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Sample records for face-emotion labeling deficits

  1. Specificity of Facial Expression Labeling Deficits in Childhood Psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guyer, Amanda E.; McClure, Erin B.; Adler, Abby D.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rich, Brendan A.; Kimes, Alane S.; Pine, Daniel S.; Ernst, Monique; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2007-01-01

    Background: We examined whether face-emotion labeling deficits are illness-specific or an epiphenomenon of generalized impairment in pediatric psychiatric disorders involving mood and behavioral dysregulation. Method: Two hundred fifty-two youths (7-18 years old) completed child and adult facial expression recognition subtests from the Diagnostic…

  2. One Size Does Not Fit All: Face Emotion Processing Impairments in Semantic Dementia, Behavioural-Variant Frontotemporal Dementia and Alzheimer?s Disease Are Mediated by Distinct Cognitive Deficits

    OpenAIRE

    Miller, Laurie A.; Hsieh, Sharpley; Lah, Suncica; Savage, Sharon; Hodges, John R.; Piguet, Olivier

    2011-01-01

    Patients with frontotemporal dementia (both behavioural variant [bvFTD] and semantic dementia [SD]) as well as those with Alzheimer's disease (AD) show deficits on tests of face emotion processing, yet the mechanisms underlying these deficits have rarely been explored. We compared groups of patients with bvFTD (n = 17), SD (n = 12) or AD (n = 20) to an age- and education-matched group of healthy control subjects (n = 36) on three face emotion processing tasks (Ekman 60, Emotion Matching and E...

  3. Association of Irritability and Anxiety With the Neural Mechanisms of Implicit Face Emotion Processing in Youths With Psychopathology.

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    Stoddard, Joel; Tseng, Wan-Ling; Kim, Pilyoung; Chen, Gang; Yi, Jennifer; Donahue, Laura; Brotman, Melissa A; Towbin, Kenneth E; Pine, Daniel S; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2017-01-01

    Psychiatric comorbidity complicates clinical care and confounds efforts to elucidate the pathophysiology of commonly occurring symptoms in youths. To our knowledge, few studies have simultaneously assessed the effect of 2 continuously distributed traits on brain-behavior relationships in children with psychopathology. To determine shared and unique effects of 2 major dimensions of child psychopathology, irritability and anxiety, on neural responses to facial emotions during functional magnetic resonance imaging. Cross-sectional functional magnetic resonance imaging study in a large, well-characterized clinical sample at a research clinic at the National Institute of Mental Health. The referred sample included youths ages 8 to 17 years, 93 youths with anxiety, disruptive mood dysregulation, and/or attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders and 22 healthy youths. The child's irritability and anxiety were rated by both parent and child on the Affective Reactivity Index and Screen for Child Anxiety Related Disorders, respectively. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, neural response was measured across the brain during gender labeling of varying intensities of angry, happy, or fearful face emotions. In mixed-effects analyses, the shared and unique effects of irritability and anxiety were tested on amygdala functional connectivity and activation to face emotions. The mean (SD) age of participants was 13.2 (2.6) years; of the 115 included, 64 were male. Irritability and/or anxiety influenced amygdala connectivity to the prefrontal and temporal cortex. Specifically, irritability and anxiety jointly influenced left amygdala to left medial prefrontal cortex connectivity during face emotion viewing (F4,888 = 9.20; P differences in neural response to face emotions in several areas (F2, 888 ≥ 13.45; all P emotion dysregulation when very anxious and irritable youth process threat-related faces. Activation in the ventral visual circuitry suggests a mechanism

  4. Amygdala Hyperactivation During Face Emotion Processing in Unaffected Youth at Risk for Bipolar Disorder

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    Olsavsky, Aviva K.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Rutenberg, Julia G.; Muhrer, Eli J.; Deveney, Christen M.; Fromm, Stephen J.; Towbin, Kenneth; Pine, Daniel S.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Youth at familial risk for bipolar disorder (BD) show deficits in face emotion processing, but the neural correlates of these deficits have not been examined. This preliminary study tests the hypothesis that, relative to healthy comparison (HC) subjects, both BD subjects and youth at risk for BD (i.e., those with a first-degree BD…

  5. Social anhedonia is associated with neural abnormalities during face emotion processing.

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    Germine, Laura T; Garrido, Lucia; Bruce, Lori; Hooker, Christine

    2011-10-01

    Human beings are social organisms with an intrinsic desire to seek and participate in social interactions. Social anhedonia is a personality trait characterized by a reduced desire for social affiliation and reduced pleasure derived from interpersonal interactions. Abnormally high levels of social anhedonia prospectively predict the development of schizophrenia and contribute to poorer outcomes for schizophrenia patients. Despite the strong association between social anhedonia and schizophrenia, the neural mechanisms that underlie individual differences in social anhedonia have not been studied and are thus poorly understood. Deficits in face emotion recognition are related to poorer social outcomes in schizophrenia, and it has been suggested that face emotion recognition deficits may be a behavioral marker for schizophrenia liability. In the current study, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to see whether there are differences in the brain networks underlying basic face emotion processing in a community sample of individuals low vs. high in social anhedonia. We isolated the neural mechanisms related to face emotion processing by comparing face emotion discrimination with four other baseline conditions (identity discrimination of emotional faces, identity discrimination of neutral faces, object discrimination, and pattern discrimination). Results showed a group (high/low social anhedonia) × condition (emotion discrimination/control condition) interaction in the anterior portion of the rostral medial prefrontal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, and left somatosensory cortex. As predicted, high (relative to low) social anhedonia participants showed less neural activity in face emotion processing regions during emotion discrimination as compared to each control condition. The findings suggest that social anhedonia is associated with abnormalities in networks responsible for basic processes associated with social cognition, and provide a

  6. State-dependent alteration in face emotion recognition in depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Ian M; Shippen, Clare; Juhasz, Gabriella; Chase, Diana; Thomas, Emma; Downey, Darragh; Toth, Zoltan G; Lloyd-Williams, Kathryn; Elliott, Rebecca; Deakin, J F William

    2011-04-01

    Negative biases in emotional processing are well recognised in people who are currently depressed but are less well described in those with a history of depression, where such biases may contribute to vulnerability to relapse. To compare accuracy, discrimination and bias in face emotion recognition in those with current and remitted depression. The sample comprised a control group (n = 101), a currently depressed group (n = 30) and a remitted depression group (n = 99). Participants provided valid data after receiving a computerised face emotion recognition task following standardised assessment of diagnosis and mood symptoms. In the control group women were more accurate in recognising emotions than men owing to greater discrimination. Among participants with depression, those in remission correctly identified more emotions than controls owing to increased response bias, whereas those currently depressed recognised fewer emotions owing to decreased discrimination. These effects were most marked for anger, fear and sadness but there was no significant emotion × group interaction, and a similar pattern tended to be seen for happiness although not for surprise or disgust. These differences were confined to participants who were antidepressant-free, with those taking antidepressants having similar results to the control group. Abnormalities in face emotion recognition differ between people with current depression and those in remission. Reduced discrimination in depressed participants may reflect withdrawal from the emotions of others, whereas the increased bias in those with a history of depression could contribute to vulnerability to relapse. The normal face emotion recognition seen in those taking medication may relate to the known effects of antidepressants on emotional processing and could contribute to their ability to protect against depressive relapse.

  7. Deficits in Degraded Facial Affect Labeling in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder.

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    van Dijke, Annemiek; van 't Wout, Mascha; Ford, Julian D; Aleman, André

    2016-01-01

    Although deficits in facial affect processing have been reported in schizophrenia as well as in borderline personality disorder (BPD), these disorders have not yet been directly compared on facial affect labeling. Using degraded stimuli portraying neutral, angry, fearful and angry facial expressions, we hypothesized more errors in labeling negative facial expressions in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Patients with BPD were expected to have difficulty in labeling neutral expressions and to display a bias towards a negative attribution when wrongly labeling neutral faces. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 57) and patients with BPD (N = 30) were compared to patients with somatoform disorder (SoD, a psychiatric control group; N = 25) and healthy control participants (N = 41) on facial affect labeling accuracy and type of misattributions. Patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in labeling angry and fearful expressions compared to the healthy control group and patients with BPD showed deficits in labeling neutral expressions compared to the healthy control group. Schizophrenia and BPD patients did not differ significantly from each other when labeling any of the facial expressions. Compared to SoD patients, schizophrenia patients showed deficits on fearful expressions, but BPD did not significantly differ from SoD patients on any of the facial expressions. With respect to the type of misattributions, BPD patients mistook neutral expressions more often for fearful expressions compared to schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and less often for happy compared to schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that although schizophrenia and BPD patients demonstrate different as well as similar facial affect labeling deficits, BPD may be associated with a tendency to detect negative affect in neutral expressions.

  8. Deficits in Degraded Facial Affect Labeling in Schizophrenia and Borderline Personality Disorder.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annemiek van Dijke

    Full Text Available Although deficits in facial affect processing have been reported in schizophrenia as well as in borderline personality disorder (BPD, these disorders have not yet been directly compared on facial affect labeling. Using degraded stimuli portraying neutral, angry, fearful and angry facial expressions, we hypothesized more errors in labeling negative facial expressions in patients with schizophrenia compared to healthy controls. Patients with BPD were expected to have difficulty in labeling neutral expressions and to display a bias towards a negative attribution when wrongly labeling neutral faces. Patients with schizophrenia (N = 57 and patients with BPD (N = 30 were compared to patients with somatoform disorder (SoD, a psychiatric control group; N = 25 and healthy control participants (N = 41 on facial affect labeling accuracy and type of misattributions. Patients with schizophrenia showed deficits in labeling angry and fearful expressions compared to the healthy control group and patients with BPD showed deficits in labeling neutral expressions compared to the healthy control group. Schizophrenia and BPD patients did not differ significantly from each other when labeling any of the facial expressions. Compared to SoD patients, schizophrenia patients showed deficits on fearful expressions, but BPD did not significantly differ from SoD patients on any of the facial expressions. With respect to the type of misattributions, BPD patients mistook neutral expressions more often for fearful expressions compared to schizophrenia patients and healthy controls, and less often for happy compared to schizophrenia patients. These findings suggest that although schizophrenia and BPD patients demonstrate different as well as similar facial affect labeling deficits, BPD may be associated with a tendency to detect negative affect in neutral expressions.

  9. When does subliminal affective image priming influence the ability of schizophrenic patients to perceive face emotions?

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    Vaina, Lucia Maria; Rana, Kunjan D; Cotos, Ionela; Li-Yang, Chen; Huang, Melissa A; Podea, Delia

    2014-12-24

    Deficits in face emotion perception are among the most pervasive aspects of schizophrenia impairments which strongly affects interpersonal communication and social skills. Schizophrenic patients (PSZ) and healthy control subjects (HCS) performed 2 psychophysical tasks. One, the SAFFIMAP test, was designed to determine the impact of subliminally presented affective or neutral images on the accuracy of face-expression (angry or neutral) perception. In the second test, FEP, subjects saw pictures of face-expression and were asked to rate them as angry, happy, or neutral. The following clinical scales were used to determine the acute symptoms in PSZ: Positive and Negative Syndrome (PANSS), Young Mania Rating (YMRS), Hamilton Depression (HAM-D), and Hamilton Anxiety (HAM-A). On the SAFFIMAP test, different from the HCS group, the PSZ group tended to categorize the neutral expression of test faces as angry and their response to the test-face expression was not influenced by the affective content of the primes. In PSZ, the PANSS-positive score was significantly correlated with correct perception of angry faces for aggressive or pleasant primes. YMRS scores were strongly correlated with PSZ's tendency to recognize angry face expressions when the prime was a pleasant or a neutral image. The HAM-D score was positively correlated with categorizing the test-faces as neutral, regardless of the affective content of the prime or of the test-face expression (angry or neutral). Despite its exploratory nature, this study provides the first evidence that conscious perception and categorization of facial emotions (neutral or angry) in PSZ is directly affected by their positive or negative symptoms of the disease as defined by their individual scores on the clinical diagnostic scales.

  10. Six week open-label reboxetine treatment in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

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    Arabgol F

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD is a common psychiatric disorder among children and adolescents. This disorder causes difficulties in academic, behavioral, emotional, social and family performance. Stimulants show robust efficacy and a good safety profile in children with this disorder, but a significant percent of ADHD children do not respond adequately or cannot tolerate the associated adverse effects with stimulants. Such difficulties highlight the need for alternative safe and effective medications in the treatment of this disorder. This open-label study assessed the effectiveness of reboxetine, a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, in children and adolescents with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD."nMethods: Fifteen child and adolescent outpatients, aged 7 to 16 (Mean± SD=9.72±2.71 years, diagnosed with ADHD were enrolled in a six open-label study with reboxetine 4-6 mg/d. The principal measure of the outcome was the teacher and parent Attention Deficit Hyperactive Disorder Rating Scale (ADHD Rating Scale. Patients were assessed by a child psychiatrist at baseline, 2, 4 and 6 weeks of the medication started. Side effects questionnaire was used to detect side effects of reboxetine. Repeated measures Analysis of variance (ANOVA was done for comparison of Teacher and Parent ADHD Rating Scale scores during the intervention."nResults: Twelve of 15 (80% participants completed the treatment protocol. A significant decrease in ADHD symptoms on teacher (p=0.04 and parent (p=0.003 ADHD rating scale was noted. Adverse effects were mild to moderate in severity. The most common adverse effects were drowsiness/sedation and appetite decrease."nConclusion: The results of the current study suggest the effectiveness of reboxetine in the treatment of ADHD in children and adolescents. Double-blind, placebo-controlled studies and larger sample size with long duration of intervention are indicated to rigorously

  11. Perfusion deficits detected by arterial spin-labeling in patients with TIA with negative diffusion and vascular imaging.

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    Qiao, X J; Salamon, N; Wang, D J J; He, R; Linetsky, M; Ellingson, B M; Pope, W B

    2013-01-01

    A substantial portion of clinically diagnosed TIA cases is imaging-negative. The purpose of the current study is to determine if arterial spin-labeling is helpful in detecting perfusion abnormalities in patients presenting clinically with TIA. Pseudocontinuous arterial spin-labeling with 3D background-suppressed gradient and spin-echo was acquired on 49 patients suspected of TIA within 24 hours of symptom onset. All patients were free of stroke history and had no lesion-specific findings on general MR, DWI, and MRA sequences. The calculated arterial spin-labeling CBF maps were scored from 1-3 on the basis of presence and severity of perfusion disturbance by 3 independent observers blinded to patient history. An age-matched cohort of 36 patients diagnosed with no cerebrovascular events was evaluated as a control. Interobserver agreement was assessed by use of the Kendall concordance test. Scoring of perfusion abnormalities on arterial spin-labeling scans of the TIA cohort was highly concordant among the 3 observers (W = 0.812). The sensitivity and specificity of arterial spin-labeling in the diagnosis of perfusion abnormalities in TIA was 55.8% and 90.7%, respectively. In 93.3% (70/75) of the arterial spin-labeling CBF map readings with positive scores (≥2), the brain regions where perfusion abnormalities were identified by 3 observers matched with the neurologic deficits at TIA onset. In this preliminary study, arterial spin-labeling showed promise in the detection of perfusion abnormalities that correlated with clinically diagnosed TIA in patients with otherwise normal neuroimaging results.

  12. Tipepidine in children with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a 4-week, open-label, preliminary study

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    Sasaki T

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tsuyoshi Sasaki,1,2 Kenji Hashimoto,3 Masumi Tachibana,1 Tsutomu Kurata,1 Keiko Okawada,1 Maki Ishikawa,1 Hiroshi Kimura,2 Hideki Komatsu,2 Masatomo Ishikawa,2 Tadashi Hasegawa,2 Akihiro Shiina,1 Tasuku Hashimoto,2 Nobuhisa Kanahara,3 Tetsuya Shiraishi,2 Masaomi Iyo1–31Department of Child Psychiatry, Chiba University Hospital, 2Department of Psychiatry, Chiba University Graduate School of Medicine, 3Division of Clinical Neuroscience, Chiba University Center for Forensic Mental Health, Chiba, JapanBackground: Tipepidine (3-[di-2-thienylmethylene]-1-methylpiperidine has been used solely as a nonnarcotic antitussive in Japan since 1959. The safety of tipepidine in children and adults has already been established. It is reported that tipepidine inhibits G-protein-coupled inwardly rectifying potassium (GIRK-channel currents. The inhibition of GIRK channels by tipepidine is expected to modulate the level of monoamines in the brain. We put forward the hypothesis that tipepidine can improve attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD symptoms by modulating monoaminergic neurotransmission through the inhibition of GIRK channels. The purpose of this open-label trial was to confirm whether treatment with tipepidine can improve symptoms in pediatric patients with ADHD.Subjects and methods: This was a 4-week, open-label, proof-of-efficacy pilot study for pediatric subjects with ADHD. Ten pediatric ADHD subjects (70% male; mean age, 9.9 years; combined [inattentive and hyperactive/impulsive] subtype, n=7; inattentive subtype, n=3; hyperimpulsive subtype, n=0 received tipepidine hibenzate taken orally at 30 mg/day for 4 weeks. All subjects were assessed using the ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS, Japanese version, and the Das–Naglieri Cognitive Assessment System (DN-CAS, Japanese version.Results: A comparison of baseline scores and 4-week end-point scores showed that all the ADHD-RS scores (total scores, hyperimpulsive subscores, and inattentive subscores

  13. Facing emotions in narcolepsy with cataplexy: haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation.

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    de Zambotti, Massimiliano; Pizza, Fabio; Covassin, Naima; Vandi, Stefano; Cellini, Nicola; Stegagno, Luciano; Plazzi, Giuseppe

    2014-08-01

    Narcolepsy with cataplexy is a complex sleep disorder that affects the modulation of emotions: cataplexy, the key symptom of narcolepsy, is indeed strongly linked with emotions that usually trigger the episodes. Our study aimed to investigate haemodynamic and behavioural responses during emotional stimulation in narco-cataplexy. Twelve adult drug-naive narcoleptic patients (five males; age: 33.3 ± 9.4 years) and 12 healthy controls (five males; age: 30.9 ± 9.5 years) were exposed to emotional stimuli (pleasant, unpleasant and neutral pictures). Heart rate, arterial blood pressure and mean cerebral blood flow velocity of the middle cerebral arteries were continuously recorded using photoplethysmography and Doppler ultrasound. Ratings of valence and arousal and coping strategies were scored by the Self-Assessment Manikin and by questionnaires, respectively. Narcoleptic patients' haemodynamic responses to pictures overlapped with the data obtained from controls: decrease of heart rate and increase of mean cerebral blood flow velocity regardless of pictures' content, increase of systolic blood pressure during the pleasant condition, and relative reduction of heart rate during pleasant and unpleasant conditions. However, when compared with controls, narcoleptic patients reported lower arousal scores during the pleasant and neutral stimulation, and lower valence scores during the pleasant condition, respectively, and also a lower score at the 'focus on and venting of emotions' dimensions of coping. Our results suggested that adult narcoleptic patients, compared with healthy controls, inhibited their emotion-expressive behaviour to emotional stimulation, and that may be related to the development of adaptive cognitive strategies to face emotions avoiding cataplexy. © 2014 European Sleep Research Society.

  14. Acute pharmacologically induced shifts in serotonin availability abolish emotion-selective responses to negative face emotions in distinct brain networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grady, Cheryl Lynn; Siebner, Hartwig R; Hornboll, Bettina

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological manipulation of serotonin availability can alter the processing of facial expressions of emotion. Using a within-subject design, we measured the effect of serotonin on the brain's response to aversive face emotions with functional MRI while 20 participants judged the gender...... of neutral, fearful and angry faces. In three separate and counterbalanced sessions, participants received citalopram (CIT) to raise serotonin levels, underwent acute tryptophan depletion (ATD) to lower serotonin, or were studied without pharmacological challenge (Control). An analysis designed to identify...

  15. Developmental differences in the neural mechanisms of facial emotion labeling

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    Adleman, Nancy E.; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H.; Hsu, Derek; Reynolds, Richard C.; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S.; Brotman, Melissa A.; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk for the onset of psychological disorders associated with deficits in face emotion labeling. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine age-related differences in brain activation while adolescents and adults labeled the emotion on fearful, happy and angry faces of varying intensities [0% (i.e. neutral), 50%, 75%, 100%]. Adolescents and adults did not differ on accuracy to label emotions. In the superior temporal sulcus, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus, adults show an inverted-U-shaped response to increasing intensities of fearful faces and a U-shaped response to increasing intensities of happy faces, whereas adolescents show the opposite patterns. In addition, adults, but not adolescents, show greater inferior occipital gyrus activation to negative (angry, fearful) vs positive (happy) emotions. In sum, when subjects classify subtly varying facial emotions, developmental differences manifest in several ‘ventral stream’ brain regions. Charting the typical developmental course of the brain mechanisms of socioemotional processes, such as facial emotion labeling, is an important focus for developmental psychopathology research. PMID:26245836

  16. Developmental differences in the neural mechanisms of facial emotion labeling.

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    Wiggins, Jillian Lee; Adleman, Nancy E; Kim, Pilyoung; Oakes, Allison H; Hsu, Derek; Reynolds, Richard C; Chen, Gang; Pine, Daniel S; Brotman, Melissa A; Leibenluft, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk for the onset of psychological disorders associated with deficits in face emotion labeling. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine age-related differences in brain activation while adolescents and adults labeled the emotion on fearful, happy and angry faces of varying intensities [0% (i.e. neutral), 50%, 75%, 100%]. Adolescents and adults did not differ on accuracy to label emotions. In the superior temporal sulcus, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus, adults show an inverted-U-shaped response to increasing intensities of fearful faces and a U-shaped response to increasing intensities of happy faces, whereas adolescents show the opposite patterns. In addition, adults, but not adolescents, show greater inferior occipital gyrus activation to negative (angry, fearful) vs positive (happy) emotions. In sum, when subjects classify subtly varying facial emotions, developmental differences manifest in several 'ventral stream' brain regions. Charting the typical developmental course of the brain mechanisms of socioemotional processes, such as facial emotion labeling, is an important focus for developmental psychopathology research. Published by Oxford University Press 2015. This work is written by US Government employees and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Face Emotion Processing in Depressed Children and Adolescents with and without Comorbid Conduct Disorder

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    Schepman, Karen; Taylor, Eric; Collishaw, Stephan; Fombonne, Eric

    2012-01-01

    Studies of adults with depression point to characteristic neurocognitive deficits, including differences in processing facial expressions. Few studies have examined face processing in juvenile depression, or taken account of other comorbid disorders. Three groups were compared: depressed children and adolescents with conduct disorder (n = 23),…

  18. An Open-Label, Randomized Trial of Methylphenidate and Atomoxetine Treatment in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder.

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    Shang, Chi-Yung; Pan, Yi-Lei; Lin, Hsiang-Yuan; Huang, Lin-Wan; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2015-09-01

    The efficacy of both methylphenidate and atomoxetine has been established in placebo-controlled trials. The present study aimed to directly compare the efficacy of methylphenidate and atomoxetine in improving symptoms among children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The study sample included 160 drug-naïve children and adolescents 7-16 years of age, with DSM-IV-defined ADHD, randomly assigned to osmotic-release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-methylphenidate) (n=80) and atomoxetine (n=80) in a 24 week, open-label, head-to-head clinical trial. The primary efficacy measure was the score of the ADHD Rating Scale-IV Parents Version: Investigator Administered and Scored (ADHD-RS-IV). The secondary efficacy measures included the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S) and Chinese Swanson, Nolan, and Pelham IV scale (SNAP-IV), based on the ratings of investigators, parents, teachers, and subjects. At week 24, mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Inattention scores were 13.58 points (Cohen's d, -3.08) for OROS-methylphenidate and 12.65 points (Cohen's d, -3.05) for atomoxetine; and mean changes in ADHD-RS-IV Hyperactivity-Impulsivity scores were 10.16 points (Cohen's d, -1.75) for OROS-methylphenidate and 10.68 points (Cohen's d, -1.87) for atomoxetine. In terms of parent-, teacher-, and self-ratings on behavioral symptoms, both of the two treatment groups significantly decreased on the SNAP-IV scores at the end-point, with effect sizes ranging from 0.9 to 0.96 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.61 to 0.8 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for OROS-methylphenidate; and from 0.51 to 0.88 on the Inattention subscale and from 0.29 to 0.57 on the Hyperactivity/Impulsivity subscale for atomoxetine. No statistically significant differences between treatment groups were observed on the outcome measures. Vomiting, somnolence, and dizziness were reported more often for atomoxetine than for OROS-methylphenidate, whereas insomnia was reported

  19. Different underlying mechanisms for face emotion and gender processing during feature-selective attention: Evidence from event-related potential studies.

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    Wang, Hailing; Ip, Chengteng; Fu, Shimin; Sun, Pei

    2017-05-01

    Face recognition theories suggest that our brains process invariant (e.g., gender) and changeable (e.g., emotion) facial dimensions separately. To investigate whether these two dimensions are processed in different time courses, we analyzed the selection negativity (SN, an event-related potential component reflecting attentional modulation) elicited by face gender and emotion during a feature selective attention task. Participants were instructed to attend to a combination of face emotion and gender attributes in Experiment 1 (bi-dimensional task) and to either face emotion or gender in Experiment 2 (uni-dimensional task). The results revealed that face emotion did not elicit a substantial SN, whereas face gender consistently generated a substantial SN in both experiments. These results suggest that face gender is more sensitive to feature-selective attention and that face emotion is encoded relatively automatically on SN, implying the existence of different underlying processing mechanisms for invariant and changeable facial dimensions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Steroids facing emotions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Putman, P.L.J.

    2006-01-01

    The studies reported in this thesis have been performed to gain a better understanding about motivational mediators of selective attention and memory for emotionally relevant stimuli, and about the roles that some steroid hormones play in regulation of human motivation and emotion. The stimuli used

  1. An open-label, dose-titration tolerability study of atomoxetine hydrochloride in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Takahashi, Michihiro; Takita, Yasushi; Goto, Taro; Ichikawa, Hironobu; Saito, Kazuhiko; Matsumoto, Hideo; Tanaka, Yasuo

    2011-02-01

    The main purpose of this first atomoxetine study in Japanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) was to investigate the tolerability of an 8-week treatment regimen. This was an open-label, dose escalation study conducted in 45 Japanese patients aged at least 18 years with DSM-IV-defined ADHD. Patients received atomoxetine orally for 8 weeks. Atomoxetine administration was started at 40 mg/day (7 days), and subsequently increased to a maximum dose of 120 mg/day. Tolerability was assessed by discontinuation rate due to adverse events. Adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs and electrocardiograms were collected. In addition, ADHD symptoms were assessed by using the Japanese version of the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) scores. Thirty-nine patients completed the study period. Atomoxetine was well tolerated with a 6.7% (3/45) discontinuation rate due to nausea, malaise and anorexia. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea, nasopharyngitis and headache; there were no unexpected safety concerns. No deaths or serious adverse events were reported. Mean CAARS-Inv:SV-J total ADHD symptom scores decreased in a time-dependent manner; the mean change from baseline to endpoint was -15.0 (Patomoxetine was well tolerated in these patients and suggested that atomoxetine at a maximum dose of 120 mg/day would be safe in Japanese ADHD patients. © 2011 The Authors. Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences © 2011 Japanese Society of Psychiatry and Neurology.

  2. Open-label, dose-titration tolerability study of atomoxetine hydrochloride in Korean, Chinese, and Taiwanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

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    Takahashi, Michihiro; Goto, Taro; Takita, Yasushi; Chung, Sang-Keun; Wang, Yufeng; Gau, Susan Shur-Fen

    2014-03-01

    The primary objective of this study was to assess the overall safety and tolerability of atomoxetine in Korean, Chinese, and Taiwanese adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). A total of 44 patients aged ≥18 years who met the Conners' Adult ADHD Diagnostic Interview for DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for ADHD were enrolled from China, Korea, and Taiwan. In this open-label, dose-escalation study, patients received atomoxetine orally once daily over a period of eight weeks, starting at 40 mg/day (one week) up to a maximum dosage of 120 mg/day. Tolerability was evaluated by rate of discontinuation due to adverse events. Safety was assessed by recording all adverse events, laboratory tests, vital signs, and electrocardiograms. ADHD symptoms were evaluated by the Conners' Adult ADHD Rating Scale-Investigator Rated: Screening Version (CAARS-Inv:SV) for efficacy assessment. Thirty-four patients (77.3%) completed the study. Atomoxetine was well tolerated with a discontinuation rate of 2.3% (1/44) due to adverse events. The most commonly reported adverse events were nausea, dizziness, and somnolence. The mean change from baseline to endpoint in CAARS-Inv:SV total ADHD symptom score was -12.5 (P atomoxetine clinical trial in adult patients with ADHD in China, Korea, and Taiwan. Atomoxetine was well tolerated in doses of up to 120 mg/day with no unknown safety concerns. Copyright © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  3. An open-label study to elucidate the effects of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract in the management of symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder in children.

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    Dave, Usha Pinakin; Dingankar, Sunila Rajeev; Saxena, Vinod Swaroop; Joseph, Joshua Allan; Bethapudi, Bharathi; Agarwal, Amit; Kudiganti, Venkateshwarlu

    2014-01-01

    Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a clinically heterogeneous disorder of inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity or difficulty in controlling behavior. Psychostimulant medications remain the mainline treatment for children with ADHD; however, the average response rate to these medications is 70%, and up to 30% of children do not respond to these medications or are unable to tolerate such potential adverse effects as nausea, insomnia, and weight loss. The study investigated the effectiveness of standardized Bacopa monnieri extract (SBME) in ameliorating the severity of the symptoms of ADHD in children. The clinical trial was conducted as an open-label study. The study was conducted at the Center for Research in Mental Retardation (CREMERE) in Mumbai, India, from 2008 to 2010. Thirty-one children were participants in the trial. They were 6-12 y of age, with an age of onset of ADHD before 7 y of age, as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV) criteria for ADHD. The children received SBME at a dose of 225 mg/d for a period of 6 mo. The specific SBME used in the study was BacoMind (M/s Natural Remedies, Bangalore, India). Subsequent to the screening of participants, the research team administered the Parent Rating Scale to assess the ADHD symptom scores at baseline, and the team administered it again at the end of the 6 mo of treatment. SBME significantly reduced the subtests scores of ADHD symptoms, except for social problems. The symptom scores for restlessness were reduced in 93% of children, whereas improvement in self-control was observed in 89% of the children. The attention-deficit symptoms were reduced in 85% of children. Similarly, symptom scores for learning problems, impulsivity, and psychiatric problems were reduced for 78%, 67%, and 52% of children, respectively. It was observed that 74% of the children exhibited up to a 20% reduction, while 26% of children showed between a 21% and a 50% reduction

  4. Open-label administration of lisdexamfetamine dimesylate improves executive function impairments and symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Thomas E; Brams, Matthew; Gao, Joseph; Gasior, Maria; Childress, Ann

    2010-09-01

    Executive function (EF) impairment in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may account for behavioral symptoms such as poor concentration, impaired working memory, problems in shifting among tasks, and prioritizing and planning complex sets of tasks or completing long-term projects at work or school. Poor self-regulation and control of emotional behaviors frequently are seen in patients with ADHD. This study assessed EF behaviors in adults with ADHD at baseline and after 4 weeks of treatment with lisdexamfetamine dimesylate (LDX). Executive function behavior was assessed using the Brown Attention-Deficit Disorder Scale (BADDS) during the 4-week open-label dose-optimization phase prior to a 2-period, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover study of LDX (30-70 mg/day). The ADHD Rating Scale IV (ADHD-RS-IV) with adult prompts assessed ADHD symptoms. Change in EF behavioral symptoms was evaluated based on week 4 BADDS total and cluster scores; analyses of shifts from baseline among subjects with BADDS scores < 50, 50 to 59, 60 to 69, and ≥ 70; and scores less than or greater than baseline 90% confidence range (eg, reliably improved or worsened, respectively). Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were described. At week 4, BADDS total and cluster scores were reduced (ie, improved; all P < 0.0001 vs baseline [n = 127]). The ADHD-RS-IV with adult prompts scores also improved (all P < 0.0001 vs baseline). At week 4, 62.7% of subjects had a BADDS total score of < 50, and 78.9% were reliably improved; 1.4% were reliably worsened. Common TEAEs (≥ 5%) during the dose-optimization phase were decreased appetite (36.6%), dry mouth (30.3%), headache (19.7%), insomnia (18.3%), upper respiratory tract infection (9.9%), irritability (8.5%), nausea (7.7%), anxiety (5.6%), and feeling jittery (5.6%). Clinically optimized doses of LDX (30-70 mg/day) significantly improved EF behaviors in adults with ADHD. Treatment-emergent adverse events with LDX were

  5. Prospective, naturalistic study of open-label OROS methylphenidate treatment in Chinese school-aged children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yi; GONG Mei-en; YIN Qing-yun; MAI Jian-ning; JING Jin; LUO Xiang-yang; MA Hong-wei; LI Hai-bo; XIE Ling; LI Yan; Kuang Gui-fang; WANG Yu-feng; YI Ming-ji; WANG Feng; ZHU Xiao-hua; YAO Yah-bin; QIN Jiong; WANG Li-wen; ZOU Li-ping; JIN Xing-ming; XU Tong; WANG Yi; QI Yuan-li

    2011-01-01

    Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common mental disorders during childhood,characterized by the core symptoms of hyperactivity,impulsivity and inattention and puts great burden on children themselves,their families and the society.Osmotic release oral system methylphenidate (OROS-MPH) is a once-daily controlled-release formulation developed to overcome some of the limitations associated with immediate-release methylphenidate (IR-MPH).It has been marketed in China since 2005 but still lacks data from large-sample clinical trials on efficacy and safety profiles.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness and safety of OROS-MPH in children aged 6 to 16 years with ADHD under naturalistic clinical setting.Methods This 6-week,multi-center,prospective,open-label study enrolled 1447 ADHD children to once-daily OROS-MPH (18 mg,36 mg or 54 mg) treatment.The effectiveness measures were parent-rated Inattention and Overactivity With Aggression (IOWA) Conners I/O and O/D subscales,physician-rated CGI-I and parent-rated global efficacy assessment scale.Blood pressure,pulse rate measurement,adverse events (AEs) and concomitant medications and treatment review were conducted by the investigator and were served as safety measures.Results A total of 1447 children with ADHD (mean age (9.52±2.36) years) were enrolled in this trial.Totally 96.8%children received an OROS-MPH modal dose of 18 mg,3.1% with 36 mg and 0.1% with 54 mg at the endpoint of study.The parent IOWA Conners I/O score at the end of week 2 showed statistically significant (P <0.001) improvement with OROS-MPH (mean:6.95±2.71) versus the score at baseline (10.45±2.72).The change in the parent IOWA Conners O/D subscale,CGI-I and parent-rated global efficacy assessment scale also supported the superior efficacy for OROS-MPH treatment.Fewer than half of 1447 patients (511 (35.3%)) reported AEs,and the majority of the events reported were mild (68.2

  6. Time courses of improvement and symptom remission in children treated with atomoxetine for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: analysis of Canadian open-label studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Turgay Atilla

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The relatively short durations of the initial pivotal randomized placebo-controlled trials involving atomoxetine HCl for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD provided limited insight into the time courses of ADHD core symptom responses to this nonstimulant, selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor. The aim of this analysis was to evaluate time courses of treatment responses or remission, as assessed by attainment of prespecified scores on the ADHD Rating Scale-IV-Parent Version: Investigator Administered and Scored (ADHDRS-IV-PI and the Clinical Global Impressions-ADHD-Severity (CGI-ADHD-S scales, during up to 1 year of atomoxetine treatment in children with ADHD. Methods Using pooled data from three Canadian open-label studies involving 338 children ages 6-11 years with ADHD who were treated with atomoxetine for 3, 6 and 12 months, and survival analysis methods for interval-censored data, we estimated the time to: 1 improvement and robust improvement defined by ≥25% and ≥40% reductions from baseline ADHDRS-IV-PI total scores, respectively; and 2 remission using two definitions: a final score of ADHDRS-IV-PI ≤18 or a final score of CGI-ADHD-S ≤2. Results The median time to improvement was 3.7 weeks (~1 month, but remission of symptoms did not occur until a median of 14.3 weeks (~3.5 months using the most stringent CGI-ADHD-S threshold. Probabilities of robust improvement were 47% at or before 4 weeks of treatment; 76% at 12 weeks; 85% at 26 weeks; and 96% at 52 weeks. Probabilities of remission at these corresponding time points were 30%, 59%, 77%, and 85% (using the ADHDRS-IV scale and 8%, 47%, 67%, and 75% (using the CGI-ADHD-S scale. The change from atomoxetine treatment month 5 to month 12 of -1.01 (1.03 was not statistically significant (p = .33. Conclusions Reductions in core ADHD symptoms during atomoxetine treatment are gradual. Although approximately one-half of study

  7. The influence of combined cognitive plus social-cognitive training on amygdala response during face emotion recognition in schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, Christine I; Bruce, Lori; Fisher, Melissa; Verosky, Sara C; Miyakawa, Asako; D'Esposito, Mark; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2013-08-30

    Both cognitive and social-cognitive deficits impact functional outcome in schizophrenia. Cognitive remediation studies indicate that targeted cognitive and/or social-cognitive training improves behavioral performance on trained skills. However, the neural effects of training in schizophrenia and their relation to behavioral gains are largely unknown. This study tested whether a 50-h intervention which included both cognitive and social-cognitive training would influence neural mechanisms that support social ccognition. Schizophrenia participants completed a computer-based intervention of either auditory-based cognitive training (AT) plus social-cognition training (SCT) (N=11) or non-specific computer games (CG) (N=11). Assessments included a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) task of facial emotion recognition, and behavioral measures of cognition, social cognition, and functional outcome. The fMRI results showed the predicted group-by-time interaction. Results were strongest for emotion recognition of happy, surprise and fear: relative to CG participants, AT+SCT participants showed a neural activity increase in bilateral amygdala, right putamen and right medial prefrontal cortex. Across all participants, pre-to-post intervention neural activity increase in these regions predicted behavioral improvement on an independent emotion perception measure (MSCEIT: Perceiving Emotions). Among AT+SCT participants alone, neural activity increase in right amygdala predicted behavioral improvement in emotion perception. The findings indicate that combined cognition and social-cognition training improves neural systems that support social-cognition skills. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Long-Term Treatment with Atomoxetine for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children and Adolescents with Autism Spectrum Disorder : An Open-Label Extension Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harfterkamp, Myriam; Buitelaar, Jan K.; Minderaa, Ruud B.; van de Loo-Neus, Gigi; van der Gaag, Rutger-Jan; Hoekstra, Pieter J.

