Gerard de Valence
Full Text Available This research looks at the significance of barriers that firms considering entry into the construction industry might face. Drawing on the microeconomic characteristics of imperfectly competitive and oligopolistic markets the analysis finds that there are a dozen barriers to entry that affect the industry, but their significance depends on the product type. The discussion covers the question of product homogeneity in construction and evidence for the existence of barriers to entry in concentration levels. Barriers to entry specific to construction are then identified, which leads to an analysis of how they operate and their significance (high, medium or low in different market types, thus increasing our understanding of construction industry dynamics.
Smith, Deborah M
Early postgraduate, or junior doctors, are still required to practise in rural and remote communities, and they continue to face numerous issues and difficulties. Within the hospital setting, exposure to rural practice appears to be very limited during internship, and also to some extent, during the second postgraduate year and beyond. This is a major issue for those required to undertake country relieving, rural terms or who will be bonded to rural and remote practice for several years after internship. This research investigated the current issues and difficulties faced by junior doctors, required to undertake rural and remote practice in Queensland, Australia. An exploratory study was undertaken. Primary data were collected through semi-structured interviews held with key stakeholders. Stakeholders included: directors of clinical training; medical educators; junior doctors; rural practitioners; academic rural practitioners; and medical administrators. Of the 23 people approached, a total of 19 agreed to be interviewed. The response rate was 82.6%. Similar to the issues identified in the literature, there are currently a number of barriers influencing the ability of junior doctors to practise competently and confidently when undertaking practice in rural and remote communities. Minimal clinical experience, lack of supervision and on-site support, inadequate orientation and uninformed expectations, limited access to relevant education, and the influence of isolation, results in an overall lack of preparation both professionally and personally. When asked, respondents supported the identification of core skills and knowledge, and integration of these and other issues affecting rural practice, into their hospital-based programs. Current hospital-based education and training programs were not adequately preparing junior doctors for rural and remote practice. It was commented that orientation and education, with a rural emphasis, could assist junior doctors in their
Kerri McBee-Black; Jung Ha-Brookshire
In response to research which argues that people living with a disability (PLWD) face societal barriers including workplace participation, this study explored how the barriers to social participation, specifically workplace participation, faced by PLWD are exacerbated by the lack of appropriate clothing and the role that stigma, self-efficacy, and clothing have in workplace participation. Finding appropriate clothing is a significant barrier to social participation for many PLWD. The social m...
The study aimed at exploring the barriers facing local governance in the ... Methods: A qualitative research method was employed whereby in-depth interviews were ... All interviews were audio recorded and transcribed verbatim and content ...
Reproductive health barriers facing men and women with disabilities in Durban, South Africa. ... Gender and Behaviour ... reproductive health services is often overshadowed by negative stereotypes that are held about persons with disabilities ...
Saunders, Norman R; Habgood, Mark D; Møllgård, Kjeld
, but more work is required to evaluate the method before it can be tried in patients. Overall, our view is that much more fundamental knowledge of barrier mechanisms and development of new experimental methods will be required before drug targeting to the brain is likely to be a successful endeavor......Barrier mechanisms in the brain are important for its normal functioning and development. Stability of the brain's internal environment, particularly with respect to its ionic composition, is a prerequisite for the fundamental basis of its function, namely transmission of nerve impulses....... In addition, the appropriate and controlled supply of a wide range of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, monocarboxylates, and vitamins is also essential for normal development and function. These are all cellular functions across the interfaces that separate the brain from the rest of the internal...
Simmons, M; Deao, D; Moon, L; Peters, K; Cavanaugh, S
Due to the fear of disease transmission, the practice of mouth-to-mouth (M-M) rescue breathing is rarely performed; to address this concern, many types of CPR barrier devices have been developed. These include bag-valve-mask devices, mouth-to-mask devices, and face shields (FS). The purpose of this study was to measure the volumes delivered during mouth-to-face shield (M-FS) breathing, to measure the back pressure and calculate the resistance to flow through their 1-way valves, and to test for backward leak of gas through the valves. Three FS brands were evaluated: Kiss of Life (KOL), MicroSHIELD (Micro) and Res-Cue Key (RCK). Volume delivered during M-M and M-FS breathing was evaluated by 10 rescuers who used the devices while performing rescue breathing on a CPR mannequin. Back pressure was measured and resistance calculated by directing airflow through the 1-way valves. Backward leak was evaluated by measuring the O2 concentration at the rescuer side of the valve while 100% O2 was directed toward the patient side of the valve. Differences among the brands were evaluated using analysis of variance. The mean (SD) values for volumes in L were: M-M 1.00 (0.25), Micro 0.77 (0.20), RCK 0.64 (0.10), and KOL 0.24 (0.11). Mean values for back pressure in cm H2O at 50 L/min were Micro 16.7 (1.29), KOL 7.22 (0.13), and RCK 2.15 (0.16). Significant backward leak only occurred with RCK. Not one of the FSs tested met all of the requirements suggested by the American Heart Association and by the International Standards Organization.
Choi, Isabella; Sharpe, Louise; Li, Stephen; Hunt, Caroline
Internet treatments have the potential to improve access, especially for cultural groups who face considerable treatment barriers. This study explored the perceived barriers and likelihood of using Internet and face-to-face treatments for depression among Chinese and Caucasian Australian participants. Three-hundred ninety-five (289 Chinese, 106 Caucasian) primary care patients completed a questionnaire about depression history, previous help-seeking, perceived barriers to Internet and face-to-face treatment, and likelihood of using either treatment for depressive symptoms. Internet treatment reduced perceived barriers (including stigma, lack of motivation, concerns of bringing up upsetting feelings, time constraints, transport difficulties, and cost) for both groups to a similar degree, except for time constraints. There were heightened concerns about the helpfulness, suitability, and confidentiality of Internet treatments. Chinese participants and individuals with a probable depression history reported increased perceived barriers across treatments. Both Chinese and Caucasian groups preferred face-to-face treatment across depression severity. However, when age was controlled, there were no significant concerns about Internet treatment, and face-to-face treatment was only preferred for severe depression. Only 12 % of the entire sample refused to try Internet treatment for depression. Endorsement of perceived Internet treatment barriers (including concerns of bringing up upsetting feelings, that treatment would be unhelpful or unsuitable, lack of motivation, cost, cultural sensitivity, and confidentiality) reduced the likelihood to try Internet treatments. Internet treatment reduced perceived treatment barriers across groups, with encouraging support for Internet treatment as an acceptable form of receiving help. Negative concerns about Internet treatment need to be addressed to encourage use.
Full Text Available In response to research which argues that people living with a disability (PLWD face societal barriers including workplace participation, this study explored how the barriers to social participation, specifically workplace participation, faced by PLWD are exacerbated by the lack of appropriate clothing and the role that stigma, self-efficacy, and clothing have in workplace participation. Finding appropriate clothing is a significant barrier to social participation for many PLWD. The social model of disability used in this study supports this by suggesting that it is society which places barriers to PLWD rather than their disability. A qualitative inquiry of semi-structured, in-depth interviews was used, and the results showcase six sub-themes of barriers: work defines me, disability as the barrier to workplace participation, work allows extra societal opportunities, stigma questions my self-efficacy, workplace accommodations diminish my stigma, and clothing builds my self-efficacy. The study found that, for PLWD, workplace participation is hindered because of occupational typecasting and lack of appropriate clothing, which increases their stigma and decreases their self-efficacy. The contributions of this study include theory support, policy, community, and educational enhancement.
Coates, Dennis; Humphreys, Brad, R.; Kane, John; Vachris, Michelle, A.
This paper describes an experiment focused on measuring and explaining differences in students learning between online and face-to-face modes of instruction in college level principles of economics courses. Our results indicate that students in face-to-face sections scored better on the Test of Understanding College Economics (TUCE) than students…
Full Text Available Purpose: People with disability in rural India face multiple barriers accessing healthcare; our hypothesis is that children with intellectual disability suffer the same but little is known about the barriers faced by them. The objectives of the study were to identify the health seeking behaviours of families with children with intellectual disabilities and the barriers they faced accessing healthcare. Methods: This qualitative study involved interviewing caregivers of children with intellectual disability from a pre-existing community development project in the Sahadoli Kadim block of rural Uttar Pradesh. Semi-structured interviews were also conducted with the local practitioners frequented by these caregivers. Results: Barriers identified were grouped under cognitive, structural and financial barriers which were found to be consistent with the Health Care Access Barrier Model (Carrillo, et al., 2011; WHO, 2011. Cognitive barriers included caregivers being unable to identify the complex health needs of their children. Caregivers lacked appropriate knowledge of intellectual disability, with doctors failing to educate them. Structural and financial barriers encompassed poor availability of healthcare providers and contributed to poor access to specialists. Caregivers had no information about government financial aid and healthcare providers did not refer them to these. Conclusion: Children with intellectual disabilities are forced to live with a poor quality of life because of cognitive, structural and financial barriers they face in accessing health care. Results are specific to children with intellectual disability in rural Sahadoli Kadim and could be used to inform policies and strategies to reduce disparities in health care access for these children.
M.B.A. Everywhere in the world, an increasing number of female entrepreneurs are becoming the pillars of economic growth and development. This exploratory research sought to investigate the barriers facing female entrepreneurs and to establish whether these barriers are exacerbated for women because of their gender. It focuses on the experiences and perceptions of female entrepreneurs in the urban formal sector of the Gauteng area of South Africa. Data for the study was gathered by a surve...
Franklin, Martha A.
There is a disparity of mathematics achievement between native English speakers and English language learners (ELL). This study sought to understand the barriers ELL kindergarten students faced in being successful in mathematics. The purpose of this qualitative, instrumental case study was to explore kindergarten teachers' perceptions…
Raman, Kumutha; Yamat, Hamidah
The government has assured all Malaysians that no one; both in rural and urban areas; would be deprived of the Information and Communication Technology (ICT) development. This calls for a need for teachers nationwide to make necessary adjustments to the teaching and learning process. This paper takes a closer look at the barriers faced by teachers…
Garg, Manjari; Naik, Tejas R.; Pathak, C. S.; Nagarajan, S.; Rao, V. Ramgopal; Singh, R.
III-Nitride semiconductors face the issue of localized surface states, which causes fermi level pinning and large leakage current at the metal semiconductor interface, thereby degrading the device performance. In this work, we have demonstrated the use of a Self-Assembled Monolayer (SAM) of organic molecules to improve the electrical characteristics of Schottky barrier diodes (SBDs) on n-type Gallium Nitride (n-GaN) epitaxial films. The electrical characteristics of diodes were improved by adsorption of SAM of hydroxyl-phenyl metallated porphyrin organic molecules (Zn-TPPOH) onto the surface of n-GaN. SAM-semiconductor bonding via native oxide on the n-GaN surface was confirmed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements. Surface morphology and surface electronic properties were characterized using atomic force microscopy and Kelvin probe force microscopy. Current-voltage characteristics of different metal (Cu, Ni) SBDs on bare n-GaN were compared with those of Cu/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN and Ni/Zn-TPPOH/n-GaN SBDs. It was found that due to the molecular monolayer, the surface potential of n-GaN was decreased by ˜350 mV. This caused an increase in the Schottky barrier height of Cu and Ni SBDs from 1.13 eV to 1.38 eV and 1.07 eV to 1.22 eV, respectively. In addition to this, the reverse bias leakage current was reduced by 3-4 orders of magnitude for both Cu and Ni SBDs. Such a significant improvement in the electrical performance of the diodes can be very useful for better device functioning.
Full Text Available The UK construction industry is one of the largest employers, positioned as the country’s top employer with over two million employees and projected to continue growth as far as 2011. However, it is facing ongoing skills shortages in a number of professional areas and tends to lack an ethnic diversity of workers compared to the White community of workers across the whole economy. The government’s Ethnic Minority Employment Task Force shows that for any given level of qualification, a Black or ethnic minority person is less likely to be employed, than a similarly qualified White person. Current research into issues surrounding ethnicity, from academia to employment is scarce, particularly in entry and process development within the construction industry. The aim of this paper is to outline the findings from perceptional and experiential barriers of Black and Minority Ethnics (BMEs students and employees, in order to identify perceptional and actual barriers that lead to the under-representation of BMEs within the construction industry; and also to suggest how better knowledge flow mechanisms could lead to a more balanced development, particularly in terms of ethnic diversification in the UK construction industry. The aim was achieved by adopting qualitative and quantitative methods including questionnaire surveys of undergraduate students in a construction related program, employees working within the construction industry and interviews with company directors and human resource managers. The image of the construction industry is found to be one of the major barriers for entry into the industry. Language and cultures form additional barriers for a range of ethnic groupings. Support, in the form of recruitment events, training, mentoring, professional networking, as well as work placement and experience schemes, can smooth entry, retention and progression within the construction industry.
Nguyen, Patricia K; Neofytou, Evgenios; Rhee, June-Wha; Wu, Joseph C
Although progress continues to be made in the field of stem cell regenerative medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular disease, significant barriers to clinical implementation still exist. To summarize the current barriers to the clinical implementation of stem cell therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease and to discuss potential strategies to overcome them. Information for this review was obtained through a search of PubMed and the Cochrane database for English-language studies published between January 1, 2000, and July 25, 2016. Ten randomized clinical trials and 8 systematic reviews were included. One of the major clinical barriers facing the routine implementation of stem cell therapy in patients with cardiovascular disease is the limited and inconsistent benefit observed thus far. Reasons for this finding are unclear but may be owing to poor cell retention and survival, as suggested by numerous preclinical studies and a small number of human studies incorporating imaging to determine cell fate. Additional studies in humans using imaging to determine cell fate are needed to understand how these factors contribute to the limited efficacy of stem cell therapy. Treatment strategies to address poor cell retention and survival are under investigation and include the following: coadministration of immunosuppressive and prosurvival agents, delivery of cardioprotective factors packaged in exosomes rather than the cells themselves, and use of tissue-engineering strategies to provide structural support for cells. If larger grafts are achieved using these strategies, it will be imperative to carefully monitor for the potential risks of tumorigenicity, immunogenicity, and arrhythmogenicity. Despite important achievements to date, stem cell therapy is not yet ready for routine clinical implementation. Significant research is still needed to address the clinical barriers outlined herein before the next wave of large clinical trials is under way.
Wilson, Scott P; Verlis, Krista M
Marine debris is one of the most significant issues facing oceans worldwide. The sources of this debris vary depending on proximity to urban centres and the nature of activities within an area. This paper examines the influence of tourism in the southern Great Barrier Reef (GBR), and its contribution to litter levels in the region. By conducting beach debris surveys on occupied and unoccupied islands, this study found that debris was prevalent throughout the region with significant differences in material types between locations. The greatest source of debris from publically accessible islands was tourist-related, with this source also influencing debris loads on nearby uninhabited islands. A focus on debris at Heron Island, showed that sites close to amenities had greater levels of tourist-sourced items like cigarette butts. These findings indicate the contribution of tourists to this problem and that working with operators and managers is needed to minimise visitor impacts. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Edginton, Andrea; Holbrook, Jane
To assess pharmacy students' attitudes towards a blended-learning pharmacokinetics course. Narrated visual presentations and animations that illustrated kinetic processes and guided students through the use of software programs used for calculations were created. Other learning techniques used included online self-assessment quizzes, practice problem sets, and weekly face-to-face problem-solving tutorials. A precourse questionnaire to assess students' level of enthusiasm towards the blended-learning course and to solicit any concerns they had was administered at the beginning of the course. A postcourse questionnaire that included the same 4 Likert-scale items from the precourse questionnaire and follow-up open-ended questions was administered. Individual changes in level of enthusiasm were compared for individuals who completed both the precourse and postcourse questionnaire. Students' concerns about the blended method of learning had decreased postcourse while their enthusiasm for the benefits of blended learning had increased. Students' initial concerns about the blended learning experience were focused on their ability to communicate with the instructor about the online components, but shifted to their own time management skills at the end of the course. Face-to-face interactions with each other and with the instructor were more highly rated than online interactions in this course.
Full Text Available Current-voltage (I-V measurements combined with analytical calculations have been used to explain mechanisms for forward-bias current flow in Copper (Cu Schottky diodes fabricated on Gallium Nitride (GaN epitaxial films. An ideality factor of 1.7 was found at room temperature (RT, which indicated deviation from thermionic emission (TE mechanism for current flow in the Schottky diode. Instead the current transport was better explained using the thermionic field-emission (TFE mechanism. A high barrier height of 1.19 eV was obtained at room temperature. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS was used to investigate the plausible reason for observing Schottky barrier height (SBH that is significantly higher than as predicted by the Schottky-Mott model for Cu/GaN diodes. XPS measurements revealed the presence of an ultrathin cuprous oxide (Cu2O layer at the interface between Cu and GaN. With Cu2O acting as a degenerate p-type semiconductor with high work function of 5.36 eV, a high barrier height of 1.19 eV is obtained for the Cu/Cu2O/GaN Schottky diode. Moreover, the ideality factor and barrier height were found to be temperature dependent, implying spatial inhomogeneity of barrier height at the metal semiconductor interface.
Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe
for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...
... DEPARTMENT OF STATE [Public Notice: 7526] Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Rembrandt and the Face of Jesus'' SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the following... ``Rembrandt and the Face of Jesus,'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States...
Jia, Yuncheng; Cheng, Gang; Zhang, Dajun; Ta, Na; Xia, Mu; Ding, Fangyuan
Objective: To determine the influence of adult attachment orientations on infant preference. Methods: We adopted eye-tracking technology to monitor childless college women's eye movements when looking at pairs of faces, including one adult face (man or woman) and one infant face, with three different expressions (happy, sadness, and neutral). The participants ( N = 150; 84% Han ethnicity) were aged 18-29 years ( M = 19.22, SD = 1.72). A random intercepts multilevel linear regression analysis was used to assess the unique contribution of attachment avoidance, determined using the Experiences in Close Relationships scale, to preference for infant faces. Results: Women with higher attachment avoidance showed less infant preference, as shown by less sustained overt attentional bias to the infant face than the adult face based on fixation time and count. Conclusion: Adult attachment might be related to infant preference according to eye movement indices. Women with higher attachment avoidance may lack attentional preference for infant faces. The findings may aid the treatment and remediation of the interactions between children and mothers with insecure attachment.
Loganathan, Annaletchumy; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Tan, Maw Pin; Low, Wah Yun
Objective To explore the barriers faced by healthcare professionals (HCPs) in managing falls among older people (aged above 60?years) who have a high risk of falling. Research design The study used a qualitative methodology, comprising 10 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy. Data were analysed thematically using WeftQDA software. Partici...
Loganathan, Annaletchumy; Ng, Chirk Jenn; Tan, Maw Pin; Low, Wah Yun
To explore the barriers faced by healthcare professionals (HCPs) in managing falls among older people (aged above 60 years) who have a high risk of falling. The study used a qualitative methodology, comprising 10 in-depth interviews and two focus group discussions. A semistructured topic guide was used to facilitate the interviews, which were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim and checked for accuracy. Data were analysed thematically using WeftQDA software. 20 HCPs who managed falls in older people. This study was conducted at the Primary Care Clinic in the University Malaya Medical Centre (UMMC), Malaysia. Four categories of barriers emerged-these were related to perceived barriers for older people, HCPs' barriers, lack of caregiver support and healthcare system barriers. HCPs perceived that older people normalised falls, felt stigmatised, were fatalistic, as well as in denial regarding falls-related advice. HCPs themselves trivialised falls and lacked the skills to manage falls. Rehabilitation was impeded by premature decisions to admit older people to nursing homes. Lastly, there was a lack of healthcare providers as well as a dearth of fall education and training on fall prevention for HCPs. This study identified barriers that explain poor fall management in older people with a high risk of falls. The lack of structured fall prevention guidelines and insufficient training in fall management made HCPs unable to advise patients on how to prevent falls. The findings of this study warrant evidence-based structured fall prevention intervention targeted to patients as well as to HCPs. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/
Waller, Bridget M; Cherry, Lyndsay
Primate facial expressions (FEs) likely play an important role in primate society: through facial signals, individuals can potentially send and receive information and may benefit from coordinating their behavior accordingly. Many primates use a relaxed open mouth (ROM) facial display or “play face” (PF) during play behavior, where the mouth is open but teeth are covered. In addition to this conventional PF, however, Western Lowland gorillas (Gorilla gorilla gorilla) also use a full PF where the upper teeth are exposed. As the teeth are similarly exposed in the bared-teeth expression (which is a signal of appeasement, submission and/or affiliation), the full PF may be a blend of the PF and bared-teeth face, and have a different signal function to the PF alone. Focal animal sampling of captive Western Lowland gorillas (N=10) showed that the full PF was more often observed in intense rather than gentle play, and intense play bouts that featured the full PF were longer than those that featured only the PF. Both expressions were associated with an increase in affinitive behavior between sender and receiver postplay, but only the full PF was associated with an increase higher than that of play alone. Overall, the findings suggest that the full PF has an additional role in coordinating and maintaining play, possibly though reducing uncertainty in the receiver and confirming that play is only play.
Mohd Mydin, Fadzilah Hanum; Othman, Sajaratulnisah
This qualitative study attempts to explore the definition, perceptions, practice experience, and barriers of primary care physicians (PCPs) in identifying and intervening in cases of elder abuse and neglect at the primary care level. Semistructured in-depth interview was conducted among 10 PCPs. Participants were selected by purposive sampling. The interviews were audio recorded, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using thematic analysis. In general, PCPs showed consistency in defining elder abuse and neglect. PCPs considered that they were optimally positioned to intervene in cases of elder abuse and neglect, but indicated the potential of overlooking such problems. The hurdles faced by PCPs in the identification and intervention of elder abuse were determined to be occurring at three levels: clinical, organizational, and policy. At the clinical level, PCPs recognize that they are lacking both the confidence and knowledge of elder abuse and neglect intervention. PCPs' conflicting personal and professional beliefs create barriers during the clinical practice. Time constraints, patients' other clinical problems, and, in addition, the preservation of a good doctor-patient relationship overshadow the importance of addressing and intervening in elder abuse and neglect issues during the consultation. This is further exacerbated by the barriers perceived by the patients: their nondisclosure and reluctance to accept outside intervention. At the organizational level, the lack of efficient interagency networks or support for the health system poses barriers. At the policy level, the absence of legislation specifically addressing elder abuse also creates considerable difficulties. However, PCPs gave differing responses when asked about a law concerning the elderly and mandatory reporting. Addressing these multilevel barriers is critical for ensuring that opportunities arising at the primary care level for elder maltreatment intervention are correctly utilized.
Nelson, Linda P; Getzin, Anne; Graham, Dionne; Zhou, Jing; Wagle, Elke M; McQuiston, Jessie; McLaughlin, Suzanne; Govind, Akshay; Sadof, Matthew; Huntington, Noelle L
The purpose of this study was to conduct the first known large scale survey of parents of children with special health care needs (CSHCN) to determine their child's: oral health status; access to dental care; perceived barriers (environmental/system and nonenvironmental/family); and oral health quality of life, accounting for each child's medical diagnosis and severity of diagnosis. A 72-item survey was sent to 3760 families of CSHCN throughout urban and rural Massachusetts. The study yielded 1,128 completed surveys. More than 90% of the children had seen a dentist within the past year; 66% saw a pediatric dentist, and 21% needed intense behavioral interventions. Although most families had high education levels, private dental insurance, and above average incomes, 20% of CSHCN had an unmet dental need. Children with craniofacial anomalies had twice as many unmet needs and children with cystic fibrosis had fewer unmet needs. Children with cerebral palsy, autism, developmental delay, and Down syndrome had more aversions to dental treatment, more treatment complications posed by their medical conditions, and more difficulty finding a dentist willing to provide care. Children with cystic fibrosis, metabolic disorders, or hemophilia encountered fewer barriers to care. The data paint a picture of high unmet dental needs with subpopulations of children with special health care needs who are more at risk for system barriers and internal family barriers to care based on their medical diagnoses.
Wendy C. Coates
Full Text Available Introduction: Educators and education researchers report that their scholarship is limited by lack of time, funding, mentorship, expertise, and reward. This study aims to evaluate these groups’ perceptions regarding barriers to scholarship and potential strategies for success. Methods: Core emergency medicine (EM educators and education researchers completed an online survey consisting of multiple-choice, 10-point Likert scale, and free-response items in 2015. Descriptive statistics were reported. We used qualitative analysis applying a thematic approach to free-response items. Results: A total of 204 educators and 42 education researchers participated. Education researchers were highly productive: 19/42 reported more than 20 peer-reviewed education scholarship publications on their curricula vitae. In contrast, 68/197 educators reported no education publications within five years. Only a minority, 61/197 had formal research training compared to 25/42 education researchers. Barriers to performing research for both groups were lack of time, competing demands, lack of support, lack of funding, and challenges achieving scientifically rigorous methods and publication. The most common motivators identified were dissemination of knowledge, support of evidence-based practices, and promotion. Respondents advised those who seek greater education research involvement to pursue mentorship, formal research training, collaboration, and rigorous methodological standards. Conclusion: The most commonly cited barriers were lack of time and competing demands. Stakeholders were motivated by the desire to disseminate knowledge, support evidence-based practices, and achieve promotion. Suggested strategies for success included formal training, mentorship, and collaboration. This information may inform interventions to support educators in their scholarly pursuits and improve the overall quality of education research in EM.
Jordan, Jaime; Coates, Wendy C; Clarke, Samuel; Runde, Daniel; Fowlkes, Emilie; Kurth, Jaqueline; Yarris, Lalena
Educators and education researchers report that their scholarship is limited by lack of time, funding, mentorship, expertise, and reward. This study aims to evaluate these groups' perceptions regarding barriers to scholarship and potential strategies for success. Core emergency medicine (EM) educators and education researchers completed an online survey consisting of multiple-choice, 10-point Likert scale, and free-response items in 2015. Descriptive statistics were reported. We used qualitative analysis applying a thematic approach to free-response items. A total of 204 educators and 42 education researchers participated. Education researchers were highly productive: 19/42 reported more than 20 peer-reviewed education scholarship publications on their curricula vitae. In contrast, 68/197 educators reported no education publications within five years. Only a minority, 61/197 had formal research training compared to 25/42 education researchers. Barriers to performing research for both groups were lack of time, competing demands, lack of support, lack of funding, and challenges achieving scientifically rigorous methods and publication. The most common motivators identified were dissemination of knowledge, support of evidence-based practices, and promotion. Respondents advised those who seek greater education research involvement to pursue mentorship, formal research training, collaboration, and rigorous methodological standards. The most commonly cited barriers were lack of time and competing demands. Stakeholders were motivated by the desire to disseminate knowledge, support evidence-based practices, and achieve promotion. Suggested strategies for success included formal training, mentorship, and collaboration. This information may inform interventions to support educators in their scholarly pursuits and improve the overall quality of education research in EM.
Kierans, Ciara; Padilla-Altamira, Cesar; Garcia-Garcia, Guillermo; Ibarra-Hernandez, Margarita; Mercado, Francisco J
Chronic Kidney Disease disproportionately affects the poor in Low and Middle Income Countries (LMICs). Mexico exemplifies the difficulties faced in supporting Renal Replacement Therapy (RRT) and providing equitable patient care, despite recent attempts at health reform. The objective of this study is to document the challenges faced by uninsured, poor Mexican families when attempting to access RRT. The article takes an ethnographic approach, using interviewing and observation to generate detailed accounts of the problems that accompany attempts to secure care. The study, based in the state of Jalisco, comprised interviews with patients, their caregivers, health and social care professionals, among others. Observations were carried out in both clinical and social settings. In the absence of organised health information and stable pathways to renal care, patients and their families work extraordinarily hard and at great expense to secure care in a mixed public-private healthcare system. As part of this work, they must navigate challenging health and social care environments, negotiate treatments and costs, resource and finance healthcare and manage a wide range of formal and informal health information. Examining commonalities across pathways to adequate healthcare reveals major failings in the Mexican system. These systemic problems serve to reproduce and deepen health inequalities. A system, in which the costs of renal care are disproportionately borne by those who can least afford them, faces major difficulties around the sustainability and resourcing of RRTs. Attempts to increase access to renal therapies, therefore, need to take into account the complex social and economic demands this places on those who need access most. This paper further shows that ethnographic studies of the concrete ways in which healthcare is accessed in practice provide important insights into the plight of CKD patients and so constitute an important source of evidence in that effort.
Wright, G. M.; Durrett, M. G.; Hoover, K. W.; Kesler, L. A.; Whyte, D. G.
The control of tritium inventory is of great importance in future fusion reactors, not only from a safety standpoint but also to maximize a reactor's efficiency. Due to the high mobility of hydrogenic species in tungsten (W) one concern is the loss of tritium from the system via permeation through the tungsten plasma-facing components (PFC). This can lead to loss of tritium through the cooling channels of the wall thereby mandating tritium monitoring and recovery methods for the cooling system of the first wall. The permeated tritium is then out of the fuel cycle and cannot contribute to energy production until it is recovered and recycled into the system.
Full Text Available Post-secondary experiences for students still in high school have been promoted as a means to increase academic rigor and create a better-trained workforce. Yet little is known regarding supports needed to significantly increase such options. This study obtained input from 411 stakeholders in one Midwestern state, including 201 district superintendents, 181 high school principals, and 23 college dual enrollment officers regarding their use of these options, their perceptions of barriers to program expansion, and their ranking of possible solutions to overcome the barriers. Findings demonstrate that all parties find postsecondary options of value, with traditional dual enrollment the most used option. Although all groups identified funding as a primary barrier, other systemic barriers were of great concern. Participants suggest that expansion of Advanced Placement and early and middle college programs, financial assistance for dually enrolled students, and increased program availability for career and technical options would be beneficial.Wozniak, Carl, (2012. Stakeholder Perceptions of Barriers and Solutions to Significant Expansion of Postsecondary Enrollment Options for High School Students. 8(2. Retrieved from www.ijepl.org .
