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Sample records for facial width-to-height ratio

  1. Facial width-to-height ratio relates to dominance style in the genus Macaca.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgi, Marta; Majolo, Bonaventura

    2016-01-01

    Background. Physical, visual, chemical, and auditory cues signalling fighting ability have independently evolved in many animal taxa as a means to resolve conflicts without escalating to physical aggression. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR, i.e., the relative width to height of the face) has been associated with dominance-related phenotypes both in humans and in other primates. In humans, faces with a larger fWHR are perceived as more aggressive. Methods. We examined fWHR variation among 11 species of the genus Macaca. Macaques have been grouped into four distinct categories, from despotic to tolerant, based on their female dominance style. Female dominance style is related to intra- and inter-sexual competition in both males and females and is the result of different evolutionary pressure across species. We used female dominance style as a proxy of intra-/inter-sexual competition to test the occurrence of correlated evolution between competitive regimes and dominance-related phenotypes. fWHR was calculated from 145 2D photographs of male and female adult macaques. Results. We found no phylogenetic signal on the differences in fWHR across species in the two sexes. However, fWHR was greater, in females and males, in species characterised by despotic female dominance style than in tolerant species. Discussion. Our results suggest that dominance-related phenotypes are related to differences in competitive regimes and intensity of inter- and intra-sexual selection across species.

  2. Facial Width-To-Height Ratio (fWHR) Is Not Associated with Adolescent Testosterone Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges-Simeon, Carolyn R; Hanson Sobraske, Katherine N; Samore, Theodore; Gurven, Michael; Gaulin, Steven J C

    2016-01-01

    Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) has been proposed as a sexually dimorphic signal in humans that develops under the influence of pubertal testosterone (T); however, no studies have examined the association between fWHR and T during the phase in which facial growth is canalized-adolescence. In a sample of adolescent Tsimane males, we evaluate the relationship between T, known T-derived traits (i.e. strength and voice pitch), and craniofacial measurements. If fWHR variation derives from T's effect on craniofacial growth during adolescence, several predictions should be supported: 1) fWHR should increase with age as T increases, 2) fWHR should reflect adolescent T (rather than adult T per se), 3) fWHR should exhibit velocity changes during adolescence in parallel with the pubertal spurt in T, 4) fWHR should correlate with T after controlling for age and other potential confounds, and 5) fWHR should show strong associations with other T-derived traits. Only prediction 4 was observed. Additionally, we examined three alternative facial masculinity ratios: facial width/lower face height, cheekbone prominence, and facial width/full face height. In contrast to fWHR, all three alternative measures show a strong age-related trend and are associated with both T and T-dependent traits. Overall, our results question the status of fWHR as a sexually-selected signal of pubertal T and T-linked traits. PMID:27078636

  3. Increased facial width-to-height ratio and perceived dominance in the faces of the UK's leading business leaders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alrajih, Shuaa; Ward, Jamie

    2014-05-01

    The relative proportion of the internal features of a face (the facial width-to-height ratio, FWH) has been shown to be related to individual differences in behaviour in males, specifically competitiveness and aggressiveness. In this study, we show that the Chief Executive Officers (CEOs) of the leading UK businesses have greater FWHs than age- and sex-matched controls. We demonstrate that perceivers, naive as to the nature of the stimuli, rate the faces of CEOs as higher in dominance or success, and that ratings of dominance or success are themselves correlated with the FWH ratio. We find no association with other inferred traits such as trustworthiness, attraction or aggression. The latter is surprising given previous research demonstrating a link between FWH and ratings of aggression. We speculate that the core association may be between FWH and drive for dominance or power, but this can be interpreted as aggression only in particular circumstances (e.g., when the stimuli are comprised of faces of young, as opposed to middle-aged, men).

  4. Evidence from Meta-Analyses of the Facial Width-to-Height Ratio as an Evolved Cue of Threat.

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    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR is the width of the face divided by the height of the upper face. There is mixed evidence for the hypothesis that the FWHR is a cue of threat and dominance in the human face. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analyses of all peer-reviewed studies (and 2 unpublished studies to estimate the magnitude of the sex difference in the FWHR, and the magnitude of the relationship between the FWHR and threatening and dominant behaviours and perceptions. Studies were eligible for inclusion if the authors reported an analysis involving the FWHR. Our analyses revealed that the FWHR was larger in men than in women (d = .11, n = 10,853, cued judgements of masculinity in men (r = .35, n of faces = 487; n of observers = 339, and was related to body mass index (r = .31, n = 2,506. Further, the FWHR predicted both threat behaviour in men (r = .16, n = 4,603 and dominance behaviour in both sexes (r = .12, n = 948 across a variety of indices. Individuals with larger FWHRs were judged by observers as more threatening (r = .46, n of faces = 1,691; n of observers = 2,076 and more dominant (r = .20, n of faces = 603; n of observers = 236 than those with smaller FWHRs. Individuals with larger FWHRs were also judged as less attractive (r = -.26, n of faces = 721; n of observers = 335, especially when women made the judgements. These findings provide some support for the hypothesis that the FWHR is part of an evolved cueing system of intra-sexual threat and dominance in men. A limitation of the meta-analyses on perceptions of threat and dominance were the low number of stimuli involving female and older adult faces.

  5. Written on the Writer's Face: Facial Width-to-Height Ratio among Nominees and Laureates of the Nobel Prize in Literature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebuda, Izabela; Karwowski, Maciej

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR), an established marker of testosterone level and dominance, and eminent writers' achievement. The fWHR of laureates (N = 39) and nominees (N = 247) of the Nobel Prize in Literature 1901-1950 was measured together with historiometric data. It was demonstrated that…

  6. Facial width-to-height ratio predicts self-reported dominance and aggression in males and females, but a measure of masculinity does not.

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    Lefevre, Carmen E; Etchells, Peter J; Howell, Emma C; Clark, Andrew P; Penton-Voak, Ian S

    2014-10-01

    Recently, associations between facial structure and aggressive behaviour have been reported. Specifically, the facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is thought to link to aggression, although it is unclear whether this association is related to a specific dimension of aggression, or to a more generalized concept of dominance behaviour. Similarly, an association has been proposed between facial masculinity and dominant and aggressive behaviour, but, to date, this has not been formally tested. Because masculinity and fWHR are negatively correlated, it is unlikely that both signal similar behaviours. Here, we thus tested these associations and show that: (i) fWHR is related to both self-reported dominance and aggression; (ii) physical aggression, verbal aggression and anger, but not hostility are associated with fWHR; (iii) there is no evidence for a sex difference in associations between fWHR and aggression; and (iv) the facial masculinity index does not predict dominance or aggression. Taken together, these results indicate that fWHR, but not a measure of facial masculinity, cues dominance and specific types of aggression in both sexes.

  7. Optimizing rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios in orthotropic decks

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    Abdullah Fettahoglu

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Orthotropic decks are composed of deck plate, ribs, and cross-beams and are frequently used in industry to span long distances, due to their light structures and load carrying capacities. Trapezoidal ribs are broadly preferred as longitudinal stiffeners in design of orthotropic decks. They supply the required stiffness to the orthotropic deck in traffic direction. Trapezoidal ribs are chosen in industrial applications because of their high torsional and buckling rigidity, less material and welding needs. Rib width, height, spacing, thickness of deck plate are important parameters for designing of orthotropic decks. In the scope of this study, rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios are assessed by means of the stresses developed under different ratios of these parameters. For this purpose a FE-model of orthotropic bridge is generated, which encompasses the entire bridge geometry and conforms to recommendations given in Eurocode 3 Part 2. Afterwards necessary FE-analyses are performed to reveal the stresses developed under different rib width to height and rib spacing to deck plate thickness ratios. Based on the results obtained in this study, recommendations regarding these ratios are provided for orthotropic steel decks occupying trapezoidal ribs.

  8. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

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    Gamal Rashed

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  9. Change of the mode of failure by interface friction and width-to-height ratio of coal specimens

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gamal Rashed; Syd S. Peng

    2015-01-01

    abstract Bumps in coal mines have been recognized as a major hazard for many years. These sudden and violent failures around mine openings have compromised safety, ventilation and access to mine workings. Previous studies showed that the violence of coal specimen failure depends on both the interface friction and width-to-height (W/H) ratio of coal specimen. The mode of failure for a uniaxially loaded coal specimen or a coal pillar is a combination of both shear failure along the interface and compressive failure in the coal. The shear failure along the interface triggered the compressive failure in coal. The compressive failure of a coal specimen or a coal pillar can be controlled by changing its W/H ratio. As the W/H ratio increases, the ultimate strength increases. Hence, with a proper combination of interface friction and the W/H ratio of pillar or coal specimen, the mode of failure will change from sudden violent failure which is brittle failure to non-violent failure which is ductile failure. The main objective of this paper is to determine at what W/H ratio and interface friction the mode of failure changes from violent to non-violent. In this research, coal specimens of W/H ratio ranging from 1 to 10 were uniaxially tested under two interface frictions of 0.1 and 0.25, and the results are presented and discussed.

  10. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance

    OpenAIRE

    Alam, Mohammad Khursheed; Mohd Noor, Nor Farid; BASRI, REHANA; Yew, Tan Fo; Wen, Tay Hui

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian), with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18–25). Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurem...

  11. Multiracial Facial Golden Ratio and Evaluation of Facial Appearance.

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    Mohammad Khursheed Alam

    Full Text Available This study aimed to investigate the association of facial proportion and its relation to the golden ratio with the evaluation of facial appearance among Malaysian population. This was a cross-sectional study with 286 randomly selected from Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM Health Campus students (150 females and 136 males; 100 Malaysian Chinese, 100 Malaysian Malay and 86 Malaysian Indian, with the mean age of 21.54 ± 1.56 (Age range, 18-25. Facial indices obtained from direct facial measurements were used for the classification of facial shape into short, ideal and long. A validated structured questionnaire was used to assess subjects' evaluation of their own facial appearance. The mean facial indices of Malaysian Indian (MI, Malaysian Chinese (MC and Malaysian Malay (MM were 1.59 ± 0.19, 1.57 ± 0.25 and 1.54 ± 0.23 respectively. Only MC showed significant sexual dimorphism in facial index (P = 0.047; P<0.05 but no significant difference was found between races. Out of the 286 subjects, 49 (17.1% were of ideal facial shape, 156 (54.5% short and 81 (28.3% long. The facial evaluation questionnaire showed that MC had the lowest satisfaction with mean score of 2.18 ± 0.97 for overall impression and 2.15 ± 1.04 for facial parts, compared to MM and MI, with mean score of 1.80 ± 0.97 and 1.64 ± 0.74 respectively for overall impression; 1.75 ± 0.95 and 1.70 ± 0.83 respectively for facial parts.1 Only 17.1% of Malaysian facial proportion conformed to the golden ratio, with majority of the population having short face (54.5%; 2 Facial index did not depend significantly on races; 3 Significant sexual dimorphism was shown among Malaysian Chinese; 4 All three races are generally satisfied with their own facial appearance; 5 No significant association was found between golden ratio and facial evaluation score among Malaysian population.

  12. Personality and facial morphology: Links to assertiveness and neuroticism in capuchins (Sapajus [Cebus] apella)

    OpenAIRE

    Wilson, V; Lefevre, C. E.; Morton, F. B.; Brosnan, S.F.; Paukner, A.; Bates, T C

    2013-01-01

    Personality has important links to health, social status, and life history outcomes (e.g. longevity and reproductive success). Human facial morphology appears to signal aspects of one’s personality to others, raising questions about the evolutionary origins of such associations (e.g. signals of mate quality). Studies in non-human primates may help to achieve this goal: for instance, facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) in the male face has been associated with dominance not only in humans but ...

  13. The utility of facial nerve amplitude and latency ratios in predicting postoperative facial nerve function after vestibular schwannoma surgery

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    Mazda K. Turel

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Despite advances in vestibular schwannoma (VS surgery and intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring, immediate and delayed facial nerve outcomes are difficult to accurately predict consistently. Objective: To determine the utility of proximal to distal facial nerve amplitude and latency ratios in predicting the long-term postoperative facial nerve function in patients undergoing excision of VS. Materials and Methods: One hundred consecutive patients undergoing surgery for VS with intraoperative facial nerve monitoring were included. Clinical, radiological, electrophysiological, and postoperative outcome data were prospectively entered into a database. Other parameters such as brainstem distance, size of the porus acousticus, and facial nerve length were also analyzed. Results: Of the 100 patients, 53 were women. The mean age was 42.5 ± 14.1 years (range, 14-71 years and the average tumor size was 4.1 ± 0.8 cm (range, 2.4-6.5 cm. Total excision was done in 89% of patients. Intraoperatively, the facial nerve was anatomically preserved in 86 patients, but electrophysiological responses were obtained from the root entry zone (REZ in only 77 patients at the end of surgery, 75% of which had good facial function at long-term follow-up. In nine patients where no responses were obtained but the facial nerve was anatomically intact, 50% had good facial function at long-term follow-up. Proximal and distal amplitude and latency ratios, size or consistency of the tumor, brainstem distance, size of the porus acousticus, and length of the facial nerve were not useful in predicting long-term functional outcome. Conclusions: While a positive response to facial nerve stimulation at the end of VS surgery is a good predictor of long-term postoperative function, the absence of responses in an anatomically intact nerve does not preclude good function in the long term. Proximal to-distal amplitude and latency ratios did not correlate with the final

  14. Identification of facial shape by applying golden ratio to the facial measurements: An interracial study in Malaysian population

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    Vasanthakumar Packiriswamy

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The "golden ratio" is considered as a universal facial aesthetical standard. Researcher′s opinion that deviation from golden ratio can result in development of facial abnormalities. Aims: This study was designed to study the facial morphology and to identify individuals with normal, short, and long face. Materials and Methods: We studied 300 Malaysian nationality subjects aged 18-28 years of Chinese, Indian, and Malay extraction. The parameters measured were physiognomical facial height and width of face, and physiognomical facial index was calculated. Face shape was classified based on golden ratio. Independent t test was done to test the difference between sexes and among the races. Results: The mean values of the measurements and index showed significant sexual and interracial differences. Out of 300 subjects, the face shape was normal in 60 subjects, short in 224 subjects, and long in 16 subjects. Conclusion: As anticipated, the measurements showed variations according to gender and race. Only 60 subjects had a regular face shape, and remaining 240 subjects had irregular face shape (short and long. Since the short and long shape individuals may be at risk of developing various disorders, the knowledge of facial shapes in the given population is important for early diagnostic and treatment procedures.

  15. Sex ratio influences the motivational salience of facial attractiveness

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    Hahn, A. C; Fisher, C. I.; DeBruine, L. M.; Jones, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    The sex ratio of the local population influences mating-related behaviours in many species. Recent experiments show that male-biased sex ratios increase the amount of financial resources men will invest in potential mates, suggesting that sex ratios influence allocation of mating effort in humans. To investigate this issue further, we tested for effects of cues to the sex ratio of the local population on the motivational salience of attractiveness in own-sex and opposite-sex faces. We did thi...

  16. Body Mass Index and Facial Cues in Sasang Typology for Young and Elderly Persons

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    Duong Duc Pham

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial characteristics may provide reliable information giving an insight into the inner nature of an individual. This study examines the differences in widely used facial metrics, including cheek-to-jaw width ratio (CJWR, width-to-height ratio (WHR, perimeter-to-area ratio (PAR, and facial masculinity indexes across Sasang constitutional types, to investigate the association between these facial cues and body mass index (BMI and develop a predictive model for Sasang typing. 2D images of 911 participants were analyzed. The results indicated that TaeEum (TE type generally has a squarer face, with the male TE type having a squarer and wider face than that of both SoYang (SY and SoEum (SE types. Male TE type has longer eyes than that of the SE type, and the lower face of the female TE type is longer than that of the SY type. PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size had associations with BMI, and the magnitude of correlation of CJWR in Korean men were twofold higher than that of the Caucasian and African men. BMI and facial metrics including PAR, WHR, CJWR, and eye size were good predictors for TE type, and the most parsimonious model for TE typing included BMI and CJWR with high predictive performances.

  17. Facial masculinity: how the choice of measurement method enables to detect its influence on behaviour.

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    Santiago Sanchez-Pages

    Full Text Available Recent research has explored the relationship between facial masculinity, human male behaviour and males' perceived features (i.e. attractiveness. The methods of measurement of facial masculinity employed in the literature are quite diverse. In the present paper, we use several methods of measuring facial masculinity to study the effect of this feature on risk attitudes and trustworthiness. We employ two strategic interactions to measure these two traits, a first-price auction and a trust game. We find that facial width-to-height ratio is the best predictor of trustworthiness, and that measures of masculinity which use Geometric Morphometrics are the best suited to link masculinity and bidding behaviour. However, we observe that the link between masculinity and bidding in the first-price auction might be driven by competitiveness and not by risk aversion only. Finally, we test the relationship between facial measures of masculinity and perceived masculinity. As a conclusion, we suggest that researchers in the field should measure masculinity using one of these methods in order to obtain comparable results. We also encourage researchers to revise the existing literature on this topic following these measurement methods.

  18. Facial masculinity: how the choice of measurement method enables to detect its influence on behaviour.

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    Sanchez-Pages, Santiago; Rodriguez-Ruiz, Claudia; Turiegano, Enrique

    2014-01-01

    Recent research has explored the relationship between facial masculinity, human male behaviour and males' perceived features (i.e. attractiveness). The methods of measurement of facial masculinity employed in the literature are quite diverse. In the present paper, we use several methods of measuring facial masculinity to study the effect of this feature on risk attitudes and trustworthiness. We employ two strategic interactions to measure these two traits, a first-price auction and a trust game. We find that facial width-to-height ratio is the best predictor of trustworthiness, and that measures of masculinity which use Geometric Morphometrics are the best suited to link masculinity and bidding behaviour. However, we observe that the link between masculinity and bidding in the first-price auction might be driven by competitiveness and not by risk aversion only. Finally, we test the relationship between facial measures of masculinity and perceived masculinity. As a conclusion, we suggest that researchers in the field should measure masculinity using one of these methods in order to obtain comparable results. We also encourage researchers to revise the existing literature on this topic following these measurement methods.

  19. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

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    Třebický, Vít; Fialová, Jitka; Kleisner, Karel; Havlíček, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm) affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males) participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males). Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM). Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits. PMID:26894832

  20. Focal Length Affects Depicted Shape and Perception of Facial Images.

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    Vít Třebický

    Full Text Available Static photographs are currently the most often employed stimuli in research on social perception. The method of photograph acquisition might affect the depicted subject's facial appearance and thus also the impression of such stimuli. An important factor influencing the resulting photograph is focal length, as different focal lengths produce various levels of image distortion. Here we tested whether different focal lengths (50, 85, 105 mm affect depicted shape and perception of female and male faces. We collected three portrait photographs of 45 (22 females, 23 males participants under standardized conditions and camera setting varying only in the focal length. Subsequently, the three photographs from each individual were shown on screen in a randomized order using a 3-alternative forced-choice paradigm. The images were judged for attractiveness, dominance, and femininity/masculinity by 369 raters (193 females, 176 males. Facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR was measured from each photograph and overall facial shape was analysed employing geometric morphometric methods (GMM. Our results showed that photographs taken with 50 mm focal length were rated as significantly less feminine/masculine, attractive, and dominant compared to the images taken with longer focal lengths. Further, shorter focal lengths produced faces with smaller fWHR. Subsequent GMM revealed focal length significantly affected overall facial shape of the photographed subjects. Thus methodology of photograph acquisition, focal length in this case, can significantly affect results of studies using photographic stimuli perhaps due to different levels of perspective distortion that influence shapes and proportions of morphological traits.

  1. Facial structure is indicative of explicit support for prejudicial beliefs.

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    Hehman, Eric; Leitner, Jordan B; Deegan, Matthew P; Gaertner, Samuel L

    2013-03-01

    We present three studies examining whether male facial width-to-height ratio (fWHR) is correlated with racial prejudice and whether observers are sensitive to fWHR when assessing prejudice in other people. Our results indicate that males with a greater fWHR are more likely to explicitly endorse racially prejudicial beliefs, though fWHR was unrelated to implicit bias. Participants evaluated targets with a greater fWHR as more likely to be prejudiced and accurately evaluated the degree to which targets reported prejudicial attitudes. Finally, compared with majority-group members, racial-minority participants reported greater motivation to accurately evaluate prejudice. This motivation mediated the relationship between minority- or majority-group membership and the accuracy of evaluations of prejudice, which indicates that motivation augments sensitivity to fWHR. Together, the results of these three studies demonstrate that fWHR is a reliable indicator of explicitly endorsed racial prejudice and that observers can use fWHR to accurately assess another person's explicit prejudice. PMID:23389425

  2. Digit ratio (2D:4D) predicts facial, but not voice or body odour, attractiveness in men.

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    Ferdenzi, Camille; Lemaître, Jean-François; Leongómez, Juan David; Roberts, S Craig

    2011-12-01

    There is growing evidence that human second-to-fourth digit ratio (or 2D:4D) is related to facial features involved in attractiveness, mediated by in utero hormonal effects. The present study extends the investigation to other phenotypic, hormone-related determinants of human attractiveness: voice and body odour. Pictures of faces with a neutral expression, recordings of voices pronouncing vowels and axillary odour samples captured on cotton pads worn for 24 h were provided by 49 adult male donors. These stimuli were rated on attractiveness and masculinity scales by two groups of 49 and 35 females, approximately half of these in each sample using hormonal contraception. Multivariate regression analyses showed that males' lower (more masculine) right 2D:4D and lower right-minus-left 2D:4D (Dr-l) were associated with a more attractive (and in some cases more symmetrical), but not more masculine, face. However, 2D:4D and Dr-l did not predict voice and body odour masculinity or attractiveness. The results were interpreted in terms of differential effects of prenatal and circulating testosterone, male facial shape being supposedly more dependent on foetal levels (reflected by 2D:4D ratio), whereas body odour and vocal characteristics could be more dependent on variation in adult circulating testosterone levels. PMID:21508034

  3. Physical cues of ovulatory status: a failure to replicate enhanced facial attractiveness and reduced waist-to-hip ratio at high fertility.

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    Bleske-Rechek, April; Harris, Heather D; Denkinger, Kelly; Webb, Rose Mary; Erickson, Leah; Nelson, Lyndsay A

    2011-01-01

    We investigated women's facial attractiveness and body shape as a function of menstrual cycle phase, with the expectation from previous research that both would be enhanced during the high fertile phase. To control for the effects of women's daily behaviors on their appearance and waistline, we visited 37 normally cycling women twice in their dorm, where we photographed and measured them at low and high fertile days of their cycle immediately upon their waking. Seventy-four judges from a separate institution chose, for each woman, the picture they thought was more attractive. We analyzed a subset of 20 women who, by forward counting, had a High Fertility visit between Days 10-13 and a Low Fertility visit between Days 20-23; and we also analyzed a subsample of 17 women who, by reverse counting, had a High Fertility visit on the days leading to ovulation and a Low Fertility visit one week after ovulation. In neither set of analyses were women's waist- to-hip ratios lower nearer ovulation, and in neither set were women's high fertile pictures chosen at an above-chance rate by either male or female judges. We did not find evidence that facial attractiveness and waist-to-hip ratio are reliable physical cues of ovulatory status. PMID:22947979

  4. Facial Transplantation.

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    Russo, Jack E; Genden, Eric M

    2016-08-01

    Reconstruction of severe facial deformities poses a unique surgical challenge: restoring the aesthetic form and function of the face. Facial transplantation has emerged over the last decade as an option for reconstruction of these defects in carefully selected patients. As the world experience with facial transplantation grows, debate remains regarding whether such a highly technical, resource-intensive procedure is warranted, all to improve quality of life but not necessarily prolong it. This article reviews the current state of facial transplantation with focus on the current controversies and challenges, with particular attention to issues of technique, immunology, and ethics. PMID:27400850

  5. Facial Schwannoma

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    Mohammadtaghi Khorsandi Ashtiani

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Facial schwannoma is a rare tumor arising from any part of the nerve. Probable symptoms are partial or facial weakness, hearing loss, visible mass in the ear, otorrhea, loss of taste, rarely pain, and sometimes without any symptoms. Patients should undergo a complete neurotologic history, examination with documentation of facial and auditory function, specially C.T. scan or M.R.I. Surgery is the only treatment option although the decision of when to remove facial schwannoma in the presence of normal facial function is difficult. Case: A 19-year-old girl with all above symptoms in the right side except loss of taste is diagnosed having facial schwannoma with full examination, audiometric, and radiological tests. She underwent surgery. In follow-up facial function were mostly restored. Conclusion: The need for careful assessment of patients with Bell's palsy cannot be overemphasized. In spite of the negative results if still there is any suspicoin, total facial nerve exploration is necessary.

  6. Facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxillofacial injury; Midface trauma; Facial injury; LeFort injuries ... Kellman RM. Maxillofacial trauma. In: Flint PW, Haughey BH, Lund LJ, et al, eds. Cummings Otolaryngology: Head & Neck Surgery . 6th ed. Philadelphia, PA: ...

  7. Facial Sports Injuries

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    ... Calendar Find an ENT Doctor Near You Facial Sports Injuries Facial Sports Injuries Patient Health Information News media ... should receive immediate medical attention. Prevention Of Facial Sports Injuries The best way to treat facial sports injuries ...

  8. Facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C

    2014-11-01

    Facial attractiveness has important social consequences. Despite a widespread belief that beauty cannot be defined, in fact, there is considerable agreement across individuals and cultures on what is found attractive. By considering that attraction and mate choice are critical components of evolutionary selection, we can better understand the importance of beauty. There are many traits that are linked to facial attractiveness in humans and each may in some way impart benefits to individuals who act on their preferences. If a trait is reliably associated with some benefit to the perceiver, then we would expect individuals in a population to find that trait attractive. Such an approach has highlighted face traits such as age, health, symmetry, and averageness, which are proposed to be associated with benefits and so associated with facial attractiveness. This view may postulate that some traits will be universally attractive; however, this does not preclude variation. Indeed, it would be surprising if there existed a template of a perfect face that was not affected by experience, environment, context, or the specific needs of an individual. Research on facial attractiveness has documented how various face traits are associated with attractiveness and various factors that impact on an individual's judgments of facial attractiveness. Overall, facial attractiveness is complex, both in the number of traits that determine attraction and in the large number of factors that can alter attraction to particular faces. A fuller understanding of facial beauty will come with an understanding of how these various factors interact with each other. WIREs Cogn Sci 2014, 5:621-634. doi: 10.1002/wcs.1316 CONFLICT OF INTEREST: The author has declared no conflicts of interest for this article. For further resources related to this article, please visit the WIREs website. PMID:26308869

  9. Facial blindsight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco eSolcà

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people’s categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex.

  10. Facial blindsight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solcà, Marco; Guggisberg, Adrian G; Schnider, Armin; Leemann, Béatrice

    2015-01-01

    Blindsight denotes unconscious residual visual capacities in the context of an inability to consciously recollect or identify visual information. It has been described for color and shape discrimination, movement or facial emotion recognition. The present study investigates a patient suffering from cortical blindness whilst maintaining select residual abilities in face detection. Our patient presented the capacity to distinguish between jumbled/normal faces, known/unknown faces or famous people's categories although he failed to explicitly recognize or describe them. Conversely, performance was at chance level when asked to categorize non-facial stimuli. Our results provide clinical evidence for the notion that some aspects of facial processing can occur without perceptual awareness, possibly using direct tracts from the thalamus to associative visual cortex, bypassing the primary visual cortex. PMID:26483655

  11. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Duchovičová Soňa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  12. Facial Composite System Using Real Facial Features

    OpenAIRE

    Duchovičová Soňa; Zahradníková Barbora; Schreiber Peter

    2014-01-01

    Facial feature points identification plays an important role in many facial image applications, like face detection, face recognition, facial expression classification, etc. This paper describes the early stages of the research in the field of evolving a facial composite, primarily the main steps of face detection and facial features extraction. Technological issues are identified and possible strategies to solve some of the problems are proposed.

  13. Pediatric facial nerve rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Caroline A; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-11-01

    Facial paralysis is a rare but severe condition in the pediatric population. Impaired facial movement has multiple causes and varied presentations, therefore individualized treatment plans are essential for optimal results. Advances in facial reanimation over the past 4 decades have given rise to new treatments designed to restore balance and function in pediatric patients with facial paralysis. This article provides a comprehensive review of pediatric facial rehabilitation and describes a zone-based approach to assessment and treatment of impaired facial movement.

  14. Facial Scar Revision: Understanding Facial Scar Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Campaign Campaign Update Member Donors Corporate Partners Recognition Program Planned Giving 1887 Annual Giving Annual Report Donate Contact Us Trust your face to a facial plastic surgeon Facial Scar Revision ...

  15. [Surgical facial reanimation after persisting facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasche, Philippe

    2011-10-01

    Facial reanimation following persistent facial paralysis can be managed with surgical procedures of varying complexity. The choice of the technique is mainly determined by the cause of facial paralysis, the age and desires of the patient. The techniques most commonly used are the nerve grafts (VII-VII, XII-VII, cross facial graft), dynamic muscle transfers (temporal myoplasty, free muscle transfert) and static suspensions. An intensive rehabilitation through specific exercises after all procedures is essential to archieve good results.

  16. Measuring Facial Movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ekman, Paul; Friesen, Wallace V.

    1976-01-01

    The Facial Action Code (FAC) was derived from an analysis of the anatomical basis of facial movement. The development of the method is explained, contrasting it to other methods of measuring facial behavior. An example of how facial behavior is measured is provided, and ideas about research applications are discussed. (Author)

  17. Facial Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihalache Sergiu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available During their lifetime, people learn to recognize thousands of faces that they interact with. Face perception refers to an individual's understanding and interpretation of the face, particularly the human face, especially in relation to the associated information processing in the brain. The proportions and expressions of the human face are important to identify origin, emotional tendencies, health qualities, and some social information. From birth, faces are important in the individual's social interaction. Face perceptions are very complex as the recognition of facial expressions involves extensive and diverse areas in the brain. Our main goal is to put emphasis on presenting human faces specialized studies, and also to highlight the importance of attractiviness in their retention. We will see that there are many factors that influence face recognition.

  18. Facial Orf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions.

  19. Facial Orf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enver Turan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Orf, also known as ecthyma contagiosum or contagious pustular dermatitis, is a zoonotic viral disease caused by the direct or indirect contact of damaged skin with infected animals. The causative agent is an epitheliotropic DNA virus from the Parapoxvirus family and affects sheeps, goats and some other domestic or wild ruminants. A patient presented to our clinic with two nodular lesions on his face after contact with the raw meat of ruminants and the differential diagnoses other than echtyma contagiosum were eliminated by punch biopsy. Although orf lesions are usually found as solitary lesions on the hands and fingers, they have rarely been reported on the face, nostrils, tongue, eye lids and perianal region. It can present as an atypical lesion or multiple lesions. A thirty-six year old male patient, who had two facial orf lesions after contact with sheep, is presented due to the unusual location and multiplicity of the lesions. (Turk J Dermatol 2012; 6: 58-60

  20. Facial Cosmetic Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ... and Soft Tissue Surgery Dental and Soft Tissue Surgery Oral and facial surgeons surgically treat the soft tissues ...

  1. Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Neeta Sarode; Prof. Shalini Bhatia

    2010-01-01

    Facial expression analysis is rapidly becoming an area of intense interest in computer science and human-computer interaction design communities. The most expressive way humans display emotions is through facial expressions. In this paper a method is implemented using 2D appearance-based local approach for the extraction of intransient facial features and recognition of four facial expressions. The algorithm implements Radial Symmetry Transform and further uses edge projection analysis for fe...

  2. Facial paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sashank; Redett, Richard

    2015-04-01

    Facial paralysis can have devastating physical and psychosocial consequences. These are particularly severe in children in whom loss of emotional expressiveness can impair social development and integration. The etiologies of facial paralysis, prospects for spontaneous recovery, and functions requiring restoration differ in children as compared with adults. Here we review contemporary management of facial paralysis with a focus on special considerations for pediatric patients.

  3. Facial Expression Analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pantic, Maja; Li, S.; Jain, A.

    2009-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is a process performed by humans or computers, which consists of: 1. Locating faces in the scene (e.g., in an image; this step is also referred to as face detection), 2. Extracting facial features from the detected face region (e.g., detecting the shape of facial compon

  4. Surgical-allogeneic facial reconstruction: facial transplants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Coelho Goiato

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Several factors including cancer, malformations and traumas may cause large facial mutilation. These functional and aesthetic deformities negatively affect the psychological perspectives and quality of life of the mutilated patient. Conventional treatments are prone to fail aesthetically and functionally. The recent introduction of the composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA, which uses transplanted facial tissues of healthy donors to recover the damaged or non-existent facial tissue of mutilated patients, resulted in greater clinical results. Therefore, the present study aims to conduct a literature review on the relevance and effectiveness of facial transplants in mutilated subjects. It was observed that the facial transplants recovered both the aesthetics and function of these patients and consequently improved their quality of life.

  5. Kinect driven facial animation

    OpenAIRE

    Ojeda Noda, Guillermo

    2016-01-01

    Kinect es un dispositivo que se presenta en el ámbito de la industria de la animación como una alternativa económica. Haciendo uso de él, este proyecto desarrolla una aplicación de animación facial que aplique las expresiones faciales del usuario a un modelo 3D. Nowadays, facial animation is a core part of the character animation industry. From movies to video games, facial animation is done by most companies with the help of expensive equipment that capture real people's facial expression...

  6. Surgical treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehta, Ritvik P

    2009-03-01

    The management of facial paralysis is one of the most complex areas of reconstructive surgery. Given the wide variety of functional and cosmetic deficits in the facial paralysis patient, the reconstructive surgeon requires a thorough understanding of the surgical techniques available to treat this condition. This review article will focus on surgical management of facial paralysis and the treatment options available for acute facial paralysis (facial paralysis (3 weeks to 2 yr) and chronic facial paralysis (>2 yr). For acute facial paralysis, the main surgical therapies are facial nerve decompression and facial nerve repair. For facial paralysis of intermediate duration, nerve transfer procedures are appropriate. For chronic facial paralysis, treatment typically requires regional or free muscle transfer. Static techniques of facial reanimation can be used for acute, intermediate, or chronic facial paralysis as these techniques are often important adjuncts to the overall management strategy.

  7. Contemporary facial reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhama, Prabhat K; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2014-04-01

    The facial nerve is the most commonly paralyzed nerve in the human body. Facial paralysis affects aesthetic appearance, and it has a profound effect on function and quality of life. Management of patients with facial paralysis requires a multidisciplinary approach, including otolaryngologists, plastic surgeons, ophthalmologists, and physical therapists. Regardless of etiology, patients with facial paralysis should be evaluated systematically, with initial efforts focused upon establishing proper diagnosis. Management should proceed with attention to facial zones, including the brow and periocular region, the midface and oral commissure, the lower lip and chin, and the neck. To effectively compare contemporary facial reanimation strategies, it is essential to employ objective intake assessment methods, and standard reassessment schemas during the entire management period.

  8. Automatic Facial Expression Recognition Using Features of Salient Facial Patches

    OpenAIRE

    Happy, S L; Routray, Aurobinda

    2015-01-01

    Extraction of discriminative features from salient facial patches plays a vital role in effective facial expression recognition. The accurate detection of facial landmarks improves the localization of the salient patches on face images. This paper proposes a novel framework for expression recognition by using appearance features of selected facial patches. A few prominent facial patches, depending on the position of facial landmarks, are extracted which are active during emotion elicitation. ...

  9. Facial Soft Tissue Trauma

    OpenAIRE

    Kretlow, James D.; McKnight, Aisha J.; Izaddoost, Shayan A.

    2010-01-01

    Traumatic facial soft tissue injuries are commonly encountered in the emergency department by plastic surgeons and other providers. Although rarely life-threatening, the treatment of these injuries can be complex and may have significant impact on the patient's facial function and aesthetics. This article provides a review of the relevant literature related to this topic and describes the authors' approach to the evaluation and management of the patient with facial soft tissue injuries.

  10. Cosmetic Facial Surgery

    OpenAIRE

    Adamson, Peter A.

    1987-01-01

    Canadians have committed themselves to a healthier lifestyle, and many are seeking to look as well as they feel. For patients with realistic expectations, modern techniques of cosmetic facial surgery can enhance appearance and be of psychological benefit. Today most procedures can be done under local anesthesia on an out-patient basis. Facial contour defects can be improved by means of procedures such as rhinoplasty, mentoplasty, otoplasty and malarplasty. Facial rejuvenation surgery to decre...

  11. Facial Nerve Neuroma Management

    OpenAIRE

    Weber, Peter C; Osguthorpe, J. David

    1998-01-01

    Three facial nerve neuromas were identified in the academic year 1994-1995. Each case illustrates different management dilemmas. One patient with a grade III facial nerve palsy had a small geniculate ganglion neuroma with the dilemma of decompression versus resection clear nerve section margins. The second patient underwent facial neuroma resection with cable graft reconstruction, but the permanent sections were positive. The last patient had a massive neuroma in which grafting versus other f...

  12. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature. PMID:27093062

  13. [Facial tics and spasms].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potgieser, Adriaan R E; van Dijk, J Marc C; Elting, Jan Willem J; de Koning-Tijssen, Marina A J

    2014-01-01

    Facial tics and spasms are socially incapacitating, but effective treatment is often available. The clinical picture is sufficient for distinguishing between the different diseases that cause this affliction.We describe three cases of patients with facial tics or spasms: one case of tics, which are familiar to many physicians; one case of blepharospasms; and one case of hemifacial spasms. We discuss the differential diagnosis and the treatment possibilities for facial tics and spasms. Early diagnosis and treatment is important, because of the associated social incapacitation. Botulin toxin should be considered as a treatment option for facial tics and a curative neurosurgical intervention should be considered for hemifacial spasms.

  14. Facial Reconstruction and Rehabilitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando; Genther, Dane J; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-01-01

    Extracranial infiltration of the facial nerve by salivary gland tumors is the most frequent cause of facial palsy secondary to malignancy. Nevertheless, facial palsy related to salivary gland cancer is uncommon. Therefore, reconstructive facial reanimation surgery is not a routine undertaking for most head and neck surgeons. The primary aims of facial reanimation are to restore tone, symmetry, and movement to the paralyzed face. Such restoration should improve the patient's objective motor function and subjective quality of life. The surgical procedures for facial reanimation rely heavily on long-established techniques, but many advances and improvements have been made in recent years. In the past, published experiences on strategies for optimizing functional outcomes in facial paralysis patients were primarily based on small case series and described a wide variety of surgical techniques. However, in the recent years, larger series have been published from high-volume centers with significant and specialized experience in surgical and nonsurgical reanimation of the paralyzed face that have informed modern treatment. This chapter reviews the most important diagnostic methods used for the evaluation of facial paralysis to optimize the planning of each individual's treatment and discusses surgical and nonsurgical techniques for facial rehabilitation based on the contemporary literature.

  15. Facial expression recognition with facial parts based sparse representation classifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhi, Ruicong; Ruan, Qiuqi

    2009-10-01

    Facial expressions play important role in human communication. The understanding of facial expression is a basic requirement in the development of next generation human computer interaction systems. Researches show that the intrinsic facial features always hide in low dimensional facial subspaces. This paper presents facial parts based facial expression recognition system with sparse representation classifier. Sparse representation classifier exploits sparse representation to select face features and classify facial expressions. The sparse solution is obtained by solving l1 -norm minimization problem with constraint of linear combination equation. Experimental results show that sparse representation is efficient for facial expression recognition and sparse representation classifier obtain much higher recognition accuracies than other compared methods.

  16. Holistic facial expression classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghent, John; McDonald, J.

    2005-06-01

    This paper details a procedure for classifying facial expressions. This is a growing and relatively new type of problem within computer vision. One of the fundamental problems when classifying facial expressions in previous approaches is the lack of a consistent method of measuring expression. This paper solves this problem by the computation of the Facial Expression Shape Model (FESM). This statistical model of facial expression is based on an anatomical analysis of facial expression called the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). We use the term Action Unit (AU) to describe a movement of one or more muscles of the face and all expressions can be described using the AU's described by FACS. The shape model is calculated by marking the face with 122 landmark points. We use Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to analyse how the landmark points move with respect to each other and to lower the dimensionality of the problem. Using the FESM in conjunction with Support Vector Machines (SVM) we classify facial expressions. SVMs are a powerful machine learning technique based on optimisation theory. This project is largely concerned with statistical models, machine learning techniques and psychological tools used in the classification of facial expression. This holistic approach to expression classification provides a means for a level of interaction with a computer that is a significant step forward in human-computer interaction.

  17. Facial talon cusps.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    McNamara, T

    1997-12-01

    This is a report of two patients with isolated facial talon cusps. One occurred on a permanent mandibular central incisor; the other on a permanent maxillary canine. The locations of these talon cusps suggests that the definition of a talon cusp include teeth in addition to the incisor group and be extended to include the facial aspect of teeth.

  18. Sound-induced facial synkinesis following facial nerve paralysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ma, Ming-San; van der Hoeven, Johannes H.; Nicolai, Jean-Philippe A.; Meek, Marcel F.

    2009-01-01

    Facial synkinesis (or synkinesia) (FS) occurs frequently after paresis or paralysis of the facial nerve and is in most cases due to aberrant regeneration of (branches of) the facial nerve. Patients suffer from inappropriate and involuntary synchronous facial muscle contractions. Here we describe two

  19. Spontaneous Facial Mimicry in Response to Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Yoshikawa, Sakiko

    2007-01-01

    Based on previous neuroscientific evidence indicating activation of the mirror neuron system in response to dynamic facial actions, we hypothesized that facial mimicry would occur while subjects viewed dynamic facial expressions. To test this hypothesis, dynamic/static facial expressions of anger/happiness were presented using computer-morphing…

  20. Surface Detail Capturing for Realistic Facial Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei-Hsuan Tu; I-Chen Lin; Jeng-Sheng Yeh; Rung-Huei Liang; Ming Ouhyoung

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, a facial animation system is proposed for capturing both geometrical information and illumination changes of surface details, called expression details, from video clips simultaneously, and the captured data can be widely applied to different 2D face images and 3D face models. While tracking the geometric data,we record the expression details by ratio images. For 2D facial animation synthesis, these ratio images are used to generate dynamic textures. Because a ratio image is obtained via dividing colors of an expressive face by those of a neutral face, pixels with ratio value smaller than one are where a wrinkle or crease appears. Therefore, the gradients of the ratio value at each pixel in ratio images are regarded as changes of a face surface, and original normals on the surface can be adjusted according to these gradients. Based on this idea, we can convert the ratio images into a sequence of normal maps and then apply them to animated 3D model rendering. With the expression detail mapping, the resulted facial animations are more life-like and more expressive.

  1. Facial Expression Recognition Using 3D Facial Feature Distances

    OpenAIRE

    Soyel, Hamit; Hasan DEMIREL

    2008-01-01

    In this chapter we have shown that probabilistic neural network classifier can be used for the 3D analysis of facial expressions without relying on all of the 84 facial features and errorprone face pose normalization stage. Face deformation as well as facial muscle contraction and expansion are important indicators for facial expression and by using only 11 facial feature points and symmetry of the human face, we are able to extract enough information from a from a face image. Our results sho...

  2. Controversies in Contemporary Facial Reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Leslie; Byrne, Patrick J

    2016-08-01

    Facial palsy is a devastating condition with profound functional, aesthetic, and psychosocial implications. Although the complexity of facial expression and intricate synergy of facial mimetic muscles are difficult to restore, the goal of management is to reestablish facial symmetry and movement. Facial reanimation surgery requires an individualized treatment approach based on the cause, pattern, and duration of facial palsy while considering patient age, comorbidities, motivation, and goals. Contemporary reconstructive options include a spectrum of static and dynamic procedures. Controversies in the evaluation of patients with facial palsy, timing of intervention, and management decisions for dynamic smile reanimation are discussed. PMID:27400842

  3. Live facial feature extraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO JieYu

    2008-01-01

    Precise facial feature extraction is essential to the high-level face recognition and expression analysis. This paper presents a novel method for the real-time geomet-ric facial feature extraction from live video. In this paper, the input image is viewed as a weighted graph. The segmentation of the pixels corresponding to the edges of facial components of the mouth, eyes, brows, and nose is implemented by means of random walks on the weighted graph. The graph has an 8-connected lattice structure and the weight value associated with each edge reflects the likelihood that a random walker will cross that edge. The random walks simulate an anisot-ropic diffusion process that filters out the noise while preserving the facial expres-sion pixels. The seeds for the segmentation are obtained from a color and motion detector. The segmented facial pixels are represented with linked lists in the origi-nal geometric form and grouped into different parts corresponding to facial com-ponents. For the convenience of implementing high-level vision, the geometric description of facial component pixels is further decomposed into shape and reg-istration information. Shape is defined as the geometric information that is invari-ant under the registration transformation, such as translation, rotation, and iso-tropic scale. Statistical shape analysis is carried out to capture global facial fea-tures where the Procrustes shape distance measure is adopted. A Bayesian ap-proach is used to incorporate high-level prior knowledge of face structure. Ex-perimental results show that the proposed method is capable of real-time extraction of precise geometric facial features from live video. The feature extraction is robust against the illumination changes, scale variation, head rotations, and hand inter-ference.

  4. Relationship of neutrophils lymphocyte ratio and red blood cell distribution width with idiopathic facial palsy%中性粒细胞淋巴细胞比及红细胞分布宽度与特发性面神经麻痹的关系

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒湘宁; 马跃文

    2016-01-01

    背景:红细胞分布宽度与C-反应蛋白一样,是机体炎症水平的一个标志,红细胞表面可能存在多种炎症因子受体,推测红细胞参与了炎症过程,炎症导致红细胞分布宽度增加。目的:分析中性粒细胞淋巴细胞比和红细胞分布宽度与特发性面神经麻痹的发病机制及发病时疾病的严重程度之间关系。方法:特发性面神经麻痹患者30例(实验组),使用HB(House and Brackmann Facial Grading System)评分和SB(Sunnybrook System)评分评估患者病情严重程度,将实验组按SB评分分为一般瘫痪组(30-100分)和严重瘫痪组(0-29分);按照HB评估结果分为轻度(Ⅱ/Ⅲ)、中度(Ⅳ)、重度瘫痪组(Ⅴ/Ⅵ)。同时选健康者32人做对照。对比各组间中性粒细胞淋巴细胞比、红细胞分布宽度指标的差异;分析SB评分和HB评估结果与中性粒细胞淋巴细胞比、红细胞分布宽度之间的相关性。结果与结论:实验组中性粒细胞淋巴细胞比值明显高于对照组(P<0.01);红细胞分布宽度在实验组不同疾病程度组间均存在显著差异,且与SB评分呈显著负相关(P <0.01),与HB评估等级呈显著正相关(P<0.01)。结果说明,实验组中性粒细胞淋巴细胞比值显著高于对照组,红细胞分布宽度与疾病严重程度呈正相关,提示特发性面神经麻痹发病机制与炎症相关,红细胞分布宽度指标可能对特发性面神经麻痹发病时疾病严重程度评估有参考意义。%BACKGROUND:Similarly with C-reactive protein, red blood cel distribution width can reflect the inflammatory process. Red blood cels involved in inflammatory process leads to the increase in red blood cel distribution width due to various inflammation factor receptors existingon the surface of red blood cel s. OBJECTIVE:To analyze the relationship between the neutrophils lymphocyte ratio, red blood cel distribution width and the pathogenesis andseverity

  5. PCA facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Hori, Inas H.; El-Momen, Zahraa K.; Ganoun, Ali

    2013-12-01

    This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. The comparative study of Facial Expression Recognition (FER) techniques namely Principal Component's analysis (PCA) and PCA with Gabor filters (GF) is done. The objective of this research is to show that PCA with Gabor filters is superior to the first technique in terms of recognition rate. To test and evaluates their performance, experiments are performed using real database by both techniques. The universally accepted five principal emotions to be recognized are: Happy, Sad, Disgust and Angry along with Neutral. The recognition rates are obtained on all the facial expressions.

  6. Facial Expressions Recognition Using Eigenspaces

    OpenAIRE

    Senthil Ragavan Valayapalayam Kittusamy; Venkatesh Chakrapani

    2012-01-01

    A challenging research topic is to make the Computer Systems to recognize facial expressions from the face image. A method of facial expression recognition, based on Eigenspaces is presented in this study. Here, the authors recognize the userâs facial expressions from the input images, using a method that was customized from eigenface recognition. Evaluation was done for this method in terms of identification correctness using two different Facial Expressions databases, Cohn-Kanade facial exp...