    Objective: The efficacy and tolerability of long-term treatment with atomoxetine for symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) has not been established. Methods: In this study, 88 patients 6-17 years of age, with ADHD and ASD, were

  9. Comparison of Pregnancy and Lactation Labeling for Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Drugs Marketed in Australia, the USA, Denmark, and the UK

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Warrer, Pernille; Aagaard, Lise; Hansen, Ebba Holme

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Pregnancy and lactation labeling is presented in the officially recognized product information (PI) accompanying prescription drugs to ensure appropriate prescribing in pregnant and breastfeeding women. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to analyze pregnancy and lactation labeling......: Inter-country discrepancies were identified with respect to both animal and human data sources presented, types of risks listed in association with exposure during pregnancy and lactation, information regarding excretion of the drug in breast milk, and recommendations for use. Consistency was identified...... between PI for drugs marketed in the EU. CONCLUSION: The study suggests that pregnancy and lactation labeling in PI for drugs marketed by the same pharmaceutical companies depend on the country of marketing; this raises concern about the reliability of PI documents as a useful source of information...

  10. Effects of an open-label pilot study with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates on plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hutchins Heather L

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is the most common neurological condition in children. This pilot study evaluated the effects of high-dose eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA supplementation on the isolated plasma phospholipids and behavior in children with ADHD (primarily inattentive subtype and combined subtype. Methods Nine children were initially supplemented with 16.2 g EPA/DHA concentrates per day. The dosage was adjusted dependent on the ratio of arachidonic acid (AA to EPA in the isolated plasma phospholipids at four weeks to reach a level normally found in the Japanese population. Results At the end of the eight-week study, supplementation resulted in significant increases in EPA and DHA, as well as a significant reduction in the AA:EPA ratio (20.78 ± 5.26 to 5.95 ± 7.35, p Conclusion The findings of this small pilot study suggest supplementation with high-dose EPA/DHA concentrates may improve behavior in children with ADHD.

  11. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt P. Schulz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  12. Emotional bias of cognitive control in adults with childhood attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Kurt P; Bédard, Anne-Claude V; Fan, Jin; Clerkin, Suzanne M; Dima, Danai; Newcorn, Jeffrey H; Halperin, Jeffrey M

    2014-01-01

    Affect recognition deficits found in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) across the lifespan may bias the development of cognitive control processes implicated in the pathophysiology of the disorder. This study aimed to determine the mechanism through which facial expressions influence cognitive control in young adults diagnosed with ADHD in childhood. Fourteen probands with childhood ADHD and 14 comparison subjects with no history of ADHD were scanned with functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a face emotion go/no-go task. Event-related analyses contrasted activation and functional connectivity for cognitive control collapsed over face valence and tested for variations in activation for response execution and inhibition as a function of face valence. Probands with childhood ADHD made fewer correct responses and inhibitions overall than comparison subjects, but demonstrated comparable effects of face emotion on response execution and inhibition. The two groups showed similar frontotemporal activation for cognitive control collapsed across face valence, but differed in the functional connectivity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with fewer interactions with the subgenual cingulate cortex, inferior frontal gyrus, and putamen in probands than in comparison subjects. Further, valence-dependent activation for response execution was seen in the amygdala, ventral striatum, subgenual cingulate cortex, and orbitofrontal cortex in comparison subjects but not in probands. The findings point to functional anomalies in limbic networks for both the valence-dependent biasing of cognitive control and the valence-independent cognitive control of face emotion processing in probands with childhood ADHD. This limbic dysfunction could impact cognitive control in emotional contexts and may contribute to the social and emotional problems associated with ADHD.

  13. Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Food Labels KidsHealth / For Teens / Food Labels What's in ... to have at least 95% organic ingredients. Making Food Labels Work for You The first step in ...

  14. Nutrition Labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G

    2013-01-01

    because consumers will avoid products that the label shows to be nutritionally deficient, but also because food producers will try to avoid marketing products that appear, according to the label, as nutritionally problematic, for example, because of a high content of saturated fat or salt. Nutrition......Nutrition labeling refers to the provision of information on a food product’s nutritional content on the package label. It can serve both public health and commercial purposes. From a public health perspective, the aim of nutrition labeling is to provide information that can enable consumers...... to make healthier choices when choosing food products. Nutrition labeling is thus closely linked to the notion of the informed consumer, that chooses products according to their aims, on the basis of the information at their disposal. Because many consumers are assumed to be interested in making healthy...

  15. Private Labels

    OpenAIRE

    Kolmačková, Zuzana

    2013-01-01

    This Bachelor Thesis titled Private labels deals with distribution strategy based on the introduction of private labels especially in retail chains. At the beginning it is focused on the general concept of private label offered by retailers, where is mentioned basic characteristics, history and structuring of distribution brands. Subsequently this thesis informs readers about the introduction of new special distribution brands, which focus primarily on the new consumption habits of customers....

  16. Serotonergic modulation of face-emotion recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.M. Del-Ben

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Facial expressions of basic emotions have been widely used to investigate the neural substrates of emotion processing, but little is known about the exact meaning of subjective changes provoked by perceiving facial expressions. Our assumption was that fearful faces would be related to the processing of potential threats, whereas angry faces would be related to the processing of proximal threats. Experimental studies have suggested that serotonin modulates the brain processes underlying defensive responses to environmental threats, facilitating risk assessment behavior elicited by potential threats and inhibiting fight or flight responses to proximal threats. In order to test these predictions about the relationship between fearful and angry faces and defensive behaviors, we carried out a review of the literature about the effects of pharmacological probes that affect 5-HT-mediated neurotransmission on the perception of emotional faces. The hypothesis that angry faces would be processed as a proximal threat and that, as a consequence, their recognition would be impaired by an increase in 5-HT function was not supported by the results reviewed. In contrast, most of the studies that evaluated the behavioral effects of serotonin challenges showed that increased 5-HT neurotransmission facilitates the recognition of fearful faces, whereas its decrease impairs the same performance. These results agree with the hypothesis that fearful faces are processed as potential threats and that 5-HT enhances this brain processing.

  17. Sustainability Labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dam, van Y.K.

    2017-01-01

    Sustainability labeling originated from a need to protect the identity of alternative systems of food production and to increase market transparency. From the 1980s onwards sustainability labeling has changed into a policy instrument replacing direct government regulation of the food market, and a

  18. Self-esteem in adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during open-label atomoxetine treatment: psychometric evaluation of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and clinical findings

    OpenAIRE

    Dittmann, Ralf W.; Wehmeier, Peter M.; Schacht, Alexander; Lehmann, Martin; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    To report on (1) psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) studied in adolescents with ADHD, (2) correlations of SES with ADHD scale scores, and (3) change in patient-reported self-esteem with atomoxetine treatment. ADHD patients (12?17?years), treated in an open-label study for 24?weeks. Secondary analyses on ADHD symptoms (assessed with ADHD-RS, CGI, GIPD scales) and self-esteem (SES) were performed. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated. A dichotomous stru...

  19. Pesticide Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  20. Labelling patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Strudwick, R.M.

    2016-01-01

    This article looks at how diagnostic radiographers label their patients. An ethnographic study of the workplace culture in one diagnostic imaging department was undertaken using participant observation for four months and semi-structured interviews with ten key informants. One of the key themes; the way in which radiographers label their patients, is explored in this article. It was found from the study that within the department studied the diagnostic radiographers labelled or categorised their patients based on the information that they had. This information is used to form judgements and these judgements were used to assist the radiographers in dealing with the many different people that they encountered in their work. This categorisation and labelling of the patient appears to assist the radiographer in their decision-making processes about the examination to be carried out and the patient they are to image. This is an important aspect of the role of the diagnostic radiographer. - Highlights: • I have studied the culture in one imaging department. • Radiographers label or categorise their patients. • These labels/categories are used to manage the patient. • This is an important aspect of the way in which radiographers work.

  1. Morning and evening behavior in children and adolescents treated with atomoxetine once daily for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD: Findings from two 24-week, open-label studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schacht Alexander

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The impact of once daily atomoxetine treatment on symptoms in children and adolescents with ADHD may vary over the day. In order to capture such variations, two studies were undertaken in children and adolescents with ADHD using two instruments that capture morning and evening behavior and ADHD-related difficulties over the day. This secondary measure analysis builds on two primary analyses that were conducted separately for children and adolescents and also published separately. Methods In two open-label studies, ADHD patients aged 6–17 years (n = 421, received atomoxetine in the morning (target-dose 0.5–1.2 mg/kg/day for up to 24 weeks. Morning and evening behavior was assessed using the investigator-rated Weekly Rating of Evening and Morning Behavior (WREMB-R scale. ADHD-related difficulties at various times of the day (morning, during school, during homework, evening were assessed using the Global Impression of Perceived Difficulties (GIPD scale, rated by patients, parents and physicians. Data from both studies were combined for this secondary measure analysis. Results Both WREMB-R subscores decreased significantly over time, the evening subscore from 13.7 (95% CI 13.2;14.2 at baseline to 8.0 (7.4;8.5 at week 2, the morning subscore from 4.3 (4.0;4.5 to 2.4 (2.2;2.6. Scores then remained stable until week 24. All GIPD items improved correspondingly. At all times of the day, patients rated ADHD-related difficulties as less severe than parents and physicians. Conclusion These findings from two open-label studies suggest that morning and evening behavior and ADHD-related difficulties in the mornings and evenings improve over time with once daily atomoxetine treatment.

  2. Effect of methylphenidate on the quality of life in children with epilepsy and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: and open-label study using an osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Hanik K; Park, Subin; Wang, Hee-Ryung; Lee, Joong Sun; Kim, Kunwoo; Paik, Kyoung-Won; Yum, Mi Sun; Ko, Tae-Sung

    2009-12-01

    This open study explored whether methylphenidate could be tolerated and effective in improving the quality of life (QOL) and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms of children with epilepsy and ADHD. Twenty-five subjects (aged 10.1 +/- 3.0 years) with ADHD and epilepsy were recruited at an outpatient clinic in Seoul, Korea. We used the Quality of Life in Childhood Epilepsy Questionnaire (QOLCE), ADHD rating scale (ARS) and clinical global impression (CGI) in this study. Osmotic-controlled release oral delivery system (OROS) methylphenidate, 1.0 +/- 0.4 mg/kg/day, was administered for 55.2 +/- 7.5 days. The QOL subscales including physical restriction (p = 0.005), self-esteem (p = 0.002), memory (p < 0.001), language (p = 0.005), other cognition (p < 0.001), social interaction (p = 0.002), behaviour (p < 0.001), general health (p = 0.002) and QOL (p < 0.001) were significantly increased and the ARS (p < 0.001) and CGI-Severity of illness scores (p < 0.001) were significantly reduced after medication. Although 60% of subjects had experienced adverse effects, most were tolerable and only two subjects withdrew from the study owing to unbearable adverse effects (anorexia and insomnia). Two subjects had seizure attacks during the study period without having to discontinue the trial drug. Despite limitations related to the small sample size and the open design of the present pilot study, our results suggest that OROS methylphenidate may be well tolerated and effective in reducing ADHD symptoms and improving QOL in this patient population.

  3. Effectiveness of one-year pharmacological treatment of adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD): an open-label prospective study of time in treatment, dose, side-effects and comorbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fredriksen, Mats; Dahl, Alv A; Martinsen, Egil W; Klungsøyr, Ole; Haavik, Jan; Peleikis, Dawn E

    2014-12-01

    How to generalize from randomized placebo controlled trials of ADHD drug treatment in adults to 'real-world' clinical practice is intriguing. This open-labeled prospective observational study examined the effectiveness of long-term stimulant and non-stimulant medication in adult ADHD including dose, side-effects and comorbidity in a clinical setting. A specialized ADHD outpatient clinic gave previously non-medicated adults (n=250) with ADHD methylphenidate as first-line drug according to current guidelines. Patients who were non-tolerant or experiencing low efficacy were switched to amphetamine or atomoxetine. Primary outcomes were changes of ADHD-symptoms evaluated with the Adult ADHD Self-Report Scale (ASRS) and overall severity by the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF). Secondary outcomes were measures of mental distress, and response on the Clinical-Global-Impressions-Improvement Scale. Data at baseline and follow-ups were compared in longitudinal mixed model analyses for time on-medication, dosage, comorbidity, and side-effects. As results, 232 patients (93%) completed examination at the 12 month endpoint, and 163 (70%) remained on medication. Compared with the patients who discontinued medication, those still on medication had greater percentage reduction in ASRS-scores (median 39%, versus 13%, Ptreatment with stimulants or atomoxetine was associated with a clinically significant reduction in ADHD symptoms and mental distress, and improvement of measured function. No serious adverse events were observed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. and ECNP. All rights reserved.

  4. Self-esteem in adolescent patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during open-label atomoxetine treatment: psychometric evaluation of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and clinical findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dittmann, Ralf W; Wehmeier, Peter M; Schacht, Alexander; Lehmann, Martin; Lehmkuhl, Gerd

    2009-12-01

    To report on (1) psychometric properties of the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES) studied in adolescents with ADHD, (2) correlations of SES with ADHD scale scores, and (3) change in patient-reported self-esteem with atomoxetine treatment. ADHD patients (12-17 years), treated in an open-label study for 24 weeks. Secondary analyses on ADHD symptoms (assessed with ADHD-RS, CGI, GIPD scales) and self-esteem (SES) were performed. One hundred and fifty-nine patients were treated. A dichotomous structure of the SES could be confirmed. Reliability and internal consistency were moderate to excellent. Highest coefficients were found for the correlation between SES and GIPD scores. Self-esteem significantly increased over time, accompanied by an improvement of ADHD symptoms and related perceived difficulties. The Rosenberg SES was shown to be internally consistent, reliable, and sensitive to treatment-related changes of self-esteem. According to these findings, self-esteem may be an important individual patient outcome beyond the core symptoms of ADHD. © The Author(s) 2009. This article is published with open access at Springerlink.com

  5. Atomoxetine Open-Label Trial in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Gordon Millichap

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available Atomoxetine (originally named tomoxetine, a new therapy for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD marketed by Eli Lilly, was compared to methylphenidate in a prospective, randomized, open-label study for 10 weeks duration, at the University of Nebraska Medical Center, Massachusetts General Hospital, Mount Sinai Medical Center, Carolinas Medical Center, and Lilly Research Laboratories.

  6. Doctors Diagnose, Teachers Label: The Unexpected in Pre-Service Teachers' Talk about Labelling Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMahon, Samantha Elizabeth

    2012-01-01

    A study in an Australian university investigated 150 pre-service teachers' responses to and participation in discourses of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Interesting data surfaced around the notion of "labelling" children with ADHD. It seemed that the pre-service teachers did not believe "ADHD" to be a label.…

  7. Food labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsøe Sørensen, Henrik; Clement, Jesper; Gabrielsen, Gorm

    2012-01-01

    evidence for dividing consumers into two profiles: one relying on general food knowledge and another using knowledge related to signpost labels. In a combined eyetracking and questionnaire survey we analyse the influence of background knowledge and identify different patterns of visual attention......The food industry develops tasty and healthy food but fails to deliver the message to all consumers. The consumers’ background knowledge is essential for how they find and decode relevant elements in the cocktail of signs which fight for attention on food labels. In this exploratory study, we find...... for the two consumer profiles. This underlines the complexity in choosing and designing the ‘right’ elements for a food package that consumers actually look at and are able to make rational use of. In spite of any regulation of food information provided by authorities, consumers will still be confronted...

  8. Neural basis of emotion recognition deficits in first-episode major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wingen, G. A.; van Eijndhoven, P.; Tendolkar, I.; Buitelaar, J.; Verkes, R. J.; Fernández, G.

    2011-01-01

    Depressed individuals demonstrate a poorer ability to recognize the emotions of others, which could contribute to difficulties in interpersonal behaviour. This emotion recognition deficit appears related to the depressive state and is particularly pronounced when emotions are labelled semantically.

  9. Neural basis of emotion recognition deficits in first-episode major depression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wingen, G.A. van; Eijndhoven, P.F.P. van; Tendolkar, I.; Buitelaar, J.K.; Verkes, R.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Depressed individuals demonstrate a poorer ability to recognize the emotions of others, which could contribute to difficulties in interpersonal behaviour. This emotion recognition deficit appears related to the depressive state and is particularly pronounced when emotions are labelled

  10. Emotion recognition deficits as predictors of transition in individuals at clinical high risk for schizophrenia: a neurodevelopmental perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corcoran, C M; Keilp, J G; Kayser, J; Klim, C; Butler, P D; Bruder, G E; Gur, R C; Javitt, D C

    2015-10-01

    Schizophrenia is characterized by profound and disabling deficits in the ability to recognize emotion in facial expression and tone of voice. Although these deficits are well documented in established schizophrenia using recently validated tasks, their predictive utility in at-risk populations has not been formally evaluated. The Penn Emotion Recognition and Discrimination tasks, and recently developed measures of auditory emotion recognition, were administered to 49 clinical high-risk subjects prospectively followed for 2 years for schizophrenia outcome, and 31 healthy controls, and a developmental cohort of 43 individuals aged 7-26 years. Deficit in emotion recognition in at-risk subjects was compared with deficit in established schizophrenia, and with normal neurocognitive growth curves from childhood to early adulthood. Deficits in emotion recognition significantly distinguished at-risk patients who transitioned to schizophrenia. By contrast, more general neurocognitive measures, such as attention vigilance or processing speed, were non-predictive. The best classification model for schizophrenia onset included both face emotion processing and negative symptoms, with accuracy of 96%, and area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve of 0.99. In a parallel developmental study, emotion recognition abilities were found to reach maturity prior to traditional age of risk for schizophrenia, suggesting they may serve as objective markers of early developmental insult. Profound deficits in emotion recognition exist in at-risk patients prior to schizophrenia onset. They may serve as an index of early developmental insult, and represent an effective target for early identification and remediation. Future studies investigating emotion recognition deficits at both mechanistic and predictive levels are strongly encouraged.

  11. Label triangulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, R.P.

    1983-01-01

    Label Triangulation (LT) with neutrons allows the investigation of the quaternary structure of biological multicomponent complexes under native conditions. Provided that the complex can be fully separated into and reconstituted from its single - protonated and deuterated - components, small angle neutron scattering (SANS) can give selective information on shapes and pair distances of these components. Following basic geometrical rules, the spatial arrangement of the components can be reconstructed from these data. LT has so far been successfully applied to the small and large ribosomal subunits and the transcriptase of E. coli. (author)

  12. Understanding Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Healthy eating for girls Understanding food labels Understanding food labels There is lots of info on food ... need to avoid because of food allergies. Other food label terms top In addition to the Nutrition ...

  13. Effects of a structured 20-session slow-cortical-potential-based neurofeedback program on attentional performance in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: retrospective analysis of an open-label pilot-approach and 6-month follow-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albrecht, Johanna S; Bubenzer-Busch, Sarah; Gallien, Anne; Knospe, Eva Lotte; Gaber, Tilman J; Zepf, Florian D

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this approach was to conduct a structured electroencephalography-based neurofeedback training program for children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) using slow cortical potentials with an intensive first (almost daily sessions) and second phase of training (two sessions per week) and to assess aspects of attentional performance. A total of 24 young patients with ADHD participated in the 20-session training program. During phase I of training (2 weeks, 10 sessions), participants were trained on weekdays. During phase II, neurofeedback training occurred twice per week (5 weeks). The patients' inattention problems were measured at three assessment time points before (pre, T0) and after (post, T1) the training and at a 6-month follow-up (T2); the assessments included neuropsychological tests (Alertness and Divided Attention subtests of the Test for Attentional Performance; Sustained Attention Dots and Shifting Attentional Set subtests of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test) and questionnaire data (inattention subscales of the so-called Fremdbeurteilungsbogen für Hyperkinetische Störungen and Child Behavior Checklist/4-18 [CBCL/4-18]). All data were analyzed retrospectively. The mean auditive reaction time in a Divided Attention task decreased significantly from T0 to T1 (medium effect), which was persistent over time and also found for a T0-T2 comparison (larger effects). In the Sustained Attention Dots task, the mean reaction time was reduced from T0-T1 and T1-T2 (small effects), whereas in the Shifting Attentional Set task, patients were able to increase the number of trials from T1-T2 and significantly diminished the number of errors (T1-T2 & T0-T2, large effects). First positive but very small effects and preliminary results regarding different parameters of attentional performance were detected in young individuals with ADHD. The limitations of the obtained preliminary data are the rather small sample size, the

  14. Cardiovascular considerations of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications: a report of the European Network on Hyperactivity Disorders work group, European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug safety meeting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Robert M; Rosenthal, Eric; Hulpke-Wette, Martin; Graham, John G I; Sergeant, Joseph

    2012-02-01

    Regulatory decisions regarding attention deficit hyperactivity disorder drug licensing and labelling, along with recent statements from professional associations, raise questions of practice regarding the evaluation and treatment of patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. To address these issues for the European community, the European Network for Hyperkinetic Disorders, through its European Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder Guidelines Group, organised a meeting between attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialists, paediatric cardiovascular specialists, and representatives of the major market authorisation holders for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. This manuscript represents their consensus on cardiovascular aspects of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medications. Although sudden death has been identified in multiple young individuals on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder medication causing regulatory concern, when analysed for exposure using currently available data, sudden death does not appear to exceed that of the general population. There is no current evidence to suggest an incremental benefit to electrocardiography assessment of the general attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. Congenital heart disease patients have an increased prevalence of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and can benefit from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder therapies, including medication. The attention deficit hyperactivity disorder specialist is the appropriate individual to evaluate benefit and risk and recommend therapy in all patients, although discussion with a heart specialist is reasonable for congenital heart disease patients. For attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patients with suspected heart disease or risk factor/s for sudden death, assessment by a heart specialist is recommended, as would also be the case for a non-attention deficit hyperactivity disorder patient. The

  15. Issues in Data Labelling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cowie, Roddy; Cox, Cate; Martin, Jeam-Claude; Batliner, Anton; Heylen, Dirk K.J.; Karpouzis, Kostas; Cowie, Roddy; Pelachaud, Catherine; Petta, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    Labelling emotion databases is not a purely technical matter. It is bound up with theoretical issues. Different issues affect labelling of emotional content, labelling of the signs that convey emotion, and labelling of the relevant context. Linked to these are representational issues, involving time

  16. Mixed Map Labeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maarten Löffler

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Point feature map labeling is a geometric visualization problem, in which a set of input points must be labeled with a set of disjoint rectangles (the bounding boxes of the label texts. It is predominantly motivated by label placement in maps but it also has other visualization applications. Typically, labeling models either use internal labels, which must touch their feature point, or external (boundary labels, which are placed outside the input image and which are connected to their feature points by crossing-free leader lines. In this paper we study polynomial-time algorithms for maximizing the number of internal labels in a mixed labeling model that combines internal and external labels. The model requires that all leaders are parallel to a given orientation θ ∈ [0, 2π, the value of which influences the geometric properties and hence the running times of our algorithms.

  17. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001551.htm Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a problem caused by ...

  18. Beyond the knowledge deficit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Janus Staffan; Holm, Lotte; Frewer, Lynn

    2003-01-01

    The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among la...... in institutions and experts. It suggests that an interdisciplinary, contextualised and psychologically sound approach to the study of risk is needed.......The paper reviews psychological and social scientific research on lay attitudes to food risks. Many experts (scientists, food producers and public health advisors) regard public unease about food risks as excessive. This expert-lay discrepancy is often attributed to a 'knowledge deficit' among lay...... people. However, much research in psychology and sociology suggests that lay risk assessments are complex, situationally sensitive expressions of personal value systems. The paper is organised around four themes: risk perception, the communication of risk, lay handling of risk, and public trust...

  19. Succesful labelling schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2001-01-01

    . In the spring of 2001 MAPP carried out an extensive consumer study with special emphasis on the Nordic environmentally friendly label 'the swan'. The purpose was to find out how much consumers actually know and use various labelling schemes. 869 households were contacted and asked to fill in a questionnaire...... it into consideration when I go shopping. The respondent was asked to pick the most suitable answer, which described her use of each label. 29% - also called 'the labelling blind' - responded that they basically only knew the recycling label and the Government controlled organic label 'Ø-mærket'. Another segment of 6...

  20. Synthesizing labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    London, R.E.; Matwiyoff, N.A.; Unkefer, C.J.; Walker, T.E.

    1983-01-01

    A metabolic study is presented of the chemical reactions provided by isotopic labeling and NMR spectroscopy. Synthesis of 13 C-labeled D-glucose, a 6-carbon sugar, involves adding a labeled nitrile group to the 5-carbon sugar D-arabinose by reaction with labeled hydrogen cyanide. The product of this reaction is then reduced and hydrolyzed to a mixture of the labeled sugars. The two sugars are separated by absorption chromotography. The synthesis of 13 C-labeled L-tyrosine, an amino acid, is also presented

  1. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    OpenAIRE

    Jaime O. Oliver

    2017-01-01

    Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is considered as among the most common yet serious brain disorders significant number of children are subjected to; the seriousness of which manifests in the ability of the disorder to continue to show up even after the childhood years, during the period of adolescence as well as adulthood. Considering the findings delivered by Brain Imaging Studies conducted on youth, it is revealed that people suffering from ADHD experiences del...

  2. Attention deficits and divorce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Geneviève; Saint-Aubin, Jean

    2014-09-01

    Building on previous work on the role of attention deficits associated with the regulation of executive control in psychiatric disorders, we examine whether these attention deficits are related to an interpersonal disturbance, the experience of divorce. Attentional capacities of 95 randomly selected couples from the general population were measured with a well-established task, the Attentional Network Task, which assesses the efficiency of 3 attention networks (that is, alerting, orienting, and executive control). Among the 190 participants, 32 had experienced a divorce in the past. ANCOVAs were used to compare divorced people in marital or cohabiting unions with people in first unions in their performance on this purely cognitive task. Our findings indicate that divorced people who are currently living in a cohabiting relationship show significantly lower executive control than other adults living as couples, after controlling for sex, age, income, and education. This subgroup of divorced people not only exhibit greater difficulty in responding to some stimuli while ignoring irrelevant ones but also manifest cognitive deficits in conflict resolution. This study highlights the links between attention and the long-term maintenance of intimate relationships. Our results may have important implications for the identification of people at risk for divorce.

  3. Ballistic deficit correction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchene, G.; Moszynski, M.; Curien, D.

    1991-01-01

    The EUROGAM data-acquisition has to handle a large number of events/s. Typical in-beam experiments using heavy-ion fusion reactions assume the production of about 50 000 compound nuclei per second deexciting via particle and γ-ray emissions. The very powerful γ-ray detection of EUROGAM is expected to produce high-fold event rates as large as 10 4 events/s. Such high count rates introduce, in a common dead time mode, large dead times for the whole system associated with the processing of the pulse, its digitization and its readout (from the preamplifier pulse up to the readout of the information). In order to minimize the dead time the shaping time constant τ, usually about 3 μs for large volume Ge detectors has to be reduced. Smaller shaping times, however, will adversely affect the energy resolution due to ballistic deficit. One possible solution is to operate the linear amplifier, with a somewhat smaller shaping time constant (in the present case we choose τ = 1.5 μs), in combination with a ballistic deficit compensator. The ballistic deficit can be corrected in different ways using a Gated Integrator, a hardware correction or even a software correction. In this paper we present a comparative study of the software and hardware corrections as well as gated integration

  4. Increasing Northern Hemisphere water deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Wolock, David M.

    2015-01-01

    A monthly water-balance model is used with CRUTS3.1 gridded monthly precipitation and potential evapotranspiration (PET) data to examine changes in global water deficit (PET minus actual evapotranspiration) for the Northern Hemisphere (NH) for the years 1905 through 2009. Results show that NH deficit increased dramatically near the year 2000 during both the cool (October through March) and warm (April through September) seasons. The increase in water deficit near 2000 coincides with a substantial increase in NH temperature and PET. The most pronounced increases in deficit occurred for the latitudinal band from 0 to 40°N. These results indicate that global warming has increased the water deficit in the NH and that the increase since 2000 is unprecedented for the 1905 through 2009 period. Additionally, coincident with the increase in deficit near 2000, mean NH runoff also increased due to increases in P. We explain the apparent contradiction of concurrent increases in deficit and increases in runoff.

  5. Effects of Labeling and Teacher Certification Type on Recall and Conflict Resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ayers, Jane M.; Krueger, Lacy E.; Jones, Beth A.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding how labels and prior training affect teachers of students with a disability is a step toward creating effective educational environments. Two goals of the present study were to examine how teacher training (special education vs. general education training) and labeling of students (either as having attention deficit hyperactivity…

  6. Electronic Submission of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide registrants can provide draft and final labels to EPA electronically for our review as part of the pesticide registration process. The electronic submission of labels by registrants is voluntary but strongly encouraged.

  7. Robust Active Label Correction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kremer, Jan; Sha, Fei; Igel, Christian

    2018-01-01

    for the noisy data lead to different active label correction algorithms. If loss functions consider the label noise rates, these rates are estimated during learning, where importance weighting compensates for the sampling bias. We show empirically that viewing the true label as a latent variable and computing......Active label correction addresses the problem of learning from input data for which noisy labels are available (e.g., from imprecise measurements or crowd-sourcing) and each true label can be obtained at a significant cost (e.g., through additional measurements or human experts). To minimize......). To select labels for correction, we adopt the active learning strategy of maximizing the expected model change. We consider the change in regularized empirical risk functionals that use different pointwise loss functions for patterns with noisy and true labels, respectively. Different loss functions...

  8. Pesticide Product Label System

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) provides a collection of pesticide product labels (Adobe PDF format) that have been approved by EPA under Section 3 of the...

  9. Semiotic labelled deductive systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nossum, R.T. [Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine, London (United Kingdom)

    1996-12-31

    We review the class of Semiotic Models put forward by Pospelov, as well as the Labelled Deductive Systems developed by Gabbay, and construct an embedding of Semiotic Models into Labelled Deductive Systems.

  10. Mental Labels and Tattoos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyatt, I. Ralph

    1977-01-01

    Discusses the ease with which mental labels become imprinted in our system, six basic axioms for maintaining negative mental tattoos, and psychological processes for eliminating mental tattoos and labels. (RK)

  11. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dazomet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures. Find information from the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for products such as Basamid G, manufactured by Amvac.

  12. Soil Fumigant Labels - Chloropicrin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company name, and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details on each fumigant. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  13. Affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness for public speaking anxiety.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niles, Andrea N; Craske, Michelle G; Lieberman, Matthew D; Hur, Christopher

    2015-05-01

    Exposure is an effective treatment for anxiety but many patients do not respond fully. Affect labeling (labeling emotional experience) attenuates emotional responding. The current project examined whether affect labeling enhances exposure effectiveness in participants with public speaking anxiety. Participants were randomized to exposure with or without affect labeling. Physiological arousal and self-reported fear were assessed before and after exposure and compared between groups. Consistent with hypotheses, participants assigned to Affect Labeling, especially those who used more labels during exposure, showed greater reduction in physiological activation than Control participants. No effect was found for self-report measures. Also, greater emotion regulation deficits at baseline predicted more benefit in physiological arousal from exposure combined with affect labeling than exposure alone. The current research provides evidence that behavioral strategies that target prefrontal-amygdala circuitry can improve treatment effectiveness for anxiety and these effects are particularly pronounced for patients with the greatest deficits in emotion regulation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of a structured 20-session slow-cortical-potential-based neurofeedback program on attentional performance in children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder: retrospective analysis of an open-label pilot-approach and 6-month follow-up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albrecht JS

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Johanna S Albrecht,1–3 Sarah Bubenzer-Busch,1,2 Anne Gallien,1,4 Eva Lotte Knospe,1,2 Tilman J Gaber,1,2,5 Florian D Zepf1,2,6,7 1Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, RWTH Aachen University, Aachen, 2JARA Translational Brain Medicine, Aachen & Jülich, 3Center for Pediatrics and Adolescent Medicine Elisabeth Hospital Rheydt, Mönchengladbach, 4Clinic for Neurology, Medical Center City Region Aachen, Würselen, 5NeuroCare Group, Munich, Germany; 6Centre and Discipline of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatics and Psychotherapy, School of Paediatrics and Child Health & School of Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences, Faculty of Medicine, Dentistry and Health Sciences, The University of Western Australia, 7Department of Health in Western Australia, Specialised Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services, Perth, WA, Australia Objective: The aim of this approach was to conduct a structured electroencephalography-based neurofeedback training program for children and adolescents with attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD using slow cortical potentials with an intensive first (almost daily sessions and second phase of training (two sessions per week and to assess aspects of attentional performance. Patients and methods: A total of 24 young patients with ADHD participated in the 20-session training program. During phase I of training (2 weeks, 10 sessions, participants were trained on weekdays. During phase II, neurofeedback training occurred twice per week (5 weeks. The patients’ inattention problems were measured at three assessment time points before (pre, T0 and after (post, T1 the training and at a 6-month follow-up (T2; the assessments included neuropsychological tests (Alertness and Divided Attention subtests of the Test for Attentional Performance; Sustained Attention Dots and Shifting Attentional Set subtests of the Amsterdam Neuropsychological Test and questionnaire data

  15. A Label to Regulate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tricoire, Aurélie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Laurent, Brice

    This paper examines the role labelling plays in the government of the contemporary economy.1Drawing on a detailed study of BBC-Effinergy, a French label for sustainable construction, we showhow the adoption and evolution of voluntary labels can be seen as emblematic of a governmentthrough experim...

  16. Labelling subway lines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Garrido, M.A.; Iturriaga, C.; Márquez, A.; Portillo, J.R.; Reyes, P.; Wolff, A.; Eades, P.; Takaoka, T.

    2001-01-01

    Graphical features on map, charts, diagrams and graph drawings usually must be annotated with text labels in order to convey their meaning. In this paper we focus on a problem that arises when labeling schematized maps, e.g. for subway networks. We present algorithms for labeling points on a line

  17. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 15

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the consequences of improper labeling.

  18. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Lists types of labels that do not require review.

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about the importance of labels and the role in enforcement.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about positive effects from proper labeling.

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 21

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about types of labels.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 22

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about what labels require review.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 18

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section discusses the types of labels.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 26

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. Learn about mandatory and advisory label statements.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 24

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is about which labels require review.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 27

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See examples of mandatory and advisory label statements.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 19

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This section covers supplemental distributor labeling.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 17

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. See an overview of the importance of labels.

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matthews, Marguerite; Nigg, Joel T.

    2014-01-01

    Over the last two decades, there have been numerous technical and methodological advances available to clinicians and researchers to better understand attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and its etiology. Despite the growing body of literature investigating the disorder’s pathophysiology, ADHD remains a complex psychiatric disorder to characterize. This chapter will briefly review the literature on ADHD, with a focus on its history, the current genetic insights, neurophysiologic theories, and the use of neuroimaging to further understand the etiology. We address some of the major concerns that remain unclear about ADHD, including subtype instability, heterogeneity, and the underlying neural correlates that define the disorder. We highlight that the field of ADHD is rapidly evolving; the descriptions provided here will hopefully provide a sturdy foundation for which to build and improve our understanding of the disorder. PMID:24214656

  10. Labelling of equipment dispensers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, D C

    1993-01-01

    A new labelling system for use on medical equipment dispensers is tested. This system uses one of the objects stored in each unit of the dispenser as the 'label', by attaching it to the front of the dispenser with tape. The new system was compared to conventional written labelling by timing subjects asked to select items from two dispensers. The new system was 27% quicker than the conventional system. Images Fig. 1 PMID:8110335

  11. Deuterium labeled cannabinoids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driessen, R.A.

    1979-01-01

    Complex reactions involving ring opening, ring closure and rearrangements hamper complete understanding of the fragmentation processes in the mass spectrometric fragmentation patterns of cannabinoids. Specifically labelled compounds are very powerful tools for obtaining more insight into fragmentation mechanisms and ion structures and therefore the synthesis of specifically deuterated cannabinoids was undertaken. For this, it was necessary to investigate the preparation of cannabinoids, appropriately functionalized for specific introduction of deuterium atom labels. The results of mass spectrometry with these labelled cannabinoids are described. (Auth.)

  12. Effective sample labeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rieger, J.T.; Bryce, R.W.

    1990-01-01

    Ground-water samples collected for hazardous-waste and radiological monitoring have come under strict regulatory and quality assurance requirements as a result of laws such as the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act. To comply with these laws, the labeling system used to identify environmental samples had to be upgraded to ensure proper handling and to protect collection personnel from exposure to sample contaminants and sample preservatives. The sample label now used as the Pacific Northwest Laboratory is a complete sample document. In the event other paperwork on a labeled sample were lost, the necessary information could be found on the label

  13. Dynamic map labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Been, Ken; Daiches, Eli; Yap, Chee

    2006-01-01

    We address the problem of filtering, selecting and placing labels on a dynamic map, which is characterized by continuous zooming and panning capabilities. This consists of two interrelated issues. The first is to avoid label popping and other artifacts that cause confusion and interrupt navigation, and the second is to label at interactive speed. In most formulations the static map labeling problem is NP-hard, and a fast approximation might have O(nlogn) complexity. Even this is too slow during interaction, when the number of labels shown can be several orders of magnitude less than the number in the map. In this paper we introduce a set of desiderata for "consistent" dynamic map labeling, which has qualities desirable for navigation. We develop a new framework for dynamic labeling that achieves the desiderata and allows for fast interactive display by moving all of the selection and placement decisions into the preprocessing phase. This framework is general enough to accommodate a variety of selection and placement algorithms. It does not appear possible to achieve our desiderata using previous frameworks. Prior to this paper, there were no formal models of dynamic maps or of dynamic labels; our paper introduces both. We formulate a general optimization problem for dynamic map labeling and give a solution to a simple version of the problem. The simple version is based on label priorities and a versatile and intuitive class of dynamic label placements we call "invariant point placements". Despite these restrictions, our approach gives a useful and practical solution. Our implementation is incorporated into the G-Vis system which is a full-detail dynamic map of the continental USA. This demo is available through any browser.

  14. Pragmatic communication deficits in children with epilepsy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are

  15. Stable isotopes labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1982-09-01

    The catalogue on stable isotopes labelled compounds offers deuterium, nitrogen-15, and multiply labelled compounds. It includes: (1) conditions of sale and delivery, (2) the application of stable isotopes, (3) technical information, (4) product specifications, and (5) the complete delivery programme

  16. Edge colouring by total labellings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Stephan; Rautenbach, D.; Stiebitz, M.

