasters so far.The JADP is an organization of doctors engaged in dialysis therapy. This association conducts investigation and research, education, and crisis management for dialysis therapy. The JACET is an organization that aims to enhance scientific knowledge and skills and to improve capabilities. This association also pursues improvement of the reliability of medical care involving life support systems and other medical equipment.

  11. Performance analysis of supply chains under customer demand information sharing using role play game

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Chinna Pamulety

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Supply chain is a network of organizations that work together and performs various business functions such as procurement of raw materials, converting the raw material into semi-finished or finished goods and distributing the same to their ultimate customers. Presence of bullwhip effect in a supply chain is costly and degrades the performance of the supply chain. Reduction in bullwhip effect can improve the efficiency or profitability of a supply chain. The objective of this paper is to know the impact of imperfect Advance Demand Information (ADI sharing on bullwhip effect in a four-stage serial supply chain and to evaluate the supply chain performance by conducting an experiment similar to the beer distribution game. The performance measures used are variance of orders placed by each stage, fill rate, total inventory at each stage and total holding cost of the supply chain. Results show that imperfect ADI improves the performance of the supply chain. The performance of the supply chain is also evaluated under order up to level (R, S policy with safety stock and it is found that the performance of supply chain is better when inventory policy used.

  12. The Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE): a prototype federated query tool for clinical data repositories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Griffin M; Murphy, Shawn N; McMurry, Andrew J; Macfadden, Douglas; Nigrin, Daniel J; Churchill, Susanne; Kohane, Isaac S

    2009-01-01

    The authors developed a prototype Shared Health Research Information Network (SHRINE) to identify the technical, regulatory, and political challenges of creating a federated query tool for clinical data repositories. Separate Institutional Review Boards (IRBs) at Harvard's three largest affiliated health centers approved use of their data, and the Harvard Medical School IRB approved building a Query Aggregator Interface that can simultaneously send queries to each hospital and display aggregate counts of the number of matching patients. Our experience creating three local repositories using the open source Informatics for Integrating Biology and the Bedside (i2b2) platform can be used as a road map for other institutions. The authors are actively working with the IRBs and regulatory groups to develop procedures that will ultimately allow investigators to obtain identified patient data and biomaterials through SHRINE. This will guide us in creating a future technical architecture that is scalable to a national level, compliant with ethical guidelines, and protective of the interests of the participating hospitals.

  13. Let Your CyberAlter Ego Share Information and Manage Spam

    CERN Document Server

    Kong, J S; Rezaei, B A; Sarshar, N; Roychowdhury, V P; Kong, Joseph S.; Rezaei, Behnam A.; Sarshar, Nima; Roychowdhury, Vwani P.

    2005-01-01

    Almost all of us have multiple cyberspace identities, and these {\\em cyber}alter egos are networked together to form a vast cyberspace social network. This network is distinct from the world-wide-web (WWW), which is being queried and mined to the tune of billions of dollars everyday, and until recently, has gone largely unexplored. Empirically, the cyberspace social networks have been found to possess many of the same complex features that characterize its real counterparts, including scale-free degree distributions, low diameter, and extensive connectivity. We show that these topological features make the latent networks particularly suitable for explorations and management via local-only messaging protocols. {\\em Cyber}alter egos can communicate via their direct links (i.e., using only their own address books) and set up a highly decentralized and scalable message passing network that can allow large-scale sharing of information and data. As one particular example of such collaborative systems, we provide a...

  14. Bibliography, metrics and data visualization: how may we compose shared contexts of information?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Boechat

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: We understand that the careful labor of composing bibliographical contexts is a fundamental concern for Bibliography, and collaborates to develop a deeper understanding of the intertextuality between documents. Nevertheless, the idea of context can assume many inflexions, connected to varied approaches towards bibliographic material. We believe quali-quantitative methods and data visualization can be used for assembling bibliographical contexts to form renovated points of view.Objective: To discuss how the idea of context relates to bibliographic methods, and how quali-quantitative methods and data visualization may offer new possibilities for assembling, assessing and sharing contexts of information.Methodology: Bibliographical revision, case discussion. We intend to apply concepts bred from the digital methods of social research to the problems of Bibliography, while we discuss the advantages of visualization.Results: Quali-quantitative methods may advance bibliographical studies by proposing varied entry points and a bottom-up approach towards building context, while data visualization may display these contexts, giving new visibility to intertextual aspects.Conclusions: The seminar Arte da Bibliografia, that took place last December in Rio de Janeiro, organized by IBICT/COEP and research group Ecce Liber, proposed a rediscovery of Bibliography as a science, born beside medieval studies and growing into a wider field. In this article, we seeked to outline some fundamental concerns of the field in order to update its relevance to today’s informational landscape. One fundamental concern of bibliography that we chose to focus on, the emphasis in creating knowledge contexts from documents, was explored in the form of different postures or procedures that may equip Bibliography, conciliating in its major facets, textual Bibliography and the quantitative tools derived from bibliometrics, with the use of quali-quantitative methods.

  15. Sharing of Information and Cooperation among University Libraries and their Importance in the Networked World

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heloisa Helena Anzolin

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Libraries and information units face daily challenges of making their book collections more visible for use. In addition to visibility, materials should also be easily available, if possible, online. To achieve this goal, catalogues are essential tools for finding the desired information. It is equally important that libraries cooperate with each other and share their catalogues among them. In this context, participation of libraries in information networks is a positive alternative. Libraries should not be bound to their local book collection, but they also need to expand it through networks, so that they are able to borrow books or exchange documents with other libraries. University libraries need to create storage of local documents with open access to theses, dissertations, scientific research papers and their institutional memory. Although Brazilian university libraries have made significant progress in the provision of services using new information and communication technologies as well as by taking part in cooperative networks, it is necessary to see that libraries have reached various stages of development and we still have a long way to go.Bibliotheken setzen sich täglich mit der Frage auseinander, wie sie für ihre Sammlungen eine höhere Sichtbarkeit erreichen können. Zusätzlich sollten ihre Bestände am besten online verfügbar sein. Kataloge sind zur Erreichung dieses Zieles unerlässlich. Dazu müssen Bibliotheken vermehrt kooperieren. In diesem Zusammenhang ist die Bildung von Verbünden eine positive Alternative. Bibliotheken sollten nicht nur auf ihre lokalen Bestände fokussieren, sondern Verbünde bilden um Ausleihen aus anderen Bibliotheken zu ermöglichen. Universitätsbibliotheken sollten Dissertationen, Abschlussarbeiten, Forschungsergebnisse und Dokumente der Institution Open Access zur Verfügung stellen. Obwohl die brasilianischen Universitätsbibliotheken bereits grosse Fortschritte in der Anwendung neuer

  16. Ethical considerations of using information obtained from online file sharing sites : The case of the piratebay

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wynsberghe, A.; van der Ham, J.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose – The purpose of this paper is to develop a novel approach for the ethical analysis of data collected from an online file-sharing site known as The PirateBay. Since the creation of Napster back in the late 1990s for the sharing and distribution of MP3 files across the Internet, the

  17. Sharing of information and knowledge among staff in King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) library

    KAUST Repository

    Ramli, Rindra M.

    2011-03-01

    This paper describes strategies and initiatives undertaken by the King Abdullah University of Science and Technology (KAUST) library in sharing information and knowledge among its staff. KAUST Library adopted several IT platforms to enable staff to contribute, share, collaborate, extract and act upon knowledge in order to serve our users better. They include: Sharepoint and Google Docs. As Duffy (2000) stated, that “success depends on capitalizing on every available resource including what a company knows and how it uses what it knows”. Therefore, to provide value-added services to our community of researchers and academicians, library staff needs to be equipped with the right skills and tools to be able to act upon users’ inquiries and information needs. KAUST library which was opened in Aug 2009 aims to support education and advanced scientific research. With its state of the art learning and information resource center, the library provides instructional assistance and reference services to its research and academic community. With the influx of information coupled the pervasive use of information technology and Web2.0, the library has to grapple with the issue of information overload. It is important to be able to sieve through the rubbles of information to apply the relevant ones during the point of transaction. Based on our experience in using various IT platforms, this paper will share the impacts of such tools. Lessons learnt and future directions in this area will also be discussed.