  7. Persistent facial pain conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forssell, Heli; Alstergren, Per; Bakke, Merete;

    2016-01-01

    , clinical features, consequences, central and peripheral mechanisms, diagnostic criteria (DC/TMD), and principles of management. For each of the neuropathic facial pain entities, the definitions, prevalence, clinical features, and diagnostics are described. The current understanding of the pathophysiology...

  8. Simultaneous facial feature tracking and facial expression recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Shangfei; Zhao, Yongping; Ji, Qiang

    2013-07-01

    The tracking and recognition of facial activities from images or videos have attracted great attention in computer vision field. Facial activities are characterized by three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature points around each facial component, i.e., eyebrow, mouth, etc., capture the detailed face shape information. Second, in the middle level, facial action units, defined in the facial action coding system, represent the contraction of a specific set of facial muscles, i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc. Finally, in the top level, six prototypical facial expressions represent the global facial muscle movement and are commonly used to describe the human emotion states. In contrast to the mainstream approaches, which usually only focus on one or two levels of facial activities, and track (or recognize) them separately, this paper introduces a unified probabilistic framework based on the dynamic Bayesian network to simultaneously and coherently represent the facial evolvement in different levels, their interactions and their observations. Advanced machine learning methods are introduced to learn the model based on both training data and subjective prior knowledge. Given the model and the measurements of facial motions, all three levels of facial activities are simultaneously recognized through a probabilistic inference. Extensive experiments are performed to illustrate the feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed model on all three level facial activities.

  9. Facial soft tissue segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Majeed, Tahir

    2014-01-01

    The importance of the face for socio-ecological interaction is the cause for a high demand on any surgical intervention on the facial musculo-skeletal system. Bones and soft-tissues are of major importance for any facial surgical treatment to guarantee an optimal, functional and aesthetical result. For this reason, surgeons want to pre-operatively plan, simulate and predict the outcome of the surgery allowing for shorter operation times and improved quality. Accurate simulation requires exact...

  10. Relationship between Locations of Facial Injury and the Use of Bicycle Helmets: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Kun; Jeon, Yun Moon; Ko, Yeong Seung; Kim, Yeon Soo

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study is to review the protective effect of a bicycle helmet on each facial location systematically. PubMed was searched for articles published before December 12, 2014. The data were summarized, and the odds ratio (OR) between the locations of facial injury was calculated. A statistical analysis was performed with Review Manager (The Nordic Cochrane Centre). Bicycle helmets protect the upper and middle face from serious facial injury but do not protect the lower face. Non-wearers had significantly increased risks of upper facial injury (OR, 2.07; Pchin cap might decrease the risk of lower facial injury.

  11. Video-based facial animation with detailed appearance texture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Facial shape transformation described by facial animation parameters (FAPs) involves the dynamic movement or deformation of eyes, brows, mouth, and lips, while detailed facial appearance concerns the facial textures such as creases, wrinkles, etc.Video-based facial animation exhibits not only facial shape transformation but also detailed appearance updates. In this paper, a novel algorithm for effectively extracting FAPs from video is proposed. Our system adopts the ICA-enforced direct appearance model (DAM) to track faces from video sequences; and then, FAPs are extracted from every frame of the video based on an extended model of Wincandidate 3.1. Facial appearance details are transformed from each frame by mapping an expression ratio image to the original image. We adopt wavelet to synthesize expressive details by combining the low-frequency signals of the original face and high-frequency signals of the expressive face from each frame of the video. Experimental results show that our proposed algorithm is suitable for reproducing realistic, expressive facial animations.

  12. New Vehicle Detection Method with Aspect Ratio Estimation for Hypothesized Windows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jisu Kim

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available All kinds of vehicles have different ratios of width to height, which are called the aspect ratios. Most previous works, however, use a fixed aspect ratio for vehicle detection (VD. The use of a fixed vehicle aspect ratio for VD degrades the performance. Thus, the estimation of a vehicle aspect ratio is an important part of robust VD. Taking this idea into account, a new on-road vehicle detection system is proposed in this paper. The proposed method estimates the aspect ratio of the hypothesized windows to improve the VD performance. Our proposed method uses an Aggregate Channel Feature (ACF and a support vector machine (SVM to verify the hypothesized windows with the estimated aspect ratio. The contribution of this paper is threefold. First, the estimation of vehicle aspect ratio is inserted between the HG (hypothesis generation and the HV (hypothesis verification. Second, a simple HG method named a signed horizontal edge map is proposed to speed up VD. Third, a new measure is proposed to represent the overlapping ratio between the ground truth and the detection results. This new measure is used to show that the proposed method is better than previous works in terms of robust VD. Finally, the Pittsburgh dataset is used to verify the performance of the proposed method.

  13. Discrimination of gender using facial image with expression change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuniyada, Jun; Fukuda, Takahiro; Terada, Kenji

    2005-12-01

    By carrying out marketing research, the managers of large-sized department stores or small convenience stores obtain the information such as ratio of men and women of visitors and an age group, and improve their management plan. However, these works are carried out in the manual operations, and it becomes a big burden to small stores. In this paper, the authors propose a method of men and women discrimination by extracting difference of the facial expression change from color facial images. Now, there are a lot of methods of the automatic recognition of the individual using a motion facial image or a still facial image in the field of image processing. However, it is very difficult to discriminate gender under the influence of the hairstyle and clothes, etc. Therefore, we propose the method which is not affected by personality such as size and position of facial parts by paying attention to a change of an expression. In this method, it is necessary to obtain two facial images with an expression and an expressionless. First, a region of facial surface and the regions of facial parts such as eyes, nose, and mouth are extracted in the facial image with color information of hue and saturation in HSV color system and emphasized edge information. Next, the features are extracted by calculating the rate of the change of each facial part generated by an expression change. In the last step, the values of those features are compared between the input data and the database, and the gender is discriminated. In this paper, it experimented for the laughing expression and smile expression, and good results were provided for discriminating gender.

  14. Facial Data Field

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Shuliang; YUAN Hanning; CAO Baohua; WANG Dakui

    2015-01-01

    Expressional face recognition is a challenge in computer vision for complex expressions. Facial data field is proposed to recognize expression. Fundamentals are presented in the methodology of face recognition upon data field and subsequently, technical algorithms including normalizing faces, generating facial data field, extracting feature points in partitions, assigning weights and recog-nizing faces. A case is studied with JAFFE database for its verification. Result indicates that the proposed method is suitable and eff ective in expressional face recognition con-sidering the whole average recognition rate is up to 94.3%. In conclusion, data field is considered as a valuable alter-native to pattern recognition.

  15. Novel Facial Features Segmentation Algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An efficient algorithm for facial features extractions is proposed. The facial features we segment are the two eyes, nose and mouth. The algorithm is based on an improved Gabor wavelets edge detector, morphological approach to detect the face region and facial features regions, and an improved T-shape face mask to locate the extract location of facial features. The experimental results show that the proposed method is robust against facial expression, illumination, and can be also effective if the person wearing glasses, and so on.

  16. Facial Paralysis Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razfar, Ali; Lee, Matthew K; Massry, Guy G; Azizzadeh, Babak

    2016-04-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a devastating condition arising from several causes with severe functional and psychological consequences. Given the complexity of the disease process, management involves a multispecialty, team-oriented approach. This article provides a systematic approach in addressing each specific sequela of this complex problem.

  17. Paralisia facial bilateral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.

  18. Management of facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter B; Pilegaard, Hans K

    2008-01-01

    an indication for treatment, facial blushing may be treated effectively by thoracoscopic sympathectomy. The type of blushing likely to benefit from sympathectomy is mediated by the sympathetic nerves and is the uncontrollable, rapidly developing blush typically elicited when one receives attention from other...

  19. Emotional mimicry signals pain empathy as evidenced by facial electromyography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ya-Bin; Wang, Yu-Zheng; Wang, Jin-Yan; Luo, Fei

    2015-12-09

    Facial mimicry has been suggested to be a behavioral index for emotional empathy. The present study is the first to investigate the link between facial muscle activity and empathy for pain by facial electromyographic (EMG) recording while observers watched videos depicting real-life painful events. Three types of visual stimulus were used: an intact painful scene and arm-only (needle injection) and face only (painful expression) scenes. Enhanced EMG activity of the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles was found when observers viewed others in pain, supporting a unique pain expression that is distinct from the expression of basic emotions. In the intact video stimulus condition, CS activity was correlated positively with the empathic concern score and ZM activity, suggesting facial mimicry mediated empathy for pain. Cluster analysis of facial EMG responses revealed markedly different patterns among stimulus types, including response category, ratio, and temporal dynamics, indicating greater ecological validity of the intact scene in eliciting pain empathy as compared with partial scenes. This study is the first to quantitatively describe pain empathy in terms of facial EMG data. It may provide important evidence for facial mimicry as a behavioral indicator of pain empathy.

  20. Oral and Facial Pain

    OpenAIRE

    Mock, David

    1988-01-01

    Diagnosis of oral and facial pain is often difficult because several anatomical structures within this small area are capable of producing similar symptoms, and pain referred from cranial or distant sites and emotional or psychiatric disturbances complicate matters further. This article summarizes some of the more common causes of orofacial pain, with the exception of disorders of the temporomandibular joint and associated musculature, which are covered in a separate article.

  1. Facial animation of game characters

    OpenAIRE

    Wallin, Kalle

    2015-01-01

    Facial animation in games has increased significantly in the past ten years. This is why the thesis introduces the basic technology in facial animation. The thesis only covers the basic tools and techniques used to create facial animation of game characters. The software used during this thesis were Autodesk’s 3Ds Max and Mudbox, and Substance Painter by Allegoritmic. The basic tools for creating game assets were explored. First the thesis goes through the basics of modeling 3D objects fo...

  2. Techniques in Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Avinash Prakash Pandhare; Umesh Balkrishna Chavan

    2016-01-01

    Facial expression recognition is gaining widespread importance as the applications related to Human – Computer interactions are increasing. This paper mentions various techniques and approaches that have been used in the field of facial expression recognition. Facial expression recognition takes place in various stages and these stages have been implemented by various approaches. Viola and Jones for face detection, Gabor filters for feature extraction, SVM classifiers for classifi...

  3. Measuring facial expression of emotion

    OpenAIRE

    Wolf, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    Research into emotions has increased in recent decades, especially on the subject of recognition of emotions. However, studies of the facial expressions of emotion were compromised by technical problems with visible video analysis and electromyography in experimental settings. These have only recently been overcome. There have been new developments in the field of automated computerized facial recognition; allowing real-time identification of facial expression in social environments. This rev...

  4. Cultural Perspectives in Facial Allotransplantation

    OpenAIRE

    Tan, Pearlie W.W.; Patel, Ashish S.; Taub, Peter J.; Lampert, Joshua A.; Xipoleas, George; Gabriel F Santiago; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O.; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of...

  5. Virtual 3-D Facial Reconstruction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Paul Evison

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial reconstructions in archaeology allow empathy with people who lived in the past and enjoy considerable popularity with the public. It is a common misconception that facial reconstruction will produce an exact likeness; a resemblance is the best that can be hoped for. Research at Sheffield University is aimed at the development of a computer system for facial reconstruction that will be accurate, rapid, repeatable, accessible and flexible. This research is described and prototypical 3-D facial reconstructions are presented. Interpolation models simulating obesity, ageing and ethnic affiliation are also described. Some strengths and weaknesses in the models, and their potential for application in archaeology are discussed.

  6. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    OpenAIRE

    Carré, Justin M.; Murphy, Kelly R.; Hariri, Ahmad R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, ...

  7. Plastic Changes of Synapses and Excitatory Neurotransmitter Receptors in Facial Nucleus Following Facial-facial Anastomosis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pei CHEN; Jun SONG; Linghui LUO; Shusheng GONG

    2008-01-01

    The remodeling process of synapses and eurotransmitter receptors of facial nucleus were observed. Models were set up by facial-facial anastomosis in rat. At post-surgery day (PSD) 0, 7, 21 and 60, synaptophysin (p38), NMDA receptor subunit 2A and AMPA receptor subunit 2 (GIuR2) were observed by immunohistochemical method and emi-quantitative RT-PCR, respectively. Meanwhile, the synaptic structure of the facial motorneurons was observed under a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The intensity of p38 immunoreactivity was decreased, reaching the lowest value at PSD day 7, and then increased slightly at PSD 21. Ultrastructurally, the number of synapses in nucleus of the operational side decreased, which was consistent with the change in P38 immhnoreactivity. NMDAR2A mRNA was down-regulated significantly in facial nucleus after the operation (P000.05). The synapses innervation and the expression of NMDAR2A and AMPAR2 mRNA in facial nucleus might be modified to suit for the new motor tasks following facial-facial anastomosis, and influenced facial nerve regeneration and recovery.

  8. Children's Facial Trustworthiness Judgments: Agreement and Relationship with Facial Attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Fengling; Xu, Fen; Luo, Xianming

    2016-01-01

    This study examined developmental changes in children's abilities to make trustworthiness judgments based on faces and the relationship between a child's perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10-, and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgments. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgments increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgments made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgments increased with age, and the relationship between two judgments made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgment ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger's trustworthiness. PMID:27148111

  9. Imaging of facial anomalies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, M; Mukherji, S K

    1995-01-01

    Anomalies of the face may occur in its lower or middle segments. Anomalies of the lower face generally involve the derivatives of the branchial apparatus and therefore manifest as defects in the mandible, pinnae, external auditory canals, and portions of the middle ears. These anomalies are occasionally isolated, but most of them occur in combination with systemic syndromes. These anomalies generally do not occur with respiratory compromise. Anomalies of the midface may extend from the upper lip to the forehead, reflecting the complex embryology of this region. Most of these deformities are isolated, but some patients with facial clefts, notably the midline cleft syndrome and holoprosencephaly, have anomalies in other sites. This is important because these patients will require detailed imaging of the face and brain. Anomalies of the midface tend to involve the nose and its air-conducting passages. We prefer to divide these anomalies into those with and without respiratory obstruction. The most common anomalies that result in airway compromise include posterior choanal stenoses and atresias, bilateral cysts (mucoceles) of the distal lacrimal ducts, and stenosis of the pyriform (anterior) nasal aperture. These may be optimally evaluated with computed tomography (CT) and generally require immediate treatment to ensure adequate ventilation. Rare nasal anomalies that also result in airway obstruction are agenesis of the pharynx, agenesis of the nose, and hypoplasia of the nasal alae. Agenesis of the nasopharynx and nose are complex anomalies that require both CT and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The diagnosis of hypoplasia of the nasal alae is a clinical one; these anomalies do not require imaging studies. Besides facial clefts, anomalies of the nose without respiratory obstruction tend to be centered around the nasofrontal region. This is the site of the most common sincipital encephaloceles. Patients with frontonasal and nasoethmoidal encephaloceles require both

  10. Facial pain: trigeminal neuralgia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, K H

    1993-03-01

    Atypical facial pain is a loose term used to encompass a wide range of facial pain syndromes including those of dental and ear, nose and throat (ENT) aetiology. Often, it is associated with psychiatric conditions like depression and psychosomatic illnesses. This facial pain typically does not follow anatomical boundaries or its explainable by present day neurophysiological understanding. The pain is often constant with no remission and is aggravated by stress. Treatment is difficult and often directed to the psychiatric cause. Surgical treatment is contraindicated. Trigeminal neuralgia on the other hand, can be effectively treated. Pain in the trigeminal distribution is paroxysmal, precipitated by trigger factors and there is no pain in between attacks. The aetiology of trigeminal neuralgia is still unknown though current thinking is that there is a peripheral disturbance or damage with cerebral brainstem disinhibition of the trigeminal apparatus. This results in a paroxysmal discharge and reverberation of pain impulses when a trigger point is elicited. Therefore, anti-epileptic drugs like tegretol can be effective in controlling trigeminal neuralgia in the majority of patients, at least in the initial stages. For unknown reasons however, medical treatment either is not effective at all from the very beginning or fails after a few years. Surgery then becomes the only available therapeutic option. If the peripheral disturbance is due to an organic cause like a tumour, surgical approaches should be directed towards its removal. Often the pain will also resolve. If the trigeminal neuralgia is of the idiopathic variety, then the surgeon has a choice of either peripheral percutaneous retrogasserian ganglionectomies or central approaches like microvascular decompression and trigeminal tractotomy. PMID:8363331

  11. [Rehabilitation of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, F

    2015-10-01

    Rehabilitation takes an important part in the treatment of facial paralysis, especially when these are severe. It aims to lead the recovery of motor activity and prevent or reduce sequelae like synkinesis or spasms. It is preferable that it be proposed early in order to set up a treatment plan based on the results of the assessment, sometimes coupled with an electromyography. In case of surgery, preoperative work is recommended, especially in case of hypoglossofacial anastomosis or lengthening temporalis myoplasty (LTM). Our proposal is to present an original technique to enhance the sensorimotor loop and the cortical control of movement, especially when using botulinum toxin and after surgery.

  12. Facial Asymmetry and Emotional Expression

    CERN Document Server

    Pickin, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    This report is about facial asymmetry, its connection to emotional expression, and methods of measuring facial asymmetry in videos of faces. The research was motivated by two factors: firstly, there was a real opportunity to develop a novel measure of asymmetry that required minimal human involvement and that improved on earlier measures in the literature; and secondly, the study of the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression is both interesting in its own right, and important because it can inform neuropsychological theory and answer open questions concerning emotional processing in the brain. The two aims of the research were: first, to develop an automatic frame-by-frame measure of facial asymmetry in videos of faces that improved on previous measures; and second, to use the measure to analyse the relationship between facial asymmetry and emotional expression, and connect our findings with previous research of the relationship.

  13. Tracking facial features with occlusions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MARKIN Evgeny; PRAKASH Edmond C.

    2006-01-01

    Facial expression recognition consists of determining what kind of emotional content is presented in a human face.The problem presents a complex area for exploration, since it encompasses face acquisition, facial feature tracking, facial expression classification. Facial feature tracking is of the most interest. Active Appearance Model (AAM) enables accurate tracking of facial features in real-time, but lacks occlusions and self-occlusions. In this paper we propose a solution to improve the accuracy of fitting technique. The idea is to include occluded images into AAM training data. We demonstrate the results by running ex periments using gradient descent algorithm for fitting the AAM. Our experiments show that using fitting algorithm with occluded training data improves the fitting quality of the algorithm.

  14. Odontogenic Facial Cellulitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yordany Boza Mejias

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: odontogenic facial cellulitis is an acute inflammatory process manifested in very different ways, with a variable scale in clinical presentation ranging from harmless well defined processes, to diffuse and progressive that may develop complications leading the patient to a critical condition, even risking their lives. Objective: To characterize the behavior of odontogenic facial cellulitis. Methods: A descriptive case series study was conducted at the dental clinic of Aguada de Pasajeros, Cienfuegos, from September 2010 to March 2011. It included 56 patients who met the inclusion criteria. Variables analyzed included: sex, age, teeth and regions affected, causes of cellulite and prescribed treatment. Results: no sex predilection was observed, lower molars and submandibular anatomical region were the most affected (50% and 30 4% respectively being tooth decay the main cause for this condition (51, 7%. The opening access was not performed to all the patients in the emergency service. The causal tooth extraction was not commonly done early, according to the prescribed antibiotic group. Thermotherapy with warm fomentation and saline mouthwash was the most prescribed and the most widely used group of antibiotics was the penicillin. Conclusions: dental caries were the major cause of odontogenic cellulite. There are still difficulties with the implementation of opening access.

  15. Colesteatoma causando paralisia facial Cholesteatoma causing facial paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ricardo Gurgel Testa

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available A paralisia facial causada pelo colesteatoma é pouco freqüente. As porções do nervo mais acometidas são a timpânica e a região do 2º joelho. Nos casos de disseminação da lesão colesteatomatosa para o epitímpano anterior, o gânglio geniculado é o segmento do nervo facial mais sujeito à injúria. A etiopatogenia pode estar ligada à compressão do nervo pelo colesteatoma seguida de diminuição do seu suprimento vascular como também pela possível ação de substâncias neurotóxicas produzidas pela matriz do tumor ou pelas bactérias nele contidas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar a incidência, as características clínicas e o tratamento da paralisia facial decorrente da lesão colesteatomatosa. FORMA DE ESTUDO: Clínico retrospectivo. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Estudo retrospectivo envolvendo dez casos de paralisia facial por colesteatoma selecionados através de levantamento de 206 descompressões do nervo facial com diferentes etiologias, realizadas na UNIFESP-EPM nos últimos dez anos. RESULTADOS: A incidência de paralisia facial por colesteatoma neste estudo foi de 4,85%,com predominância do sexo feminino (60%. A idade média dos pacientes foi de 39 anos. A duração e o grau da paralisia (inicial juntamente com a extensão da lesão foram importantes em relação à recuperação funcional do nervo facial. CONCLUSÃO: O tratamento cirúrgico precoce é fundamental para que ocorra um resultado funcional mais adequado. Nos casos de ruptura ou intensa fibrose do tecido nervoso, o enxerto de nervo (auricular magno/sural e/ou a anastomose hipoglosso-facial podem ser sugeridas.Facial paralysis caused by cholesteatoma is uncommon. The portions most frequently involved are horizontal (tympanic and second genu segments. When cholesteatomas extend over the anterior epitympanic space, the facial nerve is placed in jeopardy in the region of the geniculate ganglion. The aetiology can be related to compression of the nerve followed by impairment of its

  16. MRI of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial palsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saatci, I. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sahintuerk, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Sennaroglu, L. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Boyvat, F. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Guersel, B. [Dept. of Otolaryngology, Head and Neck Surgery, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey); Besim, A. [Dept. of Radiology, Hacettepe Univ., Hospital Sihhiye, Ankara (Turkey)

    1996-10-01

    The purpose of this prospective study was to define the enhancement pattern of the facial nerve in idiopathic facial paralysis (Bell`s palsy) on magnetic resonance (MR) imaging with routine doses of gadolinium-DTPA (0.1 mmol/kg). Using 0.5 T imager, 24 patients were examined with a mean interval time of 13.7 days between the onset of symptoms and the MR examination. Contralateral asymptomatic facial nerves constituted the control group and five of the normal facial nerves (20.8%) showed enhancement confined to the geniculate ganglion. Hence, contrast enhancement limited to the geniculate ganglion in the abnormal facial nerve (3 of 24) was referred to a equivocal. Not encountered in any of the normal facial nerves, enhancement of other segments alone or associated with geniculate ganglion enhancement was considered to be abnormal and noted in 70.8% of the symptomatic facial nerves. The most frequently enhancing segments were the geniculate ganglion and the distal intracanalicular segment. (orig.)

  17. Diplegia facial traumatica Traumatic facial diplegia: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1975-12-01

    Full Text Available É relatado um caso de paralisia facial bilateral, incompleta, associada a hipoacusia esquerda, após traumatismo cranioencefálico, com fraturas evidenciadas radiológicamente. Algumas considerações são formuladas tentando relacionar ditas manifestações com fraturas do osso temporal.A case of traumatic facial diplegia with left partial loss of hearing following head injury is reported. X-rays showed fractures on the occipital and left temporal bones. A review of traumatic facial paralysis is made.

  18. Paralisia facial bilateral Bilateral facial paralysis: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Fortes-Rego

    1976-03-01

    Full Text Available É apresentado um caso de diplegia facial surgida após meningite meningocócica e infecção por herpes simples. Depois de discutir as diversas condições que o fenômeno pode apresentar-se, o autor inclina-se por uma etiologia herpética.A case of bilateral facial paralysis following meningococcal meningitis and herpes simplex infection is reported. The author discusses the differential diagnosis of bilateral facial nerve paralysis which includes several diseases and syndromes and concludes by herpetic aetiology.

  19. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    OpenAIRE

    O. M. Ramírez; A. Novo Torres; Ch. R. Volpe

    2007-01-01

    Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tra...

  20. The Facial Profile in the Context of Facial Aesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heppt, Werner J; Vent, Julia

    2015-10-01

    Beauty has been an intriguing issue since the evolving of a culture in mankind. Even the Neanderthals are believed to have applied makeover to enhance facial structures and thus underline beauty. The determinants of beauty and aesthetics have been defined by artists and scientists alike. This article will give an overview of the evolvement of a beauty concept and the significance of the facial profile. It aims at sharpening the senses of the facial plastic surgeon for analyzing the patient's face, consulting the patient on feasible options, planning, and conducting surgery in the most individualized way.

  1. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C.

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding

  2. Acupuncture Treatment of Facial Spasm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    @@ Case History Ms. Zheng from Singapore, aged 51 years, paid her first visit on Aug.30, 2006, with the chief complaint of left facial paralysis accompanied with facial spasm for 5 years. The patient got left facial paralysis in 2001, which was not completely cured, and developed into facial spasm one year later. Although she had received various treatments including surgical operation, the disease was not cured. At the moment she had discomfort and dull sensation in the left facial area, mainly accompanied with twitching of the peripheral nerve of the eye. She was also accompanied with posterior auricular muscle tension and discomfort. She had fairly good sleep and appetite, but slightly quick temper. Physical examination at the moment showed that the patient had a slightly thin body figure, flushing face, and good mental state. The blood pressure was 110/75mmHg and the heart rate was 85 beats/min. No abnormal signs were found in the heart and lungs. The facial examination showed mild swelling of the left side of the face, incomplete closing of the eye lids, disappearance of wrinkles on the forehead, shallow nasolabial groove, and obvious muscle tension and tenderness in the left opisthotic region. Careful observation could find slight facial muscular twitching. The tongue proper was red with little coating, and the pulse thready-wiry.

  3. The Dehiscent Facial Nerve Canal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Accidental injury to the facial nerve where the bony canal defects are present may result with facial nerve dysfunction during otological surgery. Therefore, it is critical to know the incidence and the type of facial nerve dehiscences in the presence of normal development of the facial canal. The aim of this study is to review the site and the type of such bony defects in 144 patients operated for facial paralysis, myringoplasty, stapedotomy, middle ear exploration for sudden hearing loss, and so forth, other than chronic suppurative otitis media with or without cholesteatoma, middle ear tumors, and anomaly. Correlation of intraoperative findings with preoperative computerized tomography was also analyzed in 35 patients. Conclusively, one out of every 10 surgical cases may have dehiscence of the facial canal which has to be always borne in mind during surgical manipulation of the middle ear. Computerized tomography has some limitations to evaluate the dehiscent facial canal due to high false negative and positive rates.

  4. Does facial resemblance enhance cooperation?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trang Giang

    Full Text Available Facial self-resemblance has been proposed to serve as a kinship cue that facilitates cooperation between kin. In the present study, facial resemblance was manipulated by morphing stimulus faces with the participants' own faces or control faces (resulting in self-resemblant or other-resemblant composite faces. A norming study showed that the perceived degree of kinship was higher for the participants and the self-resemblant composite faces than for actual first-degree relatives. Effects of facial self-resemblance on trust and cooperation were tested in a paradigm that has proven to be sensitive to facial trustworthiness, facial likability, and facial expression. First, participants played a cooperation game in which the composite faces were shown. Then, likability ratings were assessed. In a source memory test, participants were required to identify old and new faces, and were asked to remember whether the faces belonged to cooperators or cheaters in the cooperation game. Old-new recognition was enhanced for self-resemblant faces in comparison to other-resemblant faces. However, facial self-resemblance had no effects on the degree of cooperation in the cooperation game, on the emotional evaluation of the faces as reflected in the likability judgments, and on the expectation that a face belonged to a cooperator rather than to a cheater. Therefore, the present results are clearly inconsistent with the assumption of an evolved kin recognition module built into the human face recognition system.

  5. Sleep Wrinkles: Facial Aging and Facial Distortion During Sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anson, Goesel; Kane, Michael A C; Lambros, Val

    2016-09-01

    Wrinkles are just one indicator of facial aging, but an indicator that is of prime importance in our world of facial aesthetics. Wrinkles occur where fault lines develop in aging skin. Those fault lines may be due to skin distortion resulting from facial expression or may be due to skin distortion from mechanical compression during sleep. Expression wrinkles and sleep wrinkles differ in etiology, location, and anatomical pattern. Compression, shear, and stress forces act on the face in lateral or prone sleep positions. We review the literature relating to the development of wrinkles and the biomechanical changes that occur in response to intrinsic and extrinsic influences. We explore the possibility that compression during sleep not only results in wrinkles but may also contribute to facial skin expansion. PMID:27329660

  6. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    OpenAIRE

    Vasanth P.C.; Nataraj. K. R

    2015-01-01

    Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels...

  7. Fast Facial Detection by Depth Map Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ming-Yuan Shieh; Tsung-Min Hsieh

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain correct facial recognition results, one needs to adopt appropriate facial detection techniques. Moreover, the effects of facial detection are usually affected by the environmental conditions such as background, illumination, and complexity of objectives. In this paper, the proposed facial detection scheme, which is based on depth map analysis, aims to improve the effectiveness of facial detection and recognition under different environmental illumination conditions. The pro...

  8. Dynamic Facial Prosthetics for Sufferers of Facial Paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fergal Coulter

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThis paper discusses the various methods and the materialsfor the fabrication of active artificial facial muscles. Theprimary use for these will be the reanimation of paralysedor atrophied muscles in sufferers of non-recoverableunilateral facial paralysis.MethodThe prosthetic solution described in this paper is based onsensing muscle motion of the contralateral healthy musclesand replicating that motion across a patient’s paralysed sideof the face, via solid state and thin film actuators. Thedevelopment of this facial prosthetic device focused onrecreating a varying intensity smile, with emphasis ontiming, displacement and the appearance of the wrinklesand folds that commonly appear around the nose and eyesduring the expression.An animatronic face was constructed with actuations beingmade to a silicone representation musculature, usingmultiple shape-memory alloy cascades. Alongside theartificial muscle physical prototype, a facial expressionrecognition software system was constructed. This formsthe basis of an automated calibration and reconfigurationsystem for the artificial muscles following implantation, soas to suit the implantee’s unique physiognomy.ResultsAn animatronic model face with silicone musculature wasdesigned and built to evaluate the performance of ShapeMemory Alloy artificial muscles, their power controlcircuitry and software control systems. A dual facial motionsensing system was designed to allow real time control overmodel – a piezoresistive flex sensor to measure physicalmotion, and a computer vision system to evaluate real toartificial muscle performance.Analysis of various facial expressions in real subjects wasmade, which give useful data upon which to base thesystems parameter limits.ConclusionThe system performed well, and the various strengths andshortcomings of the materials and methods are reviewedand considered for the next research phase, when newpolymer based artificial muscles are constructed

  9. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    OpenAIRE

    Wenfeng eChen; Chang Hong eLiu; Huiyun eLi; Ke eTong; Naixin eRen; Xiaolan eFu

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the ...

  10. Facial expression at retrieval affects recognition of facial identity

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Wenfeng; Liu, Chang Hong; Li, Huiyun; Tong, Ke; Ren, Naixin; Fu, Xiaolan

    2015-01-01

    It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the ...

  11. Facial Expression Recognition Using SVM Classifier

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasanth P.C.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature tracking and facial actions recognition from image sequence attracted great attention in computer vision field. Computational facial expression analysis is a challenging research topic in computer vision. It is required by many applications such as human-computer interaction, computer graphic animation and automatic facial expression recognition. In recent years, plenty of computer vision techniques have been developed to track or recognize the facial activities in three levels. First, in the bottom level, facial feature tracking, which usually detects and tracks prominent landmarks surrounding facial components (i.e., mouth, eyebrow, etc, captures the detailed face shape information; Second, facial actions recognition, i.e., recognize facial action units (AUs defined in FACS, try to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial  expression analysis attempts to recognize some meaningful facial activities (i.e., lid tightener, eyebrow raiser, etc; In the top level, facial expression analysis attempts to recognize facial expressions that represent the human emotion states. In this proposed algorithm initially detecting eye and mouth, features of eye and mouth are extracted using Gabor filter, (Local Binary Pattern LBP and PCA is used to reduce the dimensions of the features. Finally SVM is used to classification of expression and facial action units.

  12. Sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Licht, Peter Bjørn; Pilegaard, Hans K; Ladegaard, Lars

    2012-01-01

    Background. Facial blushing is one of the most peculiar of human expressions. The pathophysiology is unclear, and the prevalence is unknown. Thoracoscopic sympathectomy may cure the symptom and is increasingly used in patients with isolated facial blushing. The evidence base for the optimal level...... of targeting the sympathetic chain is limited to retrospective case studies. We present a randomized clinical trial. Methods. 100 patients were randomized (web-based, single-blinded) to rib-oriented (R2 or R2-R3) sympathicotomy for isolated facial blushing at two university hospitals during a 6-year period...... in all social and mental domains in both groups. Overall, 85% of the patients had an excellent or satisfactory result, with no significant difference between the R2 procedure and the R2-R3 procedure. Mild recurrence of facial blushing occurred in 30% of patients within the first year. One patient...

  13. Facial nerve paralysis in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciorba, Andrea; Corazzi, Virginia; Conz, Veronica; Bianchini, Chiara; Aimoni, Claudia

    2015-12-16

    Facial nerve palsy is a condition with several implications, particularly when occurring in childhood. It represents a serious clinical problem as it causes significant concerns in doctors because of its etiology, its treatment options and its outcome, as well as in little patients and their parents, because of functional and aesthetic outcomes. There are several described causes of facial nerve paralysis in children, as it can be congenital (due to delivery traumas and genetic or malformative diseases) or acquired (due to infective, inflammatory, neoplastic, traumatic or iatrogenic causes). Nonetheless, in approximately 40%-75% of the cases, the cause of unilateral facial paralysis still remains idiopathic. A careful diagnostic workout and differential diagnosis are particularly recommended in case of pediatric facial nerve palsy, in order to establish the most appropriate treatment, as the therapeutic approach differs in relation to the etiology.

  14. Facial Areas and Emotional Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucher, Jerry D.; Ekman, Paul

    1975-01-01

    Provides strong support for the view that there is no one area of the face which best reveals emotion, but that the value of the different facial areas in distinguishing emotions depends upon the emotion being judged. (Author)

  15. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihong Zeng

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI. Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are expensive to model, we treat emotional facial expression detection as a one- class classification problem, which is to describe target objects (i.e., emotional facial expressions and distinguish them from outliers (i.e., non-emotional ones. Our preliminary experiments on AAI data suggest that one-class classification methods can reach a good balance between cost (labeling and computing and recognition performance by avoiding non-emotional expression labeling and modeling.

  16. Treatment of Infected Facial Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, Kriti; Cox, Joshua A; Dickey, Ryan M; Gravina, Paula; Echo, Anthony; Izaddoost, Shayan A; Nguyen, Anh H

    2016-05-01

    Alloplastic facial implants have a wide range of uses to achieve the appropriate facial contour. A variety of materials such as metals, polymers, ceramics and synthetic injectable fillers are available to the reconstructive and aesthetic surgeon. Besides choosing the right surgical technique and the adequate material, the surgeon must be prepared to treat complications. Infection is an uncommon but serious complication that can cause displeasing consequences for the patient. There are few references in literature regarding treatment and management of facial implant-related infections. This study aims to discuss the role of biofilm in predisposing alloplastic materials to infection, to provide a review of literature, to describe our own institutional experience, and to define a patient care pathway for facial implant-associated infection. PMID:27152100

  17. Emotion Classification Using Facial Expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devi Arumugam

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Human emotional facial expressions play an important role in interpersonal relations. This is because humans demonstrate and convey a lot of evident information visually rather than verbally. Although humans recognize facial expressions virtually without effort or delay, reliable expression recognition by machine remains a challenge as of today. To automate recognition of emotional state, machines must be taught to understand facial gestures. In this paper we developed an algorithm which is used to identify the person’s emotional state through facial expression such as angry, disgust, happy. This can be done with different age group of people with different situation. We Used a Radial Basis Function network (RBFN for classification and Fisher’s Linear Discriminant (FLD, Singular Value Decomposition (SVD for feature selection.

  18. Techniques in Facial Expression Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Avinash Prakash Pandhare

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is gaining widespread importance as the applications related to Human – Computer interactions are increasing. This paper mentions various techniques and approaches that have been used in the field of facial expression recognition. Facial expression recognition takes place in various stages and these stages have been implemented by various approaches. Viola and Jones for face detection, Gabor filters for feature extraction, SVM classifiers for classification, L1 minimization for sparse representation, facial expression recognition, geometric deformation model, multiple gabor filters for robust feature extraction, parallel implementation of Viola and Jones for face detection and parallel implementation of SVM classifier for classification of expressions are discussed in this paper.

  19. Schizotypy and facial emotion processing

    OpenAIRE

    Coy, Abbie L

    2013-01-01

    The ability to accurately interpret facial emotion is crucial to social being and our capacity to correctly interpret threat-related expressions has obvious adaptive value. Healthy individuals appear to process facial emotions rapidly, accurately and effortlessly, while individuals with schizophrenia often present with marked impairment in emotion processing. The hypothesis of continuity between schizophrenia and normal behaviour suggests that the signs and symptoms of the disorder also occur...

  20. Spontaneous Emotional Facial Expression Detection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhihong Zeng; Yun Fu; Roisman, Glenn I.; Zhen Wen; Yuxiao Hu; Thomas S. Huang

    2006-01-01

    Change in a speaker’s emotion is a fundamental component in human communication. Automatic recognition of spontaneous emotion would significantly impact human-computer interaction and emotion-related studies in education, psychology and psychiatry. In this paper, we explore methods for detecting emotional facial expressions occurring in a realistic human conversation setting—the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI). Because non-emotional facial expressions have no distinct description and are exp...

  1. Acro-cardio-facial syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Dallapiccola Bruno; Digilio Maria

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM), facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD), genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have b...

  2. Developmental facial paralysis: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Anesti, Katerina

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study is to clarify the confusing nomenclature and pathogenesis of Developmental Facial Paralysis, and how it can be differentiated from other causes of facial paralysis present at birth. Differentiating developmental from traumatic facial paralysis noted at birth is important for determining prognosis, but also for medicolegal reasons. Given the dramatic presentation of this condition, accurate and reliable guidelines are necessary in order to facilitate early diagnosis and initiate appropriate therapy, while providing support and counselling to the family. The 30 years experience of our center in the management of developmental facial paralysis is dependent upon a thorough understanding of facial nerve embryology, anatomy, nerve physiology, and an appreciation of well-recognized mishaps during fetal development. It is hoped that a better understanding of this condition will in the future lead to early targeted screening, accurate diagnosis and prompt treatment in this population of facially disfigured patients, which will facilitate their emotional and social rehabilitation, and their reintegration among their peers.

  3. Effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics: changes in facial content and frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jin-Young; Lee, Sang-Hoon; Baek, Seung-Hak

    2012-11-01

    Aesthetic units of the face can be divided into facial content (FC; eyes, nose, lips, and mouth), anterior facial frame (AFF; a contour line from the trichion, the temporal line of the frontal bone, the lateral orbital rim, the most lateral line of the anterior part of the zygomatic body, the anterior border of the masseter muscle, to the inferior border of the chin), and posterior facial frame (PFF; a contour line from the hairline, the zygomatic arch, to the ramus and gonial angle area of the mandible). The size and shape of each FC and the balance and proportion between FCs create a unique appearance for each person. The facial form can be determined through the combination of AFF and PFF. In the Asian population, clinicians frequently encounter problems of FC (eg, acute nasolabial angle, protrusive and everted lips, nonconsonant lip line, or lip canting), AFF (eg, midface hypoplasia, protrusive and asymmetric chin, vertical deficiency/excess of the anterior maxilla and symphysis, or prominent zygoma), and PFF (eg, square mandibular angle). These problems can be efficiently and effectively corrected through the combination of hard tissue surgery such as anterior segmental osteotomy, genioplasty, mandibular angle reduction, malarplasty, and orthognathic surgery. Therefore, the purposes of this article were to introduce the concepts of FC, AFF, and PFF, and to explain the effects of facial hard tissue surgery on facial aesthetics.

  4. A Contemporary Approach to Facial Reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jowett, Nate; Hadlock, Tessa A

    2015-01-01

    The management of acute facial nerve insult may entail medical therapy, surgical exploration, decompression, or repair depending on the etiology. When recovery is not complete, facial mimetic function lies on a spectrum ranging from flaccid paralysis to hyperkinesis resulting in facial immobility. Through systematic assessment of the face at rest and with movement, one may tailor the management to the particular pattern of dysfunction. Interventions for long-standing facial palsy include physical therapy, injectables, and surgical reanimation procedures. The goal of the management is to restore facial balance and movement. This article summarizes a contemporary approach to the management of facial nerve insults.

  5. Neuroprotective effects of recombinant human erythropoietin on facial motoneurons after facial nerve injury in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yubing Dai; Wenlong Luo; Hongjiang Chen; Jianghua Nie; Li Fang; Xiaofei Lai; Jingjing Li

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Erythropoietin and recombinant human erythropoietin (rhEPO) inhibit apoptosis of motor neurons caused by spinal cord injury and brain damage in rats. However, it still remains to be shown whether rhEPO can protect facial motoneurons (FMNs) as well.OBJECTIVE: To test the neuroprotective effects of rhEPO on injured FMNs, as well as the influence on Caspase-3 expression.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: Randomized, controlled, animal experiment. This study was performed at the Central Laboratory of Basic Medical College, Chongqing Medical University from January to October 2007.MATERIALS: Seventy-five female SD rats, weighing 210-230g. rhEPO injection was provided by Sansheng pharmaceuticals company, Shenyang City, Liaoning Province, China, and the License number was HMLN S20010001.METHODS: A total of 75 female rats were randomly divided into rhEPO treatment, control, and sham operation groups, with 25 rats in each group. Rat models of facial nerve injury were established in the rhEPO treatment group and the control group by crushing the main trunk of the left facial nerve. Surgical microscopic observation of the facial nerve damage displayed perineurial disruption. The left stylomastoid foramen of the sham operation group were only exposed, but without nerve injury. The rhEPO treatment group was treated with rhEPO (5000U/kg, i. p.) once following injury and once a day for two weeks. The control and sham operation groups were treated with the same dose of normal saline (i. p.), once following injury and once a day for two weeks.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Rats were sacrificed 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days after injury, FMN survival after facial nerve injury was analyzed by Toluidine blue staining, and then survival ratios (L/R) were calculated. The number of apoptotic profiles in the injured FMNs were evaluated by TUNEL staining. Expression of Caspase-3 in the facial nucleus was detected by immunohistochemistry methods.RESULTS: A total of 75 rats were included in the final

  6. Slowing down facial movements and vocal sounds enhances facial expression recognition and facial-vocal imitation in children with autism

    OpenAIRE

    Tardif, Carole; Lainé, France; Rodriguez, Mélissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    International audience This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on CD-Rom, under audio or silent conditions, and under dynamic visual conditions (slowly, very slowly, at normal speed) plus a ...

  7. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques. PMID:26088742

  8. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another. PMID:24706770

  9. [The history of facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glicenstein, J

    2015-10-01

    Facial paralysis has been a recognized condition since Antiquity, and was mentionned by Hippocratus. In the 17th century, in 1687, the Dutch physician Stalpart Van der Wiel rendered a detailed observation. It was, however, Charles Bell who, in 1821, provided the description that specified the role of the facial nerve. Facial nerve surgery began at the end of the 19th century. Three different techniques were used successively: nerve anastomosis, (XI-VII Balance 1895, XII-VII, Korte 1903), myoplasties (Lexer 1908), and suspensions (Stein 1913). Bunnell successfully accomplished the first direct facial nerve repair in the temporal bone, in 1927, and in 1932 Balance and Duel experimented with nerve grafts. Thanks to progress in microsurgical techniques, the first faciofacial anastomosis was realized in 1970 (Smith, Scaramella), and an account of the first microneurovascular muscle transfer published in 1976 by Harii. Treatment of the eyelid paralysis was at the origin of numerous operations beginning in the 1960s; including palpebral spring (Morel Fatio 1962) silicone sling (Arion 1972), upperlid loading with gold plate (Illig 1968), magnets (Muhlbauer 1973) and transfacial nerve grafts (Anderl 1973). By the end of the 20th century, surgeons had at their disposal a wide range of valid techniques for facial nerve surgery, including modernized versions of older techniques.

  10. Compound facial expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Shichuan; Tao, Yong; Martinez, Aleix M

    2014-04-15

    Understanding the different categories of facial expressions of emotion regularly used by us is essential to gain insights into human cognition and affect as well as for the design of computational models and perceptual interfaces. Past research on facial expressions of emotion has focused on the study of six basic categories--happiness, surprise, anger, sadness, fear, and disgust. However, many more facial expressions of emotion exist and are used regularly by humans. This paper describes an important group of expressions, which we call compound emotion categories. Compound emotions are those that can be constructed by combining basic component categories to create new ones. For instance, happily surprised and angrily surprised are two distinct compound emotion categories. The present work defines 21 distinct emotion categories. Sample images of their facial expressions were collected from 230 human subjects. A Facial Action Coding System analysis shows the production of these 21 categories is different but consistent with the subordinate categories they represent (e.g., a happily surprised expression combines muscle movements observed in happiness and surprised). We show that these differences are sufficient to distinguish between the 21 defined categories. We then use a computational model of face perception to demonstrate that most of these categories are also visually discriminable from one another.

  11. Automatic Facial Expression Analysis A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.P. Sumathi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The Automatic Facial Expression Recognition has been one of the latest research topic since1990’s.There have been recent advances in detecting face, facial expression recognition andclassification. There are multiple methods devised for facial feature extraction which helps in identifyingface and facial expressions. This paper surveys some of the published work since 2003 till date. Variousmethods are analysed to identify the Facial expression. The Paper also discusses about the facialparameterization using Facial Action Coding System(FACS action units and the methods whichrecognizes the action units parameters using facial expression data that are extracted. Various kinds offacial expressions are present in human face which can be identified based on their geometric features,appearance features and hybrid features . The two basic concepts of extracting features are based onfacial deformation and facial motion. This article also identifies the techniques based on thecharacteristics of expressions and classifies the suitable methods that can be implemented.

  12. Overview of facial paralysis: current concepts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melvin, Thuy-Anh N; Limb, Charles J

    2008-05-01

    Facial paralysis represents the end result of a wide array of disorders and heterogeneous etiologies, including congenital, traumatic, infectious, neoplastic, and metabolic causes. Thus, facial palsy has a diverse range of presentations, from transient unilateral paresis to devastating permanent bilateral paralysis. Although not life-threatening, facial paralysis remains relatively common and can have truly severe effects on one's quality of life, with important ramifications in terms of psychological impact and physiologic burden. Prognosis and outcomes for patients with facial paralysis are highly dependent on the etiologic nature of the weakness as well as the treatment offered to the patient. Facial plastic surgeons are often asked to manage the sequelae of long-standing facial paralysis. It is important, however, for any practitioner who assists this population to have a sophisticated understanding of the common etiologies and initial management of facial paralysis. This article reviews the more common causes of facial paralysis and discusses relevant early treatment strategies.

  13. Classifying Chimpanzee Facial Expressions Using Muscle Action

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Lisa A.; Bridget M Waller; Vick, Sarah J.; Bard, Kim A.

    2007-01-01

    The Chimpanzee Facial Action Coding System (ChimpFACS) is an objective, standardized observational tool for measuring facial movement in chimpanzees based on the well-known human Facial Action Coding System (FACS; P. Ekman & W. V. Friesen, 1978). This tool enables direct structural comparisons of facial expressions between humans and chimpanzees in terms of their common underlying musculature. Here the authors provide data on the first application of the ChimpFACS to validate existing categor...

  14. Facial skin care products and cosmetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana

    2014-01-01

    Facial skin care products and cosmetics can both aid or incite facial dermatoses. Properly selected skin care can create an environment for barrier repair aiding in the re-establishment of a healing biofilm and diminution of facial redness; however, skin care products that aggressively remove intercellular lipids or cause irritation must be eliminated before the red face will resolve. Cosmetics are an additive variable either aiding or challenging facial skin health.

  15. Facial Expression Recognition from World Wild Web

    OpenAIRE

    Mollahosseini, Ali; Hassani, Behzad; Salvador, Michelle J.; Abdollahi, Hojjat; Chan, David; Mahoor, Mohammad H.

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing facial expression in a wild setting has remained a challenging task in computer vision. The World Wide Web is a good source of facial images which most of them are captured in uncontrolled conditions. In fact, the Internet is a Word Wild Web of facial images with expressions. This paper presents the results of a new study on collecting, annotating, and analyzing wild facial expressions from the web. Three search engines were queried using 1250 emotion related keywords in six diffe...