    2010-01-01

    We introduce the concept of an edge-colouring total k-labelling. This is a labelling of the vertices and the edges of a graph G with labels 1, 2, ..., k such that the weights of the edges define a proper edge colouring of G. Here the weight of an edge is the sum of its label and the labels of its...

  17. Radioiodine and its labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, Ana Maria

    1994-01-01

    Chemical characteristics and their nuclear characteristics, types of labelled molecules,labelling procedures, direct labelling with various oxidizing agents, indirect labelling with various conjugates attached to protein molecules, purification and quality control. Iodination damage.Safe handling of labelling procedures with iodine radioisotopes.Bibliography

  18. 'Naturemade' -- a new label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Niederhaeusern, A.

    2001-01-01

    This short article discusses the introduction of the 'Naturemade' two-level labelling scheme in the Swiss electricity market, which is to help provide transparency in the market for green power and promote the building of facilities for its production. In the form of an interview with the CEO of Swissolar and the president of Greenpeace Switzerland, the pros and contras of these labels are discussed. In particular, the interview partners' opinions on the possible misuse of the less stringent label and the influence of the labels on the construction of new installations for the generation of electricity from renewable sources are presented. The basic principles of the promotional model behind the labels are listed

  19. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 25

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review: clarity, accuracy, consistency with EPA policy, and enforceability.

  20. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 29

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the pesticide label review training provides basic information about pesticides, their labeling and regulation, and the core principles of pesticide label review. This page is a quiz on Module 1.

  1. Soil Fumigant Labels - Methyl Bromide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search soil fumigant pesticide labels by EPA registration number, product name, or company, and follow the link to The Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  2. Visual form-processing deficits: a global clinical classification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unzueta-Arce, J; García-García, R; Ladera-Fernández, V; Perea-Bartolomé, M V; Mora-Simón, S; Cacho-Gutiérrez, J

    2014-10-01

    Patients who have difficulties recognising visual form stimuli are usually labelled as having visual agnosia. However, recent studies let us identify different clinical manifestations corresponding to discrete diagnostic entities which reflect a variety of deficits along the continuum of cortical visual processing. We reviewed different clinical cases published in medical literature as well as proposals for classifying deficits in order to provide a global perspective of the subject. Here, we present the main findings on the neuroanatomical basis of visual form processing and discuss the criteria for evaluating processing which may be abnormal. We also include an inclusive diagram of visual form processing deficits which represents the different clinical cases described in the literature. Lastly, we propose a boosted decision tree to serve as a guide in the process of diagnosing such cases. Although the medical community largely agrees on which cortical areas and neuronal circuits are involved in visual processing, future studies making use of new functional neuroimaging techniques will provide more in-depth information. A well-structured and exhaustive assessment of the different stages of visual processing, designed with a global view of the deficit in mind, will give a better idea of the prognosis and serve as a basis for planning personalised psychostimulation and rehabilitation strategies. Copyright © 2011 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  3. Radioactive labelled orgotein

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    The preparation and use of radioactively labelled orgotein, i.e. water-soluble protein congeners in pure, injectable form, is described. This radiopharmaceutical is useful in scintigraphy, especially for visualization of the kidneys where the orgotein is rapidly concentrated. Details of the processes for labelling bovine orgotein with sup(99m)Tc, 60 Co, 125 I or 131 I are specified. The pharmaceutical preparation of the labelled orgotein for intravenous and parenteral administration is also described. Examples using either sup(99m)TC or 125 I-orgotein in scintiscanning dogs' kidneys are given. (UK)

  4. Visual search deficits in amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsirlin, Inna; Colpa, Linda; Goltz, Herbert C; Wong, Agnes M F

    2018-04-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder defined as a reduction in visual acuity that cannot be corrected by optical means. It has been associated with low-level deficits. However, research has demonstrated a link between amblyopia and visual attention deficits in counting, tracking, and identifying objects. Visual search is a useful tool for assessing visual attention but has not been well studied in amblyopia. Here, we assessed the extent of visual search deficits in amblyopia using feature and conjunction search tasks. We compared the performance of participants with amblyopia (n = 10) to those of controls (n = 12) on both feature and conjunction search tasks using Gabor patch stimuli, varying spatial bandwidth and orientation. To account for the low-level deficits inherent in amblyopia, we measured individual contrast and crowding thresholds and monitored eye movements. The display elements were then presented at suprathreshold levels to ensure that visibility was equalized across groups. There was no performance difference between groups on feature search, indicating that our experimental design controlled successfully for low-level amblyopia deficits. In contrast, during conjunction search, median reaction times and reaction time slopes were significantly larger in participants with amblyopia compared with controls. Amblyopia differentially affects performance on conjunction visual search, a more difficult task that requires feature binding and possibly the involvement of higher-level attention processes. Deficits in visual search may affect day-to-day functioning in people with amblyopia.

  5. On Online Labeling with Polynomially Many Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Babka, Martin; Bulánek, Jan; Cunat, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    be necessary to change the labels of some items; such changes may be done at any time at unit cost for each change. The goal is to minimize the total cost. An alternative formulation of this problem is the file maintenance problem, in which the items, instead of being labeled, are maintained in sorted order...... in an array of length m, and we pay unit cost for moving an item. For the case m = cn for constant c > 1, there are known algorithms that use at most O(n log(n)2) relabelings in total [9], and it was shown recently that this is asymptotically optimal [1]. For the case of m = θ(nC) for C > 1, algorithms...

  6. Clinical applications of cells labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gonzalez, B.M.

    1994-01-01

    Blood cells labelled with radionuclides are reviewed and main applications are described. Red blood cell labelling by both random and specific principle. A table with most important clinical uses, 99mTc labelling of RBC are described pre tinning and in vivo reduction of Tc, in vitro labelling and administration of labelled RBC and in vivo modified technique. Labelled leucocytes with several 99mTc-complex radiopharmaceuticals by in vitro technique and specific monoclonal s for white cells(neutrofiles). Labelled platelets for clinical use and research by in vitro technique and in vivo labelling

  7. A Proper Perspective on the Twin Deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-05-01

    deficit twins, the relation between them, and their consanguine parentage. The trade deficit or, to be more accurate, the current account deficit, is...In general, there is a small negative, but statistically significant, relationship between the size of the federal deficit in one year and the

  8. FDA Online Label Repository

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The drug labels and other drug-specific information on this Web site represent the most recent drug listing information companies have submitted to the Food and Drug...

  9. Figuring Out Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... It's also displayed in grocery stores near fresh foods, like fruits, vegetables, and fish. The nutrition facts label includes: a ... found in citrus fruits, other fruits, and some vegetables. Food companies might also list the amounts of other ...

  10. Energy efficiency labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-04-01

    This research assesses the likely effects on UK consumers of the proposed EEC energy-efficiency labeling scheme. Unless (or until) an energy-labeling scheme is introduced, it is impossible to do more than postulate its likely effects on consumer behavior. This report shows that there are indeed significant differences in energy consumption between different brands and models of the same appliance of which consumers are unaware. Further, the report suggests that, if a readily intelligible energy-labeling scheme were introduced, it would provide useful information that consumers currently lack; and that, if this information were successfully presented, it would be used and could have substantial effects in reducing domestic fuel consumption. Therefore, it is recommended that an energy labeling scheme be introduced.

  11. Like your labels?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The descriptive “conventions” used on food labels are always evolving. Today, however, the changes are so complicated (partly driven by legislation requiring disclosures about environmental impacts, health issues, and geographical provenance) that these labels more often baffle buyers than enlighten them. In a light-handed manner, the article points to how sometimes reading label language can be like deciphering runes—and how if we are familiar with the technical terms, we can find a literal meaning, but still not see the implications. The article could be ten times longer because food labels vary according to cultures—but all food-exporting cultures now take advantage of our short attention-span when faced with these texts. The question is whether less is more—and if so, in this contest for our attention, what “contestant” is voted off.

  12. Labelling of electricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dettli, R.; Markard, J.

    2001-01-01

    This comprehensive report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents a possible course of action to be taken to provide a means of declaring the sources of electrical power, as is foreseen in the draft of new Swiss electricity market legislation. The report presents the basic ideas behind the idea and defines the terms used such as labelling, certificates and declarations. Also, the legal situation in the European Union and in Switzerland is examined and a quantitative overview of electricity production and consumption is presented. Suggestions for a labelling scheme are made and some of the problems to be expected are looked at. The report also presents a series of examples of labelling schemes already implemented in other countries, such as Austria, Great Britain, Sweden and Germany. Tradable certificates and tracking systems are discussed as are initial quality labels like the Swiss 'Naturemade' label for green power. A concrete recommendation for the declaration and labelling of electricity in Switzerland is presented and various factors to be considered such as import/export, pumped storage, distribution losses, small-scale producers as well as the time-scales for introduction are discussed

  13. 78 FR 66826 - Prior Label Approval System: Generic Label Approval

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-07

    ... raising of animals, such as ``no antibiotics administered'' or ``vegetarian fed''; (4) instructional or... Standards and Labeling Policy Book includes animal production claims; omega fatty acid guidance; allergen... inclusion of Country of Origin Labeling on all labels; the production and sale of labels by USDA; developing...

  14. PRAGMATIC DEFICITS OF ASPERGER SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silmy Arizatul Humaira’

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Human being is social creature who needs other people to interact with. One of the ways to interact with others is communication with language. However, communication could be a complicated problem for those who were born with developmental disorder called Asperger Syndrome (AS. The communication challenge of Asperger’s is the difficulty using language appropriately for social purposes or known as pragmatic deficits. Many excellent books about autism are published whereas knowledge on pragmatic deficits are still very limited. Thus, it is expected to be a beneficial reference to understand the pragmatic deficits and to create strategies for them to communicate effectively. Therefore, this study aimed at exploring the kinds of pragmatic deficits of an individual with AS. The verbal language profiles of autism purposed by MacDonald (2004 is used to analyzed the data in depth. The descriptive qualitative method is applied to develop a comprehensive understanding about the AS case in Temple Grandin movie.The finding shows that all of the five types of communication deficits are appearing and the dominant of which is unresponsive.

  15. European consumers and nutrition labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling of food in Europe is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made for the product. The European Commission is proposing mandatory nutrition labelling, even front of pack labelling with nutrition information. Yet, how widespread is nutrition labelling in the EU...

  16. Genetic algorithms for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, Steven Ferdinand van

    2001-01-01

    Map labeling is the cartographic problem of placing the names of features (for example cities or rivers) on the map. A good labeling has no intersections between labels. Even basic versions of the problem are NP-hard. In addition, realistic map-labeling problems deal with many cartographic

  17. Peeling Back the Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Dana

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the author, who has a child diagnosed with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), shares her concerns about the stereotypes that too often surround the disorder. She suggests that because most biases and stereotypes are born of ignorance and misinformation, it is important that parents and educators do their part to…

  18. Radioactive labelling of peptidic hormones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fromageot, P.; Pradelles, P.; Morgat, J.L.; Levine, H.

    1976-01-01

    The labelling of peptidic hormones requires stability, specificity and sensitivity of the label. Introduction of a radioactive atome is one way to satisfy these criteria. Several processes have been described to prepare radioactive TRF: synthesis of the peptide with labelled aminoacids or introduction of the label into the hormone. In that approach, tritium can be substituted in the imidazole ring, via precursors activating the proper carbon. Monoiodo TRF leads essentially to tritium labelling of the 5 positions whereas monoazo TRF allows the preparation of 3 H TRF labelled in the 2 positions. Di-substituted TRF leads to labelling into the 2 and 5 carbons. Labelled analogs of TRF can be prepared with labelled iodine; further developments of peptide labelling, will be presented. In particular, the homolytic scission of the C-iodine, bond by photochemical activation. The nascent carbon radical can be stabilized by a tritiated scavenger. This approach eliminates the use of heavy metal catalysts

  19. Radiopharmaceutical labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop methods of attaching radionuclides to monoclonal antibodies and antibody fragments for use in tumor imaging and internal radiation therapy. Monoclonal antibodies and their fragments are of interest because they enable the selective targeting of tumors. The labeled antibodies could be employed as carriers to transport radioisotopes to tumors, thus minimizing total-body radiation dose and radiation damage to normal tissue. Because the time required for labeled antibodies to find the tumor antigen and deliver the dose to the tumor is estimated to be about 1-3 days, radionuclides with a l- to 3-day half-life would be optimum for this purpose. Two of the radionuclides produced at LAMPF, 67 Cu and 77 Br, have the suitable half-life and nuclear-decay properties for use in tumor imaging or therapy with radiolabeled antibodies. These radionuclides and the efforts to prepare radiolabeled antibodies with them are described. We have used three different approaches to meet this objective of labeling antibodies: (1) labeling chelating agents with metal radionuclides, then conjugating the labeled chelating agents to antibodies; (2) conjugating activated chelating agents to antibodies, followed by metalation with metal radionuclides; and (3) radiobrominating small molecules that can be conjugated to antibodies

  20. Automatic Deficits can lead to executive deficits in ADHD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriella Martino

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It has been well documented an executive dysfunction in children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD and with Reading Disorder (RD. The purpose of the present study was to test an alternative hypothesis that deficits in executive functioning within ADHD may be partially due to an impairment of the automatic processing. In addition, since the co-occurrence between ADHD and RD, we tested the hypothesis that the automatic processing may be  a possible common cognitive factor between ADHD and RD. We investigated the automatic processing of selective visual attention through two experiments. 12 children with ADHD, 17 with ADHD+RD and 29 typically developing children, matched for age and gender, performed two tasks: Visual Information Processing Task and Clock Test. As expected, ADHD and ADHD+RD groups differed from the control group in controlled process task, suggesting a deficit in executive functioning. All clinical subjects also exhibited a lower performance in automatic processes, compared to control group. The results of this study suggest that executive deficits within ADHD can be partially due to an impairment of automatic processing.

  1. Fluorine-18 labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleijn, J.P. de

    1978-01-01

    The work presented in this thesis deals with the problems involved in the adaption of reactor-produced fluorine-18 to the synthesis of 18 F-labelled organic fluorine compounds. Several 18 F-labelling reagents were prepared and successfully applied. The limitations to the synthetic possibilities of reactor-produced fluoride- 18 become manifest in the last part of the thesis. An application to the synthesis of labelled aliphatic fluoro amino acids has appeared to be unsuccessful as yet, although some other synthetic approaches can be indicated. Seven journal articles (for which see the availability note) are used to compose the four chapters and three appendices. The connecting text gives a survey of known 18 F-compounds and methods for preparing such compounds. (Auth.)

  2. Synthesis of labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Whaley, T.W.

    1977-01-01

    Intermediate compounds labeled with 13 C included methane, sodium cyanide, methanol, ethanol, and acetonitrile. A new method for synthesizing 15 N-labeled 4-ethylsulfonyl-1-naphthalene-sulfonamide was developed. Studies were conducted on pathways to oleic-1- 13 C acid and a second pathway investigated was based on carbonation of 8-heptadecynylmagnesium bromide with CO 2 to prepare sterolic acid. Biosynthetic preparations included glucose- 13 C from starch isolated from tobacco leaves following photosynthetic incubation with 13 CO 2 and galactose- 13 C from galactosylglycerol- 13 C from kelp. Research on growth of organisms emphasized photosynthetic growth of algae in which all cellular carbon is labeled. Preliminary experiments were performed to optimize the growth of Escherichia coli on sodium acetate- 13 C

  3. Environmental Labels and Declarations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendal, Jeppe; Hansen, Lisbeth; Bonou, Alexandra

    2018-01-01

    Based on the terminology and structure developed by the International Organization for Standardization, a description is given on the types of ecolabels that build on life cycle assessments. Focus is on type I labels that point out products and services with an overall environmental preferability...... of labelling, the use of ecolabels in marketing, and the way ecolabels help build a market for “greener products”. Type III labels—or Environmental Product Declarations—are also briefly described with indicative examples from the building sector, a declaration for office furniture, and an introduction is given...... to the European Commission’s programme for product—and organisational environmental footprints ....

  4. Semantic Role Labeling

    CERN Document Server

    Palmer, Martha; Xue, Nianwen

    2011-01-01

    This book is aimed at providing an overview of several aspects of semantic role labeling. Chapter 1 begins with linguistic background on the definition of semantic roles and the controversies surrounding them. Chapter 2 describes how the theories have led to structured lexicons such as FrameNet, VerbNet and the PropBank Frame Files that in turn provide the basis for large scale semantic annotation of corpora. This data has facilitated the development of automatic semantic role labeling systems based on supervised machine learning techniques. Chapter 3 presents the general principles of applyin

  5. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-04-10

    This podcast discusses Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder, or ADHD, the most common behavioral disorder in children. Learn about symptoms, risk factors, and treatment.  Created: 4/10/2014 by National Center on Birth Defects and Developmental Disabilities (NCBDDD).   Date Released: 5/7/2014.

  6. Rhythm Deficits in "Tone Deafness"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foxton, Jessica M.; Nandy, Rachel K.; Griffiths, Timothy D.

    2006-01-01

    It is commonly observed that "tone deaf" individuals are unable to hear the beat of a tune, yet deficits on simple timing tests have not been found. In this study, we investigated rhythm processing in nine individuals with congenital amusia ("tone deafness") and nine controls. Participants were presented with pairs of 5-note sequences, and were…

  7. Competing Environmental Labels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fischer, Carolyn; Lyon, Thomas P.

    2014-01-01

    We study markets in which consumers prefer green products but cannot determine the environmental quality of any given firm's product on their own. A nongovernmental organization (NGO) can establish a voluntary standard and label products that comply with it. Alternatively, industry can create its

  8. The Language of Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markham, Darcy

    2005-01-01

    The author describes how the language of labels and her own cultural biases affect how she approaches teaching her students with disabilities. The author examines how the mythopoetic narratives of our past force us to examine the underlying assumptions of our culture that are expressed within our language and how understanding our own linguistic…

  9. Labeling of Cosmetic Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola Lionetti

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The labeling of cosmetic products provides a set of obligations, as reported in the Regulation 1223/2009, which came into force in Europe in July 2013. The indications reported on the label are intended to enable the clear identification of the functionality and proper use of cosmetics, ensure the protection of the consumer from the commercial aspects and, above all, from the safety point of view. Moreover, it should allow quick tracing of the product details and all info of toxicological relevance. However, the misuse of this tool often leads, on one side, to confusion among cosmetics, pharmaceuticals, medical devices, and biocides. On the other side, it gives rise to fanciful interpretations by a huge number of web users, who pretend to be able to judge the quality of a cosmetic product just by reading the ingredients list. This article points out the concrete purpose of cosmetic labels, in order to shed light on the use of certain categories of ‘controversial’ ingredients and on the real quality concepts of cosmetic products. Indeed, when properly interpreted, cosmetic labels represent a good tool for the professional investigation of adverse reactions to cosmetics.

  10. Neurocognitive impairment in deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bora, E; Binnur Akdede, B; Alptekin, K

    2017-10-01

    Most studies suggested that patients with deficit schizophrenia have more severe impairment compared with patients with non-deficit schizophrenia. However, it is not clear whether deficit and non-deficit schizophrenia are associated with differential neurocognitive profiles. The aim of this meta-analytic review was to compare cognitive performances of deficit and non-deficit patients with each other and with healthy controls. In the current meta-analysis, differences in cognitive abilities between 897 deficit and 1636 non-deficit patients with schizophrenia were examined. Cognitive performances of 899 healthy controls were also compared with 350 patients with deficit and 592 non-deficit schizophrenia. Both deficit (d = 1.04-1.53) and non-deficit (d = 0.68-1.19) schizophrenia were associated with significant deficits in all cognitive domains. Deficit patients underperformed non-deficit patients in all cognitive domains (d = 0.24-0.84) and individual tasks (d = 0.39-0.93). The relationship between deficit syndrome and impairment in olfaction, social cognition, verbal fluency, and speed-based cognitive tasks were relatively stronger. Our findings suggest that there is consistent evidence for a significant relationship between deficit syndrome and more severe cognitive impairment in schizophrenia.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 7, Label Training, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  12. Perception in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fuermaier, Anselm B.M.; Hüpen, Philippa; De Vries, Stefanie M.; Müller, Morgana; Kok, Francien M.; Koerts, Janneke; Heutink, Joost; Tucha, Lara; Gerlach, Manfred; Tucha, Oliver

    A large body of research demonstrated that individuals with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) suffer from various neuropsychological deficits. In contrast, less is known and only divergent evidence exists on perceptual functions of individuals with ADHD. This is problematic as

  13. Focusing on ADHD - Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... September 2014 Print this issue Focusing on ADHD Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder En español Send us your comments ... might be signs of a developmental disorder called attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, or ADHD. ADHD is a common ...

  14. Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Tube DysfunctionStrep ThroatAnemiaHyperthyroidismOpioid AddictionDiabetesCroup Home Diseases and Conditions Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Condition Attention-Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder ( ...

  15. Adult Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) Overview Adult attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a mental health disorder that includes a combination of persistent problems, such as difficulty paying attention, ...

  16. Open-Label Trial of Atomoxetine Hydrochloride in Adults with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mats; Cederlund, Mats; Rastam, Maria; Areskoug, Bjorn; Gillberg, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    Background: While atomoxetine is an established treatment for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children, few studies have examined its efficacy for adults. Methods: Open-label trial of atomoxetine in 20 individuals with ADHD, aged 19-47 years, for 10 weeks, and a total of one year for responders. Results: Ten patients met primary…

  17. Long-Term, Open-Label Safety and Efficacy of Atomoxetine in Adults with ADHD: Final Report of a 4-Year Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adler, Lenard A.; Spencer, Thomas J.; Williams, David W.; Moore, Rodney J.; Michelson, David

    2008-01-01

    Objective: Previously, data from 97 weeks of open-label atomoxetine treatment of adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were reported. This final report of that study presents results from over 4 years of treatment. Method: Results were derived from the study of 384 patients (125 patients remaining in the open-label trial…

  18. Faststats: Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button NCHS Home Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)* Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Data ... attention deficit disorder (ADD)” is used rather than “attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)” in some data sources. More data Tables ...

  19. Pragmatic Communication Deficits in Children with Epilepsy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeders, Mark; Geurts, Hilde; Jennekens-Schinkel, Aag

    2010-01-01

    Background: Various psychiatric and neurological disorders including epilepsy have been associated with language deficits. Pragmatic language deficits, however, have seldom been the focus of earlier studies in children with epilepsy. Moreover, it is unknown whether these pragmatic deficits are related to general intellectual functioning. Both…

  20. Spin labels. Applications in biology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frangopol, T.P.; Frangopol, M.; Ionescu, S.M.; Pop, I.V.; Benga, G.

    1980-11-01

    The main applications of spin labels in the study of biomembranes, enzymes, nucleic acids, in pharmacology, spin immunoassay are reviewed along with the fundamentals of the spin label method. 137 references. (author)

  1. Functional improvement and correlations with symptomatic improvement in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder receiving long-acting methylphenidate.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Casas, M.; Philipsen, A.; Kooij, J.J.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Dejonckheere, J.; Oene, J.C. van; Schauble, B.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Data on the relationship between core symptoms and daily functioning in adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are limited. Daily functioning was assessed as part of an open-label extension, and associations with symptom scores were evaluated. METHOD: After a 5-week

  2. Safety and tolerability of flexible dosages of prolonged-release OROS methylphenidate in adults with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buitelaar, J.K.; Ramos-Quiroga, J.A.; Casas, M.; Kooij, J.J.; Niemela, A.; Konofal, E.; Dejonckheere, J.; Challis, B.H.; Medori, R.

    2009-01-01

    The osmotic release oral system (OROS) methylphenidate formulation is a prolonged-release medication for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children, adolescents, and adults. We conducted a seven-week open-label extension of a double-blind study to assess the safety

  3. Modeling the effects of labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Fjord, Thomas Ahle; Poulsen, Carsten Stig

    A new approach to evaluate the consequences of labeling is presented and applied to test the potential effect of a label on fresh fish. Labeling effects on quality perceptions and overall quality are studied. The empirical study is based on an experimental design and nearly 500 respondents...

  4. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, D C

    1990-09-01

    The attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder is a common chronic disorder of childhood. No precise definition or approach to treatment is universally accepted; however, an extensive literature exists on which to base a rational approach to management. Symptomatic treatment with stimulant medication in selected patients is effective and safe, but not curative. Successful outcome depends on multimodality therapy, involving parents, teachers, and other professionals. Associated conditions, including learning disorders and emotional disturbance, must be identified and dealt with.

  5. Isotopically labelled benzodiazepines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebman, A.A.

    1987-01-01

    This paper reports on the benzodiazepines which are a class of therapeutic agents. Improvements in the analytical methodology in the areas of biochemistry and pharmacology were significant, particularly in the application of chromatographic and spectroscopic techniques. In addition, the discovery and subsequent development of tritium and carbon-14 as an analytical tool in the biological sciences were essentially post-world war II phenomena. Thus, as these new chemical entities were found to be biologically active, they could be prepared in labeled form for metabolic study, biological half-life determination (pharmacokinetics), tissue distribution study, etc. This use of tracer methodology has been liberally applied to the benzodiazepines and also more recently to the study of receptor-ligand interactions, in which tritium, carbon-11 or fluorine-18 isotopes have been used. The history of benzodiazepines as medicinal agents is indeed an interesting one; an integral part of that history is their use in just about every conceivable labeled form

  6. Association between the attention deficits and delinquency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Opora

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available In the society we can find a lot of prejudices concerning AD/HD. The article contains facts and evidence based on research presenting that the delinquency is very often a distant complication of attention deficits but it doesn’t mean that a child with attention deficits has to be delinquent. The article describes the association between the attention deficits and delinquency. There are presented some risk factors coming from the attention deficits and protective factors which let the child follow the social norms. The research was based on 108 delinquent juveniles staying under the probation supervision. The purpose of the research was to evaluate the frequency of the attention deficits among delinquent juveniles staying under supervision. The research findings concern also the association between the attention deficit and external behavioural disorders. In the summary several conditions are described which are important to protect children with attention deficit from delinquency.

  7. Review of nutrition labeling formats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geiger, C J; Wyse, B W; Parent, C R; Hansen, R G

    1991-07-01

    This article examines nutrition labeling history as well as the findings of nine research studies of nutrition labeling formats. Nutrition labeling regulations were announced in 1973 and have been periodically amended since then. In response to requests from consumers and health care professionals for revision of the labeling system, the Food and Drug Administration initiated a three-phase plan for reform of nutrition labeling in 1990. President Bush signed the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act in November 1990. Literature analysis revealed that only nine studies with an experimental design have focused on nutrition labeling since 1971. Four were conducted before 1975, which was the year that nutrition labeling was officially implemented, two were conducted in 1980, and three were conducted after 1986. Only two of the nine studies supported the traditional label format mandated by the Code of Federal Regulations, and one study partially supported it. Four of the nine studies that evaluated graphic presentations of nutrition information found that consumer comprehension of nutrition information was improved with a graphic format for nutrition labeling: three studies supported the use of bar graphs and one study supported the use of a pie chart. Full disclosure (ie, complete nutrient and ingredient labeling) was preferred by consumers in two of the three studies that examined this variable. The third study supported three types of information disclosure dependent upon socioeconomic class. In those studies that tested graphics, a bar graph format was significantly preferred and showed better consumer comprehension than the traditional format.

  8. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-14

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface of the label; another device including an unwinder unit (103) to unwind a roll of printed linerless label; a belt (108); a glue applicator (102) for applying glue to the belt; a nip roller (106) for contacting and applying pressure to the face surface of the linerless label such that the glue on the belt transfers to the back surface of the linerless label; at least one slitting knife 105) positioned downstream the belt and a rewinder unit (104) positioned downstream the slitting knife; and a third device which die cuts and applies the linerless label to an end user object.

  9. Water deficit imposed by deficit irrigation at different plant growth stages of maize

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calvache, M.; Reichardt, C.

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify specific growth stages of maize Crop, at which the plant is less sensitive to water stress so that irrigation can be omitted withhout significant decrease yield. The field experiment was conducted at a University experiment station, Tumbaco, Pichincha, Ecuador, during may - october 1993, on a sandy loam soil ( typic durustoll). Soil moisture was monitored with a neutron probe down to 0.70 m depth, before and 24 h after each irrigation. The actual evapotranspiration of the crop was estimated by the water - balance technique. Field water efficiency and crop water use efficiency were calculated by dividing actual grain yield by irrigation and by ETa, respectively. Nitrogen fertilizer use efficiency was calculated using N - 15 methodology in the 75 kg N/ ha treatment. From the yield data, it can be concluded that treatments which had irrigation deficit had lower yield than those that had suplementary irrigation. The flowering and yield formation stages were the most sensitive to moisture stress. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the grain yield. The crop water use effeciency was the lowest at the flowering and yield formation of the region, the treatments I1 and I7 had the same crop water use efficiency. The results of N - 15 labelled plots ( F1) showed that soil water deficiency significantly affects nitrogen was derived from fertilizer in treatments I3 and I7 and only 11 - 9% in the treatments I2 and I5 respectively. ( Author)

  10. Labelled compounds. (Pt. B)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buncel, E.; Jones, J.R.

    1991-01-01

    Since the end of World War II there has been a tremendous increase in the number of compounds that have been synthesized with radioactive or stable isotopes. They have found application in many diverse fields, so much so, that hardly a single area in pure and applied science has not benefited. Not surprisingly it has been reflected in appearance of related publications. The early proceedings of the Symposia on Advances in Trace Methodology were soon followed by various Euratom sponsored meetings in which methods of preparing and storing labelled compounds featured prominently. In due course a resurgence of interest in stable isotopes, brought about by their greater availability (also lower cost) and partly by development of new techniques such as gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (gc-ms), led to the publication of proceedings of several successful conferences. More recently conferences dealing with the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds have been established on a regular basis. In addition to the proceedings of conferences and journal publications individuals left their mark by producing definitive texts, usually on specific nuclides. Only the classic two volume publication of Murray and Williams (Organic syntheses with isotopes, New York 1985), now over 30 years old and out of print, attempted to do justice to several nuclides. With the large amount of work that has been undertaken since then it seems unlikely that an updated edition could be produced. The alternative strategy was to ask scientists currently active to review specific areas and this is the approach adopted in the present series of monographs. In this way it is intended to cover the broad advances that have been made in the synthesis and applications of isotopes and isotopically labelled compounds in the physical and biomedical sciences. (author). refs.; figs.; tabs

  11. From Label to Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byrkjeflot, Haldor; Strandgaard, Jesper; Svejenova, Silviya

    2013-01-01

    because NNC was conceived as an identity movement, triggered by active involvement of entrepreneurial leaders from the culinary profession, high-profile political supporters, legitimating scientists, disseminating media, and interpreting audiences. It was facilitated by three mechanisms: First, the use......This article examines the process of creation of new Nordic cuisine (NNC) as a culinary innovation, focusing on the main stages, actors, and mechanisms that shaped the new label and its practices and facilitated its diffusion in the region and internationally. Fast-paced diffusion was possible...

  12. Label and Label-Free Detection Techniques for Protein Microarrays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Syahir

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Protein microarray technology has gone through numerous innovative developments in recent decades. In this review, we focus on the development of protein detection methods embedded in the technology. Early microarrays utilized useful chromophores and versatile biochemical techniques dominated by high-throughput illumination. Recently, the realization of label-free techniques has been greatly advanced by the combination of knowledge in material sciences, computational design and nanofabrication. These rapidly advancing techniques aim to provide data without the intervention of label molecules. Here, we present a brief overview of this remarkable innovation from the perspectives of label and label-free techniques in transducing nano‑biological events.

  13. Distance labeling schemes for trees

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alstrup, Stephen; Gørtz, Inge Li; Bistrup Halvorsen, Esben

    2016-01-01

    We consider distance labeling schemes for trees: given a tree with n nodes, label the nodes with binary strings such that, given the labels of any two nodes, one can determine, by looking only at the labels, the distance in the tree between the two nodes. A lower bound by Gavoille et al. [Gavoille...... variants such as, for example, small distances in trees [Alstrup et al., SODA, 2003]. We improve the known upper and lower bounds of exact distance labeling by showing that 1/4 log2(n) bits are needed and that 1/2 log2(n) bits are sufficient. We also give (1 + ε)-stretch labeling schemes using Theta...

  14. Budget Deficits Effects on Economic Growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.C.Risti

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The budget deficit can not be analyzed autarchically, as it affects all the macroeconomic processes and, is itself influenced by all other macroeconomic indicators. Most analyses and studies on public finance and budget balance measure the impact that budgetary deficits accumulation has on economy. Therefore, the present paper aims at following and analyzing the mutual impact between budget deficit and another economic macro indicator, namely the economic growth.

  15. Neurocognitive Deficits in Borderline Personality Disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Marianne Skovgaard; Ruocco, Anthony C; Carcone, Dean

    2017-01-01

    completed a comprehensive battery of neurocognitive tests, a retrospective questionnaire on early life trauma and a dimensional measure of personality psychopathology. Patients with BPD primarily showed deficits in verbal comprehension, sustained visual attention, working memory and processing speed...... suggest that patients with BPD display deficits mainly in higher-order thinking abilities that may be exacerbated by PTSD and substantial early life trauma. Potential relationships between neurocognitive deficits and dimensions of personality psychopathology in BPD need further examination....

  16. Co-Labeling for Multi-View Weakly Labeled Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xinxing; Li, Wen; Xu, Dong; Tsang, Ivor W

    2016-06-01

    It is often expensive and time consuming to collect labeled training samples in many real-world applications. To reduce human effort on annotating training samples, many machine learning techniques (e.g., semi-supervised learning (SSL), multi-instance learning (MIL), etc.) have been studied to exploit weakly labeled training samples. Meanwhile, when the training data is represented with multiple types of features, many multi-view learning methods have shown that classifiers trained on different views can help each other to better utilize the unlabeled training samples for the SSL task. In this paper, we study a new learning problem called multi-view weakly labeled learning, in which we aim to develop a unified approach to learn robust classifiers by effectively utilizing different types of weakly labeled multi-view data from a broad range of tasks including SSL, MIL and relative outlier detection (ROD). We propose an effective approach called co-labeling to solve the multi-view weakly labeled learning problem. Specifically, we model the learning problem on each view as a weakly labeled learning problem, which aims to learn an optimal classifier from a set of pseudo-label vectors generated by using the classifiers trained from other views. Unlike traditional co-training approaches using a single pseudo-label vector for training each classifier, our co-labeling approach explores different strategies to utilize the predictions from different views, biases and iterations for generating the pseudo-label vectors, making our approach more robust for real-world applications. Moreover, to further improve the weakly labeled learning on each view, we also exploit the inherent group structure in the pseudo-label vectors generated from different strategies, which leads to a new multi-layer multiple kernel learning problem. Promising results for text-based image retrieval on the NUS-WIDE dataset as well as news classification and text categorization on several real-world multi

  17. The radioactive labeling of monocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ensing, G.J.

    1985-01-01

    With the aim of studying a possible relationship between circulating monocytes and Sternberg-Reed cells investigations were started on the specific labeling of monocytes. In this thesis the literature on the pertinent data has been reviewed and a series of experiments on the monocyte labeling procedure has been described. The principles of cell labeling with radioactive compounds were discussed. 1. Total separation of the particular cell population to be labeled and subsequent labeling with a non-specific radiopharmaceutical. 2. Specific cell labeling in a mixture of cell types based on a well defined affinity of the cell under study for the radiopharmaceutical used. Next the radionuclides that can be used for cell labeling purposes were discussed with special attention for 111 In and its chelates. The principles of radiodosimetry were also discussed shortly. This section was focussed on the radiation dose the labeled cells receive because of the intracellular localized radioactivity. The radiation burden is high in comparison to amounts of radiation known to affect cell viability. A newly developed method for labeling monocytes specifically by phagocytosis of 111 In-Fe-colloid without apparent loss of cells was described in detail. (Auth.)

  18. Labelled molecules, modern research implements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pichat, L.; Langourieux, Y.

    1974-01-01

    Details of the synthesis of carbon 14- and tritium-labelled molecules are examined. Although the methods used are those of classical organic chemistry the preparation of carbon 14-labelled molecules differs in some respects, most noticeably in the use of 14 CO 2 which requires very special handling techniques. For the tritium labelling of organic molecules the methods are somewhat different, very often involving exchange reactions. The following are described in turn: the so-called Wilzbach exchange method; exchange by catalysis in solution; catalytic hydrogenation with tritium; reductions with borotritides. Some applications of labelled molecules in organic chemistry, biochemistry and pharmacology are listed [fr

  19. The deficit of current account balances and budgetary deficit in countries in transition

    OpenAIRE

    Sandra Krtalic; Ines Kersan

    1998-01-01

    In restructuring process of their own economies, countries in transition deal with many common problems. One of the problems that transition brought to those countries is deficit in current account, as well as budget deficit. Deficits represent limit to a healthy and fast economic development and progress. Balance in balance of payments, as well as balanced budget are components of macroeconomic system. The authors will give an review of activities on deficits in countries in transition, and ...

  20. Radioactive decay and labeled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    This chapter on radioactive decay and labeled compounds has numerous intext equations and worked, sample problems. Topics covered include the following: terms and mathematics of radioactive decay; examples of calculations; graphs of decay equations; radioactivity or activity; activity measurements; activity decay; half-life determinations; labeled compounds. A 20 problem set is also included. 1 ref., 4 figs., 1 tab

  1. Linerless label device and method

    KAUST Repository

    Binladen, Abdulkari

    2016-01-01

    This apparatus and method for applying a linerless label to an end user product includes a device with a printer for printing on a face surface of a linerless label, and a release coat applicator for applying a release coat to the face surface

  2. Nutrition Marketing on Food Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E.; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    Objective: This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. Design and Setting: All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Main Outcome Measure(s): Marketing strategy, nutrient label…

  3. Measuring Working Memory Deficits in Aphasia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayer, Jamie F.; Murray, Laura L.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Many adults with aphasia demonstrate concomitant deficits in working memory (WM), but such deficits are difficult to quantify because of a lack of validated measures as well as the complex interdependence between language and WM. We examined the feasibility, reliability, and internal consistency of an "n"-back task for…

  4. Traumatic brain injury and olfactory deficits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fortin, Audrey; Lefebvre, Mathilde Beaulieu; Ptito, Maurice

    2010-01-01

    . Between 40-44% of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit. CONCLUSIONS: Since a significant proportion of the patients showing olfactory impairments were not aware of their deficit, it is recommended than clinicians systematically evaluate olfactory functions using...