Gentil, Dana; del Campo, Valeria; Henrique Rodrigues da Cunha, Thiago; Henríquez, Ricardo; Garín, Carolina; Ramírez, Cristian; Flores, Marcos; Seeger, Michael
In this work we present a study on the performance of CVD (chemical vapor deposition) graphene coatings grown and transferred on Ni as protection barriers under two scenarios that lead to unwanted metal ion release, microbial corrosion and allergy test conditions. These phenomena have a strong impact in different fields considering nickel (or its alloys) is one of the most widely used metals in industrial and consumer products. Microbial corrosion costs represent fractions of national gross product in different developed countries, whereas Ni allergy is one of the most prevalent allergic conditions in the western world, affecting around 10% of the population. We found that grown graphene coatings act as a protective membrane in biological environments that decreases microbial corrosion of Ni and reduces release of Ni2+ ions (source of Ni allergic contact hypersensitivity) when in contact with sweat. This performance seems not to be connected to the strong orbital hybridization that Ni and graphene interface present, indicating electron transfer might not be playing a main role in the robust response of this nanostructured system. The observed protection from biological environment can be understood in terms of graphene impermeability to transfer Ni2+ ions, which is enhanced for few layers of graphene grown on Ni. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of graphene as a protection coating for metals in biological environments, where current strategies have shown short-term efficiency and have raised health concerns. PMID:29292763
Cheng, Christopher J; Saltzman, W Mark; Slack, Frank J
Once considered genetic "oddities", microRNAs (miRNAs) are now recognized as key epigenetic regulators of numerous biological processes, including some with a causal link to the pathogenesis, maintenance, and treatment of cancer. The crux of small RNA-based therapeutics lies in the antagonism of potent cellular targets; the main shortcoming of the field in general, lies in ineffective delivery. Inhibition of oncogenic miRNAs is a relatively nascent therapeutic concept, but as with predecessor RNA-based therapies, success hinges on delivery efficacy. This review will describes the canonical (e.g. pharmacokinetics and clearance, cellular uptake, endosome escape, etc.) and non-canonical (e.g. spatial localization and accessibility of miRNA, technical limitations of miRNA inhibition, off-target impacts, etc.) challenges to the delivery of antisense-based anti-miRNA therapeutics (i.e. antimiRs) for the treatment of cancer. Emphasis will be placed on how the current leading antimiR platforms-ranging from naked chemically modified oligonucleotides to nanoscale delivery vehicles-are affected by and overcome these barriers. The perplexity of antimiR delivery presents both engineering and biological hurdles that must be overcome in order to capitalize on the extensive pharmacological benefits of antagonizing tumor-associated miRNAs.
Full Text Available In this work we present a study on the performance of CVD (chemical vapor deposition graphene coatings grown and transferred on Ni as protection barriers under two scenarios that lead to unwanted metal ion release, microbial corrosion and allergy test conditions. These phenomena have a strong impact in different fields considering nickel (or its alloys is one of the most widely used metals in industrial and consumer products. Microbial corrosion costs represent fractions of national gross product in different developed countries, whereas Ni allergy is one of the most prevalent allergic conditions in the western world, affecting around 10% of the population. We found that grown graphene coatings act as a protective membrane in biological environments that decreases microbial corrosion of Ni and reduces release of Ni2+ ions (source of Ni allergic contact hypersensitivity when in contact with sweat. This performance seems not to be connected to the strong orbital hybridization that Ni and graphene interface present, indicating electron transfer might not be playing a main role in the robust response of this nanostructured system. The observed protection from biological environment can be understood in terms of graphene impermeability to transfer Ni2+ ions, which is enhanced for few layers of graphene grown on Ni. We expect our work will provide a new route for application of graphene as a protection coating for metals in biological environments, where current strategies have shown short-term efficiency and have raised health concerns.
The mean nutrition knowledge score for the group was 68.6%. Nutrition knowledge was significantly lower (p<0.01) in mothers from the lower quintile school (64.0%). Primary factors influencing food purchases were cost (60%), nutritional value (37%) and time constraints (29%). Primary sources of nutrition information ...
Horrocks, M.; Ogden, J.; Nichol, S.L.; Alloway, B.V.; Sutton, D.G.
Pollen and sediment analyses of two cores from coastal freshwater swamps at northern Kaitoke (Kaitoke Swamp and Police Station Swamp), Great Barrier Island, show that c. 7300 calibrated yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was an estuary with tidal flats. Avicennia, now absent from the swamp area, was present in the estuary. By c. 4500 yr BP fresh water conditions had developed at the Kaitoke Swamp site as marine influences decreased. Around the same time, fresh water swamp conditions commenced at the Police Station Swamp site on the surface of a low lying area of a Late Pleistocene dune. A sandy layer at Kaitoke may represent rapid infilling followed by a dry soil surface until c. 1000 yr BP. Conifer-hardwood forest on the hills surrounding the sites c. 7300-c. 1800 yr BP was dominated by Dacrydium and Metrosideros. During this period, environmental conditions were relatively stable, with little change in forest composition. Between 1800 yr and 800 yr BP Kaitoke Swamp was reflooded, and the Police Station Swamp extended as a shallow lake over the nearby dune flat. These new shallow swamps were invaded by swamp forest (mainly Dacrycaprus with some Laurelia). The presence of charcoal and Pteridium spores above the Kaharoa Tephra suggests that major Polynesian deforestation at northern Kaitoke began c. 600 calibrated yr BP. (author). 41 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs
Castro, Cornelia; Andrade, Antonio
The Portuguese Technological Plan for Education (TPE) was established to modernize schools and to consolidate the role of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in order to promote the academic success of students and allow schools to be transformed into technological enhanced environments through a significant learning and knowledge building in a participatory, collaborative and sharing logic. With this work we aimed to establish dynamical interactions students-content-teacher i...
Warner, D.H.; Curtin, W.A.
The linking of atomistic simulations of stress-driven processes to experimentally observed mechanical behavior via the computation of activation energy barriers is a topic of intense current research. Using dislocation nucleation from a crack tip as the reaction process, long-time multiscale molecular dynamics simulations show that the activation barrier can exhibit significant temperature dependence. Using an analytic model for the nucleation process and computing the relevant material properties (elastic constants and stacking fault energies), the temperature dependence is shown to arise primarily from the temperature dependence of the material parameters for both Al and Ni. After thermally activated emission of the first partial dislocation, there is then a competition between two other thermally activated processes: twinning and full dislocation emission. Because the activation barriers depend on temperature, this transition is more complex than usually envisioned. Simulations in Al reveal that a transition from twinning to full dislocation emission back to twinning occurs with increasing temperature, which is counter to traditional metallurgical wisdom. Temperature-dependent activation energies are thus essential to accurate understanding and prediction of those phenomena that control fracture and deformation in metals at realistic loading rates.
PAGER, DEVAH; WESTERN, BRUCE; SUGIE, NAOMI
In this article, the authors report the results of a large-scale field experiment conducted in New York City investigating the effects of race and a prison record on employment. Teams of black and white men were matched and sent to apply for low-wage jobs throughout the city, presenting equivalent resumés and differing only in their race and criminal background. The authors find a significant negative effect of a criminal record on employment outcomes that appears substantially larger for African Americans. The sequence of interactions preceding hiring decisions suggests that black applicants are less often invited to interview, thereby providing fewer opportunities to establish rapport with the employer. Furthermore, employers’ general reluctance to discuss the criminal record of an applicant appears especially harmful for black ex-offenders. Overall, these results point to the importance of rapport-building for finding work, something that the stigmatizing characteristics of minority and criminal status make more difficult to achieve. PMID:23459367
Contrary to expectations, total postsecondary enrollment in the United States (US) declined in Fall 2011. In fact, it continues to decline while online enrollment continues to increase. Students can more easily cross geographic boundaries as online access causes barriers to postsecondary education to crumble, and more than 50% of the demand for…
Eriksson, Lina Elisabeth
This research aims to explore how women and men view and perceive potential barriers to women achieving leadership positions in the humanitarian sector. Female leadership is so far an under-researched area within the humanitarian sector, so it is unknown whether females encounter any barriers in accessing and attaining leadership positions. Three categories were identified; identity, perception and challenges through which the views and barriers are explored. Semi-structured interviews were c...
Schnetger, B.; Hinrichs, J.; Dellwig, O.; Brumsack, H.-J.; Shaw, T.
sediments indicate a change in the depositional energy at the NW German coast. Enrichments of elements diagnostic for heavy minerals show an increase in depositional energy from the Holocene to present conditions, i.e. the change from a natural to a human affected environment. Most possibly, this is caused by human influence on the coastal morphology. Mainland dikes seem to act as an energy barrier for the deposition of the fine-fraction. Besides the Helgoland mudhole as the most proximal depocenter, much of the mud (SPM) exported from the backbarrier systems is possibly transported to the western Skagerrak/Norwegian Channel. Anthropogenic and natural effects on subterranean estuaries can cause a significant change to these systems. Sea level rise, land reclamation, ground water mining and dike building have a direct impact. The effects of these changes are only beginning to be realized in this vital component of the coastal ecosystem. (author)
Ho, Kwok M; Honeybul, Stephen; Yip, Cheng B; Silbert, Benjamin I
The authors assessed the risk factors and outcomes associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption in patients with severe, nonpenetrating, traumatic brain injury (TBI) requiring decompressive craniectomy. At 2 major neurotrauma centers in Western Australia, a retrospective cohort study was conducted among 97 adult neurotrauma patients who required an external ventricular drain (EVD) and decompressive craniectomy during 2004-2012. Glasgow Outcome Scale scores were used to assess neurological outcomes. Logistic regression was used to identify factors associated with BBB disruption, defined by a ratio of total CSF protein concentrations to total plasma protein concentration > 0.007 in the earliest CSF specimen collected after TBI. Of the 252 patients who required decompressive craniectomy, 97 (39%) required an EVD to control intracranial pressure, and biochemical evidence of BBB disruption was observed in 43 (44%). Presence of disruption was associated with more severe TBI (median predicted risk for unfavorable outcome 75% vs 63%, respectively; p = 0.001) and with worse outcomes at 6, 12, and 18 months than was absence of BBB disruption (72% vs 37% unfavorable outcomes, respectively; p = 0.015). The only risk factor significantly associated with increased risk for BBB disruption was presence of nonevacuated intracerebral hematoma (> 1 cm diameter) (OR 3.03, 95% CI 1.23-7.50; p = 0.016). Although BBB disruption was associated with more severe TBI and worse long-term outcomes, when combined with the prognostic information contained in the Corticosteroid Randomization after Significant Head Injury (CRASH) prognostic model, it did not seem to add significant prognostic value (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve 0.855 vs 0.864, respectively; p = 0.453). Biochemical evidence of BBB disruption after severe nonpenetrating TBI was common, especially among patients with large intracerebral hematomas. Disruption of the BBB was associated with more severe
Full Text Available Barriers have challenged widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations for 40 years. These barriers have been technological, financial, and legal and have also involved business strategy and human resources. The article canvasses recent trends—events and activities in each of these areas as well as US health reform activities that might help to break down these barriers. The key to telemedicine success in the future is to view it as an integral part of health care services and not as a stand-alone project. Telemedicine must move from experimental and separate to integrated and equivalent to other health services within health care organizations. Furthermore, telemedicine serves as vital connective tissue for expanding health care organization networks.
LeRouge, Cynthia; Garfield, Monica J.
Barriers have challenged widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations for 40 years. These barriers have been technological, financial, and legal and have also involved business strategy and human resources. The article canvasses recent trends—events and activities in each of these areas as well as US health reform activities that might help to break down these barriers. The key to telemedicine success in the future is to view it as an integral part of health care services and not as a stand-alone project. Telemedicine must move from experimental and separate to integrated and equivalent to other health services within health care organizations. Furthermore, telemedicine serves as vital connective tissue for expanding health care organization networks. PMID:24287864
Harris, Lyndsey; Fioratou, Evridiki; Broadis, Emily
A burn prevention and education programme - the Reduction of Burn and Scald Mortality and Morbidity in Children in Malawi project - was implemented from January 2010-2013 in Queen Elizabeth Central Hospital, Malawi. This study aimed to investigate the barriers and facilitators of implementing education-training programmes. Semi-structured interviews with 14 Scottish and Malawian staff delivering and receiving teaching at training education programmes were conducted. All interviews were recorded, transcribed and analysed using thematic analysis. Overarching barriers and facilitators were similar for both sets of staff. Scottish participants recognised that limited experience working in LMICs narrowed the challenges they anticipated. Time was a significant barrier to implementation of training courses for both sets of participants. Lack of hands on practical experience was the greatest barrier to implementing the skills learnt for Malawian staff. Sustainability was a significant facilitator to successful implementation of training programmes. Encouraging involvement of Malawian staff in the co-ordination and delivery of teaching enabled those who attend courses to teach others. A recognition of and response to the barriers and facilitators associated with introducing paediatric burn education training programmes can contribute to the development of sustainable programme implementation in Malawi and other LMICs. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd and ISBI. All rights reserved.
Mukherjee, Souvik; Mitra, Rupak; Maitra, Arindam; Gupta, Satyaranjan; Kumaran, Srikala; Chakrabortty, Amit; Majumder, Partha P
The skin microbiome varies across individuals. The causes of these variations are inadequately understood. We tested the hypothesis that inter-individual variation in facial skin microbiome can be significantly explained by variation in sebum and hydration levels in specific facial regions of humans. We measured sebum and hydration from forehead and cheek regions of healthy female volunteers (n = 30). Metagenomic DNA from skin swabs were sequenced for V3-V5 regions of 16S rRNA gene. Altogether, 34 phyla were identified; predominantly Actinobacteria (66.3%), Firmicutes (17.7%), Proteobacteria (13.1%) and Bacteroidetes (1.4%). About 1000 genera were identified; predominantly Propionibacterium (58.6%), Staphylococcus (8.6%), Streptococcus (4.0%), Corynebacterium (3.6%) and Paracoccus (3.3%). A subset (n = 24) of individuals were sampled two months later. Stepwise multiple regression analysis showed that cheek sebum level was the most significant predictor of microbiome composition and diversity followed by forehead hydration level; forehead sebum and cheek hydration levels were not. With increase in cheek sebum, the prevalence of Actinobacteria (p = 0.001)/Propionibacterium (p = 0.002) increased, whereas microbiome diversity decreased (Shannon Index, p = 0.032); this was opposite for other phyla/genera. These trends were reversed for forehead hydration levels. Therefore, the nature and diversity of facial skin microbiome is jointly determined by site-specific lipid and water levels in the stratum corneum.
Biała, Maja; Kiejna, Andrzej
The World Health Organization's estimations indicate that about 50% of patients in well-developed countries may not adhere to long-term therapies. In the field of psychiatry, drop-outs from psychiatric treatment are particularly important. Personality disorders are a significant part of this sphere. The aim of this research was to empirically verify the hypothesis regarding the relation between comorbid personality disorders and drop-outs from treatment among patients of psychiatric wards. This study was a prospective cohort study. 110 patients, hospitalized in 3 different psychiatric wards, were included. Personality disorders were assessed with the Structured Clinical Interview For DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SCID-II). The research was financed by the Polish National Science Center (DEC-2011/01/N/NZ5/05364). The response rate was 89.1%. 72.56% of patients suffered from personality disorders (SCID-II) (among them the most prevalent were: personality disorder - not otherwise specified - 40.7% and borderline personality disorder - 12.38%; 22.95% of patients dropped out from treatment). However, occurrence of personality disorders was not relevant for those drop-outs. On the other hand, relationships at the level of certain criteria of borderline personality disorders and passive-aggressive personality have been revealed. These relationships became stronger when considered from the perspective of differences in the organization of treatment at individual wards. Some personality disorders may play an important role in drop-outs from psychiatric treatment. Presented results require further research.
Freed, Christopher R; Hansberry, Shantisha T; Arrieta, Martha I
To examine a local primary health care infrastructure and the reality of primary health care from the perspective of residents of a small, urban community in the southern United States. Data derive from 13 semi-structured focus groups, plus three semi-structured interviews, and were analyzed inductively consistent with a grounded theory approach. Structural barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure include transportation, clinic and appointment wait time, and co-payments and health insurance. Hidden barriers consist of knowledge about local health care services, non-physician gatekeepers, and fear of medical care. Community residents have used home remedies and the emergency department at the local academic medical center to manage these structural and hidden barriers. Findings might not generalize to primary health care infrastructures in other communities, respondent perspectives can be biased, and the data are subject to various interpretations and conceptual and thematic frameworks. Nevertheless, the structural and hidden barriers to the local primary health care infrastructure have considerably diminished the autonomy community residents have been able to exercise over their decisions about primary health care, ultimately suggesting that efforts concerned with increasing the access of medically underserved groups to primary health care in local communities should recognize the centrality and significance of power. This study addresses a gap in the sociological literature regarding the impact of specific barriers to primary health care among medically underserved groups.
With the global increase in human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) infection in women of childbearing age, there has also been an alarming increase in the number of mother-to-child transmissions of HIV-1. Although antiretroviral therapy and Cesarian section have been demonstrated to significantly decrease the vertical transmission rate of , these interventions are not widely available in the developing world. Therefore, studies of the mechanisms of vertical transmission are ...
Nibel, Olga; Rojek, Tomasz; Schmidt, Thomas J; Gubler, Lorenz
All-vanadium redox flow batteries (VRBs) have attracted considerable interest as promising energy-storage devices that can allow the efficient utilization of renewable energy sources. The membrane, which separates the porous electrodes in a redox flow cell, is one of the key components in VRBs. High rates of crossover of vanadium ions and water through the membrane impair the efficiency and capacity of a VRB. Thus, membranes with low permeation rate of vanadium species and water are required, also characterized by low resistance and stability in the VRB environment. Here, we present a new design concept for amphoteric ion-exchange membranes, based on radiation-induced grafting of vinylpyridine into an ethylene tetrafluoroethylene base film and a two-step functionalization to introduce cationic and anionic exchange sites, respectively. During long-term cycling, redox flow cells containing these membranes showed higher efficiency, less pronounced electrolyte imbalance, and significantly reduced capacity decay compared to the cells with the benchmark material Nafion 117. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi
It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.
Full Text Available Background. Unhealthy food choices made by mothers can impact negatively on child health and may lead to unhealthy eating behaviours that persist into adulthood. Choosing food is a complex process influenced by many factors. Objectives. To determine the factors that influence mothers’ food choices and to investigate barriers to purchasing healthy food. Methods. A cross-sectional, descriptive study, with an analytical component, was conducted. Mothers (N=476 were recruited from three randomly selected primary schools, from a low, middle and high quintile. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data on demographics, knowledge, attitude and practices of mothers. Six focus groups (FG (two per school were conducted to investigate the factors that prevent mothers from making healthy dietary decisions. Results. The mean nutrition knowledge score for the group was 68.6%. Nutrition knowledge was significantly lower (p<0.01 in mothers from the lower quintile school (64.0%. Primary factors influencing food purchases were cost (60%, nutritional value (37% and time constraints (29%. Primary sources of nutrition information included magazines and health professionals at 62% and 44%, respectively. Time constraints resulted in mothers purchasing convenience foods more often (p=0.001. The main barriers identified were mixed media messages, the school environments and supermarket layouts. Conclusion. Nutrition education campaigns should include practical advice, e.g. the preparation of economical, wholesome meals. Policymakers should monitor increasing prices of healthy foods. School and supermarket environments, as well as the food industry, can play a pivotal role in facilitating mothers to make healthy food choices
Kaveh, Mohammad Hossein; Rokhbin, Moslem; Mani, Arash; Maghsoudi, Ahmad
Introduction: Psychological distress is among physical and mental health threats, and health volunteers can play a critical role in empowerment of women. However, evidence has revealed a decline in health volunteers’ activities. Therefore, the present study aimed to investigate the challenges faced by health volunteers in empowerment of women. Methods: The participants’ knowledge level was assessed using a written test. Their perceived skills were also measured using Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations by Endler and Parker and Chesney’s Coping Self-efficacy Scale, respectively. The study data were entered into the SPSS statistical software, version 11.5 and were analyzed using chi-square, sample t-test, and Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Results: The results showed a considerable increase in the intervention group health volunteers’ knowledge about stress, as well as their self-efficacy. Besides, a significant correlation was observed between self-efficacy and task-oriented strategy scores. However, no significant increase was found in this group’s coping strategies. The results also indicated a significant increase in the intervention group women’s knowledge about stress, but no significant change was observed in other constructs. Some challenging factors, such as managerial, personal, and interpersonal factors, were also detected that might have affected the results. Discussion: This study caused no considerable change in coping with stress, except for increasing the women’s knowledge in this regard. Considering the challenges identified in this study, programs should be developed for researchers and health center managers to improve this condition in future. Creative Commons Attribution License
Full Text Available Recent takeovers – and attempted takeovers – of strategic resource companies have renewed concerns that some of Canada’s prized corporate players are falling into foreign hands. However, data shows that Canada has not been a significant attractor of multinational investment, lagging behind a number of developed and developing nations. Indeed, since the mid-1990s, Canada has been a net exporter of capital in world markets, as foreign direct investment by Canadian companies far outpaced the inflow of foreign capital. Rather than being hollowed out, we are hollowing out other countries. As a general policy, Canada should reduce barriers to foreign direct investment and welcome our growing role in international markets. As many studies have shown, foreign direct investment brings significant net benefits to the Canadian economy, including knowledge transfers, new management, better wages and productivity. Only in limited circumstances, such as in the case of protecting Canada’s national security, should Canada block foreign takeovers of Canadian companies. In the interest of neutrality and minimizing economic distortions, takeovers of Canadian companies by foreign sovereign wealth funds or state-owned enterprises should be reviewed on a case-by-case basis. When state-owned enterprises have similar commercial objectives and operate on a level-playing field without financial support by state owners, they could also provide net benefits to the Canadian economy. One important area that requires further consideration is with respect to the tax-exempt status of sovereign wealth funds and state-owned companies. Canadian tax treaties should be reviewed to ensure that Canadian withholding taxes maintain an even playing field among private and state-owned businesses operating in Canada.
Peter, Uhlik; Vladimir, Sucha; Maria, Caplovicova; Igor, Stricek
About 50 % of electric power is produced by nuclear power plants in Slovakia. In spite of the significant production of nuclear waste, Slovakia has not defined basic strategy of radioactive-waste isolation. However, some pilot projects and studies have been carried out. Five areas were determined as prospective sites for construction of deep geological repository (DGR). Two of them are situated in the south of Slovakia. Szecseny schlier (mixture of siltstones and Clay-stones) of Lucenec Formation (Egerian) is one of the most prospective host rocks from lithological, structural and spatial perspective. Besides the investigation of potential host rock for DGR the studies of bentonite properties as important part of engineering barriers for radioactive waste disposals were performed. Detailed mineral and structural analyses of smectites from the bentonitic material exposed to laboratory Mock-Up test were realised. Particular interest has been focused on interaction between Fe and smectites. Other field of interest is investigation of sorption of Cs and Sr on natural and modified bentonites, including irradiation. Purpose of this work is to present a short review of other studies done by our group with partial focusing to interaction of organic dye (Rhoda-mine 6G) with smectite that is connected with changes of layer charge after treatment; possibilities to measure preferential orientation of clays after compaction by TEM and to effort to use X-ray micro-tomography for inner structure of sediments. (authors)
Norman R. Saunders
Full Text Available Barrier mechanisms in the brain are important for its normal functioning and development. Stability of the brain’s internal environment, particularly with respect to its ionic composition, is a prerequisite for the fundamental basis of its function, namely transmission of nerve impulses. In addition, the appropriate and controlled supply of a wide range of nutrients such as glucose, amino acids, monocarboxylates, and vitamins is also essential for normal development and function. These are all cellular functions across the interfaces that separate the brain from the rest of the internal environment of the body. An essential morphological component of all but one of the barriers is the presence of specialized intercellular tight junctions between the cells comprising the interface: endothelial cells in the blood-brain barrier itself, cells of the arachnoid membrane, choroid plexus epithelial cells, and tanycytes (specialized glial cells in the circumventricular organs. In the ependyma lining the cerebral ventricles in the adult brain, the cells are joined by gap junctions, which are not restrictive for intercellular movement of molecules. But in the developing brain, the forerunners of these cells form the neuroepithelium, which restricts exchange of all but the smallest molecules between cerebrospinal fluid and brain interstitial fluid because of the presence of strap junctions between the cells. The intercellular junctions in all these interfaces are the physical basis for their barrier properties. In the blood-brain barrier proper, this is combined with a paucity of vesicular transport that is a characteristic of other vascular beds. Without such a diffusional restrain, the cellular transport mechanisms in the barrier interfaces would be ineffective. Superimposed on these physical structures are physiological mechanisms as the cells of the interfaces contain various metabolic transporters and efflux pumps, often ATP-binding cassette (ABC
This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...
Liu, Xiao; Sawada, Yoshie; Takizawa, Takako; Sato, Hiroko; Sato, Mahito; Sakamoto, Hironosuke; Utsugi, Toshihiro; Sato, Kunio; Sumino, Hiroyuki; Okamura, Shinichi; Sakamaki, Tetsuo
The objective of this study was to compare doctor-patient communications in clinical consultations via telemedicine technology to doctor-patient communications in face-to-face clinical consultations. Five doctors who had been practicing internal medicine for 8 to 18 years, and twenty patients were enrolled in this study; neither doctors nor patients had previous experience of telemedicine. The patients received both a telemedicine consultation and a face-to-face consultation. Three measures--video observation, medical record volume, and participants' satisfaction--were used for the assessment. It was found that the time spent on the telemedicine consultation was substantially longer than the time spent on the face-to-face consultation. No statistically significant differences were found in the number of either closed or open-ended questions asked by doctors between both types of consultation. Empathy-utterances, praise-utterances, and facilitation-utterances were, however, seen less in the telemedicine consultations than in the face-to-face consultations. The volume of the medical records was statistically smaller in the telemedicine consultations than in the face-to-face consultations. Patients were satisfied with the telemedicine consultation, but doctors were dissatisfied with it and felt hampered by the communication barriers. This study suggests that new training programs are needed for doctors to develop improved communication skills and the ability to express empathy in telemedicine consultations.
Full Text Available The paper provides detailed reflections on the educational, economic and social circumstances that impact on the lives of many disadvantaged and vulnerable children and young people. Drawing largely on primary research data collected in Romania, Germany and the United Kingdom, three illustrative case studies are presented for consideration focusing on: life in residential care and youth offending institutions; experiences of educational vulnerability; and human trafficking. The methodological approach adopted across the research projects explored, was shaped by the demands and expectations of the United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child (UNCRC. All of the reported data reflects the views of children and young people who were interviewed as part of three research projects. It is argued that the difficult and challenging circumstances that many children and young people find themselves in, place them at significant disadvantage and increased vulnerability in terms of their social and educational development and life chances.
Diehl, Alessandra; Vieira, Denise Leite; Zaneti, Marina Milograna; Fanganiello, Ana; Sharan, Pratap; Robles, Rebecca; de Jesus Mari, Jair
The aim of this article is to provide a narrative literature review of the 'third gender' phenomenon in Brazil ( Travestis), India ( Hijras) and Mexico ( Muxes), considering the social stigma, the legal and health aspects of these identities. These three groups share similar experiences of stigmatisation, marginalisation, sexual abuse, HIV infection, infringement of civil rights and harassment accessing health services. Brazil, India and Mexico public services for the third gender conditions are still very scarce and inadequate for the heavy demand from potential users. Although all three countries have used legislation to promote provision of comprehensive healthcare services for third gender, there is still strong resistance to implementation of such laws and policies. Brazil, India and Mexico face a huge challenge to become countries where all human rights are respected.
Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.
A world "water crisis" is poised to deliver its most devastating blow to the Middle ... across the region is needed to deepen knowledge, develop research tools, and ... issues as privatization, wastewater reuse, and participatory management.
Mailey, Emily L.; Phillips, Siobhan M.; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Conroy, David E.
Parents face numerous barriers to exercise and exhibit high levels of inactivity. Examining theory-based determinants of exercise among parents may inform interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to test a social-cognitive model of parental exercise participation over a 12-month period. Mothers (n=226) and fathers (n=70) of children exercise, barriers self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and exercise planning at baseline and one year later. Panel analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Barriers self-efficacy was related to exercise directly and indirectly through perceived barriers and prioritization/planning. Prioritization and planning also mediated the relationship between perceived barriers and exercise. These paths remained significant at 12 months. These results suggest efforts to increase exercise in parents should focus on improving confidence to overcome exercise barriers, reducing perceptions of barriers, and helping parents make specific plans for prioritizing and engaging in exercise. PMID:27108160
Full Text Available ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos ... Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After ...
Full Text Available ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type ... Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic ...
Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.
Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher
artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled...
Jiang, J.; Dai, B.; Peng, D.; Zhu, C.; Liu, L.; Lu, C.
Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-...
Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova
unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...
Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our ...
Full Text Available ... not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and clinicians share their experiences with PTSD ...
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Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos PTSD Basics ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Interviews Our Stories Search All Videos Learn ...
Himle, Michael B; Freitag, Malinda; Walther, Michael; Franklin, Shana A; Ely, Laura; Woods, Douglas W
Comprehensive Behavioral Intervention for Tics (CBIT) has been shown to be effective for reducing tics in children with chronic tic disorder. Unfortunately, there remain significant barriers to dissemination. The aim of the current study was to examine the effectiveness of CBIT delivered over videoconference. Twenty children were randomly assigned to receive CBIT over videoconference or via traditional face-to-face delivery. Results show that both treatment delivery modalities resulted in significant tic reduction with no between group differences. Furthermore, acceptability and therapist-client alliance ratings were strong for both groups. Together, these results suggest that videoconference is a viable option for disseminating CBIT. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.
The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184
Shawn N Geniole
Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".
Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M
The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".
Logan, Andrew J; Wilkinson, Frances; Wilson, Hugh R; Gordon, Gael E; Loffler, Gunter
This study aimed to develop a clinical test of face perception which is applicable to a wide range of patients and can capture normal variability. The Caledonian face test utilises synthetic faces which combine simplicity with sufficient realism to permit individual identification. Face discrimination thresholds (i.e. minimum difference between faces required for accurate discrimination) were determined in an "odd-one-out" task. The difference between faces was controlled by an adaptive QUEST procedure. A broad range of face discrimination sensitivity was determined from a group (N=52) of young adults (mean 5.75%; SD 1.18; range 3.33-8.84%). The test is fast (3-4 min), repeatable (test-re-test r(2)=0.795) and demonstrates a significant inversion effect. The potential to identify impairments of face discrimination was evaluated by testing LM who reported a lifelong difficulty with face perception. While LM's impairment for two established face tests was close to the criterion for significance (Z-scores of -2.20 and -2.27) for the Caledonian face test, her Z-score was -7.26, implying a more than threefold higher sensitivity. The new face test provides a quantifiable and repeatable assessment of face discrimination ability. The enhanced sensitivity suggests that the Caledonian face test may be capable of detecting more subtle impairments of face perception than available tests. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Jiang, Jing; Dai, Bohan; Peng, Danling; Zhu, Chaozhe; Liu, Li; Lu, Chunming
Although the human brain may have evolutionarily adapted to face-to-face communication, other modes of communication, e.g., telephone and e-mail, increasingly dominate our modern daily life. This study examined the neural difference between face-to-face communication and other types of communication by simultaneously measuring two brains using a hyperscanning approach. The results showed a significant increase in the neural synchronization in the left inferior frontal cortex during a face-to-face dialog between partners but none during a back-to-back dialog, a face-to-face monologue, or a back-to-back monologue. Moreover, the neural synchronization between partners during the face-to-face dialog resulted primarily from the direct interactions between the partners, including multimodal sensory information integration and turn-taking behavior. The communicating behavior during the face-to-face dialog could be predicted accurately based on the neural synchronization level. These results suggest that face-to-face communication, particularly dialog, has special neural features that other types of communication do not have and that the neural synchronization between partners may underlie successful face-to-face communication.