  16. Facial Action Units Recognition: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    Popa, M.C.; Rothkrantz, L.J.M.; Wiggers, P.; Braspenning, R.A.C.; Shan, C

    2011-01-01

    Many approaches to facial expression recognition focus on assessing the six basic emotions (anger, disgust, happiness, fear, sadness, and surprise). Real-life situations proved to produce many more subtle facial expressions. A reliable way of analyzing the facial behavior is the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) developed by Ekman and Friesen, which decomposes the face into 46 action units (AU) and is usually performed by a human observer. Each AU is related to the contraction of one or more...

  17. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness. PMID:26161954

  18. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muñoz-Reyes, José Antonio; Iglesias-Julios, Marta; Pita, Miguel; Turiegano, Enrique

    2015-01-01

    Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  19. Facial Features: What Women Perceive as Attractive and What Men Consider Attractive.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Antonio Muñoz-Reyes

    Full Text Available Attractiveness plays an important role in social exchange and in the ability to attract potential mates, especially for women. Several facial traits have been described as reliable indicators of attractiveness in women, but very few studies consider the influence of several measurements simultaneously. In addition, most studies consider just one of two assessments to directly measure attractiveness: either self-evaluation or men's ratings. We explored the relationship between these two estimators of attractiveness and a set of facial traits in a sample of 266 young Spanish women. These traits are: facial fluctuating asymmetry, facial averageness, facial sexual dimorphism, and facial maturity. We made use of the advantage of having recently developed methodologies that enabled us to measure these variables in real faces. We also controlled for three other widely used variables: age, body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio. The inclusion of many different variables allowed us to detect any possible interaction between the features described that could affect attractiveness perception. Our results show that facial fluctuating asymmetry is related both to self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness. Other facial traits are related only to one direct attractiveness measurement: facial averageness and facial maturity only affect men's ratings. Unmodified faces are closer to natural stimuli than are manipulated photographs, and therefore our results support the importance of employing unmodified faces to analyse the factors affecting attractiveness. We also discuss the relatively low equivalence between self-perceived and male-rated attractiveness and how various anthropometric traits are relevant to them in different ways. Finally, we highlight the need to perform integrated-variable studies to fully understand female attractiveness.

  20. Facial Specialty. Teacher Edition. Cosmetology Series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Vocational and Technical Education, Stillwater. Curriculum and Instructional Materials Center.

    This publication is one of a series of curriculum guides designed to direct and support instruction in vocational cosmetology programs in the State of Oklahoma. It contains seven units for the facial specialty: identifying enemies of the skin, using aromatherapy on the skin, giving facials without the aid of machines, giving facials with the aid…

  1. Control de accesos mediante reconocimiento facial

    OpenAIRE

    Rodríguez Rodríguez, Bruno

    2011-01-01

    En esta memoria expone el trabajo que se ha llevado a cabo para intentar crear un sistema de reconocimiento facial. This paper outlines the work carried out in the attempt of creating a facial recognition system. En aquesta memòria exposa el treball que s'ha dut a terme en l'intent de crear un sistema de reconeixement facial.

  2. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune;

    2015-01-01

    traits in a linear regression. We show in this proof-of-concept study for facial trait prediction from genome-wide SNP data that some facial characteristics can be modeled by genetic information: facial width, eyebrow width, distance between eyes, and features involving mouth shape are predicted with...

  3. Facial aging: A clinical classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiffman Melvin

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this classification of facial aging is to have a simple clinical method to determine the severity of the aging process in the face. This allows a quick estimate as to the types of procedures that the patient would need to have the best results. Procedures that are presently used for facial rejuvenation include laser, chemical peels, suture lifts, fillers, modified facelift and full facelift. The physician is already using his best judgment to determine which procedure would be best for any particular patient. This classification may help to refine these decisions.

  4. Unifying Geometric Features and Facial Action Units for Improved Performance of Facial Expression Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ghayoumi, Mehdi; Bansal, Arvind K.

    2016-01-01

    Previous approaches to model and analyze facial expression analysis use three different techniques: facial action units, geometric features and graph based modelling. However, previous approaches have treated these technique separately. There is an interrelationship between these techniques. The facial expression analysis is significantly improved by utilizing these mappings between major geometric features involved in facial expressions and the subset of facial action units whose presence or...

  5. Rejuvenecimiento facial en "doble sigma" "Double ogee" facial rejuvenation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. M. Ramírez

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Las técnicas subperiósticas descritas por Tessier revolucionaron el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial, recomendando esta vía para tratar los signos tempranos del envejecimiento en pacientes jóvenes y de mediana edad. Psillakis refinó la técnica y Ramírez describió un método más seguro y eficaz de lifting subperióstico, demostrando que la técnica subperióstica de rejuveneciento facial se puede aplicar en el amplio espectro del envejecimiento facial. La introducción del endoscopio en el tratamiento del envejecimiento facial ha abierto una nueva era en la Cirugía Estética. Hoy la disección subperióstica asistida endocópicamente del tercio superior, medio e inferior de la cara, proporciona un medio eficaz para la reposición de los tejidos blandos, con posibilidad de aumento del esqueleto óseo craneofacial, menor edema facial postoperatorio, mínima lesión de las ramas del nervio facial y mejor tratamiento de las mejillas. Este abordaje, desarrollado y refinado durante la última década, se conoce como "Ritidectomía en Doble Sigma". El Arco Veneciano en doble sigma, bien conocido en Arquitectura desde la antigüedad, se caracteriza por ser un trazo armónico de curva convexa y a continuación curva cóncava. Cuando se observa una cara joven, desde un ángulo oblicuo, presenta una distribución característica de los tejidos, previamente descrita para el tercio medio como un arco ojival arquitectónico o una curva en forma de "S". Sin embargo, en un examen más detallado de la cara joven, en la vista de tres cuartos, el perfil completo revela una "arco ojival doble" o una sigma "S" doble. Para ver este recíproco y multicurvilíneo trazo de la belleza, debemos ver la cara en posición oblicua y así poder ver ambos cantos mediales. En esta posición, la cara joven presenta una convexidad característica de la cola de la ceja que confluye en la concavidad de la pared orbitaria lateral formando así el primer arco (superior

  6. Mapping and Manipulating Facial Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobald, Barry-John; Matthews, Iain; Mangini, Michael; Spies, Jeffrey R.; Brick, Timothy R.; Cohn, Jeffrey F.; Boker, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Nonverbal visual cues accompany speech to supplement the meaning of spoken words, signify emotional state, indicate position in discourse, and provide back-channel feedback. This visual information includes head movements, facial expressions and body gestures. In this article we describe techniques for manipulating both verbal and nonverbal facial…

  7. Genetic determinants of facial clefting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jugessur, Astanand; Shi, Min; Gjessing, Håkon Kristian;

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Facial clefts are common birth defects with a strong genetic component. To identify fetal genetic risk factors for clefting, 1536 SNPs in 357 candidate genes were genotyped in two population-based samples from Scandinavia (Norway: 562 case-parent and 592 control-parent triads; Denmark...

  8. Constraint-based facial animation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruttkay, Z.M.

    1999-01-01

    Constraints have been traditionally used for computer animation applications to define side conditions for generating synthesized motion according to a standard, usually physically realistic, set of motion equations. The case of facial animation is very different, as no set of motion equations for f

  9. Analysis of 809 Facial Bone Fractures in a Pediatric and Adolescent Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Hun Kim

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Background Facial fractures are infrequent in children and adolescents and have differentclinical features from those in adults. The low incidence in children and adolescents reflectsthe flexibility and underdevelopment of their facial skeletons, as well as their more protectedenvironments. Only a few reports have reviewed such patients in Korea. The authors performeda retrospective study to analyze the characteristics of facial fractures in the Korean pediatricpopulation.Methods We conducted a retrospective review on a series of 741 patients, aged <18 years,with facial fractures who had been treated at our hospital between 2006 and 2010. Thefollowing parameters were evaluated: age, sex, cause, location and type of fractures, associatedinjuries, treatment and complications.Results A total of 741 consecutive patients met the inclusion criteria. The ratio of boys to girlswas 5.7:1. Facial fractures most commonly occurred in patients between 13 and 15 years ofage (36.3%. The most common causes of injury was violence. The nasal fracture was the mostcommon type of fracture (69% and the blowout fracture was the second most common (20%.Associated injuries occurred in 156 patients (21%.Conclusions The incidence of pediatric facial fractures caused by violence is high in Korea.Our results show that as age increases, etiological factors and fracture patterns gradually shifttowards those found in adults. This study provides an overview of facial fractures in these agegroups that helps illustrate the trends and characteristics of the fractures and may be helpfulin further evaluation and management.

  10. Synthesizing Performance-driven Facial Animation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LUO Chang-Wei; YU Jun; WANG Zeng-Fu

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a system for real-time performance-driven facial animation. With the system, the user can control the facial expression of a digital character by acting out the desired facial action in front of an ordinary camera. First, we create a muscle-based 3D face model. The muscle actuation parameters are used to animate the face model. To increase the reality of facial animation, the orbicularis oris in our face model is divided into the inner part and outer part. We also establish the relationship between jaw rotation and facial surface deformation. Second, a real-time facial tracking method is employed to track the facial features of a performer in the video. Finally, the tracked facial feature points are used to estimate muscle actuation parameters to drive the face model. Experimental results show that our system runs in real time and outputs realistic facial animations. Compared with most existing performance-based facial animation systems, ours does not require facial markers, intrusive lighting, or special scanning equipment, thus it is inexpensive and easy to use.

  11. Man-machine collaboration using facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dai, Ying; Katahera, S.; Cai, D.

    2002-09-01

    For realizing the flexible man-machine collaboration, understanding of facial expressions and gestures is not negligible. In our method, we proposed a hierarchical recognition approach, for the understanding of human emotions. According to this method, the facial AFs (action features) were firstly extracted and recognized by using histograms of optical flow. Then, based on the facial AFs, facial expressions were classified into two calsses, one of which presents the positive emotions, and the other of which does the negative ones. Accordingly, the facial expressions belonged to the positive class, or the ones belonged to the negative class, were classified into more complex emotions, which were revealed by the corresponding facial expressions. Finally, the system architecture how to coordinate in recognizing facil action features and facial expressions for man-machine collaboration was proposed.

  12. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuura Naomi

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photographs of facial expressions illustrating six basic emotions, participants matched each emotional facial expression with an appropriate verbal label. Results Delinquents were less accurate in the recognition of facial expressions that conveyed disgust than were control participants. The delinquents misrecognized the facial expressions of disgust as anger more frequently than did controls. Conclusion These results suggest that one of the underpinnings of delinquency might be impaired recognition of emotional facial expressions, with a specific bias toward interpreting disgusted expressions as hostile angry expressions.

  13. Parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imaizumi, Mitsuyoshi; Tani, Akiko; Ogawa, Hiroshi; Omori, Koichi

    2014-10-01

    Parotid lymphangioma is a relatively rare disease that is usually detected in infancy or early childhood, and which has typical features. Clinical reports of facial nerve paralysis caused by lymphangioma, however, are very rare. Usually, facial nerve paralysis in a child suggests malignancy. Here we report a very rare case of parotid lymphangioma associated with facial nerve paralysis. A 7-year-old boy was admitted to hospital with a rapidly enlarging mass in the left parotid region. Left peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis was also noted. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging also revealed multiple cystic lesions. Open biopsy was undertaken in order to investigate the cause of the facial nerve paralysis. The histopathological findings of the excised tumor were consistent with lymphangioma. Prednisone (40 mg/day) was given in a tapering dose schedule. Facial nerve paralysis was completely cured 1 month after treatment. There has been no recurrent facial nerve paralysis for eight years.

  14. Imaging the Facial Nerve: A Contemporary Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachin Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Imaging plays a critical role in the evaluation of a number of facial nerve disorders. The facial nerve has a complex anatomical course; thus, a thorough understanding of the course of the facial nerve is essential to localize the sites of pathology. Facial nerve dysfunction can occur from a variety of causes, which can often be identified on imaging. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging are helpful for identifying bony facial canal and soft tissue abnormalities, respectively. Ultrasound of the facial nerve has been used to predict functional outcomes in patients with Bell’s palsy. More recently, diffusion tensor tractography has appeared as a new modality which allows three-dimensional display of facial nerve fibers.

  15. Recognizing Facial Expressions Automatically from Video

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Caifeng; Braspenning, Ralph

    Facial expressions, resulting from movements of the facial muscles, are the face changes in response to a person's internal emotional states, intentions, or social communications. There is a considerable history associated with the study on facial expressions. Darwin [22] was the first to describe in details the specific facial expressions associated with emotions in animals and humans, who argued that all mammals show emotions reliably in their faces. Since that, facial expression analysis has been a area of great research interest for behavioral scientists [27]. Psychological studies [48, 3] suggest that facial expressions, as the main mode for nonverbal communication, play a vital role in human face-to-face communication. For illustration, we show some examples of facial expressions in Fig. 1.

  16. Magnetoencephalographic study on facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kensaku eMiki

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In this review, we introduced our three studies that focused on facial movements. In the first study, we examined the temporal characteristics of neural responses elicited by viewing mouth movements, and assessed differences between the responses to mouth opening and closing movements and an averting eyes condition. Our results showed that the occipitotemporal area, the human MT/V5 homologue, was active in the perception of both mouth and eye motions. Viewing mouth and eye movements did not elicit significantly different activity in the occipitotemporal area, which indicated that perception of the movement of facial parts may be processed in the same manner, and this is different from motion in general. In the second study, we investigated whether early activity in the occipitotemporal region evoked by eye movements was influenced by a face contour and/or features such as the mouth. Our results revealed specific information processing for eye movements in the occipitotemporal region, and this activity was significantly influenced by whether movements appeared with the facial contour and/or features, in other words, whether the eyes moved, even if the movement itself was the same. In the third study, we examined the effects of inverting the facial contour (hair and chin and features (eyes, nose, and mouth on processing for static and dynamic face perception. Our results showed the following: (1 In static face perception, activity in the right fusiform area was affected more by the inversion of features while that in the left fusiform area was affected more by a disruption in the spatial relationship between the contour and features, and (2 In dynamic face perception, activity in the right occipitotemporal area was affected by the inversion of the facial contour.

  17. Genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity decrease facial attractiveness of female relatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Anthony J; Mitchem, Dorian G; Wright, Margaret J; Martin, Nicholas G; Keller, Matthew C; Zietsch, Brendan P

    2014-02-01

    For women, choosing a facially masculine man as a mate is thought to confer genetic benefits to offspring. Crucial assumptions of this hypothesis have not been adequately tested. It has been assumed that variation in facial masculinity is due to genetic variation and that genetic factors that increase male facial masculinity do not increase facial masculinity in female relatives. We objectively quantified the facial masculinity in photos of identical (n = 411) and nonidentical (n = 782) twins and their siblings (n = 106). Using biometrical modeling, we found that much of the variation in male and female facial masculinity is genetic. However, we also found that masculinity of male faces is unrelated to their attractiveness and that facially masculine men tend to have facially masculine, less-attractive sisters. These findings challenge the idea that facially masculine men provide net genetic benefits to offspring and call into question this popular theoretical framework.

  18. Effect of Different Occlusion on Facial Expressions Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Ankita Vyas; Ramchand Hablani

    2014-01-01

    Occlusions around facial parts complicate the task of recognizing facial expressions from their facial images. We propose facial expressions recognition method based on local facial regions, which provides better recognition rate in the presence of facial occlusions. Proposed method uses Uniform Local Binary pattern as a feature extractor, which extract discriminative features from some important parts of facial image. Feature vectors are classified using simplest classifier th...

  19. Facial expression recognition on a people-dependent personal facial expression space (PFES)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrasiri, N. P.; Park, Min Chul; Naemura, Takeshi; Harashima, Hiroshi

    2000-04-01

    In this paper, a person-specific facial expression recognition method which is based on Personal Facial Expression Space (PFES) is presented. The multidimensional scaling maps facial images as points in lower dimensions in PFES. It reflects personality of facial expressions as it is based on the peak instant of facial expression images of a specific person. In constructing PFES for a person, his/her whole normalized facial image is considered as a single pattern without block segmentation and differences of 2-D DCT coefficients from neutral facial image of the same person are used as features. Therefore, in the early part of the paper, separation characteristics of facial expressions in the frequency domain are analyzed using a still facial image database which consists of neutral, smile, anger, surprise and sadness facial images for each of 60 Japanese males (300 facial images). Results show that facial expression categories are well separated in the low frequency domain. PFES is constructed using multidimensional scaling by taking these low frequency domain of differences of 2-D DCT coefficients as features. On the PFES, trajectory of a facial image sequence of a person can be calculated in real time. Based on this trajectory, facial expressions can be recognized. Experimental results show the effectiveness of this method.

  20. Facial and Dental Injuries Facial and Dental Injuries in Karate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidovic-Stesevic, Vesna; Verna, Carlalberta; Krastl, Gabriel; Kuhl, Sebastian; Filippi, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Karate is a martial art that carries a high trauma risk. Trauma-related Swiss and European karate data are currently unavailable. This survey seeks to increase knowledge of the incidence of traumatic facial and dental injuries, their emergency management, awareness of tooth rescue boxes, the use of mouthguards and their modifications. Interviews were conducted with 420 karate fighters from 43 European countries using a standardized questionnaire. All the participants were semi-professionals. The data were evaluated with respect to gender, kumite level (where a karate practitioner trains against an adversary), and country. Of the 420 fighters interviewed, 213 had experienced facial trauma and 44 had already had dental trauma. A total of 192 athletes had hurt their opponent by inflicting a facial or dental injury, and 290 knew about the possibility of tooth replantation following an avulsion. Only 50 interviewees knew about tooth rescue boxes. Nearly all the individuals interviewed wore a mouthguard (n = 412), and 178 of them had made their own modifications to the guard. The results of the present survey suggest that more information and education in wearing protective gear are required to reduce the incidence of dental injuries in karate.

  1. Facial Expression at Retrieval Affects Recognition of Facial Identity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenfeng eChen

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that memory can be modulated by emotional stimuli at the time of encoding and consolidation. For example, happy faces create better identity recognition than faces with certain other expressions. However, the influence of facial expression at the time of retrieval remains unknown in the literature. To separate the potential influence of expression at retrieval from its effects at earlier stages, we had participants learn neutral faces but manipulated facial expression at the time of memory retrieval in a standard old/new recognition task. The results showed a clear effect of facial expression, where happy test faces were identified more successfully than angry test faces. This effect is unlikely due to greater image similarity between the neutral learning face and the happy test face, because image analysis showed that the happy test faces are in fact less similar to the neutral learning faces relative to the angry test faces. In the second experiment, we investigated whether this emotional effect is influenced by the expression at the time of learning. We employed angry or happy faces as learning stimuli, and angry, happy, and neutral faces as test stimuli. The results showed that the emotional effect at retrieval is robust across different encoding conditions with happy or angry expressions. These findings indicate that emotional expressions affect the retrieval process in identity recognition, and identity recognition does not rely on emotional association between learning and test faces.

  2. Recognizing Action Units for Facial Expression Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Ying-Li; Kanade, Takeo; Cohn, Jeffrey F

    2001-02-01

    Most automatic expression analysis systems attempt to recognize a small set of prototypic expressions, such as happiness, anger, surprise, and fear. Such prototypic expressions, however, occur rather infrequently. Human emotions and intentions are more often communicated by changes in one or a few discrete facial features. In this paper, we develop an Automatic Face Analysis (AFA) system to analyze facial expressions based on both permanent facial features (brows, eyes, mouth) and transient facial features (deepening of facial furrows) in a nearly frontal-view face image sequence. The AFA system recognizes fine-grained changes in facial expression into action units (AUs) of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS), instead of a few prototypic expressions. Multistate face and facial component models are proposed for tracking and modeling the various facial features, including lips, eyes, brows, cheeks, and furrows. During tracking, detailed parametric descriptions of the facial features are extracted. With these parameters as the inputs, a group of action units (neutral expression, six upper face AUs and 10 lower face AUs) are recognized whether they occur alone or in combinations. The system has achieved average recognition rates of 96.4 percent (95.4 percent if neutral expressions are excluded) for upper face AUs and 96.7 percent (95.6 percent with neutral expressions excluded) for lower face AUs. The generalizability of the system has been tested by using independent image databases collected and FACS-coded for ground-truth by different research teams.

  3. Facial morphology and obstructive sleep apnea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capistrano, Anderson; Cordeiro, Aldir; Capelozza, Leopoldino; Almeida, Veridiana Correia; Silva, Priscila Izabela de Castro e; Martinez, Sandra; de Almeida-Pedrin, Renata Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Objective: This study aimed at assessing the relationship between facial morphological patterns (I, II, III, Long Face and Short Face) as well as facial types (brachyfacial, mesofacial and dolichofacial) and obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) in patients attending a center specialized in sleep disorders. Methods: Frontal, lateral and smile photographs of 252 patients (157 men and 95 women), randomly selected from a polysomnography clinic, with mean age of 40.62 years, were evaluated. In order to obtain diagnosis of facial morphology, the sample was sent to three professors of Orthodontics trained to classify patients' face according to five patterns, as follows: 1) Pattern I; 2) Pattern II; 3) Pattern III; 4) Long facial pattern; 5) Short facial pattern. Intraexaminer agreement was assessed by means of Kappa index. The professors ranked patients' facial type based on a facial index that considers the proportion between facial width and height. Results: The multiple linear regression model evinced that, when compared to Pattern I, Pattern II had the apnea and hypopnea index (AHI) worsened in 6.98 episodes. However, when Pattern II was compared to Pattern III patients, the index for the latter was 11.45 episodes lower. As for the facial type, brachyfacial patients had a mean AHI of 22.34, while dolichofacial patients had a significantly statistical lower index of 10.52. Conclusion: Patients' facial morphology influences OSA. Pattern II and brachyfacial patients had greater AHI, while Pattern III patients showed a lower index. PMID:26691971

  4. Do facial expressions develop before birth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Reissland

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fetal facial development is essential not only for postnatal bonding between parents and child, but also theoretically for the study of the origins of affect. However, how such movements become coordinated is poorly understood. 4-D ultrasound visualisation allows an objective coding of fetal facial movements. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: Based on research using facial muscle movements to code recognisable facial expressions in adults and adapted for infants, we defined two distinct fetal facial movements, namely "cry-face-gestalt" and "laughter- gestalt," both made up of up to 7 distinct facial movements. In this conceptual study, two healthy fetuses were then scanned at different gestational ages in the second and third trimester. We observed that the number and complexity of simultaneous movements increased with gestational age. Thus, between 24 and 35 weeks the mean number of co-occurrences of 3 or more facial movements increased from 7% to 69%. Recognisable facial expressions were also observed to develop. Between 24 and 35 weeks the number of co-occurrences of 3 or more movements making up a "cry-face gestalt" facial movement increased from 0% to 42%. Similarly the number of co-occurrences of 3 or more facial movements combining to a "laughter-face gestalt" increased from 0% to 35%. These changes over age were all highly significant. SIGNIFICANCE: This research provides the first evidence of developmental progression from individual unrelated facial movements toward fetal facial gestalts. We propose that there is considerable potential of this method for assessing fetal development: Subsequent discrimination of normal and abnormal fetal facial development might identify health problems in utero.

  5. Substance Use and Facial Injury

    OpenAIRE

    Murphy, Debra A.

    2010-01-01

    Substance use is a major contributing factor to the interpersonal violence that accounts for a significant proportion of facial injuries among adults and adolescents; thus, violence is the main “pathway” through which substance use and injuries are linked. Beyond causality, substance use continues to influence recovery from the injury through its impact on the healing process (e.g., patient non-compliance, suppression of T-cell counts, susceptibility to bacterial colonization, and protein pro...

  6. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research

    OpenAIRE

    Little, Anthony C.; Jones, Benedict C.; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-01-01

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels ...

  7. Perineural extension of facial melanoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kalina, Peter [Mayo Clinic, Department of Radiology, Rochester, Minnesota (United States); Bevilacqua, Paula

    2005-05-01

    A 64-year-old man presented with a pigmented cutaneous lesion on the right side of his face along with right facial numbness. Histological examination revealed malignant melanoma. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed perineural extension along the entire course of the maxillary division of the right trigeminal nerve. This is a rare but important manifestation of the spread of head and neck malignancy. (orig.)

  8. Mind-Refreshing Acupuncture Therapy for Facial Spasm,Trigeminal Neuralgia and Stubborn Facial Paralysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘正; 方桂梅

    2004-01-01

    @@ Facial spasm, trigeminal neuralgia and stubborn facial paralysis are commonly seen in clinic. The authors have obtained quite good therapeutic results for the above diseases by using the mind-refreshing acupuncture therapy. These are introduced in the following.

  9. Automatic facial responses to near-threshold presented facial displays of emotion: imitation or evaluation?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumann, Roland; Schulz, Stefan M; Lozo, Ljubica; Alpers, Georg W

    2014-02-01

    Automatic facial reactions to near-threshold presented facial displays of emotion can be due to motor-mimicry or evaluation. To examine the mechanisms underlying such automatic facial responses we presented facial displays of joy, anger, and disgust for 16.67ms with a backwards masking technique and assessed electromyographic activity over the zygomaticus major, the levator labii, and the corrugator supercilii. As expected, we found that participants responded to displays of joy with contractions of the zygomaticus major and to expressions of anger with contractions of the corrugator supercilii. Critically, facial displays of disgust automatically activated the corrugator supercilii rather than the levator labii. This supports the notion that evaluative processes mediate facial responses to near-threshold presented facial displays of emotion rather than direct mimicry of emotional facial features. PMID:24370542

  10. Identification based on facial parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stevanov Zorica

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Two opposing views dominate face identification literature, one suggesting that the face is processed as a whole and another suggesting analysis based on parts. Our research tried to establish which of these two is the dominant strategy and our results fell in the direction of analysis based on parts. The faces were covered with a mask and the participants were uncovering different parts, one at the time, in an attempt to identify a person. Already at the level of a single facial feature, such as mouth or eye and top of the nose, some observers were capable to establish the identity of a familiar face. Identification is exceptionally successful when a small assembly of facial parts is visible, such as eye, eyebrow and the top of the nose. Some facial parts are not very informative on their own but do enhance recognition when given as a part of such an assembly. Novel finding here is importance of the top of the nose for the face identification. Additionally observers have a preference toward the left side of the face. Typically subjects view the elements in the following order: left eye, left eyebrow, right eye, lips, region between the eyes, right eyebrow, region between the eyebrows, left check, right cheek. When observers are not in a position to see eyes, eyebrows or top of the nose, they go for lips first and then region between the eyebrows, region between the eyes, left check, right cheek and finally chin.

  11. Cultural perspectives in facial allotransplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Pearlie W W; Patel, Ashish S; Taub, Peter J; Lampert, Joshua A; Xipoleas, George; Santiago, Gabriel F; Silver, Lester; Sheriff, Hemin O; Lin, Tsan-Shiun; Cooter, Rodney; Diogo, Franco; Salazaard, Bruno; Kim, Byung Jun; Lee, Yoon Ho; Ogawa, Rei

    2012-01-01

    Facial allotransplantation is a clinical reality, proposed to provide improved functional and aesthetic outcomes to conventional methods of facial reconstruction. Multidisciplinary efforts are needed in addressing not just the surgical and immunological issues but the psychological and sociological aspects as well. In view of this, an international survey was designed and conducted to demonstrate that attitudes toward facial allotransplantation are highly influenced by cultural background. Of all countries surveyed, France had the highest percentage of respondents willing to donate their faces (59%) and Iraq had the lowest (19%). A higher percentage of respondents were willing to accepting a face transplant (68%) than donate their face after death (41%). Countries with a dominant Western population show greater percentages of willingness to accept a face transplant, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) acceptance of plastic surgery for disfigurement and for cosmetic reasons and (2) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Countries with a dominant Western population also show greater percentages of willingness to donate their faces after death, as they exhibit more positive variables, that is, (1) positive attitude to organ donation by being an organ donor themselves, (2) acceptance of plastic surgery if disfigured, and (3) awareness to the world's first face transplant. Although religion was sometimes cited as a reason for not donating their faces, data analysis has shown religion not to be a strong associating factor to willingness to donate a face after death. PMID:22977674

  12. Gamer's Facial Cloning for Online Interactive Games

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Sattar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Virtual illustration of a human face is essential to enhance the mutual interaction in a cyber community. In this paper we propose a solution to solve two bottlenecks in facial analysis and synthesis for an interactive system of human face cloning for non-expert users of computer games. Tactical maneuvers of the gamer make single camera acquisition system unsuitable to analyze and track the face due to its large lateral movements. For an improved facial analysis system, we propose to acquire the facial images from multiple cameras and analyze them by multiobjective 2.5D Active Appearance Model (MOAAM. Facial morphological dissimilarities between a human face and an avatar make the facial synthesis quite complex. To successfully clone or retarget the gamer facial expressions and gestures on to an avatar, we introduce a simple mathematical link between their appearances. Results obtained validate the efficiency, accuracy and robustness achieved.

  13. Objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Annette M; Tollefson, Travis T

    2010-05-01

    Facial analysis is an integral part of the surgical planning process. Clinical photography has long been an invaluable tool in the surgeon's practice not only for accurate facial analysis but also for enhancing communication between the patient and surgeon, for evaluating postoperative results, for medicolegal documentation, and for educational and teaching opportunities. From 35-mm slide film to the digital technology of today, clinical photography has benefited greatly from technological advances. With the development of computer imaging software, objective facial analysis becomes easier to perform and less time consuming. Thus, while the original purpose of facial analysis remains the same, the process becomes much more efficient and allows for some objectivity. Although clinical judgment and artistry of technique is never compromised, the ability to perform objective facial photograph analysis using imaging software may become the standard in facial plastic surgery practices in the future. PMID:20511080

  14. Amniotic membrane covering for facial nerve repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Murat Karaman; Arzu Tuncel; Shahrouz Sheidaei; Mehmet Güney (S)enol; Murat Hakan Karabulut; Ildem Deveci; Nihan Karaman

    2013-01-01

    Amniotic membranes have been widely used in ophthalmology and skin injury repair because of their anti-inflammatory properties. In this study, we measured therapeutic efficacy and determined if amniotic membranes could be used for facial nerve repair. The facial nerves of eight rats were dissected and end-to-end anastomosis was performed. Amniotic membranes were covered on the anastomosis sites in four rats. Electromyography results showed that, at the end of the 3rd and 8th weeks after amniotic membrane covering, the latency values of the facial nerves covered by amniotic membranes were significantly shortened and the amplitude values were significantly increased. Compared with simple facial nerve anastomosis, after histopathological examination, facial nerve anastomosed with amniotic membrane showed better continuity, milder inflammatory reactions, and more satisfactory nerve conduction. These findings suggest that amniotic membrane covering has great potential in facial nerve repair.

  15. Facial Orientation and Facial Shape in Extant Great Apes: A Geometric Morphometric Analysis of Covariation

    OpenAIRE

    Dimitri Neaux; Franck Guy; Emmanuel Gilissen; Walter Coudyzer; Patrick Vignaud; Stéphane Ducrocq

    2013-01-01

    The organization of the bony face is complex, its morphology being influenced in part by the rest of the cranium. Characterizing the facial morphological variation and craniofacial covariation patterns in extant hominids is fundamental to the understanding of their evolutionary history. Numerous studies on hominid facial shape have proposed hypotheses concerning the relationship between the anterior facial shape, facial block orientation and basicranial flexion. In this study we test these hy...

  16. Facial asymmetry in young adults with condylar hyperplasia-unusual changes in the facial bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gn, Suma; Sharma, Manisha Lakhanpal; Jk, Dayashankar Rao; Goel, Sumit; Srivastava, Siddharth

    2015-01-01

    Facial asymmetry can be caused by various pathological conditions, condylar hyperplasia (CH) is one of such condition, characterized by unilateral or bilateral mandibular condylar overgrowth, causing facial asymmetry, mandibular deviation, malocclusion and functional impairment. Advanced imaging and scintigraphic methods, helps the clinicians in diagnosing and monitoring its macroscopic aspects. Here we report three interesting and illustrative cases of facial asymmetry with unilateral CH discussing the unusual changes in the facial bones. PMID:25738093

  17. Facial expression (mood) recognition from facial images using committee neural networks

    OpenAIRE

    Hariharan SI; Reddy Narender P; Kulkarni Saket S

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial ...

  18. Management of Facial Telangiectasias with Hand Cautery

    OpenAIRE

    E. Liapakis, Ioannis; Englander, Miriam; Sinani, Roven; I. Paschalis, Eleftherios

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Facial telangiectasias are superficial cutaneous vessels that can result in noticeable aesthetical imperfections. This study presents a technique for the removal of facial telangiectasias using hand cautery. METHODS Twenty-five patients with facial telangiectasias were treated using hand cautery (Medicell Inc, Athens, Greece) during 2009-2013. Photo documentation was performed for each patient before and immediately after treatment. Treatment was performed by cauterization at 800°C...

  19. Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing

    OpenAIRE

    Shiqing Zhang; Xiaoming Zhao; Bicheng Lei

    2012-01-01

    Recently, compressive sensing (CS) has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC). The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, ...

  20. [Peripheral paralysis of facial nerve in children].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steczkowska-Klucznik, Małgorzata; Kaciński, Marek

    2006-01-01

    Peripheral facial paresis is one of the most common diagnosed neuropathies in adults and also in children. Many factors can trigger facial paresis and most frequent are infectious, carcinoma and demyelinisation diseases. Very important and interesting problem is an idiopathic facial paresis (Bell's palsy). Actually the main target of scientific research is to assess the etiology (infectious, genetic, immunologic) and to find the most appropriate treatment.

  1. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krippl, Martin; Karim, Ahmed A; Brechmann, André

    2015-01-01

    Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al., 2002). The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs) and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1). Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser), AU4 (brow lowerer), AU12 (lip corner puller) and AU24 (lip presser), each in alternation with a resting phase. Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g., M1, premotor cortex, supplementary motor area, putamen), as well as in the thalamus, insula, and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the "like attracts like" principle (Donoghue et al., 1992). AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  2. Neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin eKrippl

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Whereas the somatotopy of finger movements has been extensively studied with neuroimaging, the neural foundations of facial movements remain elusive. Therefore, we systematically studied the neuronal correlates of voluntary facial movements using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS,Ekman et al., 2002. The facial movements performed in the MRI scanner were defined as Action Units (AUs and were controlled by a certified FACS coder. The main goal of the study was to investigate the detailed somatotopy of the facial primary motor area (facial M1. Eighteen participants were asked to produce the following four facial movements in the fMRI scanner: AU1+2 (brow raiser, AU4 (brow lowerer, AU12 (lip corner puller and AU24 (lip presser, each in alternation with a resting phase.Our facial movement task induced generally high activation in brain motor areas (e.g. M1, premotor cortex, SMA, putamen, as well as in the thalamus, insula and visual cortex. BOLD activations revealed overlapping representations for the four facial movements. However, within the activated facial M1 areas, we could find distinct peak activities in the left and right hemisphere supporting a rough somatotopic upper to lower face organization within the right facial M1 area, and a somatotopic organization within the right M1 upper face part. In both hemispheres, the order was an inverse somatotopy within the lower face representations. In contrast to the right hemisphere, in the left hemisphere the representation of AU 4 was more lateral and anterior compared to the rest of the facial movements. Our findings support the notion of a partial somatotopic order within the M1 face area confirming the like attracts like principle (Donoghue et al., 1992 . AUs which are often used together or are similar are located close to each other in the motor cortex.

  3. Portable Facial Recognition Jukebox Using Fisherfaces (Frj)

    OpenAIRE

    Richard Mo; Adnan Shaout

    2016-01-01

    A portable real-time facial recognition system that is able to play personalized music based on the identified person’s preferences was developed. The system is called Portable Facial Recognition Jukebox Using Fisherfaces (FRJ). Raspberry Pi was used as the hardware platform for its relatively low cost and ease of use. This system uses the OpenCV open source library to implement the computer vision Fisherfaces facial recognition algorithms, and uses the Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL) library ...

  4. Surgical Options for Atypical Facial Pain Syndromes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahimpour, Shervin; Lad, Shivanand P

    2016-07-01

    Atypical neuropathic facial pain is a syndrome of intractable and unremitting facial pain that is secondary to nociceptive signaling in the trigeminal system. These syndromes are often recalcitrant to pharmacotherapy and other common interventions, including microvascular decompression and percutaneous procedures. Herein, the authors present two other viable approaches (nucleus caudalis dorsal root entry zone lesioning and motor cortex stimulation), their indications, and finally a possible treatment algorithm to consider when assessing patients with atypical facial pain. PMID:27325003

  5. Unsupervised learning of facial emotion decoding skills

    OpenAIRE

    Jan Oliver Huelle; Benjamin eSack; Katja eBroer; Irina eKomlewa; Silke eAnders

    2014-01-01

    Research on the mechanisms underlying human facial emotion recognition has long focussed on genetically determined neural algorithms and often neglected the question of how these algorithms might be tuned by social learning. Here we show that facial emotion decoding skills can be significantly and sustainably improved by practice without an external teaching signal. Participants saw video clips of dynamic facial expressions of five different women and were asked to decide which of four possib...

  6. What Can Spontaneous Facial Expression Tell Us?

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Songfan

    2014-01-01

    Facial expression plays a significant role in human communication. It is considered the single most important cue in the psychology of emotion. Facial expression is taken as a universally understood signal, which triggers a discrete categorical basic emotion, including joy, sadness, fear, surprise, anger, and disgust. Thus, automatic analysis of emotion from images of human facial expression has been an interesting and challenging problem for the past 30 years. Aiming towards the applications...

  7. FACIAL EXPRESSION RECOGNITION BASED ON EDGE DETECTION

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Xiaoming; Cheng, Wushan

    2015-01-01

    Relational Over the last two decades, the advances in computer vision and pattern recognition power have opened the door to new opportunity of automatic facial expression recognition system[1]. This paper use Canny edge detection method for facial expression recognition. Image color space transformation in the first place and then to identify and locate human face .Next pick up the edge of eyes and mouth's features extraction. Last we judge the facial expressions after compared wi...

  8. Allometry of facial mobility in anthropoid primates: implications for the evolution of facial expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobson, Seth D

    2009-01-01

    Body size may be an important factor influencing the evolution of facial expression in anthropoid primates due to allometric constraints on the perception of facial movements. Given this hypothesis, I tested the prediction that observed facial mobility is positively correlated with body size in a comparative sample of nonhuman anthropoids. Facial mobility, or the variety of facial movements a species can produce, was estimated using a novel application of the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). I used FACS to estimate facial mobility in 12 nonhuman anthropoid species, based on video recordings of facial activity in zoo animals. Body mass data were taken from the literature. I used phylogenetic generalized least squares (PGLS) to perform a multiple regression analysis with facial mobility as the dependent variable and two independent variables: log body mass and dummy-coded infraorder. Together, body mass and infraorder explain 92% of the variance in facial mobility. However, the partial effect of body mass is much stronger than for infraorder. The results of my study suggest that allometry is an important constraint on the evolution of facial mobility, which may limit the complexity of facial expression in smaller species. More work is needed to clarify the perceptual bases of this allometric pattern.

  9. Periocular Reconstruction in Patients with Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Shannon S; Joseph, Andrew W; Douglas, Raymond S; Massry, Guy G

    2016-04-01

    Facial paralysis can result in serious ocular consequences. All patients with orbicularis oculi weakness in the setting of facial nerve injury should undergo a thorough ophthalmologic evaluation. The main goal of management in these patients is to protect the ocular surface and preserve visual function. Patients with expected recovery of facial nerve function may only require temporary and conservative measures to protect the ocular surface. Patients with prolonged or unlikely recovery of facial nerve function benefit from surgical rehabilitation of the periorbital complex. Current reconstructive procedures are most commonly intended to improve coverage of the eye but cannot restore blink.

  10. Facial Asymmetry: Etiology, Evaluation, and Management

    OpenAIRE

    You-Wei Cheong; Lun-Jou Lo

    2011-01-01

    Facial asymmetry is common in humans. Significantfacial asymmetry causes both functional as well as estheticproblems. When patients complain of facial asymmetry, theu n d e r l y i n g c a u s e s h o u l d b e i n v e s t i g a t e d . T h e e t i o l o g yincludes congenital disorders, acquired diseases, and traumatic and developmental deformities. The causes of many casesof developmental facial asymmetry are indistinct. Assessmentof facial asymmetry consists of a patient histor...

  11. Nasal Septal Deviation and Facial Skeletal Asymmetries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Christopher; Holton, Nathan; Miller, Steven; Yokley, Todd; Marshall, Steven; Srinivasan, Sreedevi; Southard, Thomas

    2016-03-01

    During ontogeny, the nasal septum exerts a morphogenetic influence on the surrounding facial skeleton. While the influence of the septum is well established in long snouted animal models, its role in human facial growth is less clear. If the septum is a facial growth center in humans, we would predict that deviated septal growth would be associated with facial skeletal asymmetries. Using computed tomographic (CT) scans of n = 55 adult subjects, the purpose of this study was to test whether there is a correlation between septal deviation and facial asymmetries using three-dimensional (3D) geometric morphometric techniques. We calculated deviation as a percentage of septal volume relative to the volume of a modeled non-deviated septum. We then recorded skeletal landmarks representing the nasal, palatal, and lateral facial regions. Landmark data were superimposed using Procrustes analysis. First, we examined the correlation between nasal septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry. Next, we assessed whether there was a relationship between nasal septal deviation and more localized aspects of asymmetry using multivariate regression analysis. Our results indicate that while there was no correlation between septal deviation and the overall magnitude of asymmetry, septal deviation was associated with asymmetry primarily in the nasal floor and the palatal region. Septal deviation was unassociated with asymmetries in the lateral facial skeleton. Though we did not test the causal relationship between nasal septal deviation and facial asymmetry, our results suggest that the nasal septum may have an influence on patterns of adult facial form. PMID:26677010

  12. Cross-pose Facial Expression Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Guney, Fatma; Arar, Nuri Murat; Fischer, Mika; Ekenel, Hazim Kemal

    2013-01-01

    In real world facial expression recognition (FER) applications, it is not practical for a user to enroll his/her facial expressions under different pose angles. Therefore, a desirable property of a FER system would be to allow the user to enroll his/her facial expressions under a single pose, for example frontal, and be able to recognize them under different pose angles. In this paper, we address this problem and present a method to recognize six prototypic facial expressions of an individual...

  13. Social Use of Facial Expressions in Hylobatids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linda Scheider

    Full Text Available Non-human primates use various communicative means in interactions with others. While primate gestures are commonly considered to be intentionally and flexibly used signals, facial expressions are often referred to as inflexible, automatic expressions of affective internal states. To explore whether and how non-human primates use facial expressions in specific communicative interactions, we studied five species of small apes (gibbons by employing a newly established Facial Action Coding System for hylobatid species (GibbonFACS. We found that, despite individuals often being in close proximity to each other, in social (as opposed to non-social contexts the duration of facial expressions was significantly longer when gibbons were facing another individual compared to non-facing situations. Social contexts included grooming, agonistic interactions and play, whereas non-social contexts included resting and self-grooming. Additionally, gibbons used facial expressions while facing another individual more often in social contexts than non-social contexts where facial expressions were produced regardless of the attentional state of the partner. Also, facial expressions were more likely 'responded to' by the partner's facial expressions when facing another individual than non-facing. Taken together, our results indicate that gibbons use their facial expressions differentially depending on the social context and are able to use them in a directed way in communicative interactions with other conspecifics.

  14. A CLINICAL STUDY OF ACUPUNCTURE TREATMENT FOR FACIAL PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TOH Foh Fook

    2002-01-01

    @@ Peripheral facial paralysis is a common disease with manifestation of facial paralysis. The author's clinical observation on 50 cases of facial paralysis treated mainly with acupuncture showed an effeclive rate of 98%, and the remarkable effectiveness was reported as follow.

  15. American Academy of Facial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... is the world's largest specialty association for facial plastic surgery. It represents more than 2,700 facial plastic ... the American Board of Otolaryngology , which includes facial plastic surgery. Others are certified in plastic surgery, ophthalmology, and ...

  16. Slowing down Presentation of Facial Movements and Vocal Sounds Enhances Facial Expression Recognition and Induces Facial-Vocal Imitation in Children with Autism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tardif, Carole; Laine, France; Rodriguez, Melissa; Gepner, Bruno

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the effects of slowing down presentation of facial expressions and their corresponding vocal sounds on facial expression recognition and facial and/or vocal imitation in children with autism. Twelve autistic children and twenty-four normal control children were presented with emotional and non-emotional facial expressions on…

  17. Study on the Clinical Significance of Mathematical Relations between the Thickness of Facial Soft Tissues in Male

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zixuan; WANG Qinghua

    2002-01-01

    Objective To discuss the mathematical relations between the thickness of facial soft tissues. Mehtods Measured the thickness of facial soft tissue on X- ray film (51 men). Record seven data every man, computed their related ratio and analysis all the data with SPSS software. Result All of the items were positive correlation and their correlations were significant expect the correlation between the thickness of hair line point and the Sn point. All the results were normal distribution. Conclusion The results can be used to calculate the thickness of injured facial soft tissue in male.

  18. Automatic facial expression recognition based on features extracted from tracking of facial landmarks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghimire, Deepak; Lee, Joonwhoan

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present a fully automatic facial expression recognition system using support vector machines, with geometric features extracted from the tracking of facial landmarks. Facial landmark initialization and tracking is performed by using an elastic bunch graph matching algorithm. The facial expression recognition is performed based on the features extracted from the tracking of not only individual landmarks, but also pair of landmarks. The recognition accuracy on the Extended Kohn-Kanade (CK+) database shows that our proposed set of features produces better results, because it utilizes time-varying graph information, as well as the motion of individual facial landmarks.

  19. Electronic shell structure and carrier dynamics of high aspect ratio InP single quantum dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beirne, Gareth J.; Reischle, Matthias; Roßbach, Robert; Schulz, Wolfgang-Michael; Jetter, Michael; Seebeck, Jan; Gartner, Paul; Gies, Christopher; Jahnke, Frank; Michler, Peter

    2007-05-01

    Systematic excitation-power-density dependent and time-resolved single-dot photoluminescence studies have been performed on type-I InP/Ga0.51In0.49P quantum dots. These dots are rather flat and therefore exhibit larger than normal single-dot ground-state transition energies ranging from 1.791 to 1.873eV . As a result of their low height, the dots have a very high aspect ratio (ratio of width to height) of approximately 27:1 . In general, even at high excitation power densities, the dots with ground-state transition energies above 1.82eV exhibit only s -shell emission, while the larger dots exhibiting ground-state emission below 1.82eV tend to exhibit emission from several (in some cases up to eight) shells. Calculations indicate that this change is due to the smaller dots having only one confined election level while the larger dots have two or more. Time-resolved investigations indicate the presence of fast carrier relaxation and recombination processes for both dot types, however, only the larger dots display clear interlevel relaxation effects as expected. The temporal behavior has been qualitatively simulated using a rate equation model. Also, in a more detailed analysis, the fast carrier relaxation is described on the basis of a quantum kinetic treatment of the carrier-phonon interaction. Finally, the dots display a clear single-photon emission signature in photon statistics measurements.

  20. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson's Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    According to embodied simulation theory, understanding other people's emotions is fostered by facial mimicry. However, studies assessing the effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion are still controversial. In Parkinson's disease (PD), one of the most distinctive clinical features is facial amimia, a reduction in facial expressiveness, but patients also show emotional disturbances. The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral). Our results evidenced a significant decrease in facial mimicry for joy in PD, essentially linked to the absence of reaction of the zygomaticus major and the orbicularis oculi muscles in response to happy avatars, whereas facial mimicry for expressions of anger was relatively preserved. We also confirmed that PD patients were less accurate in recognizing positive and neutral facial expressions and highlighted a beneficial effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion. We thus provide additional arguments for embodied simulation theory suggesting that facial mimicry is a potential lever for therapeutic actions in PD even if it seems not to be necessarily required in recognizing emotion as such. PMID:27467393

  1. Guiding atypical facial growth back to normal. Part 1: Understanding facial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galella, Steve; Chow, Daniel; Jones, Earl; Enlow, Donald; Masters, Ari

    2011-01-01

    Many practitioners find the complexity of facial growth overwhelming and thus merely observe and accept the clinical features of atypical growth and do not comprehend the long-term consequences. Facial growth and development is a strictly controlled biological process. Normal growth involves ongoing bone remodeling and positional displacement. Atypical growth begins when this biological balance is disturbed With the understanding of these processes, clinicians can adequately assess patients and determine the causes of these atypical facial growth patterns and design effective treatment plans. This is the first of a series of articles which addresses normal facial growth, atypical facial growth, patient assessment, causes of atypical facial growth, and guiding facial growth back to normal.