  18. The influence of business conditions on supply chain information-sharing mechanisms : A study among supply chain links of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Gera A.; van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    2008-01-01

    The literature acknowledges that the type and the level of supply chain integration differ in various situations. This paper investigates the influence of business conditions on internal and external information sharing and the role of ICT in order processing, using a multi-case study among SMEs. Th

  19. An Innovative Approach for Promoting Information Exchanges and Sharing in a Web 2.0-Based Learning Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Hui-Chun; Hwang, Gwo-Jen; Tsai, Chin-Chung; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2009-01-01

    Although Web 2.0 technologies have been recognized as effective means of conducting group learning activities, a critical and challenging issue of Web 2.0-based learning is the lack of mechanisms for promoting information exchanges and sharing among participating students. To cope with this problem, an intelligent blog system is proposed in this…

  20. Between GDPR and the police directive : Navigating through the maze of information sharing in public-private partnerships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Purtova, Nadezhda

    2017-01-01

    - Legitimacy of public-private partnerships for combatting cybercrime partially depends on whether or not law enforcement data processing activities are subject to the same data protection-related restrictions, whether they involve cooperation of private parties or not. - Information sharing within

  1. Show me Yours and I'll Show you Mine : Sharing Borrower Information in a Competitive Credit Market

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Haas, R.T.A.; Bos, J.; Millone, Matteo

    2015-01-01

    We exploit detailed data on approved and rejected small business loans to assess the impact of the introduction of a credit registry in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Our findings are threefold. First, mandatory information sharing tightens lending at the extensive margin as more applications are rejected,

  2. The influence of business conditions on supply chain information-sharing mechanisms : A study among supply chain links of SMEs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Welker, Gera A.; van der Vaart, Taco; van Donk, Dirk Pieter

    The literature acknowledges that the type and the level of supply chain integration differ in various situations. This paper investigates the influence of business conditions on internal and external information sharing and the role of ICT in order processing, using a multi-case study among SMEs.

  3. Connecting the Dots...: Information Sharing by Post-Secondary Educational Institutions under the Family Education Rights and Privacy Act (FERPA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Richard; Hall, Richard; Gilmer, W. Gerry

    2008-01-01

    Misunderstanding of privacy laws and regulations impedes appropriate information sharing by post-secondary educational institutions under the Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1974 ("FERPA"). Post-Virginia Tech regulatory amendments allow institutions to "connect the dots" regarding a student's behavior and to be…

  4. Knowledge sharing among workers: a study on their contribution through informal communication in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Norizzati Azudin; Mohd Nor Ismail; Zainab Taherali

    2009-01-01

    Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees...

  5. A Pilot study of the Sharing Risk Information Tool (ShaRIT for Families with Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kardashian Ani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Individuals who carry deleterious BRCA mutations face significantly elevated risks of breast, ovarian, and other cancers. These individuals are also responsible for informing relatives of their increased risk for carrying the family BRCA mutation. Few interventions have been developed to facilitate this family communication process. Methods We developed the Sharing Risk Information Tool (ShaRIT, a personalized educational intervention, to support BRCA carriers as they discuss BRCA positive results and their implications with relatives. We conducted a pilot study of 19 BRCA carriers identified through the University of California San Francisco Cancer Risk Program. Our study had two aims: 1 to assess the feasibility and acceptability of ShaRIT, and 2 describe characteristics associated with increased family communication and BRCA testing. Participants in our study were divided into two groups: those who had not received ShaRIT as part of their genetic counseling protocol (control group, n = 10 and those who received ShaRIT (n = 9. Results All 9 women who received ShaRIT reported that it was a useful resource. Characteristics associated with increased sharing and testing included: female gender, degree of relationship, and frequency of communication. Increased pedigree knowledge showed a trend toward higher rates of sharing. Conclusions Both participants and genetic counselors considered ShaRIT a well-received, comprehensive tool for disseminating individual risk information and clinical care guidelines to Hereditary Breast and Ovarian Cancer Syndrome families. Because of this, ShaRIT has been incorporated as standard of care at our institution. In the future we hope to evaluate the effects of ShaRIT on family communication and family testing in larger populations of BRCA positive families.

  6. A Trust Based Framework for Information Sharing Behavior in Command and Control Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    First, people use warmth , friendliness and trustworthiness to assess trust towards another person without much time or effort. Second, people may...interpersonal relationships and trust play a larger role. Our model captures both with the help of two main constructs: willingness based on trustworthiness ...standing, leading to slower rate of data sharing. We model this aspect of data sharing as the trustworthiness aspect of team members, which impacts their

  7. MOTIVATION TO SHARE HOSPITAL BUILDING DESIGN KNOWLEDGE BY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HONG KONG

    OpenAIRE

    Li, Rita Yi Man; Rita PEIHUA Zhang

    2010-01-01

    Hospital building design is important as it is the place where bacteria and microorganisms concentrate. Poor ventilation system and layout traps disease causing pathogens, threatens the lives of many frontline workers such as doctors, nurses, and health care assistants. While design knowledge sharing by IT ensures a rapid knowledge sharing among designers from all over the world, what are their motivations? Few or no paper has studied this issue. This paper studies this base on 4 traditional ...

  8. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-22

    Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness Norbou Buchler 1*, Sean M. Fitzhugh 1, Laura R. Marusich 1, Diane M. Ungvarsky 1... analysis of information and situation awareness. The telephone network was sparse and did not fully represent all the members of the core staff and...thus not subjected to statistical model analysis . Situation Awareness Global Assessment Technique (SAGAT) A valid and reliable method for assessing SA

  9. Small and Medium-Sized Information Technology Firms: Assessment of Non-Local Partnership Facilitators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Findikoglu, Melike Nur

    2012-01-01

    A two-phased qualitative study was conducted to explore the facilitators of non-local (i.e. domestic or international) partnerships formed by small- and medium-sized firms (SME). Rooted in trust, proximity and dynamic capabilities lenses, the study focused on behaviors of SMEs performing in dynamic, competitive and highly interlinked industry, the…

  10. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education, Compliance and Assistance, Alternative Dispute Resolution Services provide the option of facilitated IEP (Individualized Education Program) meetings. This option is available for IEP, IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP…

  11. Facilitated IEP Meetings. PACER Center ACTion Information Sheets: PHP-c90

    Science.gov (United States)

    PACER Center, 2014

    2014-01-01

    To help special education planning teams reach agreements, the Minnesota Department of Education, Compliance and Assistance, Alternative Dispute Resolution Services provide the option of facilitated IEP (Individualized Education Program) meetings. This option is available for IEP, IIIP (Individual Interagency Intervention Plan), and IFSP…

  12. Facilitating access to biodiversity information: a survey of users' needs and practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Miriam L E Steiner; Tenopir, Carol; Allard, Suzie; Frame, Michael T

    2014-03-01

    Biodiversity information is essential for understanding and managing the environment. However, identifying and providing the forms and types of biodiversity information most needed for research and decision-making is a significant challenge. While research needs and data gaps within particular topics or regions have received substantial attention, other information aspects such as data formats, sources, metadata, and information tools have received little. Focusing on the US southeast, a region of global biodiversity importance, this paper assesses the biodiversity information needs of environmental researchers, managers, and decision makers. Survey results of biodiversity information users' information needs, information-seeking behaviors and preferred information source attributes support previous conclusions that useful biodiversity information must be easily and quickly accessible, available in forms that allow integration and visualization and appropriately matched to users' needs. Survey results concerning additional information aspects suggest successful participation in both the creation and provision of biodiversity information include an increased focus on information search and other tools for data management, discovery, and description.

  13. Benefits of Sharing Information: Supermodel Ensemble and Applications in South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, P. L.

    2006-05-01

    .master.iag.usp.br/). Monitoring of the use of the products reveal a growing trend in the last year (reaching about 10.000 accesses per day in recent months). The intercomparison program provides a rich data set for educational products (real time use in Synoptic Meteorology and Numerical Weather Forecasting lectures), operational weather forecasts in national or regional weather centers and for research purposes. During the first phase of the program it was difficult to convince potential participants to share the information in the public homepage. However, as the system evolved, more and more institutions became associated with the program. The general opinion of the participants is that the system provides an unified metric for evaluation, a forum for discussion of the physical origin of the model forecast differences and therefore improvement of the quality of the numerical guidance.

  14. MOTIVATION TO SHARE HOSPITAL BUILDING DESIGN KNOWLEDGE BY INFORMATION TECHNOLOGY IN HONG KONG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Yi Man LI

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Hospital building design is important as it is the place where bacteria and microorganisms concentrate. Poor ventilation system and layout traps disease causing pathogens, threatens the lives of many frontline workers such as doctors, nurses, and health care assistants. While design knowledge sharing by IT ensures a rapid knowledge sharing among designers from all over the world, what are their motivations? Few or no paper has studied this issue. This paper studies this base on 4 traditional motivation theories: Theory X, Theory Y, Reinforcement theory, Two factor theory. Results show that positive reinforcement theory and motivation factors in two factor theory provide better explanation.