Mailey, Emily L; Phillips, Siobhan M; Dlugonski, Deirdre; Conroy, David E
Parents face numerous barriers to exercise and exhibit high levels of inactivity. Examining theory-based determinants of exercise among parents may inform interventions for this population. The purpose of this study was to test a social-cognitive model of parental exercise participation over a 12-month period. Mothers (n = 226) and fathers (n = 70) of children self-efficacy, perceived barriers, and exercise planning at baseline and 1 year later. Panel analyses were used to test the hypothesized relationships. Barriers self-efficacy was related to exercise directly and indirectly through perceived barriers and prioritization/planning. Prioritization and planning also mediated the relationship between perceived barriers and exercise. These paths remained significant at 12 months. These results suggest efforts to increase exercise in parents should focus on improving confidence to overcome exercise barriers, reducing perceptions of barriers, and helping parents make specific plans for prioritizing and engaging in exercise.
Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...
Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...
Full Text Available Global health's goal of reducing low-and-middle-income country versus high-income country health disparities faces complex challenges. Although there have been discussions of barriers, there has not been a broad-based, quantitative survey of such barriers.432 global health professionals were invited via email to participate in an online survey, with 268 (62% participating. The survey assessed participants' (A demographic and global health background, (B perceptions regarding 66 barriers' seriousness, (C detailed ratings of barriers designated most serious, (D potential solutions.Thirty-four (of 66 barriers were seen as moderately or more serious, highlighting the widespread, significant challenges global health development faces. Perceived barrier seriousness differed significantly across domains: Resource Limitations mean = 2.47 (0-4 Likert scale, Priority Selection mean = 2.20, Corruption, Lack of Competence mean = 1.87, Social and Cultural Barriers mean = 1.68. Some system-level predictors showed significant but relatively limited relations. For instance, for Global Health Domain, HIV and Mental Health had higher levels of perceived Social and Cultural Barriers than other GH Domains. Individual-level global health experience predictors had small but significant effects, with seriousness of (a Corruption, Lack of Competence, and (b Priority Selection barriers positively correlated with respondents' level of LMIC-oriented (e.g., weeks/year spent in LMIC but Academic Global Health Achievement (e.g., number of global health publications negatively correlated with overall barrier seriousness.That comparatively few system-level predictors (e.g., Organization Type were significant suggests these barriers may be relatively fundamental at the system-level. Individual-level and system-level effects do have policy implications; e.g., Priority Selection barriers were among the most serious, yet effects on seriousness of how LMIC-oriented a professional
Jessica Emeline Goold
Full Text Available Faces spontaneously capture attention. However, which special attributes of a face underlie this effect are unclear. To address this question, we investigate how gist information, specific visual properties and differing amounts of experience with faces affect the time required to detect a face. Three visual search experiments were conducted investigating the rapidness of human observers to detect Mooney face images. Mooney images are two-toned, ambiguous images. They were used in order to have stimuli that maintain gist information but limit low-level image properties. Results from the experiments show: 1 although upright Mooney faces were searched inefficiently, they were detected more rapidly than inverted Mooney face targets, demonstrating the important role of gist information in guiding attention towards a face. 2 Several specific Mooney face identities were searched efficiently while others were not, suggesting the involvement of specific visual properties in face detection. 3 By providing participants with unambiguous gray-scale versions of the Mooney face targets prior to the visual search task, the targets were detected significantly more efficiently, suggesting that prior experience with Mooney faces improves the ability to extract gist information for rapid face detection. However, a week of training with Mooney face categorization did not lead to even more efficient visual search of Mooney face targets. In summary, these results reveal that specific local image properties cannot account for how faces capture attention. On the other hand, gist information alone cannot account for how faces capture attention either. Prior experience facilitates the effect of gist on visual search of faces, making faces a special object category for guiding attention.
M. R. Monazzam ، P. Nassiri
Full Text Available This paper presents the results of an investigation on the acoustic performance of tilted profile parallel barriers with quadratic residue diffuser (QRD tops and faces. A 2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the barrier insertion loss. The results of rigid and with absorptive coverage are also calculated for comparisons. Using QRD on the top surface and faces of all tilted profile parallel barrier models introduced here is found to improve the efficiency of barriers compared with rigid equivalent parallel barrier at the examined receiver positions. Applying a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz on 5 degrees tilted parallel barrier improves the overall performance of its equivalent rigid barrier by 1.8 dB(A. Increase in the treated surfaces with reactive elements shifts the effective performance toward lower frequencies. It is found that by tilting the barriers from 0 to 10 degrees in parallel set up, the degradation effects in parallel barriers is reduced but the absorption effect of fibrous materials and also diffusivity of the quadratic residue diffuser is reduced significantly. In this case all the designed barriers have better performance with 10 degrees tilting in parallel set up. The most economic traffic noise parallel barrier which produces significantly high performance, is achieved by covering the top surface of the barrier closed to the receiver by just a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz and tilting angle of 10 degrees. The average A-weighted insertion loss in this barrier is predicted to be 16.3 dB (A.
N. Javid Rouzi
Full Text Available Background and aimsThe paper presents the results of an investigation on the acoustic performance of tilted profile parallel barriers with quadratic residue diffuser tops and faces.MethodsA2D boundary element method (BEM is used to predict the barrier insertion loss. The results of rigid and with absorptive coverage are also calculated for comparisons. Using QRD on the top surface and faces of all tilted profile parallel barrier models introduced here is found to improve the efficiency of barriers compared with rigid equivalent parallel barrier at the examined receiver positions.Results Applying a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz on 5 degrees tilted parallel barrier improves the overall performance of its equivalent rigid barrier by 1.8 dB(A. Increase the treated surfaces with reactive elements shifts the effective performance toward lower frequencies. It is found that by tilting the barriers from 0 to 10 degrees in parallel set up, the degradation effects in parallel barriers is reduced but the absorption effect of fibrous materials and also diffusivity of thequadratic residue diffuser is reduced significantly. In this case all the designed barriers have better performance with 10 degrees tilting in parallel set up.ConclusionThe most economic traffic noise parallel barrier, which produces significantly high performance, is achieved by covering the top surface of the barrier closed to the receiver by just a QRD with frequency design of 400 Hz and tilting angle of 10 degrees. The average Aweighted insertion loss in this barrier is predicted to be 16.3 dB (A.
Rochlen, Aaron B.; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Zack, Jason S.
This article reports on the development of measures of attitudes toward online and face-to-face counseling. Overall, participants expressed more favorable evaluations of face-to-face counseling than of online counseling. Significant correlations were found between online and face-to-face counseling with traditional help-seeking attitudes, comfort…
Wang, Jianfeng; Yuan, Ye; Yu, Gang
The performance of face detection has been largely improved with the development of convolutional neural network. However, the occlusion issue due to mask and sunglasses, is still a challenging problem. The improvement on the recall of these occluded cases usually brings the risk of high false positives. In this paper, we present a novel face detector called Face Attention Network (FAN), which can significantly improve the recall of the face detection problem in the occluded case without comp...
Musaiger, Abdulrahman O; Al-Kandari, Fawzia I; Al-Mannai, Mariam; Al-Faraj, Alaa M; Bouriki, Fajer A; Shehab, Fatima S; Al-Dabous, Lulwa A; Al-Qalaf, Wassin B
To investigate the barriers to weight maintenance among university students in Kuwait by gender and obesity. A sample of 530 students was selected at convenience from four universities in Kuwait (2 public and 2 private). The age of students ranged from 19 to 26 years. A self-reported pretested questionnaire was used to obtain the barriers, which were divided into barriers to healthy eating and barriers to physical activity. Weight and height were based on self-reporting, and the students were grouped into non-obese and obese according to the WHO classification. The response options to barriers were: very important, somewhat important and not important. The main barriers to healthy eating for both genders were: "Do not have skills to plan, shop for, prepare or cook healthy foods" and "Not having time to prepare or eat healthy food". In general, there were no significant differences between men and women in barriers to healthy eating. There were highly significant differences between men and women regarding barriers to physical activity (P values ranged from Obese men were more likely to face barriers to healthy eating than non-obese men. There were no significant differences between obese and non-obese women regarding barriers to healthy eating and physical activity. The findings of this study can be utilized in intervention activities to promote a healthy lifestyle and to combat obesity in Kuwait, and maybe in other Arab countries.
Anczweski, Julian; Anczewska, Marta
Individuals living with anxiety disorders often face significant obstacles in their day to day lives. While trying to manage the physical and emotional symptoms associated with these disorders can be a challenge, sufferers also encounter barriers by way of social exclusion from key life domains: family life, relationships, education, employment…
Mohr, David C; Ho, Joyce; Duffecy, Jenna; Reifler, Douglas; Sokol, Leslie; Burns, Michelle Nicole; Jin, Ling; Siddique, Juned
Primary care is the most common site for the treatment of depression. Most depressed patients prefer psychotherapy over antidepressant medications, but access barriers are believed to prevent engagement in and completion of treatment. The telephone has been investigated as a treatment delivery medium to overcome access barriers, but little is known about its efficacy compared with face-to-face treatment delivery. To examine whether telephone-administered cognitive behavioral therapy (T-CBT) reduces attrition and is not inferior to face-to-face CBT in treating depression among primary care patients. A randomized controlled trial of 325 Chicago-area primary care patients with major depressive disorder, recruited from November 2007 to December 2010. Eighteen sessions of T-CBT or face-to-face CBT. The primary outcome was attrition (completion vs noncompletion) at posttreatment (week 18). Secondary outcomes included masked interviewer-rated depression with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (Ham-D) and self-reported depression with the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Significantly fewer participants discontinued T-CBT (n = 34; 20.9%) compared with face-to-face CBT (n = 53; 32.7%; P = .02). Patients showed significant improvement in depression across both treatments (P treatment differences at posttreatment between T-CBT and face-to-face CBT on the Ham-D (P = .22) or the PHQ-9 (P = .89). The intention-to-treat posttreatment effect size on the Ham-D was d = 0.14 (90% CI, -0.05 to 0.33), and for the PHQ-9 it was d = -0.02 (90% CI, -0.20 to 0.17). Both results were within the inferiority margin of d = 0.41, indicating that T-CBT was not inferior to face-to-face CBT. Although participants remained significantly less depressed at 6-month follow-up relative to baseline (P adherence compared with face-to-face delivery, but at the cost of some increased risk of poorer maintenance of gains after treatment cessation. clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00498706.
Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta
In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…
Heru, Alison M.; Drury, Laura
Objective: The Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education and the Residency Review Committee for psychiatry outline the expected competencies for residents. These competencies include working with families. This article describes barriers that residents face when working with families, and offers ways to overcome these barriers. Method:…
Richler, Jennifer J; Floyd, R Jackie; Gauthier, Isabel
Previous work found a small but significant relationship between holistic processing measured with the composite task and face recognition ability measured by the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT; Duchaine & Nakayama, 2006). Surprisingly, recent work using a different measure of holistic processing (Vanderbilt Holistic Face Processing Test [VHPT-F]; Richler, Floyd, & Gauthier, 2014) and a larger sample found no evidence for such a relationship. In Experiment 1 we replicate this unexpected result, finding no relationship between holistic processing (VHPT-F) and face recognition ability (CFMT). A key difference between the VHPT-F and other holistic processing measures is that unique face parts are used on each trial in the VHPT-F, unlike in other tasks where a small set of face parts repeat across the experiment. In Experiment 2, we test the hypothesis that correlations between the CFMT and holistic processing tasks are driven by stimulus repetition that allows for learning during the composite task. Consistent with our predictions, CFMT performance was correlated with holistic processing in the composite task when a small set of face parts repeated over trials, but not when face parts did not repeat. A meta-analysis confirms that relationships between the CFMT and holistic processing depend on stimulus repetition. These results raise important questions about what is being measured by the CFMT, and challenge current assumptions about why faces are processed holistically.
In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different
Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit
Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…
Heteren, S. van
Barrier-system dynamics are a function of antecedent topography and substrate lithology, Relative sea-level (RSL) changes, sediment availability and type, climate, vegetation type and cover, and various aero- and hydrodynamic processes during fair-weather conditions and extreme events. Global change
Fletcher, Kingsley I; Butavicius, Marcus A; Lee, Michael D
Accurate matching of unfamiliar faces is vital in security and forensic applications, yet previous research has suggested that humans often perform poorly when matching unfamiliar faces. Hairstyle and facial hair can strongly influence unfamiliar face matching but are potentially unreliable cues. This study investigated whether increased attention to the more stable internal face features of eyes, nose, and mouth was associated with more accurate face-matching performance. Forty-three first-year psychology students decided whether two simultaneously presented faces were of the same person or not. The faces were displayed for either 2 or 6 seconds, and had either similar or dissimilar hairstyles. The level of attention to internal features was measured by the proportion of fixation time spent on the internal face features and the sensitivity of discrimination to changes in external feature similarity. Increased attention to internal features was associated with increased discrimination in the 2-second display-time condition, but no significant relationship was found in the 6-second condition. Individual differences in eye-movements were highly stable across the experimental conditions.
Abdulrahman O. Musaiger
Full Text Available Objective. To highlight the perceived personal, social, and environmental barriers to healthy eating and physical activity among Arab adolescents. Method. A multistage stratified sampling method was used to select 4698 students aged 15–18 years (2240 males and 2458 females from public schools. Seven Arab counties were included in the study, namely, Algeria, Jordan, Kuwait, Libya, Palestine, Syria, and the United Arab Emirates. Self-reported questionnaire was used to list the barriers to healthy eating and physical activity facing these adolescents. Results. It was found that lack of information on healthy eating, lack of motivation to eat a healthy diet, and not having time to prepare or eat healthy food were the main barriers to healthy eating among both genders. For physical activity, the main barriers selected were lack of motivation to do physical activity, less support from teachers, and lack of time to do physical activity. In general, females faced more barriers to physical activity than males in all countries included. There were significant differences between males and females within each country and among countries for most barriers. Conclusion. Intervention programmes to combat obesity and other chronic noncommunicable diseases in the Arab world should include solutions to overcome the barriers to weight maintenance, particularly the sociocultural barriers to practising physical activity.
Samantha Jane Hindle
Full Text Available The invertebrate blood-brain barrier field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through GPCR signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate blood-brain barrier has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many blood-brain barrier mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the blood-brain barrier can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of blood-brain barrier gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of blood-brain barrier secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate blood-brain barrier anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.
Fuller, J.L.; Wolford, J.
Full text: An information barrier (IB) consists of procedures and technology that prevent the release of sensitive information during a joint inspection of a sensitive nuclear item, and provides confidence that the measurement system into which it has been integrated functions exactly as designed and constructed. Work in the U.S. on radiation detection system information barriers dates back at least to 1990, even though the terminology is more recent. In January 1999 the Joint DoD-DOE Information Barrier Working Group was formed in the United States to help coordinate technical efforts related to information barrier R and D. This paper presents an overview of the efforts of this group, by its Chairs, as well as recommendations for further information barrier R and D. Progress on the demonstration of monitoring systems containing IBs is also provided. From the U.S. perspective, the basic, top-level functional requirements for the information barrier portion of an integrated radiation signature-information barrier inspection system are twofold: The host must be assured that his classified information is protected from disclosure to the inspecting party; and The inspecting party must be confident that the integrated inspection system measures, processes, and presents the radiation-signature-based measurement conclusion in an accurate and reproducible manner. It is the position of the United States that in the absence of any agreement to share classified nuclear weapons design information in the conduct of an inspection regime, the requirement to protect host country classified warhead design information is paramount and admits no tradeoff versus the confidence provided to the inspecting party in the accuracy and reproducibility of the measurements. The U.S. has reached an internal consensus on several critical design elements that define a general standard for radiation signature information barrier design. These criteria have stood the test of time under intense
Abstract The present article examines whether French female researchers face a glass ceiling, an invisible barrier to promotion. Using an original database from the National Institute for Agricultural Research, we estimate duration models for promotions. The methodology used allowed us to take into account censored observations and unobserved heterogeneity. Our results show a significant gender effect that does not contradict the glass-ceiling hypothesis. In addition, factors that ...
This floating barrier consists of relatively long elements which can be connected to form a practically continuous assembly. Each element consists of an inflatable tube with an apron of certain height, made of impregnated fabric which is resistant to ocean water and also to hydrocarbons. Means for connecting one element to the following one, and means for attaching ballast to the apron are also provided.
Full Text Available Innovation in academic libraries is not a brand new issue. Academic libraries can benefit from successful innovation, since innovation is a key contributor to gaining and sustaining competitive advantage for survival. Building on two case studies, 28 participants from leadership teams to practitioners are involved, the qualitative findings identified the specific two types of barriers that academic libraries face by applying a barriers approach to innovation, that’s, environmental and organizational barriers. Especially, seven dimensions of two types of barriers to innovation are found.
Todorov, Alexander; Olivola, Christopher Y; Dotsch, Ron|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/328554197; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter
Since the early twentieth century, psychologists have known that there is consensus in attributing social and personality characteristics from facial appearance. Recent studies have shown that surprisingly little time and effort are needed to arrive at this consensus. Here we review recent research
An inevitable consequence of things not being knowable in themselves is the philosophical distance from 'the world', which Stephen Hawking has argued, makes the philosophical enterprise 'dead'. In dialogue with this widespread decline in metaphysics, I will attempt to reclaim realist metaphysics through the employment ...
Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.
We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…
Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab
Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.
Heavy-ion collisions often produce a fusion barrier distribution with structures displaying a fingerprint of couplings to highly collective excitations . Basically the same distribution can be obtained from large-angle quasi-elastic scattering, though here the role of the many weak direct-reaction channels is unclear. For 2 0N e + 9 0Z r we have observed the barrier structures expected for the highly deformed neon projectile, but for 2 0N e + 9 2Z r we find completely smooth distribution (see Fig.1). We find that transfer channels in these systems are of similar strength but single particle excitations are significantly stronger in the latter case. They apparently reduce the 'resolving power' of the quasi-elastic channel, what leads to smeared out, or 'fuzzy' barrier distribution. This is the first case when such a phenomenon has been observed.(author)
Full Text Available This article summarizes the results from a 2013 online survey with 408 principals and assistant principals in New York City public elementary and middle schools. The survey assessed three primary areas: health issues in the school, health issues perceived as barriers to learning for affected students, and resources needed to address these barriers. Eighteen of the 22 health conditions listed in the survey were considered a moderate or serious issue within their schools by at least 10% of respondents. All 22 of the health issues were perceived as a barrier to learning by between 12% and 87% of the respondents. Representatives from schools that serve a higher percentage of low-income students reported significantly higher levels of concern about the extent of health issues and their impact on learning. Respondents most often said they need linkages with organizations that can provide additional services and resources at the school, especially for mental health.
Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.
positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking
Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.
Editing faces in movies is of interest in the special effects industry. We aim at producing effects such as the addition of accessories interacting correctly with the face or replacing the face of a stuntman with the face of the main actor. The system introduced in this thesis is based on a 3D generative face model. Using a 3D model makes it possible to edit the face in the semantic space of pose, expression, and identity instead of pixel space, and due to its 3D nature allows...
White, Sian; Kuper, Hannah; Itimu-Phiri, Ambumulire; Holm, Rochelle; Biran, Adam
Globally, millions of people lack access to improved water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH). Disabled people, disadvantaged both physically and socially, are likely to be among those facing the greatest inequities in WASH access. This study explores the WASH priorities of disabled people and uses the social model of disability and the World Health Organization's International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) framework to look at the relationships between impairments, contextual factors and barriers to WASH access. 36 disabled people and 15 carers from urban and rural Malawi were purposively selected through key informants. The study employed a range of qualitative methods including interviews, emotion mapping, free-listing of priorities, ranking, photo voice, observation and WASH demonstrations. A thematic analysis was conducted using nVivo 10. WASH access affected all participants and comprised almost a third of the challenges of daily living identified by disabled people. Participants reported 50 barriers which related to water and sanitation access, personal and hand hygiene, social attitudes and participation in WASH programs. No two individuals reported facing the same set of barriers. This study found that being female, being from an urban area and having limited wealth and education were likely to increase the number and intensity of the barriers faced by an individual. The social model proved useful for classifying the majority of barriers. However, this model was weaker when applied to individuals who were more seriously disabled by their body function. This study found that body function limitations such as incontinence, pain and an inability to communicate WASH needs are in and of themselves significant barriers to adequate WASH access. Understanding these access barriers is important for the WASH sector at a time when there is a global push for equitable access.
The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)
Katrin Martina Kliegl
Full Text Available The perceived duration of emotional face stimuli strongly depends on the expressed emotion. But, emotional faces also differ regarding a number of other features like gaze, face direction, or sex. Usually, these features have been controlled by only using pictures of female models with straight gaze and face direction. Doi and Shinohara (2009 reported that an overestimation of angry faces could only be found when the model’s gaze was oriented towards the observer. We aimed at replicating this effect for face direction. Moreover, we explored the effect of face direction on the duration perception sad faces. Controlling for the sex of the face model and the participant, female and male participants rated the duration of neutral, angry and sad face stimuli of both sexes photographed from different perspectives in a bisection task. In line with current findings, we report a significant overestimation of angry compared to neutral face stimuli that was modulated by face direction. Moreover, the perceived duration of sad face stimuli did not differ from that of neutral faces and was not influenced by face direction. Furthermore, we found that faces of the opposite sex appeared to last longer than those of the same sex. This outcome is discussed with regards to stimulus parameters like the induced arousal, social relevance and an evolutionary context.
Jain, Anil K
.... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...
Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi
In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...
Biotti, Federica; Wu, Esther; Yang, Hua; Jiahui, Guo; Duchaine, Bradley; Cook, Richard
Upright face perception is thought to involve holistic processing, whereby local features are integrated into a unified whole. Consistent with this view, the top half of one face appears to fuse perceptually with the bottom half of another, when aligned spatially and presented upright. This 'composite face effect' reveals a tendency to integrate information from disparate regions when faces are presented canonically. In recent years, the relationship between susceptibility to the composite effect and face recognition ability has received extensive attention both in participants with normal face recognition and participants with developmental prosopagnosia. Previous results suggest that individuals with developmental prosopagnosia may show reduced susceptibility to the effect suggestive of diminished holistic face processing. Here we describe two studies that examine whether developmental prosopagnosia is associated with reduced composite face effects. Despite using independent samples of developmental prosopagnosics and different composite procedures, we find no evidence for reduced composite face effects. The experiments yielded similar results; highly significant composite effects in both prosopagnosic groups that were similar in magnitude to the effects found in participants with normal face processing. The composite face effects exhibited by both samples and the controls were greatly diminished when stimulus arrangements were inverted. Our finding that the whole-face binding process indexed by the composite effect is intact in developmental prosopagnosia indicates that other factors are responsible for developmental prosopagnosia. These results are also inconsistent with suggestions that susceptibility to the composite face effect and face recognition ability are tightly linked. While the holistic process revealed by the composite face effect may be necessary for typical face perception, it is not sufficient; individual differences in face recognition ability
Heinemann, Trine; Mitchell, Robb
Technology provoking disparate individuals to collaborate or share experiences in the public space faces a difficult barrier, namely the ordinary social order of urban places. We employed the notion of the breaching experiment to explore how this barrier might be overcome. We analyse responses...... of life in public spaces. Arising from this, we argue for the importance of qualities such as availability, facilitation, perspicuous settings, and perspicuous participants to encourage and support co-located strangers to collaborate and share experiences....
Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan
Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.
Mulhern, J.; Johnson, C. L.
Barrier island outcrops record transgressive shoreline motion at geologic timescales, providing integral clues to understanding how coastlines respond to rising sea levels. However, barrier island deposits are difficult to recognize. While significant progress has been made in understanding the modern coastal morphodynamics, this insight is not fully leveraged in existing barrier island facies models. Excellent outcrop exposures of the paralic Upper Cretaceous Straight Cliffs Formation of southern Utah provide an opportunity to revise facies models and recognition criteria for barrier island deposits. Preserved barrier islands are composed of three main architectural elements (shorefaces, tidal inlets, and tidal channels) which occur independently or in combination to create larger-scale barrier island deposits. Barrier island shorefaces record progradation, while barrier island tidal inlets record lateral migration, and barrier island tidal channels record aggradation within the tidal inlet. Four facies associations are used to describe and characterize these barrier island architectural elements. Barrier islands occur in association with backarrier fill and internally contain lower and upper shoreface, high-energy upper shoreface, and tidal channel facies. Barrier islands bound lagoons or estuaries, and are distinguished from other shoreface deposits by their internal facies and geometry, association with backbarrier facies, and position within transgressive successions. Tidal processes, in particular tidal inlet migration and reworking of the upper shoreface, also distinguish barrier island deposits. Existing barrier island models highlight the short term heterogeneous and dynamic nature of barrier island systems, yet overlook processes tied to geologic time scales, such as multi-directional motion, erosion, and reworking, and their expressions in preserved barrier island strata. This study uses characteristic outcrop expressions of barrier island successions to
Jul 10, 2013 ... Across Africa, men and women are increasingly entering the marketplace as small ... that prevent them from growing, improving their performance, and increasing earnings. This is ... Woman working in a small shop in Ghana.
When a storm event pushes water up and over a coastal barrier, cross-shore flow transports sediment from the barrier face to the back-barrier environment. This natural physical process is called "overwash", and "washover" is the sedimentary deposit it forms. Overwash and washover support critical coastal habitats, and enable barriers to maintain their height and width relative to rising sea level. On developed barrier coasts, overwash constitutes a natural hazard, which sea-level rise will exacerbate. Overwash is also a prerequisite for barrier breaching and coastal flooding. Predicting occurrence and characteristics of overwash and washover has significant societal value. Hazard models typically assume that pre-storm barrier morphology determines how the barrier changes during a storm. However, classic work has documented the absence of a relationship between pre/post-storm topography in some cases, and has also identified rhythmic patterns in washover alongshore. Previous explanations for these spatial patterns have looked to forcing templates, forms that get imprinted in the barrier shape. An alternative explanation is that washover patterns self-organize, emerging from feedbacks between water flow and sediment transport. Self-organization and forcing templates are often framed as mutually exclusive, but patterns likely form across a continuum of conditions. Here, I use data from a new physical experiment to suggest that spatial patterns in washover can self-organize within the limit of a forcing template of some critical "strength", beyond which pre/post-storm morphologies are highly correlated. Quantifying spatial patterns in washover deposits opens exciting questions regarding coastal morphodynamic response to storms. Measurement of relative template strength over extended spatial (and temporal) scales has the potential to improve hazard assessment and prediction, particularly where template strength is low and self-organization dominates barrier change.
Bauer, Sarah E; Schumacher, Jessica R; Hall, Allyson; Marlow, Nicole M; Friedel, Claudia; Scheer, Danielle; Redmon, Susan
Research has not fully characterized barriers to health care faced by persons with disabilities (PWD) which constitutes a critical gap given the increased risk of chronic illness faced by PWD. To understand the current barriers to seeking health care-related services for PWD in Florida. The study was based on a random-digit-dial telephone interview survey of respondents aged 18 and over (n = 1429). Multivariable logistic regression assessed the relationship between disability and physical and communication barriers. One thousand four hundred and twenty-nine Florida residents participated in the survey. Thirty-three percent of respondents (n = 471) reported having a disability. PWD were significantly older (mean age 68 vs. 61) and had lower levels of income and education than persons without disabilities (PWOD) (p barrier (Odds Ratio [OR] = 16.6 95% CI: 7.9, 34.9), a clinical experience barrier (OR = 13.9 95% CI: 6.9, 27.9) a communication and knowledge barrier (OR = 6.7 95% CI: 4.0, 11.3) and a barrier coordinating care (OR = 5.7 95% CI: 3.4, 9.6) compared to persons without disabilities (PWOD). PWD disproportionately face health care access difficulties that can impede the receipt of high quality care within and between provider visits. Efforts to reduce physical barriers and improve communication between providers and PWD may improve functional status and quality of life for these patients. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available Face identity and facial expression are processed in two distinct neural pathways. However, most of the existing face adaptation literature studies them separately, despite the fact that they are two aspects from the same face. The current study conducted a systematic comparison between these two aspects by face adaptation, investigating how top- and bottom-half face parts contribute to the processing of face identity and facial expression. A real face (sad, “Adam” and its two size-equivalent face parts (top- and bottom-half were used as the adaptor in separate conditions. For face identity adaptation, the test stimuli were generated by morphing Adam's sad face with another person's sad face (“Sam”. For facial expression adaptation, the test stimuli were created by morphing Adam's sad face with his neutral face and morphing the neutral face with his happy face. In each trial, after exposure to the adaptor, observers indicated the perceived face identity or facial expression of the following test face via a key press. They were also tested in a baseline condition without adaptation. Results show that the top- and bottom-half face each generated a significant face identity aftereffect. However, the aftereffect by top-half face adaptation is much larger than that by the bottom-half face. On the contrary, only the bottom-half face generated a significant facial expression aftereffect. This dissociation of top- and bottom-half face adaptation suggests that face parts play different roles in face identity and facial expression. It thus provides further evidence for the distributed systems of face perception.
Eman H. Alsabhan
Full Text Available Background: Violence against women is an important public-health problem that draws attention of a wide spectrum of clinicians. However, multiple barriers undermine the efforts of primary health care workers to properly manage and deal with battered women. Objectives: The aim of the present study was to reveal barriers that might impede administering comprehensive health care to battered women and compare these barriers between nurses and physicians and identify factors affecting such barriers. Methods: A total of 1553 medical staff from 78 primary health care units agreed to share in this study, of these 565 were physicians and 988 were nurses. Results: Barriers related to the battered woman topped the list of ranks for both physicians (93.1 ± 17.4% and nurses (82.1 ± 29.3%. Institutional barriers (87.2 ± 21.5%, barriers related to the health staff (79.8 ± 20. 5%, and social barriers (77.5 ± 21.7% followed, respectively, in the rank list of physicians while for the list of nurses, social barriers (75.1 ± 30.1%, institutional barriers (74.3 ± 31.7% followed with barriers related to health staff (70.0 ± 30.0% at the bottom of the list. Only duration spent at work and degree of education of nurses were significantly affecting the total barrier score, while these factors had no significant association among physicians. Conclusion: Real barriers exist that might interfere with administering proper comprehensive health care at the primary health care units by both physicians and nurses. This necessitates design of specific programs to improve both the knowledge and skills of the medical staff to deal with violence among women. Also, available resources and infrastructure must be strengthened to face this problem and enable primary health care staff to care for battered women. Keywords: Battered women, Barriers, Physicians, Nurses, Primary health care
McGee, Janet M.
Throughout history, women have faced numerous career barriers. Although significant progress has made it possible to break through the "glass ceiling," there remains a disproportionate percentage of women at the higher educational administrative positions, specifically the superintendent and high school principal roles. This study will…
Results show that in both groups of subjects face immersion in water (at either temperature) with breath-hold significantly increased BP, QRS amplitude, PR interval, QT interval and R-R interval. Face immersion thus caused a significant reduction in heart rate (HR). However, in both groups of subjects, the changes in BP ...