  2. Immunobiology of Facial Nerve Repair and Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUAN Shi-ming; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    Immunobiological study is a key to revealing the important basis of facial nerve repair and regeneration for both research and development of clinic treatments. The microenvironmental changes around an injuried facial motoneuron, i.e., the aggregation and expression of various types of immune cells and molecules in a dynamic equilibrium, impenetrate from the start to the end of the repair of an injured facial nerve. The concept of "immune microenvironment for facial nerve repair and regeneration", mainly concerns with the dynamic exchange between expression and regulation networks and a variaty of immune cells and immune molecules in the process of facial nerve repair and regeneration for the maintenance of a immune microenvironment favorable for nerve repair.Investigation on microglial activation and recruitment, T cell behavior, cytokine networks, and immunological cellular and molecular signaling pathways in facial nerve repair and regeneration are the current hot spots in the research on immunobiology of facial nerve injury. The current paper provides a comprehensive review of the above mentioned issues. Research of these issues will eventually make immunological interventions practicable treatments for facial nerve injury in the clinic.

  3. Fast Facial Detection by Depth Map Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Yuan Shieh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to obtain correct facial recognition results, one needs to adopt appropriate facial detection techniques. Moreover, the effects of facial detection are usually affected by the environmental conditions such as background, illumination, and complexity of objectives. In this paper, the proposed facial detection scheme, which is based on depth map analysis, aims to improve the effectiveness of facial detection and recognition under different environmental illumination conditions. The proposed procedures consist of scene depth determination, outline analysis, Haar-like classification, and related image processing operations. Since infrared light sources can be used to increase dark visibility, the active infrared visual images captured by a structured light sensory device such as Kinect will be less influenced by environmental lights. It benefits the accuracy of the facial detection. Therefore, the proposed system will detect the objective human and face firstly and obtain the relative position by structured light analysis. Next, the face can be determined by image processing operations. From the experimental results, it demonstrates that the proposed scheme not only improves facial detection under varying light conditions but also benefits facial recognition.

  4. Predicting facial characteristics from complex polygenic variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fagertun, Jens; Wolffhechel, Karin Marie Brandt; Pers, Tune;

    2015-01-01

    Research into the importance of the human genome in the context of facial appearance is receiving increasing attention and has led to the detection of several Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) of importance. In this work we attempt a holistic approach predicting facial characteristics from g...

  5. Facial Mimicry in its Social Setting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate eSeibt

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available In interpersonal encounters, individuals often exhibit changes in their own facial expressions in response to emotional expressions of another person. Such changes are often called facial mimicry. While this tendency first appeared to be an automatic tendency of the perceiver to show the same emotional expression as the sender, evidence is now accumulating that situation, person, and relationship jointly determine whether and for which emotions such congruent facial behavior is shown. We review the evidence regarding the moderating influence of such factors on facial mimicry with a focus on understanding the meaning of facial responses to emotional expressions in a particular constellation. From this, we derive recommendations for a research agenda with a stronger focus on the most common forms of encounters, actual interactions with known others, and on assessing potential mediators of facial mimicry. We conclude that facial mimicry is modulated by many factors: attention deployment and sensitivity, detection of valence, emotional feelings, and social motivations. We posit that these are the more proximal causes of changes in facial mimicry due to changes in its social setting.

  6. Brain Systems for Assessing Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winston, Joel S.; O'Doherty, John; Kilner, James M.; Perrett, David I.; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2007-01-01

    Attractiveness is a facial attribute that shapes human affiliative behaviours. In a previous study we reported a linear response to facial attractiveness in orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), a region involved in reward processing. There are strong theoretical grounds for the hypothesis that coding stimulus reward value also involves the amygdala. The…

  7. Recognition of 3D facial expression dynamics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, G.; Zafeiriou, S.; Pantic, Maja; Rueckert, D.

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a method that exploits 3D motion-based features between frames of 3D facial geometry sequences for dynamic facial expression recognition. An expressive sequence is modelled to contain an onset followed by an apex and an offset. Feature selection methods are applied in order

  8. Hepatitis Diagnosis Using Facial Color Image

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Mingjia; Guo, Zhenhua

    Facial color diagnosis is an important diagnostic method in traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). However, due to its qualitative, subjective and experi-ence-based nature, traditional facial color diagnosis has a very limited application in clinical medicine. To circumvent the subjective and qualitative problems of facial color diagnosis of Traditional Chinese Medicine, in this paper, we present a novel computer aided facial color diagnosis method (CAFCDM). The method has three parts: face Image Database, Image Preprocessing Module and Diagnosis Engine. Face Image Database is carried out on a group of 116 patients affected by 2 kinds of liver diseases and 29 healthy volunteers. The quantitative color feature is extracted from facial images by using popular digital image processing techni-ques. Then, KNN classifier is employed to model the relationship between the quantitative color feature and diseases. The results show that the method can properly identify three groups: healthy, severe hepatitis with jaundice and severe hepatitis without jaundice with accuracy higher than 73%.

  9. Nablus mask-like facial syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Allanson, Judith; Smith, Amanda; Hare, Heather;

    2012-01-01

    Nablus mask-like facial syndrome (NMLFS) has many distinctive phenotypic features, particularly tight glistening skin with reduced facial expression, blepharophimosis, telecanthus, bulky nasal tip, abnormal external ear architecture, upswept frontal hairline, and sparse eyebrows. Over the last fe...... that deletion of the 8q21.3q22.1 region is necessary but not sufficient for development of the NMLFS. We discuss possible genetic mechanisms underlying the complex pattern of inheritance for this condition....... heterozygous deletions significantly overlapping the region associated with NMLFS. Notably, while one mother and child were said to have mild tightening of facial skin, none of these individuals exhibited reduced facial expression or the classical facial phenotype of NMLFS. These findings indicate...

  10. Robust Facial Expression Recognition via Compressive Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiqing Zhang

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Recently, compressive sensing (CS has attracted increasing attention in the areas of signal processing, computer vision and pattern recognition. In this paper, a new method based on the CS theory is presented for robust facial expression recognition. The CS theory is used to construct a sparse representation classifier (SRC. The effectiveness and robustness of the SRC method is investigated on clean and occluded facial expression images. Three typical facial features, i.e., the raw pixels, Gabor wavelets representation and local binary patterns (LBP, are extracted to evaluate the performance of the SRC method. Compared with the nearest neighbor (NN, linear support vector machines (SVM and the nearest subspace (NS, experimental results on the popular Cohn-Kanade facial expression database demonstrate that the SRC method obtains better performance and stronger robustness to corruption and occlusion on robust facial expression recognition tasks.

  11. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANITHA C,

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - definition television, medicine, human–computer interfaces, multimedia facial queries, and low-bandwidth transmission of facial data. This paper presents a comprehensive survey of the currently available databases that can be used in facial expression recognition systems. The growth in face database development has been tremendous during the recent years.

  12. Mutual information-based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazar, Mliki; Hammami, Mohamed; Hanêne, Ben-Abdallah

    2013-12-01

    This paper introduces a novel low-computation discriminative regions representation for expression analysis task. The proposed approach relies on interesting studies in psychology which show that most of the descriptive and responsible regions for facial expression are located around some face parts. The contributions of this work lie in the proposition of new approach which supports automatic facial expression recognition based on automatic regions selection. The regions selection step aims to select the descriptive regions responsible or facial expression and was performed using Mutual Information (MI) technique. For facial feature extraction, we have applied Local Binary Patterns Pattern (LBP) on Gradient image to encode salient micro-patterns of facial expressions. Experimental studies have shown that using discriminative regions provide better results than using the whole face regions whilst reducing features vector dimension.

  13. Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quan, Wei; Matuszewski, Bogdan J.; Shark, Lik-Kwan; Ait-Boudaoud, Djamel

    2009-12-01

    This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV) of the statistical shape model (SSM) built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have been used for the testing. The experimental results show that the SSV not only controls the shape variations but also captures the expressive characteristic of the faces and can be used as a significant feature for facial expression recognition. Finally the paper suggests improvements of the SSV discriminatory characteristics by using 3D facial sequences rather than 3D stills.

  14. Facial Expression Biometrics Using Statistical Shape Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Ait-Boudaoud

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a novel method for representing different facial expressions based on the shape space vector (SSV of the statistical shape model (SSM built from 3D facial data. The method relies only on the 3D shape, with texture information not being used in any part of the algorithm, that makes it inherently invariant to changes in the background, illumination, and to some extent viewing angle variations. To evaluate the proposed method, two comprehensive 3D facial data sets have been used for the testing. The experimental results show that the SSV not only controls the shape variations but also captures the expressive characteristic of the faces and can be used as a significant feature for facial expression recognition. Finally the paper suggests improvements of the SSV discriminatory characteristics by using 3D facial sequences rather than 3D stills.

  15. Acro-cardio-facial syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dallapiccola Bruno

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Acro-cardio-facial syndrome (ACFS is a rare genetic disorder characterized by split-hand/split-foot malformation (SHFM, facial anomalies, cleft lip/palate, congenital heart defect (CHD, genital anomalies, and mental retardation. Up to now, 9 patients have been described, and most of the reported cases were not surviving the first days or months of age. The spectrum of defects occurring in ACFS is wide, and both interindividual variability and clinical differences among sibs have been reported. The diagnosis is based on clinical criteria, since the genetic mechanism underlying ACFS is still unknown. The differential diagnosis includes other disorders with ectrodactyly, and clefting conditions associated with genital anomalies and heart defects. An autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance has been suggested, based on parental consanguinity and disease's recurrence in sibs in some families. The more appropriate recurrence risk of transmitting the disease for the parents of an affected child seems to be up to one in four. Management of affected patients includes treatment of cardiac, respiratory, and feeding problems by neonatal pediatricians and other specialists. Prognosis of ACFS is poor.

  16. Perceived functional impact of abnormal facial appearance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rankin, Marlene; Borah, Gregory L

    2003-06-01

    Functional facial deformities are usually described as those that impair respiration, eating, hearing, or speech. Yet facial scars and cutaneous deformities have a significant negative effect on social functionality that has been poorly documented in the scientific literature. Insurance companies are declining payments for reconstructive surgical procedures for facial deformities caused by congenital disabilities and after cancer or trauma operations that do not affect mechanical facial activity. The purpose of this study was to establish a large, sample-based evaluation of the perceived social functioning, interpersonal characteristics, and employability indices for a range of facial appearances (normal and abnormal). Adult volunteer evaluators (n = 210) provided their subjective perceptions based on facial physical appearance, and an analysis of the consequences of facial deformity on parameters of preferential treatment was performed. A two-group comparative research design rated the differences among 10 examples of digitally altered facial photographs of actual patients among various age and ethnic groups with "normal" and "abnormal" congenital deformities or posttrauma scars. Photographs of adult patients with observable congenital and posttraumatic deformities (abnormal) were digitally retouched to eliminate the stigmatic defects (normal). The normal and abnormal photographs of identical patients were evaluated by the large sample study group on nine parameters of social functioning, such as honesty, employability, attractiveness, and effectiveness, using a visual analogue rating scale. Patients with abnormal facial characteristics were rated as significantly less honest (p = 0.007), less employable (p = 0.001), less trustworthy (p = 0.01), less optimistic (p = 0.001), less effective (p = 0.02), less capable (p = 0.002), less intelligent (p = 0.03), less popular (p = 0.001), and less attractive (p = 0.001) than were the same patients with normal facial

  17. Automated Facial Action Coding System for dynamic analysis of facial expressions in neuropsychiatric disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G; Gur, Ruben C; Verma, Ragini

    2011-09-15

    Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen's Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, and they can facilitate a statistical study of large populations in disorders known to impact facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity.

  18. Facial Grading System: Physical and Psychological Impairments to Be Considered

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAI Meng-yao; FENG Guo-dong; GAO Zhi-qiang

    2008-01-01

    In the past half century, more than twenty facial grading systems have been developed to assess the facial nerve function after the onset of facial nerve paralysis and during rehabilitation. Patients' selfevaluation on disability caused by facial paralysis and its impact on quality of life are also useful information in planning treatment strategies and defining outcomes.

  19. A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

    2014-01-01

    Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expression

  20. Radiologic finding of facial nerve schwannoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Sun Yang; Kim, Dong Ik; Lee, Byung Hee; Chung, Tae Sub [Yonsei Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-03-01

    To analyze the radilologic findings of facial nerve schwannoma. The authors retrospectively reviewed CT and/or MR images and clinical history of eight patients with histologically proven facial nerve schwannama. After classifying this extratemporal and intratemporal types, clinical and radilologic findings were analysed. The most common clinical findings of facial nerve schwannoma were facial nerve palsy and hearing impairment in an intratemporal schwannoma(4/5), and a palpable parotid mass in an extratemporal schwannoma(3/3). On CT, each involved segment of intratemporal schwannomas(five cases) showed characteristic radilologic findings, while extratemporal schwannomas(three cases) showed masses of various types. On MRI, all tumors(two cases) showed hypointensity of T1WI, hyperintensity on T2WI, and strong enhancement on Gd-DTPA enhanced T1WI. Intratemporal facial nerve schwannomas can be easily diagnosed by characteristic clinical and radilologic findings. Extratemporal facial nerve schwannomas show nonspecific findings. However, if the tumor is located between the superficial and the deep lobe of the parotid gland and extends to the posterior portion of the styloid process, then facial nerve schwannoma is strongly suspected.

  1. Amblyopia Associated with Congenital Facial Nerve Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamura, Hitoshi; Kondo, Kenji; Sawamura, Hiromasa; Baba, Shintaro; Yasuhara, Kazuo; Yamasoba, Tatsuya

    2016-01-01

    The association between congenital facial paralysis and visual development has not been thoroughly studied. Of 27 pediatric cases of congenital facial paralysis, we identified 3 patients who developed amblyopia, a visual acuity decrease caused by abnormal visual development, as comorbidity. These 3 patients had facial paralysis in the periocular region and developed amblyopia on the paralyzed side. They started treatment by wearing an eye patch immediately after diagnosis and before the critical visual developmental period; all patients responded to the treatment. Our findings suggest that the incidence of amblyopia in the cases of congenital facial paralysis, particularly the paralysis in the periocular region, is higher than that in the general pediatric population. Interestingly, 2 of the 3 patients developed anisometropic amblyopia due to the hyperopia of the affected eye, implying that the periocular facial paralysis may have affected the refraction of the eye through yet unspecified mechanisms. Therefore, the physicians who manage facial paralysis should keep this pathology in mind, and when they see pediatric patients with congenital facial paralysis involving the periocular region, they should consult an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.

  2. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications.

  3. The identification of unfolding facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Chiara; Schmidt, Susanna; Viviani, Paolo

    2012-01-01

    We asked whether the identification of emotional facial expressions (FEs) involves the simultaneous perception of the facial configuration or the detection of emotion-specific diagnostic cues. We recorded at high speed (500 frames s-1) the unfolding of the FE in five actors, each expressing six emotions (anger, surprise, happiness, disgust, fear, sadness). Recordings were coded every 10 frames (20 ms of real time) with the Facial Action Coding System (FACS, Ekman et al 2002, Salt Lake City, UT: Research Nexus eBook) to identify the facial actions contributing to each expression, and their intensity changes over time. Recordings were shown in slow motion (1/20 of recording speed) to one hundred observers in a forced-choice identification task. Participants were asked to identify the emotion during the presentation as soon as they felt confident to do so. Responses were recorded along with the associated response times (RTs). The RT probability density functions for both correct and incorrect responses were correlated with the facial activity during the presentation. There were systematic correlations between facial activities, response probabilities, and RT peaks, and significant differences in RT distributions for correct and incorrect answers. The results show that a reliable response is possible long before the full FE configuration is reached. This suggests that identification is reached by integrating in time individual diagnostic facial actions, and does not require perceiving the full apex configuration.

  4. Deep plane facelifting for facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Neil; Adam, Stewart

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this article is to provide the facial plastic surgeon with anatomical and embryologic evidence to support the use of the deep plane technique for optimal treatment of facial aging. A detailed description of the procedure is provided to allow safe and consistent performance. Insights into anatomical landmarks, technical nuances, and alternative approaches for facial variations are presented. The following points will be further elucidated in the article. The platysma muscle/submuscular aponeurotic system/galea are the continuous superficial cervical fascia encompassing the majority of facial fat, and this superficial soft tissue envelope is poorly anchored to the face. The deep cervical fascia binds the structural aspects of the face and covers the facial nerve and buccal fat pad. Facial aging is mainly due to gravity's long-term effects on the superficial soft tissue envelope, with more subtle effects on the deeper structural compartments. The deep plane is the embryologic cleavage plane between these fascial layers, and is the logical place for facial dissection. The deep plane allows access to the buccal fat pad for treatment of jowling. Soft tissue mobilization is maximized in deep plane dissections and requires careful hairline planning. Flap advancement creates tension only at the fascia level allowing natural, tension-free skin closure, and long-lasting outcomes. The deep plane advancement flap is well vascularized and resistant to complications. PMID:25076447

  5. Facial Beautification Method Based on Age Evolution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Yan; DING Shou-hong; HU Gan-le; MA Li-zhuang

    2013-01-01

    This paper proposes a new facial beautification method using facial rejuvenation based on the age evolution. Traditional facial beautification methods only focus on the color of skin and deformation and do the transformation based on an experimental standard of beauty. Our method achieves the beauty effect by making facial image looks younger, which is different from traditional methods and is more reasonable than them. Firstly, we decompose the image into different layers and get a detail layer. Secondly, we get an age-related parameter:the standard deviation of the Gaussian distribution that the detail layer follows, and the support vector machine (SVM) regression is used to fit a function about the age and the standard deviation. Thirdly, we use this function to estimate the age of input image and generate a new detail layer with a new standard deviation which is calculated by decreasing the age. Lastly, we combine the original layers and the new detail layer to get a new face image. Experimental results show that this algo-rithm can make facial image become more beautiful by facial rejuvenation. The proposed method opens up a new way about facial beautification, and there are great potentials for applications.

  6. Enlarged facial pores: an update on treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Joanna; Lanoue, Julien; Goldenberg, Gary

    2016-07-01

    Enlarged facial pores remain a common dermatologic and cosmetic concern from acne and rosacea, among other conditions, that is difficult to treat due to the multifactorial nature of their pathogenesis and negative impact on patients' quality of life. Enlarged facial pores are primarily treated through addressing associative factors, such as increased sebum production and cutaneous aging. We review the current treatment modalities for enlarged or dense facial pores, including topical retinoids, chemical peels, oral antiandrogens, and lasers and devices, with a focus on newer therapies. PMID:27529707

  7. Razi's description and treatment of facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei, Seyed Mahmood; Kalantar Hormozi, Abdoljalil; Asadi, Mohsen

    2011-01-01

    In the modern medical era, facial paralysis is linked with the name of Charles Bell. This disease, which is usually unilateral and is a peripheral facial palsy, causes facial muscle weakness in the affected side. Bell gave a complete description of the disease; but historically other physicians had described it several hundred years prior although it had been ignored for different reasons, such as the difficulty of the original text language. The first and the most famous of these physicians who described this disease was Mohammad Ibn Zakaryya Razi (Rhazes). In this article, we discuss his opinion.

  8. Improved bound on facial parity edge coloring

    OpenAIRE

    Lužar, Borut; Škrekovski, Riste

    2013-01-01

    A facial parity edge coloring of a 2-edge connected plane graph is an edge coloring where no two consecutive edges of a facial walk of any face receive the same color. Additionally, for every face f and every color c either no edge or an odd number of edges incident to f are colored by c. Czap, Jendrol', Kardo\\v{s} and Sotak showed that every 2-edge connected plane graph admits a facial parity edge coloring with at most 20 colors. We improve this bound to 16 colors.

  9. Bullous leukemia cutis mimicking facial cellulitis*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldato, Luciana de Sales; Britto, Juliana de Sousa; Niero-Melo, Ligia; Miot, Hélio Amante

    2016-01-01

    Bullous leukemia cutis is an uncommon clinical manifestation of cutaneous infiltration by leukemic cells, from B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia. We present the case of a 67-year-old, female, chronic lymphocytic leukemia patient. She was taking chlorambucil and developed facial edema with erythema and warmth, misjudged as facial cellulitis. Two days later, she developed bullous lesions in the arms, legs, neck and face. The histopathology of facial and bullous lesions confirmed leukemia cutis. All lesions disappeared following the administration of rituximab combined with cycles of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide. Although soft tissue infections are common complications in patients undergoing chemotherapy, leukemia cutis can also resemble cellulitis. PMID:27192532

  10. Psychological issues in acquired facial trauma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Sousa Avinash

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The face is a vital component of one′s personality and body image. There are a vast number of variables that influence recovery and rehabilitation from acquired facial trauma many of which are psychological in nature. The present paper presents the various psychological issues one comes across in facial trauma patients. These may range from body image issues to post-traumatic stress disorder symptoms accompanied by anxiety and depression. Issues related to facial and body image affecting social life and general quality of life are vital and the plastic surgeon should be aware of such issues and competent to deal with them in patients and families.

  11. Facial attractiveness: evolutionary based research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, Anthony C; Jones, Benedict C; DeBruine, Lisa M

    2011-06-12

    Face preferences affect a diverse range of critical social outcomes, from mate choices and decisions about platonic relationships to hiring decisions and decisions about social exchange. Firstly, we review the facial characteristics that influence attractiveness judgements of faces (e.g. symmetry, sexually dimorphic shape cues, averageness, skin colour/texture and cues to personality) and then review several important sources of individual differences in face preferences (e.g. hormone levels and fertility, own attractiveness and personality, visual experience, familiarity and imprinting, social learning). The research relating to these issues highlights flexible, sophisticated systems that support and promote adaptive responses to faces that appear to function to maximize the benefits of both our mate choices and more general decisions about other types of social partners. PMID:21536551

  12. Facial image identification using Photomodeler

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-01-01

    consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model...... was produced by Photomodeler. The wireframe models were then rotated to full lateral and frontal views, and compared to like sets of photographs of the subjects. In blind trials, 9/15 of the wireframe models were assigned to the correct sets of photographs. In five/15 cases, the wireframe models were assigned...... to several sets, including the correct set. Only in one case was a wireframe model not assigned to a correct set of photographs at all....

  13. Support vector machine-based facial-expression recognition method combining shape and appearance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Eun Jung; Kang, Byung Jun; Park, Kang Ryoung; Lee, Sangyoun

    2010-11-01

    Facial expression recognition can be widely used for various applications, such as emotion-based human-machine interaction, intelligent robot interfaces, face recognition robust to expression variation, etc. Previous studies have been classified as either shape- or appearance-based recognition. The shape-based method has the disadvantage that the individual variance of facial feature points exists irrespective of similar expressions, which can cause a reduction of the recognition accuracy. The appearance-based method has a limitation in that the textural information of the face is very sensitive to variations in illumination. To overcome these problems, a new facial-expression recognition method is proposed, which combines both shape and appearance information, based on the support vector machine (SVM). This research is novel in the following three ways as compared to previous works. First, the facial feature points are automatically detected by using an active appearance model. From these, the shape-based recognition is performed by using the ratios between the facial feature points based on the facial-action coding system. Second, the SVM, which is trained to recognize the same and different expression classes, is proposed to combine two matching scores obtained from the shape- and appearance-based recognitions. Finally, a single SVM is trained to discriminate four different expressions, such as neutral, a smile, anger, and a scream. By determining the expression of the input facial image whose SVM output is at a minimum, the accuracy of the expression recognition is much enhanced. The experimental results showed that the recognition accuracy of the proposed method was better than previous researches and other fusion methods.

  14. [Summery and recommendations for acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Sheng-Qiang; Yu, Su; Wang, Jian-Ping

    2011-12-01

    Articles on acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were picked up from CNKI database. The retrieved original studies were evaluated and summarized. The problems of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis were analyzed, and concrete solutions were proposed. Problems that differential diagnosis, prognosis, treatment of severe facial paralysis, and identification of sequelae and compliation were not embasized in clinical treatment of facial paralysis. Consequently, the effectiveness of acupuncture for peripheral facial paralysis will be improved by sloving above problems.

  15. FACIAL EMOTION RECOGNITION USING GABOR (HAPPY, SAD, ANGER, NEUTRAL MOOD)

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Shamsh Alam

    2015-01-01

    The best way to communicate the emotions and intentions is facial expressions. This is powerful because as per the psychological research 55% of the total communicated message is the human facial expression. Therefore deriving an effective facial representation from the original face image is a vital step and very tough task in the field of computer science for successful facial expression recognition. Human facial recognition usually uses image processing, gesture signal ...

  16. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale

    OpenAIRE

    Kleiss, Ingrid J.; Beurskens, Carien H. G.; Stalmeier, Peep F. M.; Ingels, Koen J. A. O.; Marres, Henri A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward–backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for fac...

  17. The role of facial skeletal augmentation and dental restoration in facial rejuvenation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bains, J W; Elia, J P

    1994-01-01

    Facial aging is almost exclusively a result of soft tissue changes in patients with full dentition. Loss of teeth can hasten facial aging and make aging more pronounced as a result of bony erosion of the alveolar ridges. This article describes these changes and demonstrates that properly selected oral implants and precisely placed hydroxyapatite implants can integrate with facelifts to produce superior facial rejuvenation in edentulous patients.

  18. Recognition of Facial Expressions using Local Binary Patterns of Important Facial Parts

    OpenAIRE

    Ramchand Hablani; Narendra Chaudhari; Sanjay Tanwani

    2013-01-01

    Facial Expression Recognition is one of the exciting and challenging field; it has important applications in many areas such as data driven animation, human computer interaction and robotics. Extracting effective features from the human face is an important step for successful facial expression recognition. In this paper we have evaluated Local Binary Patterns of some important parts of human face, for person independent as well as person dependent facial expression recognition. Extensive exp...

  19. Facial rehabilitation: a neuromuscular reeducation, patient-centered approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanswearingen, Jessie

    2008-05-01

    Individuals with facial paralysis and distorted facial expressions and movements secondary to a facial neuromotor disorder experience substantial physical, psychological, and social disability. Previously, facial rehabilitation has not been widely available or considered to be of much benefit. An emerging rehabilitation science of neuromuscular reeducation and evidence for the efficacy of facial neuromuscular reeducation, a process of facilitating the return of intended facial movement patterns and eliminating unwanted patterns of facial movement and expression, may provide patients with disorders of facial paralysis or facial movement control opportunity for the recovery of facial movement and function. We provide a brief overview of the scientific rationale for facial neuromuscular reeducation in the structure and function of the facial neuromotor system, the neuropsychology of facial expression, and relations among expressions, movement, and emotion. The primary purpose is to describe principles of neuromuscular reeducation, assessment and outcome measures, approach to treatment, the process, including surface-electromyographic biofeedback as an adjunct to reeducation, and the goal of enhancing the recovery of facial expression and function in a patient-centered approach to facial rehabilitation.

  20. Surface Electromyography-Based Facial Expression Recognition in Bi-Polar Configuration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahyar Hamedi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Facial expression recognition has been improved recently and it has become a significant issue in diagnostic and medical fields, particularly in the areas of assistive technology and rehabilitation. Apart from their usefulness, there are some problems in their applications like peripheral conditions, lightening, contrast and quality of video and images. Approach: Facial Action Coding System (FACS and some other methods based on images or videos were applied. This study proposed two methods for recognizing 8 different facial expressions such as natural (rest, happiness in three conditions, anger, rage, gesturing ‘a’ like in apple word and gesturing no by pulling up the eyebrows based on Three-channels in Bi-polar configuration by SEMG. Raw signals were processed in three main steps (filtration, feature extraction and active features selection sequentially. Processed data was fed into Support Vector Machine and Fuzzy C-Means classifiers for being classified into 8 facial expression groups. Results: 91.8 and 80.4% recognition ratio had been achieved for FCM and SVM respectively. Conclusion: The confirmed enough accuracy and power in this field of study and FCM showed its better ability and performance in comparison with SVM. It’s expected that in near future, new approaches in the frequency bandwidth of each facial gesture will provide better results.

  1. Unilateral Facial Pain and Headache: Effects of Both Indomethacin and Sumatriptan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ottar Sjaastad

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Three female patients presented with a similar pattern of unilateral facial pain and headache, reminiscent of atypical facial pain. The neck and ipsilateral shoulder (n=2 were also involved. The attacks of pain lasted from several hours to days. There was some tenderness in the neck, but upper cervical nerve anesthetic blocks did not provide any positive results. Indomethacin, taken at the time of the attacks, exerted a very marked effect. Sumatriptan produced an even more rapid and complete effect, but with intolerable side effects, including malaise and breathing difficulties. The unilateral facial pain and headache described in these cases resembles both cervicogenic headache (CEH and hemicrania continua (HC, especially the former, which may be associated with both facial and shoulder pain. Indomethacin is, however, generally not effective in CEH. A clear sumatriptan effect in the cases studied is remarkable because there is usually little or no sumatriptan effect in HC. Atypical facial pain is difficult to treat, and probably does not respond well to indomethacin. The present study found that some patients with a similar symptomatology may benefit from indomethacin. The demonstrated effectiveness of indomethacin or sumatriptan makes it important to recognize such cases. Future serotonin agonists may have a more favourable effect to side effect ratio than sumatriptan and provide a more ideal approach to therapy in such cases.

  2. Developing psychological services following facial trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  3. Wavelet based approach for facial expression recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaenal Abidin

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Facial expression recognition is one of the most active fields of research. Many facial expression recognition methods have been developed and implemented. Neural networks (NNs have capability to undertake such pattern recognition tasks. The key factor of the use of NN is based on its characteristics. It is capable in conducting learning and generalizing, non-linear mapping, and parallel computation. Backpropagation neural networks (BPNNs are the approach methods that mostly used. In this study, BPNNs were used as classifier to categorize facial expression images into seven-class of expressions which are anger, disgust, fear, happiness, sadness, neutral and surprise. For the purpose of feature extraction tasks, three discrete wavelet transforms were used to decompose images, namely Haar wavelet, Daubechies (4 wavelet and Coiflet (1 wavelet. To analyze the proposed method, a facial expression recognition system was built. The proposed method was tested on static images from JAFFE database.

  4. [Facial paralysis: functional and aesthetic rehabilitation techniques].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deveze, A; Paris, J

    2006-01-01

    The diagnosis of a permanent facial paralysis can be devastating to a patient, because of the cosmetic, functional and psychological disorders. Our society places on physical appearance and leads to isolation of patients who are embarrassed with their paralyzed face. The objectives of the facial rehabilitation is to correct the functional and cosmetic losses of the patient. The main functional goals are to protect the eye and reestablish oral competence. The primary cosmetic goals are to create balance and symmetry of the face at rest and to reestablish the coordinated movement of the facial musculature. The surgeon should be familiar with the variety of options available so that an individual plan can be developed based on each patient's clinical picture. History of the facial paralysis, its etiology and the duration of the paralysis are of particular interest as they orientate the rehabilitation plan strategy.

  5. Developing psychological services following facial trauma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choudhury-Peters, Deba; Dain, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Adults presenting to oral and maxillofacial surgery services are at high risk of psychological morbidity. Research by the Institute of Psychotrauma and the centre for oral and maxillofacial surgery trauma clinic at the Royal London hospital (2015) demonstrated nearly 40% of patients met diagnostic criteria for either depression, post traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), anxiety, alcohol misuse, or substance misuse, or were presenting with facial appearance distress. Most facial injury patients were not receiving mental health assessment or treatment, and the maxillofacial team did not have direct access to psychological services. Based on these research findings, an innovative one-year pilot psychology service was designed and implemented within the facial trauma clinic. The project addressed this need by offering collaborative medical and psychological care for all facial injury patients. The project provided brief screening, assessment, and early psychological intervention. The medical team were trained to better recognise and respond to psychological distress. PMID:27493750

  6. Ethics and the facial plastic surgeon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Neeraj

    2016-09-01

    The facial plastic surgeon potentially has a conflict of interest when confronted with the patients requesting surgery, due to the personal gain attainable by agreeing to perform surgery. The aim of this review is to discuss the potential harm the surgeon can inflict by carrying out facial plastic surgery, beyond the standard surgical complications of infection or bleeding. It will discuss the desire for self-improvement and perfection and increase in the prevalence facial plastic surgery. We address the principles of informed consent, beneficence and non-maleficence, as well as justice and equality and how the clinician who undertakes facial plastic surgery is at risk of breaching these principles without due care and diligence. PMID:26254909

  7. Men's facial masculinity: when (body) size matters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holzleitner, Iris J; Hunter, David W; Tiddeman, Bernard P; Seck, Alassane; Re, Daniel E; Perrett, David I

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that judgments of facial masculinity reflect more than sexually dimorphic shape. Here, we investigated whether the perception of masculinity is influenced by facial cues to body height and weight. We used the average differences in three-dimensional face shape of forty men and forty women to compute a morphological masculinity score, and derived analogous measures for facial correlates of height and weight based on the average face shape of short and tall, and light and heavy men. We found that facial cues to body height and weight had substantial and independent effects on the perception of masculinity. Our findings suggest that men are perceived as more masculine if they appear taller and heavier, independent of how much their face shape differs from women's. We describe a simple method to quantify how body traits are reflected in the face and to define the physical basis of psychological attributions.

  8. Three dimensional visualisation of human facial exposure to solar ultraviolet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Downs, Nathan; Parisi, Alfio

    2007-01-01

    A three dimensional computer model of the human face has been developed to represent solar ultraviolet exposures recorded by dosimeter measurements on a manikin headform under low cloud conditions and various solar zenith angles. Additionally, polysulfone dosimeters have been successfully miniaturised to provide the detailed measurements required across the face. The headform used in this research was scanned at 709 individual locations to make a wireframe mesh consisting of 18 vertical contours and 49 horizontal contours covering half the manikin's frontal facial topography. Additionally, the back of the headform and neck have also been scanned at 576 locations. Each scanned location has been used as a viable dosimeter position on the headform and represents a grid intersection point on the developed computer wireframe. A series of exposures recorded by dosimeters have been translated into three dimensional exposure ratio maps, representing ambient solar ultraviolet exposure. High dosimeter density has allowed for the development of individual topographic contour models which take into account complex variation in the face and improve upon previously employed techniques which utilise fewer dosimeters to interpolate exposure across facial contours. Exposure ratios for solar zenith angle ranges of 0 degrees -30 degrees, 30 degrees -50 degrees, and 50 degrees -80 degrees have been developed.

  9. Acquired facial lipoatrophy: pathogenesis and therapeutic options

    OpenAIRE

    Szczerkowska-Dobosz, Aneta; Olszewska, Barbara; Lemańska, Małgorzata; Purzycka-Bohdan, Dorota; Nowicki, Roman

    2015-01-01

    Facial lipoatrophy refers to the loss of subcutaneous fat tissue presenting by flattening or indentation of convex contour of the face. Facial lipoatrophy is a feature of the normal ageing process. It may be also a manifestation of chronic diseases, most frequently it affects HIV-infected individuals treated with highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) and may constitute a complication of connective tissue diseases, like lupus erythematosus profundus or morphea. Early recognition and tre...

  10. A SURVEY ON FACIAL EXPRESSION DATABASES

    OpenAIRE

    ANITHA C,; M.K.Venkatesha; B SURYANARAYANA ADIGA

    2010-01-01

    Human faces are non-rigid objects with a high degree of variability in size, shape, color, and texture. The face databases are extensively used for evaluation of various algorithms used in facial expression/gesture recognition systems. Any automated system for face and facial gesture recognition has immense potential in identification of criminals, surveillance and retrieval of missing children, office security, credit card verification, video documentretrieval, telecommunication, high - defi...

  11. Misrecognition of facial expressions in delinquents

    OpenAIRE

    Matsuura Naomi; Uono Shota; Sato Wataru; Toichi Motomi

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Previous reports have suggested impairment in facial expression recognition in delinquents, but controversy remains with respect to how such recognition is impaired. To address this issue, we investigated facial expression recognition in delinquents in detail. Methods We tested 24 male adolescent/young adult delinquents incarcerated in correctional facilities. We compared their performances with those of 24 age- and gender-matched control participants. Using standard photo...

  12. The perception of facial expressions in newborns

    OpenAIRE

    Farroni, Teresa; Menon, Enrica; Rigato, Silvia; Johnson, Mark H.

    2007-01-01

    The ability of newborns to discriminate and respond to different emotional facial expressions remains controversial. We conducted three experiments in which we tested newborns’ preferences, and their ability to discriminate between neutral, fearful, and happy facial expressions, using visual preference and habituation procedures. In the first two experiments, no evidence was found that newborns discriminate, or show a preference between, a fearful and a neutral face. In the third experiment, ...

  13. Cranial morphometry of early hominids: facial region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bilsborough, A; Wood, B A

    1988-05-01

    We report here on early hominid facial diversity, as part of a more extensive morphometric survey of cranial variability in Pliocene and early Pleistocene Hominidae. Univariate and multivariate techniques are used to summarise variation in facial proportions in South and East African hominids, and later Quaternary groups are included as comparators in order to scale the variation displayed. The results indicate that "robust" australopithecines have longer, broader faces than the "gracile" form, but that all australopithecine species show comparable degrees of facial projection. "Robust" crania are characterised by anteriorly situated, deep malar processes that slope forwards and downwards. Smaller hominid specimens, formally or informally assigned to Homo (H. habilis, KNM-ER 1813, etc.), have individual facial dimensions that usually fall within the range of Australopithecus africanus, but which in combination reveal a significantly different morphological pattern; SK 847 shows similarly hominine facial proportions, which differ significantly from those of A. robustus specimens from Swartkrans. KNM-ER 1470 possesses a facial pattern that is basically hominine, but which in some respects mimics that of "robust" australopithecines. Early specimens referred to H. erectus possess facial proportions that contrast markedly with those of other Villafranchian hominids and which suggest differing masticatory forces, possibly reflecting a shift in dietary niche. Overall the results indicate two broad patterns of facial proportions in Hominidae: one is characteristic of Pliocene/basal Pleistocene forms with opposite polarities represented by A. boisei and H. habilis; the other pattern, which typifies hominids from the later Lower Pleistocene onwards, is first found in specimens widely regarded as early representatives of H. erectus, but which differ in which certain respects from the face of later members of that species. PMID:3136656

  14. Gamer's Facial Cloning for Online Interactive Games

    OpenAIRE

    Abdul Sattar; Nicolas Stoiber; Renaud Seguier; Gaspard Breton

    2009-01-01

    Virtual illustration of a human face is essential to enhance the mutual interaction in a cyber community. In this paper we propose a solution to solve two bottlenecks in facial analysis and synthesis for an interactive system of human face cloning for non-expert users of computer games. Tactical maneuvers of the gamer make single camera acquisition system unsuitable to analyze and track the face due to its large lateral movements. For an improved facial analysis system, we propose to acquire ...

  15. Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo S Lacruz

    Full Text Available The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic. This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor.

  16. Facial morphogenesis of the earliest europeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacruz, Rodrigo S; de Castro, José María Bermúdez; Martinón-Torres, María; O'Higgins, Paul; Paine, Michael L; Carbonell, Eudald; Arsuaga, Juan Luis; Bromage, Timothy G

    2013-01-01

    The modern human face differs from that of our early ancestors in that the facial profile is relatively retracted (orthognathic). This change in facial profile is associated with a characteristic spatial distribution of bone deposition and resorption: growth remodeling. For humans, surface resorption commonly dominates on anteriorly-facing areas of the subnasal region of the maxilla and mandible during development. We mapped the distribution of facial growth remodeling activities on the 900-800 ky maxilla ATD6-69 assigned to H. antecessor, and on the 1.5 My cranium KNM-WT 15000, part of an associated skeleton assigned to African H. erectus. We show that, as in H. sapiens, H. antecessor shows bone resorption over most of the subnasal region. This pattern contrasts with that seen in KNM-WT 15000 where evidence of bone deposition, not resorption, was identified. KNM-WT 15000 is similar to Australopithecus and the extant African apes in this localized area of bone deposition. These new data point to diversity of patterns of facial growth in fossil Homo. The similarities in facial growth in H. antecessor and H. sapiens suggest that one key developmental change responsible for the characteristic facial morphology of modern humans can be traced back at least to H. antecessor. PMID:23762314

  17. Facial nerve paralysis after cervical traction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    So, Edmund Cheung

    2010-10-01

    Cervical traction is a frequently used treatment in rehabilitation clinics for cervical spine problems. This modality works, in principle, by decompressing the spinal cord or its nerve roots by applying traction on the cervical spine through a harness placed over the mandible (Olivero et al., Neurosurg Focus 2002;12:ECP1). Previous reports on treatment complications include lumbar radicular discomfort, muscle injury, neck soreness, and posttraction pain (LaBan et al., Arch Phys Med Rehabil 1992;73:295-6; Lee et al., J Biomech Eng 1996;118:597-600). Here, we report the first case of unilateral facial nerve paralysis developed after 4 wks of intermittent cervical traction therapy. Nerve conduction velocity examination revealed a peripheral-type facial nerve paralysis. Symptoms of facial nerve paralysis subsided after prednisolone treatment and suspension of traction therapy. It is suspected that a misplaced or an overstrained harness may have been the cause of facial nerve paralysis in this patient. Possible causes were (1) direct compression by the harness on the right facial nerve near its exit through the stylomastoid foramen; (2) compression of the right external carotid artery by the harness, causing transient ischemic injury at the geniculate ganglion; or (3) coincidental herpes zoster virus infection or idiopathic Bell's palsy involving the facial nerve.

  18. Seis anos de atendimento em trauma facial: análise epidemiológica de 355 casos Six years of facial trauma care: an epidemiological analysis of 355 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bittencourt Ottoni Carvalho

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Traumas faciais são frequentes em emergências requerendo o diagnóstico de fraturas e lesões associadas. OBJETIVO: Avaliar dados epidemiológicos de atendimento em trauma facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODOS: Foram revisados 335 prontuários de pacientes com trauma facial tratados pelo Serviço de Otorrinolaringologia, no período de Janeiro de 2002 a Dezembro de 2008. Os seguintes dados foram coletados: idade, gênero, etiologia, local anatômico da fratura, lesão associada, consumo de álcool, tratamento e hospitalização. FORMA DO ESTUDO: Estudo de casos retrospectivo em corte longitudinal histórico. RESULTADOS: A maioria dos pacientes são homens adultos jovens (pFacial traumas are frequent in emergencies, and they require the diagnosis of fractures and associated lesions. AIM: To analyze epidemiological data concerning facial trauma care. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Three hundred and fifty-five charts from patients with facial trauma treated by the Service of Otorhinolaryngology, from January 2002 to December 2008, were revised. The following data was collected: age, gender, etiology, anatomical localization of the fracture, associated injuries, alcohol consumption, treatment, and hospitalization. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective historical longitudinal study. RESULTS: Most of the patients are young adult men (p<0.05 with a male:female ratio of 4:1(p<0.05. Interpersonal violence is the most prevalent cause of facial trauma (27.9%, followed by motor vehicle accidents (16.6% (p<0.05. The mandible is the most prevalent facial bone fractured (44.2%, followed by nasal fracture (18.9% (p<0.05. 41.1% of the patients consumed alcohol with a male:female ratio of 11.2:1 (p<0.05. Seventy-seven percent of the patients required surgical intervention (p<0.05 and 84.5% were hospitalized (p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Young male adults are the most prevalent victims of facial trauma, and interpersonal violence is responsible for the majority of the facial injuries. Most of the

  19. Subjective and Objective Facial Attractiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stillman, Mark A.; Frisina, Andrew C.

    2010-01-01

    Background: Studies have not adequately compared subjective/objective ratings of female dermatology patients including patients presenting for cosmetic procedures. Objective: To examine objective versus subjective facial attractiveness ratings, demographic variables, and how men versus women judge female facial attractiveness. Methods: Sixty-five women (mean 42 years) presenting to a dermatology office. Subjects filled out a demographic and attractiveness questionnaire and were photographed. Four judges (2 male and 2 female) rated the photographs on a predefined 1 to 7 scale. Results: Mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) was 4.85 versus 3.61 for objective rating (judges rating subjects) (p<0.001). The mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 5 to 7 range was 39 years; the mean age of subjects self-rating (subjective rating) who rated themselves in the 3 to 4 range was 45 years (p=0.053). The mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 5 to 7 range was 33 years; the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 3 to 4 range was 43 years (p<0.001); and the mean age of subjects objectively rated by judges in the 1 to 2 range was 50 years (p<0.001). The mean subjective rating (subjects rating themselves) for married women was 4.55 versus 5.27 for unmarried women (p=0.007); the mean objective rating (judges rating subjects) was 3.22 versus 4.15 (p<0.001). The mean objective rating by male judges was 3.09 versus 4.12 for female judges (p<0.001) Conclusion: Female patients presenting to a dermatology office rated themselves more attractive than did judges who viewed photographs of the subjects. Age and marital status were significant factors, and male judges rated attractiveness lower than female judges. Limitations of the study, implications, and suggestions for future research directions are discussed. PMID:21203353

  20. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleiss, I.J.; Beurskens, C.H.G.; Stalmeier, P.F.M.; Ingels, K.J.A.O.; Marres, H.A.M.

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A p

  1. Facial image identification using Photomodeler.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynnerup, Niels; Andersen, Marie; Lauritsen, Helle Petri

    2003-09-01

    We present the results of a preliminary study on the use of 3-D software (Photomodeler) for identification purposes. Perpetrators may be photographed or filmed by surveillance systems. The police may wish to have these images compared to photographs of suspects. The surveillance imagery will often consist of many images of the same person taken from different angles. We wanted to see if it was possible to combine such a suite of images in useful 3-D renderings of facial proportions.Fifteen male adults were photographed from four different angles. Based on these photographs, a 3-D wireframe model was produced by Photomodeler. The wireframe models were then rotated to full lateral and frontal views, and compared to like sets of photographs of the subjects. In blind trials, 9/15 of the wireframe models were assigned to the correct sets of photographs. In five/15 cases, the wireframe models were assigned to several sets, including the correct set. Only in one case was a wireframe model not assigned to a correct set of photographs at all.

  2. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    CERN Document Server

    Thorat, S B; Dandale, Jyoti P

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision system. We do critics on facial recognision system giving effectiveness and weaknesses. This paper also introduces scope of recognision system in India.

  3. Combining appearance and geometric features for facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Hui; Liu, Honghai

    2015-03-01

    This paper introduces a method for facial expression recognition combining appearance and geometric facial features. The proposed framework consistently combines multiple facial representations at both global and local levels. First, covariance descriptors are computed to represent regional features combining various feature information with a low dimensionality. Then geometric features are detected to provide a general facial movement description of the facial expression. These appearance and geometric features are combined to form a vector representation of the facial expression. The proposed method is tested on the CK+ database and shows encouraging performance.

  4. Quality of life assessment in facial palsy: validation of the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleiss, Ingrid J; Beurskens, Carien H G; Stalmeier, Peep F M; Ingels, Koen J A O; Marres, Henri A M

    2015-08-01

    This study aimed at validating an existing health-related quality of life questionnaire for patients with facial palsy for implementation in the Dutch language and culture. The Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale was translated into the Dutch language using a forward-backward translation method. A pilot test with the translated questionnaire was performed in 10 patients with facial palsy and 10 normal subjects. Finally, cross-cultural adaption was accomplished at our outpatient clinic for facial palsy. Analyses for internal consistency, test-retest reliability, construct validity and responsiveness were performed. Ninety-three patients completed the Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale, the Dutch Facial Disability Index, and the Dutch Short Form (36) Health Survey. Cronbach's α, representing internal consistency, was 0.800. Test-retest reliability was shown by an intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.737. Correlations with the House-Brackmann score, Sunnybrook score, Facial Disability Index physical function, and social/well-being function were -0.292, 0.570, 0.713, and 0.575, respectively. The SF-36 domains correlate best with the FaCE social function domain, with the strongest correlation between the both social function domains (r = 0.576). The FaCE score did statistically significantly increase in 35 patients receiving botulinum toxin type A (P = 0.042, Student t test). The domains 'facial comfort' and 'social function' improved statistically significantly as well (P = 0.022 and P = 0.046, respectively, Student t-test). The Dutch Facial Clinimetric Evaluation Scale shows good psychometric values and can be implemented in the management of Dutch-speaking patients with facial palsy in the Netherlands. Translation of the instrument into other languages may lead to widespread use, making evaluation and comparison possible among different providers. PMID:25628237

  5. [Application of the Ricketts analysis to children in the primary dentition. Fourth Report: development of lateral cephalogram analysis system and consideration of facial pattern].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, T; Numata, N; Minowa, K; Kohno, T; Tanaka, Y; Okubo, F; Fujii, M; Kato, H; Yamada, H; Akasaka, M

    1990-01-01

    A lateral cephalogram analysis system has been developed allowing an extended application of the Ricketts analysis to primary dentition. Using this system, we first examined the growth of facial patterns from the BA-NA ratio profilograms. As samples, we used records of children with normal occlusions stored at Nihon University School of Dentistry Department of Pedodontics. We then used the Fuzzy theory to change Vert's formula and obtained facial types. Lastly, we obtained compositional ratios of facial types within each age group. The results were as follows: 1) Facial patterns tended to show three divisions according to three age groups; from 3 to 5-year olds, from 6 to 7-year olds and from 8 to 10-year olds. 2) The Vert's values of the BA-NA ratio profilograms in each age group based on the data of 9-year olds tended to decrease as age increased. The change was mostly restricted to the range of Mesiofacial type. 3) As for the compositional ratio of facial types in each age group, a nearly normal distribution was observed mainly with the Mesiofacial type. 4) From the lateral cephalogram analysis system which has been developed and the profilograms of the average values for each age group which have been obtained by this system, we obtained the standard values for future evaluation of facial patterns of children with malocclusions.