  15. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M.; Marusich, Laura R.; Ungvarsky, Diane M.; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In

  16. Mission Command in the Age of Network-Enabled Operations: Social Network Analysis of Information Sharing and Situation Awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchler, Norbou; Fitzhugh, Sean M; Marusich, Laura R; Ungvarsky, Diane M; Lebiere, Christian; Gonzalez, Cleotilde

    2016-01-01

    A common assumption in organizations is that information sharing improves situation awareness and ultimately organizational effectiveness. The sheer volume and rapid pace of information and communications received and readily accessible through computer networks, however, can overwhelm individuals, resulting in data overload from a combination of diverse data sources, multiple data formats, and large data volumes. The current conceptual framework of network enabled operations (NEO) posits that robust networking and information sharing act as a positive feedback loop resulting in greater situation awareness and mission effectiveness in military operations (Alberts and Garstka, 2004). We test this assumption in a large-scale, 2-week military training exercise. We conducted a social network analysis of email communications among the multi-echelon Mission Command staff (one Division and two sub-ordinate Brigades) and assessed the situational awareness of every individual. Results from our exponential random graph models challenge the aforementioned assumption, as increased email output was associated with lower individual situation awareness. It emerged that higher situation awareness was associated with a lower probability of out-ties, so that broadly sending many messages decreased the likelihood of attaining situation awareness. This challenges the hypothesis that increased information sharing improves situation awareness, at least for those doing the bulk of the sharing. In addition, we observed two trends that reflect a compartmentalizing of networked information sharing as email links were more commonly formed among members of the command staff with both similar functions and levels of situation awareness, than between two individuals with dissimilar functions and levels of situation awareness; both those findings can be interpreted to reflect effects of homophily. Our results have major implications that challenge the current conceptual framework of NEO. In

  17. [Transfer and sharing of public health knowledge: reflections on the components of a national information system in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambon, Linda; Alla, François

    2013-01-01

    It is becoming increasingly necessary, in France, to develop a more efficient public health policy and define research in terms of the perspective of its use for public decisions and clinical practice. One possible solution consists of knowledge transfer and sharing based on a continuous exchange and interaction process between scientists and potential users of research data - field workers and health policy decision-makers. Such a process would involve collaboration with users to help them apply the evidence produced by research as well as the mobilization of research scientists to develop research more adapted to needs. This article defines the goals of development of knowledge transfer in the French setting. The conceptual bases are defined and four strategic axes and their operational modalities are developed. This proposal also integrates all of the public authorities concerned: promote knowledge transfer; reinforce observation and diffusion of evidence and its usability; promote the development of more adapted public health research by facilitating research scientist /research data user relationships; assist the various parties in the exchange and sharing of knowledge. Apart from improving the efficiency of health policies, the development of knowledge transfer and sharing would also strengthen the credibility of certain intervention strategies, especially in the field of prevention, by designing evidence-based strategies.

  18. Shared Attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteynberg, Garriy

    2015-09-01

    Shared attention is extremely common. In stadiums, public squares, and private living rooms, people attend to the world with others. Humans do so across all sensory modalities-sharing the sights, sounds, tastes, smells, and textures of everyday life with one another. The potential for attending with others has grown considerably with the emergence of mass media technologies, which allow for the sharing of attention in the absence of physical co-presence. In the last several years, studies have begun to outline the conditions under which attending together is consequential for human memory, motivation, judgment, emotion, and behavior. Here, I advance a psychological theory of shared attention, defining its properties as a mental state and outlining its cognitive, affective, and behavioral consequences. I review empirical findings that are uniquely predicted by shared-attention theory and discuss the possibility of integrating shared-attention, social-facilitation, and social-loafing perspectives. Finally, I reflect on what shared-attention theory implies for living in the digital world.

  19. Use of link to mammography screening information and link sharing strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mukai, Thomas; Bro, Flemming; Olesen, Frede

    2011-01-01

    Introduction: The Internet is increasingly being used for disseminating knowledge in health care. Often this is done through a ‘Uniform Resource Locator’ (URL), better known as a link. There are three ways of sharing a link: verbally, in print or electronically. Furthermore, timing and exposure...

  20. Industry and Public Sector Cooperation for Information Sharing: Port of Honolulu

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    has family in nearby Pago Pago . The email has all the sad details of a 3 meter tsunami wave that hit Pago Pago , but nothing about Honolulu. 10:40...shares his news about Pago Pago . State Civil Defense has not been able to get through to any one on Pago Pago so she asks Sam for a copy of the email

  1. Sharing Mechanisms for Information Technology in Developing Countries, Social Capital and Quality of Life

    Science.gov (United States)

    James, Jeffrey

    2009-01-01

    For the majority of those living in developing countries (especially in the rural areas) sharing may be the only means of obtaining access to IT. Oddly, however, no-one has viewed "IT for development" specifically from this point of view for the Internet, computers and mobile phones. A good beginning, it seems to me, is to make an analytical…

  2. Insider Threats: DOD Should Improve Information Sharing and Oversight to Protect U.S. Installations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-01

    but does direct the department to prevent and report incidents involving violence, threats, harassment, intimidation, and other disruptive behavior ...have trained response personnel on active shooter training and piloted a workplace violence risk assessment program. However, DOD is not sharing...framework: DOD Instruction 1438.06, DOD Workplace Violence Prevention and Response Policy; DOD Instruction 2000.12, DOD Antiterrorism (AT) Program; DOD

  3. Terrorism Prevention and Firefighters: Where are the Information-Sharing Boundaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-01

    sewerage undertakers, telephone service providers (fixed and mobile), network rail, train operating companies (passenger and freight), London Underground...Nazarene University, 2001 Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of MASTER OF ARTS IN SECURITY STUDIES ...Sharing Matrix ...........................36 Figure 2. FDNY Network -Centric Command System ....................................................44

  4. Rational Secret Sharing over an Asynchronous Broadcast Channel with Information Theoretic Security

    CERN Document Server

    Moses, William K; 10.5121/ijnsa.2011.3601

    2011-01-01

    We consider the problem of rational secret sharing introduced by Halpern and Teague [1], where the players involved in secret sharing play only if it is to their advantage. This can be characterized in the form of preferences. Players would prefer to get the secret than to not get it and secondly with lesser preference, they would like as few other players to get the secret as possible. Several positive results have already been published to efficiently solve the problem of rational secret sharing but only a handful of papers have touched upon the use of an asynchronous broadcast channel. [2] used cryptographic primitives, [3] used an interactive dealer, and [4] used an honest minority of players in order to handle an asynchronous broadcast channel. In our paper, we propose an m-out-of-n rational secret sharing scheme which can function over an asynchronous broadcast channel without the use of cryptographic primitives and with a non-interactive dealer. This is possible because our scheme uses a small number, ...

  5. Communication, The Essence of Science Facilitating Information Exchange Among Librarians, Scientists, Engineers and Students

    CERN Document Server

    Garvey, W D

    1979-01-01

    Communication: The Essence of Science provides information pertinent to the fundamental aspects of scientific communication. This book focuses on those information-exchange activities that take place mainly among scientists actively involved on the research front. Organized into five chapters, this book begins with an overview of the psychologists' description of the communication structure of science. This text then examines the relationship among spanning, connecting, and integrating the various streams of activities involved in the production of information. Other chapters consider some of

  6. Professional Development on a Budget: Facilitating Learning Opportunities for Information Literacy Instructors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisa Shamchuk

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available How do you stay on top of evolving trends and changes to information literacy delivery, especially while coping with shrinking professional development allocations? This article details various in-house, professional development opportunities created for MacEwan University’s library staff. Low-cost, practical ideas are given to help jump-start a library's information literacy professional development offerings. Included are details about organizing an Information Literacy Community, internal Library Professional Development Days and an information literacy event open to local library professionals.

  7. Facilitators and barriers to informed choice in self-directed support for young people with disability in transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, Fraser

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this qualitative study was to explore the concept of 'informed choice' in the context of self-directed support (SDS) for young people with disability in transition from child to adult services. SDS is a major policy initiative introduced by the Scottish government to promote personalised services by redefining the relationship between the citizen and the state regarding social care supports. Informed choice is one of the underpinning principles of the Social Care (Self-directed Support) (Scotland) Act 2013. The theoretical approach to the research study was that of critical realism and, in particular, realistic evaluation. The research design used multiple qualitative methods involving secondary analysis of archived qualitative longitudinal interview data, and primary interviews with nine individuals, representing a wide range of stakeholders in Scotland. The study developed hypotheses concerning the facilitators and barriers to informed choice for young people with disability. Factors facilitating informed choice included supportive family and professional networks, advocacy, accessible information and experiential knowledge. Barriers to informed choice were seen to be low expectations, poor collaboration between child and adult services and bureaucratic organisational cultures. SDS is entering the implementation phase of the policy cycle in Scotland and this study will inform emerging policy, practice and future research into personalisation for young people with disability in transition. In particular, the findings point to the need to involve young people with disability at an early stage in choice-making, and to foster self-advocacy skills and supportive social networks. Informed choice for young people with disability needs to be seen as a process over time involving both information and emotions and both need to be supported to ensure successful transitions.