The concept of language barrier has its derivations in the fields of dialectology, sociology and psychology. In contemporary usage however, the concept has two meanings i.e. regional-cultural barrier and socio-cultural barrier. (Text is in German.) (DS)
Full Text Available Ahmed Hashim Gastroenterology Department, Brighton and Sussex University Hospitals NHS Trust, Brighton, UK Introduction: International medical graduates (IMGs in the UK constitute approximately one-quarter of the total number of doctors registered in the General Medical Council (GMC. The transition of IMGs into the health care system in the UK is accompanied by significant sociocultural and educational challenges. This study aims to explore the views of IMGs in medical training on the educational challenges they face.Methods: This study was conducted in the Kent, Surrey and Sussex region in 2015. All IMGs who work in medical (physicianly training programs were included. Data were collected through a questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. Thematic approach was used to analyze the qualitative data.Results: Of the total 61 IMGs included, 17 responded to the survey and 3 were interviewed. The common educational barriers faced by IMGs were related to lack of appreciation of the values and structure of the National Health Service (NHS, ethical and medicolegal issues, receiving feedback from colleagues and the different learning strategies in the UK. IMGs suggested introduction of a mandatory dedicated induction program in the form of formal teaching sessions. They also believed that a supervised shadowing period prior in the first job in the UK would be beneficial. Further assessment areas should be incorporated into the prequalifying examinations to address specific educational needs such as NHS structure and hospital policies. Other measures such as buddying schemes with senior IMGs and educating NHS staff on different needs of IMGs should also be considered.Conclusion: This study highlighted important educational challenges faced by IMGs and generated relevant solutions. However, the opinions of the supervisors and other health care professionals need to be explored. Keywords: international medical graduates, IMG, educational barriers
Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano
This is a comment on an article by Perrett et al., on the same issue of Nature, investigating face perception. With computer graphics, Perrett and colleagues have produced exaggerated male and female faces, and asked people to rate them with respect to femininity or masculinity, and personality traits such as intelligence, emotionality and so on. The key question is: what informations do faces (and sexual signals in general) convey? One view, supported by Perrett and colleagues, is that all a...
Air transportation facilitates face-to-face interactions across borders for the spatial expansion of manufacturing production. I investigate the impact of international flights on FDI entry by Japanese firms. I find that FDI entry significantly increases with the weekly frequency of flights from Japan, and the positive impact increases with a proxy for an intensity of face-to-face communication between the parent firm and foreign affiliate. The results are robust to estimation methods, additi...
Nov 10, 2016 ... Keywords: barriers; loneliness at work; school principals; Turkish elementary ... competencies as they face the challenges of their position (Howard & Mallory, 2008). ..... of the participants was female and six of them were.
Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z
Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.
This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be
Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A
Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Lewis, Amelia K; Porter, Melanie A; Williams, Tracey A; Bzishvili, Samantha; North, Kathryn N; Payne, Jonathan M
This study aimed to investigate face scan paths and face perception abilities in children with Neurofibromatosis Type 1 (NF1) and how these might relate to emotion recognition abilities in this population. The authors investigated facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in 29 children with NF1 compared to 29 chronological age-matched typically developing controls. Correlations between facial emotion recognition, face scan paths, and face perception in children with NF1 were examined. Children with NF1 displayed significantly poorer recognition of fearful expressions compared to controls, as well as a nonsignificant trend toward poorer recognition of anger. Although there was no significant difference between groups in time spent viewing individual core facial features (eyes, nose, mouth, and nonfeature regions), children with NF1 spent significantly less time than controls viewing the face as a whole. Children with NF1 also displayed significantly poorer face perception abilities than typically developing controls. Facial emotion recognition deficits were not significantly associated with aberrant face scan paths or face perception abilities in the NF1 group. These results suggest that impairments in the perception, identification, and interpretation of information from faces are important aspects of the social-cognitive phenotype of NF1. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Postel, Marloes G; de Haan, Hein A; Ter Huurne, Elke D; Becker, Eni S; de Jong, Cor A J
The availability of online treatment programs offers the potential to reach more problem drinkers. This study compared the client populations of an e-therapy program (asynchronous client-therapist communication via the Internet) and a face-to-face treatment program. To determine whether e-therapy and face-to-face groups differed from each other and changed over time. We compared the baseline characteristics of four naturalistic groups (N = 4593): two e-therapy groups (2005-2006 and 2008-2009) and two consecutive series of ambulant face-to-face clients admitted for treatment as usual. The characteristics we were interested in were gender, age, education level, working situation, and earlier treatment for drinking problems. The results showed that the baseline characteristics of e-therapy and face-to-face clients differed by gender, education level, work situation, prior alcohol treatment, and age. We also found that both e-therapy groups differed over time by gender, work situation, and prior alcohol treatment. The e-therapy program successfully attracted clients who were different from those who were represented in regular face-to-face alcohol treatment services. This indicates that e-therapy decreases the barriers to treatment facilities and enhances the accessibility. However, the e-therapy population changed over time. Although the e-therapy program still reached an important new group of clients in 2008-2009, this group showed more overlap with the traditional face-to-face group of clients probably as a result of improved acceptance of e-therapy in the general population. Although e-therapy seems to be better accepted in the general population, anonymous treatment seems necessary to reach a broader range of problem drinkers.
Zhen, Zonglei; Fang, Huizhen; Liu, Jia
Numerous functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have identified multiple cortical regions that are involved in face processing in the human brain. However, few studies have characterized the face-processing network as a functioning whole. In this study, we used fMRI to identify face-selective regions in the entire brain and then explore the hierarchical structure of the face-processing network by analyzing functional connectivity among these regions. We identified twenty-five regions mainly in the occipital, temporal and frontal cortex that showed a reliable response selective to faces (versus objects) across participants and across scan sessions. Furthermore, these regions were clustered into three relatively independent sub-networks in a face-recognition task on the basis of the strength of functional connectivity among them. The functionality of the sub-networks likely corresponds to the recognition of individual identity, retrieval of semantic knowledge and representation of emotional information. Interestingly, when the task was switched to object recognition from face recognition, the functional connectivity between the inferior occipital gyrus and the rest of the face-selective regions were significantly reduced, suggesting that this region may serve as an entry node in the face-processing network. In sum, our study provides empirical evidence for cognitive and neural models of face recognition and helps elucidate the neural mechanisms underlying face recognition at the network level.
Overbeck, Gritt; Davidsen, Annette Sofie; Kousgaard, Marius Brostrøm
shown significant positive effects for patients suffering from depression, but since collaborative care is a complex intervention, it is important to understand the factors which affect its implementation. We present a qualitative systematic review of the enablers and barriers to implementing...... employed the normalization process theory (NPT). RESULTS: We included 17 studies in our review of which 11 were conducted in the USA, five in the UK, and one in Canada. We identified several barriers and enablers within the four major analytical dimensions of NPT. Securing buy-in among primary care...... collaborative care interventions: effective educational programs, especially for care managers; issues of reimbursement in relation to primary care providers; good systems for communication and monitoring; and promoting face-to-face interaction between care managers and physicians, preferably through co...
Bhatnagar, Dhruv [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Currier, Aileen [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Hernandez, Jacquelynne [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Ma, Ookie [Dept. of Energy (DOE), Washington DC (United States) Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy; Kirby, Brendan [Consultant
Electric energy storage technologies can provide numerous grid services; there are a number of factors that restrict their current deployment. The most significant barrier to deployment is high capital costs, though several recent deployments indicate that capital costs are decreasing and energy storage may be the preferred economic alternative in certain situations. However, a number of other market and regulatory barriers persist, limiting further deployment. These barriers can be categorized into regulatory barriers, market (economic) barriers, utility and developer business model barriers, cross-cutting barriers and technology barriers.
Lier, R.J. van
We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot
Bertrand H Lemasson
Full Text Available Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.
Lemasson, Bertrand H; Haefner, James W; Bowen, Mark D
Artificial barriers have become ubiquitous features in freshwater ecosystems and they can significantly impact a region's biodiversity. Assessing the risk faced by fish forced to navigate their way around artificial barriers is largely based on assays of individual swimming behavior. However, social interactions can significantly influence fish movement patterns and alter their risk exposure. Using an experimental flume, we assessed the effects of social interactions on the amount of time required for juvenile palmetto bass (Morone chrysops × M. saxatilis) to navigate downstream past an artificial barrier. Fish were released either individually or in groups into the flume using flow conditions that approached the limit of their expected swimming stamina. We compared fish swimming behaviors under solitary and schooling conditions and measured risk as the time individuals spent exposed to the barrier. Solitary fish generally turned with the current and moved quickly downstream past the barrier, while fish in groups swam against the current and displayed a 23-fold increase in exposure time. Solitary individuals also showed greater signs of skittish behavior than those released in groups, which was reflected by larger changes in their accelerations and turning profiles. While groups displayed fission-fusion dynamics, inter-individual positions were highly structured and remained steady over time. These spatial patterns align with theoretical positions necessary to reduce swimming exertion through either wake capturing or velocity sheltering, but diverge from any potential gains from channeling effects between adjacent neighbors. We conclude that isolated performance trials and projections based on individual behaviors can lead to erroneous predictions of risk exposure along engineered structures. Our results also suggest that risk perception and behavior may be more important than a fish's swimming stamina in artificially modified systems.
Poole, Janet L; Anwar, Sahar; Mendelson, Cindy; Allaire, Saralynn
Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is an auto-immune connective tissue disease characterized by fibrosis of skin, blood vessels, and internal organs that results in significant disability. To identify the work barriers faced by people with systemic sclerosis (SSc) in maintaining employment. Thirty-six people with SSc who were working more than 8 hours per week completed the Work Experience Survey, which contains lists of potential work barriers, including the ability to travel to and from work; get around at work; perform essential job functions, including physical, cognitive, and task-related activities; work with others; and manage work conditions. Thirty-three participants completed and returned the questionnaires, most of whom were female, and working full time and in professional careers. Principal disease symptoms included fatigue, Raynaud's phenomenon, esophageal involvement, and leg or hand/wrist pain. All participants reported some barriers with a mean of 18 barriers per participant. At least three quarters of participants cited outside temperature (82%), cold temperatures inside the workplace (76%), and household work (76%), as barriers. The next most common barriers were using both hands (64%), arranging and taking part in social activities (64%), being able to provide self-care (61%) and working 8 hours (58%). Participants reported a wide range of barriers, from cold temperatures, to physical job, fatigue related, and non-workplace demands, in maintaining the worker role. The barriers reflect the disease symptoms they reported. Identifying workplace barriers facilitates the creation of job accommodations or adaptations that will allow people with SSc to continue working.
This study aims at investigating the barriers encountered by science teachers in laboratory activities in Rwandan teacher training colleges (TTCs) using questionnaires and interviews. The results confirmed that teachers face barriers like time limitation, material scarcity and lack of improvising skills in their everyday science ...
Women and ethnic minorities face steep barriers to professional advancement, and those who rise to the executive level typically use a variety of strategies to overcome obstacles in their way. This study first reviewed the literature on barriers to professional advancement for women and ethnic minorities and the strategies that they report using…
Sugden, Nicole A; Marquis, Alexandra R
Infants show facility for discriminating between individual faces within hours of birth. Over the first year of life, infants' face discrimination shows continued improvement with familiar face types, such as own-race faces, but not with unfamiliar face types, like other-race faces. The goal of this meta-analytic review is to provide an effect size for infants' face discrimination ability overall, with own-race faces, and with other-race faces within the first year of life, how this differs with age, and how it is influenced by task methodology. Inclusion criteria were (a) infant participants aged 0 to 12 months, (b) completing a human own- or other-race face discrimination task, (c) with discrimination being determined by infant looking. Our analysis included 30 works (165 samples, 1,926 participants participated in 2,623 tasks). The effect size for infants' face discrimination was small, 6.53% greater than chance (i.e., equal looking to the novel and familiar). There was a significant difference in discrimination by race, overall (own-race, 8.18%; other-race, 3.18%) and between ages (own-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 7.32%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 9.17%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 7.68%; other-race: 0- to 4.5-month-olds, 6.12%; 5- to 7.5-month-olds, 3.70%; and 8- to 12-month-olds, 2.79%). Multilevel linear (mixed-effects) models were used to predict face discrimination; infants' capacity to discriminate faces is sensitive to face characteristics including race, gender, and emotion as well as the methods used, including task timing, coding method, and visual angle. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available Presently the conducted studies on how SMEs should integrate sustainability align with their core business principle is limited. Most of the discussion on this field is emphasized to address issues for larger organizations and very limited effort on small firms. The drivers and barriers of approaching sustainability practices in SMEs are different from those in large organizations since SMEs lack technical specialist, experience and money required to make such strategy. Since SMEs play a significant role in nation’s economic growth, it is essential to study and find their drivers and barriers toward sustainability business practices constitutes main motivation of this paper. This is a primary finding that aims to understand the SME motivation and barriers that are facing in implementing green sustainable business practices to offer insight look to small firms to find key factors that influence adoption of sustainability business approach within their management practices.
Full Text Available Michael Taitel1, Jenny Jiang1, Kristi Rudkin2, Susan Ewing2, Ian Duncan 1Clinical Outcomes and Analytics, Walgreens, 2Corporate Innovation Team, Walgreens, Deerfield, Illinois, USAPurpose: To evaluate the impact of a community-based pharmacist-led face-to-face counseling program on medication adherence for patients who were new to therapy (NTT for statin medications.Patients and methods: This retrospective cohort study evaluated a program that was implemented in 76 national community pharmacies located in the midwest USA. It consisted of two face-to-face patient counseling sessions with a pharmacist that addressed patient barriers to adherence. A group of 2056 NTT statin patients was identified between September 1, 2010 and October 31, 2010, and was followed for 12 months. The intervention group consisted of 586 patients, and the comparison group comprised 516 patients. Outcomes were measured using the continuous medication possession ratio (MPR, categorical MPR, and medication persistency.Results: After adjusting for covariates, the intervention group had statistically greater MPR than the comparison group at every month measured. For example, at 12 months the intervention group had a MPR of 61.8% (CI, 54.5%–69.2% and the comparison group had a MPR of 56.9% (CI, 49.5%–64.3%; this 4.9% difference is significant (P < 0.01. The 12 month categorical MPR also showed significant differences between groups (χ2 = 6.12, P < 0.05; 40.9% of the intervention group and 33.7% of comparison group had a MPR greater than or equal to 80%. Finally, the intervention group had significantly greater persistency with their medication therapy than the comparison group at 60, 90, 120, and 365 days.Conclusion: Patients who participated in brief face-to-face counseling sessions with a community pharmacist at the beginning of statin therapy demonstrated greater medication adherence and persistency than a comparison group. This brief targeted intervention at the
Colasante, Tyler; Mossad, Sarah I; Dudek, Joanna; Haley, David W
Understanding the relative and joint prioritization of age- and valence-related face characteristics in adults' cortical face processing remains elusive because these two characteristics have not been manipulated in a single study of neural face processing. We used electroencephalography to investigate adults' P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses to infant and adult faces with happy and sad facial expressions. Viewing infant vs adult faces was associated with significantly larger P1, N170, P2 and LPP responses, with hemisphere and/or participant gender moderating this effect in select cases. Sad faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses than happy faces. Sad infant faces were associated with significantly larger N170 responses in the right hemisphere than all other combinations of face age and face valence characteristics. We discuss the relative and joint neural prioritization of infant face characteristics and negative facial affect, and their biological value as distinct caregiving and social cues. © The Author (2016). Published by Oxford University Press. For Permissions, please email: firstname.lastname@example.org.
Milica Antić Gaber
We believe that in the present thematic issue we have succeeded in capturing an important part of the modern European research dynamic in the field of migration. In addition to well-known scholars in this field several young authors at the beginning their research careers have been shortlisted for the publication. We are glad of their success as it bodes a vibrancy of this research area in the future. At the same time, we were pleased to receive responses to the invitation from representatives of so many disciplines, and that the number of papers received significantly exceeded the maximum volume of the journal. Recognising and understanding of the many faces of migration are important steps towards the comprehensive knowledge needed to successfully meet the challenges of migration issues today and even more so in the future. It is therefore of utmost importance that researchers find ways of transferring their academic knowledge into practice – to all levels of education, the media, the wider public and, of course, the decision makers in local, national and international institutions. The call also applies to all authors in this issue of the journal.
Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.
Steinhilber, Simone; Wells, Peter; Thankappan, Samarthia
It is widely accepted that electrification of the transport sector is one of several technological trajectories that could redress some of the environmental issues associated with the growth in travel demand including climate change and oil demand at a global scale, and air quality and noise pollution at the urban scale. Electric vehicles have been considered a promising technology at repeated intervals over the last century, but this promise has not been realised. This paper is a contribution to understanding the key tools and strategies that might enable the successful introduction of new technologies and innovations by exploring the key barriers to electric vehicles encountered in two countries (UK and Germany) where the automobile industry has been historically significant. The study evaluates stakeholders' opinions on relevant regulation, infrastructure investment, R and D incentives, and consumer incentives. The key findings of the research are that the introduction and penetration of EVs is confronted by several barriers that inhibit a larger market penetration under current conditions, which in turn casts doubt on the assumptions of strategic niche management and transitions theory. - Highlights: • Immature developing technology reason behind non-commercialisation of EVs. • EVs currently do not present a significant benefit to the electricity sector. • EVs rely on a mix of regulatory and government measures for their development. • EVs face lock-in problem of unsustainable technologies and related barriers. • Positive milieu for innovation in vehicle technology and business models are required
Chen, Sheng; Liu, Yang; Gao, Xiang; Han, Zhen
In this paper, we proposed a class of extremely efficient CNN models, MobileFaceNets, which use less than 1 million parameters and are specifically tailored for high-accuracy real-time face verification on mobile and embedded devices. We first make a simple analysis on the weakness of common mobile networks for face verification. The weakness has been well overcome by our specifically designed MobileFaceNets. Under the same experimental conditions, our MobileFaceNets achieve significantly sup...
VanTuyle, Vicki; Watkins, Sandra G.
Women face unique challenges as superintendents. This study determined barriers women face as superintendents and elicited reasons why these women would consider leaving the superintendent's position. Thirty-nine PreK-12 women superintendents in Illinois participated in a web-based survey in January 2008. Survey items included information…
Sugiura, Motoaki; Sassa, Yuko; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Wakusawa, Keisuke; Horie, Kaoru; Sato, Shigeru; Kawashima, Ryuta
The concept of "social self" is often described as a representation of the self-reflected in the eyes or minds of others. Although the appearance of one's own face has substantial social significance for humans, neuroimaging studies have failed to link self-face recognition and the likely neural substrate of the social self, the medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC). We assumed that the social self is recruited during self-face recognition under a rich social context where multiple other faces are available for comparison of social values. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we examined the modulation of neural responses to the faces of the self and of a close friend in a social context. We identified an enhanced response in the ventral MPFC and right occipitoparietal sulcus in the social context specifically for the self-face. Neural response in the right lateral parietal and inferior temporal cortices, previously claimed as self-face-specific, was unaffected for the self-face but unexpectedly enhanced for the friend's face in the social context. Self-face-specific activation in the pars triangularis of the inferior frontal gyrus, and self-face-specific reduction of activation in the left middle temporal gyrus and the right supramarginal gyrus, replicating a previous finding, were not subject to such modulation. Our results thus demonstrated the recruitment of a social self during self-face recognition in the social context. At least three brain networks for self-face-specific activation may be dissociated by different patterns of response-modulation in the social context, suggesting multiple dynamic self-other representations in the human brain. Copyright © 2011 Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.
Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi
Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.
Jain, Anil K
This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...
Alharbi, Abdulrazaq M.
Various methods and systems are provided for smart parking barriers. In one example, among others, a smart parking barrier system includes a movable parking barrier located at one end of a parking space, a barrier drive configured to control positioning of the movable parking barrier, and a parking controller configured to initiate movement of the parking barrier, via the barrier drive. The movable parking barrier can be positioned between a first position that restricts access to the parking space and a second position that allows access to the parking space. The parking controller can initiate movement of the movable parking barrier in response to a positive identification of an individual allowed to use the parking space. The parking controller can identify the individual through, e.g., a RFID tag, a mobile device (e.g., a remote control, smartphone, tablet, etc.), an access card, biometric information, or other appropriate identifier.
Hees, S. van; Cornielje, H.; Wagle, P.; Veldman, E.
Purpose: Persons with disabilities face additional barriers in accessing primary healthcare services, especially in developing countries. Consequently the prevalence of secondary health conditions is higher among this population. This study aims to explore the perceived barriers to access primary
Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel
As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion.
Kemp, Nenagh; Grieve, Rachel
As electronic communication becomes increasingly common, and as students juggle study, work, and family life, many universities are offering their students more flexible learning opportunities. Classes once delivered face-to-face are often replaced by online activities and discussions. However, there is little research comparing students' experience and learning in these two modalities. The aim of this study was to compare undergraduates' preference for, and academic performance on, class material and assessment presented online vs. in traditional classrooms. Psychology students (N = 67) at an Australian university completed written exercises, a class discussion, and a written test on two academic topics. The activities for one topic were conducted face-to-face, and the other online, with topics counterbalanced across two groups. The results showed that students preferred to complete activities face-to-face rather than online, but there was no significant difference in their test performance in the two modalities. In their written responses, students expressed a strong preference for class discussions to be conducted face-to-face, reporting that they felt more engaged, and received more immediate feedback, than in online discussion. A follow-up study with a separate group (N = 37) confirmed that although students appreciated the convenience of completing written activities online in their own time, they also strongly preferred to discuss course content with peers in the classroom rather than online. It is concluded that online and face-to-face activities can lead to similar levels of academic performance, but that students would rather do written activities online but engage in discussion in person. Course developers could aim to structure classes so that students can benefit from both the flexibility of online learning, and the greater engagement experienced in face-to-face discussion. PMID:25429276
Cramm, Jane M; Nieboer, Anna P; Finkenflügel, Harry; Lorenzo, Theresa
Disability limits access to education and employment, and leads to economic and social exclusion. This study compared barriers to employment among disabled and non-disabled youth in South Africa. Fieldworkers interviewed 989 youth [18-35 years; 523 (52.9%) disabled, 466 (47.1%) non-disabled] at nine sites in five provinces (Gauteng, North West, Kwazulu Natal, Western Cape, Free State). Differences in employment between disabled and non-disabled youth were described and logistic regression analyses were used to predict barriers to employment within both groups. Employment differed between disabled and non-disabled youth (32.9% vs. 13.1%; p ⩽ 0.001). Lack of job availability and skills were associated significantly with unemployment among non-disabled youth. For disabled youth, unemployment was additionally associated with social attitudes and poor health. This research showed that disabled youth are facing more barriers to employment compared to non-disabled youth and that the unemployment rate among disabled youth is higher. Disabled youth thus faced additional challenges to employment and special attention must be given to reduce these barriers.
Sriraman, Natasha K; Kellams, Ann
Despite recognized health benefits for both mothers and infants, significant disparities still exist in the rates of breastfeeding in the United States. Major organizations representing the health of women and children (including the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC], American Academy of Pediatrics [AAP], American Congress of Obstetrics and Gynecology [ACOG], American Academy of Family Physicians [AAFP], United Nations International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF), the World Health Organization [WHO], and the United States Public Health Service [PHS]) recommend exclusive breastfeeding, but statistics show that although many women initiate breastfeeding, few meet the recommended goals for duration and exclusivity. This article reviews the evidence related to barriers (prenatal, medical, societal, hospital, and sociocultural) that many mothers face, and explore the known barriers and the impact they have on a woman's ability to breastfeed her infant. Strategies will be discussed to address (and potentially overcome) some of the most common barriers women face along with a list of resources that can be useful in this effort. Gaps in care and areas that need further research will be noted. This article is targeted toward physicians and other healthcare providers who work with women and who can assist with and advocate for the removal of barriers and thereby improve the health of women and children by increasing the rates of breastfeeding initiation, duration, and exclusivity in the United States.
Bright, Emma E; Petrie, Keith J; Partridge, Ann H; Stanton, Annette L
The treatment of chronic illness, and the prevention of disease progression and recurrence, often involve long-term adherence to prescription medications in breast cancer. Despite the survival benefit of endocrine therapies, nonadherence remains high. In this study, we examined barriers to and facilitators of endocrine therapy adherence among women with breast cancer (n = 1371). Participants currently taking tamoxifen or aromatase inhibitors were recruited from Dr. Susan Love Research Foundation's Army of Women(®) Registry. Participants responded online to open-ended and close-ended questions about thoughts, feelings, and behaviors relevant to endocrine therapy. Two weeks later, women were invited to complete a second online questionnaire regarding current endocrine therapy adherence. Approximately one-third (36 %) of participants reported the presence of factors that make endocrine therapy difficult; reporting any barrier to medication adherence was significantly associated with nonadherence (P adhere and the use of cognitive self-talk (e.g., thoughts regarding endocrine therapy efficacy) was related to higher adherence. Hierarchical linear regressions revealed a significant behavioral barrier × behavioral facilitator interaction (P behavioral barrier in the absence of a behavioral facilitator reported the lowest adherence. Findings suggest that a sizeable minority of women face barriers to taking endocrine therapy, which are associated with nonadherence.
Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing
People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender). PMID:27840621
Li, Yongna; Tse, Chi-Shing
People can process multiple dimensions of facial properties simultaneously. Facial processing models are based on the processing of facial properties. The current study examined the processing of facial emotion, face race, and face gender using categorization tasks. The same set of Chinese, White and Black faces, each posing a neutral, happy or angry expression, was used in three experiments. Facial emotion interacted with face race in all the tasks. The interaction of face race and face gender was found in the race and gender categorization tasks, whereas the interaction of facial emotion and face gender was significant in the emotion and gender categorization tasks. These results provided evidence for a symmetric interaction between variant facial properties (emotion) and invariant facial properties (race and gender).
Zhang, Tong; Gomes, Herman Martins
With the pervasiveness of monitoring cameras installed in public areas, schools, hospitals, work places and homes, video analytics technologies for interpreting these video contents are becoming increasingly relevant to people's lives. Among such technologies, human face detection and tracking (and face identification in many cases) are particularly useful in various application scenarios. While plenty of research has been conducted on face tracking and many promising approaches have been proposed, there are still significant challenges in recognizing and tracking people in videos with uncontrolled capturing conditions, largely due to pose and illumination variations, as well as occlusions and cluttered background. It is especially complex to track and identify multiple people simultaneously in real time due to the large amount of computation involved. In this paper, we present a survey on literature and software that are published or developed during recent years on the face tracking topic. The survey covers the following topics: 1) mainstream and state-of-the-art face tracking methods, including features used to model the targets and metrics used for tracking; 2) face identification and face clustering from face sequences; and 3) software packages or demonstrations that are available for algorithm development or trial. A number of publically available databases for face tracking are also introduced.
Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables
This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...
Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.
The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...
Shor, Ron; Shalev, Anat
Participating in physical activities could be essential for reducing the multiple risk factors for health problems that persons with severe mental illness (SMI) may suffer. However, people with SMI are significantly less active than the general population. To develop knowledge about factors related to the perceived barriers hindering this population's participation in physical activities and the benefits this participation would have, a study was conducted in Israel with 86 people with mental illness living in community mental health facilities prior to their participation in a health promotion program. A mixed method was implemented and included: a scale designed to measure participants' perceptions of the barriers to and benefits of involvement in physical activities; instruments focusing on bio-psycho-social factors that may affect the level of barriers experienced; and personal interviews. The findings revealed high ranking for accessibility barriers hindering the participation in physical activities. Bio-psycho-social factors stemming from the participants' mental health, such as level of depression, were correlated with higher ranking of accessibility barriers. Bio-psycho-social factors reflecting positive mental health and health, such as positive appraisal of body weight, were correlated with lower ranking of accessibility barriers. Other barriers may include organizational and broader systemic barriers in the mental health facilities where the participants reside. These findings illuminate the need to consider the unique challenges that persons with mental illness may face in any attempt to advance their involvement in physical activity. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: email@example.com.
Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg
Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Nketia-Kyere, Mercy; Aryeetey, Genevieve Cecilia; Nonvignon, Justice; Aikins, Moses
Physiotherapy has been shown to reduce the risk of disability among stroke patients. Poor adherence to physiotherapy can negatively affect outcomes and healthcare cost. However, very little is known about barriers especially to physiotherapy services in Ghana. The objective of this study was to assess the barriers to physiotherapy services for stroke patients at Tema General Hospital (TGH). The individual/personal and health system barriers to physiotherapy services at TGH were determined. A cross-sectional study design was employed. A simple random sampling technique was used to recruit 207 respondents for a face-to-face interview. Interviewer-administered questionnaires were used to collect data on individual/personal barriers of respondents to physiotherapy services and were described using the Likert's scale. Health system barriers were assessed using a self-structured questionnaire which had section under the following heading: human factors, physiotherapy modalities, physical barriers and material/equipment factors. The time spent waiting for physiotherapy and attitude of physiotherapist towards patients; physiotherapy modality such as electrotherapy, exercise therapy and massage therapy among others were some of the indices measured. Respondents' adherence to Medication was assessed with the Morisky 8-item medication adherence questionnaire. Data were entered and analysed using Epi info 7 and STATA 12.0. Associations between the variables were determined using a chi-square test and logistic regression model was used to test the strength of associations between the independent and the dependent variables. The level of statistical significance was set at p Tema General Hospital.
Full Text Available What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition.
Full Text Available We tested whether eye color influences perception of trustworthiness. Facial photographs of 40 female and 40 male students were rated for perceived trustworthiness. Eye color had a significant effect, the brown-eyed faces being perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones. Geometric morphometrics, however, revealed significant correlations between eye color and face shape. Thus, face shape likewise had a significant effect on perceived trustworthiness but only for male faces, the effect for female faces not being significant. To determine whether perception of trustworthiness was being influenced primarily by eye color or by face shape, we recolored the eyes on the same male facial photos and repeated the test procedure. Eye color now had no effect on perceived trustworthiness. We concluded that although the brown-eyed faces were perceived as more trustworthy than the blue-eyed ones, it was not brown eye color per se that caused the stronger perception of trustworthiness but rather the facial features associated with brown eyes.
Rizzolo, Lawrence J
The principal function of an epithelium is to form a dynamic barrier that regulates movement between body compartments. Each epithelium is specialized with barrier functions that are specific for the tissues it serves. The apical surface commonly faces a lumen, but the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE) appears to be unique by a facing solid tissue, the sensory retina. Nonetheless, there exists a thin (subretinal) space that can become fluid filled during pathology. RPE separates the subretinal space from the blood supply of the outer retina, thereby forming the outer blood-retinal barrier. The intricate interaction between the RPE and sensory retina presents challenges for learning how accurately culture models reflect native behavior. The challenge is heightened by findings that detail the variation of RPE barrier proteins both among species and at different stages of the life cycle. Among the striking differences is the expression of claudin family members. Claudins are the tight junction proteins that regulate ion diffusion across the spaces that lie between the cells of a monolayer. Claudin expression by RPE varies with species and life-stage, which implies functional differences among commonly used animal models. Investigators have turned to transcriptomics to supplement functional studies when comparing native and cultured tissue. The most detailed studies of the outer blood-retinal barrier have focused on human RPE with transcriptome and functional studies reported for human fetal, adult, and stem-cell derived RPE. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Kao, Cheng-Kai; Liebovitz, David M
This paper discusses the current state, barriers, and future directions of consumer-facing applications (apps). There are currently more than 165,000 mobile health apps publicly available in major app stores, the vast majority of which are designed for patients. The top 2 categories are wellness management and disease management apps, whereas other categories include self-diagnosis, medication reminder, and electronic patient portal apps. Apps specific to physical medicine and rehabilitation also are reviewed. These apps have the potential to provide low-cost, around-the-clock access to high-quality, evidence-based health information to end users on a global scale. However, they have not yet lived up to their potential due to multiple barriers, including lack of regulatory oversight, limited evidence-based literature, and concerns of privacy and security. The future directions may consist of improving data integration into the health care system, an interoperable app platform allowing access to electronic health record data, cloud-based personal health record across health care networks, and increasing app prescription by health care providers. For consumer mobile health apps to fully contribute value to health care delivery and chronic disease management, all stakeholders within the ecosystem must collaborate to overcome the significant barriers. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Huis in 't Veld, Elisabeth; Van den Stock, Jan; de Gelder, Beatrice
This study addresses two central and controversial issues in developmental prosopagnosia (DP), configuration- versus feature-based face processing and the influence of affective information from either facial or bodily expressions on face recognition. A sample of 10 DPs and 10 controls were tested with a previously developed face and object recognition and memory battery (Facial Expressive Action Stimulus Test, FEAST), a task measuring the influence of emotional faces and bodies on face identity matching (Face-Body Compound task), and an emotionally expressive face memory task (Emotional Face Memory task, FaMe-E). We show that DPs were impaired in upright, but not inverted, face matching but they performed at the level of controls on part-to-whole matching. Second, DPs showed impaired memory for both neutral and emotional faces and scored within the normal range on the Face-Body Compound task. Third, configural perception but not feature-based processing was significantly associated with memory performance. Taken together the results indicate that DPs have a deficit in configural processing at the perception stage that may underlie the memory impairment.