  6. 3 dimensional volume MR imaging of intratemporal facial nerve

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    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Kim, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jae Kyu; Jung, Hyun Ung; Moon, Woong Jae [Chonnam University Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1994-10-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique for demonstrating the facial nerves and to describe MR findings in facial palsy patients and evaluate the significance of facial nerve enhancement. We reviewed the MR images of facial nerves obtained with 3 dimensional volume imaging technique before and after intravenous administration of Gadopentetate dimeglumine in 13 cases who had facial paralysis and 33 cases who had no facial palsy. And we analyzed the detectability of ananatomical segments of intratemporal facial nerves and facial nerve enhancement. When the 3 dimensional volume MR images of 46 nerves were analyzed subjectively, the nerve courses of 43(93%) of 46 nerves were effectively demonstrated on 3 dimensional volume MR images. Internal acoustic canal portions and geniculate ganglion of facial nerve were well visualized on axial images and tympanic and mastoid segments were well depicted on oblique sagittal images. 10 of 13 patients(77%) were visibly enhanced along at least one segment of the facial nerve with swelling or thickening, and nerves of 8 of normal 33 cases(24%) were enhanced without thickening or swelling. MR findings of facial nerve parelysis is asymmetrical thickening of facial nerve with contrast enhancement. The 3 dimensional volume MR imaging technique should be a useful study for the evaluation of intratemporal facial nerve disease.

  7. Fusiform Correlates of Facial Memory in Autism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Lange

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Prior studies have shown that performance on standardized measures of memory in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD is substantially reduced in comparison to matched typically developing controls (TDC. Given reported deficits in face processing in autism, the current study compared performance on an immediate and delayed facial memory task for individuals with ASD and TDC. In addition, we examined volumetric differences in classic facial memory regions of interest (ROI between the two groups, including the fusiform, amygdala, and hippocampus. We then explored the relationship between ROI volume and facial memory performance. We found larger volumes in the autism group in the left amygdala and left hippocampus compared to TDC. In contrast, TDC had larger left fusiform gyrus volumes when compared with ASD. Interestingly, we also found significant negative correlations between delayed facial memory performance and volume of the left and right fusiform and the left hippocampus for the ASD group but not for TDC. The possibility of larger fusiform volume as a marker of abnormal connectivity and decreased facial memory is discussed.

  8. Facial Edema Evaluation Using Digital Image Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. E. Villafuerte-Nuñez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the facial edema evaluation is providing the needed information to determine the effectiveness of the anti-inflammatory drugs in development. This paper presents a system that measures the four main variables present in facial edemas: trismus, blush (coloration, temperature, and inflammation. Measurements are obtained by using image processing and the combination of different devices such as a projector, a PC, a digital camera, a thermographic camera, and a cephalostat. Data analysis and processing are performed using MATLAB. Facial inflammation is measured by comparing three-dimensional reconstructions of inflammatory variations using the fringe projection technique. Trismus is measured by converting pixels to centimeters in a digitally obtained image of an open mouth. Blushing changes are measured by obtaining and comparing the RGB histograms from facial edema images at different times. Finally, temperature changes are measured using a thermographic camera. Some tests using controlled measurements of every variable are presented in this paper. The results allow evaluating the measurement system before its use in a real test, using the pain model approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA, which consists in extracting the third molar to generate the facial edema.

  9. Facilitating facial retinization through barrier improvement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Draelos, Zoe Diana; Ertel, Keith D; Berge, Cynthia A

    2006-10-01

    The utility of topical tretinoin as a treatment for improving the appearance of photodamaged skin is limited by irritation that occurs during the early phases of facial retinization. The observed side effects are consistent with stratum corneum barrier compromise. This paired double-blinded study was conducted to determine if preconditioning the skin with a barrier-enhancing cosmetic facial moisturizer before beginning tretinoin therapy and continuing moisturizer application during therapy would mitigate these side effects. Women with facial photodamage were recruited and randomly assigned to apply one cosmetic moisturizer to one side of the face and the other cosmetic moisturizer to the other side of the face twice daily for 10 weeks. One moisturizer contained a mixture of vitamins (niacinamide, panthenol, and tocopheryl acetate) to enhance stratum corneum barrier function, and the other moisturizer contained similar moisturizing ingredients but no vitamins. Daily full-face treatment with tretinoin cream 0.025% commenced 2 weeks into the study. Subjects' facial skin condition was monitored via investigator assessments, instrumental measurements, and subject self-assessments. The results show that improving stratum corneum barrier function before beginning topical tretinoin therapy and continuing use of a barrier-enhancing cosmetic moisturizer during therapy facilitates the early phase of facial retinization and augments the treatment response. PMID:17121065

  10. Stability of Facial Affective Expressions in Schizophrenia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Fatouros-Bergman

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Thirty-two videorecorded interviews were conducted by two interviewers with eight patients diagnosed with schizophrenia. Each patient was interviewed four times: three weekly interviews by the first interviewer and one additional interview by the second interviewer. 64 selected sequences where the patients were speaking about psychotic experiences were scored for facial affective behaviour with Emotion Facial Action Coding System (EMFACS. In accordance with previous research, the results show that patients diagnosed with schizophrenia express negative facial affectivity. Facial affective behaviour seems not to be dependent on temporality, since within-subjects ANOVA revealed no substantial changes in the amount of affects displayed across the weekly interview occasions. Whereas previous findings found contempt to be the most frequent affect in patients, in the present material disgust was as common, but depended on the interviewer. The results suggest that facial affectivity in these patients is primarily dominated by the negative emotions of disgust and, to a lesser extent, contempt and implies that this seems to be a fairly stable feature.

  11. 3D facial expression modeling for recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Xiaoguang; Jain, Anil K.; Dass, Sarat C.

    2005-03-01

    Current two-dimensional image based face recognition systems encounter difficulties with large variations in facial appearance due to the pose, illumination and expression changes. Utilizing 3D information of human faces is promising for handling the pose and lighting variations. While the 3D shape of a face does not change due to head pose (rigid) and lighting changes, it is not invariant to the non-rigid facial movement and evolution, such as expressions and aging effect. We propose a facial surface matching framework to match multiview facial scans to a 3D face model, where the (non-rigid) expression deformation is explicitly modeled for each subject, resulting in a person-specific deformation model. The thin plate spline (TPS) is applied to model the deformation based on the facial landmarks. The deformation is applied to the 3D neutral expression face model to synthesize the corresponding expression. Both the neutral and the synthesized 3D surface models are used to match a test scan. The surface registration and matching between a test scan and a 3D model are achieved by a modified Iterative Closest Point (ICP) algorithm. Preliminary experimental results demonstrate that the proposed expression modeling and recognition-by-synthesis schemes improve the 3D matching accuracy.

  12. Facial Feature Extraction Based on Wavelet Transform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hung, Nguyen Viet

    Facial feature extraction is one of the most important processes in face recognition, expression recognition and face detection. The aims of facial feature extraction are eye location, shape of eyes, eye brow, mouth, head boundary, face boundary, chin and so on. The purpose of this paper is to develop an automatic facial feature extraction system, which is able to identify the eye location, the detailed shape of eyes and mouth, chin and inner boundary from facial images. This system not only extracts the location information of the eyes, but also estimates four important points in each eye, which helps us to rebuild the eye shape. To model mouth shape, mouth extraction gives us both mouth location and two corners of mouth, top and bottom lips. From inner boundary we obtain and chin, we have face boundary. Based on wavelet features, we can reduce the noise from the input image and detect edge information. In order to extract eyes, mouth, inner boundary, we combine wavelet features and facial character to design these algorithms for finding midpoint, eye's coordinates, four important eye's points, mouth's coordinates, four important mouth's points, chin coordinate and then inner boundary. The developed system is tested on Yale Faces and Pedagogy student's faces.

  13. Perception of health from facial cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Audrey J; Holzleitner, Iris J; Talamas, Sean N; Perrett, David I

    2016-05-01

    Impressions of health are integral to social interactions, yet poorly understood. A review of the literature reveals multiple facial characteristics that potentially act as cues to health judgements. The cues vary in their stability across time: structural shape cues including symmetry and sexual dimorphism alter slowly across the lifespan and have been found to have weak links to actual health, but show inconsistent effects on perceived health. Facial adiposity changes over a medium time course and is associated with both perceived and actual health. Skin colour alters over a short time and has strong effects on perceived health, yet links to health outcomes have barely been evaluated. Reviewing suggested an additional influence of demeanour as a perceptual cue to health. We, therefore, investigated the association of health judgements with multiple facial cues measured objectively from two-dimensional and three-dimensional facial images. We found evidence for independent contributions of face shape and skin colour cues to perceived health. Our empirical findings: (i) reinforce the role of skin yellowness; (ii) demonstrate the utility of global face shape measures of adiposity; and (iii) emphasize the role of affect in facial images with nominally neutral expression in impressions of health. PMID:27069057

  14. RUNX2 tandem repeats and the evolution of facial length in placental mammals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pointer Marie A

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background When simple sequence repeats are integrated into functional genes, they can potentially act as evolutionary ‘tuning knobs’, supplying abundant genetic variation with minimal risk of pleiotropic deleterious effects. The genetic basis of variation in facial shape and length represents a possible example of this phenomenon. Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2, which is involved in osteoblast differentiation, contains a functionally-important tandem repeat of glutamine and alanine amino acids. The ratio of glutamines to alanines (the QA ratio in this protein seemingly influences the regulation of bone development. Notably, in domestic breeds of dog, and in carnivorans in general, the ratio of glutamines to alanines is strongly correlated with facial length. Results In this study we examine whether this correlation holds true across placental mammals, particularly those mammals for which facial length is highly variable and related to adaptive behavior and lifestyle (e.g., primates, afrotherians, xenarthrans. We obtained relative facial length measurements and RUNX2 sequences for 41 mammalian species representing 12 orders. Using both a phylogenetic generalized least squares model and a recently-developed Bayesian comparative method, we tested for a correlation between genetic and morphometric data while controlling for phylogeny, evolutionary rates, and divergence times. Non-carnivoran taxa generally had substantially lower glutamine-alanine ratios than carnivorans (primates and xenarthrans with means of 1.34 and 1.25, respectively, compared to a mean of 3.1 for carnivorans, and we found no correlation between RUNX2 sequence and face length across placental mammals. Conclusions Results of our diverse comparative phylogenetic analyses indicate that QA ratio does not consistently correlate with face length across the 41 mammalian taxa considered. Thus, although RUNX2 might function as a ‘tuning knob’ modifying face

  15. A Study of Techniques for Facial Detection and Expression Classification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.Hemalatha

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Automatic recognition of facial expressions is an important component for human-machine interfaces. It has lot of attraction in research area since 1990's.Although humans recognize face without effort or delay, recognition by a machine is still a challenge. Some of its challenges are highly dynamic in their orientation, lightening, scale, facial expression and occlusion. Applications are in the fields like user authentication, person identification, video surveillance, information security, data privacy etc. The various approaches for facial recognition are categorized into two namely holistic based facial recognition and feature based facial recognition. Holistic based treat the image data as one entity without isolating different region in the face where as feature based methods identify certain points on the face such as eyes, nose and mouth etc. In this paper, facial expression recognition is analyzed with various methods of facial detection,facial feature extraction and classification.

  16. Automated and objective action coding of facial expressions in patients with acute facial palsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Daniel; Minnigerode, Laura; Volk, Gerd Fabian; Denzler, Joachim; Guntinas-Lichius, Orlando

    2015-05-01

    Aim of the present observational single center study was to objectively assess facial function in patients with idiopathic facial palsy with a new computer-based system that automatically recognizes action units (AUs) defined by the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Still photographs using posed facial expressions of 28 healthy subjects and of 299 patients with acute facial palsy were automatically analyzed for bilateral AU expression profiles. All palsies were graded with the House-Brackmann (HB) grading system and with the Stennert Index (SI). Changes of the AU profiles during follow-up were analyzed for 77 patients. The initial HB grading of all patients was 3.3 ± 1.2. SI at rest was 1.86 ± 1.3 and during motion 3.79 ± 4.3. Healthy subjects showed a significant AU asymmetry score of 21 ± 11 % and there was no significant difference to patients (p = 0.128). At initial examination of patients, the number of activated AUs was significantly lower on the paralyzed side than on the healthy side (p facial grading is worthwhile: automated FACS delivers fast and objective global and regional data on facial motor function for use in clinical routine and clinical trials.

  17. An investigation on facial and cranial anthropometric parameters among Isfahan Young adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alavi Sh. Assistant Professor

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Anthropometry is applied in medical professions such as maxillofacial surgery,"ngrowth and development studies, plastic surgery, bioengineering and non- medical branches such as like"nshoe- making and eye- glasses industries."nAim: The aim of the present study was to determine facial and cranial ratios among Isfahan young"nadults."nMaterials and Methods: A study was done randomly on 200 boys and 200 girls, from among Isfahan"nyoung adults, with normal face patterns. Facial and cranial ratios, according to sex, were estimated and"ncompared."nResults: The results of this study were compared with Canadian anthropometric findings by Farkas."nThere was no significant difference in cranial width between boys and girls but cranial length and all"nfacial parameters (Int ,cant, go-go, zy- zy, ch-ch, Ala-Ala, low.lip, Up.Iip, Sn.gn, Sto.gn, N.sto, Ngn"nwere greater in boys than girls. Cranial index and , , " ,Cl ratios were greater in"nn - gn zy - zy zy - zy zy - zy"n... slo-go sn-gn sto-gn slo-gn sto-gn . . ._"ngirls, however, -, -, , , were greater in boys, There was no significant"ngo-go n- gn n- gn n- sto sn - gn"ndifference about facial index between boys and girls. Comparing facial parameters between Iranian and Canadian races, low. lip, Ala-Ala and go- go were greater among Iranians, however, Int cant ,Up. lip. N.gn, ch- ch, zy-zy showed a greater size among Canadians. Sn-gn ratio was greater in Canadian girls, but there was no significant difference between Iranian and Canadian boys in this"nregard. " " s" , s° " 8° , " ~ s ° , g° " 8° , ^-- ratios were greater among Isfahanian boys and girls,"nzy-zy zy-zy zy-zy n - gn zy-zy"nhowever, J ° ~ g" , 5 ° " 8" / ° " s" ratios were greater among Canadians. Regarding 5"~g" ratio, no"nn- sto sn- gn n~ gn n- gn"nsignificant difference was observed between Canadian and Isfahanian girls."nConclusion: Considering the significant difference in the facial and cranial anthropologic

  18. [Facial locoregional anesthetics: principles and precautions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lefort, H; Lacroix, G; Cordier, A; Bey, E; Duhamel, P

    2009-12-01

    Facial locoregional anesthetics (ALR) with nervous blocks are simple and reliable to perform, need little technical resources with a very low iatrogenic risk. These blocks allow anesthesia without deforming wound banks using the same materials as usual local anesthetic procedures. Three principal nervous blocks, in a straight line along the vertical pupil axis, allow managing - even extensive - facial wounds. Few side effects may occur which can be easily prevented. It is a good alternative to local anesthetic for the treatment of extensive and deep areas which is performed with a lower number of injections and a high rate of success. These techniques are easy to learn and practise. These anesthetic techniques allow a nice treatment of different kinds of facial wounds from simple suture to flaps.

  19. Unilateral facial pain and lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shakespeare, T.P.; Stevens, M.J. [Royal North Shore Hospital, Crows Nest, NSW (Australia)

    1996-02-01

    Facial pain in lung cancer patients may be secondary to metastatic disease to the brain or skull base. Since 1983 there have been 19 published reports of hemi-facial pain as a non-metastatic complication of lung carcinoma. This report describes an additional case in whom unilateral face pain preceded the diagnosis of lung cancer by 9 months. A clinical diagnosis of trigeminal neuralgia was made after a normal brain CT scan. Later on the patient complained of global lethargy, weight loss and haemoptysis. A chest X-ray disclosed a 6 cm right hilar mass that was further defined with a whole body CT scan. The neural mechanism of the unilateral facial pain is discussed and the literature reviewed. 14 refs., 1 tab.

  20. Assessing facial wrinkles: automatic detection and quantification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cula, Gabriela O.; Bargo, Paulo R.; Kollias, Nikiforos

    2009-02-01

    Nowadays, documenting the face appearance through imaging is prevalent in skin research, therefore detection and quantitative assessment of the degree of facial wrinkling is a useful tool for establishing an objective baseline and for communicating benefits to facial appearance due to cosmetic procedures or product applications. In this work, an algorithm for automatic detection of facial wrinkles is developed, based on estimating the orientation and the frequency of elongated features apparent on faces. By over-filtering the skin texture image with finely tuned oriented Gabor filters, an enhanced skin image is created. The wrinkles are detected by adaptively thresholding the enhanced image, and the degree of wrinkling is estimated based on the magnitude of the filter responses. The algorithm is tested against a clinically scored set of images of periorbital lines of different severity and we find that the proposed computational assessment correlates well with the corresponding clinical scores.

  1. LBP and SIFT based facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumer, Omer; Gunes, Ece O.

    2015-02-01

    This study compares the performance of local binary patterns (LBP) and scale invariant feature transform (SIFT) with support vector machines (SVM) in automatic classification of discrete facial expressions. Facial expression recognition is a multiclass classification problem and seven classes; happiness, anger, sadness, disgust, surprise, fear and comtempt are classified. Using SIFT feature vectors and linear SVM, 93.1% mean accuracy is acquired on CK+ database. On the other hand, the performance of LBP-based classifier with linear SVM is reported on SFEW using strictly person independent (SPI) protocol. Seven-class mean accuracy on SFEW is 59.76%. Experiments on both databases showed that LBP features can be used in a fairly descriptive way if a good localization of facial points and partitioning strategy are followed.

  2. A statistical model of facial attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Said, Christopher P; Todorov, Alexander

    2011-09-01

    Previous research has identified facial averageness and sexual dimorphism as important factors in facial attractiveness. The averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts provide important first steps in understanding what makes faces attractive, and should be valued for their parsimony. However, we show that they explain relatively little of the variance in facial attractiveness, particularly for male faces. As an alternative to these accounts, we built a regression model that defines attractiveness as a function of a face's position in a multidimensional face space. The model provides much more predictive power than the averageness and sexual dimorphism accounts and reveals previously unreported components of attractiveness. The model shows that averageness is attractive in some dimensions but not in others and resolves previous contradictory reports about the effects of sexual dimorphism on the attractiveness of male faces.

  3. Using infrared facial imagery for positive identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, David C.

    1995-05-01

    Positive identification or verification of identity of an individual is a major part of the security, legal, banking, and police task of granting or denying authority to take an action. Work is being done using IR facial imaging and computer technology to perform the human recognition task rapidly, accurately, and nonintrusively. Three basic principles have been demonstrated: every human IR facial image (or thermogram) is unique to that individual; an IR camera can be used to capture human thermograms; and captured thermograms can be digitized, stored, and matched using a computer and certain mathematical algorithms. A three- part development effort has been undertaken using IR facial recognition in an access control application. The first, an opertor assisted proof-of-concept effort, has been successfully completed. The second, an automated access control unit, has been completed and is undergoing independent testing in a simulated controlled access environment. Work on the third developmental effort is planned for this summer.

  4. Exacerbation of facial motoneuron loss after facial nerve axotomy in CCR3-deficient mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Derek A Wainwright

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available We have previously demonstrated a neuroprotective mechanism of FMN (facial motoneuron survival after facial nerve axotomy that is dependent on CD4+ Th2 cell interaction with peripheral antigen-presenting cells, as well as CNS (central nervous system-resident microglia. PACAP (pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide is expressed by injured FMN and increases Th2-associated chemokine expression in cultured murine microglia. Collectively, these results suggest a model involving CD4+ Th2 cell migration to the facial motor nucleus after injury via microglial expression of Th2-associated chemokines. However, to respond to Th2-associated chemokines, Th2 cells must express the appropriate Th2-associated chemokine receptors. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that Th2-associated chemokine receptors increase in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy at timepoints consistent with significant T-cell infiltration. Microarray analysis of Th2-associated chemokine receptors was followed up with real-time PCR for CCR3, which indicated that facial nerve injury increases CCR3 mRNA levels in mouse facial motor nucleus. Unexpectedly, quantitative- and co-immunofluorescence revealed increased CCR3 expression localizing to FMN in the facial motor nucleus after facial nerve axotomy. Compared with WT (wild-type, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in CCR3−/− mice. Additionally, compared with WT, a significant decrease in FMN survival 4 weeks after axotomy was observed in Rag2−/− (recombination activating gene-2-deficient mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells isolated from CCR3−/− mice, but not in CCR3−/− mice adoptively transferred CD4+ T-cells derived from WT mice. These results provide a basis for further investigation into the co-operation between CD4+ T-cell- and CCR3-mediated neuroprotection after FMN injury.

  5. Application of Bacterial Cellulose (BC) in Natural Facial Scrub

    OpenAIRE

    Norhasliza Hasan; Dayang Radiah Awang Biak; Suryani Kamarudin

    2012-01-01

    A new facial scrub containing only natural ingredients and powdered bacterial cellulose (BC) was formulated. The other ingredients used in the formulation include powdered glutinous rice, aloe vera extract, ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) powder and olive oil. The rheological behaviours of the formulated and commercial facial scrubs were tested using plate and plate rheometer. Both formulated and commercial facial scrubs shows shear thinning  behaviour (non-Newtonian liquid). The formulated facial ...

  6. The submental island flap for reconstruction of facial defects.

    OpenAIRE

    Prabhune K; Patni S; Gomes D.; Bhathena H; Kavarana N

    1998-01-01

    The procedure of facial resurfacing dictates that there should be an excellent colour and texture match between the facial and the transposed skin. Cervical flaps e.g. platysma flap are commonly used for reconstruction of facial defects but, with disadvantages like limited mobility, unacceptable donor site and unpredictable outcomes. The submental island flap is a new addition to the armamentorium of the Plastic Surgeon. It is an axial pattern flap based on the submental branch of facial arte...

  7. Relationship between facial asymmetry and masseter reflex activity

    OpenAIRE

    Machida, Naoki; Yamada, Kazuhiro; Takata, Yoshiyuki; Yamada, Yoshiaki; 山田, 一尋

    2003-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated the tonic vibration reflex (TVR) of the masseter muscles in patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects and Methods: The experiment was performed on 10 volunteers without facial asymmetry and 12 orthognathic patients with facial asymmetry. Subjects were seated in a chair, and held a stimulator composed of an electric motor and an acrylic bite block between the upper and lower dentitions at facial midline, in order to elicit TVR. EMG activity was recorded using a pai...

  8. Automatic decoding of facial movements reveals deceptive pain expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Littlewort, Gwen C.; Mark G. Frank; Lee, Kang

    2014-01-01

    In highly social species such as humans, faces have evolved to convey rich information for social interaction, including expressions of emotions and pain [1–3]. Two motor pathways control facial movement [4–7]. A subcortical extrapyramidal motor system drives spontaneous facial expressions of felt emotions. A cortical pyramidal motor system controls voluntary facial expressions. The pyramidal system enables humans to simulate facial expressions of emotions not actually experienced. Their simu...

  9. Korean Facial Emotion Recognition Tasks for Schizophrenia Research

    OpenAIRE

    Bahk, Yong-Chun; Jang, Seon-Keong; Lee, Jee Ye; Choi, Kee-Hong

    2015-01-01

    Objective Despite the fact that facial emotion recognition (FER) tasks using Western faces should be applied with caution to non-Western participants or patients, there are few psychometrically sound and validated FER tasks featuring Easterners' facial expressions for emotions. Thus, we aimed to develop and establish the psychometric properties of the Korean Facial Emotion Identification Task (K-FEIT) and the Korean Facial Emotion Discrimination Task (K-FEDT) for individuals with schizophreni...

  10. Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr.R.Parthasarathi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other proposed methods as shown in experiment results.

  11. Facial Expressions with Some Mixed Expressions Recognition Using Neural Networks

    OpenAIRE

    Dr.R.Parthasarathi; V.Lokeswar Reddy,; K.Vishnuthej,; G.Vishnu Vandan

    2011-01-01

    Facial feature extraction is the essential step of facial expression recognition. The automatic facial impression evaluation applies for wide area use. The important facial feature vectors for expressionanalysis are analyzed. The extracted feature vector loads all known feature vectors and trains the NN using as input training vectors while PCA is used for dimensionality reduction. The method is effective for both dimension reduction and good recognition performance in comparison with other p...

  12. Perceptually Valid Facial Expressions for Character-Based Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Arya; Steve DiPaola; Avi Parush

    2009-01-01

    This paper addresses the problem of creating facial expression of mixed emotions in a perceptually valid way. The research has been done in the context of a “game-like” health and education applications aimed at studying social competency and facial expression awareness in autistic children as well as native language learning, but the results can be applied to many other applications such as games with need for dynamic facial expressions or tools for automating the creation of facial animatio...

  13. Towards Real-Life Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    OpenAIRE

    BENTA, K.-I.; VAIDA, M.-F.

    2015-01-01

    Facial expressions are a set of symbols of great importance for human-to-human communication. Spontaneous in their nature, diverse and personal, facial expressions demand for real-time, complex, robust and adaptable facial expression recognition (FER) systems to facilitate the human-computer interaction. The last years' research efforts in the recognition of facial expressions are preparing FER systems to step into the real-life. In order to meet the before-mentioned requi...

  14. The face of leadership: perceiving leaders from facial expression

    OpenAIRE

    Trichas, Savvas

    2011-01-01

    Facial expressions appear to have a powerful influence on the perception of leadership. The aim of the five studies presented here was to add to our knowledge about the contribution of facial expression to the perception of leadership. In particular, these five studies were used to explore which facial expressions influence perceptions of leadership and how these facial expressions influence leadership perceptions. Participants’ prototypes of leadership were examined by assessing implicit lea...

  15. Advances in face detection and facial image analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Celebi, M; Smolka, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    This book presents the state-of-the-art in face detection and analysis. It outlines new research directions, including in particular psychology-based facial dynamics recognition, aimed at various applications such as behavior analysis, deception detection, and diagnosis of various psychological disorders. Topics of interest include face and facial landmark detection, face recognition, facial expression and emotion analysis, facial dynamics analysis, face classification, identification, and clustering, and gaze direction and head pose estimation, as well as applications of face analysis.

  16. Facial Expressions recognition Based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    The facial expression recognition is an ocular task that can be performed without human discomfort, is really a speedily growing on the computer research field. There are many applications and programs uses facial expression to evaluate human character, judgment, feelings, and viewpoint. The process of recognizing facial expression is a hard task due to the several circumstances such as facial occlusions, face shape, illumination, face colors, and etc. This paper present a PCA methodology to ...

  17. Cognitive factors associated with facial pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, S M; Gramling, S E

    1997-07-01

    Most well-accepted etiological models of facial pain (e.g., temporomandibular disorders and headache) implicate emotional distress as an important factor in the development and maintenance of pain. Data exists to support the notion that some facial pain sufferers are more emotionally distressed than no pain controls. However, many of these dependent measures of emotional distress are either lengthy assessment batteries, lack clear cut psychotherapeutic treatment implications, or focus exclusively on pain related sequela. As cognitive-behavioral interventions become more integrated into the treatment of chronic pain conditions, including various facial pain conditions, it becomes more imperative that the tools used to assess psychological functioning provide the clinician with specific cognitive/behavioral targets for change. The purpose of this study was to assess the degree to which symptomatic treatment seeking facial pain sufferers (N = 25), symptomatic non-treatment seeking facial pain sufferers (N = 48), and healthy pain-free controls (N = 70) differed on the Rational Beliefs Inventory (RBI). The RBI is a reliable, valid questionnaire assessing rational beliefs that are operationalized within a Rational Emotive Therapy (RET) framework. RET is a cognitive-behavioral treatment paradigm that focuses on how an individual's maladaptive cognitive errors or distortions exacerbate emotional distress. Group differences were assessed using a oneway Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) with the total RBI score serving as the dependent measure, and a Multivariate Analysis of Covariance (MANCOVA) using individual RBI belief subscales as dependent measures. These results indicated that groups differed significantly on the total score and several of the individual belief subscales. These findings indicated that facial pain sufferers generally hold maladaptive beliefs that may be of clinical significance for cognitive/behavioral treatment approaches.

  18. Facial Reconstruction with Combined Facial, Neck and Occipital Skin Flap Transplantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陶学金; 郭三兰; 陈为民; 马净植

    2002-01-01

    To treat large facial defect (more than 6 cm × 4 cm in diameter ) or a wound with bone exposure to atmosphere by less-traumatic, easier-healing reconstruction method, a pedicle flap including facial, neck, posterior auricle and occipital skin flap was designed and transferred, one by one, to repair facial defect as well as other flap donor sites, but occipital skin flap was only used to cover posterior auricle area. After 2-3 years follow-up, well-healed skin flaps with good color, elasticity and sensation were observed in all 16 patients. It is concluded that this method is effective and practical.

  19. Recognition of Facial Expressions using Local Binary Patterns of Important Facial Parts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramchand Hablani

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial Expression Recognition is one of the exciting and challenging field; it has important applications in many areas such as data driven animation, human computer interaction and robotics. Extracting effective features from the human face is an important step for successful facial expression recognition. In this paper we have evaluated Local Binary Patterns of some important parts of human face, for person independent as well as person dependent facial expression recognition. Extensive experiments on JAFFE database are conducted. The experiment results show that person dependent method is highly accurate and outperform many existing methods.

  20. Facial Nerve Paralysis due to a Pleomorphic Adenoma with the Imaging Characteristics of a Facial Nerve Schwannoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nader, Marc-Elie; Bell, Diana; Sturgis, Erich M; Ginsberg, Lawrence E; Gidley, Paul W

    2014-08-01

    Background Facial nerve paralysis in a patient with a salivary gland mass usually denotes malignancy. However, facial paralysis can also be caused by benign salivary gland tumors. Methods We present a case of facial nerve paralysis due to a benign salivary gland tumor that had the imaging characteristics of an intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma. Results The patient presented to our clinic 4 years after the onset of facial nerve paralysis initially diagnosed as Bell palsy. Computed tomography demonstrated filling and erosion of the stylomastoid foramen with a mass on the facial nerve. Postoperative histopathology showed the presence of a pleomorphic adenoma. Facial paralysis was thought to be caused by extrinsic nerve compression. Conclusions This case illustrates the difficulty of accurate preoperative diagnosis of a parotid gland mass and reinforces the concept that facial nerve paralysis in the context of salivary gland tumors may not always indicate malignancy.

  1. Objectifying facial expressivity assessment of Parkinson's patients: preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Peng; Gonzalez, Isabel; Patsis, Georgios; Jiang, Dongmei; Sahli, Hichem; Kerckhofs, Eric; Vandekerckhove, Marie

    2014-01-01

    Patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) can exhibit a reduction of spontaneous facial expression, designated as "facial masking," a symptom in which facial muscles become rigid. To improve clinical assessment of facial expressivity of PD, this work attempts to quantify the dynamic facial expressivity (facial activity) of PD by automatically recognizing facial action units (AUs) and estimating their intensity. Spontaneous facial expressivity was assessed by comparing 7 PD patients with 8 control participants. To voluntarily produce spontaneous facial expressions that resemble those typically triggered by emotions, six emotions (amusement, sadness, anger, disgust, surprise, and fear) were elicited using movie clips. During the movie clips, physiological signals (facial electromyography (EMG) and electrocardiogram (ECG)) and frontal face video of the participants were recorded. The participants were asked to report on their emotional states throughout the experiment. We first examined the effectiveness of the emotion manipulation by evaluating the participant's self-reports. Disgust-induced emotions were significantly higher than the other emotions. Thus we focused on the analysis of the recorded data during watching disgust movie clips. The proposed facial expressivity assessment approach captured differences in facial expressivity between PD patients and controls. Also differences between PD patients with different progression of Parkinson's disease have been observed. PMID:25478003

  2. Intraparotid facial nerve schwannoma: Report of two cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Basir Hashemi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma is a rare tumor. Case report: In this article we presented two cases of intra parotid facial nerve schowannoma. In two cases tumor presented with asymptomatic parotid mass that mimic pleomorphic adenoma. No preoperative facial nerve dysfunction in cases is detected. Diagnostic result and surgical management are discussed in this paper.  

  3. Facial animation on an anatomy-based hierarchical face model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu; Prakash, Edmond C.; Sung, Eric

    2003-04-01

    In this paper we propose a new hierarchical 3D facial model based on anatomical knowledge that provides high fidelity for realistic facial expression animation. Like real human face, the facial model has a hierarchical biomechanical structure, incorporating a physically-based approximation to facial skin tissue, a set of anatomically-motivated facial muscle actuators and underlying skull structure. The deformable skin model has multi-layer structure to approximate different types of soft tissue. It takes into account the nonlinear stress-strain relationship of the skin and the fact that soft tissue is almost incompressible. Different types of muscle models have been developed to simulate distribution of the muscle force on the skin due to muscle contraction. By the presence of the skull model, our facial model takes advantage of both more accurate facial deformation and the consideration of facial anatomy during the interactive definition of facial muscles. Under the muscular force, the deformation of the facial skin is evaluated using numerical integration of the governing dynamic equations. The dynamic facial animation algorithm runs at interactive rate with flexible and realistic facial expressions to be generated.

  4. A small-world network model of facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Takuma; Ochiai, Fumio; Suzuki, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Various models have been proposed to increase understanding of the cognitive basis of facial emotions. Despite those efforts, interactions between facial emotions have received minimal attention. If collective behaviours relating to each facial emotion in the comprehensive cognitive system could be assumed, specific facial emotion relationship patterns might emerge. In this study, we demonstrate that the frameworks of complex networks can effectively capture those patterns. We generate 81 facial emotion images (6 prototypes and 75 morphs) and then ask participants to rate degrees of similarity in 3240 facial emotion pairs in a paired comparison task. A facial emotion network constructed on the basis of similarity clearly forms a small-world network, which features an extremely short average network distance and close connectivity. Further, even if two facial emotions have opposing valences, they are connected within only two steps. In addition, we show that intermediary morphs are crucial for maintaining full network integration, whereas prototypes are not at all important. These results suggest the existence of collective behaviours in the cognitive systems of facial emotions and also describe why people can efficiently recognize facial emotions in terms of information transmission and propagation. For comparison, we construct three simulated networks--one based on the categorical model, one based on the dimensional model, and one random network. The results reveal that small-world connectivity in facial emotion networks is apparently different from those networks, suggesting that a small-world network is the most suitable model for capturing the cognitive basis of facial emotions. PMID:26315136

  5. Meta-Analysis of the First Facial Expression Recognition Challenge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Valstar, M.F.; Mehu, M.; Jiang, Bihan; Pantic, Maja; Scherer, K.

    2012-01-01

    Automatic facial expression recognition has been an active topic in computer science for over two decades, in particular facial action coding system action unit (AU) detection and classification of a number of discrete emotion states from facial expressive imagery. Standardization and comparability

  6. Facial Image Analysis Based on Local Binary Patterns: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, D.; Shan, C.; Ardebilian, M.; Chen, L.

    2011-01-01

    Facial image analysis, including face detection, face recognition,facial expression analysis, facial demographic classification, and so on, is an important and interesting research topic in the computervision and image processing area, which has many important applications such as human-computer

  7. Violent Media Consumption and the Recognition of Dynamic Facial Expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirsh, Steven J.; Mounts, Jeffrey R. W.; Olczak, Paul V.

    2006-01-01

    This study assessed the speed of recognition of facial emotional expressions (happy and angry) as a function of violent media consumption. Color photos of calm facial expressions morphed to either an angry or a happy facial expression. Participants were asked to make a speeded identification of the emotion (happiness or anger) during the morph.…

  8. A Cloud Model-based Approach for Facial Expression Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juebo Wu

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The process to synthesize feature for human facial expression often implies both fuzziness, randomness and their certain relevance in image data. By using the advantage of cloud model, this paper presents a new approaches and applications for comprehensive analysis of human facial expression synthesis using cloud model, in order to realize the rapid and effective facial expression processing in analysis and application. It gives the comprehensive analysis for the fuzziness and randomness of facial expression feature and the relationship between them based on cloud model, including the new method of facial expression synthesis with the uncertainty. It proposes the method of facial expression feature synthesis by cloud model, using the three numerical characteristics (Expectation, Entropy and Hyper Entropy as the features and concepts of facial expression with its fuzziness, randomness and certain relevance in them. Through such three numerical characteristics, it introduces the framework of facial expression synthesis and the detail procedures based on cloud model. It puts forward the synthesis method of facial expression and gives the concrete realization and the implementation process. The facial expressions after synthesis can express the different expressions for one person, and it can meet a variety of demands for facial expression. The experimental results show that the proposed method is feasible and effective in facial expression synthesis.

  9. Facial myokymia as a presenting symptom of vestibular schwannoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph B

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Facial myokymia is a rare presenting feature of a vestibular schwannoma. We present a 48 year old woman with a large right vestibular schwannoma, who presented with facial myokymia. It is postulated that facial myokymia might be due to a defect in the motor axons of the 7th nerve or due to brain stem compression by the tumor.

  10. A small-world network model of facial emotion recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takehara, Takuma; Ochiai, Fumio; Suzuki, Naoto

    2016-01-01

    Various models have been proposed to increase understanding of the cognitive basis of facial emotions. Despite those efforts, interactions between facial emotions have received minimal attention. If collective behaviours relating to each facial emotion in the comprehensive cognitive system could be assumed, specific facial emotion relationship patterns might emerge. In this study, we demonstrate that the frameworks of complex networks can effectively capture those patterns. We generate 81 facial emotion images (6 prototypes and 75 morphs) and then ask participants to rate degrees of similarity in 3240 facial emotion pairs in a paired comparison task. A facial emotion network constructed on the basis of similarity clearly forms a small-world network, which features an extremely short average network distance and close connectivity. Further, even if two facial emotions have opposing valences, they are connected within only two steps. In addition, we show that intermediary morphs are crucial for maintaining full network integration, whereas prototypes are not at all important. These results suggest the existence of collective behaviours in the cognitive systems of facial emotions and also describe why people can efficiently recognize facial emotions in terms of information transmission and propagation. For comparison, we construct three simulated networks--one based on the categorical model, one based on the dimensional model, and one random network. The results reveal that small-world connectivity in facial emotion networks is apparently different from those networks, suggesting that a small-world network is the most suitable model for capturing the cognitive basis of facial emotions.

  11. Facial bone scanning by emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A single-photon emission tomographic system was used to study the normal anatomy of the facial bones and the usefulness of emission computed tomography in evaluating diseases of the bones of the face. The examination was performed following routine bone scintigraphy and took an additional 20 to 30 min. The anatomy of the facial bones was well defined, with clear separation of deep and superficial structuress. Early experience with tumor, infection, bone grafts, and postirradiation osteonecrosis indicates that useful added diagnostic information can be obtained by this method

  12. Management of the Eye in Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, John J

    2016-02-01

    The preoperative assessment of the eye in facial paralysis is a critical component of surgical management. The degree of facial nerve paralysis, lacrimal secretion, corneal sensation, and lower eyelid position must be assessed accurately. Upper eyelid loading procedures are standard management of lagophthalmos. Lower eyelid tightening repositions the lower eyelid and helps maintain the aqueous tear film. Eyelid reanimation allows an aesthetic symmetry with blinking and restores protective functions vital to ocular preservation. Patients often have multiple nervous deficits, including corneal anesthesia. Other procedures include tarsorrhaphy, spring implantation, and temporalis muscle transposition; associated complications have rendered them nearly obsolete.

  13. Extraction of Facial Features from Color Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Pavlovicova

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a method for localization and extraction of faces and characteristic facial features such as eyes, mouth and face boundaries from color image data is proposed. This approach exploits color properties of human skin to localize image regions – face candidates. The facial features extraction is performed only on preselected face-candidate regions. Likewise, for eyes and mouth localization color information and local contrast around eyes are used. The ellipse of face boundary is determined using gradient image and Hough transform. Algorithm was tested on image database Feret.

  14. Peripheral facial nerve palsy after therapeutic endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Eun Jeong; Lee, Jun; Lee, Ji Woon; Lee, Jun Hyung; Park, Chol Jin; Kim, Young Dae; Lee, Hyun Jin

    2015-03-01

    Peripheral facial nerve palsy (FNP) is a mononeuropathy that affects the peripheral part of the facial nerve. Primary causes of peripheral FNP remain largely unknown, but detectable causes include systemic infections (viral and others), trauma, ischemia, tumor, and extrinsic compression. Peripheral FNP in relation to extrinsic compression has rarely been described in case reports. Here, we report a case of a 71-year-old man who was diagnosed with peripheral FNP following endoscopic submucosal dissection. This case is the first report of the development of peripheral FNP in a patient undergoing therapeutic endoscopy. We emphasize the fact that physicians should be attentive to the development of peripheral FNP following therapeutic endoscopy.

  15. Rapid Facial Reactions to Emotional Facial Expressions in Typically Developing Children and Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beall, Paula M.; Moody, Eric J.; McIntosh, Daniel N.; Hepburn, Susan L.; Reed, Catherine L.

    2008-01-01

    Typical adults mimic facial expressions within 1000ms, but adults with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) do not. These rapid facial reactions (RFRs) are associated with the development of social-emotional abilities. Such interpersonal matching may be caused by motor mirroring or emotional responses. Using facial electromyography (EMG), this study…

  16. Altered prosaposin expression in the rat facial nerve nucleus following facial nerve transection and repair

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Wang; Wenlong Luo; Cuiying Zhou; Jingjing Li

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated that damaged facial nerves synthesize prosaposin to promote repair of facial neurons.OBJECTIVE: To observe time-course changes of prosaposin expression in the facial nerve nucleus of Sprague Dawley rats following facial nerve transection and repair.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: A randomized control neuropathological animal experiment was performed in Chongqing Medical University between March 2007 and September 2008.MATERIALS: A total of 48 adult, male, Sprague Dawley rats were selected and randomly divided into transection and transection + end-to-end anastomosis groups (n =24). Rabbit anti-rat prosaposin antibody, instant SABC immunohistochemical kit, and antibody dilution solution were purchased from Wuhan Uscn Science Co., Ltd., China.METHODS: In the transection group, the nerve trunk of the distal retroauricular branch of the left facial nerves was ligated in Sprague Dawley rats, and a 5-mm nerve trunk at the distal end of the ligation site was removed. In the transection + end-to-end anastomosis group, epineurial anastomosis was performed immediately following transection of the left facial nerves. The right facial nerves in the two groups sewed as the normal control group.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The number of prosaposin-positive neurons, as well as intensity of immunostaining in facial nerve nucleus, following transection and end-to-end anastomosis were determined by immunohistochemistry at 1,3, 7, 14, 21, and 35 days after injury.RESULTS: Transection group: transection of facial nerves resulted in increased number of prosaposin-positive neurons and immunoreactivity intensity in the facial nucleus on day 1. These values significantly increased by day 3. Expression was greater than in the control side. The peak of the reduction was reached at 7 days post-surgery. Transection + end-to-end anastomosis group: the number of prosaposin-positive neurons and immunoreactivity intensity was reduced in the facial nerve nucleus following

  17. A novel human-machine interface based on recognition of multi-channel facial bioelectric signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: This paper presents a novel human-machine interface for disabled people to interact with assistive systems for a better quality of life. It is based on multichannel forehead bioelectric signals acquired by placing three pairs of electrodes (physical channels) on the Fron-tails and Temporalis facial muscles. The acquired signals are passes through a parallel filter bank to explore three different sub-bands related to facial electromyogram, electrooculogram and electroencephalogram. The root mean features of the bioelectric signals analyzed within non-overlapping 256 ms windows were extracted. The subtractive fuzzy c-means clustering method (SFCM) was applied to segment the feature space and generate initial fuzzy based Takagi-Sugeno rules. Then, an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system is exploited to tune up the premises and consequence parameters of the extracted SFCMs. rules. The average classifier discriminating ratio for eight different facial gestures (smiling, frowning, pulling up left/right lips corner, eye movement to left/right/up/down is between 93.04% and 96.99% according to different combinations and fusions of logical features. Experimental results show that the proposed interface has a high degree of accuracy and robustness for discrimination of 8 fundamental facial gestures. Some potential and further capabilities of our approach in human-machine interfaces are also discussed. (author)

  18. Positive and negative facial emotional expressions: the effect on infants' and children's facial identity recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Brenna,

    2013-01-01

    Aim of the present study was to investigate the origin and the development of the interdipendence between identity recognition and facial emotional expression processing, suggested by recent models on face processing (Calder & Young, 2005) and supported by outcomes on adults (e.g. Baudouin, Gilibert, Sansone, & Tiberghien, 2000; Schweinberger & Soukup, 1998). Particularly the effect of facial emotional expressions on infants’ and children’s ability to recognize identity of a face was explored...

  19. Shape analysis of local facial patches for 3D facial expression recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Maalej, Ahmed; Ben Amor, Boulbaba; Daoudi, Mohamed; Srivastava, Anuj; Berretti, Stefano

    2011-01-01

    International audience; In this paper we address the problem of 3D facial expression recognition. We propose a local geometric shape analysis of facial surfaces coupled with machine learning techniques for expression classification. A computation of the length of the geodesic path between corresponding patches, using a Riemannian framework, in a shape space provides a quantitative information about their similarities. These measures are then used as inputs to several classification methods. T...

  20. Expression and communication of doubt/uncertainty through facial expression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pio E. Ricci Bitti

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a wide debate on the mental state of doubt/uncertainty; one wonders whether it is a predominantly cognitive or emotional state of mind and whether typical facial expressions communicate doubt/uncertainty. To this purpose,through a role playing procedure, a large sample of expressions were collected and afterwards evaluated through a combination of encoding and decoding procedures,including also FACS (Facial Action Coding System analysis. The results have partially confirmed our hypothesis, identifying two typical facial expressions of doubt/uncertainty, which share the same facial actions in the inferior part of the face and show differential facial actions in the upper face.

  1. Facial Recognition Technology: An analysis with scope in India

    OpenAIRE

    S.B. Thorat; Nayak, S. K.; Jyoti P Dandale

    2010-01-01

    A facial recognition system is a computer application for automatically identifying or verifying a person from a digital image or a video frame from a video source. One of the way is to do this is by comparing selected facial features from the image and a facial database.It is typically used in security systems and can be compared to other biometrics such as fingerprint or eye iris recognition systems. In this paper we focus on 3-D facial recognition system and biometric facial recognision sy...