  8. A system architecture for sharing de-identified, research-ready brain scans and health information across clinical imaging centers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, Ann L; van Erp, Theo G M; Kesselman, Carl; D'Arcy, Mike; Sobell, Janet; Keator, David; Dahm, Lisa; Murry, Jim; Law, Meng; Hasso, Anton; Ames, Joseph; Macciardi, Fabio; Potkin, Steven G

    2012-01-01

    Progress in our understanding of brain disorders increasingly relies on the costly collection of large standardized brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data sets. Moreover, the clinical interpretation of brain scans benefits from compare and contrast analyses of scans from patients with similar, and sometimes rare, demographic, diagnostic, and treatment status. A solution to both needs is to acquire standardized, research-ready clinical brain scans and to build the information technology infrastructure to share such scans, along with other pertinent information, across hospitals. This paper describes the design, deployment, and operation of a federated imaging system that captures and shares standardized, de-identified clinical brain images in a federation across multiple institutions. In addition to describing innovative aspects of the system architecture and our initial testing of the deployed infrastructure, we also describe the Standardized Imaging Protocol (SIP) developed for the project and our interactions with the Institutional Review Board (IRB) regarding handling patient data in the federated environment.

  9. Wikis to facilitate patient participation in developing information leaflets: first experiences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Belt, T.H. van de; Faber, M.J.; Knijnenburg, J.M.; Duijnhoven, N.T.L. van; Nelen, W.L.D.M.; Kremer, J.A.M.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Although patients have gained a wealth of experienced based knowledge they are usually not involved in the development of patient information. We sought to determine the technical feasibility of wikis in generating dynamic patient information leaflets with participation from patients and

  10. Between information seeking and sharing – use of social media in a young learner context

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden

    2013-01-01

    associated with social media as information sources and the implications for information literacy. Many web tutorials have been developed with the aim of guiding students’ information seeking, research and writing behavior, hence providing a platform for building information literacy (IL) knowledge...

  11. SHARING HIGH-RESOLUTION MODELS AND INFORMATION ON WEB: THE WEB MODULE OF BIM3DSG SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Rechichi

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available BIM3DSG system is described here. It is an ad hoc designed BIM system created for Cultural Heritage applications. It proposes some solutions to solve some issues related to the use of BIM in this field. First, it tries to resolve the problem of managing huge, complex, high resolution and heterogeneous 3D models, and then it offers a practical, easy and efficient solution for a wide sharing of data and information.

  12. Sharing High-Resolution Models and Information on Web: the Web Module of BIM3DSG System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rechichi, F.; Mandelli, A.; Achille, C.; Fassi, F.

    2016-06-01

    BIM3DSG system is described here. It is an ad hoc designed BIM system created for Cultural Heritage applications. It proposes some solutions to solve some issues related to the use of BIM in this field. First, it tries to resolve the problem of managing huge, complex, high resolution and heterogeneous 3D models, and then it offers a practical, easy and efficient solution for a wide sharing of data and information.

  13. Orchestrating Information Sharing among Intra- And Inter-Organisational Core Actors in a Large New Product Development Project - The Particular Role of The Project Manager

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jepsen, Lisbeth Brøde

    The success of NPD projects of high-cost, engineering-intensive, and customized development products is largely dependent on information sharing with actors from customers regarding their specific requirements (Von Hippel, 1986). But information sharing is also necessary among actors from different...... expertise and critical information are integrated in a timely fashion into the development process (Edmondson and Nembhard, 2009). However, prior research has not simultaneously studied and addressed the differences in intra- and inter-organisational information sharing during the various phases of the NPD...... and the role of technology uncertainty whereas Jepsen et al. (2012) investigate the project manager’s brokerage of information sharing between actors inside and outside of the developer company. Research has shown that heavily burdened PMs require assistance in the information sharing process not only from...

  14. A Novel Approach Towards Cost Effective Region-Based Group Key Agreement Protocol for Peer - to - Peer Information Sharing in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, K; Sumathy, V

    2010-01-01

    Peer-to-peer systems have gained a lot of attention as information sharing systems for the widespread exchange of resources and voluminous information that is easily accessible among thousands of users. However, current peer-to-peer information sharing systems work mostly on wired networks. With the growing number of communication-equipped mobile devices that can self-organize into infrastructure-less communication platform, namely mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs), peer-to-peer information sharing over MANETs becomes a promising research area. In this paper, we propose a Region-Based structure that enables efficient and secure peer-to-peer information sharing over MANETs. The implementation shows that the proposed scheme is Secure, scalable, efficient, and adaptive to node mobility and provides Reliable information sharing.

  15. Probe into the Information-Sharing Mechanism of Construction Project%建设项目信息共享机制探索

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜亚丽

    2011-01-01

    针对建设项目的信息共享问题,从信息共享的三个不同维度研究共享的必要性,深入分析建设项目实现信息共享的制约因素,并提出信息共享的实现机制。%Aims at the problem of information-sharing in the consutruction project,studies the necessity of information-sharing from three different dimensions,and deeply analyzes the constraints of sharing,and proposes an implementation mechanism of information-sharing.

  16. Design and Implementation of Service-Oriented Spatial Information Sharing Framework in Digital City%数字城市共享平台框架的设计与实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵振峰; 李德仁

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes a theoretical framework of spatial information sharing in a digital city, and analyzes its technical characteristics. According to the service-oriented architecture (SOA) framework, a geospatial information sharing platform is put forward. The spatial information sharing model based on SOA is designed. A prototype platform realizing multipie-source spatial information sharing based on ArcGIS Server is developed.

  17. Koinonia: The Requirements and Vision for an Unclassified Information-Sharing System

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-01

    satellite services are subject to outages, as in Figure 8. Outages can occur for a variety of reasons including lease limitations, weather, and...MIO Data Consumer Name 2013-NATO - FaaS Test Description SHORT TITLE: Transmit live land/maritime Track Data OPERATIONAL PROBLEM: RB SMEs and... SMEs (Coalition HQs) with NATO CMRE based on CENETIX SA-View data. TECHNICAL DESCRIPTION: sharing of specific track feeds via diode Steps: 1

  18. 2010 Global Maritime Information Sharing Symposium Held in Baltimore, Maryland on September 14-16, 2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-16

    shared and vetted. To move ahead with the IMSSE concept, it is imperative to: • identify a lead U.S. Government department or agency with the capacity...Exchange ( IMSSE ) As trade in the 21st century continues to be shaped by globalization, the maritime domain will become increasingly vulnerable to...to the present reality is to institute an International Maritime Safety and Security Exchange ( IMSSE ). Exchange business models (EBM) are standard

  19. Knowledge sharing among workers: a study on their contribution through informal communication in Cyberjaya, Malaysia

    OpenAIRE

    Norizzati Azudin; Mohd Nor Ismail; Zainab Taherali

    2009-01-01

    Malaysia, being a multi-racial society, faces the challenges of creating knowledge sharing capability in organisations, as cultural values are often reflected in the workplace by individual employees. For organisations, it is not clear whether this diversity has resulted in any form of competitive advantage. Studies have shown that various communities in Malaysia do not bring their respective cultures to work, and as such the company values prevail. This research is based on the demographic s...

  20. The value of coordination in a two echelon supply chain: Sharing information, policies and parameters.

    OpenAIRE

    Disney, SM; Lambrecht, Marc; Towill, DR; Van de Velde, W.

    2007-01-01

    We study a coordination scheme in a two echelon supply chain. It involves sharing details of replenishment rules, lead-times, demand patterns and tuning the replenishment rules to exploit the supply chain's cost structure. We examine four different coordination strategies; naïve operation, local optimisation, global optimisation and altruistic behaviour on behalf of the retailer. We assume the retailer and the manufacturer use the Order-Up-To policy to determine replenishment orders and end c...