Kalsow, Susan Christensen
The problem. The dual purposes of this research were to determine if there is a difference in student performance in three Human Development classes when the modes of delivery are different and to analyze student perceptions of using Web-based learning as all or part of their course experience. Procedures. Data for this study were collected from three Human Development courses taught at Drake University. Grades from five essays, projects, and overall grades were used in the three classes and analyzed using a single factor analysis of variance to determine if there was a significant difference. Content analysis was used on the evaluation comments of the participants in the online and combined classes to determine their perceptions of Web-based learning. Findings. The single factor analysis of variance measuring student performance showed no significant difference among the online, face-to-face, and combined scores at the .05 level of significance, however, the difference was significant at the .06. The content analysis of the online and combined course showed the three major strengths of learning totally or partly online to be increased comfort in using the computer, the quality of the overall experience, and convenience in terms of increased access to educational opportunities. The barriers included lack of human interaction and access to the professor. Conclusions. The study indicates that Web-based learning is a viable option for postsecondary educational delivery in terms of student performance and learning. On the average, performance is at least as good as performance in traditional face-to-face classrooms. Improved performance, however, is contingent on adequate access to equipment, faculty skill in teaching using a new mode of delivery, and the personality of the student. The convenient access to educational opportunities and becoming more comfortable with technology are benefits that were important to these two groups. Web-based learning is not for everyone
The solution for electrostatic potential within a simply modeled tandem mirror thermal barrier is seen to exhibit a sheath at each edge of the cell. The formation of the sheath requires ion collisionality and the analysis assmes that the collisional trapping rate into the barrier is considerably slower than the barrier pump rate
Lancee, Jaap; van Straten, Annemieke; Morina, Nexhmedin; Kaldo, Viktor; Kamphuis, Jan H
To compare the efficacy of guided online and individual face-to-face cognitive behavioral treatment for insomnia (CBT-I) to a wait-list condition. A randomized controlled trial comparing three conditions: guided online; face-to-face; wait-list. Posttest measurements were administered to all conditions, along with 3- and 6-mo follow-up assessments to the online and face-to-face conditions. Ninety media-recruited participants meeting the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fifth Edition (DSM-5) criteria for insomnia were randomly allocated to either guided online CBT-I (n = 30), individual face-to-face CBT-I (n = 30), or wait-list (n = 30). At post-assessment, the online (Cohen d = 1.2) and face-to-face (Cohen d = 2.3) intervention groups showed significantly larger treatment effects than the wait-list group on insomnia severity (insomnia severity index). Large treatment effects were also found for the sleep diary estimates (except for total sleep time), and anxiety and depression measures (for depression only in the face-to-face condition). Face-to-face treatment yielded a statistically larger treatment effect (Cohen d = 0.9) on insomnia severity than the online condition at all time points. In addition, a moderate differential effect size favoring face-to-face treatment emerged at the 3- and 6-mo follow-up on all sleep diary estimates. Face-to-face treatment further outperformed online treatment on depression and anxiety outcomes. These data show superior performance of face-to-face treatment relative to online treatment. Yet, our results also suggest that online treatment may offer a potentially cost-effective alternative to and complement face-to-face treatment. Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT01955850. A commentary on this article appears in this issue on page 13. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.
This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....
Pb, using the coupled reaction channel (CRC) method and correct structure information, have been analysed. The barrier distributions derived from these excitation functions including many of the significant channels are featureless, although these channels have considerable effects on the fusion excitation function.
Jeong, Yong Sun; Kim, Jin Sun
A blended learning can be a useful learning strategy to improve the quality of fever and fever management education for pediatric nurses. This study compared the effects of a blended and face-to-face learning program on pediatric nurses' childhood fever management, using theory of planned behavior. A nonequivalent control group pretest-posttest design was used. A fever management education program using blended learning (combining face-to-face and online learning components) was offered to 30 pediatric nurses, and 29 pediatric nurses received face-to-face education. Learning outcomes did not significantly differ between the two groups. However, learners' satisfaction was higher for the blended learning program than the face-to-face learning program. A blended learning pediatric fever management program was as effective as a traditional face-to-face learning program. Therefore, a blended learning pediatric fever management-learning program could be a useful and flexible learning method for pediatric nurses.
Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Taylor, Libby; Hayward, William G; Ewing, Louise
Despite their similarity as visual patterns, we can discriminate and recognize many thousands of faces. This expertise has been linked to 2 coding mechanisms: holistic integration of information across the face and adaptive coding of face identity using norms tuned by experience. Recently, individual differences in face recognition ability have been discovered and linked to differences in holistic coding. Here we show that they are also linked to individual differences in adaptive coding of face identity, measured using face identity aftereffects. Identity aftereffects correlated significantly with several measures of face-selective recognition ability. They also correlated marginally with own-race face recognition ability, suggesting a role for adaptive coding in the well-known other-race effect. More generally, these results highlight the important functional role of adaptive face-coding mechanisms in face expertise, taking us beyond the traditional focus on holistic coding mechanisms. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2014 APA, all rights reserved.
Kohske Takahashi; Katsumi Watanabe
Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cuei...
Full Text Available In this rapidly changing age, with virtually all information available on the Internet including courses, students may not find any reason to physically attend the lectures. In spite of the many benefits the online lectures and materials bring to teaching, this drift from the traditional (norm face-to-face lectures is also creating further barriers, such as difficulty in communicating and building personal relationships, between students and instructor. In this paper we carry out a study that presents and analyzes factors that motivate students to attend a (1 face-to-face instruction in-class versus an (2 online class. This study is based on an anonymous and voluntary survey that was conducted in the School of Engineering at University of Victoria, BC, Canada. This paper presents and shares the detailed results and analysis of this survey that also includes some interesting and useful comments from the students. Based on the results, analysis and comments the paper suggests methodologies of how to improve face-to-face in-class instructions to make them more relevant to the current global information age.
Berriman, A.C.; Butt, R.D.; Dasgupta, M.; Hinde, D.J.; Morton, C.R.; Newton, J.O.
The fusion barrier is formed by the combination of the repulsive Coulomb and attractive nuclear forces. Recent research at the Australian National University has shown that when heavy nuclei collide, instead of a single fusion barrier, there is a set of fusion barriers. These arise due to intrinsic properties of the interacting nuclei such deformation, rotations and vibrations. Thus the range of barrier energies depends on the properties of both nuclei. The transfer of matter between nuclei, forming a neck, can also affect the fusion process. High precision data have been used to determine fusion barrier distributions for many nuclear reactions, leading to new insights into the fusion process
Engelhardt, Netta; Wall, Aron C.
We present a generic condition for Lorentzian manifolds to have a barrier that limits the reach of boundary-anchored extremal surfaces of arbitrary dimension. We show that any surface with nonpositive extrinsic curvature is a barrier, in the sense that extremal surfaces cannot be continuously deformed past it. Furthermore, the outermost barrier surface has nonnegative extrinsic curvature. Under certain conditions, we show that the existence of trapped surfaces implies a barrier, and conversely. In the context of AdS/CFT, these barriers imply that it is impossible to reconstruct the entire bulk using extremal surfaces. We comment on the implications for the firewall controversy
Duijm, Nijs Jan
Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called 'bow-tie' diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation of safety-barrier diagrams to other methods such as fault...... trees and Bayesian networks is discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk analysis with operational safety management....
Duijm, Nijs Jan
Safety-barrier diagrams and the related so-called "bow-tie" diagrams have become popular methods in risk analysis. This paper describes the syntax and principles for constructing consistent and valid safety-barrier diagrams. The relation with other methods such as fault trees and Bayesian networks...... are discussed. A simple method for quantification of safety-barrier diagrams is proposed, including situations where safety barriers depend on shared common elements. It is concluded that safety-barrier diagrams provide a useful framework for an electronic data structure that integrates information from risk...... analysis with operational safety management....
Vergara, Franz H; Sheridan, Daniel J; Sullivan, Nancy J; Budhathoki, Chakra
The purpose of this study was to determine whether a face-to-face meeting with patients by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge would result in increased telephone follow-up (TFU) reach rates posthospital discharge. Acute care adult medicine inpatient units. A quasiexperimental design was utilized. Two adult inpatient medicine units were selected as the intervention and comparison groups. The framework of the study is the transitions theory. A convenience sampling technique was used, whereby 88 eligible patients on the intervention unit received face-to-face meetings prehospital discharge whereas 123 patients on the comparison unit received standard care (no face-to-face meetings). Cross-tabulation and chi-square tests were employed to examine the association of face-to-face meeting intervention and TFU reach rates. Implementing brief (face-to-face meetings by a telephonic case manager prehospital discharge resulted in a TFU reach rate of 87% on the intervention unit, whereas the comparison unit only had a 58% TFU reach rate (p communication with more patients posthospital discharge. A brief prehospital discharge face-to-face meeting with patients assisted them to understand the reasons for a posthospital discharge telephone call, identified the best times to call using accurate telephone numbers, and taught patients how best to prepare for the call. In addition, by meeting patients face-to-face, the telephonic case manager was no longer an unknown person on the telephone asking them questions about their medical condition. These factors combined may have significantly helped to increase TFU reach rates.
Fulton, Erika K; Bulluck, Megan; Hertzog, Christopher
It is unclear why women have superior episodic memory of faces, but the benefit may be partially the result of women engaging in superior processing of facial expressions. Therefore, we hypothesized that orienting instructions to attend to facial expression at encoding would significantly improve men's memory of faces and possibly reduce gender differences. We directed 203 college students (122 women) to study 120 faces under instructions to orient to either the person's gender or their emotional expression. They later took a recognition test of these faces by either judging whether they had previously studied the same person or that person with the exact same expression; the latter test evaluated recollection of specific facial details. Orienting to facial expressions during encoding significantly improved men's recognition of own-gender faces and eliminated the advantage that women had for male faces under gender orienting instructions. Although gender differences in spontaneous strategy use when orienting to faces cannot fully account for gender differences in face recognition, orienting men to facial expression during encoding is one way to significantly improve their episodic memory for male faces. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Nihei, Yuji; Minami, Tetsuto; Nakauchi, Shigeki
Faces represent important information for social communication, because social information, such as face-color, expression, and gender, is obtained from faces. Therefore, individuals' tend to find faces unconsciously, even in objects. Why is face-likeness perceived in non-face objects? Previous event-related potential (ERP) studies showed that the P1 component (early visual processing), the N170 component (face detection), and the N250 component (personal detection) reflect the neural processing of faces. Inverted faces were reported to enhance the amplitude and delay the latency of P1 and N170. To investigate face-likeness processing in the brain, we explored the face-related components of the ERP through a face-like evaluation task using natural faces, cars, insects, and Arcimboldo paintings presented upright or inverted. We found a significant correlation between the inversion effect index and face-like scores in P1 in both hemispheres and in N170 in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that judgment of face-likeness occurs in a relatively early stage of face processing.
Full Text Available Faces represent important information for social communication, because social information, such as face-color, expression, and gender, is obtained from faces. Therefore, individuals' tend to find faces unconsciously, even in objects. Why is face-likeness perceived in non-face objects? Previous event-related potential (ERP studies showed that the P1 component (early visual processing, the N170 component (face detection, and the N250 component (personal detection reflect the neural processing of faces. Inverted faces were reported to enhance the amplitude and delay the latency of P1 and N170. To investigate face-likeness processing in the brain, we explored the face-related components of the ERP through a face-like evaluation task using natural faces, cars, insects, and Arcimboldo paintings presented upright or inverted. We found a significant correlation between the inversion effect index and face-like scores in P1 in both hemispheres and in N170 in the right hemisphere. These results suggest that judgment of face-likeness occurs in a relatively early stage of face processing.
Sagonas, Christos; Panagakis, Yannis; Zafeiriou, Stefanos; Pantic, Maja
Recently, it has been shown that excellent results can be achieved in both facial landmark localization and pose-invariant face recognition. These breakthroughs are attributed to the efforts of the community to manually annotate facial images in many different poses and to collect 3D facial data. In
If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.
... or sun damage, you might also consider a skin-resurfacing procedure. A face-lift can be done in combination with some other cosmetic procedures, such as a brow lift or eyelid surgery. Why it's done As you get older, your facial skin changes — sagging and becoming loose. This can make ...
This article discusses the problems facing the electric power industry and professional personnel as a result of economic downturn and the resulting down sizing of individual companies and utilities. The author proposes that the most efficient use of technology will have greater impact in making a utility more competitive than reducing the head count
1473, 83 APR EDITION OF I JAN 73 IS OBSOLETE. UNCLASSIFIED SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE -,1 - " P V 7 V - • ... f -N- PRE FACE This final...dimensionless mass m and support damping 1), ~ at-e aisas M"= -1,,i -4 4) y positive. ’he damping D is Ihe tinplete system of momeints acting on tile
Hendriks, A.W.C.J.; Engels, R.C.M.E.; Roek, M.A.E.
We explored the possibility that an emotional facial expression exists specifically for signalling sexual interest. We selected photographs of twenty-eight fashion models (male and female) with large portfolios (range 81 - 1593), choosing only face photographs in which the model was looking into the
Stewart, C. E.; And Others
Problems facing rural Scottish schools range from short term consideration of daily operation to long term consideration of organizational alternatives. Addressed specifically, such problems include consideration of: (1) liaison between a secondary school and its feeder primary schools; (2) preservice teacher training for work in small, isolated…
Financing, above all political and technical considerations, remains the major obstacle faced by developing countries who wish to embark on a nuclear power programme. According to the IAEA, the support of the official lending agencies of the suppliers is essential. (author)
Darwish, M.I.M.; Rowe, R.K.; Maarel, van der J.R.C.; Pel, L.; Huinink, H.P.; Zitha, P.L.J.
Polymer gels are well known in the oil industry, but their potential for use as barriers to contaminant transport has not previously received significant study. As a first step, this paper examines the potential for a polyelectrolyte gel to serve as a barrier to the migration of sodium chloride. Two
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching ...
This research attempted to provide an insight into major barriers facing adult learners pursuing a diploma in adult and continuing education programme through Blended Distance Learning. Participants included the adult learners, staff from the Department of Open and Distance Learning who are also the facilitators of the ...
The methodology used was of a quantitative approach. The findings showed that there are many cultural barriers and recommended some organisational change approach that could be relevant in addressing the current problems faced by management in providing solutions in addressing their diverse workforce, especially ...
This paper presents and discusses findings of a study conducted on pre-service teachers' experiences in virtual and face to face discussions. Technology has brought learning nowadays beyond the classroom context or time zone. The learning context and process no longer rely solely on face to face communications in the presence of a teacher.…
During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…
Russo, Brendan J; Savolainen, Peter T
Median-crossover crashes are among the most hazardous events that can occur on freeways, often resulting in severe or fatal injuries. The primary countermeasure to reduce the occurrence of such crashes is the installation of a median barrier. When installation of a median barrier is warranted, transportation agencies are faced with the decision among various alternatives including concrete barriers, beam guardrail, or high-tension cable barriers. Each barrier type differs in terms of its deflection characteristics upon impact, the required installation and maintenance costs, and the roadway characteristics (e.g., median width) where installation would be feasible. This study involved an investigation of barrier performance through an in-depth analysis of crash frequency and severity data from freeway segments where high-tension cable, thrie-beam, and concrete median barriers were installed. A comprehensive manual review of crash reports was conducted to identify crashes in which a vehicle left the roadway and encroached into the median. This review also involved an examination of crash outcomes when a barrier strike occurred, which included vehicle containment, penetration, or re-direction onto the travel lanes. The manual review of crash reports provided critical supplementary information through narratives and diagrams not normally available through standard fields on police crash report forms. Statistical models were estimated to identify factors that affect the frequency, severity, and outcomes of median-related crashes, with particular emphases on differences between segments with varying median barrier types. Several roadway-, traffic-, and environmental-related characteristics were found to affect these metrics, with results varying across the different barrier types. The results of this study provide transportation agencies with important guidance as to the in-service performance of various types of median barrier. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights
.... Previous large-scale fragment impact testing of comer peg-mounted fabric barriers indicated that the failure of the fabric around the pegged hole was a significant factor in the barrier's effectiveness...
Erik J Schlicht
Full Text Available Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best "poker face" for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent.
Kum Fai Yuen, PhD Candidate
Full Text Available Strategic corporate social responsibility (CSR involves the voluntary practice of social and environment activities to satisfy firms’ stakeholders, with the intention of generating profits. Companies, especially those within the shipping industry, often face challenges when implementing strategic CSR. The paper therefore, seeks to identify, rank, and discuss the barriers to the implementation of strategic CSR in shipping. A list of barriers was first identified from reviewing the literature. Subsequently, a survey was administered to 600 shipping companies in Singapore and the collected data were analysed using structural equation modelling. The results showed that factors relating to lack of resources, lack of strategic vision, lack of measurement system, high regulatory standards, and low willingness to pay for CSR are significant barriers to implementing strategic CSR in shipping. The findings imply that the practice of strategic CSR is contingent on both the firm's macro-environment and micro-environment, albeit to a lesser extent. Understanding these potential barriers can help companies avoid or overcome these barriers and improve their chances of successfully implementing strategic CSR.
Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.
Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....
While blended learning combines online and face-to-face teaching, research on blended learning has primarily focused on the role of technology and the opportunities it creates for engaging students. Less focus has been put on face-to-face activities in blended learning. This paper argues...... that it is not only the online activities in blended learning that provide new opportunities for rethinking pedagogy in higher education, it is also imperative to reconsider the face-to-face activities when part of the learning is provided online. Based on a review of blended learning in business and management...... education, we identify what forms of teaching and learning are suggested to take place face-to-face when other activities are moved online. We draw from the Community of Inquiry framework to analyze how face-to-face activities contribute to a blended learning pedagogy and discuss the implications...
Anne M Burrows
Full Text Available While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech?Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers.These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on human facial musculature to slow down while the function of this muscle
The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.
Liu, Mingnan; Wang, Yichen
Although academic research on homosexuality relies heavily on survey data, there has been limited study of the survey method of asking relevant questions. This study examines the effect of survey mode on responses to questions about homosexual rights. We find significant mode effects among heterosexual respondents, who are more likely to support equal access to employment, military service, adoption, and marriage for homosexual people in face-to-face surveys than in Web surveys. They are also more likely to choose to not respond when face-to-face than online. Homosexual respondents do not show mode effects for either substantive responses or item nonresponse rate.
Hedley, Darren; Brewer, Neil; Young, Robyn
Although face recognition deficits in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD), including Asperger syndrome (AS), are widely acknowledged, the empirical evidence is mixed. This in part reflects the failure to use standardized and psychometrically sound tests. We contrasted standardized face recognition scores on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) for 34 individuals with AS with those for 42, IQ-matched non-ASD individuals, and age-standardized scores from a large Australian cohort. We also examined the influence of IQ, autistic traits, and negative affect on face recognition performance. Overall, participants with AS performed significantly worse on the CFMT than the non-ASD participants and when evaluated against standardized test norms. However, while 24% of participants with AS presented with severe face recognition impairment (>2 SDs below the mean), many individuals performed at or above the typical level for their age: 53% scored within +/- 1 SD of the mean and 9% demonstrated superior performance (>1 SD above the mean). Regression analysis provided no evidence that IQ, autistic traits, or negative affect significantly influenced face recognition: diagnostic group membership was the only significant predictor of face recognition performance. In sum, face recognition performance in ASD is on a continuum, but with average levels significantly below non-ASD levels of performance. Copyright © 2011, International Society for Autism Research, Wiley-Liss, Inc.
Saffari, Mostafa; Moghimi, Hamid Reza; Dass, Crispin R
Gene therapy is a therapeutic approach to deliver genetic material into cells to alter their function in entire organism. One promising form of gene delivery system (DDS) is liposomes. The success of liposome-mediated gene delivery is a multifactorial issue and well-designed liposomal systems might lead to optimized gene transfection particularly in vivo. Liposomal gene delivery systems face different barriers from their site of application to their target, which is inside the cells. These barriers include presystemic obstacles (epithelial barriers), systemic barriers in blood circulation and cellular barriers. Epithelial barriers differ depending on the route of administration. Systemic barriers include enzymatic degradation, binding and opsonisation. Both of these barriers can act as limiting hurdles that genetic material and their vector should overcome before reaching the cells. Finally liposomes should overcome cellular barriers that include cell entrance, endosomal escape and nuclear uptake. These barriers and their impact on liposomal gene delivery will be discussed in this review.
Full Text Available Pedagogic frailty and concept mapping can simultaneously encourage personal and organisational change by supporting critical reflection and resilience. These ideas are nascent within higher education institutions and currently, at the University of Surrey, are only developed through face-to-face sessions. This revealed the need for a scalable intervention which engages academics with the discourse on introspective and professional development practices. In response, we have created the design for a blended programme of online foundation for concept mapping leading to face-to-face workshops to explore the pedagogic frailty model. This paper will discuss some significant challenges arising from transitioning self-reflective practices from face-to-face to online spaces. In the process, we will consider ways in which learning design can take the learner context into account.
Yang, Ying; Xu, Yang; Jew, Carol A.; Pyles, John A.; Kass, Robert E.; Tarr, Michael J.
Humans are experts at face individuation. Although previous work has identified a network of face-sensitive regions and some of the temporal signatures of face processing, as yet, we do not have a clear understanding of how such face-sensitive regions support learning at different time points. To study the joint spatio-temporal neural basis of face learning, we trained subjects to categorize two groups of novel faces and recorded their neural responses using magnetoencephalography (MEG) throughout learning. A regression analysis of neural responses in face-sensitive regions against behavioral learning curves revealed significant correlations with learning in the majority of the face-sensitive regions in the face network, mostly between 150–250 ms, but also after 300 ms. However, the effect was smaller in nonventral regions (within the superior temporal areas and prefrontal cortex) than that in the ventral regions (within the inferior occipital gyri (IOG), midfusiform gyri (mFUS) and anterior temporal lobes). A multivariate discriminant analysis also revealed that IOG and mFUS, which showed strong correlation effects with learning, exhibited significant discriminability between the two face categories at different time points both between 150–250 ms and after 300 ms. In contrast, the nonventral face-sensitive regions, where correlation effects with learning were smaller, did exhibit some significant discriminability, but mainly after 300 ms. In sum, our findings indicate that early and recurring temporal components arising from ventral face-sensitive regions are critically involved in learning new faces. PMID:28570739
Full Text Available This study investigates the barriers to prisoners’ participation in vocational education, as well as the predictors of different types of barriers. Survey data derived from a project in a remand prison in Belgium (N=468 provided the empirical evidence for the analyses. The results indicate that facing situational and informational barriers are most common. Based on the different kinds of barriers, various types of non-participants can be distinguished and multinomial logistic regression analyses are conducted to identify in what way participants of vocational education differ from various types of non-participants. For instance, prisoners with a poor understanding of the Dutch language and those who never/rarely receive visitors participate less in vocational education as they are more likely to be confronted with informational barriers. We conclude this article by discussing paths for future research and implications for policy and practice to anticipate the barriers for those who want to participate in vocational education.
Ageing is a biological process that results from changes at a cellular level, particularly modification of mRNA. The face is affected by the same physiological process and results in skeletal, muscular, and cutaneous ageing; ligamentous attenuation, descent of fat, and ageing of the appendages. I describe these changes on a structural and clinical basis and summarise possible solutions for a rejuvenation surgeon. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey
Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that i...
Safer, Joshua D; Coleman, Eli; Feldman, Jamie; Garofalo, Robert; Hembree, Wylie; Radix, Asa; Sevelius, Jae
Transgender persons suffer significant health disparities and may require medical intervention as part of their care. The purpose of this manuscript is to briefly review the literature characterizing barriers to healthcare for transgender individuals and to propose research priorities to understand mechanisms of those barriers and interventions to overcome them. Current research emphasizes sexual minorities' self-report of barriers, rather than using direct methods. The biggest barrier to healthcare reported by transgender individuals is lack of access because of lack of providers who are sufficiently knowledgeable on the topic. Other barriers include: financial barriers, discrimination, lack of cultural competence by providers, health systems barriers, and socioeconomic barriers. National research priorities should include rigorous determination of the capacity of the US healthcare system to provide adequate care for transgender individuals. Studies should determine knowledge and biases of the medical workforce across the spectrum of medical training with regard to transgender medical care; adequacy of sufficient providers for the care required, larger social structural barriers, and status of a framework to pay for appropriate care. As well, studies should propose and validate potential solutions to address identified gaps.
Zhao, Mintao; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Bülthoff, Isabelle
Holistic processing—the tendency to perceive objects as indecomposable wholes—has long been viewed as a process specific to faces or objects of expertise. Although current theories differ in what causes holistic processing, they share a fundamental constraint for its generalization: Nonface objects cannot elicit facelike holistic processing in the absence of expertise. Contrary to this prevailing view, here we show that line patterns with salient Gestalt information (i.e., connectedness, closure, and continuity between parts) can be processed as holistically as faces without any training. Moreover, weakening the saliency of Gestalt information in these patterns reduced holistic processing of them, which indicates that Gestalt information plays a crucial role in holistic processing. Therefore, holistic processing can be achieved not only via a top-down route based on expertise, but also via a bottom-up route relying merely on object-based information. The finding that facelike holistic processing can extend beyond the domains of faces and objects of expertise poses a challenge to current dominant theories. PMID:26674129
Darlenski, Razvigor; Kazandjieva, Jana; Tsankov, Nikolai; Fluhr, Joachim W
The aim of the study was to disclose interactions between epidermal barrier, skin irritation and sensitization in healthy and diseased skin. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration (SCH) were assessed in adult patients with atopic dermatitis (AD), rosacea and healthy controls. A 4-h patch test with seven concentrations of sodium lauryl sulphate was performed to determine the irritant threshold (IT). Contact sensitization pattern was revealed by patch testing with European baseline series. Subjects with a lower IT had higher TEWL values and lower SCH. Subjects with positive allergic reactions had significantly lower IT. In AD, epidermal barrier deterioration was detected on both volar forearm and nasolabial fold, while in rosacea, impeded skin physiology parameters were observed on the facial skin only, suggesting that barrier impediment is restricted to the face in rosacea, in contrast with AD where the abnormal skin physiology is generalized. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.
Security Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...including attention to management practices and key success factors. HOMELAND SECURITY Management Challenges Facing Federal Leadership www.gao.gov/cgi...significant management and coordination challenges if it is to provide this leadership and be successful in preventing and responding to any future
Pankow, Joel W; Jorgensen, Gary J; Terwilliger, Kent M; Glick, Stephen H; Isomaki, Nora; Harkonen, Kari; Turkulainen, Tommy
A moisture barrier, device or product having a moisture barrier or a method of fabricating a moisture barrier having at least a polymer layer, and interfacial layer, and a barrier layer. The polymer layer may be fabricated from any suitable polymer including, but not limited to, fluoropolymers such as polyethylene terephthalate (PET) or polyethylene naphthalate (PEN), or ethylene-tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE). The interfacial layer may be formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD). In embodiments featuring an ALD interfacial layer, the deposited interfacial substance may be, but is not limited to, Al.sub.2O.sub.3, AlSiO.sub.x, TiO.sub.2, and an Al.sub.2O.sub.3/TiO.sub.2 laminate. The barrier layer associated with the interfacial layer may be deposited by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The barrier layer may be a SiO.sub.xN.sub.y film.
... Anterior Upper Face Height 47.7 (4) mm, Anterior Total Face Height (ATFH) 108.5 (5) mm, ratio of ALFH to ATFH ALFH: ATFH 56 (4)%. Conclusion: This study provides anterior face height measurements, which will be of great significance in evaluating facial proportions andesthetics in orthodontics, orthognathic surgery, ...
Schools, Joe; Montési, Laurent
Permeability barriers develop when a magma produced in the interior of a planet rises into the cooler lithosphere and crystallizes more rapidly than the lithosphere can deform (Sparks and Parmentier, 1991). Crystallization products may then clog the porous network in which melt is propagating, reducing the permeability to almost zero, i.e., forming a permeability barrier. Subsequent melts cannot cross the barrier. Permeability barriers have been useful to explain variations in crustal thickness at mid-ocean ridges on Earth (Magde et al., 1997; Hebert and Montési, 2011; Montési et al., 2011). We explore here under what conditions permeability barriers may form on Mars.We use the MELTS thermodynamic calculator (Ghiorso and Sack, 1995; Ghiorso et al., 2002; Asimow et al., 2004) in conjunction with estimated Martian mantle compositions (Morgan and Anders, 1979; Wänke and Dreibus, 1994; Lodders and Fegley, 1997; Sanloup et al., 1999; Taylor 2013) to model the formation of permeability barriers in the lithosphere of Mars. In order to represent potential past and present conditions of Mars, we vary the lithospheric thickness, mantle potential temperature (heat flux), oxygen fugacity, and water content.Our results show that permeability layers can develop in the thermal boundary layer of the simulated Martian lithosphere if the mantle potential temperature is higher than ~1500°C. The various Martian mantle compositions yield barriers in the same locations, under matching variable conditions. There is no significant difference in barrier location over the range of accepted Martian oxygen fugacity values. Water content is the most significant influence on barrier development as it reduces the temperature of crystallization, allowing melt to rise further into the lithosphere. Our lower temperature and thicker lithosphere model runs, which are likely the most similar to modern Mars, show no permeability barrier generation. Losing the possibility of having a permeability
Fainberg, A.; Bieber, A.M. Jr.