  2. Judgment of facial expressions and depression persistence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hale, WW

    1998-01-01

    In research it has been demonstrated that cognitive and interpersonal processes play significant roles in depression development and persistence. The judgment of emotions displayed in facial expressions by depressed patients allows for a better understanding of these processes. In this study, 48 maj

  3. Designing new symmetrical facial oligothiophene amphiphiles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janeliunas, Dainius; Eelkema, Rienk; Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Ramírez Aguilar, Francisco J; López Navarrete, Juan T; van der Mee, Lars; Stuart, Marc C A; Casado, Juan; van Esch, Jan H

    2013-01-01

    In this study we designed a new class of symmetrical facial oligothiophene amphiphiles, which could be obtained in fewer steps than for previously reported analogues, but still possess the specific substituent sequence to control their backbone curvature. This novel design allows the late-stage intr

  4. GOLD WEIGHTS IN FACIAL PARALYSIS (REVISITED)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ZECHA, PJ; ROBINSON, PH; VANOORT, RP; COENRAADS, PJ

    1994-01-01

    A retrospective study of 11 patients with facial paralysis was undertaken. Correction of lagophthalmos was accomplished by inserting a dental gold weight into the upper eyelid. All weights were assessed and adjusted to fit the patient's individual need. The primary objective was to achieve adequate

  5. Facial Expressivity in Infants of Depressed Mothers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickens, Jeffrey; Field, Tiffany

    1993-01-01

    Facial expressions were examined in 84 3-month-old infants of mothers classified as depressed, nondepressed, or low scoring on the Beck Depression Inventory. Infants of both depressed and low-scoring mothers showed significantly more sadness and anger expressions and fewer interest expressions than infants of nondepressed mothers. (Author/MDM)

  6. Continuous pain intensity estimation from facial expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kaltwang, Sebastian; Rudovic, Ognjen; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Automatic pain recognition is an evolving research area with promising applications in health care. In this paper, we propose the first fully automatic approach to continuous pain intensity estimation from facial images. We first learn a set of independent regression functions for continuous pain in

  7. Searching for Prototypical Facial Feedback Signals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heylen, D.K.J.; Bevacqua, E.; Tellier, M.; Pelachaud, C.; Pelachaud, C.; Martin, J-C.; André, E.; Chollet, G.; Pelé, D.

    2007-01-01

    Embodied conversational agents should be able to provide feedback on what a human interlocutor is saying. We are compiling a list of facial feedback expressions that signal attention and interest, grounding and attitude. As expressions need to serve many functions at the same time and most of the co

  8. Stereoscopy Amplifies Emotions Elicited by Facial Expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hakala, Jussi; Kätsyri, Jari; Häkkinen, Jukka

    2015-12-01

    Mediated facial expressions do not elicit emotions as strongly as real-life facial expressions, possibly due to the low fidelity of pictorial presentations in typical mediation technologies. In the present study, we investigated the extent to which stereoscopy amplifies emotions elicited by images of neutral, angry, and happy facial expressions. The emotional self-reports of positive and negative valence (which were evaluated separately) and arousal of 40 participants were recorded. The magnitude of perceived depth in the stereoscopic images was manipulated by varying the camera base at 15, 40, 65, 90, and 115 mm. The analyses controlled for participants' gender, gender match, emotional empathy, and trait alexithymia. The results indicated that stereoscopy significantly amplified the negative valence and arousal elicited by angry expressions at the most natural (65 mm) camera base, whereas stereoscopy amplified the positive valence elicited by happy expressions in both the narrowed and most natural (15-65 mm) base conditions. Overall, the results indicate that stereoscopy amplifies the emotions elicited by mediated emotional facial expressions when the depth geometry is close to natural. The findings highlight the sensitivity of the visual system to depth and its effect on emotions. PMID:27551358

  9. Facial recognition technology safeguards Beijing Olympics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ To ensure the safety of spectators and athletes at the biggest-ever Olympic Games, automation experts from CAS have developed China's first system to identify individuals by their facial features, and successfully applied it to the opening night security check on 8 August in Beijing.

  10. Recurrent facial urticaria following herpes simplex labialis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vijay Zawar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We describe recurrent acute right-sided facial urticaria associated with herpes labialis infection in a middle-aged female patient. Antiviral medications and antihistamines not only successfully cleared the herpes infection and urticaria but also prevented further recurrences.

  11. Portable Facial Recognition Jukebox Using Fisherfaces (Frj

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Mo

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A portable real-time facial recognition system that is able to play personalized music based on the identified person’s preferences was developed. The system is called Portable Facial Recognition Jukebox Using Fisherfaces (FRJ. Raspberry Pi was used as the hardware platform for its relatively low cost and ease of use. This system uses the OpenCV open source library to implement the computer vision Fisherfaces facial recognition algorithms, and uses the Simple DirectMedia Layer (SDL library for playing the sound files. FRJ is cross-platform and can run on both Windows and Linux operating systems. The source code was written in C++. The accuracy of the recognition program can reach up to 90% under controlled lighting and distance conditions. The user is able to train up to 6 different people (as many as will fit in the GUI. When implemented on a Raspberry Pi, the system is able to go from image capture to facial recognition in an average time of 200ms.

  12. Clinical and experimental study on facial paralysis in temporal bone fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the main prognostic factors and significanceof facial nerve decompression for facial paralysis in temporal bone fracture.Methods: The main relative prognostic factors of 64 patients with facial paralysis were analyzed. An experimental model of facial paralysis was made. The expansion rates of facial nerve in the facial canal opening group and the facial canal non-opening group were measured and observed under electron microscope.Results: The main factors affecting the prognosis were facial nerve decompression and selection of surgery time. The expansion rate of facial nerve in the facial canal opening group was significantly higher than that of the facial canal non-opening group (t=7.53, P<0.01). The injury degree of the nerve fiber in the facial canal non-opening group was severe.Conclusions: Early facial nerve decompression is beneficial to restoration of the facial nerve function.

  13. Facial identity and facial expression are initially integrated at visual perceptual stages of face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Katie; Towler, John; Eimer, Martin

    2016-01-01

    It is frequently assumed that facial identity and facial expression are analysed in functionally and anatomically distinct streams within the core visual face processing system. To investigate whether expression and identity interact during the visual processing of faces, we employed a sequential matching procedure where participants compared either the identity or the expression of two successively presented faces, and ignored the other irrelevant dimension. Repetitions versus changes of facial identity and expression were varied independently across trials, and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded during task performance. Irrelevant facial identity and irrelevant expression both interfered with performance in the expression and identity matching tasks. These symmetrical interference effects show that neither identity nor expression can be selectively ignored during face matching, and suggest that they are not processed independently. N250r components to identity repetitions that reflect identity matching mechanisms in face-selective visual cortex were delayed and attenuated when there was an expression change, demonstrating that facial expression interferes with visual identity matching. These findings provide new evidence for interactions between facial identity and expression within the core visual processing system, and question the hypothesis that these two attributes are processed independently.

  14. Facial expression (mood recognition from facial images using committee neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hariharan SI

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Facial expressions are important in facilitating human communication and interactions. Also, they are used as an important tool in behavioural studies and in medical rehabilitation. Facial image based mood detection techniques may provide a fast and practical approach for non-invasive mood detection. The purpose of the present study was to develop an intelligent system for facial image based expression classification using committee neural networks. Methods Several facial parameters were extracted from a facial image and were used to train several generalized and specialized neural networks. Based on initial testing, the best performing generalized and specialized neural networks were recruited into decision making committees which formed an integrated committee neural network system. The integrated committee neural network system was then evaluated using data obtained from subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Results and conclusion The system correctly identified the correct facial expression in 255 of the 282 images (90.43% of the cases, from 62 subjects not used in training or in initial testing. Committee neural networks offer a potential tool for image based mood detection.

  15. Evaluation of facial divine proportion in North Indian Population

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naseem Ahmad Khan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the facial divine proportion and its relationship with facial attractiveness in North Indian population. Materials and Methods: For evaluation of various facial proportions, standardized frontal facial photographs of total 300 subjects between 18 and 30 years of age were obtained. Black and white copies of these photographs were presented in front of an evaluation jury for assigning scores of facial attractiveness and finally 130 attractive subjects were selected. These subjects were divided into two groups, Group I (attractive females n = 65 and Group II (attractive males n = 65 and they were further analyzed for various parameters of facial proportions. Unpaired Student′s t-test was used to compare both groups. Results: Group I showed that five of seven vertical facial proportions were close to divine proportion (1.618 whereas only two vertical proportions in Group II were close to it. Transverse facial proportions in both groups deviated more from divine proportion (1.618 and were closer to silver proportion (1.414. Conclusions: Most of the facial proportions of attractive females in the North-Indian population were close to the divine proportion. Thus, facial divine proportion could be an important factor in the perception of facial attractiveness of North-Indian attractive females.

  16. Suitable models for face geometry normalization in facial expression recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Hamid; Raie, Abolghasem A.

    2015-01-01

    Recently, facial expression recognition has attracted much attention in machine vision research because of its various applications. Accordingly, many facial expression recognition systems have been proposed. However, the majority of existing systems suffer from a critical problem: geometric variability. It directly affects the performance of geometric feature-based facial expression recognition approaches. Furthermore, it is a crucial challenge in appearance feature-based techniques. This variability appears in both neutral faces and facial expressions. Appropriate face geometry normalization can improve the accuracy of each facial expression recognition system. Therefore, this paper proposes different geometric models or shapes for normalization. Face geometry normalization removes geometric variability of facial images and consequently, appearance feature extraction methods can be accurately utilized to represent facial images. Thus, some expression-based geometric models are proposed for facial image normalization. Next, local binary patterns and local phase quantization are used for appearance feature extraction. A combination of an effective geometric normalization with accurate appearance representations results in more than a 4% accuracy improvement compared to several state-of-the-arts in facial expression recognition. Moreover, utilizing the model of facial expressions which have larger mouth and eye region sizes gives higher accuracy due to the importance of these regions in facial expression.

  17. How to Avoid Facial Nerve Injury in Mastoidectomy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Nam-Gyu; Kim, Jin

    2016-09-01

    Unexpected iatrogenic facial nerve paralysis not only affects facial disfiguration, but also imposes a devastating effect on the social, psychological, and economic aspects of an affected person's life at once. The aims of this study were to postulate where surgeons had mistakenly drilled or where obscured by granulations or by fibrous bands and to look for surgical approach with focused on the safety of facial nerve in mastoid surgery. We had found 14 cases of iatrogenic facial nerve injury (IFNI) during mastoid surgery for 5 years in Korea. The medical records of all the patients were obtained and analyzed injured site of facial nerve segment with surgical technique of mastoidectomy. Eleven patients underwent facial nerve exploration and three patients had conservative management. 43% (6 cases) of iatrogenic facial nerve injuries had occurred in tympanic segment, 28.5% (4 cases) of injuries in second genu combined with tympanic segment, and 28.5% (4 cases) of injuries in mastoid segment. Surgeons should try to identify the facial nerve using available landmarks and be kept in mind the anomalies of the facial nerve. With use of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, the avoidance of in order to avoid IFNI would be possible in more cases. Many authors emphasized the importance of intraoperative facial nerve monitoring, even in primary otologic surgery. However, anatomical understanding of intratemporal landmarks with meticulous dissection could not be emphasized as possible to prevent IFNI. PMID:27626078

  18. Perceptually Valid Facial Expressions for Character-Based Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Arya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the problem of creating facial expression of mixed emotions in a perceptually valid way. The research has been done in the context of a “game-like” health and education applications aimed at studying social competency and facial expression awareness in autistic children as well as native language learning, but the results can be applied to many other applications such as games with need for dynamic facial expressions or tools for automating the creation of facial animations. Most existing methods for creating facial expressions of mixed emotions use operations like averaging to create the combined effect of two universal emotions. Such methods may be mathematically justifiable but are not necessarily valid from a perceptual point of view. The research reported here starts by user experiments aiming at understanding how people combine facial actions to express mixed emotions, and how the viewers perceive a set of facial actions in terms of underlying emotions. Using the results of these experiments and a three-dimensional emotion model, we associate facial actions to dimensions and regions in the emotion space, and create a facial expression based on the location of the mixed emotion in the three-dimensional space. We call these regionalized facial actions “facial expression units.”

  19. Perception of global facial geometry is modulated through experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meike Ramon

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of personally familiar faces is highly efficient across various viewing conditions. While the presence of robust facial representations stored in memory is considered to aid this process, the mechanisms underlying invariant identification remain unclear. Two experiments tested the hypothesis that facial representations stored in memory are associated with differential perceptual processing of the overall facial geometry. Subjects who were personally familiar or unfamiliar with the identities presented discriminated between stimuli whose overall facial geometry had been manipulated to maintain or alter the original facial configuration (see Barton, Zhao & Keenan, 2003. The results demonstrate that familiarity gives rise to more efficient processing of global facial geometry, and are interpreted in terms of increased holistic processing of facial information that is maintained across viewing distances.

  20. Automatic Recognition of Facial Actions in Spontaneous Expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Stewart Bartlett

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Spontaneous facial expressions differ from posed expressions in both which muscles are moved, and in the dynamics of the movement. Advances in the field of automatic facial expression measurement will require development and assessment on spontaneous behavior. Here we present preliminary results on a task of facial action detection in spontaneous facial expressions. We employ a user independent fully automatic system for real time recognition of facial actions from the Facial Action Coding System (FACS. The system automatically detects frontal faces in the video stream and coded each frame with respect to 20 Action units. The approach applies machine learning methods such as support vector machines and AdaBoost, to texture-based image representations. The output margin for the learned classifiers predicts action unit intensity. Frame-by-frame intensity measurements will enable investigations into facial expression dynamics which were previously intractable by human coding.

  1. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a

  2. Performance-driven facial animation: basic research on human judgments of emotional state in facial avatars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzo, A A; Neumann, U; Enciso, R; Fidaleo, D; Noh, J Y

    2001-08-01

    Virtual reality is rapidly evolving into a pragmatically usable technology for mental health (MH) applications. As the underlying enabling technologies continue to evolve and allow us to design more useful and usable structural virtual environments (VEs), the next important challenge will involve populating these environments with virtual representations of humans (avatars). This will be vital to create mental health VEs that leverage the use of avatars for applications that require human-human interaction and communication. As Alessi et al.1 pointed out at the 8th Annual Medicine Meets Virtual Reality Conference (MMVR8), virtual humans have mainly appeared in MH applications to "serve the role of props, rather than humans." More believable avatars inhabiting VEs would open up possibilities for MH applications that address social interaction, communication, instruction, assessment, and rehabilitation issues. They could also serve to enhance realism that might in turn promote the experience of presence in VR. Additionally, it will soon be possible to use computer-generated avatars that serve to provide believable dynamic facial and bodily representations of individuals communicating from a distance in real time. This could support the delivery, in shared virtual environments, of more natural human interaction styles, similar to what is used in real life between people. These techniques could enhance communication and interaction by leveraging our natural sensing and perceiving capabilities and offer the potential to model human-computer-human interaction after human-human interaction. To enhance the authenticity of virtual human representations, advances in the rendering of facial and gestural behaviors that support implicit communication will be needed. In this regard, the current paper presents data from a study that compared human raters' judgments of emotional expression between actual video clips of facial expressions and identical expressions rendered on a

  3. Facial image of Biblical Jews from Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobyliansky, E; Balueva, T; Veselovskaya, E; Arensburg, B

    2008-06-01

    The present report deals with reconstructing the facial shapes of ancient inhabitants of Israel based on their cranial remains. The skulls of a male from the Hellenistic period and a female from the Roman period have been reconstructed. They were restored using the most recently developed programs in anthropological facial reconstruction, especially that of the Institute of Ethnology and Anthropology of the Russian Academy of Sciences (Balueva & Veselovskaya 2004). The basic craniometrical measurements of the two skulls were measured according to Martin & Saller (1957) and compared to the data from three ancient populations of Israel described by Arensburg et al. (1980): that of the Hellenistic period dating from 332 to 37 B.C., that of the Roman period, from 37 B.C. to 324 C.E., and that of the Byzantine period that continued until the Arab conquest in 640 C.E. Most of this osteological material was excavated in the Jordan River and the Dead Sea areas. A sample from the XVIIth century Jews from Prague (Matiegka 1926) was also used for osteometrical comparisons. The present study will characterize not only the osteological morphology of the material, but also the facial appearance of ancient inhabitants of Israel. From an anthropometric point of view, the two skulls studied here definitely belong to the same sample from the Hellenistic, Roman, and Byzantine populations of Israel as well as from Jews from Prague. Based on its facial reconstruction, the male skull may belong to the large Mediterranean group that inhabited this area from historic to modern times. The female skull also exhibits all the Mediterranean features but, in addition, probably some equatorial (African) mixture manifested by the shape of the reconstructed nose and the facial prognatism. PMID:18712157

  4. Traumatic facial nerve palsy: CT patterns of facial nerve canal fracture and correlation with clinical severity

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    Seo, Jae Cheol; Kim, Sang Joon; Park, Hyun Min; Lee, Young Suk; Lee, Jee Young [College of Medicine, Dankook Univ., Chonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    To analyse the patterns of facial nerve canal injury seen at temporal bone computed tomography (CT) in patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy and to correlate these with clinical manifestations and outcome. Thirty cases of temporal bone CT in 29 patients with traumatic facial nerve palsy were analyzed with regard to the patterns of facial nerve canal involvement. The patterns were correlated with clinical grade, the electroneurographic (ENoG) findings, and clinical outcome. For clinical grading, the House-Brackmann scale was used, as follows:grade I-IV, partial palsy group; grade V-VI, complete palsy group. The electroneuronographic findings were categorized as mild to moderate (below 90%) or severe (90% and over) degeneration. In 25 cases, the bony wall of the facial nerve canals was involved directly (direct finding): discontinuity of the bony wall was onted in 22 cases, bony spicules in ten, and bony wall displacement in five. Indirect findings were canal widening in nine cases and adjacent bone fracture in two. In one case, there were no direct or indirect findings. All cases in which there was complete palsy (n=8) showed one or more direct findings including spicules in six, while in the incomplete palsy group (n=22), 17 cases showed direct findings. In the severe degeneration group (n=13), on ENog, 12 cases demonstrated direct findings, including spicules in nine cases. In 24 patients, symptoms of facial palsy showed improvement at follow up evaluation. Four of the five patients in whom symptoms did not improve had spicules. Among ten patients with spicules, five underwent surgery and symptoms improved in four of these; among the five patients not operated on , symptoms did not improve in three. In most patients with facial palsy after temporal bone injury, temporal bone CT revealed direct or indirect facial nerve canal involvement, and in complete palsy or severe degeneration groups, there were direct findings in most cases. We believe that meticulous

  5. Does Facial Amimia Impact the Recognition of Facial Emotions? An EMG Study in Parkinson’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argaud, Soizic; Delplanque, Sylvain; Houvenaghel, Jean-François; Auffret, Manon; Duprez, Joan; Vérin, Marc; Grandjean, Didier; Sauleau, Paul

    2016-01-01

    According to embodied simulation theory, understanding other people’s emotions is fostered by facial mimicry. However, studies assessing the effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion are still controversial. In Parkinson’s disease (PD), one of the most distinctive clinical features is facial amimia, a reduction in facial expressiveness, but patients also show emotional disturbances. The present study used the pathological model of PD to examine the role of facial mimicry on emotion recognition by investigating EMG responses in PD patients during a facial emotion recognition task (anger, joy, neutral). Our results evidenced a significant decrease in facial mimicry for joy in PD, essentially linked to the absence of reaction of the zygomaticus major and the orbicularis oculi muscles in response to happy avatars, whereas facial mimicry for expressions of anger was relatively preserved. We also confirmed that PD patients were less accurate in recognizing positive and neutral facial expressions and highlighted a beneficial effect of facial mimicry on the recognition of emotion. We thus provide additional arguments for embodied simulation theory suggesting that facial mimicry is a potential lever for therapeutic actions in PD even if it seems not to be necessarily required in recognizing emotion as such. PMID:27467393

  6. Photographic Facial Soft Tissue Analysis by Means of Linear and Angular Measurements in an Adolescent Persian Population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moshkelgosha, Vahid; Fathinejad, Sheida; Pakizeh, Zeinab; Shamsa, Mohammad; Golkari, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective : To obtain objective average measurements of the profile and frontal facial soft tissue to be used as a guide for aesthetic treatment goals. Methods and Materials : This observational study included 110 females and 130 males high school students aged 16-18 years. None of the subjects had any facial deformities. All of them and their parents gave consent to take part in this study. In each case, two standard photographs of profile and frontal views were taken 27 landmarks were digitized on photographs. The mean, standard deviation, and range for a total of 43 facial indices were calculated digitally by computer software. The Student’s t-test was used to compare males and females. Results : The ratio between the lower and middle facial thirds was one to one, but the height of the upper facial third was proportionally smaller than the other two-thirds in both sexes. Boys had greater nasal length, depth, and prominence than girls with statistically significant differences. Both upper and lower lips were more prominent in girls than in boys. All measurements of the chin showed sexual dimorphism characterized by greater chin height and prominence and deeper mentolabial sulcus. Boys had greater facial dimensions than girls. Mouth width, nasal base width, and intercanthal distance were significantly greater in boys. Conclusion : The labial, nasal, and chin areas showed sexual dimorphism in most of the parameters used in this study. Boys had larger faces, greater facial heights, longer nasal, labial, and chin lengths, and greater nasal, labial, and chin prominence. PMID:26464606

  7. Non-invasive 3D facial analysis and surface electromyography during functional pre-orthodontic therapy: a preliminary report

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    Gianluca M. Tartaglia

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Functional orthodontic devices can modify oral function thus permitting more adequate growth processes. The assessment of their effects should include both facial morphology and muscle function. This preliminary study investigated whether a preformed functional orthodontic device could induce variations in facial morphology and function along with correction of oral dysfunction in a group of orthodontic patients in the mixed and early permanent dentitions. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The three-dimensional coordinates of 50 facial landmarks (forehead, eyes, nose, cheeks, mouth, jaw and ears were collected in 10 orthodontic male patients aged 8-13 years, and in 89 healthy reference boys of the same age. Soft tissue facial angles, distances, and ratios were computed. Surface electromyography of the masseter and temporalis muscles was performed, and standardized symmetry, muscular torque and activity were calculated. Soft-tissue facial modifications were analyzed non-invasively before and after a 6-month treatment with a functional device. Comparisons were made with z-scores and paired Student's t-tests. RESULTS: The 6-month treatment stimulated mandibular growth in the anterior and inferior directions, with significant variations in three-dimensional facial divergence and facial convexity. The modifications were larger in the patients than in reference children. In several occasions, the discrepancies relative to the norm became not significant after treatment. No significant variations in standardized muscular activity were found. CONCLUSIONS: Preliminary results showed that the continuous and correct use of the functional device induced measurable intraoral (dental arches and extraoral (face morphological modifications. The device did not modify the functional equilibrium of the masticatory muscles.

  8. Different sensitivities to rocuronium of the neuromuscular junctions innervated by normal/damaged facial nerves and somatic nerve in rats: the role of the presynaptic acetylcholine quantal release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Jun-liang; LI Shao-qin; CHI Fang-lu; CHEN Lian-hua; LI Shi-tong

    2012-01-01

    Background Muscles present different responses to muscle relaxants,a mechanism of importance in surgeries requiring facial nerve evoked electromyography under general anaesthesia.The non-depolarizing muscle relaxants have multiple reaction formats in the neuromuscular junction,in which pre-synaptic quantal release of acetylcholine was one of the important mechanisms.This study was to compare the pre-synaptic quantal release of acetylcholine from the neuromuscular junctions innervated by normal/damaged facial nerves and somatic nerve under the effect of rocuronium in rats in vitro.Methods Acute right-sided facial nerve injury was induced by nerve crush axotomies.Both sided facial nerve connected orbicularis oris strips and tibial nerve connected gastrocnemius strips were isolated to measure endplate potentials (EPP) and miniature endplate potentials (MEPP) using an intracellular microelectrode gauge under different rocuronium concentrations.Then,the pre-synaptic quantal releases of acetylcholine were calculated by the ratios of the EPPs and the MEPPs,and compared among the damaged or normal facial nerve innervated orbicularis oris and tibial nerve innervated gastrocnemius.Results The EPP/MEPP ratios of the three neuromuscular junctions decreased in a dose dependent manner with the increase of the rocuronium concentration.With the concentrations of rocuronium being 5 μg/ml,7.5 μg/ml and 10 μg/ml,the decrease of the EPP/MEPP ratio in the damaged facial nerve group was greater than that in the normal facial nerve group.The decrease in the somatic nerve group was the biggest,with significant differences.Conclusions Rocuronium presented different levels of inhibition on the pre-synaptic quantal release of acetylcholine in the three groups of neuromuscular junctions.The levels of the inhibition showed the following sequence:somatic nerve >damaged facial nerve > normal facial nerve.The difference may be one of the reasons causing the different sensitivities to

  9. Performance of distance-based matching algorithms in 3D facial identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petra Urbanová

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Facial image identification is an area of forensic sciences, where an expert provides an opinion on whether or not two or more images depict the same individual. The primary concern for facial image identification is that it must be based on sound scientific principles. The recent extensive development in 3D recording technology, which is presumed to enhance performances of identification tasks, has made essential to question conditions, under which 3D images can yield accurate and reliable results. The present paper explores the effect of mesh resolution, adequacy of selected measures of dissimilarity and number of variables employed to encode identity-specific facial features on a dataset of 528 3D face models sampled from the Fidentis 3D Face Database (N ∼ 2100. In order to match 3D images two quantitative approaches were tested, the first based on closest point-to-point distances computed from registered surface models and the second grounded on Procrustes distances derived from discrete 3D facial points collected manually on textured 3D facial models. The results expressed in terms of rank-1 identification rates, ROC curves and likelihood ratios show that under optimized conditions the tested algorithms have the capacity to provide very accurate and reliable results. The performance of the tested algorithms is, however, highly dependent on mesh resolution and the number of variables employed in the task. The results also show that in addition to numerical measures of dissimilarity, various 3D visualization tools can be of assistance in the decision-making.

  10. Parotidectomía y vena facial Parotidectomy and facial vein

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    F. Hernández Altemir

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available La cirugía de los tumores benignos de la parótida, es una cirugía de relaciones con estructuras fundamentalmente nerviosas cuyo daño, representa un gravísimo problema psicosomático por definirlo de una manera genérica. Para ayudar al manejo quirúrgico del nervio facial periférico, es por lo que en el presente artículo tratamos de enfatizar la importancia de la vena facial en la disección y conservación del nervio, precisamente donde su disección suele ser más comprometida, esto es en las ramas más caudales. El trabajo que vamos a desarrollar hay que verlo pues, como un ensalzamiento de las estructuras venosas en el seguimiento y control del nervio facial periférico y de porqué no, el nervio auricular mayor no siempre suficientemente valorado en la cirugía de la parótida al perder protagonismo con el facial.Benign parotid tumor surgery is related to fundamental nervous structures, defined simply: that when damaged cause great psychosomatic problems. In order to make peripheral facial nerve surgery easy to handle for the surgeon this article emphasizes the importance of the facial vein in the dissection and conservation of the nerve. Its dissection can be compromised if the caudal branches are damaged. The study that we develop should be seen as praise for the vein structures in the follow up and control of the peripheral facial nerve, and the main auricular nerve that is often undervalued when it is no longer the protagonist in the face.

  11. Automatic recognition of facial movement for paralyzed face.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Dong, Junyu; Sun, Xin; Zhang, Shu; Wang, Shengke

    2014-01-01

    Facial nerve paralysis is a common disease due to nerve damage. Most approaches for evaluating the degree of facial paralysis rely on a set of different facial movements as commanded by doctors. Therefore, automatic recognition of the patterns of facial movement is fundamental to the evaluation of the degree of facial paralysis. In this paper, a novel method named Active Shape Models plus Local Binary Patterns (ASMLBP) is presented for recognizing facial movement patterns. Firstly, the Active Shape Models (ASMs) are used in the method to locate facial key points. According to these points, the face is divided into eight local regions. Then the descriptors of these regions are extracted by using Local Binary Patterns (LBP) to recognize the patterns of facial movement. The proposed ASMLBP method is tested on both the collected facial paralysis database with 57 patients and another publicly available database named the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE). Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method is efficient for both paralyzed and normal faces.

  12. A Study of Facial Index among Malay Population

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    Tahamida Yesmin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Facial analysis is anthropologically useful to identify the racial, ethnical, and sexual differences. The present study was done to see the sex difference and variation of facial index among Malaysian population. Cross-sectional descriptive type of study was done in Anatomy Department in UniKL RCMP which was performed on 81 Malay people (40 males, 41 females aged 19–30 years. To measure the morphological parameters (facial height, facial width, and facial index, digital slide calliper and scale were used. There were significant differences found in all facial parameters of males compared with the females. The mean morphological facial height was 111.9 ± 8.4 and morphological facial width was 127.3 ± 8.0. The range of facial index was 67.44–106.90 for males and 75.21–97.99 for females. The total facial index was calculated according to the formula and the results obtained were analyzed statistically using the t-test which was statistically significant (0.003. The dominant phenotype in Malay population was mesoprosopic or round face (45% and least common face type was hyperleptoprosopic or very long face (5%. There were significant variations in the face index between Malay males and females; further study with large sample size in different races in Malaysia is recommended.

  13. Event-related alpha suppression in response to facial motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girges, Christine; Wright, Michael J; Spencer, Janine V; O'Brien, Justin M D

    2014-01-01

    While biological motion refers to both face and body movements, little is known about the visual perception of facial motion. We therefore examined alpha wave suppression as a reduction in power is thought to reflect visual activity, in addition to attentional reorienting and memory processes. Nineteen neurologically healthy adults were tested on their ability to discriminate between successive facial motion captures. These animations exhibited both rigid and non-rigid facial motion, as well as speech expressions. The structural and surface appearance of these facial animations did not differ, thus participants decisions were based solely on differences in facial movements. Upright, orientation-inverted and luminance-inverted facial stimuli were compared. At occipital and parieto-occipital regions, upright facial motion evoked a transient increase in alpha which was then followed by a significant reduction. This finding is discussed in terms of neural efficiency, gating mechanisms and neural synchronization. Moreover, there was no difference in the amount of alpha suppression evoked by each facial stimulus at occipital regions, suggesting early visual processing remains unaffected by manipulation paradigms. However, upright facial motion evoked greater suppression at parieto-occipital sites, and did so in the shortest latency. Increased activity within this region may reflect higher attentional reorienting to natural facial motion but also involvement of areas associated with the visual control of body effectors.

  14. Masseteric-facial nerve transposition for reanimation of the smile in incomplete facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Marre, Diego

    2015-12-01

    Incomplete facial paralysis occurs in about a third of patients with Bell's palsy. Although their faces are symmetrical at rest, when they smile they have varying degrees of disfigurement. Currently, cross-face nerve grafting is one of the most useful techniques for reanimation. Transfer of the masseteric nerve, although widely used for complete paralysis, has not to our knowledge been reported for incomplete palsy. Between December 2008 and November 2013, we reanimated the faces of 9 patients (2 men and 7 women) with incomplete unilateral facial paralysis with transposition of the masseteric nerve. Sex, age at operation, cause of paralysis, duration of denervation, recipient nerves used, and duration of follow-up were recorded. Commissural excursion, velocity, and patients' satisfaction were evaluated with the FACIAL CLIMA and a questionnaire, respectively. The mean (SD) age at operation was 39 (±6) years and the duration of denervation was 29 (±19) months. There were no complications that required further intervention. Duration of follow-up ranged from 6-26 months. FACIAL CLIMA showed improvement in both commissural excursion and velocity of more than two thirds in 6 patients, more than one half in 2 patients and less than one half in one. Qualitative evaluation showed a slight or pronounced improvement in 7/9 patients. The masseteric nerve is a reliable alternative for reanimation of the smile in patients with incomplete facial paralysis. Its main advantages include its consistent anatomy, a one-stage operation, and low morbidity at the donor site.

  15. Children’s facial trustworthiness judgement: agreement and relationship with facial attractiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengling eMa

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study examined developmental changes in children’s abilities to make trustworthiness judgements based on faces and the relationship between a child’s perception of trustworthiness and facial attractiveness. One hundred and one 8-, 10- and 12-year-olds, along with 37 undergraduates, were asked to judge the trustworthiness of 200 faces. Next, they issued facial attractiveness judgements. The results indicated that children made consistent trustworthiness and attractiveness judgements based on facial appearance, but with-adult and within-age agreement levels of facial judgements increased with age. Additionally, the agreement levels of judgements made by girls were higher than those by boys. Furthermore, the relationship between trustworthiness and attractiveness judgements increased with age, and the relationship between two judgements made by girls was closer than those by boys. These findings suggest that face-based trait judgement ability develops throughout childhood and that, like adults, children may use facial attractiveness as a heuristic cue that signals a stranger’s trustworthiness.

  16. Do Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions of Happiness and Anger Reveal Enhanced Facial Mimicry?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krystyna Rymarczyk

    Full Text Available Facial mimicry is the spontaneous response to others' facial expressions by mirroring or matching the interaction partner. Recent evidence suggested that mimicry may not be only an automatic reaction but could be dependent on many factors, including social context, type of task in which the participant is engaged, or stimulus properties (dynamic vs static presentation. In the present study, we investigated the impact of dynamic facial expression and sex differences on facial mimicry and judgment of emotional intensity. Electromyography recordings were recorded from the corrugator supercilii, zygomaticus major, and orbicularis oculi muscles during passive observation of static and dynamic images of happiness and anger. The ratings of the emotional intensity of facial expressions were also analysed. As predicted, dynamic expressions were rated as more intense than static ones. Compared to static images, dynamic displays of happiness also evoked stronger activity in the zygomaticus major and orbicularis oculi, suggesting that subjects experienced positive emotion. No muscles showed mimicry activity in response to angry faces. Moreover, we found that women exhibited greater zygomaticus major muscle activity in response to dynamic happiness stimuli than static stimuli. Our data support the hypothesis that people mimic positive emotions and confirm the importance of dynamic stimuli in some emotional processing.

  17. Do Dynamic Compared to Static Facial Expressions of Happiness and Anger Reveal Enhanced Facial Mimicry?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rymarczyk, Krystyna; Żurawski, Łukasz; Jankowiak-Siuda, Kamila; Szatkowska, Iwona

    2016-01-01

    Facial mimicry is the spontaneous response to others' facial expressions by mirroring or matching the interaction partner. Recent evidence suggested that mimicry may not be only an automatic reaction but could be dependent on many factors, including social context, type of task in which the participant is engaged, or stimulus properties (dynamic vs static presentation). In the present study, we investigated the impact of dynamic facial expression and sex differences on facial mimicry and judgment of emotional intensity. Electromyography recordings were recorded from the corrugator supercilii, zygomaticus major, and orbicularis oculi muscles during passive observation of static and dynamic images of happiness and anger. The ratings of the emotional intensity of facial expressions were also analysed. As predicted, dynamic expressions were rated as more intense than static ones. Compared to static images, dynamic displays of happiness also evoked stronger activity in the zygomaticus major and orbicularis oculi, suggesting that subjects experienced positive emotion. No muscles showed mimicry activity in response to angry faces. Moreover, we found that women exhibited greater zygomaticus major muscle activity in response to dynamic happiness stimuli than static stimuli. Our data support the hypothesis that people mimic positive emotions and confirm the importance of dynamic stimuli in some emotional processing. PMID:27390867

  18. Facial emotion recognition in remitted depressed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyik, Utku; Keskin, Duygu; Oguz, Kaya; Akdeniz, Fisun; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2015-10-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is primarily characterized by mood symptoms, depressed patients have impairments in facial emotion recognition in many of the basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness, surprise, disgust and sadness). On the other hand, the data in remitted MDD (rMDD) patients is inconsistent and it is not clear that if those impairments persist in remission. To extend the current findings, we applied facial emotion recognition test to a group of remitted depressed women and compared to those of controls. Analyses of variance results showed a significant emotion and group interaction, and in the post hoc analyses, rMDD patients had higher accuracy rate for recognition of sadness compared to those of controls. There were no differences in the reaction time among the patients and controls across the all the basic emotions. The higher recognition rates for sad faces in rMDD patients might contribute to the impairments in social communication and the prognosis of the disease.

  19. Automatic recognition of emotions from facial expressions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Henry; Gertner, Izidor

    2014-06-01

    In the human-computer interaction (HCI) process it is desirable to have an artificial intelligent (AI) system that can identify and categorize human emotions from facial expressions. Such systems can be used in security, in entertainment industries, and also to study visual perception, social interactions and disorders (e.g. schizophrenia and autism). In this work we survey and compare the performance of different feature extraction algorithms and classification schemes. We introduce a faster feature extraction method that resizes and applies a set of filters to the data images without sacrificing the accuracy. In addition, we have enhanced SVM to multiple dimensions while retaining the high accuracy rate of SVM. The algorithms were tested using the Japanese Female Facial Expression (JAFFE) Database and the Database of Faces (AT&T Faces).

  20. Medical makeup for concealing facial scars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mee, Donna; Wong, Brian J F

    2012-10-01

    Surgical, laser, and pharmacological therapies are all used to correct scars and surgical incisions, though have limits with respect to how well facial skin can be restored or enhanced. The use of cosmetics has long been a relevant adjunct to all scar treatment modalities. In recent years, technical advancements in the chemistry and composition of cosmetic products have provided the patient with a broader range of products to employ for concealing scars. This review will provide an overview of contemporary methods for concealing facial scars, birthmarks, and pigmentary changes without the use of traditional/dated, heavy appearing camouflage products. Additionally, general guidelines and information will be provided with respect to identifying competent makeup artists for care of the medical patient. The article by no means is meant to be a tutorial, but rather serves as a starting point in this allied field of medicine.

  1. [Gao Yuchun's experience of facial paralysis treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yanjun; Cui, Linhua; Yuan, Jun; He, Li; Xie, Zhanqing; Xue, Weihua; Li, Mei; Zhang, Zhenwei; Gao, Yuchun; Kang, Suobin

    2015-05-01

    To introduce professor Gao Yuchun's clinical experience and treating characteristics of facial paralysis treated with acupuncture and moxibustion. Professor Gao pays attention to yangming when he selects acupoints for clinical syndrome, and directs acupoints selection based on syndrome differentiation in different levels of jingjin, meridians and zangfu; he praises opposing needling technique and reinforcing the deficiency and reducing the excess highly; the acupuncture manipulation is gentle,shallow and slow for reducing the healthy side and reinforcing the affected side, and through losing its excess to complement its deficiency; besides, he stresses needle retaining time and distinguishes reinforcing and reducing. Facial paralysis is treated with key factors such as acupoints selecting based on yangming, acupuncture manipulation, needle retaining time, etc. And the spleen and stomach is fine and good at transportation and transformation; the meridians is harmonious; the qi and blood is smooth. The clinical efficacy is enhanced finally.

  2. Facial symmetry assessment based on geometric features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Guoping; Cao, Hanqiang

    2015-12-01

    Face image symmetry is an important factor affecting the accuracy of automatic face recognition. Selecting high symmetrical face image could improve the performance of the recognition. In this paper, we proposed a novel facial symmetry evaluation scheme based on geometric features, including centroid, singular value, in-plane rotation angle of face and the structural similarity index (SSIM). First, we calculate the value of the four features according to the corresponding formula. Then, we use fuzzy logic algorithm to integrate the value of the four features into a single number which represents the facial symmetry. The proposed method is efficient and can adapt to different recognition methods. Experimental results demonstrate its effectiveness in improving the robustness of face detection and recognition.

  3. Comparison of hemihypoglossal-facial nerve transposition with a cross-facial nerve graft and muscle transplant for the rehabilitation of facial paralysis using the facial clima method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hontanilla, Bernardo; Vila, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To compare quantitatively the results obtained after hemihypoglossal nerve transposition and microvascular gracilis transfer associated with a cross facial nerve graft (CFNG) for reanimation of a paralysed face, 66 patients underwent hemihypoglossal transposition (n = 25) or microvascular gracilis transfer and CFNG (n = 41). The commissural displacement (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) in the two groups were compared using the system known as Facial clima. There was no inter-group variability between the groups (p > 0.10) in either variable. However, intra-group variability was detected between the affected and healthy side in the transposition group (p = 0.036 and p = 0.017, respectively). The transfer group had greater symmetry in displacement of the commissure (CD) and commissural contraction velocity (CCV) than the transposition group and patients were more satisfied. However, the transposition group had correct symmetry at rest but more asymmetry of CCV and CD when smiling.

  4. Impact of facial conformation on canine health: corneal ulceration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowena M A Packer

    Full Text Available Concern has arisen in recent years that selection for extreme facial morphology in the domestic dog may be leading to an increased frequency of eye disorders. Corneal ulcers are a common and painful eye problem in domestic dogs that can lead to scarring and/or perforation of the cornea, potentially causing blindness. Exaggerated juvenile-like craniofacial conformations and wide eyes have been suspected as risk factors for corneal ulceration. This study aimed to quantify the relationship between corneal ulceration risk and conformational factors including relative eyelid aperture width, brachycephalic (short-muzzled skull shape, the presence of a nasal fold (wrinkle, and exposed eye-white. A 14 month cross-sectional study of dogs entering a large UK based small animal referral hospital for both corneal ulcers and unrelated disorders was carried out. Dogs were classed as affected if they were diagnosed with a corneal ulcer using fluorescein dye while at the hospital (whether referred for this disorder or not, or if a previous diagnosis of corneal ulcer(s was documented in the dogs' histories. Of 700 dogs recruited, measured and clinically examined, 31 were affected by corneal ulcers. Most cases were male (71%, small breed dogs (mean± SE weight: 11.4±1.1 kg, with the most commonly diagnosed breed being the Pug. Dogs with nasal folds were nearly five times more likely to be affected by corneal ulcers than those without, and brachycephalic dogs (craniofacial ratio <0.5 were twenty times more likely to be affected than non-brachycephalic dogs. A 10% increase in relative eyelid aperture width more than tripled the ulcer risk. Exposed eye-white was associated with a nearly three times increased risk. The results demonstrate that artificially selecting for these facial characteristics greatly heightens the risk of corneal ulcers, and such selection should thus be discouraged to improve canine welfare.

  5. Keloidal granuloma faciale with extrafacial lesions

    OpenAIRE

    Verma Rajesh; Das A; Vaishampayan S.; Vaidya Sachin

    2005-01-01

    Granuloma faciale (GF) is a rare cutaneous disorder characterized by one to several soft, erythematous to livid papules, plaques or nodules, usually occurring on the face. Extrafacial lesions are uncommon. A 52-year-old lady with multiple asymptomatic, variously sized brownish-black colored, firm, sharply circumscribed plaques resembling keloids on both cheeks and extrafacial lesions on the right arm and the right breast is presented for its unusual keloidal appearance and typical histopathol...

  6. Facial nerve involvement in pseudotumor cerebri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bakshi S

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available A woman with history of bifrontal headache, vomiting and loss of vision was diagnosed as a case of pseudotumor cerebri based on clinical and MRI findings. Bilateral abducens and facial nerve palsies were detected. Pseudotumor cerebri in this patient was not associated with any other illness or related to drug therapy. Treatment was given to lower the raised intracranial pressure to which the patient responded.

  7. Facial expression of pain: an evolutionary account.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, A C

    2002-01-01

    This paper proposes that human expression of pain in the presence or absence of caregivers, and the detection of pain by observers, arises from evolved propensities. The function of pain is to demand attention and prioritise escape, recovery, and healing; where others can help achieve these goals, effective communication of pain is required. Evidence is reviewed of a distinct and specific facial expression of pain from infancy to old age, consistent across stimuli, and recognizable as pain by...

  8. Searching for Prototypical Facial Feedback Signals

    OpenAIRE

    Heylen, Dirk; Bevacqua, Elisabetta; Tellier, Marion; Pelachaud, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    International audience Embodied conversational agents should be able to provide feedback on what a human interlocutor is saying. We are compiling a list of facial feedback expressions that signal attention and interest, grounding and attitude. As expressions need to serve many functions at the same time and most of the component signals are ambiguous, it is important to get a better idea of the many to many mappings between displays and functions. We asked people to label several dynamic e...

  9. Computer-enhanced emotion in facial expressions.

    OpenAIRE

    Calder, A J; Young, A W; Rowland, D.; Perrett, D.I

    1997-01-01

    Benson & Perrett's (1991 b) computer-based caricature procedure was used to alter the positions of anatomical landmarks in photographs of emotional facial expressions with respect to their locations in a reference norm face (e.g. a neutral expression). Exaggerating the differences between an expression and its norm produces caricatured images, whereas reducing the differences produces 'anti-caricatures'. Experiment 1 showed that caricatured (+50% different from neutral) expressions were recog...

  10. Facial dermatitis artefacta: A rare presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramtanu Bandyopadhyay, Rudrajit Paul, Seshadri Sekhar Chatterjee, Kaberi Bhattacharya, Dilip Mondal

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dermatitis artefacta (DA is a rare psycho-cutaneous disorder where bizarre skin lesions are seen in accessible parts of the body. It is common in young females with mental stress. We here report a case of DA from West Bengal. A 16 years old female with depression presented with mainly facial lesions. She responded to psychotherapy. The relevant literature regarding DA and other similar disorders has been also discussed at length.

  11. Fusing Facial Features for Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Jamal Ahmad Dargham; Ali Chekima; Ervin Gubin Moung

    2012-01-01

    Face recognition is an important biometric method because of its potential applications in many fields, such as access control, surveillance, and human-computer interaction. In this paper, a face recognition system that fuses the outputs of three face recognition systems based on Gabor jets is presented. The first system uses the magnitude, the second uses the phase, and the third uses the phase-weighted magnitude of the jets. The jets are generated from facial landmarks selected using three ...

  12. Facial attractiveness and stereotypes of hotel guests

    OpenAIRE

    Čivre, Žana; Knežević, Mladen; Zabukovec Baruca, Petra; Fabjan, Daša

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to determine social interaction between hospitality employees and their guests, and consequently assess how front-line employees categorize and stereotype hotel guests based on their facial attractiveness with reference to three main characteristics. Social stereotypes represent a means of information transmission in the communication process and can enable a more rapid transfer of information during the service delivery in the hospitality industry. The experi...

  13. Facial emotion perception and schizophrenia symptoms.

    OpenAIRE

    Anna Leszczyńska

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Emotion recognition is an important aspect of social interactions. Patients suffering from schizophrenia exhibit some disturbances in affective processing. The aim of the study was the evaluation of facial emotion perception and its relation to the psychotic symptoms in schizophrenia patients. Methods 102 patients with schizophrenia (F20.0, ICD 10) and 50 healthy volunteers participated in the study; all the subjects were 18–60 years old. Psychical condition was assessed ...

  14. Intensity-based registration and fusion of thermal and visual facial-images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arslan, Musa Serdar; Elbakaray, Mohamed I.; Reza, Shamim; Iftekharuddin, Khan M.

    2012-10-01

    Fusion of images from different modalities provides information that cannot be obtained by viewing the images separately and consecutively. Automatic fusion of thermal and visual images is of great interest in defense and medical applications. In this study, we implemented automatic intensity-based illumination, translation and scale invariant registration of deformable objects in thermal and visual images by maximization of a similarity measure such as generalized correlation ratio. This method was originally used to register ultrasound (US) and magnetic resonance images (MRI) successfully. In our current work, we propose a major modification to the original algorithm by investigating appropriate information content in the input data. The registration of facial thermal and visual images in this algorithm is achieved by maximization of the similarity measure between the input images in the appropriate image channel. The algorithm is tested using real facial images with illumination, scale, and translation variations and the results show acceptable accuracy.

  15. Detection and tracking of facial features

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Silva, Liyanage C.; Aizawa, Kiyoharu; Hatori, Mitsutoshi

    1995-04-01

    Detection and tracking of facial features without using any head mounted devices may become required in various future visual communication applications, such as teleconferencing, virtual reality etc. In this paper we propose an automatic method of face feature detection using a method called edge pixel counting. Instead of utilizing color or gray scale information of the facial image, the proposed edge pixel counting method utilized the edge information to estimate the face feature positions such as eyes, nose and mouth in the first frame of a moving facial image sequence, using a variable size face feature template. For the remaining frames, feature tracking is carried out alternatively using a method called deformable template matching and edge pixel counting. One main advantage of using edge pixel counting in feature tracking is that it does not require the condition of a high inter frame correlation around the feature areas as is required in template matching. Some experimental results are shown to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  16. Facial wrinkles correction through autologous fat microinjection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heriberto Cháves Sánchez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: autologous fat microinjection is a technique which allows the correction of different dispositions that appear in the face in a very fast, effective and simple way compared to other procedures implying more pain, incisions, and elevated doses of anesthesia. Objective: to show the effectiveness of the autologous fat microinjection in the correction of facial wrinkles. Methods: a series study was carried out from May 2005 to May 2006 at the University Hospital “Dr. Gustavo Aldereguía Lima” in Cienfuegos city, Cuba. 60 patients of both sexes constituted this series study. They had facial wrinkles and this procedure was performed on them. Age, sex, patient’s race, localization and the type of wrinkle as well as the satisfaction level of the patient with the surgical procedure were analyzed. Results: Female sex was predominant, as well as white race and the ages from 45-50. A good aesthetic result was obtained. The satisfaction level of the patients was more elevated in short and medium terms. Conclusions: the level of satisfaction reached in the studied series reassure the advantages of the autologous fat microinjection technique so that, it is recommended for the elimination of facial wrinkles.