  5. 21 CFR 201.70 - Calcium labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Calcium labeling. 201.70 Section 201.70 Food and... LABELING Labeling Requirements for Over-the-Counter Drugs § 201.70 Calcium labeling. (a) The labeling of over-the-counter (OTC) drug products intended for oral ingestion shall contain the calcium content per...

  6. 49 CFR 172.450 - EMPTY label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false EMPTY label. 172.450 Section 172.450... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.450 EMPTY label. (a) Each EMPTY label, except for size, must be as follows....) in height. (2) The label must be white with black printing. (b) [Reserved] ...

  7. 21 CFR 610.60 - Container label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Container label. 610.60 Section 610.60 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.60 Container label. (a) Full label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each container of a product capable of bearing a full...

  8. 49 CFR 172.442 - CORROSIVE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false CORROSIVE label. 172.442 Section 172.442... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.442 CORROSIVE label. (a) Except for size and color, the CORROSIVE label must... CORROSIVE label must be white in the top half and black in the lower half. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66259, Dec...

  9. 16 CFR 460.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 460.12 Section 460.12 Commercial....12 Labels. If you are a manufacturer, you must label all packages of your insulation. The labels must... chart. Labels for these products must state the minimum net weight of the insulation in the package. You...

  10. 49 CFR 172.441 - FISSILE label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false FISSILE label. 172.441 Section 172.441... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.441 FISSILE label. (a) Except for size and color, the FISSILE label must be... FISSILE label must be white. [69 FR 3669, Jan. 26, 2004] ...

  11. 49 CFR 172.426 - OXIDIZER label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false OXIDIZER label. 172.426 Section 172.426... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.426 OXIDIZER label. (a) Except for size and color, the OXIDIZER label must be... OXIDIZER label must be yellow. [Amdt. 172-123, 56 FR 66257, Dec. 20, 1991] ...

  12. A better carbon footprint label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thøgersen, John; Nielsen, Kristian S.

    2016-01-01

    , participants saw the original Carbon Trust label and in the other condition they saw the same label, but with traffic light colors added to communicate the product’s relative performance in terms of carbon footprint. All included attributes were found to have a significant impact on consumer choices....... As expected, price and carbon footprint were negatively related to choice. Further, participants preferred organic to non-organic coffee and certification by a public authority. The effect of the carbon label is significantly stronger the more environmentally concerned the consumer is. Using colors...... to indicate relative carbon footprint significantly increases carbon label effectiveness. Hence, a carbon footprint label is more effective if it uses traffic light colors to communicate the product’s relative performance....

  13. Neurologic deficit after resection of the sacrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biagini, R; Ruggieri, P; Mercuri, M; Capanna, R; Briccoli, A; Perin, S; Orsini, U; Demitri, S; Arlecchini, S

    1997-01-01

    The authors describe neurologic deficit (sensory, motor, and sphincteral) resulting from sacrifice of the sacral nerve roots removed during resection of the sacrum. The anatomical and functional bases of sphincteral continence and the amount of neurologic deficit are discussed based on level of sacral resection. A large review of the literature on the subject is reported and discussed. The authors emphasize how the neurophysiological bases of sphincteral continence (rectum and bladder) and of sexual ability are still not well known, and how the literature reveals disagreement on the subject. A score system is proposed to evaluate neurologic deficit. The clinical model of neurologic deficit caused by resection of the sacrum may be extended to an evaluation of post-traumatic deficit.

  14. Photoaffinity labeling of bacteriorhodopsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, Weidong; Tsipouras, Athanasios; Ok, Hyun; Yamamoto, Toshihiro; Gawinowicz, M.A.; Nakanishi, Koji

    1990-01-01

    14 C-Labeled optically pure 3S- and 3R-(diazoacetoxy)-all-trans-retinals were incorporated separately into bacterioopsin to reconstitute functional bacteriorhodopsin (bR) analogues, 3S- and 3R-diazo-bRs. UV irradiation at 254 nm generated highly reactive carbenes, which cross-linked the radiolabeled retinals to amino acid residues in the vicinity of the β-ionone ring. The 3S- and 3R-diazo analogues were found to cross-link, respectively, to cyanogen bromide fragments CN 7/CN 9 and CN 8/CN 9. More specifically, Thr121 and Gly122 in fragment CN 7 were found to be cross-linked to the 3S-diazo analogue. The identification of cross-linked residues and fragments favors assignments of the seven helices A-G-F-E-D-C-B or B-C-D-E-F-G-A to helices 1-2-3-4-5-6-7 in the two-dimensional electron density map. The present results show that the chromophore chain is oriented with the ionone ring inclined toward the outside of the membrane (the 9-methyl group also faces the extracellular side of the membrane)

  15. Soil Fumigant Labels - Dimethyl Disulfide (DMDS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Labeling System (PPLS) for label details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  16. Mobile Application for Pesticide Label Matching

    Science.gov (United States)

    The label matching application will give inspectors the ability to instantly compare pesticide product labels against state and federal label databases via their cell phone, tablet or other mobile device.

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should ... for Parents Figuring Out Food Labels Smart Supermarket Shopping Figuring Out Fat and Calories Food Labels View ...

  18. 21 CFR 1302.04 - Location and size of symbol on label and labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location and size of symbol on label and labeling... AND PACKAGING REQUIREMENTS FOR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES § 1302.04 Location and size of symbol on label and labeling. The symbol shall be prominently located on the label or the labeling of the commercial...

  19. Regularized Label Relaxation Linear Regression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaozhao; Xu, Yong; Li, Xuelong; Lai, Zhihui; Wong, Wai Keung; Fang, Bingwu

    2018-04-01

    Linear regression (LR) and some of its variants have been widely used for classification problems. Most of these methods assume that during the learning phase, the training samples can be exactly transformed into a strict binary label matrix, which has too little freedom to fit the labels adequately. To address this problem, in this paper, we propose a novel regularized label relaxation LR method, which has the following notable characteristics. First, the proposed method relaxes the strict binary label matrix into a slack variable matrix by introducing a nonnegative label relaxation matrix into LR, which provides more freedom to fit the labels and simultaneously enlarges the margins between different classes as much as possible. Second, the proposed method constructs the class compactness graph based on manifold learning and uses it as the regularization item to avoid the problem of overfitting. The class compactness graph is used to ensure that the samples sharing the same labels can be kept close after they are transformed. Two different algorithms, which are, respectively, based on -norm and -norm loss functions are devised. These two algorithms have compact closed-form solutions in each iteration so that they are easily implemented. Extensive experiments show that these two algorithms outperform the state-of-the-art algorithms in terms of the classification accuracy and running time.

  20. Selective backbone labelling of ILV methyl labelled proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibille, Nathalie; Hanoulle, Xavier; Bonachera, Fanny; Verdegem, Dries; Landrieu, Isabelle; Wieruszeski, Jean-Michel; Lippens, Guy

    2009-01-01

    Adding the 13 C labelled 2-keto-isovalerate and 2-oxobutanoate precursors to a minimal medium composed of 12 C labelled glucose instead of the commonly used ( 2 D, 13 C) glucose leads not only to the 13 C labelling of (I, L, V) methyls but also to the selective 13 C labelling of the backbone C α and CO carbons of the Ile and Val residues. As a result, the backbone ( 1 H, 15 N) correlations of the Ile and Val residues and their next neighbours in the (i + 1) position can be selectively identified in HN(CA) and HN(CO) planes. The availability of a selective HSQC spectrum corresponding to the sole amide resonances of the Ile and Val residues allows connecting them to their corresponding methyls by the intra-residue NOE effect, and should therefore be applicable to larger systems

  1. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  2. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Page 6, Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment

  3. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human he

  6. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 1: Label Basics, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesticide labels translate results of our extensive evaluations of pesticide products into conditions, directions and precautions that define parameters for use of a pesticide with the goal of ensuring protection of human health and the environment.

  8. 16 CFR 306.12 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 306.12 Section 306.12 Commercial..., CERTIFICATION AND POSTING Label Specifications § 306.12 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout—(1) For gasoline labels. The label is 3″ (7.62 cm) wide × 21/2″ (6.35 cm) long. The...

  9. New labels for radiation therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi (National Inst. of Radiological Sciences, Chiba (Japan))

    1992-12-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.).

  10. Patient identification and tube labelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    van Dongen-Lases, Edmée C; Cornes, Michael P; Grankvist, Kjell

    2016-01-01

    of phlebotomy procedures with the CLSI H3-A6 guideline was unacceptably low, and that patient identification and tube labelling are amongst the most critical steps in need of immediate attention and improvement. The process of patient identification and tube labelling is an essential safety barrier to prevent...... patient identity mix-up. Therefore, the EFLM Working Group aims to encourage and support worldwide harmonisation of patient identification and tube labelling procedures in order to reduce the risk of preanalytical errors and improve patient safety. With this Position paper we wish to raise awareness...... and provide recommendations for proper patient and sample identification procedures....

  11. New labels for radiation therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Susumu; Mukai, Minoru; Kato, Hirotoshi

    1992-01-01

    In simulating radiotherapy, the bone and trachea identified by plain X-P and the other organs, such as the esophagus and bladder, outlined by contrast medium have so far been used as labels. However, irradiation with a high therapeutic ratio is required for an intracorporeal insertion of artificial labels that are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy. For this purpose, metal clips and seed dummies are available, although they cause artifacts in CT scans. Therefore, the authors are using an acupuncture needle and lipiodol for tracing as new artificial labels, since both are identified by X-ray fluoroscopy and CT scan and create few artifacts. (J.P.N.)

  12. Selenium-75-labelled foliate compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1974-01-01

    A saturation method to analyze a foliate is presented; it uses competitive reaction of the compound to be measured and of a radioactive-labelled version of this compound with a reagent specific to this compound present in insufficient quantity to combine with the whole of the compound and its labelled version, separation of the bound compound from its non-bound homologue and measurement of the radioactivity concentration in the bound compound, the non-bound compound or both. The radioactive isotope used in the labelled foliate is selenium 75 [fr

  13. Dissociations between developmental dyslexias and attention deficits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukov, Limor; Friedmann, Naama; Shalev, Lilach; Khentov-Kraus, Lilach; Shalev, Nir; Lorber, Rakefet; Guggenheim, Revital

    2014-01-01

    We examine whether attention deficits underlie developmental dyslexia, or certain types of dyslexia, by presenting double dissociations between the two. We took into account the existence of distinct types of dyslexia and of attention deficits, and focused on dyslexias that may be thought to have an attentional basis: letter position dyslexia (LPD), in which letters migrate within words, attentional dyslexia (AD), in which letters migrate between words, neglect dyslexia, in which letters on one side of the word are omitted or substituted, and surface dyslexia, in which words are read via the sublexical route. We tested 110 children and adults with developmental dyslexia and/or attention deficits, using extensive batteries of reading and attention. For each participant, the existence of dyslexia and the dyslexia type were tested using reading tests that included stimuli sensitive to the various dyslexia types. Attention deficit and its type was established through attention tasks assessing sustained, selective, orienting, and executive attention functioning. Using this procedure, we identified 55 participants who showed a double dissociation between reading and attention: 28 had dyslexia with normal attention and 27 had attention deficits with normal reading. Importantly, each dyslexia with suspected attentional basis dissociated from attention: we found 21 individuals with LPD, 13 AD, 2 neglect dyslexia, and 12 surface dyslexia without attention deficits. Other dyslexia types (vowel dyslexia, phonological dyslexia, visual dyslexia) also dissociated from attention deficits. Examination of 55 additional individuals with both a specific dyslexia and a certain attention deficit found no attention function that was consistently linked with any dyslexia type. Specifically, LPD and AD dissociated from selective attention, neglect dyslexia dissociated from orienting, and surface dyslexia dissociated from sustained and executive attention. These results indicate that

  14. The Effects of Individual Upper Alpha Neurofeedback in ADHD: An Open-Label Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Escolano , Carlos; Navarro-Gil , Mayte; Garcia-Campayo , Javier; Congedo , Marco; Minguez , Javier

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Standardized neurofeedback (NF) protocols have been extensively evaluated in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). However, such protocols do not account for the large EEG heterogeneity in ADHD. Thus, individualized approaches have been suggested to improve the clinical outcome. In this direction, an open-label pilot study was designed to evaluate a NF protocol of relative upper alpha power enhancement in fronto-central sites. Upper alpha band was individual...

  15. Quality control of labelled compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matucha, M.

    1979-01-01

    Some advantages and disadvantages of methods used for quality control of organic labelled compounds (1 31 I, 14 C) are shortly discussed. The methods used are electrophoresis, ultraviolet and infrared spectrometry, radiogas and thin-layer chromatography. (author)

  16. Labelling GM-free Products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Punt, Maarten; Venus, Thomas; Wesseler, Justus

    2016-01-01

    Food suppliers in the EU must comply with labelling regulations for genetically modified organisms (GMOs). However, excluded from mandatory labelling are food products derived from animals fed with GM feed (mainly GM soybean in the EU). Because of this labelling exemption, consumers are unable....... We asked them whether they produce ‘GM-free’ and to assess the ‘GM-free’ market in terms of (1) the current status, (2) potential benefits, (3) limitations and (4) risks. We find that smaller dairy companies mostly switch completely, whereas ‘GM-free’ production of larger dairy companies is often...... to identify which animal products were derived without the use of GMOs. Therefore, Germany and other countries introduced voluntary ‘GM-free’ labelling legislations or guidelines that allow companies to signal that their products are ‘GM-free’. We present the results of a survey among German dairy companies...

  17. Canonical Labelling of Site Graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Oury

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available We investigate algorithms for canonical labelling of site graphs, i.e. graphs in which edges bind vertices on sites with locally unique names. We first show that the problem of canonical labelling of site graphs reduces to the problem of canonical labelling of graphs with edge colourings. We then present two canonical labelling algorithms based on edge enumeration, and a third based on an extension of Hopcroft's partition refinement algorithm. All run in quadratic worst case time individually. However, one of the edge enumeration algorithms runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "many" automorphisms, and the partition refinement algorithm runs in sub-quadratic time for graphs with "few" bisimulation equivalences. This suite of algorithms was chosen based on the expectation that graphs fall in one of those two categories. If that is the case, a combined algorithm runs in sub-quadratic worst case time. Whether this expectation is reasonable remains an interesting open problem.

  18. Adolescent Intermittent Alcohol Exposure: Deficits in Object Recognition Memory and Forebrain Cholinergic Markers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Scott Swartzwelder

    Full Text Available The long-term effects of intermittent ethanol exposure during adolescence (AIE are of intensive interest and investigation. The effects of AIE on learning and memory and the neural functions that drive them are of particular interest as clinical findings suggest enduring deficits in those cognitive domains in humans after ethanol abuse during adolescence. Although studies of such deficits after AIE hold much promise for identifying mechanisms and therapeutic interventions, the findings are sparse and inconclusive. The present results identify a specific deficit in memory function after AIE and establish a possible neural mechanism of that deficit that may be of translational significance. Male rats (starting at PND-30 received exposure to AIE (5g/kg, i.g. or vehicle and were allowed to mature into adulthood. At PND-71, one group of animals was assessed using the spatial-temporal object recognition (stOR test to evaluate memory function. A separate group of animals was used to assess the density of cholinergic neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4 using immunohistochemistry. AIE exposed animals manifested deficits in the temporal component of the stOR task relative to controls, and a significant decrease in the number of ChAT labeled neurons in forebrain areas Ch1-4. These findings add to the growing literature indicating long-lasting neural and behavioral effects of AIE that persist into adulthood and indicate that memory-related deficits after AIE depend upon the tasks employed, and possibly their degree of complexity. Finally, the parallel finding of diminished cholinergic neuron density suggests a possible mechanism underlying the effects of AIE on memory and hippocampal function as well as possible therapeutic or preventive strategies for AIE.

  19. Synthesis of isotopically labelled salicylates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawkins, D.R.; Pryor, R.W.

    1981-01-01

    [ 13 C-carboxyl]Salicylic acid has been prepared by carbonation of 2-benzyloxybromobenzene followed by reductive debenzylation. Deuterium and tritium labelled salicylic acid and 2 H 2 / 13 C-salicylic acid were prepared by reduction of the 3,5-dibromo derivatives using Raney Ni-Al. Deuterium labelled salicylic acid containing up to four deuterium atoms was prepared by catalytic exchange with Raney Ni-Al in 5% NaOD/D 2 O. (author)

  20. [Hereditary factors in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fliers, E.A.; Franke, B.

    2005-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by concentration problems, hyperactivity and impulsivity. Disturbances in dopamine and/or noradrenalin neurotransmission are probably the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms of ADHD. Around 80% of

  1. Remediation of attention deficits in head injury.

    OpenAIRE

    Nag S; Rao S

    1999-01-01

    Head injury is associated with psychological sequelae which impair the patient′s psychosocial functioning. Information processing, attention and memory deficits are seen in head injuries of all severity. We attempted to improve deficits of focused, sustained and divided attention. The principle of overlapping sources of attention resource pools was utilised in devising the remediation programme. Tasks used simple inexpensive materials. Four head injured young adult males with post conc...

  2. Saudi Arabia: persistent but tenable deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1996-01-01

    In this article is described the economic situation of Saudi Arabia. In a first time, Saudi Arabia drew from external reserves to finance gulf war and covered its budget deficits, then the internal debts took over. The actual strategy in order to transfer from state to private national and foreign sector a great part of new projects financing is become a necessity to control the deficits in a country where state is strongly got in debt. (N.C.). 2 tabs

  3. Mindboggle: Automated brain labeling with multiple atlases

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klein, Arno; Mensh, Brett; Ghosh, Satrajit; Tourville, Jason; Hirsch, Joy

    2005-01-01

    To make inferences about brain structures or activity across multiple individuals, one first needs to determine the structural correspondences across their image data. We have recently developed Mindboggle as a fully automated, feature-matching approach to assign anatomical labels to cortical structures and activity in human brain MRI data. Label assignment is based on structural correspondences between labeled atlases and unlabeled image data, where an atlas consists of a set of labels manually assigned to a single brain image. In the present work, we study the influence of using variable numbers of individual atlases to nonlinearly label human brain image data. Each brain image voxel of each of 20 human subjects is assigned a label by each of the remaining 19 atlases using Mindboggle. The most common label is selected and is given a confidence rating based on the number of atlases that assigned that label. The automatically assigned labels for each subject brain are compared with the manual labels for that subject (its atlas). Unlike recent approaches that transform subject data to a labeled, probabilistic atlas space (constructed from a database of atlases), Mindboggle labels a subject by each atlas in a database independently. When Mindboggle labels a human subject's brain image with at least four atlases, the resulting label agreement with coregistered manual labels is significantly higher than when only a single atlas is used. Different numbers of atlases provide significantly higher label agreements for individual brain regions. Increasing the number of reference brains used to automatically label a human subject brain improves labeling accuracy with respect to manually assigned labels. Mindboggle software can provide confidence measures for labels based on probabilistic assignment of labels and could be applied to large databases of brain images

  4. 21 CFR 332.31 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 332.31 Section 332.31 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIFLATULENT PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 332.31 Professional labeling. (a) The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may...

  5. 21 CFR 349.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 349.80 Section 349.80 Food... HUMAN USE OPHTHALMIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 349.80 Professional labeling. The labeling of any OTC ophthalmic demulcent drug product provided to health professionals (but...

  6. 21 CFR 341.90 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 341.90 Section 341.90 Food... HUMAN USE Labeling § 341.90 Professional labeling. The labeling of the product provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage information for...

  7. 21 CFR 336.80 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 336.80 Section 336.80 Food... HUMAN USE ANTIEMETIC DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 336.80 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the...

  8. Use of labeled compounds in tracer experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1991-01-01

    The use of radiotracers in research has become common. This chapter looks at some of the underlying assumptions and advantages of labeled compounds: advantages of radiotracers; availability of suitable tracers and labeled compounds; purity of labeled compounds; autoradiolysis; storage of labeled compounds; detection systems for chromatography and electrophoretic methods. 14 refs., 2 figs

  9. 40 CFR 211.108 - Sample label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Sample label. 211.108 Section 211.108 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) NOISE ABATEMENT PROGRAMS PRODUCT NOISE LABELING General Provisions § 211.108 Sample label. Examples of labels conforming to the requirements of...

  10. 21 CFR 610.61 - Package label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Package label. 610.61 Section 610.61 Food and... GENERAL BIOLOGICAL PRODUCTS STANDARDS Labeling Standards § 610.61 Package label. The following items shall appear on the label affixed to each package containing a product: (a) The proper name of the product; (b...

  11. 16 CFR 309.17 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labels. 309.17 Section 309.17 Commercial... ALTERNATIVE FUELS AND ALTERNATIVE FUELED VEHICLES Requirements for Alternative Fuels Label Specifications § 309.17 Labels. All labels must meet the following specifications: (a) Layout: (1) Non-liquid...

  12. A brief history of cell labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.

    2005-01-01

    The term cell labelling is usually used in the context of labelled leukocytes for imaging inflammation and labelled platelets for imaging thrombosis. Erythrocyte labelling for in vitro measurements of red cell life span, in vivo measurements of splenic red cell pooling, radionuclide ventriculography and imaging sites of bleeding has developed rather separately and has a different history. Labelled platelets and leukocytes were originally developed for cell kinetic studies. Since the current-day applications of labelled platelets and leukocytes depend on a clear understanding of cell kinetics, these classical studies are important and relevant to the history of cell labelling

  13. 49 CFR 172.430 - POISON label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON label. 172.430 Section 172.430... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.430 POISON label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON label must be as follows: EC02MR91.029 (b) In addition to complying with § 172.407, the background on the POISON label must...

  14. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Lyu, Siwei; Ghanem, Bernard

    2015-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some

  15. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan; Jia, Fan; Liu, Wei; Ghanem, Bernard; Lyu, Siwei

    2018-01-01

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some

  16. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: A Historical Review (1775 to Present).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leahy, Laura G

    2017-09-01

    As a new school year approaches, nurses will find themselves faced with students with symptoms of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Navigating the diagnostic label changes and numerous psychopharmacological treatment options can prove time-consuming and confusing. The current article explores the early years of symptom identification, various diagnostic labels, and subsequent psychopharmacological treatments from psychostimulants to non-stimulant alternatives (including a prescription medical food). The current article also serves as a discussion guide for nurses and clinicians when providing education to patients and their loved ones, teachers, coaches, and others who may question the diagnosis and treatment of ADHD. This disorder can have a significant impact on one's ability to function within family, school, work, and social settings. A historical context is provided for the evolution of today's diagnostic criteria and the pharmacotherapy used in the treatment of ADHD. [Journal of Psychosocial Nursing and Mental Health Services, 55(9), 10-16.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Analysis of Budget deficit in Romania during 2000-2013

    OpenAIRE

    Moraru Camelia; Popovici Norina

    2014-01-01

    Worldwide, over time, the years of economic crisis were defined by significant increases in the levels of budget deficits. Discussions on sizing budget deficits, financing, especially the volume of public debt became more intense, both politically and academically. The impact of budget deficit on economic growth is a common theme found in the economic policies adopted. The present paper aims to analyze the evolution of budget deficit and the structural budget deficit in Romania during 2000-20...

  18. Color perception deficits in co-existing attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and chronic tic disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roessner, V.; Banaschewski, T.; Fillmer-Otte, A.; Becker, A.; Albrecht, B.; Uebel, H.; Sergeant, J.A.; Tannock, R.; Rothenberger, A.

    2008-01-01

    Preliminary findings suggest that color perception, particularly of blue-yellow stimuli, is impaired in attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as in chronic tic disorders (CTD). However, these findings have been not replicated and it is unclear what these deficits mean for the

  19. Beyond Auditory Sensory Processing Deficits: Lexical Tone Perception Deficits in Chinese Children with Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Xiuhong; Tong, Xiuli; King Yiu, Fung

    2018-01-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that children with developmental dyslexia exhibit a deficit not only at the segmental level of phonological processing but also, by extension, at the suprasegmental level. However, it remains unclear whether such a suprasegmental phonological processing deficit is due to a difficulty in processing acoustic cues of…

  20. Story Comprehension and Academic Deficits in Children with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: What Is the Connection?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthiaume, Kristen S.

    2006-01-01

    Based on the reliable findings that children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have both attentional and academic difficulties, it is assumed that the attentional deficit contributes to the academic problems. In this article, existing support for a link between the attentional and academic difficulties experienced by children…

  1. Positron emitter labeled enzyme inhibitors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fowler, J.S.; MacGregor, R.R.; Wolf, A.P.; Langstrom, B.

    1990-01-01

    This invention involves a new strategy for imagining and mapping enzyme activity in the living human and animal body using positron emitter-labeled suicide enzyme inactivators or inhibitors which become covalently bound to the enzyme as a result of enzymatic catalysis. Two such suicide inactivators for monoamine oxidase have been labeled with carbon-11 and used to map the enzyme subtypes in the living human and animal body using PET. By using positron emission tomography to image the distribution of radioactivity produced by the body penetrating radiation emitted by carbon-11, a map of functionally active monoamine oxidase activity is obtained. Clorgyline and L-deprenyl are suicide enzyme inhibitors and irreversibly inhibit monoamine oxidase. When these inhibitors are labeled with carbon-11 they provide selective probes for monoamine oxidase localization and reactivity in vivo using positron emission tomography

  2. Sustainability labels on food products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Klaus G; Hieke, Sophie; Wills, Josephine

    2014-01-01

    of sustainability was limited, but understanding of four selected labels (Fair Trade, Rainforest Alliance, Carbon Footprint, and Animal Welfare) was better, as some of them seem to be self-explanatory. The results indicated a low level of use, no matter whether use was measured as self-reported use of different......This study investigates the relationship between consumer motivation, understanding and use of sustainability labels on food products (both environmental and ethical labels), which are increasingly appearing on food products. Data was collected by means of an online survey implemented in the UK......, France, Germany, Spain, Sweden, and Poland, with a total sample size of 4408 respondents. Respondents expressed medium high to high levels of concern with sustainability issues at the general level, but lower levels of concern in the context of concrete food product choices. Understanding of the concept...

  3. Melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1989-01-01

    A study has been made of isotope exchange between melatonin and deuterium (D 2 O) or tritium (HTO) oxide under different conditions. The ease of isotope exchange for the indole ring hydrogens of melatonin in an acidic medium decreases over the series H 4 > H 2 H 6 >> H 7 , enabling the authors to process a route for production of melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at positions 4,6, and 2 of the indole ring. A method has been suggested for producing melatonin labeled with hydrogen isotopes at position 2 by desulfurization of 2-(2,4-dinitro-phenylsulfenyl)melatonin at Ni(Re) (D)

  4. Fluorine-18 labeling of proteins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kilbourn, M.R.; Dence, C.S.; Welch, M.J.; Mathias, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    Two fluorine-18-labeled reagents, methyl 3-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-nitrobenzimidate and 4-[ 18 F]fluorophenacyl bromide, have been prepared for covalent attachment of fluorine-18 to proteins. Both reagents can be prepared in moderate yields (30-50%, EOB) in synthesis times of 50-70 min. Reaction of these reagents with proteins (human serum albumin, human fibrinogen, and human immunoglobulin A) is pH independent, protein concentration dependent, and takes 5-60 min at mild pH (8.0) and temperature (25-37 degrees C), in yields up to 95% (corrected). The 18 F-labeled proteins are purified by size exclusion chromatography

  5. Melatonin labelled by hydrogen isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrevskaya, L.I.; Smushkevich, Yu.I.; Kurkovskaya, L.N.; Ponomarenko, N.K.; Suvorov, N.N.

    1988-01-01

    Isotope exchange of melatonin with deuterium (D 2 O) and tritium (HTO) oxides under different conditions is studied. Simplicity of isotope exchange of hydrogens of the indole ring of melatonin in the acidic medium decreases in series H 4 >H 2 >H 6 >>H 7 , that permits to suggest the way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in positions 4,6 and 2 of the indole ring. The way of melatonin preparation labelled by hydrogen isotopes in position 2 according to the reaction of desulfation 2-(2,4-dinitrophenylsulphenyl) melatonin at catalyst Ni(Re)(D) is suggested

  6. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadinova, I.; Kovacheva, S.

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: 3 H-thymidine, 32 P-DP, 111 In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), 99m Tc (reduced 99m Tc, lypophyl 99m Tc-complexes and 99m Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization

  7. Radioisotope methods for leucocyte labelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kostadinova, I; Kovacheva, S [Meditsinska Akademiya, Sofia (Bulgaria). Katedra po Rentgenologiya i Radiologiya

    1988-01-01

    A review is made of the labelling methods with the following tracers: {sup 3}H-thymidine, {sup 32}P-DP, {sup 111}In (oxine, tropolon, acetylacetone, MERC), {sup 99m}Tc (reduced {sup 99m}Tc, lypophyl {sup 99m}Tc-complexes and {sup 99m}Tc-colloids). The main diagnosis areas are mentioned: abdominal abscesses and inflammations, inflammation foci of skeleton or of implanted prosthesis; acute myocardial infarction, bacterial endocarditis, rejection of kydney transplantations or vascular grafts. It is concluded that labelled leucocytes are very reliable for noninvasive diagnosis of inflammation foci with unclear localization.

  8. Synthesis of radioiodinated labeled peptides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matloobi, M.; Rafii, H.; Beigi, D.; Khalaj, A.; Kamali-Dehghan, M.

    2003-01-01

    Optimization of radioiodination of peptides is covered by both a direct method in which a constituent tyrosine residue is labeled and indirect method by using an iodinated derivative (SIB) of N succinimidyl 3-(tri-n-butylstannyl) benzoate (ATE) as the intermediate. Radioiodination of IgG and FMLF were performed by direct method using Chloramine-T as an oxidant but since Formyl-Methyl-Leucyl-Phenylalanine, FMLF, does not lend itself for direct radioiodination we performed labeling of FMLF by indirect method via radioiodined SIB at different pH. (author)

  9. Food quality labels from the producers’ perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šárka Velčovská

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with analysing the food producer attitudes towards quality labels. The Klasa label, as the most known and the most frequently used food quality label in the Czech Republic, have become the subject of investigation. The aim of the research was to identify the benefits and problems arising from the certification process and the label use. Primary data were collected in online survey based on standardized questionnaire. In census, 86 respondents from the total 218 producers with the Klasa label in the Czech Republic completed the questionnaire. The most of producers (72% have a longer experience with the label, they are using the label for more than four years. The producers’ expectations from the label were fulfilled only partially. A poor state marketing support and missing marketing strategy were identified as general problems of the label. Specific perceived problems are formalities connected with the certification process and certification of poor-quality products. Correlation analysis, t-test and Pearson chi-square test were calculated to discover relations between variables. The results of the study can be beneficial to both, food producers as well as administrator of the label. Identified problems could help them to improve marketing strategy of the label in order to manage the label in effective way and use all benefits arising from the certification. Administrator of the label should make the certification process more effective and transparent, promotion should be focused on the explanation to consumers what the Klasa label guarantees.

  10. Neuropsychological deficits in patients with Lyme borreliosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Pruša

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available Slovenia is an endemic area for Lyme borreliosis, a disease that affects many organic systems. Decline in cognitive abilities and emotional changes can appear in acute and chronic stage of the disease beside somatic difficulties. Early antibiotic therapy is of great importance in recovery. Attention and concentration deficits, memory deficits, impaired executive functioning, depression and other symptoms reduce work efficiency and life quality of people with Lyme borreliosis. Neuropsychological deficits can be explained with central nervous system impairment and partly also with reactive psychological factors. On account of symptomatic complexity, broad differential diagnostic and unreliable diagnostic technology neuropsychological evaluation can help to correctly diagnose and accurately treat this disease, and thus to enable appropriate cognitive rehabilitation and psychotherapeutic assistance.

  11. The history of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichl, Susanne; Lange, Katharina M.; Tucha, Lara; Tucha, Oliver

    2010-01-01

    The contemporary concept of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as defined in the DSM-IV-TR (American Psychiatric Association 2000) is relatively new. Excessive hyperactive, inattentive, and impulsive children have been described in the literature since the nineteenth century. Some of the early depictions and etiological theories of hyperactivity were similar to current descriptions of ADHD. Detailed studies of the behavior of hyperactive children and increasing knowledge of brain function have changed the concepts of the fundamental behavioral and neuropathological deficits underlying the disorder. This article presents an overview of the conceptual history of modern-day ADHD. PMID:21258430

  12. The deficit syndrome of schizophrenia: towards heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibaut, F; Petit, M

    1997-01-01

    Since the turn of the century, psychiatrists have been concerned with both the unity and diversity of schizophrenia. From these early descriptions until now, many authors have attempted to delineate clinically meaningful subtypes within this disorder. In this connection, negative/positive subtyping has generated great interest. Carpenter and his team have emphasized the origin of the negative symptoms observed. They have proposed that primary enduring negative symptoms should be distinguished from transient negative symptoms resulting from treatment, depression or social deprivation and should be termed deficit symptoms. The validity of this subtyping is supported by clinical, biochemical or electrophysiological studies showing differences between deficit and nondeficit patients.

  13. Tritium-labelled abscisic acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pluciennik, H.; Michalski, L.

    1991-01-01

    A simple method for the preparation of biologically active abscisic acid (growth inhibiting plant hormone) labelled with tritium is described. The product obtained has a specific radioactivity of 1.12 GBq mmol -1 : the yield is about 60% as compared to the initial amount of the substance used. (author) 7 refs.; 2 figs

  14. On Labeled Traveling Salesman Problems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Couetoux, Basile; Gourves, Laurent; Monnot, Jerome

    2008-01-01

    We consider labeled Traveling Salesman Problems, defined upon a complete graph of n vertices with colored edges. The objective is to find a tour of maximum (or minimum) number of colors. We derive results regarding hardness of approximation, and analyze approximation algorithms for both versions ...

  15. Synthesis of labelled ecdysone precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haag, T.; Hetru, C.; Nakatani, Y.; Luu, B.; Meister, M.; Pichat, L.; Audinot, M.

    1985-01-01

    High specific activity tritiated 3β,14α-dihydroxy-5β-cholest-7-en-6-one, has been prepared using a precursor which permits rapid and easy labelling. This compound is converted to ecdysone under in vitro conditions by insect prothoracic glands, a well known site of ecdysone biosynthesis. (author)

  16. Two new French quality labels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bresler, Ines

    2012-07-01

    'Origine France Garantie' and 'AQPV' are the new product labels that were presented in France in 2011. While the first is aimed at the entire industry, the latter is an effort to strengthen the PV industry. By raising the enthusiasm for local products, the French government hopes to keep the flood of foreign imports at bay. (orig.)

  17. Rock Music Gets a Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cutietta, Robert

    1986-01-01

    A group called Parents Music Resource Center (PMRC) has captured the media spotlight with a proposal to have warning labels placed on music albums containing sexually explicit or violent lyrics. Major record companies have agreed to a version of the PMRC's demands for a one-year trial period, beginning in 1986. (RM)

  18. Improving the energy labelling scheme

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gram-Hanssen, Kirsten; Christensen, Toke Haunstrup

    This report summarises the main results of an EU project on consumer response to energy labels in buildings. This report is mainly directed at Danish policy makers. The main focus is therefore on results that are relevant from a Danish point of view and on how they can be used to further strengthen...

  19. Psychological effectiveness of carbon labelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beattie, Geoffrey

    2012-04-01

    Despite the decision by supermarket-giant Tesco to delay its plan to add carbon-footprint information onto all of its 70,000 products, carbon labelling, if carefully designed, could yet change consumer behaviour. However, it requires a new type of thinking about consumers and much additional work.

  20. When Diagnostic Labels Mask Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foltz, Robert; Dang, Sidney; Daniels, Brian; Doyle, Hillary; McFee, Scott; Quisenberry, Carolyn

    2013-01-01

    A growing body of research shows that many seriously troubled children and adolescents are reacting to adverse life experiences. Yet traditional diagnostic labels are based on checklists of surface symptoms. Distracted by disruptive behavior, the common response is to medicate, punish, or exclude rather than respond to needs of youth who have…

  1. Synthesis of positron labeled photoactive compounds: 18F labeled aryl azides for positron labeling of biochemical molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Kazunari; Hashimoto, Naota; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    1995-01-01

    The authors have prepared various [ 18 F] fluorine labeled aryl azides as a novel photoactive compounds suitable for positron labeling of biochemical molecules. The introduction of fluorine substituents to aryl azides can be expected to have dramatic effects on their nature and reactivity toward photolysis. Positron labeled reagents for labeling proteins or peptides have recently attracted considerable attention due to their wide applicability in biochemistry and positron emission tomography (PET). Various labeled azide compounds are often used in biochemistry for radiolabeling biological molecules by photolysis, but there have been no reports on the preparation or use of fluorine-18 labeled azides. The authors now report a novel synthesis of 18 F-labeled aryl azides which will have wide application in the biochemistry and nuclear medicine as a means for 18 F-fluorine labeling for proteins, peptides, and nucleic acids. 2 tabs

  2. Labelling fashion magazine advertisements: Effectiveness of different label formats on social comparison and body dissatisfaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiggemann, Marika; Brown, Zoe

    2018-06-01

    The experiment investigated the impact on women's body dissatisfaction of different forms of label added to fashion magazine advertisements. Participants were 340 female undergraduate students who viewed 15 fashion advertisements containing a thin and attractive model. They were randomly allocated to one of five label conditions: no label, generic disclaimer label (indicating image had been digitally altered), consequence label (indicating that viewing images might make women feel bad about themselves), informational label (indicating the model in the advertisement was underweight), or a graphic label (picture of a paint brush). Although exposure to the fashion advertisements resulted in increased body dissatisfaction, there was no significant effect of label type on body dissatisfaction; no form of label demonstrated any ameliorating effect. In addition, the consequence and informational labels resulted in increased perceived realism and state appearance comparison. Yet more extensive research is required before the effective implementation of any form of label. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. [A core deficit in Parkinson disease?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benítez-Burraco, A; Herrera, E; Cuetos, F

    2016-05-01

    Parkinson disease is a neurodegenerative condition involving motor, cognitive, and linguistic deficits. It is important to know why all these different deficits co-occur in the affected people. This paper aims to clarify whether these comorbid deficits result from the selective impairment of a computational primitive, namely, a context-sensitive computational ability according to Chomsky's Hierarchy (a well-established research tool in comparative neuroscience). A total of 15 medicated subjects with Parkinson disease and 15 controls were selected. They were matched in age and education. A battery of tasks was designed to test 3 different domains (motor capacities, cognition, and language) and 2 different computational abilities (context-free and context-sensitive operations). Significant differences between groups were observed only regarding the linguistic task involving context-sensitive computations (correferences). The observed deficits in our patients with Parkinson disease cannot be explained in terms of the selective impairment of one only unspecific, low-level computational process. At the same time, differences between patients and controls are expected to be greater if the former are not medicated. Moreover, we should pursue in the search of (this kind of) computational primitives than can be selectively impaired in people with Parkinson disease, because they may help to achieve an earlier diagnosis of this condition. Copyright © 2014 Sociedad Española de Neurología. Published by Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  4. Intervertebral Disc Characteristic on Progressive Neurological Deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Yudoyono

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the intervertebral disc characteristic on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in lumbar herniated disc (LHD patients with progressive neurological deficit. Methods: Patients were collected retrospectively from Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital Database from 2011–2013 with LHD, had neurological deficit such as radiculopathy and cauda equine syndrome for less than four weeks with a positive sign confirmed by neurological examination and confirmatory with MRI examination. Results: A total of 14 patients with lumbar herniated disc disease (10 males, 4 females suffered from progressive neurological deficit with an average age of (52.07±10.9 years old. Early disc height was 9.38±0.5 mm and progressive neurological deficit state disc height was 4.03±0.53 mm, which were significantly different statisticaly (p<0.01. Symptoms of radiculopathy were seen in 11 patients and cauda equine syndrome in three patients. Modic changes grade 1 was found in five patients, grade 2 in eight patients,grade 3 in one patient, Pfirmman grade 2 in eleven patients and grade 3 in three patients. Thecal sac compression 1/3 compression was seen in four patients and 2/3 compression in ten patients. Conclusions: Neurosurgeon should raise concerns on the characteristic changes of intervertebral disc in magnetic resonance imaging examination to avoid further neural injury in lumbar herniated disc patients.