This document is intended to supply the NRC and nuclear power plant licensees with basic data on the times required to penetrate forcibly the types of barriers commonly found in nuclear plants. These times are necessary for design and evaluation of the physical protection system required under 10CFR73.55. Each barrier listed is described in detail. Minor variations in basic barrier construction that result in the same penetration time, are also described
Caldas, I L; Szezech, J D Jr; Kroetz, T; Marcus, F A; Roberto, M; Viana, R L; Lopes, S R
We discuss the creation of transport barriers in magnetically confined plasmas with non monotonic equilibrium radial profiles. These barriers reduce the transport in the shearless region (i.e., where the twist condition does not hold). For the chaotic motion of particles in an equilibrium electric field with a nonmonotonic radial profile, perturbed by electrostatic waves, we show that a nontwist transport barrier can be created in the plasma by modifying the electric field radial profile. We also show non twist barriers in chaotic magnetic field line transport in the plasma near to the tokamak wall with resonant modes due to electric currents in external coils.
David F Nichols
Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.
Cannoodt, Luk; Mock, Charles; Bucagu, Maurice
This paper aims to present a review of published evidence of barriers to emergency care, with attention towards both financial and other barriers. With the keywords (financial) accessibility, barriers and emergency care services, citations in PubMed were searched and further selected in the context of the objective of this article. Forty articles, published over a period of 15 years, showed evidence of significant barriers to emergency care. These barriers often tend to persist, despite the fact that the evidence was published many years ago. Several publications stressed the importance of the financial barriers in foregoing or delaying potentially life-saving emergency services, both in poor and rich countries. Other publications report non-financial barriers that prevent patients in need of emergency care (pre-hospital and in-patient care) from seeking care, from arriving in the proper emergency department without undue delay or from receiving proper treatment when they do arrive in these departments. It is clear that timely access to life-saving and disability-preventing emergency care is problematic in many settings. Yet, low-cost measures can likely be taken to significantly reduce these barriers. It is time to make an inventory of these measures and to implement the most cost-effective ones worldwide. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Hindle, Samantha J; Bainton, Roland J
The invertebrate blood-brain barrier (BBB) field is growing at a rapid pace and, in recent years, studies have shown a physiologic and molecular complexity that has begun to rival its vertebrate counterpart. Novel mechanisms of paracellular barrier maintenance through G-protein coupled receptor signaling were the first demonstrations of the complex adaptive mechanisms of barrier physiology. Building upon this work, the integrity of the invertebrate BBB has recently been shown to require coordinated function of all layers of the compound barrier structure, analogous to signaling between the layers of the vertebrate neurovascular unit. These findings strengthen the notion that many BBB mechanisms are conserved between vertebrates and invertebrates, and suggest that novel findings in invertebrate model organisms will have a significant impact on the understanding of vertebrate BBB functions. In this vein, important roles in coordinating localized and systemic signaling to dictate organism development and growth are beginning to show how the BBB can govern whole animal physiologies. This includes novel functions of BBB gap junctions in orchestrating synchronized neuroblast proliferation, and of BBB secreted antagonists of insulin receptor signaling. These advancements and others are pushing the field forward in exciting new directions. In this review, we provide a synopsis of invertebrate BBB anatomy and physiology, with a focus on insights from the past 5 years, and highlight important areas for future study.
Dykiert, Dominika; Bates, Timothy C; Gow, Alan J; Penke, Lars; Starr, John M; Deary, Ian J
To investigate whether and to what extent mortality is predictable from facial photographs of older people. High-quality facial photographs of 292 members of the Lothian Birth Cohort 1921, taken at the age of about 83 years, were rated in terms of apparent age, health, attractiveness, facial symmetry, intelligence, and well-being by 12 young-adult raters. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to study associations between these ratings and mortality during a 7-year follow-up period. All ratings had adequate reliability. Concurrent validity was found for facial symmetry and intelligence (as determined by correlations with actual measures of fluctuating asymmetry in the faces and Raven Standard Progressive Matrices score, respectively), but not for the other traits. Age as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, was a significant predictor of mortality (hazard ratio = 1.36, 95% confidence interval = 1.12-1.65) and remained significant even after controlling for concurrent, objectively measured health and cognitive ability, and the other ratings. Health as rated from facial photographs, adjusted for sex and chronological age, significantly predicted mortality (hazard ratio = 0.81, 95% confidence interval = 0.67-0.99) but not after adjusting for rated age or objectively measured health and cognition. Rated attractiveness, symmetry, intelligence, and well-being were not significantly associated with mortality risk. Rated age of the face is a significant predictor of mortality risk among older people, with predictive value over and above that of objective or rated health status and cognitive ability.
Floriani, E; Ciraolo, G; Ghendrih, Ph; Sarazin, Y; Lima, R
The interplay between turbulent bursts and transport barriers is analyzed with a simplified model of interchange turbulence in magnetically confined plasmas. The turbulent bursts spread into the transport barriers and, depending on the competing magnitude of the burst and stopping capability of the barrier, can burn through. Simulations of two models of transport barriers are presented: a hard barrier where interchange turbulence modes are stable in a prescribed region and a soft barrier with external plasma biasing. The response of the transport barriers to the non-linear perturbations of the turbulent bursts, addressed in a predator–prey approach, indicates that the barriers monitor an amplification factor of the turbulent bursts, with amplification smaller than one for most bursts and, in some cases, amplification factors that can significantly exceed unity. The weak barriers in corrugated profiles and magnetic structures, as well as the standard barriers, are characterized by these transmission properties, which then regulate the turbulent burst transport properties. The interplays of barriers and turbulent bursts are modeled as competing stochastic processes. For different classes of the probability density function (PDF) of these processes, one can predict the heavy tail properties of the bursts downstream from the barrier, either exponential for a leaky barrier, or with power laws for a tight barrier. The intrinsic probing of the transport barriers by the turbulent bursts thus gives access to the properties of the barriers. The main stochastic variables are the barrier width and the spreading distance of the turbulent bursts within the barrier, together with their level of correlation. One finds that in the case of a barrier with volumetric losses, such as radiation or particle losses as addressed in our present simulations, the stochastic model predicts a leaky behavior with an exponential PDF of escaping turbulent bursts in agreement with the simulation
G, Litvinskiy G; Babyuk, G V; Yakovenko, V A
Mining face equipment includes drilling advance wells, drilling using explosives on the contour bore holes, loading and transporting the crushed mass, drilling reinforcement shafts, injecting reinforcement compounds and moving the timber. Camouflet explosives are used to form relaxed rock stress beyond the mining area to decrease costs of reinforcing the mining area by using nonstressed rock in the advance well as support. The strengthening solution is injected through advanced cementing wells before drilling the contour bores as well as through radial cementing wells beyond the timbers following loading and transport of the mining debris. The advance well is 50-80 m.
will be based on a reception aesthetic and phenomenological approach, the latter as presented by Don Ihde in his book Listening and Voice. Phenomenologies of Sound , and my analytical sketches will be related to theoretical statements concerning the understanding of voice and media (Cavarero, Dolar, La......Belle, Neumark). Finally, the article will discuss the specific artistic combination and our auditory experience of mediated human voices and sculpturally projected faces in an art museum context under the general conditions of the societal panophonia of disembodied and mediated voices, as promoted by Steven...
Čufer, Matija; Knežević, Anja
Face-to-face communication is of key importance for successful socialization of a person into a society. Social media makes a good complement to such form of communication. Parents and pedagogical workers must be aware of children not replacing face-to-face communication for communication through the social media in the process of education and growing up. Young people nevertheless frequently communicate through the social media. For this reason, we tried to extract positive features of those...
Kunin, Marc; Julliard, Kell N; Rodriguez, Tobias E
The Department of Dental Medicine of Lutheran Medical Center has developed an asynchronous online curriculum consisting of prerecorded PowerPoint presentations with audio explanations. The focus of this study was to evaluate if the new asynchronous format satisfied the educational needs of the residents compared to traditional lecture (face-to-face) and synchronous (distance learning) formats. Lectures were delivered to 219 dental residents employing face-to-face and synchronous formats, as well as the new asynchronous format; 169 (77 percent) participated in the study. Outcomes were assessed with pretests, posttests, and individual lecture surveys. Results found the residents preferred face-to-face and asynchronous formats to the synchronous format in terms of effectiveness and clarity of presentations. This preference was directly related to the residents' perception of how well the technology worked in each format. The residents also rated the quality of student-instructor and student-student interactions in the synchronous and asynchronous formats significantly higher after taking the lecture series than they did before taking it. However, they rated the face-to-face format as significantly more conducive to student-instructor and student-student interaction. While the study found technology had a major impact on the efficacy of this curricular model, the results suggest that the asynchronous format can be an effective way to teach a postgraduate course.
Krezdorn, Nicco; Alhefzi, Muayyad; Perry, Bridget; Aycart, Mario A; Tasigiorgos, Sotirios; Bueno, Ericka M; Green, Jordan R; Pribaz, Julian J; Pomahac, Bohdan; Caterson, Edward J
Trismus can be a challenging consequence of ballistic trauma to the face, and has rarely been described in the setting of face transplantation. Almost half of all current face transplant recipients in the world received transplantation to restore form and function after a ballistic injury. Here we report our experience and challenges with long standing trismus after face transplantation. We reviewed the medical records of our face transplant recipients whose indication was ballistic injury. We focused our review on trismus and assessed the pre-, peri- and postoperative planning, surgery and functional outcomes. Two patients received partial face transplantation, including the midface for ballistic trauma. Both patients suffered from impaired mouth opening, speech intelligibility, and oral competence. Severe scarring of the temporomandibular joint (TMJ) required intraoperative release in both patients, and additional total condylectomy on the left side 6 months posttransplant for 1 patient. Posttransplant, both patients achieved an improvement in mouth opening; however, there was persistent trismus. One year after transplantation, range of motion of the jaw had improved for both patients. Independent oral food intake was possible 1 year after surgery, although spillage of liquids and mixed consistency solids persisted. Speech intelligibility testing showed impairments in the immediate postoperative period, with improvement to over 85% for both patients at 1 year posttransplant. Ballistic trauma to the face and subsequent reconstructive measures can cause significant scarring and covert injuries to structures such as the TMJ, resulting in long standing trismus. Meticulous individual planning prior to interventions such as face transplantation must take these into account. We encourage intraoperative evaluation of these structures as well as peri- and postoperative treatment when necessary. Due to the nature of the primary injury, functional outcomes after face
Fu, Siyao; He, Haibo; Hou, Zeng-Guang
Faces convey a wealth of social signals, including race, expression, identity, age and gender, all of which have attracted increasing attention from multi-disciplinary research, such as psychology, neuroscience, computer science, to name a few. Gleaned from recent advances in computer vision, computer graphics, and machine learning, computational intelligence based racial face analysis has been particularly popular due to its significant potential and broader impacts in extensive real-world applications, such as security and defense, surveillance, human computer interface (HCI), biometric-based identification, among others. These studies raise an important question: How implicit, non-declarative racial category can be conceptually modeled and quantitatively inferred from the face? Nevertheless, race classification is challenging due to its ambiguity and complexity depending on context and criteria. To address this challenge, recently, significant efforts have been reported toward race detection and categorization in the community. This survey provides a comprehensive and critical review of the state-of-the-art advances in face-race perception, principles, algorithms, and applications. We first discuss race perception problem formulation and motivation, while highlighting the conceptual potentials of racial face processing. Next, taxonomy of feature representational models, algorithms, performance and racial databases are presented with systematic discussions within the unified learning scenario. Finally, in order to stimulate future research in this field, we also highlight the major opportunities and challenges, as well as potentially important cross-cutting themes and research directions for the issue of learning race from face.
Koldewyn, Kami; Hanus, Patricia; Balas, Benjamin
One critical component of understanding another's mind is the perception of "life" in a face. However, little is known about the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying this perception of animacy. Here, using a visual adaptation paradigm, we ask whether face animacy is (1) a basic dimension of face perception and (2) supported by a common neural mechanism across distinct face categories defined by age and species. Observers rated the perceived animacy of adult human faces before and after adaptation to (1) adult faces, (2) child faces, and (3) dog faces. When testing the perception of animacy in human faces, we found significant adaptation to both adult and child faces, but not dog faces. We did, however, find significant adaptation when morphed dog images and dog adaptors were used. Thus, animacy perception in faces appears to be a basic dimension of face perception that is species specific but not constrained by age categories.
Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa
Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…
Therefore, this study assessed students‟ perception on Intensive Face to Face sessions. The study specifically aimed at identifying students‟ perception on quality of interaction between tutors and students and between students on the other hand. It also explored the nature of challenges students meet in attending face to ...
Geelen, M.J.A.J.; Molengraft, van de M.J.G.; Elfring, J.
In this (traineeship)report two possible methods of face recognition were presented. The first method describes how to detect and recognize faces by using the SURF algorithm. This algorithm finally was not used for recognizing faces, with the reason that the Eigenface algorithm was an already tested
Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer
This paper shows that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system. Specifically, we prove converse barrier certificate theorems for a class of structurally stable dynamical systems. Other authors have developed a related result by assuming that the dynamical system has neither...
Baek, Sora; Park, Hee-Won; Lee, Yookyung; Grace, Sherry L; Kim, Won-Seok
To perform a translation and cross-cultural adaptation of the Cardiac Rehabilitation Barriers Scale (CRBS) for use in Korea, followed by psychometric validation. The CRBS was developed to assess patients' perception of the degree to which patient, provider and health system-level barriers affect their cardiac rehabilitation (CR) participation. The CRBS consists of 21 items (barriers to adherence) rated on a 5-point Likert scale. The first phase was to translate and cross-culturally adapt the CRBS to the Korean language. After back-translation, both versions were reviewed by a committee. The face validity was assessed in a sample of Korean patients (n=53) with history of acute myocardial infarction that did not participate in CR through semi-structured interviews. The second phase was to assess the construct and criterion validity of the Korean translation as well as internal reliability, through administration of the translated version in 104 patients, principle component analysis with varimax rotation and cross-referencing against CR use, respectively. The length, readability, and clarity of the questionnaire were rated well, demonstrating face validity. Analysis revealed a six-factor solution, demonstrating construct validity. Cronbach's alpha was greater than 0.65. Barriers rated highest included not knowing about CR and not being contacted by a program. The mean CRBS score was significantly higher among non-attendees (2.71±0.26) than CR attendees (2.51±0.18) (pKorea.
De la Torre, Fernando; Chu, Wen-Sheng; Xiong, Xuehan; Vicente, Francisco; Ding, Xiaoyu; Cohn, Jeffrey
Within the last 20 years, there has been an increasing interest in the computer vision community in automated facial image analysis algorithms. This has been driven by applications in animation, market research, autonomous-driving, surveillance, and facial editing among others. To date, there exist several commercial packages for specific facial image analysis tasks such as facial expression recognition, facial attribute analysis or face tracking. However, free and easy-to-use software that incorporates all these functionalities is unavailable. This paper presents IntraFace (IF), a publicly-available software package for automated facial feature tracking, head pose estimation, facial attribute recognition, and facial expression analysis from video. In addition, IFincludes a newly develop technique for unsupervised synchrony detection to discover correlated facial behavior between two or more persons, a relatively unexplored problem in facial image analysis. In tests, IF achieved state-of-the-art results for emotion expression and action unit detection in three databases, FERA, CK+ and RU-FACS; measured audience reaction to a talk given by one of the authors; and discovered synchrony for smiling in videos of parent-infant interaction. IF is free of charge for academic use at http://www.humansensing.cs.cmu.edu/intraface/.
Kuroda, T.; Vieider, G.; Akiba, M.
This document summarizes results of the Conceptual Design Activities (1988-1990) for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) project, namely those that pertain to the plasma facing components of the reactor vessel, of which the main components are the first wall and the divertor plates. After an introduction and an executive summary, the principal functions of the plasma-facing components are delineated, i.e., (i) define the low-impurity region within which the plasma is produced, (ii) absorb the electromagnetic radiation and charged-particle flux from the plasma, and (iii) protect the blanket/shield components from the plasma. A list of critical design issues for the divertor plates and the first wall is given, followed by discussions of the divertor plate design (including the issues of material selection, erosion lifetime, design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, operating limits and overall lifetime, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, and advanced divertor concepts) and the first wall design (armor material and design, erosion lifetime, overall design concepts, thermal and mechanical analysis, lifetime and operating limits, tritium inventory, baking and conditioning, safety analysis, manufacture and testing, an alternative first wall design, and the limiters used instead of the divertor plates during start-up). Refs, figs and tabs
Renowned experts present the latest knowledge Although a very fragile structure, the skin barrier is probably one of the most important organs of the body. Inward/out it is responsible for body integrity and outward/in for keeping microbes, chemicals, and allergens from penetrating the skin. Since...... the role of barrier integrity in atopic dermatitis and the relationship to filaggrin mutations was discovered a decade ago, research focus has been on the skin barrier, and numerous new publications have become available. This book is an interdisciplinary update offering a wide range of information...... on the subject. It covers new basic research on skin markers, including results on filaggrin and on methods for the assessment of the barrier function. Biological variation and aspects of skin barrier function restoration are discussed as well. Further sections are dedicated to clinical implications of skin...
Massey, C T
Opportunities for the British coal industry seem vast yet there are still barriers to progress. Seven areas are identified and discussed: mining mobility (for example, longwall mining systems are rigid and inflexible compared with American stall and pillar working); mine structure (many mines are more suitable to pit ponies than to large pieces of equipment); financial barriers (Government requires the industry to break even in 1987/88); personnel barriers (less specialization, better use of skills); safety barriers (increased use of remote control, ergonomics and robotics to protect workers); microelectronic management (nationalization has cushioned management from the market place; there is a need for a more multidisciplinary approach to the industry); and legal barriers (most legislation in the past has been in response to accidents; legislation external to the industry but affecting it is more fundamental).
Sokolova, M.V.; Zhukov, S.V.
The effect of barrier characteristics on the discharge processes in a barrier discharge was investigated, main attention being paid to the amount and distribution of the charge left on the barrier surface by the volume discharge in the main air gap. The measurements show that the main part of the gap charge is due to the volume part of the discharge. The measured values of the surface charge significantly increase with the voltage applied and with the length of the gas gap, while the dimensions of the charge spot and the distribution of charge density are determined by the barrier properties. (J.U.)
McCarter, Sarah P; Tariman, Joseph D; Spawn, Nadia; Mehmeti, Enisa; Bishop-Royse, Jessica; Garcia, Ima; Hartle, Lisa; Szubski, Katharine
This study aimed to identify the barriers and promoters for participation in cancer treatment decision in the era of shared decision-making (SDM) process. A qualitative design was utilized. Nineteen nurses and 11 nurse practitioners from oncology inpatient and outpatient settings participated in semi-structured interviews. Data were analyzed using directed content analysis. The findings include practice barrier, patient barrier, institutional policy barrier, professional barrier, scope of practice barrier, insurance coverage barrier, and administrative barrier. Multidisciplinary team approach, having a nursing voice during SDM, high level of knowledge of the disease and treatment, and personal valuation of SDM participation were perceived as promoters. Oncology nurses and nurse practitioners face many barriers to their participation during SDM. Organizational support and system-wide culture of SDM are essential to achieve better cancer treatment decisions outcome. Additional studies are needed to determine the factors that can promote more participation among nurses and nurse practitioners. © The Author(s) 2016.
... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...
Ponseti, J; Granert, O; van Eimeren, T
Human faces can motivate nurturing behaviour or sexual behaviour when adults see a child or an adult face, respectively. This suggests that face processing is tuned to detecting age cues of sexual maturity to stimulate the appropriate reproductive behaviour: either caretaking or mating....... In paedophilia, sexual attraction is directed to sexually immature children. Therefore, we hypothesized that brain networks that normally are tuned to mature faces of the preferred gender show an abnormal tuning to sexual immature faces in paedophilia. Here, we use functional magnetic resonance imaging (f......MRI) to test directly for the existence of a network which is tuned to face cues of sexual maturity. During fMRI, participants sexually attracted to either adults or children were exposed to various face images. In individuals attracted to adults, adult faces activated several brain regions significantly more...
Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In
Boom, B.J.; Beumer, G.M.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
Accurate face registration is of vital importance to the performance of a face recognition algorithm. We propose a new method: matching score based face registration, which searches for optimal alignment by maximizing the matching score output of a classifier as a function of the different
Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
Side-view face recognition is a challenging problem with many applications. Especially in real-life scenarios where the environment is uncontrolled, coping with pose variations up to side-view positions is an important task for face recognition. In this paper we discuss the use of side view face
Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.
The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a
Berry, Fiona; Dunstan, Chris
, for any generated electricity exported to the grid the university would only be paid a low wholesale energy rate and possibly a part of the avoided transmission charges but would be required to pay much higher retail rates for importing electricity. To save money, avoiding connection or off-grid generation) would mean reducing the size of the trigeneration to match baseload demand in each individual building, a much less efficient process which would not achieve the large carbon reductions targets required. Because of these constraints at an individual building scale, the university began thinking beyond the building, to precinct scale trigeneration across multiple buildings. It would involve multiple buildings linking their trigeneration units to avoid duplicating infrastructure and provide larger scale, more efficient supply and more significant emissions reductions. The 'unlocking barriers to cogeneration' project undertaken by The Property Council of Australia, Climate Works Australia and Seed Advisory sought to overcome the barrier of time and fees under current regulation through amendments to the National Electricity Rules. The current rules allow streamlined connection time for 'micro-scale' embedded generators for households (10 kilowatts) and small businesses (24kW) but not for grid connection between 24kW and 30MW. Consequently, building owners ready to install cogeneration can face significant delays from negotiation requirements, with holding costs of $50,000 to $70,000 per week. Following research and engagement with electricity distribution network businesses and cogeneration proponents, the PCA-Climateworks project team proposed amendments to the AS4777 standard which would extend the automatic right of connection to small to medium generators. A rule change submission was put forward to the Australian Energy Market Commission in April 2012 and it responded by issuing a paper on June 14 to facilitate public consultation on the proposal. It is expected
Full Text Available The human face is the most studied object category in visual neuroscience. In a quest for markers of face processing, event-related potential (ERP studies have debated whether two peaks of activity –P1 and N170– are category-selective. Whilst most studies have used photographs of unaltered images of faces, others have used cropped faces in an attempt to reduce the influence of features surrounding the face-object sensu stricto. However, results from studies comparing cropped faces with unaltered objects from other categories are inconsistent with results from studies comparing whole faces and objects. Here, we recorded ERPs elicited by full-front views of faces and cars, either unaltered or cropped. We found that cropping artificially enhanced the N170 whereas it did not significantly modulate P1. In a second experiment, we compared faces and butterflies, either unaltered or cropped, matched for size and luminance across conditions, and within a narrow contrast bracket. Results of experiment 2 replicated the main findings of experiment 1. We then used face-car morphs in a third experiment to manipulate the perceived face-likeness of stimuli (100% face, 70% face and 30% car, 30% face and 70% car, or 100% car and the N170 failed to differentiate between faces and cars. Critically, in all three experiments, P1 amplitude was modulated in a face-sensitive fashion independent of cropping or morphing. Therefore, P1 is a reliable event sensitive to face processing as early as 100 ms after picture onset.
China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...... the previous ones. ASEAN can potentially make a great contribution to a peaceful transformation of the international system. How to resolve the South China Sea disputes peacefully will be a critical task for both the ASEAN and Chinese leaders in the next decade or two....
Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit
's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians......: A qualitative study consisting of ten individual interviews with Danish midwives, all of whom had taken part in late TOP. RESULTS: Current practice of late TOP resembles the practice of normal deliveries and is influenced by a growing personalisation of the aborted foetus. The midwives strongly supported women...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...
The ground vehicle is one of the most effective tools available to an adversary force. Vehicles can be used to penetrate many types of perimeter barriers, transport equipment and personnel rapidly over long distances, and deliver large amounts of explosives directly to facilities in suicide missions. The function of a vehicle barrier system is to detain or disable a defined threat vehicle at a selected distance from a protected facility. Numerous facilities are installing, or planning to install, vehicle barrier systems and many of these facilities are requesting guidance to do so adequately. Therefore, vehicle barriers are being evaluated to determine their stopping capabilities so that systems can be designed that are both balanced and capable of providing a desired degree of protection. Equally important, many of the considerations that should be taken into account when establishing a vehicle barrier system have been identified. These considerations which pertain to site preparation, barrier selection, system integration and operation, and vehicle/barrier interaction, are discussed in this paper
Crowther, R.L.; Kunz, C.L.
Barrier fuel rod cladding was developed to eliminate fuel rod failures from pellet/cladding stress/corrosion interaction and to eliminate the associated need to restrict the rate at which fuel rod power can be increased. The performance of barrier cladding has been demonstrated through extensive testing and through production application to many boiling water reactors (BWRs). Power reactor data have shown that barrier fuel rod cladding has a significant beneficial effect on plant capacity factor and plant operating costs and significantly increases fuel reliability. Independent of the fuel reliability benefit, it is less obvious that barrier fuel has a beneficial effect of fuel cycle costs, since barrier cladding is more costly to fabricate. Evaluations, measurements, and development activities, however, have shown that the fuel cycle cost benefits of barrier fuel are large. This paper is a summary of development activities that have shown that application of barrier fuel significantly reduces BWR fuel cycle costs
Sommer, Jessica; Macdonald, William; Bulsara, Caroline; Lim, David
Due to the chronic shortages of GPs in Australian rural and remote regions, considerable numbers of international medical graduates (IMG) have been recruited. IMG experience many difficulties when relocating to Australia with one of the most significant being effective GP-patient communication. Given that this is essential for effective consultation it can have a substantial impact on health care. A purposive sample of seven practising GPs (five IMG, two Australian-trained doctors (ATD)) was interviewed using a semistructured face-to-face interviewing technique. GPs from Nigeria, Egypt, United Kingdom, India, Singapore and Australia participated. Interviews were transcribed and then coded. The authors used qualitative thematic analysis of interview transcripts to identify common themes. IMG-patient communication barriers were considered significant in the Wheatbelt region as identified by both IMG and ATD. ATD indicated they were aware of IMG-patient communication issues resulting in subsequent consults with patients to explain results and diagnoses. Significantly, a lack of communication between ATD and IMG also emerged, creating a further barrier to effective communication. Analysis of the data generated several important findings that rural GP networks should consider when integrating new IMG into the community. Addressing the challenges related to cross-cultural differences should be a priority, in order to enable effective communication. More open communication between ATD and IMG about GP-patient communication barriers and education programs around GP-patient communication would help both GP and patient satisfaction.
M. R. Monazzam
Reactive barriers are one of the most promising and novel environmental noise barriers. In this case using Schroeder diffusers (e.g. quadratic residue diffusers) on the top surface of the T-shape barrier was shown to significantly improve the performance of absorbent T-shape barriers. The reasons behind the high performance of diffuser barriers are considered in this investigation. A question about the diffusivity behavior of Schroeder diffusers when they are utilized on the top of barrier wa...
Gillespie, Alex; Corti, Kevin
This article examines advances in research methods that enable experimental substitution of the speaking body in unscripted face-to-face communication. A taxonomy of six hybrid social agents is presented by combining three types of bodies (mechanical, virtual, and human) with either an artificial or human speech source. Our contribution is to introduce and explore the significance of two particular hybrids: (1) the cyranoid method that enables humans to converse face-to-face through the medium of another person's body, and (2) the echoborg method that enables artificial intelligence to converse face-to-face through the medium of a human body. These two methods are distinct in being able to parse the unique influence of the human body when combined with various speech sources. We also introduce a new framework for conceptualizing the body's role in communication, distinguishing three levels: self's perspective on the body, other's perspective on the body, and self's perspective of other's perspective on the body. Within each level the cyranoid and echoborg methodologies make important research questions tractable. By conceptualizing and synthesizing these methods, we outline a novel paradigm of research on the role of the body in unscripted face-to-face communication.
Taylor, Donna A; Dando, Coral J
Technological advances offer possibilities for innovation in the way eyewitness testimony is elicited. Typically, this occurs face-to-face. We investigated whether a virtual environment, where interviewer and eyewitness communicate as avatars, might confer advantages by attenuating the social and situational demands of a face-to-face interview, releasing more cognitive resources for invoking episodic retrieval mode. In conditions of intentional encoding, eyewitnesses were interviewed 48 h later, either face-to-face or in a virtual environment ( N = 38). Participants in the virtual environment significantly outperformed those interviewed face-to-face on all episodic performance measures - improved correct reporting reduced errors, and increased accuracy. Participants reported finding it easier to admit not remembering event information to the avatar, and finding the avatar easier to talk to. These novel findings, and our pattern of retrieval results indicates the potential of avatar-to-avatar communication in virtual environments, and provide impetus for further research investigating eyewitness cognition in contemporary retrieval contexts.
Donna A. Taylor
Full Text Available Technological advances offer possibilities for innovation in the way eyewitness testimony is elicited. Typically, this occurs face-to-face. We investigated whether a virtual environment, where interviewer and eyewitness communicate as avatars, might confer advantages by attenuating the social and situational demands of a face-to-face interview, releasing more cognitive resources for invoking episodic retrieval mode. In conditions of intentional encoding, eyewitnesses were interviewed 48 h later, either face-to-face or in a virtual environment (N = 38. Participants in the virtual environment significantly outperformed those interviewed face-to-face on all episodic performance measures – improved correct reporting reduced errors, and increased accuracy. Participants reported finding it easier to admit not remembering event information to the avatar, and finding the avatar easier to talk to. These novel findings, and our pattern of retrieval results indicates the potential of avatar-to-avatar communication in virtual environments, and provide impetus for further research investigating eyewitness cognition in contemporary retrieval contexts.
Su, Junzhu; Tan, Qingleng; Fang, Fang
Using combined psychophysics and event-related potentials (ERPs), we investigated the effect of perceptual learning on face gender discrimination and probe the neural correlates of the learning effect. Human subjects were trained to perform a gender discrimination task with male or female faces. Before and after training, they were tested with the trained faces and other faces with the same and opposite genders. ERPs responding to these faces were recorded. Psychophysical results showed that training significantly improved subjects' discrimination performance and the improvement was specific to the trained gender, as well as to the trained identities. The training effect indicates that learning occurs at two levels-the category level (gender) and the exemplar level (identity). ERP analyses showed that the gender and identity learning was associated with the N170 latency reduction at the left occipital-temporal area and the N170 amplitude reduction at the right occipital-temporal area, respectively. These findings provide evidence for the facilitation model and the sharpening model on neuronal plasticity from visual experience, suggesting a faster processing speed and a sparser representation of face induced by perceptual learning.
Wisniewski, Rafael; Sloth, Christoffer
This paper presents a converse barrier certificate theorem for a generic dynamical system.We show that a barrier certificate exists for any safe dynamical system defined on a compact manifold. Other authors have developed a related result, by assuming that the dynamical system has no singular...... points in the considered subset of the state space. In this paper, we redefine the standard notion of safety to comply with generic dynamical systems with multiple singularities. Afterwards, we prove the converse barrier certificate theorem and illustrate the differences between ours and previous work...