  1. Knowledge Sharing Cultures in Finance and Insurance Companies ཿ Needs for Improving Informal Collaborative e-Learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika Tanhua-Piiroinen

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Working life requires employees to continuously update their competences, making lifelong learning an important but challenging part of professional development. This study aims to look for solutions to uncover the tacit and implicit knowledge within the enterprise by the means of social media. Our interest is specially focused on challenges on informal learning and refining and sharing of the tacit knowledge among these expert companies. We have so far collected data from two enterprises about their current knowledge sharing habits and procedures and found out the pitfalls they have experienced in their working culture concerning finding and sharing knowledge. The main challenges (apart from lack of time, which is quite obvious result today are defects in storing information in a way that enables its easy rediscovery and the huge amount of information from which to filter the relevant pieces of knowledge. Particularly the centralized experts in an insurance company find the lack of regular vertical interaction between the decentralized claim handlers a drawback. There exists a lot of overlapping effort as they need to tell the same issues many times to various claim handlers. Taking these challenges into account new working models will be put into practice utilizing collaborative tools, like wikis and chat forums.

  2. The influence of information sharing, supplier trust and supplier synergy on supplier performance: The case of small and medium enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Pooe

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: The assessment of supplier performance is an important activity for small to medium enterprises (SMEs as they adopt and implement plans and policies aimed at enhancing their performance in order to achieve sustainable competitive advantages.Objectives: The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of information sharing, supplier trust and supplier synergy on supplier performance in SMEs.Method: A quantitative research design was adopted in which a survey questionnaire was administered to a sample of 309 owners and managers of SMEs based in southern Gauteng, South Africa. A confirmatory factor analysis was undertaken to assess the properties of the measurement scale. Hypotheses were tested using the path modelling technique.Results: Information sharing exerted a moderate positive and significant influence on supplier trust and a weak but sigificant influence on supplier synergy. Supplier synergy had a strong positive and significant influence on supplier performance. However, the influence of supplier trust on supplier performance was weak and insignificant.Conclusion: The study provides a useful framework for analysing the interplay between information sharing, supplier trust, supplier synergy and supplier performance in SMEs.

  3. Shared care in mental illness: A rapid review to inform implementation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly Brian J

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background While integrated primary healthcare for the management of depression has been well researched, appropriate models of primary care for people with severe and persistent psychotic disorders are poorly understood. In 2010 the NSW (Australia Health Department commissioned a review of the evidence on "shared care" models of ambulatory mental health services. This focussed on critical factors in the implementation of these models in clinical practice, with a view to providing policy direction. The review excluded evidence about dementia, substance use and personality disorders. Methods A rapid review involving a search for systematic reviews on The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and Database of Abstracts of Reviews of Effects (DARE. This was followed by a search for papers published since these systematic reviews on Medline and supplemented by limited iterative searching from reference lists. Results Shared care trials report improved mental and physical health outcomes in some clinical settings with improved social function, self management skills, service acceptability and reduced hospitalisation. Other benefits include improved access to specialist care, better engagement with and acceptability of mental health services. Limited economic evaluation shows significant set up costs, reduced patient costs and service savings often realised by other providers. Nevertheless these findings are not evident across all clinical groups. Gains require substantial cross-organisational commitment, carefully designed and consistently delivered interventions, with attention to staff selection, training and supervision. Effective models incorporated linkages across various service levels, clinical monitoring within agreed treatment protocols, improved continuity and comprehensiveness of services. Conclusions "Shared Care" models of mental health service delivery require attention to multiple levels (from organisational to individual

  4. VHA mental health information system: applying health information technology to monitor and facilitate implementation of VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trafton, Jodie A; Greenberg, Greg; Harris, Alex H S; Tavakoli, Sara; Kearney, Lisa; McCarthy, John; Blow, Fredric; Hoff, Rani; Schohn, Mary

    2013-03-01

    To describe the design and deployment of health information technology to support implementation of mental health services policy requirements in the Veterans Health Administration (VHA). Using administrative and self-report survey data, we developed and fielded metrics regarding implementation of the requirements delineated in the VHA Uniform Mental Health Services Handbook. Finalized metrics were incorporated into 2 external facilitation-based quality improvement programs led by the VHA Mental Health Operations. To support these programs, tailored site-specific reports were generated. Metric development required close collaboration between program evaluators, policy makers and clinical leadership, and consideration of policy language and intent. Electronic reports supporting different purposes required distinct formatting and presentation features, despite their having similar general goals and using the same metrics. Health information technology can facilitate mental health policy implementation but must be integrated into a process of consensus building and close collaboration with policy makers, evaluators, and practitioners.

  5. Can mobile phone technology support a rapid sharing of information on novel psychoactive substances among health and other professionals internationally?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simonato, Pierluigi; Bersani, Francesco S; Santacroce, Rita; Cinosi, Eduardo; Schifano, Fabrizio; Bersani, Giuseppe; Martinotti, Giovanni; Corazza, Ornella

    2017-05-01

    The diffusion of novel psychoactive substances (NPSs), combined with the ability of the Internet to act as an online marketplace, has led to unprecedented challenges for governments, health agencies, and substance misuse services. Despite increasing research, there is a paucity of reliable information available to professionals working in the field. The paper will present the pilot results of the first mobile application (SMAIL) for rapid information sharing on NPSs among health professionals. The development of SMAIL was divided into 2 parts: (a) the creation of the application for registered users, enabling them to send an SMS or email with the name or "street name" of an NPS and receive within seconds emails or SMS with the information, when available and (b) the development of a database to support the incoming requests. One hundred twenty-two professionals based in 22 countries used the service over the pilot period of 16 months (from May 2012 to September 2013). Five hundred fifty-seven enquires were made. Users received rapid information on NPSs, and 61% of them rated the service as excellent. This is the right time to use mobile phone technologies for rapid information sharing and prevention activities on NPSs. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. [Smart-web support: a new tool to help information sharing in managing complex paediatric diseases. Study protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosati, Paola; Grossi, Armando; Inserra, Alessandro; Ubertini, Graziamaria; Ferro, Giusy; Baldini Ferroli, Barbara; Martini, Ludovica; Cotzia, Daniela

    2016-11-01

    As devices for learning, smart-web support (SWS) multimedia hypertexts on the web now provide more versatile and interactive reading systems than those traditionally available in static printed texts. Designing similar tools for clinical practice would make complex scientific information easier to comprehend, and present the various therapeutic options to patients as minimally alarming graphical representations. In a pilot project we intend to produce a SWS tool for parents or tutors of children with primary differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC), a heretofore rare disease whose incidence has increased over recent years. The SWS hypertexts, "pre-digested" by the multidisciplinary team caring for these children, will be inserted in a single web page (canvas) including shared sheets explaining the best surgical options (decision aids). To make evidence-based information easier to understand and help information sharing, the decision aids will combine text and graphics. The canvas will store data for the multimedia files in a cloud storage system, opened via a link. To measure parents' and tutors' understanding and appreciation of the information provided on the web, the canvas will include questionnaires to investigate satisfaction, eventual barrier encountered, and type of surgical therapy chosen. The SWS tool should allow users to obtain all the information in a relatively short time and improve parents' and children's satisfaction with the surgical options proposed. The results obtained will be useful for developing similar SWS devices for other complex paediatric diseases.

  7. Combining personal with social information facilitates host defences and explains why cuckoos should be secretive

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorogood, Rose; Davies, Nicholas B.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals often vary defences in response to local predation or parasitism risk. But how should they assess threat levels when it pays their enemies to hide? For common cuckoo hosts, assessing parasitism risk is challenging: cuckoo eggs are mimetic and adult cuckoos are secretive and resemble hawks. Here, we show that egg rejection by reed warblers depends on combining personal and social information of local risk. We presented model cuckoos or controls at a pair’s own nest (personal information of an intruder) and/or on a neighbouring territory, to which they were attracted by broadcasts of alarm calls (social information). Rejection of an experimental egg was stimulated only when hosts were alerted by both social and personal information of cuckoos. However, pairs that rejected eggs were not more likely to mob a cuckoo. Therefore, while hosts can assess risk from the sight of a cuckoo, a cuckoo cannot gauge if her egg will be accepted from host mobbing. Our results reveal how hosts respond rapidly to local variation in parasitism, and why it pays cuckoos to be secretive, both to avoid alerting their targets and to limit the spread of social information in the local host neighbourhood. PMID:26794435

  8. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Enhances Information Sharing and Group Decision Making Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Tim R W; Ten Velden, Femke S; De Dreu, Carsten K W

    2017-01-11

    Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity. Compared to placebo groups, three-person groups whose members received intranasal oxytocin, focused more on unique information (i) and repeated this information more often (ii). These findings reveal oxytocin as a neurobiological driver of group decision-making processes.