  5. Stigma in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Müller, Kathi; Fuermaier, Anselm B M; Koerts, Janneke; Tucha, Lara

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a frequently diagnosed disorder in child- and adulthood with a high impact affecting multiple facets of social life. Therefore, patients suffering from ADHD are at high risk to be confronted with stigma, prejudices, and discrimination. A review of

  6. Nature, Nurture, and Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faraone, Stephen V.; Biederman, Joseph

    2000-01-01

    Comments on Joseph's review of the genetics of attention deficit disorder, demonstrating errors of scientific logic and oversight of relevant research in Joseph's argument. Argues for the validity of twin studies in supporting a genetic link for ADHD and for the complementary role of nature and nurture in the etiology of the disorder. (JPB)

  7. Medication Treatment for Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Joseph B.; Katsiyannis, Antonis; Hughes, Elizabeth M.

    2011-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has become the most commonly diagnosed psychiatric disorder among school-age children. For more than half a century, physicians have prescribed medications to help manage behaviors such as hyperactivity, impulsivity, and inattention. Today, there is a growing consensus that ADHD is a biologically…

  8. Reducing the Deficit: Spending and Revenue Options

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    357 B SPENDING OPTIONS BY BUDGET FUNCION ...... 363 TABLES 1. Baseline Deficit Projections, Fiscal Years 1993-2004...direct control of the Congress. abled beneficiaries and beneficiaries with end-stage renal disease. Nonhealth changes enacted in The total that is

  9. ATTENTION DEFICIT/HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER (ADHD)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Enrique

    People who suffer from ADHD are far more likely than normal to drop out of school (32 ... secondary to learning disabilities, partial sensory deficits or even low cognitive ... bad days (Fig. 3), which can lead to frustration for teachers, parents and the child, as there is always the feeling that ... boys who often present very young.

  10. Invest to Improve: The Cybersecurity Talent Deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2017

    2017-01-01

    "Invest to Improve: The Cybersecurity Talent Deficit" provides recommendations for cybersecurity stakeholders--employers, government agencies, and higher education institutions--to enable regional partnerships to meet today's cybersecurity skills needs. This report combines data from a 2017 Gallup survey of business executives and higher…

  11. Linguistic coding deficits in foreign language learners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, R; Ganschow, L; Pohlman, J

    1989-01-01

    As increasing numbers of colleges and universities require a foreign language for graduation in at least one of their degree programs, reports of students with difficulties in learning a second language are multiplying. Until recently, little research has been conducted to identify the nature of this problem. Recent attempts by the authors have focused upon subtle but ongoing language difficulties in these individuals as the source of their struggle to learn a foreign language. The present paper attempts to expand upon this concept by outlining a theoretical framework based upon a linguistic coding model that hypothesizes deficits in the processing of phonological, syntactic, and/or semantic information. Traditional psychoeducational assessment batteries of standardized intelligence and achievement tests generally are not sensitive to these linguistic coding deficits unless closely analyzed or, more often, used in conjunction with a more comprehensive language assessment battery. Students who have been waived from a foreign language requirement and their proposed type(s) of linguistic coding deficits are profiled. Tentative conclusions about the nature of these foreign language learning deficits are presented along with specific suggestions for tests to be used in psychoeducational evaluations.

  12. Financing the U.S. Trade Deficit

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jackson, James K

    2007-01-01

    The U.S. merchandise trade deficit is a part of the overall U.S. balance of payments, a summary statement of all economic transactions between the residents of the United States and the rest of the world, during a given period of time...

  13. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder: A Parent's Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Anna M.

    1996-01-01

    A parent and educator who has spent the past 10 years struggling to help her own ADHD (attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder) child offers suggestions for managing the challenges facing such children and enhancing the quality of their lives. Since drug regimens have limitations, parents need to read appropriate literature and receive…

  14. Primary School Teacher's knowledge towards Attention Deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The work of the teacher becomes much more demanding when some learners have Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), as their problems with attention span, impulse control and activity level frequently interfere with activities in the classroom and socially. This study revealed the teachers good knowledge about ...

  15. Magnesium supplementation in children with attention deficit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a common neurodevelopmental disorder with associated mineral deficiency. Aim: To assess magnesium level in ADHD children and compare it to the normal levels in children. Then, to detect the effect of magnesium supplementation as an add on therapy, ...

  16. Did goethe describe attention deficit hyperactivity disorder?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonazza, Sara; Scaglione, Cesa; Poppi, Massimo; Rizzo, Giovanni

    2011-01-01

    As early as 1846, the typical symptoms of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) were described by Heinrich Hoffmann (1809-1894). However, in Goethe's masterpiece Faust (1832), the character of Euphorion strongly suggests ADHD diagnosis. Copyright © 2011 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Labelling schemes: From a consumer perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juhl, Hans Jørn; Stacey, Julia

    2000-01-01

    Labelling of food products attracts a lot of political attention these days. As a result of a number of food scandals, most European countries have acknowledged the need for more information and better protection of consumers. Labelling schemes are one way of informing and guiding consumers....... However, initiatives in relation to labelling schemes seldom take their point of departure in consumers' needs and expectations; and in many cases, the schemes are defined by the institutions guaranteeing the label. It is therefore interesting to study how consumers actually value labelling schemes....... A recent MAPP study has investigated the value consumers attach the Government-controlled labels 'Ø-mærket' and 'Den Blå Lup' and the private supermarket label 'Mesterhakket' when they purchase minced meat. The results reveal four consumer segments that use labelling schemes for food products very...

  18. Soil Fumigant Labels - Metam Sodium/Potassium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Search by EPA registration number, product name, or company; and follow the link to the Pesticide Product Label System (PPLS) for details. Updated labels include new safety requirements for buffer zones and related measures.

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Answers (Q&A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators ... packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ...

  20. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When Reading Food Labels? ...

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, and more — but ... Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for ...

  2. Different approaches to labelling parasitoids using strontium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gu, H.; Wäckers, F.L.; Steindl, P.; Günther, D.; Dorn, S.

    2001-01-01

    Labelling parasitoids with trace elements is a potentially powerful technique for studying dispersal and trophic interactions in these usually small insects. Laboratory experiments were conducted to investigate the feasibility and efficiency of different methods for trace element labelling of the

  3. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol School & Jobs ... las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels ...

  4. Heterogeneity of Developmental Dyscalculia: Cases with Different Deficit Profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Träff, Ulf; Olsson, Linda; Östergren, Rickard; Skagerlund, Kenny

    2016-01-01

    Developmental Dyscalculia (DD) has long been thought to be a monolithic learning disorder that can be attributed to a specific neurocognitive dysfunction. However, recent research has increasingly recognized the heterogeneity of DD, where DD can be differentiated into subtypes in which the underlying cognitive deficits and neural dysfunctions may differ. The aim was to further understand the heterogeneity of developmental dyscalculia (DD) from a cognitive psychological perspective. Utilizing four children (8-9 year-old) we administered a comprehensive cognitive test battery that shed light on the cognitive-behavioral profile of each child. The children were compared against norm groups of aged-matched peers. Performance was then contrasted against predominant hypotheses of DD, which would also give insight into candidate neurocognitive correlates. Despite showing similar mathematical deficits, these children showed remarkable interindividual variability regarding cognitive profile and deficits. Two cases were consistent with the approximate number system deficit account and also the general magnitude-processing deficit account. These cases showed indications of having domain-general deficits as well. One case had an access deficit in combination with a general cognitive deficit. One case suffered from general cognitive deficits only. The results showed that DD cannot be attributed to a single explanatory factor. These findings support a multiple deficits account of DD and suggest that some cases have multiple deficits, whereas other cases have a single deficit. We discuss a previously proposed distinction between primary DD and secondary DD, and suggest hypotheses of dysfunctional neurocognitive correlates responsible for the displayed deficits.

  5. Robotic identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semrau, Jennifer A; Herter, Troy M; Scott, Stephen H; Dukelow, Sean P

    2013-12-01

    Kinesthesia, the sense of body motion, is essential to proper control and execution of movement. Despite its importance for activities of daily living, no current clinical measures can objectively measure kinesthetic deficits. The goal of this study was to use robotic technology to quantify prevalence and severity of kinesthetic deficits of the upper limb poststroke. Seventy-four neurologically intact subjects and 113 subjects with stroke (62 left-affected, 51 right-affected) performed a robot-based kinesthetic matching task with vision occluded. The robot moved the most affected arm at a preset speed, direction, and magnitude. Subjects were instructed to mirror-match the movement with their opposite arm (active arm). A large number of subjects with stroke were significantly impaired on measures of kinesthesia. We observed impairments in ability to match movement direction (69% and 49% impaired for left- and right-affected subjects, respectively) and movement magnitude (42% and 31%). We observed impairments to match movement speed (32% and 27%) and increased response latencies (48% and 20%). Movement direction errors and response latencies were related to clinical measures of function, motor recovery, and dexterity. Using a robotic approach, we found that 61% of acute stroke survivors (n=69) had kinesthetic deficits. Additionally, these deficits were highly related to existing clinical measures, suggesting the importance of kinesthesia in day-to-day function. Our methods allow for more sensitive, accurate, and objective identification of kinesthetic deficits after stroke. With this information, we can better inform clinical treatment strategies to improve poststroke rehabilitative care and outcomes.

  6. Oculomotor Anomalies in Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder: Evidence for Deficits in Response Preparation and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahone, E. Mark; Mostofsky, Stewart H.; Lasker, Adrian G.; Zee, David; Denckla, Martha B.

    2009-01-01

    Girls, but not boys, with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) have significantly longer visually guided saccades latencies. It is found that sex differences in children with ADHD extend beyond symptom presentation to the development of oculomotor control.

  7. 21 CFR 357.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.280 Section 357.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 357.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  8. 21 CFR 357.180 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 357.180 Section 357.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Products § 357.180 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not to the...

  9. 21 CFR 333.280 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 333.280 Section 333.280 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS... Drug Products § 333.280 Professional labeling. The labeling provided to health professionals (but not...

  10. Injective Labeled Oriented Trees are Aspherical

    OpenAIRE

    Harlander, Jens; Rosebrock, Stephan

    2012-01-01

    A labeled oriented tree is called injective if each generator occurs at most once as an edge label. We show that injective labeled oriented trees are aspherical. The proof relies on a new relative asphericity test based on a lemma of Stallings.

  11. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna Thankgod

    2016-01-01

    such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other

  12. Three rules suffice for good label placement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Kapoor, V.; Strijk, T.

    2001-01-01

    The general label-placement problem consists in labeling a set of features (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each feature. The problem arises when annotating classical cartographical maps, diagrams, or graph drawings.

  13. A combinatorial framework for map labeling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wagner, F.; Wolff, A.; Whitesides, S.

    1998-01-01

    The general map labeling problem consists in labeling a set of sites (points, lines, regions) given a set of candidates (rectangles, circles, ellipses, irregularly shaped labels) for each site. A map can be a classical cartographical map, a diagram, a graph or any other figure that needs to be

  14. Gluten-Free Labeling of Foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... issued a final rule defining “gluten-free” for food labeling, which will help consumers, especially those living with ... free” label on foods. Food Facts: Gluten and Food Labeling: FDA’s Regulation of “Gluten-Free” Claims Blog: A ...

  15. Obstacles to nutrition labeling in restaurants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almanza, B A; Nelson, D; Chai, S

    1997-02-01

    This study determined the major obstacles that foodservices face regarding nutrition labeling. Survey questionnaire was conducted in May 1994. In addition to demographic questions, the directors were asked questions addressing willingness, current practices, and perceived obstacles related to nutrition labeling. Sixty-eight research and development directors of the largest foodservice corporations as shown in Restaurants & Institutions magazine's list of the top 400 largest foodservices (July 1993). P tests were used to determine significance within a group for the number of foodservices that were currently using nutrition labeling, perceived impact of nutrition labeling on sales, and perceived responsibility to add nutrition labels. Regression analysis was used to determine the importance of factors on willingness to label. Response rate was 45.3%. Most companies were neutral about their willingness to use nutrition labeling. Two thirds of the respondents were not currently using nutrition labels. Only one third thought that it was the foodservice's responsibility to provide such information. Several companies perceived that nutrition labeling would have a potentially negative effect on annual sales volume. Major obstacles were identified as menu or personnel related, rather than cost related. Menu-related obstacles included too many menu variations, limited space on the menu for labeling, and loss of flexibility in changing the menu. Personnel-related obstacles included difficulty in training employees to implement nutrition labeling, and not enough time for foodservice personnel to implement nutrition labeling. Numerous opportunities will be created for dietetics professionals in helping foodservices overcome these menu- or personnel-related obstacles.

  16. Predictive labeling with dependency pairs using SAT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koprowski, A.; Middeldorp, A.; Pfenning, F.

    2007-01-01

    This paper combines predictive labeling with dependency pairs and reports on its implementation. Our starting point is the method of proving termination of rewrite systems using semantic labeling with infinite models in combination with lexicographic path orders. We replace semantic labeling with

  17. On the Lucky labeling of Graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Ahadi, Arash; Dehghan, Ali; Mollaahmadi, Esmael

    2010-01-01

    Suppose the vertices of a graph $G$ were labeled arbitrarily by positive integers, and let $Sum(v)$ denote the sum of labels over all neighbors of vertex $v$. A labeling is lucky if the function $Sum$ is a proper coloring of $G$, that is, if we have $Sum(u) \

  18. 27 CFR 19.604 - Caution label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Caution label. 19.604... OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Containers and Marks Marks § 19.604 Caution label... denaturer may be printed on such label, but no other extraneous matter will be permitted thereon without the...

  19. 47 CFR 15.19 - Labelling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Labelling requirements. 15.19 Section 15.19 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL RADIO FREQUENCY DEVICES General § 15.19 Labelling... label shall be located in a conspicuous location on the device and shall contain the unique...

  20. 27 CFR 26.39 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 26.39 Section 26.39 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE... United States From Puerto Rico § 26.39 Labels. All labels affixed to bottles of liquors coming into the...

  1. 27 CFR 18.55 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Label. 18.55 Section 18.55... TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Operations § 18.55 Label. Each container of concentrate will have affixed thereto, before transfer, a label identifying the product and...

  2. 27 CFR 19.704 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 19.704 Section 19... TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Samples of Spirits § 19.704 Labels. (a) On each container of spirits to be withdrawn under the provisions of § 19.701, the proprietor shall affix a label showing the...

  3. 46 CFR 188.10-37 - Label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Label. 188.10-37 Section 188.10-37 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) OCEANOGRAPHIC RESEARCH VESSELS GENERAL PROVISIONS Definition of Terms Used in This Subchapter § 188.10-37 Label. This term means the label required by 49 CFR part 172...

  4. 21 CFR 820.120 - Device labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... designed to prevent mixups. (d) Labeling operations. Each manufacturer shall control labeling and packaging... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Device labeling. 820.120 Section 820.120 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES...

  5. What determines consumer attention to nutrition labels?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bialkova, S.E.; Trijp, van J.C.M.

    2010-01-01

    To identify the key determinants of consumer attention to nutrition labels, visual search tasks (present – absent; one – two targets) were used as an effective experimental tool. The main manipulation concerned: set size (number of labels on front of pack); label characteristics (display size,

  6. Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): Data and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search the CDC Attention-Deficit / Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... claims to understand diagnosis and treatment patterns for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). On this page you can ...

  7. Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Renew CHADD Annual Conference Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD), is a national nonprofit organization ... ADHD community. © 2017 by Children and Adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (CHADD). All Rights Reserved. Press Privacy ...

  8. Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Persistence of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder into adulthood: A study conducted on parents of children diagnosed with attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder. ... 10, No 1 (2007) >. Log in or Register to get access to full text downloads.

  9. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Tuberous Sclerosis Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and TSC What is ADHD? Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a common neurobehavioral disorder. It is ...

  10. The Double-Deficit Hypothesis in Spanish Developmental Dyslexia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimenez, Juan E.; Hernandez-Valle, Isabel; Rodriguez, Cristina; Guzman, Remedios; Diaz, Alicia; Ortiz, Rosario

    2008-01-01

    The double-deficit hypothesis (DDH) of developmental dyslexia was investigated in seven to twelve year old Spanish children. It was observed that the double deficit (DD) group had the greatest difficulty with reading.

  11. Synthesis of isotopically labeled ketamine

    OpenAIRE

    Stuchlíková, Lucie

    2011-01-01

    In this work were synthesized ketamine isotopomers. Ketamine is used in human medicine and veterinary sectors. It has very broad spectrum of pharmacological effects: anesthetic, analgesic, hallucinogenic, bronchodilator, cardiovascular and antidepressive, which is currently in the research. At first was synthesized precursor of ketamine, N- desmethylketamine which was subsequently labeled the deuterium, tritium and carbon- 14. For the determination of purity and identity mass spectrometry and...

  12. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charlton, J C; Lewis, A

    1976-12-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting ..cap alpha..-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin.

  13. Radioactively labelled vitamin B12

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charlton, J.C.; Lewis, A.

    1976-01-01

    A method is described for preparing radioactively labelled vitamin B 12 (cyanocobalamin) by reacting α-(5,6-dimethylbenzimidazolyl) hydrogenobamide with active (sup(57,58)Co) cobaltous ion. The latter may be in the form of cobaltous chloride or sulphate in aqueous or aqueous alcoholic medium. The reaction is effected by heating the reactants in darkness at pH 4 to 8. An excess of cyanide is added to convert the hydroxocobalamin formed to cyanocobalamin. (U.K.)

  14. Menakar Label Fundamentalisme Untuk Muslim

    OpenAIRE

    Wibisono, Susilo

    2014-01-01

    This study was developed referring to the negative connotation in using the word “fundamentalism ” and its using as an individual or group label. The method used in this study were literature review using many literatures about Islam and fundamentalism in any perspectives. Based on psychology perspective, it said that fundamentalism is an individual psychological construct associated with beliefs and individual interpretation of something, such as ideology, nationality, and religion. Accordin...

  15. Synthesis of deuterium labelled ibuprofen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cappon, V.J.; Halstead, G.W.; Theis, D.L.

    1986-01-01

    The preparations of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen and [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen are described. The deuterium was incorporated into the aromatic ring of [ar- 2 H 4 ]-ibuprofen which is a metabolically stable position. [ar, 3,3,3- 2 H 7 ]-ibuprofen was synthesized by the same route using [ 2 H 3 ]-CH 3 I instead of CH 3 I for use as a GC/MS internal standard in stable isotope labelled bioavailability studies. (author)

  16. Pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krumbiegel, P.

    1986-11-01

    The relatively new field of pharmaceuticals labelled with stable isotopes is reviewed. Scientific, juridical, and ethical questions are discussed concerning the application of these pharmaceuticals in human medicine. 13 C, 15 N, and 2 H are the stable isotopes mainly utilized in metabolic function tests. Methodical contributions are given to the application of 2 H, 13 C, and 15 N pharmaceuticals showing new aspects and different states of development in the field under discussion. (author)

  17. Nutrition marketing on food labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colby, Sarah E; Johnson, LuAnn; Scheett, Angela; Hoverson, Bonita

    2010-01-01

    This research sought to determine how often nutrition marketing is used on labels of foods that are high in saturated fat, sodium, and/or sugar. All items packaged with food labels (N = 56,900) in all 6 grocery stores in Grand Forks, ND were surveyed. Marketing strategy, nutrient label information, if the product was fruit/or milk based, and target age. Frequency distributions were computed. Forty-nine percent of all products contained nutrition marketing and of those, 48% had both nutrition marketing and were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar (11%, 17%, and 31% respectively). Seventy-one percent of products marketed to children had nutrition marketing. Of those, 59% were high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar content, with more than half being high in sugar. The most commonly used nutrition marketing statements were "good source of calcium", "reduced/low/fat free", and "food company's health symbol". Nutrition marketing is commonly used on products high in saturated fat, sodium and/or sugar and is more often used on products marketed toward children than products marketed toward adults. Current food industry symbols may not be helping consumers select foods low in saturated fat, sodium or sugar. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  18. Biomolecule labelling by 186 Re

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lungu, Valeria Viorica; Mihailescu, Gabriela; Dumitrescu, Gabriela

    1998-01-01

    The aim of this study is to develop and improve the existing radiolabelling techniques of peptides and monoclonal antibodies with 186 Re and 188 Re as potential agents for cancer targeted radiotherapy. We selected the following methods and techniques for direct labelling of peptides and monoclonal antibody: 1. Prereduction of -S-S- bridges of biomolecule to sulfhydryls using reducing agents: ascorbic acid, cysteine, active hydrogen, 2,3 dimercaptopropanol. The prereduction reactions are controlled by massic ratios of reduction agents/biomolecule, pH, temperature and time of incubation; 2. Reduction of 186 Re O 4 - stannous chloride in acid and alkaline pH; 3. Coupling reaction of 186 Re (red) with the biomolecule controlled by the time and temperature of incubation, the influence of pH regarding the binding of 186 Re to the biomolecules. The quality control was effected by chromatography techniques (paper and elution gel chromatography) on labeled biomolecule before and after purification. The elution gel chromatography was spectrophotometricaly monitored at 280 nm. In the same time the radioactivity of samples was measured using a gamma counter. All the results confirm in vitro stability of labeled biomolecule. The biological evaluation studies regarding accumulation and biological affinity will be controlled by scintigraphy method. Biodistribution studies will be effected to Walker tumor bearing animals at 4 and 24 hours after injections. (authors)

  19. Isotopically labelled pyrimidines and purines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balaban, A.T.; Bally, I.

    1987-01-01

    Among the three diazines, pyrimidine is by far the most important one because its derivatives uracil, thymine and cytosine are constituents of the ubiquitous deoxynucleic acids (DNA) and ribonucleic acids (RNA). Other derivatives of pyrimidine without condensed rings include barbiturates, alloxan, orotic acid and thiamine or vitamin B 1 . From the polycyclic derivatives of pyrimidine such as pteridine, alloxazine, and purine, the latter, through its derivatives adenine and guanine complete the list of bases which occur in DNA and RNA: in addition, other purine derivatives such as hypoxanthine, xanthine, theobromine, theophylline, caffeine and uric acid are important natural products with biological activity. The paper presents methods for preparing isotopically labeled pyrimidines as well as purine derivatives. For convenience, the authors describe separately carbon-labeled with radioisotopes 11 C (T 1/2 = 20.3 min) and 14 C (T 1/2 = 5736 years) or the stable isotope 13 C (natural abundance 1.1%) and then hydrogen-labeled systems with the radioisotope 3 H ≡ T (T 1/2 = 12.346 years) or with the stable isotope 2 H ≡ D (natural abundance 0.015%). We do not separate stable from radioactive isotopes because the synthetic methods are identical for the same element; however, the introduction of hydrogen isotopes into organic molecules is often performed by reactions such as isotope exchange which cannot take place in the case of carbon isotopes

  20. The impact of a budget deficit on inflation in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Makochekanwa, Albert

    2008-01-01

    The Zimbabwean economy is one of the many numbers of countries that has experienced a relatively high fiscal deficit for a prolonged period with the result of a high inflationary environment. This paper examines the deficit-inflation nexus in the Zimbabwean economy and establishes the causal link that runs from the budget deficit to the inflation rate using Johansen (1991, 1995) cointegration technique over the period 1980 – 2005. Due to massive monetization of the budget deficit, significant...

  1. Impact of Budget Deficit on Inflation in Zimbabwe

    OpenAIRE

    Albert Makochekanwa

    2011-01-01

    The Zimbabwean economy is one of the countries that once experienced a relatively high fiscal deficit for a prolonged period which resulted in a hyper inflationary environment. This paper examines the deficit-inflation nexus in the Zimbabwean economy and establishes the causal link that runs from the budget deficit to the inflation rate using Johansen (1991, 1995) cointegration technique over the period 1980 to 2005. Due to massive monetization of the budget deficit, significant inflationary ...

  2. Cognitive deficits in the remitted state of unipolar depressive disorder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasselbalch, Bo Jacob; Knorr, Ulla Benedichte Søsted; Hasselbalch, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present.......Patients with unipolar depressive disorder may present with cognitive deficits in the remitted state, and the aim of the present study was to investigate whether cognitive deficits within specific cognitive domains are present....

  3. Examination of the evidence for off-label use of gabapentin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mack, Alicia

    2003-01-01

    (1) Describe the relevance of off-label use of gabapentin to managed care pharmacy; (2) summarize recent FDA warnings and media reports related to off-label gabapentin use; (3) review medical information pertaining to the off-label use of gabapentin; (4) outline alternatives to off-label use of gabapentin in an evidence-based fashion, where literature exists to support such alternatives; and (5) encourage key clinicians and decision makers in managed care pharmacy to develop and support programs that restrict the use of gabapentin to specific evidence-based situations. Gabapentin is approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for adjunctive therapy in treatment of partial seizures and postherpetic neuralgia. Various off-label (unapproved) uses have been reported, and the use of gabapentin for off-label purposes has reportedly exceeded use for FDAapproved indications. Pharmaceutical marketing practices and physician dissatisfaction with currently available pharmacological treatment options may be key factors that contribute to this prescribing trend. Recently, the media has focused on these issues, noting that many cases of reported safety and effectiveness of gabapentin for off-label use may have been fabricated. A thorough review of the medical and pharmacy literature related to off-label use of gabapentin was performed, and a summary of the literature for the following conditions is presented: bipolar disorder, peripheral neuropathy, diabetic neuropathy, complex regional pain syndrome, attention deficit disorder, restless legs syndrome, trigeminal neuralgia, periodic limb movement disorder of sleep, migraine headaches, and alcohol withdrawal syndrome. A common theme in the medical literature for gabapentin is the prevalence of open-label studies and a lack of randomized controlled clinical trials for all but a small number of indications. In the majority of circumstances where it has reported potential for.off-label. use, gabapentin is not the optimal

  4. Human brain lesion-deficit inference remapped.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mah, Yee-Haur; Husain, Masud; Rees, Geraint; Nachev, Parashkev

    2014-09-01

    Our knowledge of the anatomical organization of the human brain in health and disease draws heavily on the study of patients with focal brain lesions. Historically the first method of mapping brain function, it is still potentially the most powerful, establishing the necessity of any putative neural substrate for a given function or deficit. Great inferential power, however, carries a crucial vulnerability: without stronger alternatives any consistent error cannot be easily detected. A hitherto unexamined source of such error is the structure of the high-dimensional distribution of patterns of focal damage, especially in ischaemic injury-the commonest aetiology in lesion-deficit studies-where the anatomy is naturally shaped by the architecture of the vascular tree. This distribution is so complex that analysis of lesion data sets of conventional size cannot illuminate its structure, leaving us in the dark about the presence or absence of such error. To examine this crucial question we assembled the largest known set of focal brain lesions (n = 581), derived from unselected patients with acute ischaemic injury (mean age = 62.3 years, standard deviation = 17.8, male:female ratio = 0.547), visualized with diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging, and processed with validated automated lesion segmentation routines. High-dimensional analysis of this data revealed a hidden bias within the multivariate patterns of damage that will consistently distort lesion-deficit maps, displacing inferred critical regions from their true locations, in a manner opaque to replication. Quantifying the size of this mislocalization demonstrates that past lesion-deficit relationships estimated with conventional inferential methodology are likely to be significantly displaced, by a magnitude dependent on the unknown underlying lesion-deficit relationship itself. Past studies therefore cannot be retrospectively corrected, except by new knowledge that would render them redundant

  5. Scintigraphy with In-111 labeled leukocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, Kazuo; Tsukamoto, Eriko; Furudate, Masayori; Saito, Chihoko.

    1987-01-01

    With increasing necessity for In-111 labeled leukocyte scintigraphy (ILLS) as a routine examination, a problem of complicated labeling of leukocytes has arisen. In this study, simplified labeling of leukocytes was examined with respect to its ability to detect abscesses. Simplified labeling method yielded significantly satisfactory results for recovery and labeling rates of leukocytes, as compared with conventional recommended method. Therefore, ILLS by simplified technique was clinically applied in 58 patients with suppurative or non-suppurative diseases who gave informed consent. In an analysis of ILLS for detecting suppurative region, the sensitivity, specificity, and corrected specificity were found to be 81 %, 75 %, and 82 %, respectively. (Namekawa, K.)

  6. METHOD AND MODULE FOR OPTICAL SUBCARRIER LABELLING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2004-01-01

    The present invention relates to optical labelling in WDM networks, in that it provides a method and a module to be used in subcarrier label generation and switching in network edge nodes and core switch nodes. The methods and modules are typically employed in Optical Subcarrier Multiplexing (OSCM......) transmitters. The payload and the label are encoded independently on optical carrier and subcarrier signals respectively, using electro-optical modulators. The invention applies single or double sideband carrier-suppressed modulation to generate subcarrier signals for encoding of the label. Thereby the payload...... encoded carrier signal and the label encoded subcarrier signal can be coupled directly without prior filtering....

  7. Protein labelling with stable isotopes: strategies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lirsac, P.N.; Gilles, N.; Jamin, N.; Toma, F.; Gabrielsen, O.; Boulain, J.C.; Menez, A.

    1994-01-01

    A protein labelling technique with stable isotopes has been developed at the CEA: a labelled complete medium has been developed, performing as well as the Luria medium, but differing from it because it contains not only free aminated acids and peptides, but also sugars (96% of D-glucopyrannose) and labelled nucleosides. These precursors are produced from a labelled photosynthetic micro-organisms biomass, obtained with micro-algae having incorporated carbon 13, nitrogen 15 and deuterium during their culture. Labelling costs are reduced. 1 fig., 1 tab., 3 refs

  8. Perceived Cognitive Deficits, Emotional Distress and Disability following Whiplash Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael JL Sullivan

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To describe the pattern of perceived cognitive deficits in patients with whiplash injury, to examine the relation between perceived cognitive deficits and disability, and to examine the determinants of perceived cognitive deficits in patients with whiplash injury.

  9. Greenhouse evaluation of deficit irrigation on the growth of tomato ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Deficit irrigation is considered to be an important approach for crop cultivation in dry regions where water resources are scarce. Deficit irrigation can be used also to decrease the level of infections by some moisturedependent plant pests and diseases such as root-knot nematode disease. Therefore, deficit irrigation at levels ...

  10. Word Processing in Dyslexics: An Automatic Decoding Deficit?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Regina; Van Der Leu, Aryan

    1993-01-01

    Compares dyslexic children with normal readers on measures of phonological decoding and automatic word processing. Finds that dyslexics have a deficit in automatic phonological decoding skills. Discusses results within the framework of the phonological deficit and the automatization deficit hypotheses. (RS)

  11. Spin labelling of human erythrocytes with nitroxide radicals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chagalj, C.; DePaoli, T.C.P.; Hager, A.A.; Palaoro, L.A.; Rubin de Celis, E.; Farach, H.A.; Poole, C.P. jr

    1984-01-01

    Human erythrocytes were labelled with nitroxide, the spin label SYNVAR 101, under various experimantal conditions. A study was made of the influence of antireductants on the labelling efficiency and the kinetics of the radical decay during the labelling process

  12. Research of private label development in Croatia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Horvat

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Private labels have been present on the market since 19th century but their intensive market growth began in the last thirty years after retailers realized what their potential could be in the fight against ever-growing competition. Their market growth has not been distributed equally thought the world so Europe became the region with the highest private label market share, which exceeds 40% on some markets. Although the private label market share in Croatia is considerably smaller, it has also increased steadily over the last decade since private labels were introduced on the market. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in private label development on the Croatian market. The research was conducted through in-depth interviews with private label managers in retail companies in Croatia, and with the managers responsible for private label production in manufacturing companies. The research identified three expected trends of private label development in Croatia and these are: an increase in private label quality, the maintenance of a price gap between private labels and manufacturers’ brands and a further increase in the private label market share.

  13. Traumatic knee extension deficit (the locked knee)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helmark, I C; Neergaard, K; Krogsgaard, M R

    2007-01-01

    In the present study we investigated the validity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and arthroscopy in knees with acute, traumatic extension deficit (the "locked knee"), and evaluated whether arthroscopy of knees with no mechanical pathology could be avoided by MRI evaluation. The study consisted...... of 50 patients who had an acute, traumatic extension deficit of the knee. All patients were submitted to MRI prior to arthroscopy. Following MRI and surgery, standardized forms were filled out, attempting to objectify the findings. The orthopaedic surgeon was not aware of the MRI result prior to surgery....... Evaluating MRI, all grade-3 meniscal lesions were considered able to cause a mechanical block as well as acute partial or total anterior cruciate ligament (ACL)-ruptures. ACL-ruptures with an old appearance were not considered able to cause locking. Assuming that arthroscopy was the gold standard...

  14. Common Cognitive Deficits in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder and Autism: Working Memory and Visual-Motor Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Englund, Julia A.; Decker, Scott L.; Allen, Ryan A.; Roberts, Alycia M.

    2014-01-01

    Cognitive deficits in working memory (WM) are characteristic features of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) and autism. However, few studies have investigated cognitive deficits using a wide range of cognitive measures. We compared children with ADHD ("n" = 49) and autism ("n" = 33) with a demographically matched…

  15. The deficit mechanism of the Hungarian municipalities

    OpenAIRE

    Vasvári, Tamás

    2012-01-01

    The management of the Hungarian municipal sector has received special attention since the crisis in 2008 and interest in the sector increased further due to the changes in legislation in 2011. A great number of economy experts and speakers on behalf of the government or the municipalities provided further details on prevailing issues in the municipal sector, however, their assessment of the severity of these issues varied greatly. By describing the logical framework of the deficit mechanism t...

  16. Sensorimotor gating deficits in multiple system atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zoetmulder, Marielle; Biernat, Heidi Bryde; Nikolic, Miki

    2014-01-01

    Prepulse inhibition (PPI) of the auditory blink reflex is a measure of sensorimotor gating, which reflects an organism's ability to filter out irrelevant sensory information. PPI has never been studied in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA), although sensorimotor deficits are frequently a...... associated with synucleinopathies. We investigated whether alterations in PPI were more pronounced in MSA compared with Parkinson's disease (PD), idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (iRBD) and healthy controls....

  17. ATTENTION DEFICIT HYPERACTIVITY DISORDER. A CLINICAL LECTURE

    OpenAIRE

    A. S. Kotov; M. N. Borisova; M. V. Panteleeva; Yu. V. Matyuk; A. V. Shatalin

    2015-01-01

    Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a serious problem to pediatric neurologists. The prevalence of ADHD in developed countries ranges from 1 to 20 %. ADHD is characterized by a triad of symptoms: inattention, hyperactivity, and impulsivity (the International Statistical Classification of Diseases, 10th revision, codes it as F90) and it is the most common conduct disorder in children. The etiology of ADHD remains disсutable to the present day; there are a few basic concepts of t...

  18. Partitioning and mobilization of photoassimilate by alfalfa subjected to water deficits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hall, M.H.

    1987-01-01

    Our objective was to determine the effect of stress induced by water deficit on photoassimilate partitioning and the utilization of stored assimilates during regrowth. Field and greenhouse experiments were conducted using alfalfa cultivars differing in winter hardiness. Plants were subjected to water stress, pulse-labeled with 14 CO 2 , and sampled following 0, 1, and 14 d translocation periods. Subsequent samples were taken at 7 and 14 d after harvest and rewatering. Water stress resulted in herbage and root dry mass of 65 and 119% of the control, respectively, 14 d after labeling. Stressed plants had similar net carbon exchange and respiration rates but retained 10% greater percent total plant radioactivity (%TPR) in the leaves at the onset of the translocation period than did those of the control. Roots of water-stressed plants had 8% more starch and 12% greater %TPR in the starch fraction 14 d after labeling than did roots of control plants. The stressed plant roots contained 73 and 114% more %TPR than the control at the 1 and 14 d translocation periods, respectively. Water stress had no effect on individual or total root sugar concentration or the %TPR of the root sugar fraction. Alfalfa regrowth mass following harvest and rewatering of the water-stressed plants were similar to that of the control

  19. Medical Comorbidities in Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irem Yalug

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder is one of the most common developmental disorders of childhood with a reported world-wide prevalence of 8 to 12 %. In studies conducted in our country the prevalence rates in community were reported to vary between 8.6 to 8.1 % while clinical prevalence rates were reported to vary between 8.6 to 29.44 %. Fifty to eighty percent of cases were reported to continue into adolescence while thirty to fifty percent may continue into adulthood. Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder is known to accompany subtle physical anomalies, allergic and neurologic disorders, obesity and eating disorders, traumatic injuries, risky sexual behavior, sleep disorders, substance and alcohol use, axis I and II disorders, occupational, legal and academic problems and increased treatment expenditures. Though the effects of this disorder continue throughout life, create burdens to the society along with its treatment as well as disabling the affected patients through their lives, and receive increasing attention in recent years, reviews focusing on problems associated with it are lacking. Therefore, this study aimed to summarize the results of previous studies conducted about medical comorbidities in attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

  20. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Paul Douglas Garratt

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  1. Pollination deficits in UK apple orchards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Potts

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Apple production in the UK is worth over £100 million per annum and this production is heavily dependent on insect pollination. Despite its importance, it is not clear which insect pollinators carry out the majority of this pollination. Furthermore, it is unknown whether current UK apple production, in terms of both yield and quality, suffers pollination deficits and whether production value could be increased through effective management of pollination services. The present study set out to address some of these unknowns and showed that solitary bee activity is high in orchards and that they could be making a valuable contribution to pollination. Furthermore, fruit set and apple seed number were found to be suffering potential pollination deficits although these were not reflected in apple quality. Deficits could be addressed through orchard management practices to improve the abundance and diversity of wild pollinators. Such practices include provision of additional floral resources and nesting habitats as well as preservation of semi-natural areas. The cost effectiveness of such strategies would need to be understood taking into account the potential gains to the apple industry.