  17. Facial motion engages predictive visual mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordy Kaufman

    Full Text Available We employed a novel cuing paradigm to assess whether dynamically versus statically presented facial expressions differentially engaged predictive visual mechanisms. Participants were presented with a cueing stimulus that was either the static depiction of a low intensity expressed emotion; or a dynamic sequence evolving from a neutral expression to the low intensity expressed emotion. Following this cue and a backwards mask, participants were presented with a probe face that displayed either the same emotion (congruent or a different emotion (incongruent with respect to that displayed by the cue although expressed at a high intensity. The probe face had either the same or different identity from the cued face. The participants' task was to indicate whether or not the probe face showed the same emotion as the cue. Dynamic cues and same identity cues both led to a greater tendency towards congruent responding, although these factors did not interact. Facial motion also led to faster responding when the probe face was emotionally congruent to the cue. We interpret these results as indicating that dynamic facial displays preferentially invoke predictive visual mechanisms, and suggest that motoric simulation may provide an important basis for the generation of predictions in the visual system.

  18. Evaluation of facial palsy by moire topography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inokuchi, Ikuo; Kawakami, Shinichiro; Maeta, Manabu; Masuda, Yu

    1991-08-01

    Society of Facial Research is used frequently. It is of great value clinically, but the method has several weak points concerning objective and quantitative assessment. This study uses moire topography to solve these problems. mA moire camera, FM3013, of the lattice irradiation type was used for measurement of the face. Five moire photographs were taken: at rest, wrinkling the forehead, closing the eyes lightly, blowing out the cheeks and grinning. The degree of facial palsy was determined by the Asymmetry Index (AI) as a measure of the degree of facial deviation. Total AI was expressed as the average AI based on calculations of the measurement in 5 photos. Severe paralysis is represented by an AI of more than 20%. Partial paralysis has a range of 20-8%. Nearly normal is judged to be less than 8%. Ten normal individuals are measured as control and show an AI of 3% or less. Moire topography is useful in assessing the recovery process because it has the benefit of making the site and grade of palsy easily achieved by the AI and the deviation in its patterns. The authors propose that the moire method is better for an objective and quantitative evaluation than the society's method.

  19. Social perception of facial resemblance in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeBruine, Lisa M; Jones, Benedict C; Little, Anthony C; Perrett, David I

    2008-02-01

    Two lines of reasoning predict that highly social species will have mechanisms to influence behavior toward individuals depending on their degree of relatedness. First, inclusive fitness theory leads to the prediction that organisms will preferentially help closely related kin over more distantly related individuals. Second, evaluation of the relative costs and potential benefits of inbreeding suggests that the degree of kinship should also be considered when choosing a mate. In order to behaviorally discriminate between individuals with different levels of relatedness, organisms must be able to discriminate cues of kinship. Facial resemblance is one such potential cue in humans. Computer-graphic manipulation of face images has made it possible to experimentally test hypotheses about human kin recognition by facial phenotype matching. We review recent experimental evidence that humans respond to facial resemblance in ways consistent with inclusive fitness theory and considerations of the costs of inbreeding, namely by increasing prosocial behavior and positive attributions toward self-resembling images and selectively tempering attributions of attractiveness to other-sex faces in the context of a sexual relationship. PMID:18157627

  20. Quantifying facial expression recognition across viewing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goren, Deborah; Wilson, Hugh R

    2006-04-01

    Facial expressions are key to social interactions and to assessment of potential danger in various situations. Therefore, our brains must be able to recognize facial expressions when they are transformed in biologically plausible ways. We used synthetic happy, sad, angry and fearful faces to determine the amount of geometric change required to recognize these emotions during brief presentations. Five-alternative forced choice conditions involving central viewing, peripheral viewing and inversion were used to study recognition among the four emotions. Two-alternative forced choice was used to study affect discrimination when spatial frequency information in the stimulus was modified. The results show an emotion and task-dependent pattern of detection. Facial expressions presented with low peak frequencies are much harder to discriminate from neutral than faces defined by either mid or high peak frequencies. Peripheral presentation of faces also makes recognition much more difficult, except for happy faces. Differences between fearful detection and recognition tasks are probably due to common confusions with sadness when recognizing fear from among other emotions. These findings further support the idea that these emotions are processed separately from each other. PMID:16364393

  1. Fractionated Stereotactic Radiotherapy for Facial Nerve Schwannomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Wenyin; Jain, Varsha; Kim, Hyun; Champ, Colin; Jain, Gaurav; Farrell, Christopher; Andrews, David W; Judy, Kevin; Liu, Haisong; Artz, Gregory; Werner-Wasik, Maria; Evans, James J

    2016-02-01

    Purpose Data on the clinical course of irradiated facial nerve schwannomas (FNS) are lacking. We evaluated fractionated stereotactic radiotherapy (FSRT) for FNS. Methods Eight consecutive patients with FNS treated at our institution between 1998 and 2011 were included. Patients were treated with FSRT to a median dose of 50.4 Gy (range: 46.8-54 Gy) in 1.8 or 2.0 Gy fractions. We report the radiographic response, symptom control, and toxicity associated with FSRT for FNS. Results The median follow-up time was 43 months (range: 10-75 months). All patients presented with symptoms including pain, tinnitus, facial asymmetry, diplopia, and hearing loss. The median tumor volume was 1.57 cc. On the most recent follow-up imaging, five patients were noted to have stable tumor size; three patients had a net reduction in tumor volume. Additionally, six patients had improvement in clinical symptoms, one patient had stable clinical findings, and one patient had worsened House-Brackmann grade due to cystic degeneration. Conclusion FSRT treatment of FNS results in excellent control of growth and symptoms with a small rate of radiation toxicity. Given the importance of maintaining facial nerve function, FSRT could be considered as a primary management modality for enlarging or symptomatic FNS. PMID:26949592

  2. Sex differences in perception of invisible facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Sang Wook; Yoon, K Lira; Peaco, Sophia

    2015-01-01

    Previous research indicates that women are better at recognizing facial expressions than men. In the current study, we examined whether this female advantage in the processing of facial expressions also occurs at the unconscious level. In two studies, participants performed a simple detection task and a 4-AFC task while faces were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression. When faces with full intensity expressions were suppressed, there was no significant sex difference in the time of breakup of suppression (Study 1). However, when suppressed faces depicted low intensity expressions, suppression broke up earlier in men than women, indicating that men may be more sensitive to facial features related to mild facial expressions (Study 2). The current findings suggest that the female advantage in processing of facial expressions is absent in unconscious processing of emotional information. The female advantage in facial expression processing may require conscious perception of faces. PMID:25883583

  3. Sex differences in perception of invisible facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang Wook eHong

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Previous research indicates that women are better at recognizing facial expressions than men. In the current study, we examined whether this female advantage in the processing of facial expressions also occurs at the unconscious level. In two studies, participants performed a simple detection task and a 4-AFC task while faces were rendered invisible by continuous flash suppression (CFS. When faces with full intensity expressions were suppressed, there was no significant sex difference in the time of breakup of suppression (Study 1. However, when suppressed faces depicted low intensity expressions, suppression broke up earlier in men than women, indicating that men may be more sensitive to facial features related to mild facial expressions (Study 2. The current findings suggest that the female advantage in processing of facial expressions is absent in unconscious processing of emotional information. The female advantage in facial expression processing may require conscious perception of faces.

  4. Transtympanic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of the Literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Nathan; O'Donohue, Peter; French, Heath; Griffin, Aaron; Elliott, Devlin; Gochee, Peter

    2015-05-01

    Facial nerve paralysis because of penetrating trauma through the external auditory canal is extremely rare, with a paucity of published literature. The objective of this study is to review the literature on transtympanic facial nerve paralysis and increase physician awareness of this uncommon injury through discussion of its clinical presentation, management and prognosis. We also aim to improve patient outcomes in those that have sustained this type of injury by suggesting an optimal management plan. In this case report, we present the case of a 46-year-old white woman who sustained a unilateral facial nerve paresis because of a garfish penetrating her tympanic membrane and causing direct damage to the tympanic portion of her facial nerve. On follow-up after 12 months, her facial nerve function has largely returned to normal. Transtympanic facial nerve paralysis is a rare injury but can have a favorable prognosis if managed effectively.

  5. Facial Expression Generation from Speaker's Emotional States in Daily Conversation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mori, Hiroki; Ohshima, Koh

    A framework for generating facial expressions from emotional states in daily conversation is described. It provides a mapping between emotional states and facial expressions, where the former is represented by vectors with psychologically-defined abstract dimensions, and the latter is coded by the Facial Action Coding System. In order to obtain the mapping, parallel data with rated emotional states and facial expressions were collected for utterances of a female speaker, and a neural network was trained with the data. The effectiveness of proposed method is verified by a subjective evaluation test. As the result, the Mean Opinion Score with respect to the suitability of generated facial expression was 3.86 for the speaker, which was close to that of hand-made facial expressions.

  6. FACIAL LANDMARKING LOCALIZATION FOR EMOTION RECOGNITION USING BAYESIAN SHAPE MODELS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernan F. Garcia

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a framework for emotion recognition, based in facial expression analysis using Bayesian Shape Models (BSM for facial landmarking localization. The Facial Action Coding System (FACS compliant facial feature tracking based on Bayesian Shape Model. The BSM estimate the parameters of the model with an implementation of the EM algorithm. We describe the characterization methodology from parametric model and evaluated the accuracy for feature detection and estimation of the parameters associated with facial expressions, analyzing its robustness in pose and local variations. Then, a methodology for emotion characterization is introduced to perform the recognition. The experimental results show that the proposed model can effectively detect the different facial expressions. Outperforming conventional approaches for emotion recognition obtaining high performance results in the estimation of emotion present in a determined subject. The model used and characterization methodology showed efficient to detect the emotion type in 95.6% of the cases.

  7. Time perception and dynamics of facial expressions of emotions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie L Fayolle

    Full Text Available Two experiments were run to examine the effects of dynamic displays of facial expressions of emotions on time judgments. The participants were given a temporal bisection task with emotional facial expressions presented in a dynamic or a static display. Two emotional facial expressions and a neutral expression were tested and compared. Each of the emotional expressions had the same affective valence (unpleasant, but one was high-arousing (expressing anger and the other low-arousing (expressing sadness. Our results showed that time judgments are highly sensitive to movements in facial expressions and the emotions expressed. Indeed, longer perceived durations were found in response to the dynamic faces and the high-arousing emotional expressions compared to the static faces and low-arousing expressions. In addition, the facial movements amplified the effect of emotions on time perception. Dynamic facial expressions are thus interesting tools for examining variations in temporal judgments in different social contexts.

  8. Altering sensorimotor feedback disrupts visual discrimination of facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wood, Adrienne; Lupyan, Gary; Sherrin, Steven; Niedenthal, Paula

    2016-08-01

    Looking at another person's facial expression of emotion can trigger the same neural processes involved in producing the expression, and such responses play a functional role in emotion recognition. Disrupting individuals' facial action, for example, interferes with verbal emotion recognition tasks. We tested the hypothesis that facial responses also play a functional role in the perceptual processing of emotional expressions. We altered the facial action of participants with a gel facemask while they performed a task that involved distinguishing target expressions from highly similar distractors. Relative to control participants, participants in the facemask condition demonstrated inferior perceptual discrimination of facial expressions, but not of nonface stimuli. The findings suggest that somatosensory/motor processes involving the face contribute to the visual perceptual-and not just conceptual-processing of facial expressions. More broadly, our study contributes to growing evidence for the fundamentally interactive nature of the perceptual inputs from different sensory modalities. PMID:26542827

  9. Towards Real-Life Facial Expression Recognition Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENTA, K.-I.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions are a set of symbols of great importance for human-to-human communication. Spontaneous in their nature, diverse and personal, facial expressions demand for real-time, complex, robust and adaptable facial expression recognition (FER systems to facilitate the human-computer interaction. The last years' research efforts in the recognition of facial expressions are preparing FER systems to step into the real-life. In order to meet the before-mentioned requirements, this article surveys the work in FER since 2008, particularly adopting the discrete states emotion model in a quest for the most valuable FER work/systems. We first present the new spontaneous facial expression databases and then organize the real-time FER solutions grouped by spontaneous and posed facial expression databases. Then automatic FERs are compared and the cross-database validation method is presented. Finally, we outline FER system open issues to meet real-life challenges.

  10. Scattered Data Processing Approach Based on Optical Facial Motion Capture

    OpenAIRE

    Qiang Zhang; Xiaoying Liang; Xiaopeng Wei

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, animation reconstruction of facial expressions has become a popular research field in computer science and motion capture-based facial expression reconstruction is now emerging in this field. Based on the facial motion data obtained using a passive optical motion capture system, we propose a scattered data processing approach, which aims to solve the common problems of missing data and noise. To recover missing data, given the nonlinear relationships among neighbors with the ...

  11. Modified method of analysis for surgical correction of facial asymmetry

    OpenAIRE

    Christou, Terpsithea; Kau, Chung How; Waite, Peter D.; Kheir, Nadia Abou; Mouritsen, David

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this article was to present a new method of analysis using a three dimensional (3D) model of an actual patient with facial asymmetry, for the assessment of her facial changes and the quantification of the deformity. This patient underwent orthodontic and surgical treatment to correct a severe facial asymmetry. Materials and Methods: The surgical procedure was complex and the case was challenging. The treatment procedure required an orthodontic approach followed by Le ...

  12. Neonatal peripheral facial paralysis' evaluation with photogrammetry: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca Filho, Gentil Gomes; de Medeiros Cirne, Gabriele Natane; Cacho, Roberta Oliveira; de Souza, Jane Carla; Nagem, Danilo; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Moran, Cristiane Aparecida; Abreu, Bruna; Pereira, Silvana Alves

    2015-12-01

    Facial paralysis in newborns can leave functional sequelae. Determining the evolution and amount of functional losses requires consistent evaluation methods that measure, quantitatively, the evolution of clinical functionality. This paper reports an innovative method of facial assessment for the case of a child 28 days of age with unilateral facial paralysis. The child had difficulty breast feeding, and quickly responded to the physical therapy treatment.

  13. Comparison of Facial Nerve Paralysis in Adults and Children

    OpenAIRE

    Cha, Chang Il; Hong, Chang Kee; Park, Moon Suh; Yeo, Seung Geun

    2008-01-01

    Purpose Facial nerve injury can occur in the regions ranging from the cerebral cortex to the motor end plate in the face, and from many causes including trauma, viral infection, and idiopathic factors. Facial nerve paralysis in children, however, may differ from that in adults. We, therefore, evaluated its etiology and recovery rate in children and adults. Materials and Methods We retrospectively evaluated the records of 975 patients, ranging in age from 0 to 88 years, who displayed facial pa...

  14. Machine analysis of facial behaviour: Naturalistic and dynamic behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Pantic, M.

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces recent advances in the machine analysis of facial expressions. It describes the problem space, surveys the problem domain and examines the state of the art. Two recent research topics are discussed with particular attention: analysis of facial dynamics and analysis of naturalistic (spontaneously displayed) facial behaviour. Scientific and engineering challenges in the field in general, and in these specific subproblem areas in particular, are discussed and recommendati...

  15. Humanoid Head Face Mechanism with Expandable Facial Expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Wagshum Techane Asheber; Chyi-Yeu Lin; Shih Hsiang Yen

    2016-01-01

    Recently a social robot for daily life activities is becoming more common. To this end a humanoid robot with realistic facial expression is a strong candidate for common chores. In this paper, the development of a humanoid face mechanism with a simplified system complexity to generate human like facial expression is presented. The distinctive feature of this face robot is the use of significantly fewer actuators. Only three servo motors for facial expressions and five for the rest of the head...

  16. Neonatal peripheral facial paralysis' evaluation with photogrammetry: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Fonseca Filho, Gentil Gomes; de Medeiros Cirne, Gabriele Natane; Cacho, Roberta Oliveira; de Souza, Jane Carla; Nagem, Danilo; Cacho, Enio Walker Azevedo; Moran, Cristiane Aparecida; Abreu, Bruna; Pereira, Silvana Alves

    2015-12-01

    Facial paralysis in newborns can leave functional sequelae. Determining the evolution and amount of functional losses requires consistent evaluation methods that measure, quantitatively, the evolution of clinical functionality. This paper reports an innovative method of facial assessment for the case of a child 28 days of age with unilateral facial paralysis. The child had difficulty breast feeding, and quickly responded to the physical therapy treatment. PMID:26607566

  17. Facial dermatosis associated with Demodex: a case-control study*

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, Ya-e; Peng, Yan; Wang, Xiang-lan; Wu, Li-ping; Wang, Mei; Yan, Hu-ling; XIAO, SHENG-XIANG

    2011-01-01

    Demodex has been considered to be related with multiple skin disorders, but controversy persists. In this case-control study, a survey was conducted with 860 dermatosis patients aged 12 to 84 years in Xi’an, China to identify the association between facial dermatosis and Demodex. Amongst the patients, 539 suffered from facial dermatosis and 321 suffered from non-facial dermatosis. Demodex mites were sampled and examined using the skin pressurization method. Multivariate regression analysis wa...

  18. Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru Sato; Tomomi Fujimura; Takanori Kochiyama; Naoto Suzuki

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on ...

  19. Inversion improves the recognition of facial expression in thatcherized images

    OpenAIRE

    Psalta, Lilia; Andrews, Timothy J.

    2014-01-01

    The Thatcher illusion provides a compelling example of the face inversion effect. However, the marked effect of inversion in the Thatcher illusion contrasts to other studies that report only a small effect of inversion on the recognition of facial expressions. To address this discrepancy, we compared the effects of inversion and thatcherization on the recognition of facial expressions. We found that inversion of normal faces caused only a small reduction in the recognition of facial expressio...

  20. Extraction of Eyes for Facial Expression Identification of Students

    OpenAIRE

    G.Sofia,; DR. M. MOHAMED SATHIK

    2010-01-01

    Facial expressions play an essential role in communications in social interactions with other human beings which deliver rich information about their emotions. Facial expression analysis has wide range ofapplications in the areas such as Psychology, Animations, Interactive games, Image retrieval and Image understanding. Selecting the relevant feature and ignoring the unimportant feature is the key step in facial expression recognition system. Here, we propose an efficient method for identifyi...

  1. Adaptive evolution of facial colour patterns in Neotropical primates

    OpenAIRE

    Santana, Sharlene E.; Lynch Alfaro, Jessica; Alfaro, Michael E.

    2012-01-01

    The rich diversity of primate faces has interested naturalists for over a century. Researchers have long proposed that social behaviours have shaped the evolution of primate facial diversity. However, the primate face constitutes a unique structure where the diverse and potentially competing functions of communication, ecology and physiology intersect, and the major determinants of facial diversity remain poorly understood. Here, we provide the first evidence for an adaptive role of facial co...

  2. Facial Emotion Recognition and Discrimination Deficit in Idiopatic Parkinson Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Ersin Kasım Ulusoy; Emre Ayar; Deniz Bayındırlı

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Motor symptoms are the primary focus in diagnosis and treatment of idiopathic Parkinson disease (IPD). But facial emotion recognition disorder, one of non-motor symptoms of the disease, reduces quality of life significantly by disrupting social interaction. Facial emotion recognition and discrimination ability is an important part of social interaction. Neuroimaging studies highlight amigdala as the locus of facial emotion recognition disorder in IPD. The aim of this study is to in...

  3. Facial expression recognition in rhesus monkeys, Macaca mulatta

    OpenAIRE

    Parr, Lisa A.; Heintz, Matthew

    2009-01-01

    The ability to recognize and accurately interpret facial expressions is critically important for nonhuman primates that rely on these nonverbal signals for social communication. Despite this, little is known about how nonhuman primates, particularly monkeys, discriminate between facial expressions. In the present study, seven rhesus monkeys were required to discriminate four categories of conspecific facial expressions using a matching-to-sample task. In experiment 1, the matching pair showed...

  4. Facial expression recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra)

    OpenAIRE

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A.; Bridget M Waller

    2015-01-01

    Facial expressions are a main communication channel used by many different species of primate. Despite this, we know relatively little about how primates discriminate between different facial expressions, and most of what we do know comes from a restricted number of well-studied species. In this study, three crested macaques (Macaca nigra) took part in matching-to-sample tasks where they had to discriminate different facial expressions. In a first experiment, the macaques had to match a photo...

  5. Facial expressions recognition with an emotion expressive robotic head

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doroftei, I.; Adascalitei, F.; Lefeber, D.; Vanderborght, B.; Doroftei, I. A.

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to present the preliminary steps in facial expressions recognition with a new version of an expressive social robotic head. So, in a first phase, our main goal was to reach a minimum level of emotional expressiveness in order to obtain nonverbal communication between the robot and human by building six basic facial expressions. To evaluate the facial expressions, the robot was used in some preliminary user studies, among children and adults.

  6. Facial Emotion Recognition in Schizophrenia: The Impact of Gender

    OpenAIRE

    Erol, Almıla; Putgul, Gulperi; Kosger, Ferdi; Ersoy, Bilal

    2013-01-01

    Objective Previous studies reported gender differences for facial emotion recognition in healthy people, with women performing better than men. Few studies that examined gender differences for facial emotion recognition in schizophrenia brought out inconsistent findings. The aim of this study is to investigate gender differences for facial emotion identification and discrimination abilities in patients with schizophrenia. Methods 35 female and 35 male patients with schizophrenia, along with 3...

  7. Facial Expression Recognition Using New Feature Extraction Algorithm

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Hung-Fu; Tai, Shen-Chuan

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a method for facial expression recognition. Facial feature vectors are generated from keypoint descriptors using Speeded-Up Robust Features. Each facial feature vector is then normalized and next the probability density function descriptor is generated. The distance between two probability density function descriptors is calculated using Kullback Leibler divergence. Mathematical equation is employed to select certain practicable probability density function descriptors for...

  8. Facial Expression Recognition in the Wild using Rich Deep Features

    OpenAIRE

    Karali, Abubakrelsedik; Bassiouny, Ahmad; El-Saban, Motaz

    2016-01-01

    Facial Expression Recognition is an active area of research in computer vision with a wide range of applications. Several approaches have been developed to solve this problem for different benchmark datasets. However, Facial Expression Recognition in the wild remains an area where much work is still needed to serve real-world applications. To this end, in this paper we present a novel approach towards facial expression recognition. We fuse rich deep features with domain knowledge through enco...

  9. Relationships among Facial Mimicry, Emotional Experience, and Emotion Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    Sato, Wataru; Fujimura, Tomomi; Kochiyama, Takanori; Suzuki, Naoto

    2013-01-01

    Background The relationships between facial mimicry and subsequent psychological processes remain unclear. We hypothesized that the congruent facial muscle activity would elicit emotional experiences and that the experienced emotion would induce emotion recognition. Methodology/Principal Findings To test this hypothesis, we re-analyzed data collected in two previous studies. We recorded facial electromyography (EMG) from the corrugator supercilii and zygomatic major and obtained ratings on sc...

  10. The Epidemiology of Facial Fractures in Automotive Collisions

    OpenAIRE

    Cormier, Joseph; Duma, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the pattern of facial fractures in automotive collisions using the National Automotive Sampling System – Crashworthiness Data System. The database was examined for trends within collision and occupant descriptors among occupants sustaining facial fractures. Drivers and right front passengers were included in an analysis of frontal collisions. Side impacts were assessed separately by identifying occupants exposed to near and far side collisions. The distribution of facial b...

  11. Photometric facial analysis of the Igbo Nigerian adult male

    OpenAIRE

    Ukoha Ukoha Ukoha; Onochie Okwudili Udemezue; Chidi Kingsley Oranusi; Azuoma Lasbrey Asomugha; Uchechukwu Dimkpa; Lynda Chinenye Nzeukwu

    2012-01-01

    Background: A carefully performed facial analysis can serve as a strong foundation for successful facial reconstructive and plastic surgeries, rhinoplasty or orthodontics. Aim: The purpose of this study is to determine the facial features and qualities of the Igbo Nigerian adult male using photometry. Materials and Methods: One hundred and twenty subjects aged between 18 and 28 years were studied at the Anambra State University, Uli, Nigeria. The frontal and right lateral view photographs of ...

  12. Expression intensity, gender and facial emotion recognition: Women recognize only subtle facial emotions better than men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffmann, Holger; Kessler, Henrik; Eppel, Tobias; Rukavina, Stefanie; Traue, Harald C

    2010-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted in order to investigate the effect of expression intensity on gender differences in the recognition of facial emotions. The first experiment compared recognition accuracy between female and male participants when emotional faces were shown with full-blown (100% emotional content) or subtle expressiveness (50%). In a second experiment more finely grained analyses were applied in order to measure recognition accuracy as a function of expression intensity (40%-100%). The results show that although women were more accurate than men in recognizing subtle facial displays of emotion, there was no difference between male and female participants when recognizing highly expressive stimuli. PMID:20728864

  13. Stop staring facial modeling and animation done right

    CERN Document Server

    Osipa, Jason

    2010-01-01

    The de facto official source on facial animation—now updated!. If you want to do character facial modeling and animation at the high levels achieved in today's films and games, Stop Staring: Facial Modeling and Animation Done Right, Third Edition , is for you. While thoroughly covering the basics such as squash and stretch, lip syncs, and much more, this new edition has been thoroughly updated to capture the very newest professional design techniques, as well as changes in software, including using Python to automate tasks.: Shows you how to create facial animation for movies, games, and more;

  14. Facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khairunnisaa, Aida; Basah, Shafriza Nisha; Yazid, Haniza; Basri, Hassrizal Hassan; Yaacob, Sazali; Chin, Lim Chee

    2015-05-01

    The diagnostic process of facial paralysis requires qualitative assessment for the classification and treatment planning. This result is inconsistent assessment that potential affect treatment planning. We developed a facial-paralysis diagnostic system based on 3D reconstruction of RGB and depth data using a standard structured-light camera - Kinect 360 - and implementation of Active Appearance Models (AAM). We also proposed a quantitative assessment for facial paralysis based on triangular model. In this paper, we report on the design and development process, including preliminary experimental results. Our preliminary experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of our quantitative assessment system to diagnose facial paralysis.

  15. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru.

  16. Noninvasive Facial Rejuvenation. Part 1: Patient-Directed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commander, Sarah Jane; Chang, Daniel; Fakhro, Abdulla; Nigro, Marjory G; Lee, Edward I

    2016-08-01

    A proper knowledge of noninvasive facial rejuvenation is integral to the practice of a cosmetic surgeon. Noninvasive facial rejuvenation can be divided into patient- versus physician-directed modalities. Patient-directed facial rejuvenation combines the use of facial products such as sunscreen, moisturizers, retinoids, α-hydroxy acids, and various antioxidants to both maintain youthful skin and rejuvenate damaged skin. Physicians may recommend and often prescribe certain products, but the patients are in control of this type of facial rejuvenation. On the other hand, physician-directed facial rejuvenation entails modalities that require direct physician involvement, such as neuromodulators, filler injections, laser resurfacing, microdermabrasion, and chemical peels. With the successful integration of each of these modalities, a complete facial regimen can be established and patient satisfaction can be maximized. This article is the first in a three-part series describing noninvasive facial rejuvenation. The authors focus on patient-directed facial rejuvenation. It is important, however, to emphasize that even in a patient-directed modality, a physician's involvement through education and guidance is integral to its success. PMID:27478421

  17. The Association Between Men's Sexist Attitudes and Facial Hair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oldmeadow, Julian A; Dixson, Barnaby J

    2016-05-01

    Facial hair, like many masculine secondary sexual traits, plays a significant role in perceptions of an array of sociosexual traits in men. While there is consensus that beards enhance perceptions of masculinity, age, social dominance, and aggressiveness, the perceived attractiveness of facial hair varies greatly across women. Given the ease with which facial hair can be groomed and removed entirely, why should some men retain beards and others choose to remove them? We hypothesized that men with relatively sexist attitudes would be more likely to allow their facial hair to grow than men with less sexist attitudes. Men from the USA (n = 223) and India (n = 309) completed an online survey measuring demographic variables, ambivalent sexism, and facial hair status. After controlling for demographic variables, men with facial hair were significantly higher in hostile sexism than clean-shaven men; hostile sexism was a significant predictor of facial hair status over and above demographic variables; and facial hair was more frequent among ambivalent and hostile sexists than among benevolent and non-sexists. It is suggested that sexist men choose to grow facial hair because it maximizes sexual dimorphism and augments perceived masculinity and dominance. PMID:26510427

  18. The voluntary control of facial action units in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosselin, Pierre; Perron, Mélanie; Beaupré, Martin

    2010-04-01

    We investigated adults' voluntary control of 20 facial action units theoretically associated with 6 basic emotions (happiness, fear, anger, surprise, sadness, and disgust). Twenty young adults were shown video excerpts of facial action units and asked to reproduce them as accurately as possible. Facial Action Coding System (FACS; Ekman & Friesen, 1978a) coding of the facial productions showed that young adults succeeded in activating 18 of the 20 target actions units, although they often coactivated other action units. Voluntary control was clearly better for some action units than for others, with a pattern of differences between action units consistent with previous work in children and adolescents.

  19. Nerve repair and cable grafting for facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphrey, Clinton D; Kriet, J David

    2008-05-01

    Facial nerve injury and facial paralysis are devastating for patients. Although imperfect, primary repair is currently the best option to restore facial nerve function. Cable, or interposition, nerve grafting is an acceptable alternative when primary repair is not possible. Several donor nerves are at the surgeon's disposal. Great auricular, sural, or medial and lateral antebrachial cutaneous nerves are all easily obtained. Both primary repair and interposition grafting typically result in better facial function than do other dynamic and static rehabilitation strategies. Proficient anastomotic technique and, when necessary, selection of an appropriate interposition graft will optimize patient outcomes. Promising research is under way that will enhance future nerve repair and grafting efforts.

  20. Cranio-facial clefts in pre-hispanic America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marius-Nunez, A L; Wasiak, D T

    2015-10-01

    Among the representations of congenital malformations in Moche ceramic art, cranio-facial clefts have been portrayed in pottery found in Moche burials. These pottery vessels were used as domestic items during lifetime and funerary offerings upon death. The aim of this study was to examine archeological evidence for representations of cranio-facial cleft malformations in Moche vessels. Pottery depicting malformations of the midface in Moche collections in Lima-Peru were studied. The malformations portrayed on pottery were analyzed using the Tessier classification. Photographs were authorized by the Larco Museo.Three vessels were observed to have median cranio-facial dysraphia in association with midline cleft of the lower lip with cleft of the mandible. ML001489 portrays a median cranio-facial dysraphia with an orbital cleft and a midline cleft of the lower lip extending to the mandible. ML001514 represents a median facial dysraphia in association with an orbital facial cleft and a vertical orbital dystopia. ML001491 illustrates a median facial cleft with a soft tissue cleft. Three cases of midline, orbital and lateral facial clefts have been portrayed in Moche full-figure portrait vessels. They represent the earliest registries of congenital cranio-facial malformations in ancient Peru. PMID:26010214

  1. The occurrence of phi in dento-facial beauty of fine art from antiquity through the Renaissance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiener, R Constance; Wiener Pla, Regina M

    2012-01-01

    External beauty is a complex construct that influences lives and may be impacted by dentists. Beauty is not easily quantified, but one cited anthropometric of beauty is the ratio phi, the number 1.618033(...). This study examined phi as a measure of female frontal facial beauty in classic Western art, using pre- Renaissance (N = 30), and Renaissance (N = 30) artwork. Four horizontal and five vertical ratios were determined in the works of art, which were then compared with the phi ratio. All horizontal ratios for both pre-Renaissance and Renaissance artwork were similar to each other, but did not contain the phi ratio (P Renaissance and Renaissance art-work did contain the phi ratio within their confidence intervals with the exception of the vertical ratio, "intereye point to soft tissue menton/ intereye point to stomion", that was found to be less than phi in the Renaissance group. The study provides evidence of the presence of the phi ratio in vertical aspect of females in artwork from pre-Renaissance through the Renaissance demonstrating consistent temporal preferences. Therefore, the phi ratio seems to be an important consideration in altering vertical facial dimensions in full mouth rehabilitation and reconstructive orthognathic surgery involving females.

  2. The effects of facial adiposity on attractiveness and perceived leadership ability

    OpenAIRE

    Re, Daniel Edward; Perrett, David Ian

    2014-01-01

    Facial attractiveness has a positive influence on electoral success both in experimental paradigms and in the real world. One parameter that influences facial attractiveness and social judgements is facial adiposity (a facial correlate to body mass index, BMI). Overweight people have high facial adiposity and are perceived to be less attractive and lower in leadership ability. Here, we used an interactive design in order to assess whether the most attractive level of facial adiposity is also ...

  3. Gender differences in the neural network of facial mimicry of smiles – An rTMS study

    OpenAIRE

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Rochas, Vincent; Rihs, Tonia; Rieger, Sebastian Walter; Schwab, Samir; Niedenthal, Paula M.; Grandjean, Didier Maurice

    2015-01-01

    Under theories of embodied emotion, exposure to a facial expression triggers facial mimicry. Facial feedback is then used to recognize and judge the perceived expression. However, the neural bases of facial mimicry and of the use of facial feedback remain poorly understood. Furthermore, gender differences in facial mimicry and emotion recognition suggest that different neural substrates might accompany the production of facial mimicry, and the processing of facial feedback, in men and women. ...

  4. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LARGE AMPLITUDE ACTION POTENTIAL OF THE SUFFERED FACIAL MUSCLES IN INTRATEMPORAL FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任重; 惠莲

    1999-01-01

    Objctive. To testify the phenomenon that large amplitude action potential appears at the early stage oil facial paralysis, and to search for the mechanism through clinical and experimental studies. Patients(aninmls) and methods. The action potentials of the orbicular ocular and oral museles were recorded in 34 normal persons by electromyogram instrtiments. The normal range of amplitude percentage was found out according to the normal distribution, One hundred patients with facial paralysis were also studied. The action potentials of facial muscles were recorded ia 17 guinea pigs before and after the facial nerve was comp~ and the facial nerve was examined under electromicroscope before and after the compression.Results. The amplitude percentage of the suffered side to the healthy side was more than 153 percent in 6 of the 100 patients. Large amplitude action potential occured in 35 per cent guinea pigs which were performed the experiment of facial nerve compression. Electromicroscopic examination revealed separation of the lammae of the facial nerve's myelin sheath in the guinea pigs which exhibited large amplitude action potential Conclusion. The facial nerve exhibited a temporary over-excitability at the early stage of facial nerve injury in scane patients and guinea pigs. If the injury was limited in the myelin sheath, the prognods was relatively good.

  5. CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDIES OF LARGE AMPLITUDE ACTION POTENTIAL OF THE SUFFERED FACIAL MUSCLES IN INTRATEMPORAL FACIAL NERVE PARALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Ojective. To testify the phenomenon that large amplitude action potential appears at the early stage of facial paralysis, and to search for the mechanism through clinical and experimental studies. Patients(animals) and methods. The action potentials of the orbicular ocular and oral muscles were recorded in 34 normal persons by electromyogram instruments. The normal range of amplitude percentage was found out according to he normal distribution. One hundred patients with facial paralysis were also studied. The action potentials of facial muscles were recorded in 17 guinea pigs before and after the facial nerve was compressed and the facial nerve was examined under electromicroscope before and after the compression.Results. The amplitude percentage of the suffered ide to the healthy side was more than 153 percent in 6 of the 100 patients. Lare amplitude action potential ocured in 35 per cent guinea pigs which were performed the experiment of facial nrve compression. Electromicroscopic examination revealed separation of the lammae of the facial nerve's myelin sheath in the guinea pigs which exhibited large amplitude action potential.Conclusion. The facial nerve exhibited a temporary over-exciability at the early stage of facial nerve injury in some patients and guinea pigs. If the injury waslimited in the myelin sheath, te prognosis was relatively good.

  6. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jen Wathan

    Full Text Available Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats. EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

  7. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices.

  8. What lies beneath the face of aggression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carré, Justin M; Murphy, Kelly R; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2013-02-01

    Recent evidence indicates that a sexually dimorphic feature of humans, the facial width-to-height ratio (FWHR), is positively correlated with reactive aggression, particularly in men. Also, predictions about the aggressive tendencies of others faithfully map onto FWHR in the absence of explicit awareness of this metric. Here, we provide the first evidence that amygdala reactivity to social signals of interpersonal challenge may underlie the link between aggression and the FWHR. Specifically, amygdala reactivity to angry faces was positively correlated with aggression, but only among men with relatively large FWHRs. The patterns of association were specific to angry facial expressions and unique to men. These links may reflect the common influence of pubertal testosterone on craniofacial growth and development of neural circuitry underlying aggression. Amygdala reactivity may also represent a plausible pathway through which FWHR may have evolved to represent an honest indicator of conspecific threat, namely by reflecting the responsiveness of neural circuitry mediating aggressive behavior. PMID:22198969

  9. Competition makes observers remember faces as more aggressive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin; Thomas, Laura E

    2015-08-01

    People use facial appearance to predict social behavior, but can social context also influence face perception? Leveraging a link between competition and aggression, we investigated the effects of competitive interactions with confederates on participants' performance in a face reconstruction task. Participants played a game either in competition or cooperation with confederates and were then asked to create facial portraits of these confederates by arranging their component features into their best estimate of an accurate configuration. Across 2 experiments, participants who played in a competitive context reconstructed faces in a more aggressive configuration-with higher width-to-height ratios-than did participants who played cooperatively or alone. This result demonstrates that the social perception of faces is not merely a feed-forward process, but instead that the social contexts in which people interact can shape memory for faces. PMID:26010482

  10. Total Facial Nerve Decompression for Severe Traumatic Facial Nerve Paralysis: A Review of 10 Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sertac Yetiser

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of traumatic facial nerve disorders is challenging. Facial nerve decompression is indicated if 90–95% loss of function is seen at the very early period on ENoG or if there is axonal degeneration on EMG lately with no sign of recovery. Middle cranial or translabyrinthine approach is selected depending on hearing. The aim of this study is to present retrospective review of 10 patients with sudden onset complete facial paralysis after trauma who underwent total facial nerve decompression. Operation time after injury is ranging between 16 and105 days. Excitation threshold, supramaximal stimulation, and amplitude on the paralytic side were worse than at least %85 of the healthy side. Six of 11 patients had HBG-II, one patient had HBG-I, 3 patients had HBG-III, and one patient had HBG-IV recovery. Stretch, compression injuries with disruption of the endoneurial tubules undetectable at the time of surgery and lack of timely decompression may be associated with suboptimal results in our series.

  11. Brain asymmetry and facial attractiveness: facial beauty is not simply in the eye of the beholder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, A C; German, C; Zaidel, D W

    1997-04-01

    We recently reported finding asymmetry in the appearance of beauty on the face [Zaidel et al., Neuropsychologia, Vol. 33, pp. 649-655, 1995]. Here, we investigated whether facial beauty is a stable characteristic (on the owner's very face) or is in the perceptual space of the observer. We call the question 'the owner vs observer hypothesis'. We compared identity judgements and attractiveness ratings of observers. Subjects viewed left-left and right-right composites of faces and decided which most resembled the normal face (Experiment 1). Identity judgements (resemblance) are known to be associated with perceptual factors in the observer. Another group viewed the same normal faces and rated them on attractiveness (Experiment 2). In each experiment, there were two separate viewing conditions, original and reversed (mirror-image). Lateral reversal did affect the results of Experiment 1 (confirming previous findings [Bennett et al., Neuropsychologia, Vol. 25, pp. 681-687, 1987; Gilbert and Bakan, Journal of Anatomy, Vol. 183, pp. 593-600, 1993]) but did not affect the results of Experiment 2. The fact that lateral reversal did not affect the results of Experiment 2 suggests that facial attractiveness is more dependent on physiognomy (of the owner) and less dependent on an asymmetrical perceptual process (in the observer) than is facial identity. The results are discussed in the context of beauty's biological significance and facial processing in the brain.

  12. Three-year-olds' rapid facial electromyographic responses to emotional facial expressions and body postures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geangu, Elena; Quadrelli, Ermanno; Conte, Stefania; Croci, Emanuela; Turati, Chiara

    2016-04-01

    Rapid facial reactions (RFRs) to observed emotional expressions are proposed to be involved in a wide array of socioemotional skills, from empathy to social communication. Two of the most persuasive theoretical accounts propose RFRs to rely either on motor resonance mechanisms or on more complex mechanisms involving affective processes. Previous studies demonstrated that presentation of facial and bodily expressions can generate rapid changes in adult and school-age children's muscle activity. However, to date there is little to no evidence to suggest the existence of emotional RFRs from infancy to preschool age. To investigate whether RFRs are driven by motor mimicry or could also be a result of emotional appraisal processes, we recorded facial electromyographic (EMG) activation from the zygomaticus major and frontalis medialis muscles to presentation of static facial and bodily expressions of emotions (i.e., happiness, anger, fear, and neutral) in 3-year-old children. Results showed no specific EMG activation in response to bodily emotion expressions. However, observing others' happy faces led to increased activation of the zygomaticus major and decreased activation of the frontalis medialis, whereas observing others' angry faces elicited the opposite pattern of activation. This study suggests that RFRs are the result of complex mechanisms in which both affective processes and motor resonance may play an important role. PMID:26687335

  13. FACE: Facial Automaton for Conveying Emotions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Pioggia

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available The human face is the main organ of expression, capable of transmitting emotions that are almost instantly recognised by fellow beings. In this paper, we describe the development of a lifelike facial display based on the principles of biomimetic engineering. A number of paradigms that can be used for developing believable emotional displays, borrowing from elements of anthropomorphic mechanics and control, and materials science, are outlined. These are used to lay down the technological and philosophical premises necessary to construct a man-machine interface for expressing emotions through a biomimetic mechanical head. Applications in therapy to enhance social skills and understanding emotion in people with autism are discussed.

  14. Injection Therapy for Headache and Facial Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kleen, Jonathan K; Levin, Morris

    2016-08-01

    Peripheral nerve blocks are an increasingly viable treatment option for selected groups of headache patients, particularly those with intractable headache or facial pain. Greater occipital nerve block, the most widely used local anesthetic procedure in headache conditions, is particularly effective, safe, and easy to perform in the office. Adverse effects are few and infrequent. These procedures can result in rapid relief of pain and allodynia, and effects last for several weeks or months. Use of nerve block procedures and potentially onabotulinum toxin therapy should be expanded for patients with intractable headache disorders who may benefit, although more studies are needed for efficacy and clinical safety. PMID:27475516

  15. Facial expression recognition using constructive neural networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Liying; Khorasani, Khashayar

    2001-08-01

    The computer-based recognition of facial expressions has been an active area of research for quite a long time. The ultimate goal is to realize intelligent and transparent communications between human beings and machines. The neural network (NN) based recognition methods have been found to be particularly promising, since NN is capable of implementing mapping from the feature space of face images to the facial expression space. However, finding a proper network size has always been a frustrating and time consuming experience for NN developers. In this paper, we propose to use the constructive one-hidden-layer feed forward neural networks (OHL-FNNs) to overcome this problem. The constructive OHL-FNN will obtain in a systematic way a proper network size which is required by the complexity of the problem being considered. Furthermore, the computational cost involved in network training can be considerably reduced when compared to standard back- propagation (BP) based FNNs. In our proposed technique, the 2-dimensional discrete cosine transform (2-D DCT) is applied over the entire difference face image for extracting relevant features for recognition purpose. The lower- frequency 2-D DCT coefficients obtained are then used to train a constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive OHL-FNN. An input-side pruning technique previously proposed by the authors is also incorporated into the constructive learning process to reduce the network size without sacrificing the performance of the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having the resulting network. The proposed technique is applied to a database consisting of images of 60 men, each having 5 facial expression images (neutral, smile, anger, sadness, and surprise). Images of 40 men are used for network training, and the remaining images are used for generalization and

  16. Languages and interfaces for facial animation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magnenat-Thalmann, N. [Univ. of Geneva, Geneva (Switzerland)

    1995-05-01

    This paper describes high-level tools for specifying, controlling, and synchronizing temporal and spatial characteristics for 3D animation of facial expressions. The proposed approach consists of hierarchical levels of controls. Specification of expressions, phonemes, emotions, sentences, and head movements by means of a high-level language is shown. The various aspects of synchronization are also emphasized. Then, association of the control different interactive devices and media which allows the animator greater flexibility and freedom, is discussed. Experiments with input accessories such as the keyboard of a music synthesizer and gestures from the DataGlove are illustrated.

  17. Alcohol abusive use increases facial trauma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soares-Carneiro, Suzana-Célia-de-Aguiar; Matos da-Silva, Gessyca-Suielly-Melo; de-Barros-Caldas, Luciano-Cruz; Porto, Gabriela-Granja; Leal, Jefferson-Figueiredo; Catunda, Ivson

    2016-01-01

    Background Trauma is among the main death causes and morbidity in the world and is often related to the use of alcohol and its abuse has reached massive proportions, no matter if the country is developed or not, being considered as public health problem. Since there are very few randomized and prospective studies in literature about the association of facial trauma and the use of alcohol, this study aims to investigate the impact of alcohol use in facial trauma. Material and Methods This was a prospective and cross sectional study, involving facial trauma patients attended at Oral Maxillofacial Surgery Division of a State Hospital. Variables included patient´s profile, trauma etiology, facial region involved, type of injury and treatment and days of hospitalization. AUDIT test was applied to identify risks and damages of alcohol use and chemical dependence. Absolute distribution, uni and mutilvaried percentages were made for data evaluation. Pearson´s qui-squared and Fisher´s Exact tests were also used. Results One hundred patients were evaluated. The patient´s mean age was 33.50 years-old, 48% had between 17 and 29 years old, 28% had 30 to 39, and 24% 40 or more. Most of them were male (86%). The most frequent etiology was traffic accident (57%), the extraoral area was most committed (62%), the most frequent type of injury was fractures (78%) and the most affected bone was the mandible (36%). More than half of the patients (53%) had surgical treatment. 38% had their discharge from hospital right after the first attendance. The AUDIT most frequent answer was “moderate use” (46%) and use at risk (39%). There was significant difference between the use of alcohol (AUDIT) and hematoma (0.003) and number of days of hospitalization (p=0.005). Conclusions In this study it was not observed association between alcohol consumption using the AUDIT and trauma etiology, but patient victims of traffic accidents were classified as with risk in the scale. Most of the

  18. Facial and vocal expressions of emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russell, James A; Bachorowski, Jo-Anne; Fernandez-Dols, Jose-Miguel

    2003-01-01

    A flurry of theoretical and empirical work concerning the production of and response to facial and vocal expressions has occurred in the past decade. That emotional expressions express emotions is a tautology but may not be a fact. Debates have centered on universality, the nature of emotion, and the link between emotions and expressions. Modern evolutionary theory is informing more models, emphasizing that expressions are directed at a receiver, that the interests of sender and receiver can conflict, that there are many determinants of sending an expression in addition to emotion, that expressions influence the receiver in a variety of ways, and that the receiver's response is more than simply decoding a message.

  19. Facial contour deformity correction with microvascular flaps based on the 3-dimentional template and facial moulage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Facial contour deformities presents with varied aetiology and degrees severity. Accurate assessment, selecting a suitable tissue and sculpturing it to fill the defect is challenging and largely subjective. Objective assessment with imaging and software is not always feasible and preparing a template is complicated. A three-dimensional (3D wax template pre-fabricated over the facial moulage aids surgeons to fulfil these tasks. Severe deformities demand a stable vascular tissue for an acceptable outcome. Materials and Methods: We present review of eight consecutive patients who underwent augmentation of facial contour defects with free flaps between June 2005 and January 2011. De-epithelialised free anterolateral thigh (ALT flap in three, radial artery forearm flap and fibula osteocutaneous flap in two each and groin flap was used in one patient. A 3D wax template was fabricated by augmenting the deformity on facial moulage. It was utilised to select the flap, to determine the exact dimensions and to sculpture intraoperatively. Ancillary procedures such as genioplasty, rhinoplasty and coloboma correction were performed. Results: The average age at the presentation was 25 years and average disease free interval was 5.5 years and all flaps survived. Mean follow-up period was 21.75 months. The correction was aesthetically acceptable and was maintained without any recurrence or atrophy. Conclusion: The 3D wax template on facial moulage is simple, inexpensive and precise objective tool. It provides accurate guide for the planning and execution of the flap reconstruction. The selection of the flap is based on the type and extent of the defect. Superiority of vascularised free tissue is well-known and the ALT flap offers a versatile option for correcting varying degrees of the deformities. Ancillary procedures improve the overall aesthetic outcomes and minor flap touch-up procedures are generally required.