  9. The Neuropeptide Oxytocin Enhances Information Sharing and Group Decision Making Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wilde, Tim R. W.; Ten Velden, Femke S.; De Dreu, Carsten K. W.

    2017-01-01

    Groups can make better decisions than individuals when members cooperatively exchange and integrate their uniquely held information and insights. However, under conformity pressures group members are biased towards exchanging commonly known information, and away from exchanging unique information, thus undermining group decision-making quality. At the neurobiological level, conformity associates with the neuropeptide oxytocin. A double-blind placebo controlled study found no evidence for oxytocin induced conformity. Compared to placebo groups, three-person groups whose members received intranasal oxytocin, focused more on unique information (i) and repeated this information more often (ii). These findings reveal oxytocin as a neurobiological driver of group decision-making processes. PMID:28074896

  10. Option Grids to facilitate shared decision making for patients with Osteoarthritis of the knee: protocol for a single site, efficacy trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrin, K.; Wood, F.; Firth, J.; Kinsey, K.; Edwards, A.; Brain, K.E.; Newcombe, R.G.; Nye, A.; Pickles, T.; Hawthorne, K.; Elwyn, G.

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Despite policy interest, an ethical imperative, and evidence of the benefits of patient decision support tools, the adoption of shared decision making (SDM) in day-to-day clinical practice remains slow and is inhibited by barriers that include culture and attitudes; resources and time pr

  11. Comparing Traditional Journal Writing with Journal Writing Shared over E-mail List Serves as Tools for Facilitating Reflective Thinking: A Study of Preservice Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, Diane S.; Rupley, William H.; Sparks, Joanne; Holcomb, Angelia

    2007-01-01

    To determine the conditions that would best encourage reflection in journal writing of preservice teachers in field-based reading internships, the degree of reflective content found in self-contained traditional journals was compared to the reflective content found in journal entries shared over e-mail list serves. Participants were 56 preservice…

  12. Barriers and facilitators in the provision of post-abortion care at district level in central Uganda - a qualitative study focusing on task sharing between physicians and midwives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul, Mandira; Gemzell-Danielsson, Kristina; Kiggundu, Charles; Namugenyi, Rebecka; Klingberg-Allvin, Marie

    2014-01-21

    Abortion is restricted in Uganda, and poor access to contraceptive methods result in unwanted pregnancies. This leaves women no other choice than unsafe abortion, thus placing a great burden on the Ugandan health system and making unsafe abortion one of the major contributors to maternal mortality and morbidity in Uganda. The existing sexual and reproductive health policy in Uganda supports the sharing of tasks in post-abortion care. This task sharing is taking place as a pragmatic response to the increased workload. This study aims to explore physicians' and midwives' perception of post-abortion care with regard to professional competences, methods, contraceptive counselling and task shifting/sharing in post-abortion care. In-depth interviews (n = 27) with health care providers of post-abortion care were conducted in seven health facilities in the Central Region of Uganda. The data were organized using thematic analysis with an inductive approach. Post-abortion care was perceived as necessary, albeit controversial and sometimes difficult to provide. Together with poor conditions post-abortion care provoked frustration especially among midwives. Task sharing was generally taking place and midwives were identified as the main providers, although they would rarely have the proper training in post-abortion care. Additionally, midwives were sometimes forced to provide services outside their defined task area, due to the absence of doctors. Different uterine evacuation skills were recognized although few providers knew of misoprostol as a method for post-abortion care. An overall need for further training in post-abortion care was identified. Task sharing is taking place, but providers lack the relevant skills for the provision of quality care. For post-abortion care to improve, task sharing needs to be scaled up and in-service training for both doctors and midwives needs to be provided. Post-abortion care should further be included in the educational curricula of

  13. Reusing Information Management Services for Recommended Decadal Study Missions to Facilitate Aerosol and Cloud Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kempler, Steve; Alcott, Gary; Lynnes, Chris; Leptoukh, Greg; Vollmer, Bruce; Berrick, Steve

    2008-01-01

    NASA Earth Sciences Division (ESD) has made great investments in the development and maintenance of data management systems and information technologies, to maximize the use of NASA generated Earth science data. With information management system infrastructure in place, mature and operational, very small delta costs are required to fully support data archival, processing, and data support services required by the recommended Decadal Study missions. This presentation describes the services and capabilities of the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Earth Sciences Data and Information Services Center (GES DISC) and the reusability for these future missions. The GES DISC has developed a series of modular, reusable data management components currently in use. They include data archive and distribution (Simple, Scalable, Script-based, Science [S4] Product Archive aka S4PA), data processing (S4 Processor for Measurements aka S4PM), data search (Mirador), data browse, visualization, and analysis (Giovanni), and data mining services. Information management system components are based on atmospheric scientist inputs. Large development and maintenance cost savings can be realized through their reuse in future missions.

  14. Facilitating the Collection and Dissemination of Information to Parents of Children in a Child Care Program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Armas, Maria P.

    To improve conditions at a nonprofit day care center serving low-income, mainly non-English-speaking families, this practicum addressed the need of recently immigrated parents to increase their knowledge of child development and available community resources. A total of 52 Hispanic parents were given materials at an information distribution area…

  15. Learning and Sharing Technology in Informal Contexts. A Multiagent-Based Ontological Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dino Borri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available An increasing debate is growing today, in both academic and research-in-action contexts, about the roles of new and traditional technologies in raising knowledge of agents involved, as well as in boosting an effective development of communities. The last century has been largely dominated by capital-intensive technologies, impacting large and populated areas. From the late 1990s up to the present days, due to social, financial, environmental concerns, new low-impact, local-born, little to medium-scale experiences have been challenging large technologies, with interesting results. The importance of such experiences seems to lay on the abilities and knowledge of local populations, which are quite difficult to emerge as formal methodologies and attain recognizable levels of generalization and sharing. Yet the effectiveness of local-based technologies is being increasingly documented, often succeeding in cases where more formal technologies had previously failed. The EU-funded ANTINOMOS project has largely dealt with local-community knowledge enhancing and managing in the water sector management, aiming at creating a real learning environment for the sharing and the active generation of knowledge through mutual synergies. In this paper, the above subject is discussed and carried out with a cross-disciplinary, cross-scale, multi-agent approach, considering the different forms of local knowledge and language involved.

  16. Barriers and facilitators to health information exchange in low- and middleincome country settings: a systematic review protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ather Akhlaq

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionThe ability to capture, exchange and use accurate information about patients and services is vital for building strong health systems, providing comprehensive and integrated patient care, managing public health risks and informing policies for public health and health financing. However, the organisational and technological systems necessary to achieve effective Health Information Exchange are lacking in many low- and middle-income countries (LMIC. Developing strategies for addressing this depends on understanding the barriers and facilitators to HIE at the individual, provider organisational, community, district, provincial and national levels. This systematic review aims to identify, critically appraise and synthesise the existing published evidence addressing these factors.ObjectiveTo assess what is known, from published / unpublished empirical studies, about barriers and facilitators to HIE in LMIC so as to identify issues that need to be addressed and approaches that can fruitfully be pursued in future improvement strategies.MethodsWe will conduct a systematic review to identify the empirical evidence base on the barriers and facilitators to HIE in LMIC.  Two reviewers will independently search 11 major international and national databases for published, unpublished and in-progress qualitative, quantitative and mixed methods studies published during 1990-July 2014 in any language. These searches of scientific databases will be supplemented by looking for eligible reports available online. The included studies will be independently critically appraised using the Mixed Method Appraisal Tool (MMAT, version 2011. Descriptive, narrative and interpretative synthesis of data will be undertaken.   Results These will be presented in a manuscript that will be published in the peer-reviewed literature. The protocol is registered with the International Prospective Register for Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO CRD 42014009826

  17. Identifying organizational capacities and incentives for clinical data-sharing: the case of a regional perinatal information system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korst, Lisa M; Signer, Jordana M K; Aydin, Carolyn E; Fink, Arlene

    2008-01-01

    The development of regional data-sharing among healthcare organizations is viewed as an important step in the development of health information technology (HIT), but little is known about this complex task. This is a case study of a regional perinatal data system that involved four hospitals, together responsible for over 10,000 births annually. Using standard qualitative methods, we chronicled project milestones, and identified 31 "critical incidents" that delayed or prevented their achievement. We then used these critical incidents to articulate six organizational capacity domains associated with the achievement of project milestones, and a seventh domain consisting of organizational incentives. Finally, we analyzed the relationship of milestone achievement to the presence of these capacities and incentives. This data center case suggests four requirements for sharing data across organizations: 1) a readiness assessment; 2) a perceived mandate; 3) a formal governance structure; and 4) a third party IT component.