  2. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition ameliorates deficits in motivational drive

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martinowich Keri

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Apathy is frequently observed in numerous neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, as well as neuropsychiatric disorders including schizophrenia. Apathy is defined as a lack of motivation characterized by diminished goal-oriented behavior and self-initiated activity. This study evaluated a chronic restraint stress (CRS protocol in modeling apathetic behavior, and determined whether administration of an anticholinesterase had utility in attenuating CRS-induced phenotypes. Methods We assessed behavior as well as regional neuronal activity patterns using FosB immunohistochemistry after exposure to CRS for 6 h/d for a minimum of 21 d. Based on our FosB findings and recent clinical trials, we administered an anticholinesterase to evaluate attenuation of CRS-induced phenotypes. Results CRS resulted in behaviors that reflect motivational loss and diminished emotional responsiveness. CRS-exposed mice showed differences in FosB accumulation, including changes in the cholinergic basal forebrain system. Facilitating cholinergic signaling ameliorated CRS-induced deficits in initiation and motivational drive and rescued immediate early gene activation in the medial septum and nucleus accumbens. Conclusions Some CRS protocols may be useful for studying deficits in motivation and apathetic behavior. Amelioration of CRS-induced behaviors with an anticholinesterase supports a role for the cholinergic system in remediation of deficits in motivational drive.

  3. The problem of budgetary deficit in modern economies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanulović Milana

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A surplus of expenditure over revenues in the government budget is called a budgetary deficit. Budgetary deficit, in itself, is not a negative thing. If the budgetary deficit allows full employment and helps reaching economic policy goals, there is full understanding for having a budgetary deficit. Budgetary deficit of the Republic of Serbia has shown an increasing tendency in the period 2005-2016. After this period, budgetary deficit has started to decrease as a result of fiscal consolidation measures. Besides avoiding the negative consequences of a budgetary deficit, Serbia has to maintain its budgetary deficit at a level below 3% of GDP, because that is a requirement for joining the European Union. This also applies to countries which are already members of the EU, but they have the right to short term deviations during the economic crisis. The European Union uses these rules to maintain fiscal discipline. By comparing budgetary deficits of the developed and developing countries, we can see a big difference in levels of deficits. Developed countries have higher deficits in the first years of economic recession, while the developing countries' budgets show economic crisis consequences in the subsequent years. The reasons for that lie in crisis overflow channels, thanks to which the developed countries were the first to experience crisis, and only later it affected the developing countries, too.

  4. Brain neurodevelopmental markers related to the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Tsutomu; Takayanagi, Yoichiro; Nishikawa, Yumiko; Nakamura, Mihoko; Komori, Yuko; Furuichi, Atsushi; Kido, Mikio; Sasabayashi, Daiki; Noguchi, Kyo; Suzuki, Michio

    2017-08-30

    Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i.e., olfactory sulcus depth, sulcogyral pattern, and number of orbital sulci) of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). The subtype classification of schizophrenia patients was based on the score of Proxy for the Deficit Syndrome. The deficit schizophrenia group had a significantly shorter AI compared with the non-deficit group and controls. The deficit group, but not the non-deficit group, was also characterized by an altered distribution of the OFC sulcogyral pattern, as well as fewer posterior orbital sulcus compared with controls. Other neurodevelopmental markers did not differentiate the deficit and non-deficit subgroups. These results suggest that the deficit subtype of schizophrenia and its clinical manifestation may be at least partly related to prominent neurodevelopmental pathology. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Tritium labeling of detonation nanodiamonds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Hugues A; El-Kharbachi, Abdelouahab; Garcia-Argote, Sébastien; Petit, Tristan; Bergonzo, Philippe; Rousseau, Bernard; Arnault, Jean-Charles

    2014-03-18

    For the first time, the radioactive labeling of detonation nanodiamonds was efficiently achieved using a tritium microwave plasma. According to our measurements, the total radioactivity reaches 9120 ± 120 μCi mg(-1), with 93% of (3)H atoms tightly bonded to the surface and up to 7% embedded into the diamond core. Such (3)H doping will ensure highly stable radiolabeled nanodiamonds, on which surface functionalization is still allowed. This breakthrough opens the way to biodistribution and pharmacokinetics studies of nanodiamonds, while this approach can be scalable to easily treat bulk quantities of nanodiamonds at low cost.

  6. Hemoglobin Labeled by Radioactive Lysine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bale, W. F.; Yuile, C. L.; DeLaVergne, L.; Miller, L. L.; Whipple, G. H.

    1949-12-08

    This paper reports on the utilization of tagged epsilon carbon of DL-lysine by a dog both anemic and hypoproteinemic due to repeated bleeding plus a diet low in protein. The experiment extended over period of 234 days, a time sufficient to indicate an erythrocyte life span of at least 115 days based upon the rate of replacement of labeled red cell proteins. The proteins of broken down red cells seem not to be used with any great preference for the synthesis of new hemoglobin.

  7. Food nutrition labelling practice in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yexuan; Li, Ji; Lo, Y Martin; Tang, Qingya; Wang, Youfa

    2011-03-01

    The present study aimed to scrutinize the food nutrition labelling practice in China before the Chinese Food Nutrition Labeling Regulation (CFNLR) era. Nutrition information of pre-packaged foods collected from a supermarket between December 2007 and January 2008 was analysed and compared with findings from a survey conducted in Beijing. Information collected from a supermarket in Shanghai. A total of 850 pre-packaged foods. In the Shanghai survey, the overall labelling rate was 30·9 %, similar to that found in the Beijing study (29·7 %). While only 20·5 % of the snacks in Shanghai had nutrition labelling, the percentage of food items labelled with SFA (8·6 %), trans fatty acid (4·7 %) or fibre (12·1 %) was very low. Of those food items with nutrition labels, a considerable proportion (7-15 %) did not label energy, fat, carbohydrate or protein. Food products manufactured by Taiwan and Hong Kong companies had a lower labelling rate (13·6 %) than those manufactured by domestic (31·6 %) or international manufacturers (33·8 %). The very low food nutrition labelling rate among products sold in large chain supermarkets in major cities of China before CFNLR emphasizes the need for such critical regulations to be implemented in order to reinforce industrial compliance with accurate nutrition labelling.

  8. Consumer knowledge and attitudes toward nutritional labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cannoosamy, Komeela; Pugo-Gunsam, Prity; Jeewon, Rajesh

    2014-01-01

    To determine Mauritian consumers' attitudes toward nutritional labels based on the Kano model and to identify determinants of the use and understanding of nutrition labels. The researchers also used a Kano model questionnaire to determine consumers' attitudes toward nutrition labeling. Four hundred consumers residing in Mauritius. Information was elicited via a questionnaire that assessed nutritional knowledge and information about the use and understanding of nutritional labels and demographic factors. Nutritional label use and understanding, nutrition knowledge, and association of demographic factors with label use. Statistical tests performed included 1-way ANOVA and independent samples t tests. Statistically significant relationships (P nutritional knowledge and nutritional label usage with demographic factors. All demographic factors with the exception of gender were significantly associated (P nutritional label understanding. Based on the outcome of the Kano survey, calorie content, trans fat content, protein content, and cholesterol content were found to be must-be attributes: that is, attributes that, when not present, result in consumer dissatisfaction. Age, education, income, household size, and nutrition knowledge had an impact on nutritional label use. Health promoters should aim to increase the use of nutritional labels. Copyright © 2014 Society for Nutrition Education and Behavior. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Lisdexamfetamine for treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowles, Brian J

    2009-04-01

    To review the pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of the prodrug lisdexamfetamine for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children and adults and describe its potential place in therapy. Primary literature published between January 1, 1990, and August 1, 2008, was selected from PubMed using the search key words lisdexamfetamine, Vyvanse, and NRP104. References of selected publications were also reviewed. Posters and abstracts of research presented at national meetings were reviewed when available. The product labeling for Vyvanse was also used. Preference was given to published, randomized, and controlled research describing the pharmacokinetics, efficacy, and safety of lisdexamfetamine. Noncontrolled studies, postmarketing reports, and poster presentations were considered secondly. All published studies were included. Lisdexamfetamine is a prodrug of dextroamphetamine covalently bound to l-lysine, which is activated during first-pass metabolism. The unique pharmacokinetic profile owing to lisdexamfetamine's prodrug design and rate-limited enzymatic biotransformation allows for once-daily dosing with a duration of activity of approximately 12 hours. Lisdexamfetamine has been proven to reduce the symptoms of ADHD both in children aged 6-12 years and adults aged 18-55 years, decreasing ADHD rating scale scores by approximately 27 and 19 points, respectively. Adverse effects with an incidence greater than 10% during preclinical trials included appetite suppression, insomnia, and headache. Lisdexamfetamine's unique pharmacokinetic properties may provide additional safety with regard to reducing abuse potential. As with other central nervous system (CNS) stimulants, concerns regarding sudden cardiac death and adverse effects on growth also apply to lisdexamfetamine. Lisdexamfetamine provides another amphetamine-based CNS stimulant option for treatment of children and adults with ADHD. However, its use may be limited by a

  10. Label Space Reduction in MPLS Networks: How Much Can A Single Stacked Label Do?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solano, Fernando; Stidsen, Thomas K.; Fabregat, Ramon

    2008-01-01

    Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS-allowing the config......Most network operators have considered reducing LSR label spaces (number of labels used) as a way of simplifying management of underlaying virtual private networks (VPNs) and therefore reducing operational expenditure (OPEX). The IETF outlined the label merging feature in MPLS...

  11. Link Label Prediction in Signed Citation Network

    KAUST Repository

    Akujuobi, Uchenna

    2016-04-12

    Link label prediction is the problem of predicting the missing labels or signs of all the unlabeled edges in a network. For signed networks, these labels can either be positive or negative. In recent years, different algorithms have been proposed such as using regression, trust propagation and matrix factorization. These approaches have tried to solve the problem of link label prediction by using ideas from social theories, where most of them predict a single missing label given that labels of other edges are known. However, in most real-world social graphs, the number of labeled edges is usually less than that of unlabeled edges. Therefore, predicting a single edge label at a time would require multiple runs and is more computationally demanding. In this thesis, we look at link label prediction problem on a signed citation network with missing edge labels. Our citation network consists of papers from three major machine learning and data mining conferences together with their references, and edges showing the relationship between them. An edge in our network is labeled either positive (dataset relevant) if the reference is based on the dataset used in the paper or negative otherwise. We present three approaches to predict the missing labels. The first approach converts the label prediction problem into a standard classification problem. We then, generate a set of features for each edge and then adopt Support Vector Machines in solving the classification problem. For the second approach, we formalize the graph such that the edges are represented as nodes with links showing similarities between them. We then adopt a label propagation method to propagate the labels on known nodes to those with unknown labels. In the third approach, we adopt a PageRank approach where we rank the nodes according to the number of incoming positive and negative edges, after which we set a threshold. Based on the ranks, we can infer an edge would be positive if it goes a node above the

  12. Multimodal label-free microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Pavillon

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper reviews the different multimodal applications based on a large extent of label-free imaging modalities, ranging from linear to nonlinear optics, while also including spectroscopic measurements. We put specific emphasis on multimodal measurements going across the usual boundaries between imaging modalities, whereas most multimodal platforms combine techniques based on similar light interactions or similar hardware implementations. In this review, we limit the scope to focus on applications for biology such as live cells or tissues, since by their nature of being alive or fragile, we are often not free to take liberties with the image acquisition times and are forced to gather the maximum amount of information possible at one time. For such samples, imaging by a given label-free method usually presents a challenge in obtaining sufficient optical signal or is limited in terms of the types of observable targets. Multimodal imaging is then particularly attractive for these samples in order to maximize the amount of measured information. While multimodal imaging is always useful in the sense of acquiring additional information from additional modes, at times it is possible to attain information that could not be discovered using any single mode alone, which is the essence of the progress that is possible using a multimodal approach.

  13. Labeled receptor ligands for spect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kung, H.F.

    1989-01-01

    Receptor specific imaging agents for single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) can potentially be useful in the understanding of basic biochemistry and pharmacology of receptors. SPECT images may also provide tools for evaluation of density and binding kinetics of a specific receptor, information important for diagnosis and patient management. Basic requirements for receptor imaging agents are: (a) they are labeled with short-lived isotopes, (b) they show high selectivity and specific uptake, (c) they exhibit high target/background ratio, and (d) they can be modeled to obtain quantitative information. Several good examples of CNS receptor specific ligands labeled with I-123 have been developed, including iodoQNB, iodoestrogen iodobenzadiazepine, iodobenazepine, iodobenzamides for muscarinic, estrogen benzadiazepine, D-1 and D-2 dopamine receptors. With the advent of newer and faster SPECT imaging devices, it may be feasible to quantitate the receptor density by in vivo imaging techniques. These new brain imaging agents can provide unique diagnostic information, which may not be available through other imaging modalities, such as CT and MRI

  14. Executive and attentional contributions to Theory of Mind deficit in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mary, Alison; Slama, Hichem; Mousty, Philippe; Massat, Isabelle; Capiau, Tatiana; Drabs, Virginie; Peigneux, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in children has been associated with attentional and executive problems, but also with socioemotional difficulties possibly associated with deficits in Theory of Mind (ToM). Socioemotional problems in ADHD are associated with more negative prognoses, notably interpersonal, educational problems, and an increased risk of developing other psychiatric disorders that emphasize the need to clarify the nature of their ToM deficits. In this study, we hypothesized that ToM dysfunction in children with ADHD is largely attributable to their attentional and/or executive deficits. Thirty-one children with ADHD (8-12 years, IQ > 85) and 31 typically developing (TD) children were assessed using executive functions (inhibition, planning, and flexibility) and attentional tasks, as well as two advanced ToM tasks (Reading the Mind in the Eyes and Faux Pas) involving different levels of executive control. Children with ADHD performed more poorly than TD children in attentional, executive function, and ToM tasks. Linear regression analyses conducted in the ADHD group indicated that inhibition scores predicted performance on the "Faux Pas" task the best, while attention scores were the best for predicting performance on the Reading the Mind in the Eyes task. When controlled for inhibition and attentional variables, ToM performance in children with ADHD was actually similar to TD children. Contrarily, controlling for ToM scores did not normalize performance for inhibition and attentional tasks in children with ADHD. This unidirectional relationship suggests that deficits in the EF and attentional domains are responsible for ToM deficits in ADHD, which therefore may contribute to their socioemotional difficulties.

  15. Labeling of the spent fuel waste package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Culbreth, W.G.; Chagari, A.K.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that the containers used to store spent fuel in an underground repository must meet federal guidelines that call for unique labels that identify the contents and processing history. Existing standards in the nuclear power industry and relevant ASME/ANSI codes have been reviewed for possible application to the spent-fuel container labeling. An Array of labeling techniques were found that include recommendations for: fonts, word spacing, color combinations, label materials and mounting methods, placement, and content. The use of bar code, optical character recognition, and RF labels were also studied to meet the requirement that the container labels be consistent with the methods used to maintain the repository records

  16. Radiopharmaceutical potential of I-131 labelled diazepam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yurt, F.; Unek, P.; Asikoglu, M.; Baggi, S.; Erener, G.; Ozkilic, H.; Uluc, F.; Tuglular, I.

    1998-01-01

    In this study, diazepam is a derivative of the 1.4 benzodiazepine family that the most widely used drug as anticonvulsant agent has been labeled with I-131, as a new radiopharmaceutical and its radiopharmaceutical potential has been determined. Labeling of diazepam has been performed by iodogen method and optimum labeling conditions have been determined. Optimum reaction conditions are 1 mg for iodogen amount; 1-5 mg for diazepam amount, 15-20 minutes for reaction time and room temperature for reaction temperature. Specific activity of labeled compound was 0,15 Ci/mmol level. N-octanol/water ratio was found 1.9 for 131 IDZ ( 131 I labeled diazepam). In vivo experiments have been carried out to determine radiopharmaceutical potentials of labeled compound. Biodistribution studies on rats showed that 131 IDZ have accumulated in kidneys, liver, lungs and brain tissues. Scintigraphic results taken with gamma camera on rabbits agree with biodistribution results of rats. (author)

  17. Green power: naturemade - History of a label

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lainsecq, M. de

    2003-01-01

    This article presents the history of the set of 'naturemade' labels that are used to designate power generated in facilities that use renewable energy. Electricity from hydropower, wind-power, biogas and solar energy plants that fulfil particular ecological conditions receives a special label, 'Naturemade Star'. 'Normal' hydropower can be awarded the 'Naturemade Basic' label. The development of the labels is discussed in the light of increasing liberalisation of European electricity markets and increasing sales of 'green power' by electricity utilities. The need for certification of production facilities and the founding of the label's certification authority, the 'Verein fuer umweltgerechte Elektrizitaet' (VUE), a society for the promotion of environment-friendly electricity, are discussed. Criticisms made by certain environmental protection organisations on the awarding of the 'Naturemade Basic' label to projects that in their opinion do not help protect the environment are quoted. The article is completed with an interview on the subject with Ursula Stocker from the VUE

  18. Chemoenzymatic synthesis of carbon-14 labelled antioxidants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deigner, H.P.; Freyberg, C.; Heck, R.

    1993-01-01

    The syntheses of [ 14 C] labelled antioxidants are described. We developed an efficient synthetic methodology to prepare a series of labelled amides with antioxidant activity, starting from [ 14 C] KCN and alkyl or aryl halides. By a combination of nucleophilic displacement of halides by [ 14 C] cyanide, mediated by ultrasound and subsequent mild and selective enzymatic hydrolysis of the resulting nitriles, labelled carboxylic acids were obtained. Labelled amines were prepared by reduction of the respective nitriles. Availability of [ 14 C] KCN, efficient introduction of the label by ultrasound mediated reaction and selective and mild hydrolysis by commercially available nitrilase (Rhodococcus sp.), makes possible a wide range of applications of this methodology in the synthesis of functionalized labelled compounds. (Author)

  19. Functional alterations of human platelets following indium-111 labelling using different incubation media and labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isaka, Yoshinari; Imaizumi, Masatoshi; Kimura, Kazufumi; Matsumoto, Masayasu; Kamada, Takenobu

    1991-01-01

    Human platelets were labelled in the absence of presence of plasma using 111 In-labelled oxine sulphate, tropolone or 2-mercaptopyridine-N-oxide (MPO). Under in vitro and in vivo conditions, platelet functions were evaluated by measuring their aggregability, survival, recovery and early distribution. High labelling efficiency was achieved in saline labelling, whereas with plasma labelling, it was necessary to concentrate the platelet-rich plasma to 4.8x10 6 platelets/μl. The aggregation of platelets labelled in plasma or saline was compared with that of controls; platelets labelled in saline showed lower aggregability in 2 μM ADP but not in 5 μM ADP nor with collagen. No significant differences in platelet survival and recovery were noted between platelets labelled in plasma and those labelled in saline. Our results indicate that partial loss of ADP aggregability in vitro does not influence the in vivo viability of platelets labelled in saline. Scintigraphic studies showed that platelets labelled in a saline medium were temporarily sequestrated in the liver but not in the spleen or heart. Thus, platelet labelling in saline does not affect platelet function adversely, but platelets labelled in plasma are more desirable for assessing the early distribution of platelets in the reticuloendothelial system. (orig.)

  20. ML-MG: Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using a Mixed Graph

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2015-12-07

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e. some of their labels are missing). To handle missing labels, we propose a unified model of label dependencies by constructing a mixed graph, which jointly incorporates (i) instance-level similarity and class co-occurrence as undirected edges and (ii) semantic label hierarchy as directed edges. Unlike most MLML methods, We formulate this learning problem transductively as a convex quadratic matrix optimization problem that encourages training label consistency and encodes both types of label dependencies (i.e. undirected and directed edges) using quadratic terms and hard linear constraints. The alternating direction method of multipliers (ADMM) can be used to exactly and efficiently solve this problem. To evaluate our proposed method, we consider two popular applications (image and video annotation), where the label hierarchy can be derived from Wordnet. Experimental results show that our method achieves a significant improvement over state-of-the-art methods in performance and robustness to missing labels.

  1. Synthesis of carboxy-labelled 1-carnitine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goodfellow, D.B.; Hoppel, C.L.; Turkaly, J.S.

    1982-01-01

    A method for the production of carboxy-labelled l-carnitine is described. The first step is the chemical synthesis of 4-N-trimethylammoniobutanoate (butyrobetaine) from the precursors 4-aminobutanoate and iodomethane. The second step involves the hydroxylation of butyrobetaine to form l-carnitine using butyrobetaine hydroxylase partially purified from bovine calf liver. The method also can be used to synthesize Me-labelled and uniformly-chain-labelled l-carnitine. (author)

  2. What does it Mean to Be Well-Informed? Rhetorics, Perceptions and Attitudes on the Problem of Transgenic Food Labelling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JÓSEAN LARRIÓN

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, we develop a case study, focused on Spain and the European Union, on the controversy over the labelling of transgenic foods. This paper firstly compares the social discourses that conceive labelling essentially as being a problem or a solution. Secondly, an analysis is provided of the main legislative responses, together with the specific issues that remain controversial in this field. Thirdly, the limits of the cognitive deficit model and the problem of establishing what information is relevant or irrelevant are discussed. The research concludes by showing the presence of the rhetorics of safety and risk, and proposes an outline of social positions around the consumption of transgenic foods, their differential labelling, and the endeavour of science in our societies.

  3. Adaptation to emotional conflict: evidence from a novel face emotion paradigm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clayson, Peter E; Larson, Michael J

    2013-01-01

    The preponderance of research on trial-by-trial recruitment of affective control (e.g., conflict adaptation) relies on stimuli wherein lexical word information conflicts with facial affective stimulus properties (e.g., the face-Stroop paradigm where an emotional word is overlaid on a facial expression). Several studies, however, indicate different neural time course and properties for processing of affective lexical stimuli versus affective facial stimuli. The current investigation used a novel task to examine control processes implemented following conflicting emotional stimuli with conflict-inducing affective face stimuli in the absence of affective words. Forty-one individuals completed a task wherein the affective-valence of the eyes and mouth were either congruent (happy eyes, happy mouth) or incongruent (happy eyes, angry mouth) while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. There was a significant congruency effect and significant conflict adaptation effects for error rates. Although response times (RTs) showed a significant congruency effect, the effect of previous-trial congruency on current-trial RTs was only present for current congruent trials. Temporospatial principal components analysis showed a P3-like ERP source localized using FieldTrip software to the medial cingulate gyrus that was smaller on incongruent than congruent trials and was significantly influenced by the recruitment of control processes following previous-trial emotional conflict (i.e., there was significant conflict adaptation in the ERPs). Results show that a face-only paradigm may be sufficient to elicit emotional conflict and suggest a system for rapidly detecting conflicting emotional stimuli and subsequently adjusting control resources, similar to cognitive conflict detection processes, when using conflicting facial expressions without words.

  4. Behavioural and neurophysiological evidence for face identity and face emotion processing in animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tate, Andrew J; Fischer, Hanno; Leigh, Andrea E; Kendrick, Keith M

    2006-01-01

    Visual cues from faces provide important social information relating to individual identity, sexual attraction and emotional state. Behavioural and neurophysiological studies on both monkeys and sheep have shown that specialized skills and neural systems for processing these complex cues to guide behaviour have evolved in a number of mammals and are not present exclusively in humans. Indeed, there are remarkable similarities in the ways that faces are processed by the brain in humans and other mammalian species. While human studies with brain imaging and gross neurophysiological recording approaches have revealed global aspects of the face-processing network, they cannot investigate how information is encoded by specific neural networks. Single neuron electrophysiological recording approaches in both monkeys and sheep have, however, provided some insights into the neural encoding principles involved and, particularly, the presence of a remarkable degree of high-level encoding even at the level of a specific face. Recent developments that allow simultaneous recordings to be made from many hundreds of individual neurons are also beginning to reveal evidence for global aspects of a population-based code. This review will summarize what we have learned so far from these animal-based studies about the way the mammalian brain processes the faces and the emotions they can communicate, as well as associated capacities such as how identity and emotion cues are dissociated and how face imagery might be generated. It will also try to highlight what questions and advances in knowledge still challenge us in order to provide a complete understanding of just how brain networks perform this complex and important social recognition task. PMID:17118930

  5. Processing Distracting Non-face Emotional Images: No Evidence of an Age-Related Positivity Effect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madill, Mark; Murray, Janice E

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive aging may be accompanied by increased prioritization of social and emotional goals that enhance positive experiences and emotional states. The socioemotional selectivity theory suggests this may be achieved by giving preference to positive information and avoiding or suppressing negative information. Although there is some evidence of a positivity bias in controlled attention tasks, it remains unclear whether a positivity bias extends to the processing of affective stimuli presented outside focused attention. In two experiments, we investigated age-related differences in the effects of to-be-ignored non-face affective images on target processing. In Experiment 1, 27 older (64-90 years) and 25 young adults (19-29 years) made speeded valence judgments about centrally presented positive or negative target images taken from the International Affective Picture System. To-be-ignored distractor images were presented above and below the target image and were either positive, negative, or neutral in valence. The distractors were considered task relevant because they shared emotional characteristics with the target stimuli. Both older and young adults responded slower to targets when distractor valence was incongruent with target valence relative to when distractors were neutral. Older adults responded faster to positive than to negative targets but did not show increased interference effects from positive distractors. In Experiment 2, affective distractors were task irrelevant as the target was a three-digit array and did not share emotional characteristics with the distractors. Twenty-six older (63-84 years) and 30 young adults (18-30 years) gave speeded responses on a digit disparity task while ignoring the affective distractors positioned in the periphery. Task performance in either age group was not influenced by the task-irrelevant affective images. In keeping with the socioemotional selectivity theory, these findings suggest that older adults preferentially process task-relevant positive non-face images but only when presented within the main focus of attention.

  6. Word wins over Face: Emotional Stroop effect activates the frontal cortical network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shima Ovaysikia

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The prefrontal cortex (PFC has been implicated in higher order cognitive control of behaviour. Sometimes such control is executed through suppression of an unwanted response in order to avoid conflict. Conflict occurs when two simultaneously competing processes lead to different behavioral outcomes, as seen in tasks such as the anti-saccade, go/no-go and the Stroop task. We set out to examine whether different types of stimuli in a modified emotional Stroop task would cause similar interference effects as the original Stroop-colour/word, and whether the required suppression mechanism(s would recruit similar regions of the medial PFC (mPFC. By using emotional words and emotional faces in this Stroop experiment, we examined the two well-learned automatic behaviours of word reading and recognition of face expressions. In our emotional Stroop paradigm, words were processed faster than face expressions with incongruent trials yielding longer reaction times (RT and larger number of errors compared to the congruent trials. This novel Stroop effect activated the anterior and inferior regions of the mPFC, namely the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC, inferior frontal gyrus (IFG as well as the superior frontal gyrus. Our results suggest that prepotent behaviours such as reading and recognition of face expressions are stimulus-dependent and perhaps hierarchical, hence recruiting distinct regions of the mPFC. Moreover, the faster processing of word reading compared to reporting face expressions is indicative of the formation of stronger stimulus-response (SR associations of an over-learned behaviour compared to an instinctive one, which could alternatively be explained through the distinction between awareness and selective attention.

  7. Method for Face-Emotion Retrieval Using A Cartoon Emotional Expression Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kostov, Vlaho; Yanagisawa, Hideyoshi; Johansson, Martin; Fukuda, Shuichi

    A simple method for extracting emotion from a human face, as a form of non-verbal communication, was developed to cope with and optimize mobile communication in a globalized and diversified society. A cartoon face based model was developed and used to evaluate emotional content of real faces. After a pilot survey, basic rules were defined and student subjects were asked to express emotion using the cartoon face. Their face samples were then analyzed using principal component analysis and the Mahalanobis distance method. Feature parameters considered as having relations with emotions were extracted and new cartoon faces (based on these parameters) were generated. The subjects evaluated emotion of these cartoon faces again and we confirmed these parameters were suitable. To confirm how these parameters could be applied to real faces, we asked subjects to express the same emotions which were then captured electronically. Simple image processing techniques were also developed to extract these features from real faces and we then compared them with the cartoon face parameters. It is demonstrated via the cartoon face that we are able to express the emotions from very small amounts of information. As a result, real and cartoon faces correspond to each other. It is also shown that emotion could be extracted from still and dynamic real face images using these cartoon-based features.

  8. Adaptation to emotional conflict: evidence from a novel face emotion paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter E Clayson

    Full Text Available The preponderance of research on trial-by-trial recruitment of affective control (e.g., conflict adaptation relies on stimuli wherein lexical word information conflicts with facial affective stimulus properties (e.g., the face-Stroop paradigm where an emotional word is overlaid on a facial expression. Several studies, however, indicate different neural time course and properties for processing of affective lexical stimuli versus affective facial stimuli. The current investigation used a novel task to examine control processes implemented following conflicting emotional stimuli with conflict-inducing affective face stimuli in the absence of affective words. Forty-one individuals completed a task wherein the affective-valence of the eyes and mouth were either congruent (happy eyes, happy mouth or incongruent (happy eyes, angry mouth while high-density event-related potentials (ERPs were recorded. There was a significant congruency effect and significant conflict adaptation effects for error rates. Although response times (RTs showed a significant congruency effect, the effect of previous-trial congruency on current-trial RTs was only present for current congruent trials. Temporospatial principal components analysis showed a P3-like ERP source localized using FieldTrip software to the medial cingulate gyrus that was smaller on incongruent than congruent trials and was significantly influenced by the recruitment of control processes following previous-trial emotional conflict (i.e., there was significant conflict adaptation in the ERPs. Results show that a face-only paradigm may be sufficient to elicit emotional conflict and suggest a system for rapidly detecting conflicting emotional stimuli and subsequently adjusting control resources, similar to cognitive conflict detection processes, when using conflicting facial expressions without words.

  9. Widespread auditory deficits in tune deafness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Jennifer L; Zalewski, Christopher; Brewer, Carmen; Lucker, Jay; Drayna, Dennis

    2009-02-01

    The goal of this study was to investigate auditory function in individuals with deficits in musical pitch perception. We hypothesized that such individuals have deficits in nonspeech areas of auditory processing. We screened 865 randomly selected individuals to identify those who scored poorly on the Distorted Tunes test (DTT), a measure of musical pitch recognition ability. Those who scored poorly were given a comprehensive audiologic examination, and those with hearing loss or other confounding audiologic factors were excluded from further testing. Thirty-five individuals with tune deafness constituted the experimental group. Thirty-four individuals with normal hearing and normal DTT scores, matched for age, gender, handedness, and education, and without overt or reported psychiatric disorders made up the normal control group. Individual and group performance for pure-tone frequency discrimination at 1000 Hz was determined by measuring the difference limen for frequency (DLF). Auditory processing abilities were assessed using tests of pitch pattern recognition, duration pattern recognition, and auditory gap detection. In addition, we evaluated both attention and short- and long-term memory as variables that might influence performance on our experimental measures. Differences between groups were evaluated statistically using Wilcoxon nonparametric tests and t-tests as appropriate. The DLF at 1000 Hz in the group with tune deafness was significantly larger than that of the normal control group. However, approximately one-third of participants with tune deafness had DLFs within the range of performance observed in the control group. Many individuals with tune deafness also displayed a high degree of variability in their intertrial frequency discrimination performance that could not be explained by deficits in memory or attention. Pitch and duration pattern discrimination and auditory gap-detection ability were significantly poorer in the group with tune deafness

  10. Eye tracking and nutrition label use

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Graham, Dan J.; Orquin, Jacob Lund; Visschers, Vivianne H.M.

    2012-01-01

    cameras monitoring consumer visual attention (i.e., eye tracking) has begun to identify ways in which label design could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to locate and effectively utilize nutrition information. The present paper reviews all published studies of nutrition label use that have...... utilized eye tracking methodology, identifies directions for further research in this growing field, and makes research-based recommendations for ways in which labels could be modified to improve consumers’ ability to use nutrition labels to select healthful foods....

  11. [Academic production on food labeling in Brazil].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Câmara, Maria Clara Coelho; Marinho, Carmem Luisa Cabral; Guilam, Maria Cristina; Braga, Ana Maria Cheble Bahia

    2008-01-01

    To review and discuss academic production (theses and dissertations) on the topic of labeling of prepackaged foods in Brazil. A search of the database maintained by the Coordination for the Development of Higher Education Professionals (CAPES), one of the two Brazilian government research funding and support agencies, was conducted on the following keywords: "rotulagem" (labeling), "rotulagem nutricional" (food labeling) and "rótulo de alimentos" (food labels). The search covered the years 1987 (earliest year available) to 2004. We identified 49 studies on this topic. Content analysis identified three major themes: the extent to which food labels meet specific legal requirements (57.2%); the degree to which consumers understand the information on labels (22.4%); and the labeling of transgenic or genetically-modified foods (20.4%). Food labeling is a frequent topic and is adequately covered by the Brazilian academic production. In most of the studies, ineffective law enforcement appears to be the main factor in the lack of compliance with and disrespect for the food labeling rules and regulations in Brazil.

  12. 40 CFR 86.1606 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Emission Control Information Update; (2) Full corporate name and trademark of the vehicle manufactuer; (3... tuneup specifications (if changed from the original label specifications) at the applicable altitude. ...

  13. 75 FR 21007 - Food Labeling; Public Workshop

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-22

    ..., particularly small businesses, with firsthand working knowledge of FDA's requirements and compliance policies... Consumer Protection Act of 2004, (3) nutrition labeling requirements, (4) health and nutrition claims, and...

  14. Labelled antibiotics as tumour-localizing agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, D.M.; McCready, V.R.

    1976-01-01

    The published results of clinical and experimental studies of labelled bleomycins and tetracyclines are reviewed. None of the labelled antibiotics yet studied show anything approaching absolute tumour specificity. Clinical trials suggest that 57 Co-bleomycin is superior to either 111 In- or 99 Tcsup(m)-bleomycin and that it may possess some advantages over 67 Ga-citrate in respect of lower uptake in the abdomen and, possibly, lower uptakes in benign and inflammatory lesions. Radioiodine-labelled or 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled tetracyclines appear to be of little value in tumour localization. (author)

  15. Labeling schemes for bounded degree graphs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Adjiashvili, David; Rotbart, Noy Galil

    2014-01-01

    We investigate adjacency labeling schemes for graphs of bounded degree Δ = O(1). In particular, we present an optimal (up to an additive constant) log n + O(1) adjacency labeling scheme for bounded degree trees. The latter scheme is derived from a labeling scheme for bounded degree outerplanar...... graphs. Our results complement a similar bound recently obtained for bounded depth trees [Fraigniaud and Korman, SODA 2010], and may provide new insights for closing the long standing gap for adjacency in trees [Alstrup and Rauhe, FOCS 2002]. We also provide improved labeling schemes for bounded degree...

  16. Neurocognitive impairment in the deficit subtype of schizophrenia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fervaha, Gagan; Agid, Ofer; Foussias, George; Siddiqui, Ishraq; Takeuchi, Hiroyoshi; Remington, Gary

    2016-08-01

    Schizophrenia is a heterogeneous disorder characterized by numerous diverse signs and symptoms. Individuals with prominent, persistent, and idiopathic negative symptoms are thought to encompass a distinct subtype of schizophrenia. Previous work, including studies involving neuropsychological evaluations, has supported this position. The present study sought to further examine whether deficit patients are cognitively distinct from non-deficit patients with schizophrenia. A comprehensive neurocognitive battery including tests of verbal memory, vigilance, processing speed, reasoning, and working memory was administered to 657 patients with schizophrenia. Of these, 144 (22 %) patients were classified as deficit patients using a proxy identification method based on severity, persistence over time, and possible secondary sources (e.g., depression) of negative symptoms. Deficit patients with schizophrenia performed worse on all tests of cognition relative to non-deficit patients. These patients were characterized by a generalized cognitive impairment on the order of about 0.4 standard deviations below that of non-deficit patients. However, when comparing deficit patients to non-deficit patients who also present with negative symptoms, albeit not enduring or primary, no group differences in cognitive performance were found. Furthermore, a discriminant function analysis classifying patients into deficit/non-deficit groups based on cognitive scores demonstrated only 62.3 % accuracy, meaning over one-third of individuals were misclassified. The deficit subtype of schizophrenia is not markedly distinct from non-deficit schizophrenia in terms of neurocognitive performance. While deficit patients tend to have poorer performance on cognitive tests, the magnitude of this effect is relatively modest, translating to over 70 % overlap in scores between groups.

  17. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harper, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions. (letter)

  18. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalsgaard, S.

    2013-01-01

    The proposed revision of the diagnostic criteria in DSM-5 for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) will not fundamentally change the concept of ADHD. This is mainly due to the fact that, DSM-5 will retain the exact DSM-IV wording of all 18 symptoms, but will add new examples that make...... the criteria more appropriate for children, adolescents and adults. The age of onset will also be changed from 7 to 12 years, the subtyping of the disorder will change, and pervasive developmental disorders will no longer be an exclusion criterion. Although the main concept is unchanged, the suggested changes...

  19. Environment, migration and the European demographic deficit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Sarah

    2012-03-01

    Many countries in the more developed world, and some in the less developed, are facing new economic and social pressures associated with the ageing of their populations. Europe, in particular, is forecast to have a demographic deficit, which may be alleviated by in-migration to the region. However, several commentators have proposed that Europe will not be able to successfully compete with other regions, in particular Asia, in the coming years for the skills it will require. This letter explores these themes, arguing that climate change will increase the attractiveness of Europe as a destination of economic choice for future skilled workers, to the detriment of more environmentally challenged regions.