Granoff, Ilmi; Hogarth, J. Ryan; Miller, Alan
Low-carbon, 'green' economic growth is necessary to simultaneously improve human welfare and avoid the worst impacts of climate change and environmental degradation. Infrastructure choices underpin both the growth and the carbon intensity of the economy. This Perspective explores the barriers to investing in low-carbon infrastructure and some of the policy levers available to overcome them. The barriers to decarbonizing infrastructure 'nest' within a set of barriers to infrastructure development more generally that cause spending on infrastructure--low-carbon or not--to fall more than 70% short of optimal levels. Developing countries face additional barriers such as currency and political risks that increase the investment gap. Low-carbon alternatives face further barriers, such as commercialization risk and financial and public institutions designed for different investment needs. While the broader barriers to infrastructure investment are discussed in other streams of literature, they are often disregarded in literature on renewable energy diffusion or climate finance, which tends to focus narrowly on the project costs of low- versus high-carbon options. We discuss how to overcome the barriers specific to low-carbon infrastructure within the context of the broader infrastructure gap.
Axelrod, Vadim; Bar, Moshe; Rees, Geraint
Understanding the mechanisms of unconscious processing is one of the most substantial endeavors of cognitive science. While there are many different empirical ways to address this question, the use of faces in such research has proven exceptionally fruitful. We review here what has been learned about unconscious processing through the use of faces and face-selective neural correlates. A large number of cognitive systems can be explored with faces, including emotions, social cueing and evaluation, attention, multisensory integration, and various aspects of face processing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Deotale, Nilesh T.; Kalbande, Dhananjay R.; Mishra, Akassh A.
Computerized Face Detection, is concerned with the difficult task of converting a video signal of a person to written text. It has several applications like face recognition, simultaneous multiple face processing, biometrics, security, video surveillance, human computer interface, image database management, digital cameras use face detection for autofocus, selecting regions of interest in photo slideshows that use a pan-and-scale and The Present Paper deals with energy conservation using face detection. Automating the process to a computer requires the use of various image processing techniques. There are various methods that can be used for Face Detection such as Contour tracking methods, Template matching, Controlled background, Model based, Motion based and color based. Basically, the video of the subject are converted into images are further selected manually for processing. However, several factors like poor illumination, movement of face, viewpoint-dependent Physical appearance, Acquisition geometry, Imaging conditions, Compression artifacts makes Face detection difficult. This paper reports an algorithm for conservation of energy using face detection for various devices. The present paper suggests Energy Conservation can be done by Detecting the Face and reducing the brightness of complete image and then adjusting the brightness of the particular area of an image where the face is located using histogram equalization.
Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to…
Siemer, Lutz; Pieterse, Marcel E.; Brusse-Keizer, Marjolein G.J.; Postel, Marloes G.; Ben Allouch, Soumaya; Sanderman, Robbert
Background: Smoking cessation can significantly reduce the risk of developing smoking-related diseases. Several face-to-face and web-based treatments have shown to be effective. Blending of web-based and face-to-face treatment is expected to improve smoking cessation treatment. The primary objective
Ayatollahi, Haleh; Mirani, Nader; Haghani, Hamid
The process of design and adoption of electronic health records may face a number of barriers. This study aimed to compare the importance of the main barriers from the experts' point of views in Iran. This survey study was completed in 2011. The potential participants (62 experts) included faculty members who worked in departments of health information technology and individuals who worked in the Ministry of Health in Iran and were in charge of the development and adoption of electronic health records. No sampling method was used in this study. Data were collected using a Likert-scale questionnaire ranging from 1 to 5. The validity of the questionnaire was established using content and face validity methods, and the reliability was calculated using Cronbach's alpha coefficient. The response rate was 51.6 percent. The participants' perspectives showed that the most important barriers in the process of design and adoption of electronic health records were technical barriers (mean = 3.84). Financial and ethical-legal barriers, with the mean value of 3.80 were other important barriers, and individual and organizational barriers, with the mean values of 3.59 and 3.50 were found to be less important than other barriers from the experts' perspectives. Strategic planning for the creation and adoption of electronic health records in the country, creating a team of experts to assess the potential barriers and develop strategies to eliminate them, and allocating financial resources can help to overcome most important barriers to the adoption of electronic health records.
MacArthur, D.W.; Wolford, J.K.
Acceptance of nuclear materials into a monitoring regime is complicated if the materials are in classified shapes or have classified composition. An attribute measurement system with an information barrier can be emplo,yed to generate an unclassified display from classified measurements. This information barrier must meet two criteria: (1) classified information cannot be released to the monitoring party, and (2) the monitoring party must be convinced that the unclassified output accurately represents the classified input. Criterion 1 is critical to the host country to protect the classified information. Criterion 2 is critical to the monitoring party and is often termed the 'authentication problem.' Thus, the necessity for authentication of a measurement system with an information barrier stems directly from the description of a useful information barrier. Authentication issues must be continually addressed during the entire development lifecycle of the measurement system as opposed to being applied only after the system is built.
National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A recent breakthrough in MWIR detector design, has resulted in a high operating temperature (HOT) barrier infrared detector (BIRD) that is capable of spectral...
Wing, N.R.; Gee, G.W.
Protective barrier and warning marker systems are being developed to isolate wastes disposed of near the earth's surface at the Hanford Site. The barrier is designed to function in an arid to semiarid climate, to limit infiltration and percolation of water through the waste zone to near-zero, to be maintenance free, and to last up to 10,000 yr. Natural materials (e.g., fine soil, sand, gravel, riprap, clay, asphalt) have been selected to optimize barrier performance and longevity and to create an integrated structure with redundant features. These materials isolate wastes by limiting water drainage; reducing the likelihood of plant, animal, and human intrusion; controlling emission of noxious gases; and minimizing erosion. Westinghouse Hanford Company and Pacific Northwest Laboratory efforts to assess the performance of various barrier and marker designs will be discussed
Atkinson, A.; Marsh, G.P.
This report summarises the current state of research relevant to assessing the performance of engineered barriers made of steel and concrete in radioactive waste repositories. The objective of these barriers is to contain the radionuclides within them by providing both physical and chemical impediment to their release. The physical barriers are of most value for highly soluble isotopes with relatively short half-lives (eg 137 Cs), since they can provide containment until a large fraction of the activity has decayed. In addition they can facilitate retrievability for some period after disposal. The chemical barriers operate by beneficial conditioning of the near field groundwater and providing sites for sorption of radionuclides. Both of these reduce the aqueous concentration of radionuclides in the near field. (author)
A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices. (author)
Osburn, F G
A skin barrier composition comprises a mixture of a copolymer resin of ethylene and vinyl acetate (EVA), and a water-insoluble dry tack-providing elastomer such as polyisobutylene. The composition after mixing and molding, is subjected to ionizing irradiation to form cross-linked polymer networks of the EVA. The compositions have exceptional properties for use as barrier sheets, rings, or strips in ostomy, wound drainage, and incontinence devices.
Dong, Xiuwen Sue; Largay, Julie A; Wang, Xuanwen; Cain, Chris Trahan; Romano, Nancy
The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) has published reports detailing the results of investigations on selected work-related fatalities through the Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation (FACE) program since 1982. Information from construction-related FACE reports was coded into the Construction FACE Database (CFD). Use of the CFD was illustrated by analyzing major CFD variables. A total of 768 construction fatalities were included in the CFD. Information on decedents, safety training, use of PPE, and FACE recommendations were coded. Analysis shows that one in five decedents in the CFD died within the first two months on the job; 75% and 43% of reports recommended having safety training or installing protection equipment, respectively. Comprehensive research using FACE reports may improve understanding of work-related fatalities and provide much-needed information on injury prevention. The CFD allows researchers to analyze the FACE reports quantitatively and efficiently. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd and National Safety Council. All rights reserved.
Exploring individual differences in online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions in case of impending mental health problems: The role of adult attachment, perceived social support, psychological distress and self-stigma
Full Text Available Background: Even though common mental health problems such as depression are a global burden calling for efficient prevention strategies, still many distressed individuals face hurdles to access public mental healthcare. Thus, computerized Internet-based psychological services have been suggested as viable approach to overcome barriers, such as self-stigma, and to inform the access to professional support on a large scale. However, little research has targeted predictors of online and face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Objective: This study aimed at determining whether associations between attachment insecurity and the willingness to seek online versus face-to-face counselling in case of impending emotional problems are mediated by both perceived social support and psychological distress and moderated by self-stigma. Methods: Data was collected from 301 adults from the German-speaking general population (age: M = 34.42, SD = 11.23; range: 18 - 65 years; 72.1% female through an anonymous online survey. Determinants of seeking help were assessed with the self-report measures Experiences in Close Relationship-Scale, Perceived Stress Questionnaire, ENRICHD-Social Support Inventory and an adapted version of the General Help Seeking Questionnaire (i.e. case vignette. Mediation analyses were performed with the SPSS-macro PROCESS by Hayes. Results: About half of the sample indicated being not aware of online counselling. As expected, insecure attachment was associated with less perceived social support and increased psychological distress. Mediational analyses revealed negative relationships between both attachment avoidance and self-stigma with face-to-face help-seeking intentions. Moreover, the relationship between attachment anxiety and the willingness to seek face-to-face counselling was mediated by social support. In contrast, none of the predictors of online counselling was statistically significant. Conclusions: Overall, this study identified
This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...
Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie
Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...
Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.
Emhardt, John R; Yepes, Juan F; Vinson, LaQuia A; Jones, James E; Emhardt, John D; Kozlowski, Diana C; Eckert, George J; Maupome, Gerardo
The purposes of this study were to: (1) evaluate the relationship between appointment failure and the factors of age, gender, race, insurance type, day of week, scheduled time of surgery, distance traveled, and weather; (2) investigate reasons for failure; and (3) explore the relationships between the factors and reasons for failure. Electronic medical records were accessed to obtain data for patients scheduled for dental care under general anesthesia from May 2012 to May 2015. Factors were analyzed for relation to appointment failure. Data from 3,513 appointments for 2,874 children were analyzed. Bivariate associations showed statistically significant (Pgeneral anesthesia face specific barriers to care.
Bruce D Keefe
Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.
Barriers to the development of Canada's biogas industry were explored with the aim of resolving conflicting regulatory issues related to biogas. Four biogas farm systems are currently operating in Ontario, and funding for a further 20 systems is available. However, most projects have been blocked before construction, and other projects continue to be delayed by grid connection and power purchase issues. Planning permission, zoning, environmental regulations, and property taxation issues are also currently challenging the development of the industry. The use of off-farm waste for the plants has also caused planning problems and delays. Land used to transform or manufacture electricity will soon be included in the industrial tax class. The installation of generation capacity may also alter property values. The use of fats, oils, and greases also requires complicated monitoring and processing procedures. Obtaining certificates for waste handling is difficult and time-consuming. Biogas plants also face significant transmission constraints. Prospective generators are required to determine if their local sub-stations have spare capacity. Generators are also required to pay for all the costs associated with their connection to the grid. Connection to Hydro One is more expensive than connections to other distribution companies in Canada, and there are no existing connection standards. Biogas system operators also face difficulties with rural connections. The cost of anti-islanding protection is high. It was concluded that grid access is the key to renewable energy development in Ontario. tabs., figs
Loftin, Collette; Newman, Susan D.; Dumas, Bonnie P.; Gilden, Gail; Bond, Mary Lou
The objective of this paper was to identify barriers to successful program completion faced by underrepresented minority nursing students. This paper reveals that minority nursing student’s face multiple barriers to success including lack of financial support, inadequate emotional and moral support, as well as insufficient academic advising, program mentoring, technical support, and professional socialization. An additional theme—a resolve to succeed in spite of the identified barriers—was id...
Wasti, Sharada P.; Simkhada, Padam; Randall, Julian; Freeman, Jennifer V; van Teijlingen, Edwin
Patient's adherence is crucial to get the best out of antiretroviral therapy (ART). This study explores in-depth the barriers to and facilitators of ART adherence among Nepalese patients and service providers prescribing ART. Face-to-face semi-structured interviews were conducted with 34 participants. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and translated into English before being analyzed thematically. ART-prescribed patients described a range of barriers for failing to adhere to ART. Fina...
This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.
Sharma, Prashant; Nandi, T.
We measure the projectile K x-ray spectra as a function of the beam energies around the Coulomb barrier in different collision systems. The energy is scanned in small steps around the barrier aiming to explore the nuclear effects on the elastically scattered projectile ions. The variation of the projectile x-ray energy with the ion-beam energies exhibits an unusual increase in between the interaction barrier and fusion barrier energies. This additional contribution to the projectile ionization can be attributed to the shakeoff of outer-shell electrons of the projectile ions due to the sudden nuclear recoil (˜10-21 sec ) caused by the attractive nuclear potential, which gets switched on near the interaction barrier energy. In the sudden approximation limit, the theoretical shakeoff probability calculation due to the nuclear recoil explains the observed data well. In addition to its fundamental interest, such processes can play a significant role in dark matter detection through the possible mechanism of x-ray emissions, where the weakly interacting massive particle-nucleus elastic scattering can lead to the nuclear-recoil-induced inner-shell vacancy creations. Furthermore, the present work may provide new prospects for atomic physics research at barrier energies as well as provide a novel technique to perform barrier distribution studies for two-body systems.
Lee, Mindy; Murphy, Karen; Andrews, Glenda
Positive face-to-face human interactions are known to benefit well-being. Drawing upon previous work regarding the interference of media (via technological devices or print) in social interaction, the aim of this study was to identify whether using media during face-to-face interaction could potentially limit the positive effect of interaction on well-being. Participants were 437 university students who completed an online survey which assessed media multitasking behaviors, well-being (trait depression, trait anxiety, social anxiety, empathy, and psychological well-being), and personality traits (Big-5 and narcissism). Face-to-face interaction was positively associated with well-being. However, when media use during face-to-face interaction was considered, there was a negative relationship with well-being (more depression, more anxiety, and less psychological well-being). Those who used certain media types, such as phone or video chatting, listening to music, and gaming, while interacting with others, also had lower scores on measures of empathy. Regression analyses showed significant contributions by these media types to empathy levels, even after controlling for age, gender, and personality traits. Face-to-face media multitasking was related to higher levels of narcissism and neuroticism, and lower levels of agreeableness, conscientiousness, and openness. This study provides insight into the possible role of media multitasking during face-to-face interaction on psychosocial outcomes.
Nielsen, Mark; Suddendorf, Thomas; Slaughter, Virginia
Three studies (N=144) investigated how toddlers aged 18 and 24 months pass the surprise-mark test of self-recognition. In Study 1, toddlers were surreptitiously marked in successive conditions on their legs and faces with stickers visible only in a mirror. Rates of sticker touching did not differ significantly between conditions. In Study 2,…
Roberton, Terri; Bucks, Romola S.; Skinner, Timothy C.
This study examined barriers to physical activity reported individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) and the degree to which these barriers differed across varying degrees of independence. Participants were 65 individuals recruited from the Western Australian Spinal Cord Injury database. Data...... on physical activity participation and perceived barriers to physical activity participation were collected using a cross-sectional survey and analysed using independent samples t-tests. We found that, regardless of level of ambulation or ability to transfer, few participants reported being physically active....... While there were no significant differences in the amount of barriers reported by individuals with different levels of independence, the type of barriers reported varied across groups....
Iglesias, Ana; Jiménez, Javier; Revuelta, Pablo; Moreno, Lourdes
Education is a fundamental human right, however unfortunately not everybody has the same learning opportunities. For instance, if a student has hearing impairments, s/he could face communications barriers in the classroom, which could affect his/her learning process. APEINTA is a Spanish educational project that aims for inclusive education for…
Haynes, Nia A.; Jacobson, Susan
Using a framework based on social cognitive career theory, we conducted 38 interviews and four focus groups with college students to identify motivations and barriers faced by underrepresented groups to natural resource careers. Interviews revealed career satisfaction as the most important goal for both natural resource and a comparison of liberal…
Hollis, Michael J.
The purpose of this paper was to identify a problem in higher education that needed a new solution and draft a viable proposal for how to resolve it. I chose the problem of cultural barriers that veterans often face when attempting to return to many universities following military service. The method used was a combination of existing literature…
Yang, Hua; Shen, Jianhong; Chen, Juan; Fang, Fang
Adaptation to a visual pattern can alter the sensitivities of neuronal populations encoding the pattern. However, the functional roles of adaptation, especially in high-level vision, are still equivocal. In the present study, we performed three experiments to investigate if face gender adaptation could affect gender discrimination. Experiments 1 and 2 revealed that adapting to a male/female face could selectively enhance discrimination for male/female faces. Experiment 3 showed that the discrimination enhancement induced by face adaptation could transfer across a substantial change in three-dimensional face viewpoint. These results provide further evidence suggesting that, similar to low-level vision, adaptation in high-level vision could calibrate the visual system to current inputs of complex shapes (i.e. face) and improve discrimination at the adapted characteristic. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Full Text Available This research paper identifies barriers and difficulties in listening comprehension faced by junior high school students. The research questions were what barriers did students encounter and how did they used strategies to overcome those barriers. This study used a qualitative method and was a case study involving 40 students and one English teacher. The data were obtained by ways of conducting a test of listening taken from TOEIC test. The tests indicated that the results scores were not quite satisfactory. This is primarily caused by speech delivery of the native speaker which was too fast. This means that students faced listening barriers especially in processing information. The data also indicated that students were also nervous when doing the test as habitual barrier. Strategies used to overcome these barriers are by making students get used to listen and use English and making them familiar with certain contexts in real life.
Full Text Available Objective: Family Compliance to therapists’ recommendations on home exercise has an important role in success of rehabilitation programs for disabled children. This study intends to determine barriers to compliance of parents with prescribed home exercises. Materials & Methods: In present survey, parents of all of the 60 disabled children who were receiving occupational therapy, speech therapy or physiotherapy at Birjand’s rehabilitation clinics during September 2009 were interviewed. Data was collected using a semi-structured questionnaire, developed and validated by the researchers, containing questions about compliance and 21 barriers to compliance with recommended home exercises. Pearson chi-square test and Fisher exact test were used to explore the risk of parental non-compliance to recommendations in case of facing each of the barriers. Independent sample t-test was used to explore the correlation of number of barriers with degree of parental compliance. Results: According to the study, the four main know abstacles consisting "lack of exercises devices in home" (P=0.003 "child’s (or cartaker’s unwillingness to do the home exercises" (P=0.024. parent’s (or cartaker’s concerns about child harming due to exercises (P=0.027, and Lack of necessary skills to perform the exercises (P=0.047 significantly increases the parents incompliance to home exercises. There was also a significant relationship between the number of perceived barriers and the degree of compliance (P=0.008. Conclusion: It seems that designing exercises in a way that children would love them and emphasizing on helping parents to acquire the tools, knowledge and expertise would improve parental compliance to home exercise.
Poux, Adeline; Wendel, Marco; Jaudin, Florence; Hiegl, Mathias
planners, developers and politicians when developing a new geothermal project. Each of the analyzed countries is facing a distinct bundle of non-technical barriers. Globally, deep geothermal projects are characterized by high up-front costs and are facing the geological risk of the non discovery of the resources in adequacy to the initial expectations. Moreover, investors are facing directly the competitiveness of fossils energy. The very long pay back period makes it also difficult for them to face the geological risk. GEOFAR will propose new targeting financing and funding schemes, in order to remove the financial barriers hindering the initial stages of geothermal energy projects. GEOFAR also considers a lack of awareness as important barrier hindering the future development of geothermal energy projects. Public opinion is globally positive to geothermal energy, but deep geothermal projects are often suffering from a lack of information leading sometimes to non public acceptance. By underlining the range of possibilities offered by the geothermal energy and the potential and emerging technologies, GEOFAR tends to increase the awareness of geothermal energy in order to boost the development and the investment in new geothermal energy projects. Geothermal energy is expected to contribute significantly to the future European energy sources and the GEOFAR project aims to facilitate it.
Martin, N; Lazalde, O Martínez; Stokes, C; Romano, D
Distance learning and internet-based delivery of educational content are becoming very popular as an alternative to real face-to-face delivery. Clinical-based discussions still remain greatly face-to-face despite the advancement of remote communication and internet sharing technology. In this study we have compared three communication modalities between a learner and educator: audio and video using voice over internet protocol (VoIP) alone [AV]; audio and video VoIP with the addition of a three dimensional virtual artefact [AV3D] and physical face-to-face [FTF]. Clinical case discussions based on fictitious patients were held between a 'learner' and an 'expert' using the three communication modalities. The learner presented a clinical scenario to the experts, with the aid of a prop (partially dentate cast, digitised for AV3D), to obtain advice on the management of the clinical case. Each communication modality was tested in timed exercises in a random order among one of three experts (senior clinical restorative staff) and a learner (from a cohort of 15 senior clinical undergraduate students) all from the School of Clinical Dentistry, University of Sheffield. All learners and experts used each communication modality in turn with no prior training. Video recording and structured analysis were used to ascertain learner behaviour and levels of interactivity. Evaluation questionnaires were completed by experts and learners immediately after the experiment to ascertain effectiveness of information exchange and barriers/facilitators to communication. The video recordings showed that students were more relaxed with AV and AV3D than FTF (p = 0.01). The evaluation questionnaires showed that students felt they could provide (p = 0.03) and obtain (p = 0.003) more information using the FTF modality, followed by AV and then AV3D. Experts also ranked FTF better than AV and AV3D for providing (p = 0.012) and obtaining (p = 0) information to/from the expert. Physical face-to-face
Fatima M. Felisberti
Full Text Available The effect of the spatial location of faces in the visual field during brief, free-viewing encoding in subsequent face recognition is not known. This study addressed this question by tagging three groups of faces with cheating, cooperating or neutral behaviours and presenting them for encoding in two visual hemifields (upper vs. lower or left vs. right. Participants then had to indicate if a centrally presented face had been seen before or not. Head and eye movements were free in all phases. Findings showed that the overall recognition of cooperators was significantly better than cheaters, and it was better for faces encoded in the upper hemifield than in the lower hemifield, both in terms of a higher d' and faster reaction time (RT. The d' for any given behaviour in the left and right hemifields was similar. The RT in the left hemifield did not vary with tagged behaviour, whereas the RT in the right hemifield was longer for cheaters than for cooperators. The results showed that memory biases in contextual face recognition were modulated by the spatial location of briefly encoded faces and are discussed in terms of scanning reading habits, top-left bias in lighting preference and peripersonal space.
Etchells, David B; Brooks, Joseph L; Johnston, Robert A
Many models of face recognition incorporate the idea of a face recognition unit (FRU), an abstracted representation formed from each experience of a face which aids recognition under novel viewing conditions. Some previous studies have failed to find evidence of this FRU representation. Here, we report three experiments which investigated this theoretical construct by modifying the face learning procedure from that in previous work. During learning, one or two views of previously unfamiliar faces were shown to participants in a serial matching task. Later, participants attempted to recognize both seen and novel views of the learned faces (recognition phase). Experiment 1 tested participants' recognition of a novel view, a day after learning. Experiment 2 was identical, but tested participants on the same day as learning. Experiment 3 repeated Experiment 1, but tested participants on a novel view that was outside the rotation of those views learned. Results revealed a significant advantage, across all experiments, for recognizing a novel view when two views had been learned compared to single view learning. The observed view invariance supports the notion that an FRU representation is established during multi-view face learning under particular learning conditions.
Fuse, Toshiaki; Tachikawa, Nobuo.
Plasma facing parts of the present invention are constituted by joining an armour comprising a material having a high melting point and a cooling member comprising copper or the like. A metal member having good solderability with the cooling member is disposed on the joined surface of the armor member. In addition, the joined surface of the cooling member is provided with a barrier layer for preventing invasion of a solder. A solder having a low melting point is interposed between the armour and the cooling member. If they are heated entirely, the solder having low melting point is melted, so that the metal member having good solderability disposed on the armor member is soldered with the barrier layer for the cooling member. Upon exchange of the armour, the joint is heated again. Then, the solder having a low melting point is melted and the armour member and the cooling member are separated. If a solder is put on the cooling member and a new armour is placed and then heated, repairing is completed. (I.S.)
Chaitanya, Ganta V; Cromer, Walter E; Wells, Shannon R; Jennings, Merilyn H; Couraud, P Olivier; Romero, Ignacio A; Weksler, Babette; Erdreich-Epstein, Anat; Mathis, J Michael; Minagar, Alireza; Alexander, J Steven
The glio-vascular unit (G-unit) plays a prominent role in maintaining homeostasis of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and disturbances in cells forming this unit may seriously dysregulate BBB. The direct and indirect effects of cytokines on cellular components of the BBB are not yet unclear. The present study compares the effects of cytokines and cytokine-treated astrocytes on brain endothelial barrier. 3-dimensional transwell co-cultures of brain endothelium and related-barrier forming cells with astrocytes were used to investigate gliovascular barrier responses to cytokines during pathological stresses. Gliovascular barrier was measured using trans-endothelial electrical resistance (TEER), a sensitive index of in vitro barrier integrity. We found that neither TNF-α, IL-1β or IFN-γ directly reduced barrier in human or mouse brain endothelial cells or ECV-304 barrier (independent of cell viability/metabolism), but found that astrocyte exposure to cytokines in co-culture significantly reduced endothelial (and ECV-304) barrier. These results indicate that the barrier established by human and mouse brain endothelial cells (and other cells) may respond positively to cytokines alone, but that during pathological conditions, cytokines dysregulate the barrier forming cells indirectly through astrocyte activation involving reorganization of junctions, matrix, focal adhesion or release of barrier modulating factors (e.g. oxidants, MMPs). © 2011 Chaitanya et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Fugate, Jennifer M B; Gendron, Maria; Nakashima, Satoshi F; Barrett, Lisa Feldman
Despite a growing number of studies suggesting that emotion words affect perceptual judgments of emotional stimuli, little is known about how emotion words affect perceptual memory for emotional faces. In Experiments 1 and 2 we tested how emotion words (compared with control words) affected participants' abilities to select a target emotional face from among distractor faces. Participants were generally more likely to false alarm to distractor emotional faces when primed with an emotion word congruent with the face (compared with a control word). Moreover, participants showed both decreased sensitivity (d') to discriminate between target and distractor faces, as well as altered response biases (c; more likely to answer "yes") when primed with an emotion word (compared with a control word). In Experiment 3 we showed that emotion words had more of an effect on perceptual memory judgments when the structural information in the target face was limited, as well as when participants were only able to categorize the face with a partially congruent emotion word. The overall results are consistent with the idea that emotion words affect the encoding of emotional faces in perceptual memory. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2017 APA, all rights reserved).
Full Text Available There is some evidence that faces with a happy expression are recognized better than faces with other expressions. However, little is known about whether this happy face advantage also applies to perceptual face matching, and whether similar differences exist among other expressions. Using a sequential matching paradigm, we systematically compared the effects of seven basic facial expressions on identity recognition. Identity matching was quickest when a pair of faces had an identical happy/sad/neutral expression, poorer when they had a fearful/surprise/angry expression, and poorest when they had a disgust expression. Faces with a happy/sad/fear/surprise expression were matched faster than those with an anger/disgust expression when the second face in a pair had a neutral expression. These results demonstrate that effects of facial expression on identity recognition are not limited to happy faces when a learned face is immediately tested. The results suggest different influences of expression in perceptual matching and long-term recognition memory.
Face recognition is image processing technique which aims to identify human faces and found its use in various diﬀerent ﬁelds for example in security. Throughout the years this ﬁeld evolved and there are many approaches and many diﬀerent algorithms which aim to make the face recognition as eﬀective...... processing applications the results do not need to be completely precise and use of the approximate arithmetic can lead to reduction in terms of delay, space and power consumption. In this paper we examine possible use of approximate arithmetic in face recognition using Eigenfaces algorithm....
Fysh, Matthew C; Bindemann, Markus
This study presents the Kent Face Matching Test (KFMT), which comprises 200 same-identity and 20 different-identity pairs of unfamiliar faces. Each face pair consists of a photograph from a student ID card and a high-quality portrait that was taken at least three months later. The test is designed to complement existing resources for face-matching research, by providing a more ecologically valid stimulus set that captures the natural variability that can arise in a person's appearance over time. Two experiments are presented to demonstrate that the KFMT provides a challenging measure of face matching but correlates with established tests. Experiment 1 compares a short version of this test with the optimized Glasgow Face Matching Test (GFMT). In Experiment 2, a longer version of the KFMT, with infrequent identity mismatches, is correlated with performance on the Cambridge Face Memory Test (CFMT) and the Cambridge Face Perception Test (CFPT). The KFMT is freely available for use in face-matching research. © 2017 The British Psychological Society.
Huang, Wanyi; Wu, Xia; Hu, Liping; Wang, Lei; Ding, Yulong; Qu, Zhe
The present study used event-related potentials (ERPs) to reinvestigate the earliest face familiarity effect (FFE: ERP differences between familiar and unfamiliar faces) that genuinely reflects cognitive processes underlying recognition of familiar faces in long-term memory. To trigger relatively early FFEs, participants were required to categorize upright and inverted famous faces and unknown faces in a task that placed high demand on face recognition. More importantly, to determine whether an observed FFE was linked to on-line face recognition, systematical investigation about the relationship between the FFE and behavioral performance of face recognition was conducted. The results showed significant FFEs on P1, N170, N250, and P300 waves. The FFEs on occipital P1 and N170 (faces, and were not correlated with any behavioral measure (accuracy, response time) or modulated by learning, indicating that they might merely reflect low-level visual differences between face sets. In contrast, the later FFEs on occipito-temporal N250 (~230ms) and centro-parietal P300 (~350ms) showed consistent polarities for upright and inverted faces. The N250 FFE was individually correlated with recognition speed for upright faces, and could be obtained for inverted faces through learning. The P300 FFE was also related to behavior in many aspects. These findings provide novel evidence supporting that cognitive discrimination of familiar and unfamiliar faces starts no less than 200ms after stimulus onset, and the familiarity effect on N250 may be the first electrophysiological correlate underlying recognition of familiar faces in long-term memory. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Van Dillen, L.F.; Lakens, D.; Bos, van den K.
The present research demonstrates that the attention bias to angry faces is modulated by how people categorize these faces. Since facial expressions contain psychologically meaningful information for social categorizations (i.e., gender, personality) but not for non-social categorizations (i.e.,
Salah, Albert Ali; Alyüz, Neşe; Akarun, Lale
3D has become an important modality for face biometrics. The accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a one-to-all registration approach, which means each new facial surface is registered to all faces in the gallery, at a great computational cost. We explore the approach of registering the new facial surface to an average face model (AFM), which automatically establishes correspondence to the pre-registered gallery faces. Going one step further, we propose that using a couple of well-selected AFMs can trade-off computation time with accuracy. Drawing on cognitive justifications, we propose to employ category-specific alternative average face models for registration, which is shown to increase the accuracy of the subsequent recognition. We inspect thin-plate spline (TPS) and iterative closest point (ICP) based registration schemes under realistic assumptions on manual or automatic landmark detection prior to registration. We evaluate several approaches for the coarse initialization of ICP. We propose a new algorithm for constructing an AFM, and show that it works better than a recent approach. Finally, we perform simulations with multiple AFMs that correspond to different clusters in the face shape space and compare these with gender and morphology based groupings. We report our results on the FRGC 3D face database.