  18. Understanding the factors that influence the adoption and meaningful use of social media by physicians to share medical information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGowan, Brian S; Wasko, Molly; Vartabedian, Bryan Steven; Miller, Robert S; Freiherr, Desirae D; Abdolrasulnia, Maziar

    2012-09-24

    Within the medical community there is persistent debate as to whether the information available through social media is trustworthy and valid, and whether physicians are ready to adopt these technologies and ultimately embrace them as a format for professional development and lifelong learning. To identify how physicians are using social media to share and exchange medical information with other physicians, and to identify the factors that influence physicians' use of social media as a component of their lifelong learning and continuing professional development. We developed a survey instrument based on the Technology Acceptance Model, hypothesizing that technology usage is best predicted by a physician's attitudes toward the technology, perceptions about the technology's usefulness and ease of use, and individual factors such as personal innovativeness. The survey was distributed via email to a random sample of 1695 practicing oncologists and primary care physicians in the United States in March 2011. Responses from 485 physicians were analyzed (response rate 28.61%). Overall, 117 of 485 (24.1%) of respondents used social media daily or many times daily to scan or explore medical information, whereas 69 of 485 (14.2%) contributed new information via social media on a daily basis. On a weekly basis or more, 296 of 485 (61.0%) scanned and 223 of 485 (46.0%) contributed. In terms of attitudes toward the use of social media, 279 of 485 respondents (57.5%) perceived social media to be beneficial, engaging, and a good way to get current, high-quality information. In terms of usefulness, 281 of 485 (57.9%) of respondents stated that social media enabled them to care for patients more effectively, and 291 of 485 (60.0%) stated it improved the quality of patient care they delivered. The main factors influencing a physician's usage of social media to share medical knowledge with other physicians were perceived ease of use and usefulness. Respondents who had positive

  19. Inter-Firm Information Sharing in Enterprise Resource Planning Systems: a call for timely but limited access to customer information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Busing

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available Current trends in Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP suggest that supply chain management and tight control over scheduling jobs within the supply chain are key tactical planning issues. Modern ERP software packages, in conjunction with the World Wide Web, allow for automated exchange of information within a company and also between two or more companies (i.e., conveyance of customer information to suppliers of parts and components for the purposes of effective planning and control. While ease of information exchange between a customer and supplier is increasingly critical to the success of modern-day planning and control efforts, the issue of information security is also a very real concern. Suppliers can benefit from gaining access to a customer's dispatch list and material requirements plan (MRP in order to determine real-time priority of jobs in queue at various work centers within their own organization. Other customer information, however, should remain secure and unavailable to supplier firms for competitive reasons such as threat of forward integration. This paper presents a previously tested priority-sequencing rule that explicitly considers downstream shop conditions in determining which job to run next The rule proves to perform well on mean flow time and lateness as well as on variability of these measures. The rule is extended here to incorporate the case where a downstream work center is outside official corporate boundaries. With the call for free exchange of information comes the threat of other, perhaps proprietary, information being accessed by vendors or others outside the official corporate boundaries. The paper will propose information that should be freely exchanged between customers and suppliers and information that should remain secure. Finally, practical measures to manage access to web-enabled ERP information will be proposed.

  20. Member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence: a new tool for increasing market share and reducing costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooperman, T

    1995-01-01

    MCOs have begun to realize the impact that consumer satisfaction has on enrollment and pricing. Taking a lesson from auto manufacturers, MCOs are now realizing the additional advantages of obtaining consumer satisfaction information about their competitors. Knowing competitors' members intentions to stay or leave their plans, pin-pointing competitors' strengths and weaknesses, and identifying unmet consumer needs, allow MCOs to more successfully develop tactics and strategies for sales, marketing, and planning. This article describes the use of member satisfaction information as competitive intelligence, what to look for in this information, and sources for obtaining reliable information.

  1. Information and knowledge sharing trends of small and medium-sized enterprises in the Western Cape, South Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faeda Mohsam

    2011-03-01

    and other companies in the field. • Their multidisciplinary approach in incorporating all spheres of civil engineering, which gave them a niche in the market. • The vast knowledge and experience of the owners and directors.Conclusion: Each of the companies interviewed had unique skills that they can apply to their advantage. They were also found to be implementing KM processes such as sharing, creating and leveraging of information and knowledge, albeit in the absence of formal policies. It was therefore deduced that SME successes depend on how well they share their tacit and explicit knowledge; this will determine whether they would excel above their competitors.

  2. Facilitation of Human Resource Information Systems on Performance of Public Sector in Jordan.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzi Hasan Altaany

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to provide an introductory presentation of the concept of human recourse information system in theoretical framework and to identify the degree of satisfaction of uses Human resource information systems in Jordan. A questionnaire was justified and developed by the researcher to measure the performance of employees based on previous studies was applied to (95 employees at public sector in Jordan. The study was using SPSS to analyses data. The results indicate that employees at public sector in Jordan there were a statistically significant relationship between the planning, recruitment, training and development, performance appraisal, compensation and incentives, and career planning and performance of employees. However the sample reported a significant in the seven hypotheses and accepted but the hypotheses (Ha1, Ha2 and Hb1 is rejected. The study have recommendations should gives more attention to focus on.

  3. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  4. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, Peter; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  5. The Effect of Sharing Health Information on Teachers' Production of Classroom Accommodations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Melissa M.; Wodrich, David L.

    2006-01-01

    Ninety elementary-school teachers read information about a hypothetical student experiencing school-related problems due to Type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), generated classroom accommodations to assist the student, and rated their confidence in these accommodations. Each teacher was provided one of three levels of information about T1DM: (a) "no…

  6. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2007-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  7. Method of sharing mobile unit state information between base station routers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bosch, H.G.P.; Mullender, Sape J.; Polakos, Paul Anthony; Rajkumar, Ajay; Sundaram, Ganapathy S.

    2010-01-01

    The present invention provides a method of operating a first base station router. The method may include transmitting state information associated with at least one inactive mobile unit to at least one second base station router. The state information is usable to initiate an active session with the

  8. 17 CFR 248.12 - Limits on sharing account number information for marketing purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... number information for marketing purposes. 248.12 Section 248.12 Commodity and Securities Exchanges... account number information for marketing purposes. (a) General prohibition on disclosure of account..., direct mail marketing, or other marketing through electronic mail to the consumer. (b)...

  9. Simulation study of relief goods delivery and information sharing by epidemic transmission in disaster areas

    OpenAIRE

    Miyakita, Kazuyuki; Nakano, Keisuke; Yamashita, Masashi; Tamura, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    During large-scale disasters, some regions can become isolated from critical informationexchanges due to problems with communication infrastructures. In this paper,we consider information exchange among isolated shelters in such cases using epidemictransmission, which distributes information without infrastructure by direct communicationbetween nodes and their movements. As mobile nodes for epidemic transmission, weconsider transport vehicles that are leaving a distribution center to deliver ...

  10. A hospital information system based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) for exchanging distributed medical objects--an approach to future environment of sharing healthcare information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohe, K

    1998-01-01

    Tightly related subsystems in a HIS have to exchange medical data flexibly by the data object rather than by the battery of the data. We developed a CPR subsystem based on Common Object Request Broker Architecture (CORBA) that retrieves and stores clinical information in the object-oriented database via Internet Intra-ORB Protocol (IIOP). The system is hybridized with the legacy HIS applications on the client terminals. We believe that our solution and the experiences will contribute to the future CORBA-based environment in which computerized patient information is shared among hospitals, clinics, and tightly related systems.

  11. Sharing clinical information across care settings: the birth of an integrated assessment system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henrard Jean-Claude

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Population ageing, the emergence of chronic illness, and the shift away from institutional care challenge conventional approaches to assessment systems which traditionally are problem and setting specific. Methods From 2002, the interRAI research collaborative undertook development of a suite of assessment tools to support assessment and care planning of persons with chronic illness, frailty, disability, or mental health problems across care settings. The suite constitutes an early example of a "third generation" assessment system. Results The rationale and development strategy for the suite is described, together with a description of potential applications. To date, ten instruments comprise the suite, each comprising "core" items shared among the majority of instruments and "optional" items that are specific to particular care settings or situations. Conclusion This comprehensive suite offers the opportunity for integrated multi-domain assessment, enabling electronic clinical records, data transfer, ease of interpretation and streamlined training.