  20. [DMS-5 - attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banaschewski, Tobias; Döpfner, Manfred

    2014-07-01

    Modifications to the DSM-5 criteria for the diagnosis of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorders are described and discussed. The main modifications concern the onset of the disorder, the reduction on the number of criteria fulfilled for a diagnosis in patients aged 17 years or older, and the elimination of autism spectrum disorders as an exclusion criterion for this diagnosis. These changes are mainly welcomed. However, the demanded increase in the age for the latest onset of the disorder may prove to be problematic.

  1. Evaluation of fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents as potential synthons for the labeling of oligonucleotides

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; Vroegh, J; Elsinga, PH; Vaalburg, W

    Six fluorine-18-labeled alkylating agents were selected as potentially suitable synthons for the labeling of antisense oligonucleotides. The selected synthons were evaluated in a model reaction with the monomer adenosine 5'-O-thiomonophosphate. Of these synthons,

  2. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 10

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  3. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 9

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  4. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 8

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  5. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  6. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 12

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  7. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  8. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 6

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  9. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  10. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 14

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  11. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 13

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  12. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  13. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 11

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  14. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  15. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 5

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  16. Label Review Training: Module 2: Parts of the Label, Page 7

    Science.gov (United States)

    This module of the label review training describes the parts of the front and back panel of the pesticide label. You will learn what kinds of information each part includes, as well as how to organize these parts.

  17. Tritium labelled steroids, preparation process and application to synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    Process for preparing new steroids labelled with tritium in 6.7 and comprising in 3 a blocked ketonic group as ketal, thioketal or derivatives. Application of these products to the synthesis of tritium labelled estrane derivatives [fr

  18. 16 CFR Appendix L to Part 305 - Sample Labels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED... Part 305—Sample Labels ER29AU07.122 PROTOTYPE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.123 PROTOTYPE LABEL 2 ER29AU07.124 PROTOTYPE LABEL 3 ER29AU07.125 PROTOTYPE LABEL 4 ER29AU07.126 SAMPLE LABEL 1 ER29AU07.127 SAMPLE LABEL 2...

  19. Scintigraphy with /sup 111/In-labeled leukocytes. Simplified procedure for labeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Terada, Hitoshi; Shiire, Yasushi; Koizumi, Kiyoshi; Aburano, Tamio; Tonami, Norihisa; Hisada, Kin-ichi

    1987-12-01

    To utilize /sup 111/In leukocytes in a routine work, simplified procedure for sterile leukocytes preparation and labeling with water soluble oxine sulfate was performed. Viability and chemotaxis of leukocytes were maintained during separation and labeling. Chelated rate of /sup 111/In with oxine sulfate was 93.5 %. Labeling efficiency of /sup 111/In leukocytes was 93.8 %. Obvious blood pool images due to remaind erythrocytes were not observed. /sup 111/In labeled leukocytes showed good migration into inflammatory focci.

  20. Synthesis and labelling of epidepride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang Min; Pei Zhuguo; Hu Mingyang; Wang Bocheng; Zhou Xingqin

    2001-01-01

    S-(-)-N-[(1-ethyl-2-pyrrolidinyl) methyl]-5-iodo-2,3-dimethoxybenzamide (proposed generic name, epidepride) is a very potent dopamine D2 antagonist. It was synthesized by five steps from 3-methoxysalicylic acid. [ 131 I]epidepride was obtained in 97.3% radiochemical yields from the corresponding 5-(tributyltin) derivative using hydrogen peroxide as the oxidant. The aryltin precursor was prepared from non-labelled epidepride by palladium-catalyzed stannylene using bis (tri-n-butyltin) in triethylamine. [ 131 I] epidepride was stable under 4 degree C, and partition coefficient was 72.3 at pH 7.40. The biodistribution study in rats exhibited high localization in the striatum of the brain with the striatum/cerebellum ratio reaching 237/1 at 320 min postinjection. All these results suggest that [ 131 I] epidepride may be used widely as a useful dopamine D2 receptor imaging agent for SPECT

  1. Cognitive deficits in bipolar disorders: Implications for emotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Isabela M M; Peckham, Andrew D; Johnson, Sheri L

    2018-02-01

    discuss focuses on response inhibition, or the ability to suppress a prepotent response, which is considered a subtype of inhibition. Some tests measure multiple facets of executive function; for example the Trails B test likely requires working memory and cognitive flexibility (Sánchez-Cubillo et al., 2009). Aside from executive function, multiple other facets of cognition have been widely studied in bipolar disorder. Verbal and non-verbal memory are related to the ability to register, store and retrieve verbal or visual information (Lezak, 1995). Verbal fluency is measured as the number of verbal responses a person can generate to a given target, such as a specific semantic category (e.g., animals, furniture) or phonetic category (e.g., words that begin with letter F) (Diamond, 2013). Although cognitive tasks have been designed to evaluate these specific functions, it is important to note that most measures are highly inter-correlated and may assess multiple overlapping functions to some extent (for example, the Trails B test is often described as an "executive function" task, although this task likely involves both working memory and cognitive flexibility. Not surprisingly, then, some authors label the function of certain tests differently, and this is particularly evident in meta-analyses of cognition. As we describe findings in this paper, we will use the terms proposed by the authors but will also identify key tests used to define a cognitive construct. With this background in mind, we turn to a discussion of cognitive deficits, then of emotion-related traits. Our hope is that those concise summaries provide evidence for the importance of both domains, but also specificity regarding the facets of emotion and cognition that are most impaired in BD. This specificity then guides our consideration of models that integrate cognition and emotion. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Chain store management through private labels strategy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Sopta

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to examine the market shares of private labels in the European Union and on the global market, and to compare the results of the analysis with the level of presence of private labels on the Croatian market. Moreover, through the application of macro and microeconomic tools, the author tried to estimate the future trends of private labels in Croatia.For the purpose of the paper secondary and primary data was used in the research. Relevant scientific and professional literature of local and foreign authors was analyzed. In addition, a few recent research studies were analyzed and their results compared. Field research has been conducted by the survey method, with 225 respondents included in the intentional sample.The main hypothesis of the paper based on research is that, in total sales, private labels are gaining a growing share in all markets, regardless of the development level of those markets. Alongside the main hypothesis of the work, three supporting hypotheses were tested to see which private labels are a good alternative to other brands on the world market. Private labels are generally developed on generic products. The third supporting hypothesis starts from the assumption that the investments in the promotion of private labels are negligible, resulting in lower prices of thoseproducts. The results of research and analyses in the work indicate that the position of private labels will strengthen internationally, as part of the process of liberalization and globalization of trade flows. In the process of purchase of private labels the positioning of the point of sale and price have an increasing contribution. With the concentration of commerce in chain stores, the share of private labels grows, approaching a half of the total sales in some countries. Considering the Croatian market, according to the international product life cycle theory, the share of private labels in the total sales will grow in the future

  3. Leukemic cell labeling with indium-111-oxine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uchida, T.; Takagi, Y.; Matsuda, S.; Yui, T.; Ishibashi, T.; Kimura, H.; Kariyone, S.

    1984-01-01

    Leukemic cells were labeled with In-111-oxine in patients with acute leukemia. In vitro labeling studies revealed that labeling efficiency reached maximum 80.8 +- 3.6% (mean +- 1SD) by 2 times washes after 20 minutes incubation time. Cell viability was assessed by trypan blue exclusion test and in vitro culture of leukemic cells, which showed no cellular damage during labeling procedure. Elution of In-111 from the labeled cells was 10.0 +- 1.2% at 12 hours after labeling. For in vivo leukemic cell kinetic studies, more than 10/sup 8/ leukemic cells separated from Ficoll-Hypacque sedimentation were labeled by 30 minutes of In-111-oxine incubation and two times washes at 37 0 C. In vivo studies were performed in 7 patients with acute myeloblastic, lymphoblastic leukemia and blastic crisis of chronic myelocytic leukemia. Labeled leukemic cells disappeared in single exponential fashion with half life of 9.6 to 31.8 hours. Total leukemic cell pool in peripheral circulation was calculated, which correlated well with peripheral leukemic cell counts (r=0.99). No relationship was observed between total leukemic cell pool and leukemic cell turnover rate. Migration patterns of labeled leukemic cells showed that pulmonary uptake was evident within 15 minutes after the infusion and returned to base-line. Splenic and hepatic uptake showed gradual increase up to 24 hours. Bone marrow accumulation was shown only in 2 cases. Presently, there are no suitable radionuclides for leukemic cell labeling. In-111-oxine labeled leukemic cells would overcome this difficulty

  4. Sleep Restores Daytime Deficits in Procedural Memory in Children with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prehn-Kristensen, Alexander; Molzow, Ina; Munz, Manuel; Wilhelm, Ines; Muller, Kathrin; Freytag, Damaris; Wiesner, Christian D.; Baving, Lioba

    2011-01-01

    Sleep supports the consolidation of declarative and procedural memory. While prefrontal cortex (PFC) activity supports the consolidation of declarative memory during sleep, opposite effects of PFC activity are reported with respect to the consolidation of procedural memory during sleep. Patients with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)…

  5. Portion Size Labeling and Intended Soft Drink Consumption: The Impact of Labeling Format and Size Portfolio

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vermeer, Willemijn M.; Steenhuis, Ingrid H. M.; Leeuwis, Franca H.; Bos, Arjan E. R.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jacob C.

    2010-01-01

    Objective: To assess what portion size labeling "format" is most promising in helping consumers selecting appropriate soft drink sizes, and whether labeling impact depends on the size portfolio. Methods: An experimental study was conducted in fast-food restaurants in which 2 labeling formats (ie, reference portion size and small/medium/large…

  6. A Cognitive Distortions and Deficits Model of Suicide Ideation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura L. Fazakas-DeHoog

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Although cognitive distortions and deficits are known risk factors for the development and escalation of suicide ideation and behaviour, no empirical work has examined how these variables interact to predict suicide ideation. The current study proposes an integrative model of cognitive distortions (hopelessness and negative evaluations of self and future and deficits (problem solving deficits, problem solving avoidance, and cognitive rigidity. To test the integrity of this model, a sample of 397 undergraduate students completed measures of deficits, distortions, and current suicide ideation. A structural equation model demonstrated excellent fit, and findings indicated that only distortions have a direct effect on suicidal thinking, whereas cognitive deficits may exert their effects on suicide ideation via their reciprocal relation with distortions. Findings underscore the importance of both cognitive distortions and deficits for understanding suicidality, which may have implications for preventative efforts and treatment.

  7. Cognitive deficits in post-stroke aphasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milena V. Bonini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The assessment of aphasics’ cognitive performance is challenging and such patients are generally excluded from studies that describe cognitive deficits after stroke. We evaluated aphasics’ performance in cognitive tasks compared to non-aphasic subjects. A sample of 47 patients (21 aphasics, 17 non-aphasics with left hemisphere lesions and 9 non-aphasics with right hemisphere lesions performed cognitive tasks (attention, verbal and visual memory, executive functions, visuospatial skills and praxis. Aphasic patients performed poorer than all non-aphasics in Digit Span (p < 0.001, Clock-Drawing Test (p = 0.006, Verbal memory (p = 0.002, Visual Memory (p < 0.01, Verbal Fluency (p < 0.001, and Gesture Praxis (p < 0.001. Aphasia severity correlated with performance in Trail Making test part B (p = 0.004, Digit Span forward (p < 0.001 and backwards (p = 0.011, and Gesture Praxis (p = 0.002. Aphasia is accompanied by deficits not always easy to be evaluated by cognitive tests due to speech production and motor impairments. Assessment of cognitive functions in aphasics might contribute to optimize therapeutic intervention.

  8. Dysrhythmia: a specific congenital rhythm perception deficit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacques eLaunay

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Why do some people have problems ‘feeling the beat’? Here we investigate participants with congenital impairments in musical rhythm perception and production. A web-based version of the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA was used to screen for difficulties with rhythmic processing in a large sample and we identified three ‘dysrhythmic’ individuals who scored below cut-off for the rhythm subtest, but not the pitch-based subtests. Follow-up testing in the laboratory was conducted to characterize the nature of both rhythm perception and production deficits in these dysrhythmic individuals. We found that they differed from control participants when required to synchronize their tapping to an external stimulus with a metrical pulse, but not when required to tap spontaneously (with no external stimulus or to tap in time to an isochronous stimulus. Dysrhythmics exhibited a general tendency to tap at half the expected tempo when asked to synchronize to the beat of strongly metrical rhythms. These results suggest that the individuals studied here did not have motor production problems, but suffer from a selective rhythm perception deficit that influences the ability to entrain to metrical rhythms.

  9. Taxation, Fiscal Deficit and Inflation in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghulam Rasool Madni

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Fiscal policy has more controversial debate regarding its effectiveness on different macroeconomic activities of an economy. Taxation and government expenditure are two main instruments of fiscal policy. This paper is aimed to analyze and update the effects of different instruments of fiscal policy on inflation in Pakistan economy. The data time span for this study is 1979-2013. The impact of fiscal policy on inflation is analyzed by utilizing the Bounds testing procedure and ARDL approach of co-integration which is a better estimation technique for small sample size. It is found that investment negatively and significantly affect the inflation rate. The outcomes of the study show that both types of taxes (direct and indirect are causing to increase the inflation level while fiscal deficit is also one of the reasons to increase the inflation in the country. The study proposed that government should decrease the level of expenditure to reduce the level of fiscal deficit and investment have to be promoted to decrease the inflation in the country. Furthermore, it is also suggested to decrease the level of taxation for controlling inflation.

  10. Stroke caused auditory attention deficits in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karla Maria Ibraim da Freiria Elias

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To verify the auditory selective attention in children with stroke. METHODS: Dichotic tests of binaural separation (non-verbal and consonant-vowel and binaural integration - digits and Staggered Spondaic Words Test (SSW - were applied in 13 children (7 boys, from 7 to 16 years, with unilateral stroke confirmed by neurological examination and neuroimaging. RESULTS: The attention performance showed significant differences in comparison to the control group in both kinds of tests. In the non-verbal test, identifications the ear opposite the lesion in the free recall stage was diminished and, in the following stages, a difficulty in directing attention was detected. In the consonant- vowel test, a modification in perceptual asymmetry and difficulty in focusing in the attended stages was found. In the digits and SSW tests, ipsilateral, contralateral and bilateral deficits were detected, depending on the characteristics of the lesions and demand of the task. CONCLUSION: Stroke caused auditory attention deficits when dealing with simultaneous sources of auditory information.

  11. Multi-label Learning with Missing Labels Using Mixed Dependency Graphs

    KAUST Repository

    Wu, Baoyuan

    2018-04-06

    This work focuses on the problem of multi-label learning with missing labels (MLML), which aims to label each test instance with multiple class labels given training instances that have an incomplete/partial set of these labels (i.e., some of their labels are missing). The key point to handle missing labels is propagating the label information from the provided labels to missing labels, through a dependency graph that each label of each instance is treated as a node. We build this graph by utilizing different types of label dependencies. Specifically, the instance-level similarity is served as undirected edges to connect the label nodes across different instances and the semantic label hierarchy is used as directed edges to connect different classes. This base graph is referred to as the mixed dependency graph, as it includes both undirected and directed edges. Furthermore, we present another two types of label dependencies to connect the label nodes across different classes. One is the class co-occurrence, which is also encoded as undirected edges. Combining with the above base graph, we obtain a new mixed graph, called mixed graph with co-occurrence (MG-CO). The other is the sparse and low rank decomposition of the whole label matrix, to embed high-order dependencies over all labels. Combining with the base graph, the new mixed graph is called as MG-SL (mixed graph with sparse and low rank decomposition). Based on MG-CO and MG-SL, we further propose two convex transductive formulations of the MLML problem, denoted as MLMG-CO and MLMG-SL respectively. In both formulations, the instance-level similarity is embedded through a quadratic smoothness term, while the semantic label hierarchy is used as a linear constraint. In MLMG-CO, the class co-occurrence is also formulated as a quadratic smoothness term, while the sparse and low rank decomposition is incorporated into MLMG-SL, through two additional matrices (one is assumed as sparse, and the other is assumed as low

  12. Use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder medication among older adults in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ormhøj, Stina Schultz; Pottegård, Anton; Gasse, Christiane

    2018-01-01

    AIMS: Knowledge on the use of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) medication among older adults is limited. We hypothesized that ADHD medication is used off-label in adults aged ≥50 years as part of palliative care in e.g. cancer patients. The aim of this study was to describe the use...... of ADHD medication among adults aged ≥50 years in Denmark. METHODS: Using the Danish health registries, we identified new users ≥50 years of ADHD medication during 2000-2012. We estimated the annual incidence of ADHD medication use and ADHD diagnoses. We described new users of ADHD medication according...... to co-medication, comorbidities and assessed the 1-year cumulative mortality rate. A posthoc analysis allowed us to include new users until 2015. RESULTS: We identified 6690 new users of ADHD medication from 2000 to 2012. From 2000 to 2015 we observed an increase in the incidence of ADHD medication use...

  13. A review of medications used in the treatment of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matej Štuhec

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is one of the most common developmental disorders in children and adolescents with core symptoms of hyperactivity, impulsivity andinattention. Atomoxetine, immediate-release methylphenidate and extended release methylphenidate are approved for use in patients with ADHD in Slovenia. In addition, ADHD is also treated off-label with bupropion, tricyclic antidepressants and some other drugs. According to the recently adopted American and European guidelines, pharmacotherapy includes the initial, maintenance and terminal phase. Consideration of pharmacokinetic parameters of the selected drugs and potential drug-drug interactions, if the patient is taking other medications, helps to reduce symptoms of ADHD, and improves the selection of drug and appropriate dosing regimen. Clinical outcomes should be measured by standardised questionnaires. The drug of choice is methylphenidate. Guidelines for the treatment of ADHD should also include recommendations on psychosocial treatments and destigmatization of patients with this disorder. In this paper, pharmacotherapy guidelines for patients with ADHD are highlighted.

  14. Budget deficit, money growth and inflation: Empirical evidence from Vietnam

    OpenAIRE

    Khieu Van, Hoang

    2014-01-01

    This study empirically examines the nexus among budget deficit, money supply and inflation by using a monthly data set from January 1995 to December 2012 and a SVAR model with five endogenous variables, inflation, money growth, budget deficit growth, real GDP growth and interest rate. Since real GDP and budget deficit are unavailable on the monthly basis, we interpolate those series using Chow and Lin’s (1971) annualized approach from their annual series. Overall, we found that money growth h...

  15. 10 CFR 61.57 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR LAND DISPOSAL OF RADIOACTIVE WASTE Technical Requirements for Land Disposal Facilities § 61.57 Labeling. Each package of waste must be clearly labeled to identify whether it is Class A waste, Class B waste, or Class C waste, in accordance with § 61.55. ...

  16. 21 CFR 355.60 - Professional labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Professional labeling. 355.60 Section 355.60 Food... HUMAN USE ANTICARIES DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Labeling § 355.60 Professional... health professionals (but not to the general public) may contain the following additional dosage...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) KidsHealth / For Parents / How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer ...

  18. 21 CFR 660.55 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labeling. 660.55 Section 660.55 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) BIOLOGICS ADDITIONAL... name such as polyspecific may appear in smaller type. (4) Visual inspection. When the label has been...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... A) Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) ... Read a Nutrition Facts Label (Video) Print en español Cómo leer las etiquetas de datos nutricionales (video) ...

  20. Synthesis and application of labelled growth regulators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shyutte, G.R.

    1982-01-01

    For the investigation of the metabolism both of phytoeffectors like herbicides and plant growth regulators such compounds are needed in radioactive labelled form. The synthesis of radioactive labelled fluorodifen, nitrofen, ethephon, diphenylic acetic acid, 2,4-dichlorophenoxyisobutyric acid, abscisic acid, hydroxybenzoic acids and different conjugates are described. Some examples of these compounds metabolism in plants are discussed [ru

  1. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Watch this video for tips on figuring out food labels so you can make healthy choices. More on this topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has ...

  2. 10 CFR 20.1904 - Labeling containers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Labeling containers. 20.1904 Section 20.1904 Energy....1904 Labeling containers. (a) The licensee shall ensure that each container of licensed material bears... handling or using the containers, or working in the vicinity of the containers, to take precautions to...

  3. The anatomy of a laser label

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser labeling of fruits and vegetables is an efficient alternative to adhesive tags. The advantages of this system are numerous. In general the label consists of alphanumerical characters formed by laser generated pinhole depressions that penetrate the produce’s surface creating visible markings. H...

  4. 76 FR 45715 - Appliance Labeling Rule

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... foreign country equivalent, passport number, financial account number, or credit or debit card number. You..., the Commission assumes that the label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an... label design change will be implemented by graphic designers at an hourly wage rate of $23.44 per hour...

  5. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  6. Synthesis of tritium-labeled fosfomycin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mertel, H.E.; Meriwether, H.T.

    1982-01-01

    Tritium gas was used as a labeling agent for the preparation of [1,2- 3 H]fosfomycin. Introduction of tritium into a precursor, the synthesis including resolution of the intermediate racemic 1,2-epoxypropylphosphonic acid, and preparation of both amine and calcium salts of the labeled antibiotic are described. (author)

  7. A note on root projection and labelling*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kate H

    Abstract. This paper identifies a problem with a hypothesis put forward in Chomsky (2013) in relation to his labelling algorithm. Chomsky suggests that category-neutral roots do not qualify as labels and cannot project. However, I provide evidence that the derivation of particle verbs involves the projection of a ...

  8. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... label. These labels have a lot of important information — on fat and calories, serving sizes, sodium content, ... Nondiscrimination Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on KidsHealth® is for educational purposes only. For ...

  9. Radial contour labeling with straight leaders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niedermann, B.; Nöllenburg, M.; Rutter, I.

    2017-01-01

    The usefulness of technical drawings as well as scientific illustrations such as medical drawings of human anatomy essentially depends on the placement of labels that describe all relevant parts of the figure. In order to not spoil or clutter the figure with text, the labels are often placed around

  10. 21 CFR 895.25 - Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... labeling or advertising of the device. (d) If such voluntary action is not taken, the Commissioner may take... FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES BANNED DEVICES General Provisions § 895.25 Labeling. (a) If the Commissioner determines that the...

  11. Imaging with 123I labelled fatty acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudczak, R.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the clinical results obtained with radioiodinated aromatic and aliphatic fatty acids. The radiopharmaceuticals were 123 I labelled p-phenylpentadecanoic (p-IPPA) and 123 I labelled heptadecanoic acid (HDA). The possibility to evaluate the myocardial metabolic function in man noninvasively add a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical follow-up of patients with heart disease. (Auth.)

  12. Hippuran-123 I: labelling and quality control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barboza, M.F. de; Colturato, M.T.; Herrerias, R.; Muramoto, E.

    1992-01-01

    The o-iodo hippuric acid labelling with radioiodine is a radiopharmaceutical used with more frequently for evaluation the kidney function. Several reactive kits for labelling with 123 I are prepared. Controls of radiochemical purity and biological distribution are made. The reactive kit of hippuran is kept at 4 C during 2 years. (C.G.C.)

  13. 49 CFR 172.407 - Label specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...) Design. (1) Except for size and color, the printing, inner border, and symbol on each label must be as... withstand, without deterioration or a substantial change in color, a 30-day exposure to conditions incident... shown in the appropriate section of this subpart. (d) Color. (1) The background color on each label must...

  14. Energy labelling of refrigerated display cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, S.M. van der

    1996-01-01

    Energy labelling of refrigerated display cabinets is a method to quickly assess the energy efficiency of a certain cabinet compared to the market average consumptions for similar cabinets. Labelling is also a method to obtain comparable data on cabinets from different manufacturers, which has time

  15. Mixed labelling in multitarget particle filtering

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boers, Y.; Sviestins, Egils; Driessen, Hans

    2010-01-01

    The so-called mixed labelling problem inherent to a joint state multitarget particle filter implementation is treated. The mixed labelling problem would be prohibitive for track extraction from a joint state multitarget particle filter. It is shown, using the theory of Markov chains, that the mixed

  16. 19 CFR 12.18 - Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Labels. 12.18 Section 12.18 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SPECIAL CLASSES OF MERCHANDISE Viruses, Serums, and Toxins for Treatment of Domestic Animals § 12.18 Labels. Each...

  17. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para ... nutricionales (video) Most packaged foods come with a Nutrition Facts label. These labels have a lot of important ... Policy Permissions Guidelines Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Notice ...

  18. Conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wajnberg, E.; Ribeiro, P.C.; Nascimento, O.R.; Bemski, G.

    1978-01-01

    A conformational change of spin labelled myoglobin have been followed by measuring the spin label's (isothiocyanate) correlation time for temperatures between 18 0 C and 44 0 C. The correlation time was calculated from Electrom Paramagnetic Ressonance Spectra using the components of the espectroscopic and hiperfine tensors obtained by fitting the powder spectra using Lefebvre and Maruani's program- [pt

  19. Figuring Out Food Labels (For Kids)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... First Aid & Safety Doctors & Hospitals Videos Recipes for Kids Kids site Sitio para niños How the Body Works ... English Español Figuring Out Food Labels KidsHealth / For Kids / Figuring Out Food Labels What's in this article? ...

  20. Off-label prescriptions in diabetic foot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Jesuíno de Oliveira Andrade

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Prescription of a drug outside of the indications for which it was originally approved by regulators is internationally known as "off-label" prescription. We describe off-label treatments for the diabetic foot reported in international scientific literature. This is a qualitative and descriptive bibliographical review based on the results of a search of the Medline international database. The criteria for review were publication between January 1985 and November 2013, and the MeSH (Medical Subject Heading keywords "off-label use" OR "off-label" OR "off-label prescribing" plus "diabetic foot" were input on the search form. Nine studies were selected that contained information about off-label treatments for the diabetic foot. We conclude that the practice of off-label prescribing has potential benefits. In some situations an off-label prescription is the only treatment available for patients, either because a more targeted drug does not exist, or because other methods of treatment are ineffective or unavailable due to patient intolerance.

  1. 7 CFR 56.73 - Misleading labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Misleading labeling. 56.73 Section 56.73 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... EGGS Grading of Shell Eggs Denial of Service § 56.73 Misleading labeling. The use of the terms...

  2. Two Responses to Hastings on Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somogyi, Katherine M. M.; And Others

    1995-01-01

    Two comments respond to an R. P. Hastings article on labeling of individuals with mental retardation. The first comment notes that diagnoses should not be used as labels but as identifications of disorders a person has. The second comment calls for people to come forth with synonyms for "mental retardation" that will not immediately be stigmatic.…

  3. Private labels : The brands of the future

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keller, Kristopher

    2017-01-01

    This dissertation consists of three essays that study private labels’ evolution from private labels as brand class to individual private-label brands from three different perspectives. In the second chapter of this dissertation (essay 1), I study the antecedents and performance implications of

  4. Proposal for a New Energy Label

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schjær-Jacobsen, Jørgen

    2011-01-01

    Energy labeling is believed to have great impact on the energy efficiency of household appliances sold. Many different labeling schemes exist around the world. As far as is known, none of these facilitates the easy tightening of specifications to keep up with technological advancements. The present...

  5. The Twin Deficits Hypothesis: An Empirical Analysis for Tanzania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manamba Epaphra

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the relationship between current account and government budget deficits in Tanzania. The paper tests the validity of the twin deficits hypothesis, using annual time series data for the 1966-2015 period. The paper is thought to be significant because the concept of the twin deficit hypothesis is fraught with controversy. Some researches support the hypothesis that there is a positive relationship between current account deficits and fiscal deficits in the economy while others do not. In this paper, the empirical tests fail to reject the twin deficits hypothesis, indicating that rising budget deficits put more strain on the current account deficits in Tanzania. Specifically, the Vector Error Correction Model results support the conventional theory of a positive relationship between fiscal and external balances, with a relatively high speed of adjustment toward the equilibrium position. This evidence is consistent with a small open economy. To address the problem that may result from this kind of relationship, appropriate policy variables for reducing budget deficits such as reduction in non-development expenditure, enhancement of domestic revenue collection and actively fight corruption and tax evasion should be adopted. The government should also target export oriented firms and encourage an import substitution industry by creating favorable business environments.

  6. Musical, visual and cognitive deficits after middle cerebral artery infarction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephanie Rosemann

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention. Two amusia patients with selective deficits in music perception and pronounced lesions were identified. Working memory and attention deficits were highly correlated across the patient group but no correlation with musical abilities was obtained. Lesion analysis revealed that lesions in small areas of the putamen and globus pallidus were connected to a rhythm perception deficit. We conclude that neither a general perceptual deficit nor a minor domain general deficit can account for impairments in the music perception task. But we find support for the modular organization of the music perception network with brain areas specialized for musical functions as musical deficits were not correlated to any other impairment.

  7. Musical, visual and cognitive deficits after middle cerebral artery infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosemann, Stephanie; Brunner, Freimuth; Kastrup, Andreas; Fahle, Manfred

    2017-03-01

    The perception of music can be impaired after a stroke. This dysfunction is called amusia and amusia patients often also show deficits in visual abilities, language, memory, learning, and attention. The current study investigated whether deficits in music perception are selective for musical input or generalize to other perceptual abilities. Additionally, we tested the hypothesis that deficits in working memory or attention account for impairments in music perception. Twenty stroke patients with small infarctions in the supply area of the middle cerebral artery were investigated with tests for music and visual perception, categorization, neglect, working memory and attention. Two amusia patients with selective deficits in music perception and pronounced lesions were identified. Working memory and attention deficits were highly correlated across the patient group but no correlation with musical abilities was obtained. Lesion analysis revealed that lesions in small areas of the putamen and globus pallidus were connected to a rhythm perception deficit. We conclude that neither a general perceptual deficit nor a minor domain general deficit can account for impairments in the music perception task. But we find support for the modular organization of the music perception network with brain areas specialized for musical functions as musical deficits were not correlated to any other impairment.

  8. Label-controlled optical packet routing technologies and applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koonen, A.M.J.; Yan, N.; Vegas Olmos, Juan José

    2007-01-01

    An overview is given of various optical packet labeling techniques. The architecture and technologies are discussed for optical packet routing nodes using orthogonal labeling with optoelectronic label processing, and for nodes using time-serial labeling with all-optical time-serial label processing...

  9. 49 CFR 172.416 - POISON GAS label.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false POISON GAS label. 172.416 Section 172.416... SECURITY PLANS Labeling § 172.416 POISON GAS label. (a) Except for size and color, the POISON GAS label... POISON GAS label and the symbol must be white. The background of the upper diamond must be black and the...

  10. Moderate injury in motor-sensory cortex causes behavioral deficits accompanied by electrophysiological changes in mice adulthood.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Ouyang

    Full Text Available Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI in children often happen when there's a sudden blow to the frontal bone, end with long unconscious which can last for hours and progressive cognitive deficits. However, with regard to the influences of moderate TBI during children adulthood, injury-induced alterations of locomotive ability, long-term memory performance, and hippocampal electrophysiological firing changes have not yet been fully identified. In this study, lateral fluid percussion (LFP method was used to fabricate moderate TBI in motor and somatosensory cortex of the 6-weeks-old mice. The motor function, learning and memory function, extracellular CA1 neural spikes were assessed during acute and subacute phase. Moreover, histopathology was performed on day post injury (DPI 16 to evaluate the effect of TBI on tissue and cell morphological changes in cortical and hippocampal CA1 subregions. After moderate LFP injury, the 6-weeks-old mice showed severe motor deficits at the early stage in acute phase but gradually recovered later during adulthood. At the time points in acute and subacute phase after TBI, novel object recognition (NOR ability and spatial memory functions were consistently impaired in TBI mice; hippocampal firing frequency and burst probability were hampered. Analysis of the altered burst firing shows a clear hippocampal theta rhythm drop. These electrophysiological impacts were associated with substantially lowered NOR preference as compared to the sham group during adulthood. These results suggest that moderate TBI introduced at motorsenory cortex in 6-weeks-old mice causes obvious motor and cognitive deficits during their adulthood. While the locomotive ability progressively recovers, the cognitive deficits persisted while the mice mature as adult mice. The cognitive deficits may be attributed to the general suppressing of whole neural network, which could be labeled by marked reduction of excitability in hippocampal CA1

  11. Moderate injury in motor-sensory cortex causes behavioral deficits accompanied by electrophysiological changes in mice adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouyang, Wei; Yan, Qichao; Zhang, Yu; Fan, Zhiheng

    2017-01-01

    Moderate traumatic brain injury (TBI) in children often happen when there's a sudden blow to the frontal bone, end with long unconscious which can last for hours and progressive cognitive deficits. However, with regard to the influences of moderate TBI during children adulthood, injury-induced alterations of locomotive ability, long-term memory performance, and hippocampal electrophysiological firing changes have not yet been fully identified. In this study, lateral fluid percussion (LFP) method was used to fabricate moderate TBI in motor and somatosensory cortex of the 6-weeks-old mice. The motor function, learning and memory function, extracellular CA1 neural spikes were assessed during acute and subacute phase. Moreover, histopathology was performed on day post injury (DPI) 16 to evaluate the effect of TBI on tissue and cell morphological changes in cortical and hippocampal CA1 subregions. After moderate LFP injury, the 6-weeks-old mice showed severe motor deficits at the early stage in acute phase but gradually recovered later during adulthood. At the time points in acute and subacute phase after TBI, novel object recognition (NOR) ability and spatial memory functions were consistently impaired in TBI mice; hippocampal firing frequency and burst probability were hampered. Analysis of the altered burst firing shows a clear hippocampal theta rhythm drop. These electrophysiological impacts were associated with substantially lowered NOR preference as compared to the sham group during adulthood. These results suggest that moderate TBI introduced at motorsenory cortex in 6-weeks-old mice causes obvious motor and cognitive deficits during their adulthood. While the locomotive ability progressively recovers, the cognitive deficits persisted while the mice mature as adult mice. The cognitive deficits may be attributed to the general suppressing of whole neural network, which could be labeled by marked reduction of excitability in hippocampal CA1 subregion.

  12. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-09-07

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Labeled estrogens as mammary tumor probes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feenstra, A.

    1981-01-01

    In this thesis estrogens labeled with a gamma or positron emitting nuclide, called estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are investigated as mammary tumour probes. The requirements for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals are formulated and the literature on estrogens labeled for this purpose is reviewed. The potential of mercury-197/197m and of carbon-11 as label for estrogen-receptor binding radiopharmaceuticals is investigated. The synthesis of 197 Hg-labeled 4-mercury-estradiol and 2-mercury-estradiol and their properties in vitro and in vivo are described. It appears that though basically carbon-11 labeled compounds are very promising as mammary tumour probes, their achievable specific activity has to be increased. (Auth.)

  14. Tritium labelling of two new analgesic drugs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santamaria, J.; Rebollo, D.V.; Rivera, P.; Esteban, M.

    1986-01-01

    The labelling with tritium of two arylpropionic esters was studied. The synthesis between 3 H-Ibuprofen and the two unlabelled alcoholic moieties (Cl-Alkanol and CF 3 -Alkanol) was performed. Assuming that we got ready the acidic moiety, 3 H-Ibuprofen, in our Laboratory, we attempted to label with tritium the alcoholic moiety and then go on to its esterification. Prior to labelling, thermic stability of 2-(4-(3-chlorophenyl)-1-piperazinyl) ethanol (Cl-Alkanol) was studied. As result of this study we had to change the labelling method, so that the Cl-Alkanol was unstable at 70 0 C. Purification was accomplished through thin layer chromatography (TLC) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Concentration, purity and specific activities of the two labelled compounds were determined by ultraviolet, HPLC and liquid scintillation techniques. (author)

  15. Preparation of 188Re labelled antibodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Minghua; Cao Rongzhen; Li Wenxin; Sheng Rong; Yin Duanzhi; He Weiyu; Zhou Wei; Wang Yongxian

    1998-01-01

    A simple technique of directly labelling antibodies with 188 Re has been developed. The reduction of antibody disulfide groups was achieved by incubation of antibody with ascorbic acid (pH = 6.5) for an hour at room temperature and a solution of excess SnCl 2 in sodium gluconate was added to the AA-reduced antibody followed by the addition of perrhenate. Some factors that influence labelling efficiency, such as the pH of the reaction mixture, the labelling time, and the amount of antibodies and reductive agent, were studied experimentally and a better labelling method was established. The labelling yields, as determined by paper chromatography, were greater than 80%

  16. Recent developments in blood cell labeling research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.; Straub, R.F.; Meinken, G.E.

    1988-01-01

    A number of recent developments in research on blood cell labeling techniques are presented. The discussion relates to three specific areas: (1) a new in vitro method for red blood cell labeling with /sup 99m/Tc; (2) a method for labeling leukocytes and platelets with /sup 99m/Tc; and (3) the use of monoclonal antibody technique for platelet labeling. The advantages and the pitfalls of these techniques are examined in the light of available mechanistic information. Problems that remain to be resolved are reviewed. An assessment is made of the progress as well as prospects in blood cell labeling methodology including that using the monoclonal antibody approach. 37 refs., 4 figs

  17. Labeling of creatinine with technetium-99m

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yurt Lambrecht, F. [Ege Univ., Bornova, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Nuclear Applications, Inst. of Nuclear Sciences; Durkan, K. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Buca, Izmir (Turkey). Chemistry Technicianship Program, Izmir Vocational School; Soylu, A. [Dokuz Eylul Univ., Narlidere, Izmir (Turkey). Dept. of Pediatrics, Medical Faculty

    2004-07-01

    Creatinine is a clinically important index of renal glomerular filtration rate. Urine creatinine levels can be used as a screening test to evaluate kidney function or can be part of the creatinine clearance test. In case of kidney dysfunction or muscle disorders the creatinine concentration in serum/plasma may rise to a higher value than in healthy body. Technetium- 99m has been used in nuclear medicine and in biomedical research to label molecular and cellular structures employed as radiotracers. {sup 99m}Tc is utilized to label molecules and cells, used as radiopharmaceuticals, and also to label biological species. It presents many desirable characteristics. SnCl{sub 2} method is frequently used as a reducing agent in the {sup 99m}Tc- labeling process. Creatinine metabolism might be investigated by using labeled {sup 99m}Tc- creatinine in healthy or uremic rats. (orig.)

  18. Energy labeling for electric fans in Malaysia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahlia, T.M.I.; Masjuki, H.H.; Taha, F.M.; Rahim, N.A.; Saidur, R.