  20. Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korichi, R; Pelle-de-Queral, D; Gazano, G; Aubert, A

    2011-08-01

    Our external appearance plays a key role in everyday life's social interactions. Hence, taking care of our appearance allows us to adjust and protect ourselves, as well as communicate emotional disposition (i.e. sympathy or aversion) and social information (i.e. values, status). However, some discrete body parts or characteristics appear to be more salient than others in contributing to global body image. For example, authors showed that facial attractiveness is one of the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness and represent one of the primary factors influencing global self-esteem. Make-up is therefore ought to play a major influence in these parameters. Moreover, in a previous study whose subject was to explain the reasons that motivate women to make-up, we showed a high implication of specific psychological traits in correlation with two make-up functions (i.e. psycho-behavioural profiles 'Seduction' and 'Camouflage'; group S and group C, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess the possible relation between our two psycho-behavioural profiles and some morphological parameters know to be involved in facial attraction (i.e. facial asymmetry and skin visual quality). First of all, our study revealed for women from the group C a greater asymmetry of the lower face (i.e. mouth area) that could be related to a possible larger amount of negative emotional experiences. Concerning make-up behaviour, women from the group S more extensively manipulated their relative facial attractiveness, by using a large range of colours, but also through a significantly longer make-up process used to adjust their visual asymmetry and therefore increase their potential of attractiveness. On the overall, our results suggest that make-up is used differentially, according to stable psychological profiles of women, to manipulate specific visual/morphological facial features involved in attractiveness. PMID:21284661

  1. Relation between facial morphology, personality and the functions of facial make-up in women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korichi, R; Pelle-de-Queral, D; Gazano, G; Aubert, A

    2011-08-01

    Our external appearance plays a key role in everyday life's social interactions. Hence, taking care of our appearance allows us to adjust and protect ourselves, as well as communicate emotional disposition (i.e. sympathy or aversion) and social information (i.e. values, status). However, some discrete body parts or characteristics appear to be more salient than others in contributing to global body image. For example, authors showed that facial attractiveness is one of the best predictors of overall physical attractiveness and represent one of the primary factors influencing global self-esteem. Make-up is therefore ought to play a major influence in these parameters. Moreover, in a previous study whose subject was to explain the reasons that motivate women to make-up, we showed a high implication of specific psychological traits in correlation with two make-up functions (i.e. psycho-behavioural profiles 'Seduction' and 'Camouflage'; group S and group C, respectively). The purpose of this study was to assess the possible relation between our two psycho-behavioural profiles and some morphological parameters know to be involved in facial attraction (i.e. facial asymmetry and skin visual quality). First of all, our study revealed for women from the group C a greater asymmetry of the lower face (i.e. mouth area) that could be related to a possible larger amount of negative emotional experiences. Concerning make-up behaviour, women from the group S more extensively manipulated their relative facial attractiveness, by using a large range of colours, but also through a significantly longer make-up process used to adjust their visual asymmetry and therefore increase their potential of attractiveness. On the overall, our results suggest that make-up is used differentially, according to stable psychological profiles of women, to manipulate specific visual/morphological facial features involved in attractiveness.

  2. Spatiotemporal Facial Super-Pixels for Pain Detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundtoft, Dennis Holm; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Moeslund, Thomas B.;

    2016-01-01

    Pain detection using facial images is of critical importance in many eHealth applications. Since pain is a spatiotemporal process, recent works on this topic employ facial spatiotemporal features to detect pain. These systems extract such features from the entire area of the face. In this paper, ...

  3. [One case of postoperative facial paralysis after first branchial fistula].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xia; Xu, Yaosheng

    2015-12-01

    Pus overflow from patent's fistula belew the left face near mandibular angle 2 years agowith a little pain. Symptoms relieved after oral antibiotics. This symptom frequently occurred in the past six months. Postoperative facial paralysis occurred after surgery, and recovered after treatment. It was diagnosed as the postoperative facial paralysis after first branchial fistula surgery.

  4. Facial nerve function in carcinoma of the parotid gland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terhaard, Chris; Lubsen, Herman; Tan, Bing; Merkx, Thijs; van der Laan, Bernard; Jong, Rob Baatenburg-de; Manni, Hans; Kneght, Paul

    2006-01-01

    Aim: To analyse, for patients with carcinoma of the parotid gland, the prognostic value for treatment outcome of the function of the facial nerve (NVII), and determining facial nerve dysfunction after treatment. Methods and materials: In a retrospective study of the Dutch head and Neck cooperative g

  5. PARALYSIS OF FACIAL-MUSCLES IN LEPROSY PATIENTS WITH LAGOPHTHALMOS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    LUBBERS, WJ; SCHIPPER, A; HOGEWEG, M; DESOLDENHOFF, R

    1994-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the pattern of involvement of facial muscles in lagophthalmos. Fifty-seven patients with lagophthalmos were examined to assess the degree of paralysis of facial muscles. Eighty-one percent of the patients with lagophthalmos had involvement of at least one

  6. Botulinum Toxin in the Treatment of Facial Paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehdizadeh, Omid B; Diels, Jacqueline; White, William Matthew

    2016-02-01

    This article reviews the current literature supporting the use of botulinum toxin in producing symmetric facial features and reducing unwanted, involuntary movements. Methods, protocols, and adverse events are discussed. Additionally, the authors suggest that using botulinum toxin A therapy in postparalytic facial synkinesis can provide long-term results when used in conjunction with other treatment modalities.

  7. Decomposing the Relationship Between Candidates' Facial Appearance and Electoral Success

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laustsen, Lasse

    2014-01-01

    facial competence also predicts electoral success over and above what can be accounted for by attractiveness. Importantly these relationships are found when seven different non-facial factors, parties’ nomination strategies and candidates’ age and gender are controlled for. This suggests that the two...

  8. Analysis of Facial Injuries Caused by Power Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiye; Choi, Jin-Hee; Hyun Kim, Oh; Won Kim, Sug

    2016-06-01

    The number of injuries caused by power tools is steadily increasing as more domestic woodwork is undertaken and more power tools are used recreationally. The injuries caused by the different power tools as a consequence of accidents are an issue, because they can lead to substantial costs for patients and the national insurance system. The increase in hand surgery as a consequence of the use of power tools and its economic impact, and the characteristics of the hand injuries caused by power saws have been described. In recent years, the authors have noticed that, in addition to hand injuries, facial injuries caused by power tools commonly present to the emergency room. This study aimed to review the data in relation to facial injuries caused by power saws that were gathered from patients who visited the trauma center at our hospital over the last 4 years, and to analyze the incidence and epidemiology of the facial injuries caused by power saws. The authors found that facial injuries caused by power tools have risen continually. Facial injuries caused by power tools are accidental, and they cause permanent facial disfigurements and functional disabilities. Accidents are almost inevitable in particular workplaces; however, most facial injuries could be avoided by providing sufficient operator training and by tool operators wearing suitable protective devices. The evaluation of the epidemiology and patterns of facial injuries caused by power tools in this study should provide the information required to reduce the number of accidental injuries.

  9. Perceived Attractiveness, Facial Features, and African Self-Consciousness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chambers, John W., Jr.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Investigated relationships between perceived attractiveness, facial features, and African self-consciousness (ASC) among 149 African American college students. As predicted, high ASC subjects used more positive adjectives in descriptions of strong African facial features than did medium or low ASC subjects. Results are discussed in the context of…

  10. Delayed presentation of traumatic facial nerve (CN VII) paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Napoli, Anthony M; Panagos, Peter

    2005-11-01

    Facial nerve paralysis (Cranial Nerve VII, CN VII) can be a disfiguring disorder with profound impact upon the patient. The etiology of facial nerve paralysis may be congenital, iatrogenic, or result from neoplasm, infection, trauma, or toxic exposure. In the emergency department, the most common cause of unilateral facial paralysis is Bell's palsy, also known as idiopathic facial paralysis (IFP). We report a case of delayed presentation of unilateral facial nerve paralysis 3 days after sustaining a traumatic head injury. Re-evaluation and imaging of this patient revealed a full facial paralysis and temporal bone fracture extending into the facial canal. Because cranial nerve injuries occur in approximately 5-10% of head-injured patients, a good history and physical examination is important to differentiate IFP from another etiology. Newer generation high-resolution computed tomography (CT) scans are commonly demonstrating these fractures. An understanding of this complication, appropriate patient follow-up, and early involvement of the Otolaryngologist is important in management of these patients. The mechanism as well as the timing of facial nerve paralysis will determine the proper evaluation, consultation, and management for the patient. Patients with total or immediate paralysis as well as those with poorly prognostic audiogram results are good candidates for surgical repair.

  11. Meta-Analysis of the First Facial Expression Recognition Challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valstar, M F; Mehu, M; Bihan Jiang; Pantic, M; Scherer, K

    2012-08-01

    Automatic facial expression recognition has been an active topic in computer science for over two decades, in particular facial action coding system action unit (AU) detection and classification of a number of discrete emotion states from facial expressive imagery. Standardization and comparability have received some attention; for instance, there exist a number of commonly used facial expression databases. However, lack of a commonly accepted evaluation protocol and, typically, lack of sufficient details needed to reproduce the reported individual results make it difficult to compare systems. This, in turn, hinders the progress of the field. A periodical challenge in facial expression recognition would allow such a comparison on a level playing field. It would provide an insight on how far the field has come and would allow researchers to identify new goals, challenges, and targets. This paper presents a meta-analysis of the first such challenge in automatic recognition of facial expressions, held during the IEEE conference on Face and Gesture Recognition 2011. It details the challenge data, evaluation protocol, and the results attained in two subchallenges: AU detection and classification of facial expression imagery in terms of a number of discrete emotion categories. We also summarize the lessons learned and reflect on the future of the field of facial expression recognition in general and on possible future challenges in particular.

  12. A dynamic appearance descriptor approach to facial actions temporal modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel; Martinez, Brais; Pantic, Maja

    2014-02-01

    Both the configuration and the dynamics of facial expressions are crucial for the interpretation of human facial behavior. Yet to date, the vast majority of reported efforts in the field either do not take the dynamics of facial expressions into account, or focus only on prototypic facial expressions of six basic emotions. Facial dynamics can be explicitly analyzed by detecting the constituent temporal segments in Facial Action Coding System (FACS) Action Units (AUs)-onset, apex, and offset. In this paper, we present a novel approach to explicit analysis of temporal dynamics of facial actions using the dynamic appearance descriptor Local Phase Quantization from Three Orthogonal Planes (LPQ-TOP). Temporal segments are detected by combining a discriminative classifier for detecting the temporal segments on a frame-by-frame basis with Markov Models that enforce temporal consistency over the whole episode. The system is evaluated in detail over the MMI facial expression database, the UNBC-McMaster pain database, the SAL database, the GEMEP-FERA dataset in database-dependent experiments, in cross-database experiments using the Cohn-Kanade, and the SEMAINE databases. The comparison with other state-of-the-art methods shows that the proposed LPQ-TOP method outperforms the other approaches for the problem of AU temporal segment detection, and that overall AU activation detection benefits from dynamic appearance information.

  13. Facial Nerve Paralysis seen in Pseudomonas sepsis with ecthyma gangrenosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Ozdemir

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Ecthyma gangrenosum is a skin lesion which is created by pseudomonas auriginosa. Peripheral facial paralysis and mastoiditis as a rare complication of otitis media induced by pseudomonas auriginosa.In this study, 4 months child who has ecthyma gangrenosum and facial nerve paralysis was reported. [Cukurova Med J 2013; 38(1.000: 126-130

  14. Spectrum of facial paralysis in chronic suppurative otitis media

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shyam S Kumar

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Surgical management of facial paralysis associated with Chronic suppurative otitis media (CSOM may vary depending on the duration and extent of paralysis and also the pathology affecting the nerve. Four illustrative cases are described. The literature is reviewed with regard to the management of the facial nerve in different situations.

  15. Evaluation and management of the patient with postoperative facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadlock, Tessa

    2012-05-01

    Postoperative facial paralysis comprises a spectrum of injuries ranging from mild, temporary weakness to severe, permanent paralysis, affecting as little as one muscle group to as much as the full hemiface. Herein is presented an introductory review of iatrogenic facial paralysis, from initial evaluation and decision making to the full range of conservative and operative management.

  16. Psychometric Testing of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, Shirley C.; Blum, Cynthia Ann; Parcells, Dax Andrew

    2010-01-01

    School nurses may be the first health professionals to assess the onset of facial paralysis/muscle weakness in school-age children. The purpose of this study was to test the psychometric properties of the Gordon Facial Muscle Weakness Assessment Tool (GFMWT) developed by Gordon. Data were collected in two phases. In Phase 1, 4 content experts…

  17. Regression-based Multi-View Facial Expression Recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rudovic, Ognjen; Patras, Ioannis; Pantic, Maja

    2010-01-01

    We present a regression-based scheme for multi-view facial expression recognition based on 2-D geometric features. We address the problem by mapping facial points (e.g. mouth corners) from non-frontal to frontal view where further recognition of the expressions can be performed using a state-of-the-

  18. Development of Emotional Facial Recognition in Late Childhood and Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Laura A.; De Bellis, Michael D.; Graham, Reiko; Labar, Kevin S.

    2007-01-01

    The ability to interpret emotions in facial expressions is crucial for social functioning across the lifespan. Facial expression recognition develops rapidly during infancy and improves with age during the preschool years. However, the developmental trajectory from late childhood to adulthood is less clear. We tested older children, adolescents…

  19. Facial action detection using block-based pyramid appearance descriptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Bihan; Valstar, Michel F.; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    Facial expression is one of the most important non-verbal behavioural cues in social signals. Constructing an effective face representation from images is an essential step for successful facial behaviour analysis. Most existing face descriptors operate on the same scale, and do not leverage coarse

  20. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    OpenAIRE

    Wataru eSato; Yasutaka eKubota; Motomi eToichi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fea...

  1. Communal and agentic behaviour in response to facial emotion expressions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    aan het Rot, Marije; Hogenelst, Koen; Gesing, Christina M

    2014-01-01

    Facial emotions are important for human communication. Unfortunately, traditional facial emotion recognition tasks do not inform about how respondents might behave towards others expressing certain emotions. Approach-avoidance tasks do measure behaviour, but only on one dimension. In this study 81 p

  2. Ethical aspects of facial recognition systems in public places.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brey, Philip

    2004-01-01

    This essay examines ethical aspects of the use of facial recognition technology for surveillance purposes in public and semipublic areas, focusing particularly on the balance between security and privacy and civil liberties. As a case study, the FaceIt facial recognition engine of Identix Corporatio

  3. Dynamic Facial Expression Recognition With Atlas Construction and Sparse Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Yimo; Zhao, Guoying; Pietikainen, Matti

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, a new dynamic facial expression recognition method is proposed. Dynamic facial expression recognition is formulated as a longitudinal groupwise registration problem. The main contributions of this method lie in the following aspects: 1) subject-specific facial feature movements of different expressions are described by a diffeomorphic growth model; 2) salient longitudinal facial expression atlas is built for each expression by a sparse groupwise image registration method, which can describe the overall facial feature changes among the whole population and can suppress the bias due to large intersubject facial variations; and 3) both the image appearance information in spatial domain and topological evolution information in temporal domain are used to guide recognition by a sparse representation method. The proposed framework has been extensively evaluated on five databases for different applications: the extended Cohn-Kanade, MMI, FERA, and AFEW databases for dynamic facial expression recognition, and UNBC-McMaster database for spontaneous pain expression monitoring. This framework is also compared with several state-of-the-art dynamic facial expression recognition methods. The experimental results demonstrate that the recognition rates of the new method are consistently higher than other methods under comparison. PMID:26955032

  4. A hitherto unreported disruption of cervical branches of facial artery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma P

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available According to its course, the branches of the facial artery are arranged under two headings; cervical component (branches in the digastric triangle and facial component (branches on the face.Variations in the branches of the facial component of the facial artery have been frequently studied and reported. However, variations in the cervical component are rare. A hitherto unreported variant of the cervical component of the facial artery was observed in a 55-year-old male cadaver during routine undergraduate dissection. The facial artery was arising from the external carotid artery as a common trunk with the lingual artery in the right carotid triangle and its ascending palatine and tonsillar branches were arising from the external carotid artery. It is important for surgeons and radiologists to be aware of the normal anatomy of the facial artery and the external carotid artery. Herein, we describe the detailed anatomical features of the variant branching pattern of the right facial artery and its clinical implications.

  5. The Facial Expression Coding System (FACES): Development, Validation, and Utility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kring, Ann M.; Sloan, Denise M.

    2007-01-01

    This article presents information on the development and validation of the Facial Expression Coding System (FACES; A. M. Kring & D. Sloan, 1991). Grounded in a dimensional model of emotion, FACES provides information on the valence (positive, negative) of facial expressive behavior. In 5 studies, reliability and validity data from 13 diverse…

  6. Binary pattern analysis for 3D facial action unit detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sandbach, Georgia; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose new binary pattern features for use in the problem of 3D facial action unit (AU) detection. Two representations of 3D facial geometries are employed, the depth map and the Azimuthal Projection Distance Image (APDI). To these the traditional Local Binary Pattern is applied, a

  7. Facial Affect Recognition and Social Anxiety in Preschool Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ale, Chelsea M.; Chorney, Daniel B.; Brice, Chad S.; Morris, Tracy L.

    2010-01-01

    Research relating anxiety and facial affect recognition has focused mostly on school-aged children and adults and has yielded mixed results. The current study sought to demonstrate an association among behavioural inhibition and parent-reported social anxiety, shyness, social withdrawal and facial affect recognition performance in 30 children,…

  8. Robust facial expression recognition algorithm based on local metric learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Jia, Kebin

    2016-01-01

    In facial expression recognition tasks, different facial expressions are often confused with each other. Motivated by the fact that a learned metric can significantly improve the accuracy of classification, a facial expression recognition algorithm based on local metric learning is proposed. First, k-nearest neighbors of the given testing sample are determined from the total training data. Second, chunklets are selected from the k-nearest neighbors. Finally, the optimal transformation matrix is computed by maximizing the total variance between different chunklets and minimizing the total variance of instances in the same chunklet. The proposed algorithm can find the suitable distance metric for every testing sample and improve the performance on facial expression recognition. Furthermore, the proposed algorithm can be used for vector-based and matrix-based facial expression recognition. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed algorithm could achieve higher recognition rates and be more robust than baseline algorithms on the JAFFE, CK, and RaFD databases.

  9. Speech Dialogue with Facial Displays Multimodal Human-Computer Conversation

    CERN Document Server

    Nagao, K; Nagao, Katashi; Takeuchi, Akikazu

    1994-01-01

    Human face-to-face conversation is an ideal model for human-computer dialogue. One of the major features of face-to-face communication is its multiplicity of communication channels that act on multiple modalities. To realize a natural multimodal dialogue, it is necessary to study how humans perceive information and determine the information to which humans are sensitive. A face is an independent communication channel that conveys emotional and conversational signals, encoded as facial expressions. We have developed an experimental system that integrates speech dialogue and facial animation, to investigate the effect of introducing communicative facial expressions as a new modality in human-computer conversation. Our experiments have shown that facial expressions are helpful, especially upon first contact with the system. We have also discovered that featuring facial expressions at an early stage improves subsequent interaction.

  10. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, Wataru; Kubota, Yasutaka; Toichi, Motomi

    2014-01-01

    Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1) and 30 (Experiment 2) ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing. PMID:25250001

  11. Enhanced subliminal emotional responses to dynamic facial expressions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wataru eSato

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Emotional processing without conscious awareness plays an important role in human social interaction. Several behavioral studies reported that subliminal presentation of photographs of emotional facial expressions induces unconscious emotional processing. However, it was difficult to elicit strong and robust effects using this method. We hypothesized that dynamic presentations of facial expressions would enhance subliminal emotional effects and tested this hypothesis with two experiments. Fearful or happy facial expressions were presented dynamically or statically in either the left or the right visual field for 20 (Experiment 1 and 30 (Experiment 2 ms. Nonsense target ideographs were then presented, and participants reported their preference for them. The results consistently showed that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induced more evident emotional biases toward subsequent targets than did static ones. These results indicate that dynamic presentations of emotional facial expressions induce more evident unconscious emotional processing.

  12. [Treatment of facial nerve paralysis using static suspension methods].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovanović, M; Roncević, R; Colić, M; Stojicić, M; Rasulić, L

    2003-01-01

    After the injury of facial nerve, facial muscles are subjected to complex series of biochemical and histological changes, which lead to muscular atrophy if reinnervation is not restored. Facial palsy is very difficult to manage completely. Regardless this fact, the plan of correction has to be directed towards the following: restoration of normal function, normal facial appearance at rest, symmetry in voluntary movements as well as symmetry in involuntary and emotional movements. Static suspension methods were used in our study. All patients had unilateral complete facial nerve palsy but one female patient who experienced the palsy of frontal branch of n.facialis. This method was successfully used to lift the eyebrow, the lid and to improve lagophthalmus on the paralytic side, then the angle and paralytic part of the lip, to reinforce buccal wall of oral cavity as well as to reconstruct new nasolabial fold. The results were satisfactory and permanent. PMID:14619718

  13. The intrinsic vasculature of the cat facial nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balkany, T

    1986-01-01

    Treatment of facial nerve disorders is based in part on assumptions regarding the intrinsic blood supply of the nerve. This study was designed to comprehensively delineate the intrinsic facial nerve microcirculation and its relation to the extrinsic circulation in an animal model. Twenty-eight cat facial nerves were removed intact from brain stem to stylomastoid foramen following intravital fixation. Specimens were studied by gross dissection, silicone injection and tissue clearing, complete vessel counts on serial cross sections of individual nerves, and scanning electron microscopy or transmission electron microscopy. The labyrinthine segment of the cat facial nerve contains strikingly fewer intrinsic blood vessels than the mastoid and tympanic segments. The geniculate ganglion, however, has a distinct, rich vascular plexus. The ultrastructure of the intrinsic facial nerve vessels is similar to other small vessels of the body with tight junctions of the endothelium and overlapping spiral smooth muscle fibers of arterioles, as well as surrounding pericytes. PMID:3510355

  14. Mirroring Facial Expressions and Emotions in Dyadic Conversations. In

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Navarretta, Costanza

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents an investigation of mirroring facial expressions and the emotions which they convey in dyadic naturally occurring first encounters. Mirroring facial expressions are a common phenomenon in face-to-face interactions, and they are due to the mirror neuron system which has been...... found in both animals and humans. Researchers have proposed that the mirror neuron system is an important component behind many cognitive processes such as action learning and understanding the emotions of others. Preceding studies of the first encounters have shown that overlapping speech...... and overlapping facial expressions are very frequent. In this study, we want to determine whether the overlapping facial expressions are mirrored or are otherwise correlated in the encounters, and to what extent mirroring facial expressions convey the same emotion. The results of our study show that the majority...

  15. Facial hyperhidrosis: best practice recommendations and special considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glaser, Dee Anna; Hebert, Adelaide A; Pariser, David M; Solish, Nowell

    2007-05-01

    Facial hyperhidrosis (HH) is more difficult to diagnose than other forms of focal HH because many secondary causes must be considered. Pharmacologic treatment with botulinum toxin type A (BTX-A) would be appropriate for patients with severe facial HH that limits their lifestyle (eg, blurred vision from sweating, distressed with their appearance). The main concern with administering BTX-A for facial HH is aesthetics, such as facial asymmetry or brow ptosis. This article describes best practice techniques for BTX-A (Botox) in patients with facial HH, including suggested dilution and syringe selection, injection technique, dose and injection grid, and anesthesia recommendations. Special considerations and navigating the insurance reimbursement process also are discussed. PMID:17596098

  16. A systematic comprehensive approach to management of irreversible facial paralysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Raymond S; Gausas, Roberta E

    2003-02-01

    Irreversible facial palsy (IFP) presents a multitude of problems arising from a paretic periorbital and facial complex, the solutions to which cross the spectrum of multiple specialties. The process of facial rehabilitation can be simplified by subdividing the face into functional units. These units consist of the brow complex, the periorbital complex, the midface complex, and the lower face/oral complex. Although all of these units are interrelated and influence each other, careful study of the deformity and symptoms of each unit yields a coherent approach and customized surgical plan. The following provides a complete evaluation method for the surgeon to review and customize an approach to the individual patient's needs and desires. Facial rehabilitation must be tailored to each individual, addressing both functional as well as aesthetic concerns for each facial unit.

  17. Facial nerve image enhancement from CBCT using supervised learning technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ping Lu; Barazzetti, Livia; Chandran, Vimal; Gavaghan, Kate; Weber, Stefan; Gerber, Nicolas; Reyes, Mauricio

    2015-08-01

    Facial nerve segmentation plays an important role in surgical planning of cochlear implantation. Clinically available CBCT images are used for surgical planning. However, its relatively low resolution renders the identification of the facial nerve difficult. In this work, we present a supervised learning approach to enhance facial nerve image information from CBCT. A supervised learning approach based on multi-output random forest was employed to learn the mapping between CBCT and micro-CT images. Evaluation was performed qualitatively and quantitatively by using the predicted image as input for a previously published dedicated facial nerve segmentation, and cochlear implantation surgical planning software, OtoPlan. Results show the potential of the proposed approach to improve facial nerve image quality as imaged by CBCT and to leverage its segmentation using OtoPlan. PMID:26736914

  18. MET and AKT genetic influence on facial emotion perception.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-Teng Lin

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Facial emotion perception is a major social skill, but its molecular signal pathway remains unclear. The MET/AKT cascade affects neurodevelopment in general populations and face recognition in patients with autism. This study explores the possible role of MET/AKT cascade in facial emotion perception. METHODS: One hundred and eighty two unrelated healthy volunteers (82 men and 100 women were recruited. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP of MET (rs2237717, rs41735, rs42336, and rs1858830 and AKT rs1130233 were genotyped and tested for their effects on facial emotion perception. Facial emotion perception was assessed by the face task of Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test (MSCEIT. Thorough neurocognitive functions were also assessed. RESULTS: Regarding MET rs2237717, individuals with the CT genotype performed better in facial emotion perception than those with TT (p = 0.016 by ANOVA, 0.018 by general linear regression model [GLM] to control for age, gender, and education duration, and showed no difference with those with CC. Carriers with the most common MET CGA haplotype (frequency = 50.5% performed better than non-carriers of CGA in facial emotion perception (p = 0.018, df = 1, F = 5.69, p = 0.009 by GLM. In MET rs2237717/AKT rs1130233 interaction, the C carrier/G carrier group showed better facial emotion perception than those with the TT/AA genotype (p = 0.035 by ANOVA, 0.015 by GLM, even when neurocognitive functions were controlled (p = 0.046 by GLM. CONCLUSIONS: To our knowledge, this is the first study to suggest that genetic factors can affect performance of facial emotion perception. The findings indicate that MET variances and MET/AKT interaction may affect facial emotion perception, implicating that the MET/AKT cascade plays a significant role in facial emotion perception. Further replication studies are needed.

  19. Facial expression recognition in crested macaques (Macaca nigra).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micheletta, Jérôme; Whitehouse, Jamie; Parr, Lisa A; Waller, Bridget M

    2015-07-01

    Facial expressions are a main communication channel used by many different species of primate. Despite this, we know relatively little about how primates discriminate between different facial expressions, and most of what we do know comes from a restricted number of well-studied species. In this study, three crested macaques (Macaca nigra) took part in matching-to-sample tasks where they had to discriminate different facial expressions. In a first experiment, the macaques had to match a photograph of a facial expression to another exemplar of the same expression produced by a different individual, against examples of one of three other types of expressions and neutral faces. In a second experiment, they had to match a dynamic video recording of a facial expression to a still photograph of another exemplar of the same facial expression produced by another individual, also against one of four other expressions. The macaques performed above chance in both tasks, identifying expressions as belonging to the same category regardless of individual identity. Using matrix correlations and multidimensional scaling, we analysed the pattern of errors to see whether overall similarity between facial expressions and/or specific morphological features caused the macaques to confuse facial expressions. Overall similarity, measured with the macaque facial action coding system (maqFACS), did not correlate with performances. Instead, functional similarities between facial expressions could be responsible for the observed pattern of error. These results expand previous findings to a novel primate species and highlight the potential of using video stimuli to investigate the perception and categorisation of visual signals in primates. PMID:25821924

  20. Facial mimicry and the mirror neuron system:Simultaneous acquisition of facial electromyography and functional magnetic resonance imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja U Likowski

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Numerous studies have shown that humans automatically react with congruent facial reactions, i.e. facial mimicry, when seeing a vis-á-vis’ facial expressions. The current experiment is the first investigating the neuronal structures responsible for differences in the occurrence of such facial mimicry reactions by simultaneously measuring BOLD and facial EMG in an MRI scanner. Therefore, 20 female students viewed emotional facial expressions (happy, sad, and angry of male and female avatar characters. During Differentiation presentation, the BOLD signal as well as M. zygomaticus major and M. corrugator supercilii activity were recorded simultaneously. Results show prototypical patterns of facial mimicry after correction for MR-related artifacts: enhanced M. zygomaticus major activity in response to happy and enhanced M. corrugator supercilii activity in response to sad and angry expressions. Regression analyses show that these congruent facial reactions correlate significantly with activations in the IFG, SMA and cerebellum. Stronger zygomaticus reactions to happy faces were further associated to increased activities in the caudate, MTG and PCC. Corrugator reactions to angry expressions were further correlated with the hippocampus, insula and STS. Results are discussed in relation to core and extended models of the mirror neuron system.

  1. [FTIR spectroscopic studies of facial prosthetic adhesives].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Biao; Yang, Qing-fang; Liang, Jian-feng; Zhao, Yi-min

    2008-10-01

    According to the composition of the traditional facial prosthetic adhesives, most of adhesives can be classified into two categories: acrylic polymer-based adhesive and silicone-based adhesive. In previous studies, measurements of various mechanical bond strengths were carried out, whereas the functional groups of the adhesives were evaluated seldom during the adhesion. In the present study the analysis of two facial prosthetic adhesives (Epithane and Secure Adhesive) was carried out by using infrared spectroscopy. Two adhesives in the form of fluid or semisolid were submitted to FTIR spectroscopy, respectively. The results showed that water and ammonia residue volatilized during the solidification of Epithane, and absorption peak reduction of carbonyl was due to the volatilization of acetate vinyl from Secure Adhesive. Similar silicone functional groups both in the silicone-based adhesive and in silicone elastomer could be the key to higher bond strength between silicone elastomer and skin with silicone-based adhesive. The position, shape of main absorption peaks of three adhesives didn't change, which showing that their main chemicals and basic structures didn't change during solidification. PMID:19123392

  2. Interactive searching of facial image databases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholls, Robert A.; Shepherd, John W.; Shepherd, Jean

    1995-09-01

    A set of psychological facial descriptors has been devised to enable computerized searching of criminal photograph albums. The descriptors have been used to encode image databased of up to twelve thousand images. Using a system called FACES, the databases are searched by translating a witness' verbal description into corresponding facial descriptors. Trials of FACES have shown that this coding scheme is more productive and efficient than searching traditional photograph albums. An alternative method of searching the encoded database using a genetic algorithm is currenly being tested. The genetic search method does not require the witness to verbalize a description of the target but merely to indicate a degree of similarity between the target and a limited selection of images from the database. The major drawback of FACES is that is requires a manual encoding of images. Research is being undertaken to automate the process, however, it will require an algorithm which can predict human descriptive values. Alternatives to human derived coding schemes exist using statistical classifications of images. Since databases encoded using statistical classifiers do not have an obvious direct mapping to human derived descriptors, a search method which does not require the entry of human descriptors is required. A genetic search algorithm is being tested for such a purpose.

  3. Secondary surgery in paediatric facial paralysis reanimation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terzis, Julia K; Olivares, Fatima S

    2010-11-01

    Ninety-two children, the entire series of paediatric facial reanimation by a single surgeon over thirty years, are presented. The objective is to analyse the incidence and value of secondary revisions for functional and aesthetic refinements following the two main stages of reanimation. The reconstructive strategy varied according to the denervation time, the aetiology, and whether the paralysis was uni- or bilateral, complete or partial. Irrespective of these variables, 89% of the patients required secondary surgery. Post-operative videos were available in seventy-two cases. Four independent observers graded patients' videos using a scale from poor to excellent. The effect of diverse secondary procedures was measured computing a mean-percent-gain score. Statistical differences between treatment groups means were tested by the t-test and one-way ANOVA. Two-thirds of the corrective and ancillary techniques utilized granted significantly higher mean-scores post-secondary surgery. A comparison of pre- and post-operative data found valuable improvements in all three facial zones after secondary surgery. In conclusion, inherent to dynamic procedures is the need for secondary revisions. Secondary surgery builds in the potential of reanimation surgery, effectively augmenting functional faculties and aesthesis.

  4. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Alexandra [IPOFG, Department of Radiology, Lisbon (Portugal)

    2005-03-01

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  5. Facial emotion recognition in remitted depressed women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biyik, Utku; Keskin, Duygu; Oguz, Kaya; Akdeniz, Fisun; Gonul, Ali Saffet

    2015-10-01

    Although major depressive disorder (MDD) is primarily characterized by mood symptoms, depressed patients have impairments in facial emotion recognition in many of the basic emotions (anger, fear, happiness, surprise, disgust and sadness). On the other hand, the data in remitted MDD (rMDD) patients is inconsistent and it is not clear that if those impairments persist in remission. To extend the current findings, we applied facial emotion recognition test to a group of remitted depressed women and compared to those of controls. Analyses of variance results showed a significant emotion and group interaction, and in the post hoc analyses, rMDD patients had higher accuracy rate for recognition of sadness compared to those of controls. There were no differences in the reaction time among the patients and controls across the all the basic emotions. The higher recognition rates for sad faces in rMDD patients might contribute to the impairments in social communication and the prognosis of the disease. PMID:26321673

  6. Asynchronicity of facial blood perfusion in migraine.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Zaproudina

    Full Text Available Asymmetrical changes in blood perfusion and asynchronous blood supply to head tissues likely contribute to migraine pathophysiology. Imaging was widely used in order to understand hemodynamic variations in migraine. However, mapping of blood pulsations in the face of migraineurs has not been performed so far. We used the Blood Pulsation Imaging (BPI technique, which was recently developed in our group, to establish whether 2D-imaging of blood pulsations parameters can reveal new biomarkers of migraine. BPI characteristics were measured in migraineurs during the attack-free interval and compared to healthy subjects with and without a family history of migraine. We found a novel phenomenon of transverse waves of facial blood perfusion in migraineurs in contrast to healthy subjects who showed synchronous blood delivery to both sides of the face. Moreover, the amplitude of blood pulsations was symmetrically distributed over the face of healthy subjects, but asymmetrically in migraineurs and subjects with a family history of migraine. In the migraine patients we found a remarkable correlation between the side of unilateral headache and the direction of the blood perfusion wave. Our data suggest that migraine is associated with lateralization of blood perfusion and asynchronous blood pulsations in the facial area, which could be due to essential dysfunction of the autonomic vascular control in the face. These findings may further enhance our understanding of migraine pathophysiology and suggest new easily available biomarkers of this pathology.

  7. Adults' responsiveness to children's facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aradhye, Chinmay; Vonk, Jennifer; Arida, Danielle

    2015-07-01

    We investigated the effect of young children's (hereafter children's) facial expressions on adult responsiveness. In Study 1, 131 undergraduate students from a midsized university in the midwestern United States rated children's images and videos with smiling, crying, or neutral expressions on cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and participants' experienced distress. Looking times at images and videos along with perception of cuteness, likelihood to adopt, and experienced distress using 10-point Likert scales were measured. Videos of smiling children were rated as cuter and more likely to be adopted and were viewed for longer times compared with videos of crying children, which evoked more distress. In Study 2, we recorded responses from 101 of the same participants in an online survey measuring gender role identity, empathy, and perspective taking. Higher levels of femininity (as measured by Bem's Sex Role Inventory) predicted higher "likely to adopt" ratings for crying images. These findings indicate that adult perception of children and motivation to nurture are affected by both children's facial expressions and adult characteristics and build on existing literature to demonstrate that children may use expressions to manipulate the motivations of even non-kin adults to direct attention toward and perhaps nurture young children. PMID:25838165

  8. Facial Expression Recognition in Nonvisual Imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olague, Gustavo; Hammoud, Riad; Trujillo, Leonardo; Hernández, Benjamín; Romero, Eva

    This chapter presents two novel approaches that allow computer vision applications to perform human facial expression recognition (FER). From a prob lem standpoint, we focus on FER beyond the human visual spectrum, in long-wave infrared imagery, thus allowing us to offer illumination-independent solutions to this important human-computer interaction problem. From a methodological stand point, we introduce two different feature extraction techniques: a principal com ponent analysis-based approach with automatic feature selection and one based on texture information selected by an evolutionary algorithm. In the former, facial fea tures are selected based on interest point clusters, and classification is carried out us ing eigenfeature information; in the latter, an evolutionary-based learning algorithm searches for optimal regions of interest and texture features based on classification accuracy. Both of these approaches use a support vector machine-committee for classification. Results show effective performance for both techniques, from which we can conclude that thermal imagery contains worthwhile information for the FER problem beyond the human visual spectrum.

  9. Facial Firework Injury: A Case Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kashyap Tadisina

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Fireworks are used to celebrate a variety of religious, patriotic, and cultural holidays and events around the world. Fireworks are common in the United States, with the most popular holiday for their use being national Independence Day, also known as July Fourth. The use of fireworks within the context of celebrations and holidays presents the ideal environment for accidents that lead to severe and dangerous injuries. Injuries to the face from explosions present a challenging problem in terms of restoring ideal ocular, oral, and facial function. Despite the well documented prevalence of firework use and injury, there is a relatively large deficit in the literature in terms of firework injury that involves the face. We present a unique case series that includes 4 adult male patients all with severe firework injuries to the face that presented at an urban level 1 trauma center. These four patients had an average age of 26.7 years old and presented within 5 hours of each other starting on July Fourth. Two patients died from their injuries and two patients underwent reconstructive surgical management, one of which had two follow up surgeries. We explore in detail their presentation, management, and subsequent outcomes as an attempt to add to the very limited data in the field of facial firework blast injury. In addition, the coincidence of their presentation within the same 5 hours brings into question the availability of the fireworks involved, and the possibility of similar injuries related to this type of firework in the future.

  10. Computer-aided forensics: facial reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Wesley; Tu, Peter; Kelliher, Timothy; Brown, Rebecca

    2006-01-01

    The 3D reconstruction of facial features from skeletal remains is a key component to the identification of missing persons and victims of violent crime. A comprehensive Computed Tomography (CT) head-scan database is currently being collected which will enable a new approach to forensic facial reconstruction. Using this unique resource, we show how a face space can be tailored to a specific unknown, or questioned skull. A set of database derived estimates of the questioned face is constructed by first computing non-rigid transformations between the known head-scan skulls and the questioned skull followed by application of these transformations to the known head-scan faces. This effectively factors out influences due to skeletal variation. A tailored face space is formed by applying Principal Component Analysis (PCA) to this ensemble of estimates of the questioned face. Thus, the face space is a direct approximation of correlated soft tissue variance indicative of the population. Ours is the first mathematical representation of the face continuum associated with a given skull. Embedded in this space resides the elements needed for recognition.

  11. Trigeminal neuralgia and facial nerve paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The trigeminal nerve is the largest of the cranial nerves. It provides sensory input from the face and motor innervation to the muscles of mastication. The facial nerve is the cranial nerve with the longest extracranial course, and its main functions include motor innervation to the muscles of facial expression, sensory control of lacrimation and salivation, control of the stapedial reflex and to carry taste sensation from the anterior two-thirds of the tongue. In order to be able adequately to image and follow the course of these cranial nerves and their main branches, a detailed knowledge of neuroanatomy is required. As we are dealing with very small anatomic structures, high resolution dedicated imaging studies are required to pick up normal and pathologic nerves. Whereas CT is best suited to demonstrate bony neurovascular foramina and canals, MRI is preferred to directly visualize the nerve. It is also the single technique able to detect pathologic processes afflicting the nerve without causing considerable expansion such as is usually the case in certain inflammatory/infectious conditions, perineural spread of malignancies and in very small intrinsic tumours. Because a long course from the brainstem nuclei to the peripheral branches is seen, it is useful to subdivide the nerve in several segments and then tailor the imaging modality and the imaging study to that specific segment. This is particularly true in cases where topographic diagnosis can be used to locate a lesion in the course of these nerves. (orig.)

  12. Comparison of hemihypoglossal- and accessory-facial neurorrhaphy for treating facial paralysis in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Dezhi; Wan, Hong; Feng, Jie; Wang, Shiwei; Su, Diya; Hao, Shuyu; Schumacher, Michael; Liu, Song

    2014-12-15

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of hypoglossal-facial nerve "side"-to-end (HemiHN-FN) and accessory-facial nerve end-to-end (AN-FN) neurorrhaphy using a predegenerated nerve graft (PNG) for reanimating facial paralysis in a rat FN injury model. A total of 25 rats with complete unilateral facial paralysis resulting from section of the right FN were divided into 5 groups (n=5 each) that were submitted to immediate, delayed (3 months after FN injury) or no (control) FN reconstruction procedures involving HemiHN-FN or AN-FN neurorrhaphy. Approximately 3 months after FN reconstruction, cholera toxin subunit B conjugate Alexa 555 (CTB-Alexa 555) was injected into the ipsilateral whisker pad muscle and CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons were observed in the hypoglossal or accessory nuclei of all the FN reconstruction rats, but none of these neurons were found in the controls. There were numerous myelinated and nonmyelinated axons in both PNG and repaired FN of the FN reconstruction rats. No differences were found for these numbers between the two neurorrhaphy methods for each of the treatment time points, indicating the equal effectiveness of axon regeneration. However, a significantly higher number of CTB-Alexa 555-labeled neurons was observed in the hypoglossal nucleus of the immediate HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats when compared to that in the accessory nucleus of the immediate AN-FN neurorrhaphy-treated rats, consistent with the surface values of the recorded MAPs at the whisker pad muscle while electro-stimulating the FN. These results suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy produces more efficient innervation of the paralyzed facial muscles than AN-FN neurorrhaphy without sacrificing ipsilateral hypoglossal function. Taking into consideration the clinical relevance of these findings for postoperative complications and functional reanimation in relation to the central plasticity, we suggest that HemiHN-FN neurorrhaphy may be the preferable facial

  13. Facial heights: evolutionary relevance of postnatal ontogeny for facial orientation and skull morphology in humans and chimpanzees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastir, Markus; Rosas, Antonio

    2004-11-01

    Facial heights, i.e. the vertical distances between the superior and inferior limits of facial compartments, contribute to the orientation of the viscerocranium in the primate skull. In humans, vertical facial variation is among the main sources of diversity and frequently associated with an integrated suite of other cranio-mandibular traits. Facial heights and kyphosis are also important factors in interspecific variation and models of hominoid evolution. The ontogenetic determination of adult facial orientation and its relation to phylogenetic variation are unclear, but crucial in all previously mentioned respects. We addressed these issues in a sample of 175 humans and chimpanzees with Procrustes based geometric morphometrics, testing hypotheses of interspecific similarity in postnatal ontogenetic trajectories, early versus later ontogenetic facial pattern determination, and a developmental model of morphological integration. We analyzed the contribution of postnatal morphogenesis to adult vertical facial variation by partitioning morphological variation into a portion of pure growth allometry and a non-allometric fraction. A statistically significant difference of growth-allometries revealed that in both species growth established the adult skull proportions by vertical facial expansion, but while in chimpanzees the complete viscerocranium showed reorientation, in humans only the lower face was modified. In both species the results support a hypothesis of early facial pattern determination. A coincident emergence of morphological traits favors a hypothesis of developmental integration of the face, excluding traits of the basi- and neurocranium. Interspecific differences in integration may have implications for evolutionary studies. The present findings indicate that growth establishes the adult skull proportions and integrates principal facial orientation patterns, already there in early postnatal ontogeny. PMID:15530353

  14. Electromyographic Responses to Emotional Facial Expressions in 6-7 Year Olds with Autism Spectrum Disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Deschamps, Peter K H; Coppes, L.; Kenemans, Leon; Schutter, Dennis; Matthys, Walter

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to examine facial mimicry in 6–7 year old children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and to explore whether facial mimicry was related to the severity of impairment in social responsiveness. Facial electromyographic activity in response to angry, fearful, sad and happy facial expr

  15. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF FACIAL PSORIASIS WITH DLQI AND SEVERITY OF PSORIASIS : A STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murugan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Psoriasis is a chronic papulosquamous disorder involving any skin site. Involvement of exposed areas is associated with significant stigma. Facial involvement in psoriasis causes considerable cosmetic imbalance and psychosocial stress to the affected individual. Facial psoriasis has been described as severe psoriasis. KEYWORDS: D IQL facial psoria sis centro facial periorofacial.

  16. Changing facial affect recognition in schizophrenia : Effects of training on brain dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Petia Popova; Popov, Tzvetan G.; Christian Wienbruch; Carolus, Almut M.; Miller, Gregory A.; Rockstroh, Brigitte S

    2014-01-01

    Deficits in social cognition including facial affect recognition and their detrimental effects on functional outcome are well established in schizophrenia. Structured training can have substantial effects on social cognitive measures including facial affect recognition. Elucidating training effects on cortical mechanisms involved in facial affect recognition may identify causes of dysfunctional facial affect recognition in schizophrenia and foster remediation strategies. In the present study,...

  17. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN TYPES OF FACIAL PSORIASIS WITH DLQI AND SEVERITY OF PSORIASIS : A STUDY

    OpenAIRE

    Murugan; Adikrishnan; De Rahul; Trishna Vaishali; Krishnakanth; Sudha; Anandan; Mahalakshmi

    2015-01-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic papulosquamous disorder involving any skin site. Involvement of exposed areas is associated with significant stigma. Facial involvement in psoriasis causes considerable cosmetic imbalance and psychosocial stress to the affected individual. Facial psoriasis has been described as severe psoriasis. KEYWORDS: D IQL facial psoria sis centro facial periorofacial.

  18. Clinic-Radiological Study of facial paralysis. Estudio clinico-radiologico de la paralisis facial

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olier, J.; Bacaicoa, M.C.; Guridi, J.; Gil, J.L.; Elcarte, F.; Delgado, G. (Hospital de Navarra Pamplona (Spain))

    1992-01-01

    We have gathered 159 cases of facial paralysis from recent records in our hospital, including paralyses of central as well as peripheral origin, and presenting as the only symptom or as one of several major symptoms of the discomfort of each patient. Sixty-four percent of them were studied by CT scan and/or MR, confirming the existence of alterations in the pathway of nerve pair VII in 50% of the patients who underwent radiological study. Idiopathic facial paralysis was the most common type (42% of the total); while tumors and post-traumatic findings were the most constant radiological findings. From the analysis of the data, the importance of the clinical criteria for selection of the patients in the study and the protocol for radiological diagnosis employed can be deduced. (author)

  19. Sequential Clustering based Facial Feature Extraction Method for Automatic Creation of Facial Models from Orthogonal Views

    CERN Document Server

    Ghahari, Alireza

    2009-01-01

    Multiview 3D face modeling has attracted increasing attention recently and has become one of the potential avenues in future video systems. We aim to make more reliable and robust automatic feature extraction and natural 3D feature construction from 2D features detected on a pair of frontal and profile view face images. We propose several heuristic algorithms to minimize possible errors introduced by prevalent nonperfect orthogonal condition and noncoherent luminance. In our approach, we first extract the 2D features that are visible to both cameras in both views. Then, we estimate the coordinates of the features in the hidden profile view based on the visible features extracted in the two orthogonal views. Finally, based on the coordinates of the extracted features, we deform a 3D generic model to perform the desired 3D clone modeling. Present study proves the scope of resulted facial models for practical applications like face recognition and facial animation.

  20. Dynamic facial expressions are processed holistically, but not more holistically than static facial expressions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Alanna; Favelle, Simone; Palermo, Romina

    2016-09-01

    There is evidence that facial expressions are perceived holistically and featurally. The composite task is a direct measure of holistic processing (although the absence of a composite effect implies the use of other types of processing). Most composite task studies have used static images, despite the fact that movement is an important aspect of facial expressions and there is some evidence that movement may facilitate recognition. We created static and dynamic composites, in which emotions were reliably identified from each half of the face. The magnitude of the composite effect was similar for static and dynamic expressions identified from the top half (anger, sadness and surprise) but was reduced in dynamic as compared to static expressions identified from the bottom half (fear, disgust and joy). Thus, any advantage in recognising dynamic over static expressions is not likely to stem from enhanced holistic processing, rather motion may emphasise or disambiguate diagnostic featural information. PMID:26208146