  12. An E-Cash Based Implementation Model for Facilitating Anonymous Purchasing of Information Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Kim, K. H. (Kane); Kang, Myeong-Ho; Zhou, Tianran; Chung, Byung-Ho; Kim, Shin-Hyo; Lee, Seok-Joon

    The rapid growing of online purchasing of information products poses challenges of how to preserve the customer's privacy during the online transactions. The current widely used way of online shopping does not consider the customer's privacy protection. It exposes the customer's sensitive information unnecessarily. We propose a new five-party implementation model called 5PAPS that provides much enhanced protection of the customer's privacy. The model combines the advantages of the e-cash techniques, the mix technique, the anonymous-honoring merchant model, and the anonymity-protecting payment gateway model. It is aimed for protecting the customer's anonymity in all applicable aspects. Security and anonymity issues of the model have been analyzed. The results show that the model is robust against varieties of common attacks and the customer's anonymity can be protected even in the presence of some collusion among the parties involved in the transactions. Experimental prototyping of the essential parts yields partial validation of the practical nature of the 5PAPS model, and it has also produced reliable estimates of the storage and messaging volume requirements present in sizable purchasing systems.

  13. GPP Webinar: Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking & Information Sharing Group: Financing Issues Discussion

    Science.gov (United States)

    This presentation from a Solar Utilization in Higher Education Networking and Information webinar covers financing and project economics issues related to solar project development in the higher education sector.

  14. Dissociable parietal regions facilitate successful retrieval of recently learned and personally familiar information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elman, Jeremy A; Cohn-Sheehy, Brendan I; Shimamura, Arthur P

    2013-03-01

    In fMRI analyses, the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) is particularly active during the successful retrieval of episodic memory. To delineate the neural correlates of episodic retrieval more succinctly, we compared retrieval of recently learned spatial locations (photographs of buildings) with retrieval of previously familiar locations (photographs of familiar campus buildings). Episodic retrieval of recently learned locations activated a circumscribed region within the ventral PPC (anterior angular gyrus and adjacent regions in the supramarginal gyrus) as well as medial PPC regions (posterior cingulated gyrus and posterior precuneus). Retrieval of familiar locations activated more posterior regions in the ventral PPC (posterior angular gyrus, LOC) and more anterior regions in the medial PPC (anterior precuneus and retrosplenial cortex). These dissociable effects define more precisely PPC regions involved in the retrieval of recent, contextually bound information as opposed to regions involved in other processes, such as visual imagery, scene reconstruction, and self-referential processing.

  15. An Innovative Use of Information & Communication Technology (ICT in Trade Facilitation in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Rana

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Directorate General of Foreign Trade, a department ofMinistry of Commerce and Industry, Govt. of India, isresponsible to formulate, regulate and implement the ForeignTrade Policy through its 36 Port Offices through India.: Thisis the case study of best e-governance project. This project ishighlighted in various e-governance seminars /workshops. Thisis the first govt. project in which ICT was implemented in 1998.It is soon equipped with Digital Signature and Electronic FundTransfer facility. The present study is an example of innovativeuse of Information and communication technology (ICT foron-line delivery. The present services in the DirectorateGeneral of Foreign Trade (DGFT: e-licensing, e-BRC, etendering,e-monitoring, e-meeting e-delivery, e-PRC, egrievancere-addressal etc. The web has been played adynamic role for reengineering and transformation of tradeprocesses for an efficient, cost effective and seamless tradefacilitation.

  16. The International Polar Year Data and Information Service--Building a network of sharing, trust, and meaning

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    Parsons, M. A.

    2007-12-01

    Arctic science is inherently interdisciplinary and there is a national and international imperative to understand the Arctic region as a system. This emphasis on interdisciplinary research requires scientists to extend their professional networks across disciplines. Researchers need to access, understand, and assess data and information outside their field where they may not have the relevant disciplinary expertise, including knowledge of core assumptions and metaphors. Correspondingly data providers need to make their data understandable and usable by new users with different knowledge bases. While there are many technical barriers to cross- disciplinary data sharing, the fundamental issues lie in the human interactions and networks of scientific interaction. The International Polar Year 2007-2008 (IPY) is an intensive burst of coordinated scientific activity involving tens of thousands of investigators from 63 countries. It also seeks to create a sustained legacy of international and interdisciplinary cooperation, notably through enhanced polar observing systems. As such, IPY provides an opportunity for focused investigation of how interdisciplinary scientific and data sharing networks are created, extended, and modified. The International Polar Year Data and Information Service (IPYDIS), an international federation of data centers, archives, and networks working to ensure proper stewardship of IPY and related data, is one example of a formal network developing out of IPY. The IPYDIS has a semi-formal structure of governance, but IPY is limited in time. Methods for formal support and extension of the IPYDIS through other international collaborations will be discussed. Ultimately, however, the network is sustained through mechanisms that increase data sharing (technically and socially), establish and reinforce trust (between investigators and of data sources, and codify meanings both formally (ontologies, vocabularies, etc.) and informally (e.g., concepts of

  17. ORRION: A specific information sharing tool to (rebuild a “flood risk culture” in the Rhine Graben (France - Germany

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    Martin Brice

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available When is led a prevention initiative concerning flood risk, the recall of old events allows just as much to act as pedagogy to legitimize the initiative. So as it is written in the information leaflet on the “Plan de Prévention des Risques d’Inondation” (PPRI:«Alsace did not know any more exceptional floods since 1910. In almost a century, the flood risk thus naturally faded of our memory”. A paradoxical assertion because the floods of 1910 are not taken into account for risk mapping. Only the recent floods (1983, 1990 are used as benchmarks. We were able to show [1] that, although legitimate as reference events, the floods of 1910 and many others had become manifestly underestimated for multiple reasons connected to the history of Alsace, or due to disorganization of the archives. Worse, these riks unawareness is shared by all the actors, causing problems of acceptance of the risk and their management, and an additional vulnerability in terms of population behavior before, during and after the crises. This is the reason why an online participative database (ORRION has been created. the objective of this database is to inform and to share the information about floods history, in the particular context of a cross-border territory (France, Germany, Switzerland. This tool has been immediately involved into risks prevention actions (PAPI, PPRI.

  18. Sharing MedlinePlus®/MEDLINE for Information Literacy Education (SMILE): A Dental Public Health Information Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Julie K.; Levy, Linda S.; Cogdill, Keith W.

    2012-01-01

    The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of “power information users” among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provide public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel. PMID:22040242

  19. Sharing MedlinePlus®/MEDLINE® for information literacy education (SMILE): a dental public health information project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaines, Julie K; Levy, Linda S; Cogdill, Keith W

    2011-01-01

    The SMILE project represented a partnership among the University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio Libraries, the Gateway Clinic in Laredo, and the San Antonio Metropolitan Health District. The project focused on improving dental practitioners' access to reliable information resources and integrating the best evidence into public health dental practice. Through its training program, SMILE cultivated a set of "power information users" among the dentists, dental hygienists, and community health workers (promotores) who provided public health preventive care and oral health education. The dental public health practitioners gained information literacy skills and increased their knowledge about reliable sites such as blogs, PubMed®, and MedlinePlus®. This project fostered opportunities for expanded partnerships with public health personnel.

  20. Barriers and facilitators to health information exchange in low- and middle-income country settings: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akhlaq, Ather; McKinstry, Brian; Muhammad, Khalid Bin; Sheikh, Aziz

    2016-11-01

    The exchange and use of health information can help healthcare professionals and policymakers make informed decisions on ways of improving patient and population health. Many low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) have however failed to embrace the approaches and technologies to facilitate health information exchange (HIE). We sought to understand the barriers and facilitators to the implementation and adoption of HIE in LMICs. Two reviewers independently searched 11 academic databases for published and on-going qualitative, quantitative and mixed-method studies and searched for unpublished work through the Google search engine. The searches covered the period from January 1990 to July 2014 and were not restricted by language. Eligible studies were independently, critically appraised and then thematically analysed. The searches yielded 5461 citations after de-duplication of results. Of these, 56 articles, three conference abstracts and four technical reports met the inclusion criteria. The lack of importance given to data in decision making, corruption and insecurity, lack of training and poor infrastructure were considered to be major challenges to implementing HIE, but strong leadership and clear policy direction coupled with the financial support to acquire essential technology, improve the communication network, and provide training for staff all helped to promote implementation. The body of work also highlighted how implementers of HIE needed to take into account local needs to ensure that stakeholders saw HIE as relevant and advantageous. HIE interventions implemented through leapfrog technologies such as telehealth/telemedicine and mHealth in Brazil, Kenya, and South Africa, provided successful examples of exchanging health information in LMICs despite limited resources and capability. It is important that implementation of HIE is aligned with national priorities and local needs.