    2005-01-01

    To reduce energy consumption in the residential sector, Malaysia Energy Commission is considering implementing energy labels for household electrical appliances including electric fans in 2005. The purpose of the energy labels is to provide the consumers a guideline to compare the size, features, price and efficiency of the appliance. This paper discusses the energy label for electric fans in this country based on Malaysian Standards developed by a technical committee that reviewed the performance of household electrical appliances. This study includes methodology for the calculation of the energy efficiency star rating and projected energy usage, performance requirements, details of the energy label and the requirements for the valid application in Malaysia. The label also can be adopted for other household electrical appliances with only slight modifications

  19. Insight into the labeling mechanism of acceleration selective arterial spin labeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmid, Sophie; Petersen, Esben T; Van Osch, Matthias J P

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Acceleration selective arterial spin labeling (AccASL) is a spatially non-selective labeling technique, used in traditional ASL methods, which labels spins based on their flow acceleration rather than spatial localization. The exact origin of the AccASL signal within the vasculature......-ASL, combined AccASL and VS-ASL signal, and signal from one module with crushing from the other. RESULTS: The label created with AccASL has an overlap of approximately 50% in the vascular region with VS-ASL, but also originates from smaller vessels closer to the capillaries. CONCLUSION: AccASL is able to label...

  20. Does the Drug Facts Label for nonprescription drugs meet its design objectives? A new procedure for assessing label effectiveness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael P Ryan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrate an expanded procedure for assessing drug-label comprehension. Innovations include a pretest of drug preconceptions, verbal ability and label attentiveness measures, a label-scanning task, a free-recall test, category-clustering measures, and preconception-change scores. In total, 55 female and 39 male undergraduates read a facsimile Drug Facts Label for aspirin, a Cohesive-Prose Label, or a Scrambled-Prose Label. The Drug Facts Label outperformed the Scrambled-Prose Label, but not the Cohesive-Prose Label, in scanning effectiveness. The Drug Facts Label was no better than the Cohesive-Prose Label or the Scrambled-Prose Label in promoting attentiveness, recall and organization of drug facts, or misconception refutation. Discussion focuses on the need for refutational labels based on a sequence-of-events text schema.

  1. 99Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes: comparison with 111In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peters, A.M.; Roddie, M.E.; Zacharopoulos, G.P.; George, P.; Stuttle, A.W.J.; Lavender, J.P.; Danpure, H.J.; Osman, S.

    1988-01-01

    The lipophilic complex, 99 Tcsup(m)-hexamethylpropyleneamine oxime (HMPAO) is an efficient leucocyte label, and labels granulocytes with more stability than mononuclear leucocytes. The recovery of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO granulocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes isolated and labelled in plasma using tropolone. The Tsub(1/2) of 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled granulocytes in blood was less than that of 111 In-labelled granulocytes. The initial biodistribution of 99 Tcsup(m)-labelled leucocytes was similar to 111 In-labelled granulocytes, with a rapid initial lung transit, prominent splenic activity, bone marrow activity and minimal hepatic activity, although, unlike 111 In, 99 Tcsup(m) activity was also seen in urine, occasionally in the gallbladder, and, from about 4 h, consistently in the colon. Bone marrow activity was particularly prominent with 99 Tcsup(m). About 6% of 99 Tcsup(m) was excreted in the faeces up to 48 h after injection, and about 17% in urine up to 24 h. The time-activity curves of reticuloendothelial activity up to 24 h were broadly similar for the two labelled cell preparations. Clinical information given by the two agents was similar in 27 of 30 patients who received both. We conclude that with respect to granulocyte kinetics and clinical data, 99 Tcsup(m)-HMPAO labelled leucocytes are comparable with 111 In-tropolonate labelled granulocytes. (author)

  2. Efficient Multi-Label Feature Selection Using Entropy-Based Label Selection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaesung Lee

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Multi-label feature selection is designed to select a subset of features according to their importance to multiple labels. This task can be achieved by ranking the dependencies of features and selecting the features with the highest rankings. In a multi-label feature selection problem, the algorithm may be faced with a dataset containing a large number of labels. Because the computational cost of multi-label feature selection increases according to the number of labels, the algorithm may suffer from a degradation in performance when processing very large datasets. In this study, we propose an efficient multi-label feature selection method based on an information-theoretic label selection strategy. By identifying a subset of labels that significantly influence the importance of features, the proposed method efficiently outputs a feature subset. Experimental results demonstrate that the proposed method can identify a feature subset much faster than conventional multi-label feature selection methods for large multi-label datasets.

  3. Energy Deficit Required for Rapid Weight Loss in Elite Collegiate Wrestlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Emi; Sagayama, Hiroyuki; Yamada, Yosuke; Shiose, Keisuke; Osawa, Takuya; Motonaga, Keiko; Ouchi, Shiori; Kamei, Akiko; Nakajima, Kohei; Higaki, Yasuki; Tanaka, Hiroaki; Takahashi, Hideyuki; Okamura, Koji

    2018-04-26

    To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL) of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM) within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE) determined using the doubly labeled water method (DLW) from energy intake (EI) assessed with diet records. It was also estimated from body composition change estimated with the four-component model (4C) and other conventional methods. BM decreased significantly by 4.7 ± 0.5 kg (6.4 ± 0.5%). Total body water loss was the major component of the BM loss (71.0 ± 7.6%). TEE was 9446 ± 1422 kcal, and EI was 2366 ± 1184 kcal during the RWL of 53-h; therefore, the energy deficit was 7080 ± 1525 kcal. Thus, energy density was 1507 ± 279 kcal/kg ∆BM during the RWL, comparable with values obtained using the 4C, three-component model, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and stable isotope dilution. Energy density for RWL of wrestlers is lower than that commonly used (7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM). Although RWL is not recommended, we propose that commonly practiced extreme energy restriction such as 7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM during RWL appears to be meaningless.

  4. Perfusion deficits and functional connectivity alterations in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Li, Baojuan; Zhang, Xi; Zhang, Linchuan; Li, Liang; Lu, Hongbing

    2016-03-01

    To explore the alteration in cerebral blood flow (CBF) and functional connectivity between survivors with recent onset post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and without PTSD, survived from the same coal mine flood disaster. In this study, a processing pipeline using arterial spin labeling (ASL) sequence was proposed. Considering low spatial resolution of ASL sequence, a linear regression method was firstly used to correct the partial volume (PV) effect for better CBF estimation. Then the alterations of CBF between two groups were analyzed using both uncorrected and PV-corrected CBF maps. Based on altered CBF regions detected from the CBF analysis as seed regions, the functional connectivity abnormities in PTSD patients was investigated. The CBF analysis using PV-corrected maps indicates CBF deficits in the bilateral frontal lobe, right superior frontal gyrus and right corpus callosum of PTSD patients, while only right corpus callosum was identified in uncorrected CBF analysis. Furthermore, the regional CBF of the right superior frontal gyrus exhibits significantly negative correlation with the symptom severity in PTSD patients. The resting-state functional connectivity indicates increased connectivity between left frontal lobe and right parietal lobe. These results indicate that PV-corrected CBF exhibits more subtle perfusion changes and may benefit further perfusion and connectivity analysis. The symptom-specific perfusion deficits and aberrant connectivity in above memory-related regions may be putative biomarkers for recent onset PTSD induced by a single prolonged trauma exposure and help predict the severity of PTSD.

  5. Energy Deficit Required for Rapid Weight Loss in Elite Collegiate Wrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emi Kondo

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available To determine energy density for rapid weight loss (RWL of weight-classified sports, eight male elite wrestlers were instructed to lose 6% of body mass (BM within 53 h. Energy deficit during the RWL was calculated by subtracting total energy expenditure (TEE determined using the doubly labeled water method (DLW from energy intake (EI assessed with diet records. It was also estimated from body composition change estimated with the four-component model (4C and other conventional methods. BM decreased significantly by 4.7 ± 0.5 kg (6.4 ± 0.5%. Total body water loss was the major component of the BM loss (71.0 ± 7.6%. TEE was 9446 ± 1422 kcal, and EI was 2366 ± 1184 kcal during the RWL of 53-h; therefore, the energy deficit was 7080 ± 1525 kcal. Thus, energy density was 1507 ± 279 kcal/kg ∆BM during the RWL, comparable with values obtained using the 4C, three-component model, dual energy X-ray absorptiometry, and stable isotope dilution. Energy density for RWL of wrestlers is lower than that commonly used (7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM. Although RWL is not recommended, we propose that commonly practiced extreme energy restriction such as 7400 or 7700 kcal/kg ΔBM during RWL appears to be meaningless.

  6. Pharmacologic treatment for the core deficits and associated symptoms of autism in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    West, Lis; Waldrop, Julee; Brunssen, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopmental condition affecting 1 out of 160 children in the United States today. Only risperidone has Food and Drug Administration approval for the pharmacologic management of autism in children. However, health care providers may prescribe other drugs used off-label to assist autistic children and their families with the core deficits and associated behaviors of this condition. Evidence for the use of these medications will be discussed in this continuing education offering. Meta analyses, randomized clinical trials, and other prospective experimental studies of pharmacotherapy conducted in the United States in the past 10 years in children between the ages of 5 and 15 years were reviewed. The results support moderate success in treating the associated behaviors of autism and minimal success in treating core deficits across all drug classes. Preliminary evidence demonstrates possible uses for atypical antipsychotic agents, selective-serotonin reuptake inhibitors, stimulants, and N-methyl-D-aspirate receptor antagonists in decreasing the core behaviors and associated symptoms of autism. More studies and longer periods of follow-up are needed before definitive guidelines can be suggested.

  7. The Safety and Efficacy of Methylphenidate and Dexmethylphenidate in Adults with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael A. Sopko

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective To review the literature on the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate, OROS-methylphenidate, methylphenidate ER, and dexmethylphenidate in adults with Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD. To analyze the effects of different doses of methylphenidate, it's various formulations, and methylphenidate on efficacy and safety in this population. Data Sources Literature retrieval was performed through Pubmed/MEDLINE (Up to May 2010 using the terms methylphenidate, dexmethylphenidate, and attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder. In addition, reference citations from publications identified were reviewed. Study Selection and Data Extraction Double-blinded, placebo-controlled clinical trials, as well as crossover and open-label trials found using the search criteria listed above were included for review. Case reports were not included in this review. Data Synthesis Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD is a psychiatric condition that is commonly seen in children and adolescents, that persists into adulthood for about 50% of patients. Methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate are often prescribed to treat the symptoms associated with ADHD. The literature validating the safety and efficacy of methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate in children and adolescents with ADHD is substantial. However, the literature specifically addressing the safety and efficacy of these medications in the adult population is less extensive and prescribing is often anecdotal based on child and adolescent data. Understanding the literature regarding methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate and its effects in adults can enhance evidence-based medicine (EBM and improve treatment outcomes Conclusion Methylphenidate and dexmethylphenidate are safe and effective medications to treat the symptoms of ADHD in adults. Based on the literature, increased doses are associated with better treatment response with moderate safety concerns. The different dosage forms

  8. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder during adulthood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnin, E; Maurs, C

    Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD), although considered a childhood-onset neurodevelopmental condition, is nevertheless a frequent and disabling condition in adults. A proportion of such patients are not diagnosed during childhood or adolescence, as diagnosis of the syndrome is rather complex, especially when other psychiatric, neurological or other neurodevelopmental conditions are also associated, yet comorbidities and consequences of ADHD are frequently observed in adults and older populations. As ADHD patients present to memory clinics with attentional and executive disorders, neuropsychological examinations of undiagnosed ADHD patients may reveal atypical cognitive profiles that can complicate the usual diagnostic procedure and increase the risk of delayed diagnosis or misdiagnosis. Thus, explorations of cognitive and/or behavioral disorders in adult populations should systematically screen for this neurodevelopmental condition. Accurate diagnosis could lead to non-pharmaceutical and/or pharmaceutical treatments to improve symptoms and quality of life for adult ADHD patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. ORGANIC FOOD LABELING AND CERTIFICATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NICOLETA-ANDREEA NEACSU

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In the rush to produce more and more crops to satisfy growing demand producers have had to resort to using a lethal cocktail of pesticides to control disease and insect attack. This has lead to numerous international debates about unhealthy food, the effects of it and the measures that must be taken in order to avoid the harmful effects of genetically modified food consumption demonstrated by specialists. These debates evolve around the benefits of the organic products versus the pure trade trick outlined by some. The organic food movement has earned its well deserved place in many markets around the world. Its prestige is lately being widespread to vast parts of Eastern-Europe as well. Based on data collected from specialized reports and articles on organic products, the aim of this paper is to present the importance of organic products, the regulations on organic food and different labels used around the world in order to certify the organic food products.

  10. Trabecular bone deficits among Vietnamese immigrants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melton, L J; Marquez, M A; McCready, L K; Achenbach, S J; Riggs, B L; Amin, S; Khosla, S

    2011-05-01

    Compared to white women, lower areal bone mineral density (aBMD) in middle-aged Vietnamese immigrants is due to reduced trabecular volumetric bone mineral density (vBMD), which in turn is associated with greater trabecular separation along with lower estrogen levels. The epidemiology of osteoporosis in Asian populations is still poorly known, but we previously found a deficit in lumbar spine aBMD among postmenopausal Southeast Asian women, compared to white women, that persisted after correction for bone size. This issue was revisited using more sophisticated imaging techniques. Twenty Vietnamese immigrants (age, 44-79 years) were compared to 162 same-aged white women with respect to aBMD at the hip, spine and wrist, vBMD at the hip and spine by quantitative computed tomography and vBMD and bone microstructure at the ultradistal radius by high-resolution pQCT. Bone turnover and sex steroid levels were assessed in a subset (20 Vietnamese and 40 white women). The aBMD was lower at all sites among the Vietnamese women, but femoral neck vBMD did not differ from middle-aged white women. Significant differences in lumbar spine and ultradistal radius vBMD in the Vietnamese immigrants were due to lower trabecular vBMD, which was associated with increased trabecular separation. Bone resorption was elevated and bone formation depressed among the Vietnamese immigrants, although trends were not statistically significant. Serum estradiol was positively associated with trabecular vBMD in the Vietnamese women, but their estrogen levels were dramatically lower compared to white women. Although reported discrepancies in aBMD among Asian women are mainly an artifact of smaller bone size, we identified a specific deficit in the trabecular bone among a sample of Vietnamese immigrants that may be related to low estrogen levels and which needs further study.

  11. "Why Mama and Papa?" The Development of Social Labels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne; Lewis, Michael

    1979-01-01

    Examined social labels first used for parents, differentiation of parents and others on the basis of labeling behavior, and overgeneralization of social labels in 71 infants ranging in age from 9 to 24 months. (JMB)

  12. 27 CFR 4.50 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF WINE Requirements for Approval of Labels of... of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. [T.D...

  13. 27 CFR 5.55 - Certificates of label approval.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Requirements for Approval of... certificates of label approval and certificates of exemption from label approval, as well as appeal procedures...

  14. Tritium labeling for bio-med research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lemmon, R.M.

    1980-01-01

    A very large fraction of what we know about biochemical pathways in the living cell has resulted from the use of radioactively-labeled tracer compounds; the use of tritium-labeled compounds has been particularly important. As research in biochemistry and biology has progressed the need has arisen to label compounds of higher specific activity and of increasing molecular complexity - for example, oligo-nucleotides, polypeptides, hormones, enzymes. Our laboratory has gradually developed special facilities for handling tritium at the kilocurie level. These facilities have already proven extremely valuable in producing labeled compounds that are not available from commercial sources. The principal ways employed for compound labeling are: (1) microwave discharge labeling, (2) catalytic tritio-hydrogenation, (3) catalytic exchange with T 2 O, and (4) replacement of halogen atoms by T. Studies have also been carried out on tritiation by the replacement of halogen atoms with T atoms. These results indicate that carrier-free tritium-labeled products, including biomacromolecules, can be produced in this way

  15. Labelling of food: A challenge for many

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henderikx Frans

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In food marketing, there is a trend towards artisanal, traditional “honest” food, and simultaneously to good looking, long lasting, multi-purpose food with a clean label. In addition, marketeers like to upgrade the image of the food, including the label, using various digital techniques. This can produce (unintended non-conformities with the current food law on labelling, which in this review, refers to Regulation (EU No 1169/2011 (European Union, 2011. Food and meat labelling have been subjected to increased regulation in the recent years, sometimes after scandals (horse-gate, food fraud, sometimes due to wishes of consumer organisations (nutritional information and sometimes after the introduction of new types of ingredients (sweeteners, phytosterols, nanomaterials. Scope and approach: This review provides information about food labelling. Some experiences gathered by food inspectorate personnel in practice, with reference to the literature data, positive aspects, main problems and trends are discussed. Key findings and conclusion: Food labelling is a complex requirement, with the general demands written down in the harmonized regulation (European Union, 2011. Foods sold by e-commerce must also follow these same regulations. However, many food labels on the market show smaller and/or bigger deviations from the legal requirements, which should be appropriately addressed by the food manufacturers or packers, but also by the competent authorities. Even training of consumers seems to be needed, since all this information is, in the end, intended for consumers to aptly utilise.

  16. Consumer preferences for food allergen labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Carlo A; Harvard, Stephanie; Grubisic, Maja; Galo, Jessica; Clarke, Ann; Elliott, Susan; Lynd, Larry D

    2017-01-01

    Food allergen labeling is an important tool to reduce risk of exposure and prevent anaphylaxis for individuals with food allergies. Health Canada released a Canadian food allergen labeling regulation (2008) and subsequent update (2012) suggesting that research is needed to guide further iterations of the regulation to improve food allergen labeling and reduce risk of exposure. The primary objective of this study was to examine consumer preferences in food labeling for allergy avoidance and anaphylaxis prevention. A secondary objective was to identify whether different subgroups within the consumer population emerged. A discrete choice experiment using a fractional factorial design divided into ten different versions with 18 choice-sets per version was developed to examine consumer preferences for different attributes of food labeling. Three distinct subgroups of Canadian consumers with different allergen considerations and food allergen labeling needs were identified. Overall, preferences for standardized precautionary and safety symbols at little or no increased cost emerged. While three distinct groups with different preferences were identified, in general the results revealed that the current Canadian food allergen labeling regulation can be improved by enforcing the use of standardized precautionary and safety symbols and educating the public on the use of these symbols.

  17. Encoding, Memory, and Transcoding Deficits in Childhood Apraxia of Speech

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shriberg, Lawrence D.; Lohmeier, Heather L.; Strand, Edythe A.; Jakielski, Kathy J.

    2012-01-01

    A central question in Childhood Apraxia of Speech (CAS) is whether the core phenotype is limited to transcoding (planning/programming) deficits or if speakers with CAS also have deficits in auditory-perceptual "encoding" (representational) and/or "memory" (storage and retrieval of representations) processes. We addressed this and other questions…

  18. The Deficit and the Federal Budget. 1983 National Issues Forum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melville, Keith, Ed.

    Although designed for participants in the National Issues Forum, this booklet, which describes the impact of the federal deficit and the federal budget process, is also useful for secondary school social studies. The six sections begin with an introduction describing why the deficit grows yearly and why it is difficult for Congress to stop its…

  19. Pragmatic Deficits and Social Impairment in Children with ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staikova, Ekaterina; Gomes, Hilary; Tartter, Vivien; McCabe, Allyssa; Halperin, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Impaired social functioning has been well documented in individuals with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Existing treatments for ADHD are effective for managing core symptoms, but have limited effectiveness at improving social skills, suggesting that social deficits in ADHD may not be directly related to core symptoms…

  20. Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Signs Treating ADHD Reprints For More Information Share Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD): The Basics Download PDF Download ePub Order ... daily life, it could be a sign of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD is a disorder that makes it ...

  1. Are Auditory and Visual Processing Deficits Related to Developmental Dyslexia?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiou, George K.; Papadopoulos, Timothy C.; Zarouna, Elena; Parrila, Rauno

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine if children with dyslexia learning to read a consistent orthography (Greek) experience auditory and visual processing deficits and if these deficits are associated with phonological awareness, rapid naming speed and orthographic processing. We administered measures of general cognitive ability, phonological…

  2. Depression in adolescence:testing a social skills deficit theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Beek, Y.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/107292300

    2017-01-01

    C145. DEPRESSION IN ADOLESCENCE:TESTING A SOCIAL SKILLS DEFICIT THEORYVan Beek, Y. Utrecht University, NetherlandsThe Social Skill Deficit Model for depression suggeststhat less optimal social skills lead to negativefeedback of others, which in turn results in negativeself-views and depression.

  3. Psychosocial and Adaptive Deficits Associated with Learning Disability Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backenson, Erica M.; Holland, Sara C.; Kubas, Hanna A.; Fitzer, Kim R.; Wilcox, Gabrielle; Carmichael, Jessica A.; Fraccaro, Rebecca L.; Smith, Amanda D.; Macoun, Sarah J.; Harrison, Gina L.; Hale, James B.

    2015-01-01

    Children with specific learning disabilities (SLD) have deficits in the basic psychological processes that interfere with learning and academic achievement, and for some SLD subtypes, these deficits can also lead to emotional and/or behavior problems. This study examined psychosocial functioning in 123 students, aged 6 to 11, who underwent…

  4. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, Mascha van 't; Aleman, Andre; Kessels, Roy P. C.; Cahn, Wiepke; Haan, Edward H. F. de; Kahn, Rene S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as

  5. Exploring the nature of facial affect processing deficits in schizophrenia.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wout, M. van 't; Aleman, A.; Kessels, R.P.C.; Cahn, W.; Haan, E.H.F. de; Kahn, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Schizophrenia has been associated with deficits in facial affect processing, especially negative emotions. However, the exact nature of the deficit remains unclear. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether schizophrenia patients have problems in automatic allocation of attention as

  6. Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder and Executive Function Impairment: An Overview.

    OpenAIRE

    Carruthers, Lindsey.

    2016-01-01

    As with any cognitive ability, attention is vulnerable to dysfunction. The most common attentional problem is attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This brief overview will highlight the symptoms and deficits associated with ADHD, its prevalence in today’s society, the association between executive function impairment and ADHD using Barkley’s (1997) work, and the personal and societal effects of the disorder.

  7. Test Review: Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allee-Smith, Paula J.; Winters, Rebecca R.; Drake, Amanda; Joslin, Amanda K.

    2013-01-01

    The Barkley Deficits in Executive Functioning Scale (BDEFS), authored by Russell A. Barkley and published by Guilford in 2011, is an individually administered assessment tool that may be used to evaluate adults ages 18 to 81. The purpose of this measure is to screen those who may be experiencing executive functioning (EF) deficits in…

  8. Neuropsychological Treatment of Attention Deficit Disorder in Infancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solovieva, Yulia; Quintanar, Luis

    2017-01-01

    The syndrome of attention deficit disorder is one of the most frequent pictures of disabilities in pre-scholars. The present study analyses the results of fulfillment of tasks for mechanisms of control and spatial functions. 14 pre-scholars with attention deficit disorder took part in the study. The neuropsychological evaluation was applied before…

  9. Effect of progressive water deficit stress on proline accumulation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Water deficit stress is one of the important factors limiting chickpea production in arid and semi-arid regions of West Asia and North Africa. When water deficit stress is imposed, different molecular and biochemical responses take place. This study was carried out to investigate proline accumulation and protein profiles of ...

  10. Genetic variation of response to water deficit in parental genotypes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    dgomi

    In this study, we investigated morphological and photosynthetic responses to water deficit in parental genotypes of M. ... for adaptation to water deficit in legumes is a prerequisite for any research aiming to improve legume yields. ...... tolerant genotypes in rainfed lowland rice. Field Crop. Res. 99:48-58. Rouached A, Slama I, ...

  11. Emotion processing deficits in alexithymia and response to a depth of processing intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Constantinou, Elena; Panayiotou, Georgia; Theodorou, Marios

    2014-12-01

    Findings on alexithymic emotion difficulties have been inconsistent. We examined potential differences between alexithymic and control participants in general arousal, reactivity, facial and subjective expression, emotion labeling, and covariation between emotion response systems. A depth of processing intervention was introduced. Fifty-four participants (27 alexithymic), selected using the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, completed an imagery experiment (imagining joy, fear and neutral scripts), under instructions for shallow or deep emotion processing. Heart rate, skin conductance, facial electromyography and startle reflex were recorded along with subjective ratings. Results indicated hypo-reactivity to emotion among high alexithymic individuals, smaller and slower startle responses, and low covariation between physiology and self-report. No deficits in facial expression, labeling and emotion ratings were identified. Deep processing was associated with increased physiological reactivity and lower perceived dominance and arousal in high alexithymia. Findings suggest a tendency for avoidance of intense, unpleasant emotions and less defensive action preparation in alexithymia. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Extending Modal Transition Systems with Structured Labels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bauer, Sebastian S.; Juhl, Line; Larsen, Kim Guldstrand

    2012-01-01

    We introduce a novel formalism of label-structured modal transition systems that combines the classical may/must modalities on transitions with structured labels that represent quantitative aspects of the model. On the one hand, the specification formalism is general enough to include models like...... weighted modal transition systems and allows the system developers to employ more complex label refinement than in the previously studied theories. On the other hand, the formalism maintains the desirable properties required by any specification theory supporting compositional reasoning. In particular, we...

  13. Synthesis of deuterium-labeled fluphenazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, H U; Hawes, E M; Midha, K K

    1984-01-01

    The propylpiperazine side chain of fluphenazine has been labeled with two, four, and six deuterium atoms by lithium aluminum deuteride reduction of the appropriate ester or imide. The gamma-carbon of the propyl group was labeled with two deuterium atoms by reduction of 10- (2-methoxycarbonylethyl) -2-trifluoromethyl-10H-phenothiazine, while four deuterium atoms were incorporated into the piperazine ring by reduction of 10-[3-(3,5-dioxo-1-piperazinyl)propyl]-2-trifluoromethyl-10H-pheno thiazine. The latter reduction gave the d4-labeled N-deshydroxyethyl metabolite of fluphenazine.

  14. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated

  15. Labelling of bacteria with indium chelates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleinert, P.; Pfister, W.; Endert, G.; Sproessig, M.

    1985-01-01

    The indium chelates were prepared by reaction of radioactive indiumchloride with 10 μg oxine, 15 μg tropolone and 3 mg acetylacetone, resp. The formed chelates have been incubated with 10 9 germs/ml for 5 minutes, with labelling outputs from 90 to 95%. Both gram-positive (Streptococcus, Staphylococcus) and gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli) can be labelled. The reproductive capacity of the bacteria was not impaired. The application of indium labelled bacteria allows to show the distribution of microorganisms within the living organism and to investigate problems of bacterial adherence. (author)

  16. Do European consumers use nutrition labels?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wills, Josephine M.; Grunert, Klaus G.; Celemín, Laura Fernández

    2009-01-01

    Nutrition labelling on food packages becomes more and more widespread in the European Union. Such information is not compulsory, unless a nutrition or health claim is made. However, how do consumers use nutrition information? Two European studies are currently assessing whether nutrition...... information on food labels is exerting an effect on healthy food choices among consumers. Based for the first time on in-store observations and interviews, these studies give a real-life insight into consumers' shopping behaviours. The major outcomes to date are that most European consumers have reasonable...... knowledge about nutrition and are able to use nutrition labels to identify healthier products within a category....

  17. Reductive methods for isotopic labeling of antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Champney, W.S.

    1989-01-01

    Methods for the reductive methylation of the amino groups of eight different antibiotics using 3 HCOH or H 14 COH are presented. The reductive labeling of an additional seven antibiotics by NaB 3 H 4 is also described. The specific activity of the methyl-labeled drugs was determined by a phosphocellulose paper binding assay. Two quantitative assays for these compounds based on the reactivity of the antibiotic amino groups with fluorescamine and of the aldehyde and ketone groups with 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine are also presented. Data on the cellular uptake and ribosome binding of these labeled compounds are also presented

  18. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  19. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated.

  20. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are critically assessed and evaluated.

  1. The antibody approach of labeling blood cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srivastava, S.C.

    1991-01-01

    Although the science of blood cell labeling using monoclonal antibodies directed against specific cellular antigens is still in its early stages, considerable progress has recently been accomplished in this area. The monoclonal antibody approach offers the promise of greater selectivity and enhanced convenience since specific cell types can be labeled in vivo, thus eliminating the need for complex and damaging cell separation procedures. This article focuses on these developments with primary emphasis on antibody labeling of platelets and leukocytes. The advantages and the shortcomings of the recently reported techniques are criticality assessed and evaluated

  2. SAIL--stereo-array isotope labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kainosho, Masatsune; Güntert, Peter

    2009-11-01

    Optimal stereospecific and regiospecific labeling of proteins with stable isotopes enhances the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) method for the determination of the three-dimensional protein structures in solution. Stereo-array isotope labeling (SAIL) offers sharpened lines, spectral simplification without loss of information and the ability to rapidly collect and automatically evaluate the structural restraints required to solve a high-quality solution structure for proteins up to twice as large as before. This review gives an overview of stable isotope labeling methods for NMR spectroscopy with proteins and provides an in-depth treatment of the SAIL technology.

  3. Labelling of castor oil for myocardial study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hallaba, E.; Al-Suhybani, A.; Zaki, F.S.; Abdullah, M.E.

    1985-01-01

    The labelling of castor oil, hydrolyzed castor oil and oleic acid by iodine monochloride and chloramine-T was investigated. The effect of iodinating agent and concentration of castor oil on labelling yield was studied. A comparative pharmacological study with analog aliphatic acids was carried out. Castor oil labelled with iodine monochloride concentrates in heart and liver in good proportion, better than other natural fatty acids and nearly equal to analog fatty acids. Infrared study revealed that the OH group in ricinoleic acid may protect the sup(125)I added across the double bond with minor changes in biochemical properties causing better extraction by muscle of the heart. (author)

  4. 101 labeled brain images and a consistent human cortical labeling protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arno eKlein

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The Desikan-Killiany-Tourville (DKT protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://www.mindboggle.info/data/ website.

  5. 101 Labeled Brain Images and a Consistent Human Cortical Labeling Protocol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Arno; Tourville, Jason

    2012-01-01

    We introduce the Mindboggle-101 dataset, the largest and most complete set of free, publicly accessible, manually labeled human brain images. To manually label the macroscopic anatomy in magnetic resonance images of 101 healthy participants, we created a new cortical labeling protocol that relies on robust anatomical landmarks and minimal manual edits after initialization with automated labels. The “Desikan–Killiany–Tourville” (DKT) protocol is intended to improve the ease, consistency, and accuracy of labeling human cortical areas. Given how difficult it is to label brains, the Mindboggle-101 dataset is intended to serve as brain atlases for use in labeling other brains, as a normative dataset to establish morphometric variation in a healthy population for comparison against clinical populations, and contribute to the development, training, testing, and evaluation of automated registration and labeling algorithms. To this end, we also introduce benchmarks for the evaluation of such algorithms by comparing our manual labels with labels automatically generated by probabilistic and multi-atlas registration-based approaches. All data and related software and updated information are available on the http://mindboggle.info/data website. PMID:23227001

  6. ANALYSIS OF BUDGET DEFICIT AND ITS PROBLEMS IN LITHUANIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Jaseviciene

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Budget deficit is one of the most important parts of macroeconomics. Since 1990, the government of the Lithuanian Republic has been faced with problems in balancing the budget deficit; most of the years, the country’s budget was deficit with the lack of incoming money flow. The budget deficit value in Lithuania has been a significant theme since 2004, when Lithuania became part of the European Union, and one of the liabilities was to insure the litas replacement with euro currency and the budget deficit was one of the Maastricht’s criteria. Also it is very important to maintain effective management of public finances. The government is responsible for managing the country’s budget in respect to various economical parameters, for example, GDP, inflation rate, unemployment rate, etc., in order to plan income level and distribute it to the relevant economic areas. Also, the budget deficit’s problems are revealed in this article.

  7. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and tuberous sclerosis complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Agati, Elisa; Moavero, Romina; Cerminara, Caterina; Curatolo, Paolo

    2009-10-01

    The neurobiological basis of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in tuberous sclerosis complex is still largely unknown. Cortical tubers may disrupt several brain networks that control different types of attention. Frontal lobe dysfunction due to seizures or epileptiform electroencephalographic discharges may perturb the development of brain systems that underpin attentional and hyperactive functions during a critical early stage of brain maturation. Comorbidity of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with mental retardation and autism spectrum disorders is frequent in children with tuberous sclerosis. Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may also reflect a direct effect of the abnormal genetic program. Treatment of children with tuberous sclerosis complex with combined symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and epilepsy may represent a challenge for clinicians, because antiepileptic therapy and drugs used to treat attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may aggravate the clinical picture of each other.

  8. Pacific Ciguatoxin Induces Excitotoxicity and Neurodegeneration in the Motor Cortex Via Caspase 3 Activation: Implication for Irreversible Motor Deficit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asthana, Pallavi; Zhang, Ni; Kumar, Gajendra; Chine, Virendra Bhagawan; Singh, Kunal Kumar; Mak, Yim Ling; Chan, Leo Lai; Lam, Paul Kwan Sing; Ma, Chi Him Eddie

    2018-01-18

    Consumption of fish containing ciguatera toxins or ciguatoxins (CTXs) causes ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP). In some patients, CFP recurrence occurs even years after exposure related to CTXs accumulation. Pacific CTX-1 (P-CTX-1) is one of the most potent natural substances known that causes predominantly neurological symptoms in patients; however, the underlying pathogenies of CFP remain unknown. Using clinically relevant neurobehavioral tests and electromyography (EMG) to assess effects of P-CTX-1 during the 4 months after exposure, recurrent motor strength deficit occurred in mice exposed to P-CTX-1. We detected irreversible motor strength deficits accompanied by reduced EMG activity, demyelination, and slowing of motor nerve conduction, whereas control unexposed mice fully recovered in 1 month after peripheral nerve injury. Finally, to uncover the mechanism underlying CFP, we detected reduction of spontaneous firing rate of motor cortical neurons even 6 months after exposure and increased number of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-immunoreactive astrocytes. Increased numbers of motor cortical neuron apoptosis were detected by dUTP-digoxigenin nick end labeling assay along with activation of caspase 3. Taken together, our study demonstrates that persistence of P-CTX-1 in the nervous system induces irreversible motor deficit that correlates well with excitotoxicity and neurodegeneration detected in the motor cortical neurons.

  9. Social skills deficits and their association with Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Wen-Jiun; Huang, Mei-Feng; Chang, Yu-Ping; Chen, Yu-Min; Hu, Huei-Fan; Yen, Cheng-Fang

    2017-03-01

    Background and aims The aims of this study were to examine the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities in adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) as well as the moderators for this association. Methods A total of 300 adolescents, aged between 11 and 18 years, who had been diagnosed with ADHD participated in this study. Their Internet addiction levels, social skills deficits, ADHD, parental characteristics, and comorbidities were assessed. The various Internet activities that the participants engaged in were also examined. Results The associations between social skills deficits and Internet addiction and activities and the moderators of these associations were examined using logistic regression analyses. Social skills deficits were significantly associated with an increased risk of Internet addiction after adjustment for the effects of other factors [odds ratio (OR) = 1.049, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.030-1.070]. Social skills deficits were also significantly associated with Internet gaming and watching movies. The maternal occupational socioeconomic levels of the participants moderated the association between social skills deficits and Internet addiction. Conclusions Social skills deficits should be considered targets in prevention and intervention programs for treating Internet addiction among adolescents with ADHD.

  10. Impact of Executive Function Deficits and Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) on Academic Outcomes in Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biederman, Joseph; Monuteaux, Michael C.; Doyle, Alysa E.; Seidman, Larry J.; Wilens, Timothy E.; Ferrero, Frances; Morgan, Christie L.; Faraone, Stephen V.

    2004-01-01

    The association between executive function deficits (EFDs) and functional outcomes were examined among children and adolescents with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Participants were children and adolescents with (n = 259) and without (n = 222) ADHD, as ascertained from pediatric and psychiatric clinics. The authors defined EFD as…

  11. Synthesis of deuterium-labelled diclofenac sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leroy, D.; Richard, J.; Godbillon, J.

    1993-01-01

    Dicolofenac sodium labelled with deuterium in the phenylacetic ring was prepared from [ 2 H 5 ]-bromobenzene in a six-step reaction. It was found to be suitable for use in pharmacokinetic and bioavailability studies in man. (Author)

  12. Problems of Usage Labelling in English Lexicography*

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ancies in the contextual usage labelling in the dictionaries were established and are discussed. ..... Likewise, the noun vagrant meaning 'a person who has no job .... tions: Proceedings of the 36th Conference of the American Translators ...

  13. Read the Label First: Protect Your Pets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the importance of reading pet products labels before purchasing and using any product to insure the safety of your pets. Find tips for ways to reduce the changes of pets accessing potentially dangerous products.

  14. Read the Label First! Protect Your Household

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and pesticides could harm children, pets, or the environment if not used and stored correctly. Choose a product that is labeled for your specific pest. EPA encourages consumers to consider using EPA-registered ...

  15. 40 CFR 211.104 - Label content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations that will be published under this part; (c) Comparative acoustic rating information, which EPA... number or type identification; (f) The phrase “Federal law prohibits removal of this label prior to...

  16. Comparison of international food allergen labeling regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gendel, Steven M

    2012-07-01

    Food allergy is a significant public health issue worldwide. Regulatory risk management strategies for allergic consumers have focused on providing information about the presence of food allergens through label declarations. A number of countries and regulatory bodies have recognized the importance of providing this information by enacting laws, regulations or standards for food allergen labeling of "priority allergens". However, different governments and organizations have taken different approaches to identifying these "priority allergens" and to designing labeling declaration regulatory frameworks. The increasing volume of the international food trade suggests that there would be value in supporting sensitive consumers by harmonizing (to the extent possible) these regulatory frameworks. As a first step toward this goal, an inventory of allergen labeling regulations was assembled and analyzed to identify commonalities, differences, and future needs. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. 40 CFR 763.171 - Labeling requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... plastic, paper, metal, or other durable substances. Labels must be attached in such a manner that they... Act (15 U.S.C. 2605) as of (insert effective date of ban on distribution in commerce). Distribution of...

  18. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & Alcohol ... Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If My Child Has Food Allergies, What Should I Look for When ...

  19. How to Read a Nutrition Facts Label

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Teens Teens site Sitio para adolescentes Body Mind Sexual Health Food & Fitness Diseases & Conditions Infections Drugs & ... topic for: Parents Kids Teens Keeping Portions Under Control Figuring Out Food Labels Healthy Food Shopping If ...

  20. 75 FR 49818 - APPLIANCE LABELING RULE

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-16

    ... particular, this Notice contains revised Spanish language text in that sample label which reads ``Costo Estimado Anual de Energ[iacute]a'' instead of ``Costo Anual Estimado;'' ``de la tarifa'' instead of ``del...