Shin, Hwayeon Helene; Braithwaite, Valerie; Ahmed, Eliza
A total of 3956 children aged 12-13 years who completed the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC Wave 5) were studied about their experiences of traditional face-to-face bullying and cyberbullying in the last month. In terms of prevalence, sixty percent of the sample had been involved in traditional bullying as the victim and/or the…
Technology engages and increases academic achievement for K-5 students, but teachers face attitudinal, social/cultural, and pedagogical barriers when they integrate technology for student learning. Although some teachers overcome these barriers, it remains unclear how they do so. The purpose of this qualitative multiple case study was to analyze…
Ye, Dong; Bramini, Mattia; Hristov, Delyan R.; Wan, Sha; Salvati, Anna; Åberg, Christoffer; Dawson, Kenneth A.
Cellular barriers, such as the skin, the lung epithelium or the intestinal epithelium, constitute one of the first obstacles facing nanomedicines or other nanoparticles entering organisms. It is thus important to assess the capacity of nanoparticles to enter and transport across such barriers. In
Lamberg, Catherine Denise
Learning-disabled students face ongoing challenges in higher education. Despite efforts to promote recruitment and retention of students with learning disabilities to trade schools, colleges, and universities, barriers to enrollment and academic achievement persist. Barriers for learning-disabled students are not fully understood and might be…
Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Sieving, Renee E.
Background: Sexuality education teachers' perspectives are important to gain a full understanding of the issues surrounding teaching this subject. This study uses a statewide sample of public school teachers to examine what sexuality education content is taught, what barriers teachers face, and which barriers are associated with teaching specific…
Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah
Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.
Anna Katarzyna Bobak
Full Text Available Photographic identity documents (IDs are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs, on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.
Baker, E.G.; Freeman, H.D.; Hartley, J.N.; Gee, G.W.
Earthen, asphalt, and multilayer radon barrier systems can all provide reduction in the amount of radon gas released from uranium mill tailings. Pacific Northwest Laboratory field tested all three types of covers at Grand Junction, Colorado during the summer of 1981. All nine individual radon barrier systems tested currently meet the EPA standard for radon flux of 20 pCi m - 2 s - 1 . The cost of the asphalt and 3m earthen covers were about the same at the field test. Multilayer covers were significantly more costly. Cost estimates for three high priority western sites indicate 3m of earthen cover is the least costly radon barrier when earthen material is available at or near the disposal site. If earthen material must be imported more than 8 to 10 km asphalt and possibly multilayer radon barriers can be cost effective
Johnson, Johanna; Marshall, Paul
Full text: Full text: Climate change is now recognised as the greatest long-term threat to the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). Managers face a future in which the impacts of climate change on tropical marine ecosystems are becoming increasingly frequent and severe. Further degradation is inevitable as the climate continues to change but the extent of the decline will depend on the rate and magnitude of climate change and the resilience of the ecosystem. Changes to the ecosystem have implications for the industries and regional communities that depend on the GBR. Climate projections for the GBR region include increasing air and sea temperatures, ocean acidification, nutrient enrichment (via changes in rainfall), altered light levels, more extreme weather events, changes to ocean circulation and sea level rise. Impacts have already been observed, with severe coral bleaching events in 1998 and 2002, and mass mortalities of seabirds linked to anomalously warm summer conditions. Climate change also poses significant threats to the industries and communities that depend on the GBR ecosystem, both directly and indirectly through loss of natural resources; industries such as recreational and commercial fishing, and tourism, which contributes to a regional tourism industry worth $6.1 billion (Access Economics 2005). A vulnerability assessment undertaken by leading experts in climate and marine science identified climate sensitivities for GBR species, habitats, key processes, GBR industries and communities (Johnson and Marshall 2007). This information has been used to develop a Climate Change Action Plan for the GBR. The Action Plan is a five-year program aimed at facilitating targeted science, building a resilient ecosystem, assisting adaptation of industries and communities, and reducing climate footprints. The Action Plan identifies strategies to review current management arrangements and raise awareness of the issue in order to work towards a resilient ecosystem. Integral to
Magnezi, Racheli; Kaufman, Galit; Ziv, Arnona; Kalter-Leibovici, Ofra; Reuveni, Haim
The healthcare system in Israel faces difficulties similar to those of most industrialized countries, including limited resources, a growing chronically ill population, and demand for high quality care. Disease management programs (DMPs) for patients with a chronic illness aim to alleviate some of these problems, primarily by improving patient self-management skills and quality of care. This study surveyed the opinions of senior healthcare administrators regarding barriers, benefits, and support for implementing DMPs. Cross-sectional survey. A 21-item questionnaire was self-completed by 87 of 105 (83%) healthcare administrators included in the study. Participants were 65.5% male and 47% physicians, 25.3% nurses, 17.3% administrators, and 10.3% other healthcare professionals. The main perceived benefit of DMPs among all respondents was improving quality of care. Other benefits noted were better contact with patients (81.6%) and better compliance with treatment (75.9%). Efficient long-term utilization of system resources was perceived as a benefit by only 58.6%. The main perceived barriers to implementing DMPs were lack of budgetary resources (69%) and increased time required versus financial compensation received (63.2%). The benefits of DMPs were patient oriented; barriers were perceived as financial and limiting professional autonomy. Information regarding long-term benefits (better patient outcomes) that ultimately provide better value for the system versus short-term barriers (increased costs and expenditures of time without compensation) might encourage the implementation of DMPs in countries faced with a growing population of patients with at least 1 chronic illness.
Full Text Available Automatic face recognition remains an interesting but challenging computer vision open problem. Poor illumination is considered as one of the major issue, since illumination changes cause large variation in the facial features. To resolve this, illumination normalization preprocessing techniques are employed in this paper to enhance the face recognition rate. The methods such as Histogram Equalization (HE, Gamma Intensity Correction (GIC, Normalization chain and Modified Homomorphic Filtering (MHF are used for preprocessing. Owing to great success, the texture features are commonly used for face recognition. But these features are severely affected by lighting changes. Hence texture based models Local Binary Pattern (LBP, Local Derivative Pattern (LDP, Local Texture Pattern (LTP and Local Tetra Patterns (LTrPs are experimented under different lighting conditions. In this paper, illumination invariant face recognition technique is developed based on the fusion of illumination preprocessing with local texture descriptors. The performance has been evaluated using YALE B and CMU-PIE databases containing more than 1500 images. The results demonstrate that MHF based normalization gives significant improvement in recognition rate for the face images with large illumination conditions.
Doi, Hirokazu; Shinohara, Kazuyuki
It is well known that patients with schizophrenia show severe deficiencies in social communication skills. These deficiencies are believed to be partly derived from abnormalities in face recognition. However, the exact nature of these abnormalities exhibited by schizophrenic patients with respect to face recognition has yet to be clarified. In the present paper, we review the main findings on face recognition deficiencies in patients with schizophrenia, particularly focusing on abnormalities in the recognition of facial expression and gaze direction, which are the primary sources of information of others' mental states. The existing studies reveal that the abnormal recognition of facial expression and gaze direction in schizophrenic patients is attributable to impairments in both perceptual processing of visual stimuli, and cognitive-emotional responses to social information. Furthermore, schizophrenic patients show malfunctions in distributed neural regions, ranging from the fusiform gyrus recruited in the structural encoding of facial stimuli, to the amygdala which plays a primary role in the detection of the emotional significance of stimuli. These findings were obtained from research in patient groups with heterogeneous characteristics. Because previous studies have indicated that impairments in face recognition in schizophrenic patients might vary according to the types of symptoms, it is of primary importance to compare the nature of face recognition deficiencies and the impairments of underlying neural functions across sub-groups of patients.
Dhuffar, Manpreet K; Griffiths, Mark D
Background Over the last 20 years, behavioral addictions (e.g., addictions to gambling, playing video games, work, etc.) have become more accepted among both public and scientific communities. Addiction to sex is arguably a more controversial issue, but this does not take away from the fact that some individuals seek professional help for problematic excessive sex, irrespective of how the behavior is conceptualized. Empirical evidence suggests that among treatment seekers, men are more likely than women to seek help for sex addiction (SA). Methods Using the behavioral addiction literature and the authors' own expertise in researching female SA, this paper examines potential barriers to the treatment for female sex addicts. Results Four main types of barriers for female sex addicts not seeking treatment were identified. These comprised (a) individual barriers, (b) social barriers, (c) research barriers, and (d) treatment barriers. Conclusions Further research is needed to either confirm or disconfirm the identified barriers that female sex addicts face when seeking treatment, and if conformation is found, interested stakeholders should provide better awareness and/or see ways in which such barriers can be overcome to aid better uptake of SA services.
Full Text Available I’m scared. I’m nervous. In a few short weeks the contractors and electricians will take over my library for several months. They will drill huge gouges in the concrete floor, hammer, saw, scrape,move, wire, etc. No doubt they may have to be asked to keep their voices down once or twice. Half of the print journal collection will be relocated to accommodate a new teaching lab that will also double as an information commons. The planning has been going on for many months. We have consulted with other libraries, reviewed the literature, identified the needs of our various user groups, measured space,tested technical possibilities, and met with architects and engineers. Up until now the new lab was an organic idea on paper, discussed over coffee and in meetings. That’s fairly easy to deal with. But just around the corner it becomes a reality and I’m a bag of nerves. Have we made the right decisions? Will it address all our needs? Is there anything I forgot to consider? What if our users don’t like it? What if it is a complete failure?!Theoretically, it should be ok. I’ve followed the right steps and worked with a creative, talented and dedicated team. This is different from trying out a new instructional technique or reorganizing the information desk. This is big. I talk the evidence based talk regularly, but now I am walking the walk in a bigger way than I had ever imagined. Change can be frightening. Moving out of comfort zones is not easy. Having said that, the challenge can be invigorating and the change, refreshing. I find myself welcoming the change as much as I dread it. I’ll face my fears and see it through to the implementation and evaluations and beyond. And hey, no matter what the outcome, it should make for a good paper. If anyone else out there is going through a similar process, I’d be interested in comparing notes. I invite you to try something new this year in your work environment or in your professional activities
Full Text Available Electrophysiological studies of adults indicate that brain activity is enhanced during viewing of repeated faces, at a latency of about 250 ms after the onset of the face (M250/N250. The present study aimed to determine if this effect was also present in preschool-aged children, whose brain activity was measured in a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. The results showed that, unlike adults, face repetition did not show any significant modulation of M250 amplitude in children; however children’s M250 latencies were significantly faster for repeated than non-repeated faces. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM of the M250 in both age groups tested the effects of face repetition within the core face network including the occipital face area (OFA, the fusiform face area (FFA, and the superior temporal sulcus (STS. DCM revealed that repetition of identical faces altered both forward and backward connections in children and adults; however the modulations involved inputs to both FFA and OFA in adults but only to OFA in children. These findings suggest that the amplitude-insensitivity of the immature M250 may be due to a weaker connection between the FFA and lower visual areas. Keywords: MEG, Face recognition, Repetition, DCM, M250, M170
Robertson, David J; Kramer, Robin S S; Burton, A Mike
Our recognition of familiar faces is excellent, and generalises across viewing conditions. However, unfamiliar face recognition is much poorer. For this reason, automatic face recognition systems might benefit from incorporating the advantages of familiarity. Here we put this to the test using the face verification system available on a popular smartphone (the Samsung Galaxy). In two experiments we tested the recognition performance of the smartphone when it was encoded with an individual's 'face-average'--a representation derived from theories of human face perception. This technique significantly improved performance for both unconstrained celebrity images (Experiment 1) and for real faces (Experiment 2): users could unlock their phones more reliably when the device stored an average of the user's face than when they stored a single image. This advantage was consistent across a wide variety of everyday viewing conditions. Furthermore, the benefit did not reduce the rejection of imposter faces. This benefit is brought about solely by consideration of suitable representations for automatic face recognition, and we argue that this is just as important as development of matching algorithms themselves. We propose that this representation could significantly improve recognition rates in everyday settings.
Egan, Sarah J; van Noort, Emily; Chee, Abby; Kane, Robert T; Hoiles, Kimberley J; Shafran, Roz; Wade, Tracey D
Previous research has shown cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) to be effective in reducing perfectionism. The present study investigated the efficacy of two formats of CBT for perfectionism (CBT-P), face-to-face and pure online self-help, in reducing perfectionism and associated psychological symptoms. Participants were randomly allocated to face-to-face CBT-P (n = 18), pure online self-help CBT-P (n = 16), or a waitlist control period (n = 18). There was no significant change for the waitlist group on any of the outcome measures at the end of treatment. Both the face-to-face and pure online self-help groups reported significant reductions at the end of treatment for the perfectionism variables which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. The face-to-face group also reported significant reductions over this time in depression, anxiety, and stress, and a significant pre-post increase in self-esteem, all of which were maintained at the 6-month follow-up. In contrast, the pure online self-help group showed no significant changes on these outcomes. The face-to-face group was statistically superior to the pure online self-help group at follow-up on the perfectionism measures, concern over mistakes and personal standards. The results show promising evidence for CBT for perfectionism, especially when offered face to face, where sustained benefit across a broad range of outcomes can be expected. Crown Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Santemiz, P.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; van den Biggelaar, Olivier
As a widely used biometrics, face recognition has many advantages such as being non-intrusive, natural and passive. On the other hand, in real-life scenarios with uncontrolled environment, pose variation up to side-view positions makes face recognition a challenging work. In this paper we discuss
Ali, Tauseef; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan
Beside a few papers which focus on the forensic aspects of automatic face recognition, there is not much published about it in contrast to the literature on developing new techniques and methodologies for biometric face recognition. In this report, we review forensic facial identification which is
Reddy, K Siva Prasad
A guide for beginner's with step-by-step instructions and an easy-to-follow approach.PrimeFaces Beginners Guide is a simple and effective guide for beginners, wanting to learn and implement PrimeFaces in their JSF-based applications. Some basic JSF and jQuery skills are required before you start working through the book.
Crookes, Kate; Favelle, Simone; Hayward, William G
Recent evidence suggests stronger holistic processing for own-race faces may underlie the own-race advantage in face memory. In previous studies Caucasian participants have demonstrated larger holistic processing effects for Caucasian over Asian faces. However, Asian participants have consistently shown similar sized effects for both Asian and Caucasian faces. We investigated two proposed explanations for the holistic processing of other-race faces by Asian participants: (1) greater other-race exposure, (2) a general global processing bias. Holistic processing was tested using the part-whole task. Participants were living in predominantly own-race environments and other-race contact was evaluated. Despite reporting significantly greater contact with own-race than other-race people, Chinese participants displayed strong holistic processing for both Asian and Caucasian upright faces. In addition, Chinese participants showed no evidence of holistic processing for inverted faces arguing against a general global processing bias explanation. Caucasian participants, in line with previous studies, displayed stronger holistic processing for Caucasian than Asian upright faces. For inverted faces there were no race-of-face differences. These results are used to suggest that Asians may make more general use of face-specific mechanisms than Caucasians.
Full text: Self consistent microscopic mean-field models are powerful tools for the description of nuclear structure phenomena in the region of known elements, where they have reached a good quality. Especially the Skyrme-Hartree-Fock (SHF) method and the Relativistic Mean-Field (RMF) model will be considered in the discussion of the properties of these models. When it comes to extrapolation to the region of superheavy elements, though there is agreement concerning the global trends, these model exhibit significant differences in their predictions concerning fission barrier heights and structures. (Author)
Shakeshaft, Nicholas G; Plomin, Robert
Specific cognitive abilities in diverse domains are typically found to be highly heritable and substantially correlated with general cognitive ability (g), both phenotypically and genetically. Recent twin studies have found the ability to memorize and recognize faces to be an exception, being similarly heritable but phenotypically substantially uncorrelated both with g and with general object recognition. However, the genetic relationships between face recognition and other abilities (the extent to which they share a common genetic etiology) cannot be determined from phenotypic associations. In this, to our knowledge, first study of the genetic associations between face recognition and other domains, 2,000 18- and 19-year-old United Kingdom twins completed tests assessing their face recognition, object recognition, and general cognitive abilities. Results confirmed the substantial heritability of face recognition (61%), and multivariate genetic analyses found that most of this genetic influence is unique and not shared with other cognitive abilities.
Sinno, Sammy; Schwitzer, Jonathan; Anzai, Lavinia; Thorne, Charles H
Face lifting is one of the most common operative procedures for facial aging and perhaps the procedure most synonymous with plastic surgery in the minds of the lay public, but no verifiable documentation of patient satisfaction exists in the literature. This study is the first to examine face-lift outcomes and patient satisfaction using a validated questionnaire. One hundred five patients undergoing a face lift performed by the senior author (C.H.T.) using a high, extended-superficial musculoaponeurotic system with submental platysma approximation technique were asked to complete anonymously the FACE-Q by e-mail. FACE-Q scores were assessed for each domain (range, 0 to 100), with higher scores indicating greater satisfaction with appearance or superior quality of life. Fifty-three patients completed the FACE-Q (50.5 percent response rate). Patients demonstrated high satisfaction with facial appearance (mean ± SD, 80.7 ± 22.3), and quality of life, including social confidence (90.4 ± 16.6), psychological well-being (92.8 ± 14.3), and early life impact (92.2 ± 16.4). Patients also reported extremely high satisfaction with their decision to undergo face lifting (90.5 ± 15.9). On average, patients felt they appeared 6.9 years younger than their actual age. Patients were most satisfied with the appearance of their nasolabial folds (86.2 ± 18.5), cheeks (86.1 ± 25.4), and lower face/jawline (86.0 ± 20.6), compared with their necks (78.1 ± 25.6) and area under the chin (67.9 ± 32.3). Patients who responded in this study were extremely satisfied with their decision to undergo face lifting and the outcomes and quality of life following the procedure.
Neugebauer, Edmund A M; Rath, Ana; Antoine, Sunya-Lee
Clinical Research Infrastructure Network (ECRIN) communications taking place during face-to-face meetings and telephone conferences from 2013 to 2017 within the context of the ECRIN Integrating Activity (ECRIN-IA) project. RESULTS: In addition to the barriers that exist for all trials, we identified three...
Rees Lewis, Daniel G.; Easterday, Matthew W.; Harburg, Emily; Gerber, Elizabeth M.; Riesbeck, Christopher K.
To provide the substantial support required for project-based learning (PBL), educators can incorporate professional experts as "design coaches." However, previous work shows barriers incorporating design coaches who can rarely meet face-to-face: (1) communication online is time-consuming, (2) updating coaches online is not perceived as…
Hirot, France; Lesage, Marine; Pedron, Lya; Meyer, Isabelle; Thomas, Pierre; Cottencin, Olivier; Guardia, Dewi
Body image disturbances and massive weight loss are major clinical symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN). The aim of the present study was to examine the influence of body changes and eating attitudes on self-face recognition ability in AN. Twenty-seven subjects suffering from AN and 27 control participants performed a self-face recognition task (SFRT). During the task, digital morphs between their own face and a gender-matched unfamiliar face were presented in a random sequence. Participants' self-face recognition failures, cognitive flexibility, body concern and eating habits were assessed with the Self-Face Recognition Questionnaire (SFRQ), Trail Making Test (TMT), Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ) and Eating Disorder Inventory-2 (EDI-2), respectively. Subjects suffering from AN exhibited significantly greater difficulties than control participants in identifying their own face (p = 0.028). No significant difference was observed between the two groups for TMT (all p > 0.1, non-significant). Regarding predictors of self-face recognition skills, there was a negative correlation between SFRT and body mass index (p = 0.01) and a positive correlation between SFRQ and EDI-2 (p face recognition.
Richards, Justin; Thorogood, Margaret; Hillsdon, Melvyn; Foster, Charles
for PA, quality of life, or cost effectiveness. The difference between the remote and web 2.0 versus face-to-face arms was not significant (SMD -0.02; 95% CI -0.30 to 0.26; high quality evidence). The risk of bias in the included study was assessed as low, and there was no evidence of an increased risk of adverse events. There is insufficient evidence to assess whether face-to-face interventions or remote and web 2.0 approaches are more effective at promoting PA.
Diabat, A.; Khreishah, A.; Govindan, Kannan
Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to analyze the interaction among some of the major barriers that may hinder the implementation of third-party logistics (TPL) in manufacturing industries. Design/methodology/approach: This paper uses an interpretive structural modeling (ISM) methodology...... to analyze the interactions among the barriers. Findings: It is beneficial for the management of any firm to be aware of significant barriers and to diagnose those that could be integral to the organization's future survival. Many works have focused on identifying barriers for TPL implementation, but a model...... for such barriers is lacking. This paper attempts to develop a model for the barriers using an ISM methodology and analyzes the mutual interactions among the barriers. The model differentiates between the barriers so that driving barriers, which can intensify other barriers, and dependent barriers are identified...
Full Text Available Abstract Background Although clinical diagnosis of thermoregulation is gaining in importance there is no consistent evidence on the value of thermography of the facial region. In particular there are no reference values established with standardised methods. Methods Skin temperatures were measured in the facial area at 32 fixed measuring sites in 26 health subjects (7–72 years with the aid of a contact thermograph (Eidatherm. A total of 6 measurements were performed separately for the two sides of the face at intervals of equal lengths (4 hours over a period of 24 hours. Thermoregulation was triggered by application of a cold stimulus in the region of the ipsilateral ear lobe. Results Comparison of the sides revealed significant asymmetry of face temperature. The left side of the face showed a temperature that was on the average 0.1°C lower than on the right. No increase in temperature was found following application of the cold stimulus. However, a significant circadian rhythm with mean temperature differences of 0.7°C was observed. Conclusion The results obtained should be seen as an initial basis for compiling an exact thermoprofile of the surface temperature of the facial region that takes into account the circadian rhythm, thus closing gaps in studies on physiological changes in the temperature of the skin of the face.
Rustemeyer, Jan; Radtke, Jürgen; Bremerich, Andreas
Background Although clinical diagnosis of thermoregulation is gaining in importance there is no consistent evidence on the value of thermography of the facial region. In particular there are no reference values established with standardised methods. Methods Skin temperatures were measured in the facial area at 32 fixed measuring sites in 26 health subjects (7–72 years) with the aid of a contact thermograph (Eidatherm). A total of 6 measurements were performed separately for the two sides of the face at intervals of equal lengths (4 hours) over a period of 24 hours. Thermoregulation was triggered by application of a cold stimulus in the region of the ipsilateral ear lobe. Results Comparison of the sides revealed significant asymmetry of face temperature. The left side of the face showed a temperature that was on the average 0.1°C lower than on the right. No increase in temperature was found following application of the cold stimulus. However, a significant circadian rhythm with mean temperature differences of 0.7°C was observed. Conclusion The results obtained should be seen as an initial basis for compiling an exact thermoprofile of the surface temperature of the facial region that takes into account the circadian rhythm, thus closing gaps in studies on physiological changes in the temperature of the skin of the face. PMID:17362518
Peyrot, M.; Rubin, R.R.; Lauritzen, T.; Snoek, F.J.; Matthews, D.R.; Skovlund, S.E.
Aims: To examine patient- and provider-reported psychosocial problems and barriers to effective self-care and resources for dealing with those barriers. Methods: Cross-sectional study using face-to-face or telephone interviews with diabetic patients and health-care providers in 13 countries in Asia,
Freeman, H.D.; Gee, G.W.; Relyea, J.F.
Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) is providing technical assistance in selecting, designing, evaluating, and demonstrating protective barriers. As part of this technical assistance effort, asphalt, clay, and chemical grout will be evaluated for use as alternate barriers. The purpose of the subsurface layer is to reduce the likelihood that extreme events (i.e., 100-year maximum storms, etc.) will cause significant drainage through the barrier. The tests on alternate barriers will include laboratory and field analysis of the subsurface layer performance. This field test plan outlines the activities required to test and design subsurface moisture barriers. The test plan covers activities completed in FY 1988 and planned through FY 1992 and includes a field-scale test of one or more of the alternate barriers to demonstrate full-scale application techniques and to provide performance data on a larger scale. Tests on asphalt, clay, and chemical grout were initiated in FY 1988 in small (30.5 cm diameter) tube-layer lysimeters. The parameters used for testing the materials were different for each one. The tests had to take into account the differences in material characteristics and response to change in conditions, as well as information provided by previous studies. 33 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab
Link, S.O.; Cadwell, L.L.; Brandt, C.A.; Downs, J.L.; Rossi, R.E.; Gee, G.W.
This document provides a testing and monitoring plan for the biological component of the prototype barrier slated for construction at the Hanford Site. The prototype barrier is an aboveground structure engineered to demonstrate the basic features of an earthen cover system. It is designed to permanently isolate waste from the biosphere. The features of the barrier include multiple layers of soil and rock materials and a low-permeability asphalt sublayer. The surface of the barrier consists of silt loam soil, covered with plants. The barrier sides are reinforced with rock or coarse earthen-fill to protect against wind and water erosion. The sublayers inhibit plant and animal intrusion and percolation of water. A series of tests will be conducted on the prototype barrier over the next several years to evaluate barrier performance under extreme climatic conditions. Plants and animals will play a significant role in the hydrologic and water and wind erosion characteristics of the prototype barrier. Studies on the biological component of the prototype barrier will include work on the initial revegetation of the surface, continued monitoring of the developing plant community, rooting depth and dispersion in the context of biointrusion potential, the role of plants in the hydrology of the surface and toe regions of the barrier, the role of plants in stabilizing the surface against water and wind erosion, and the role of burrowing animals in the hydrology and water and wind erosion of the barrier
Woumans, Evy; Martin, Clara D; Vanden Bulcke, Charlotte; Van Assche, Eva; Costa, Albert; Hartsuiker, Robert J; Duyck, Wouter
Bilinguals have two languages that are activated in parallel. During speech production, one of these languages must be selected on the basis of some cue. The present study investigated whether the face of an interlocutor can serve as such a cue. Spanish-Catalan and Dutch-French bilinguals were first familiarized with certain faces, each of which was associated with only one language, during simulated Skype conversations. Afterward, these participants performed a language production task in which they generated words associated with the words produced by familiar and unfamiliar faces displayed on-screen. When responding to familiar faces, participants produced words faster if the faces were speaking the same language as in the previous Skype simulation than if the same faces were speaking a different language. Furthermore, this language priming effect disappeared when it became clear that the interlocutors were actually bilingual. These findings suggest that faces can prime a language, but their cuing effect disappears when it turns out that they are unreliable as language cues. © The Author(s) 2015.
Dakshina Ranjan Kisku
Full Text Available Faces are highly challenging and dynamic objects that are employed as biometrics evidence in identity verification. Recently, biometrics systems have proven to be an essential security tools, in which bulk matching of enrolled people and watch lists is performed every day. To facilitate this process, organizations with large computing facilities need to maintain these facilities. To minimize the burden of maintaining these costly facilities for enrollment and recognition, multinational companies can transfer this responsibility to third-party vendors who can maintain cloud computing infrastructures for recognition. In this paper, we showcase cloud computing-enabled face recognition, which utilizes PCA-characterized face instances and reduces the number of invariant SIFT points that are extracted from each face. To achieve high interclass and low intraclass variances, a set of six PCA-characterized face instances is computed on columns of each face image by varying the number of principal components. Extracted SIFT keypoints are fused using sum and max fusion rules. A novel cohort selection technique is applied to increase the total performance. The proposed protomodel is tested on BioID and FEI face databases, and the efficacy of the system is proven based on the obtained results. We also compare the proposed method with other well-known methods.
Ananda, M.M.A.; Singh, A.K.
The lifetime of the engineered barrier system used for containment of high-level radioactive waste will significantly impact the total performance of a geological repository facility. Currently two types of designs are under consideration for an engineered barrier system, single engineered barrier system and multiple engineered barrier system. Multiple engineered barrier system consists of several metal barriers and the waste form (cladding). Some recent work show that a significant improvement of performance can be achieved by utilizing multiple engineered barrier systems. Considering sequential failures for each barrier, we model the reliability of the multiple engineered barrier system. Weibull and exponential lifetime distributions are used through out the analysis. Furthermore, the number of failed engineered barrier systems in a repository at a given time is modeled using a poisson approximation
Hu, Chao S; Wang, Qiandong; Han, Tong; Weare, Ethan; Fu, Genyue
Past research has demonstrated differential recognition of emotion on faces of different races. This paper reports the first study to explore differential emotion attribution to neutral faces of different races. Chinese and Caucasian adults viewed a series of Chinese and Caucasian neutral faces and judged their outward facial expression: neutral, positive, or negative. The results showed that both Chinese and Caucasian viewers perceived more Chinese faces than Caucasian faces as neutral. Nevertheless, Chinese viewers attributed positive emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces, whereas Caucasian viewers attributed negative emotion to Caucasian faces more than to Chinese faces. Moreover, Chinese viewers attributed negative and neutral emotion to the faces of both races without significant difference in frequency, whereas Caucasian viewers mostly attributed neutral emotion to the faces. These differences between Chinese and Caucasian viewers may be due to differential visual experience, culture, racial stereotype, or expectation of the experiment. We also used eye tracking among the Chinese participants to explore the relationship between face-processing strategy and emotion attribution to neutral faces. The results showed that the interaction between emotion attribution and face race was significant on face-processing strategy, such as fixation proportion on eyes and saccade amplitude. Additionally, pupil size during processing Caucasian faces was larger than during processing Chinese faces.
Starnini, Michele; Baronchelli, Andrea; Pastor-Satorras, Romualdo
Face-to-face interaction networks describe social interactions in human gatherings, and are the substrate for processes such as epidemic spreading and gossip propagation. The bursty nature of human behavior characterizes many aspects of empirical data, such as the distribution of conversation lengths, of conversations per person, or of inter-conversation times. Despite several recent attempts, a general theoretical understanding of the global picture emerging from data is still lacking. Here ...
Ferrari, Vera; Bradley, Margaret M.; Codispoti, Maurizio; Lang, Peter J.
Studies of cognition often use an “oddball” paradigm to study effects of stimulus novelty and significance on information processing. However, an oddball tends to be perceptually more novel than the standard, repeated stimulus as well as more relevant to the ongoing task, making it difficult to disentangle effects due to perceptual novelty and stimulus significance. In the current study, effects of perceptual novelty and significance on ERPs were assessed in a passive viewing context by presenting repeated and novel pictures (natural scenes) that either signaled significant information regarding the current context or not. A fronto-central N2 component was primarily affected by perceptual novelty, whereas a centro-parietal P3 component was modulated by both stimulus significance and novelty. The data support an interpretation that the N2 reflects perceptual fluency and is attenuated when a current stimulus matches an active memory representation and that the amplitude of the P3 reflects stimulus meaning and significance. PMID:19400680
Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully convolutional network (MB-FCN) for face detection, which considers both efficiency and effectiveness in the design process. Our MB-FCN detector can deal with faces at all scale ranges with only a single pass through the backbone network. As such, our MB-FCN model saves computation and thus is more efficient, compared to previous methods that make multiple passes. For each branch, the specific skip connections of the convolutional feature maps at different layers are exploited to represent faces in specific scale ranges. Specifically, small faces can be represented with both shallow fine-grained and deep powerful coarse features. With this representation, superior improvement in performance is registered for the task of detecting small faces. We test our MB-FCN detector on two public face detection benchmarks, including FDDB and WIDER FACE. Extensive experiments show that our detector outperforms state-of-the-art methods on all these datasets in general and by a substantial margin on the most challenging among them (e.g. WIDER FACE Hard subset). Also, MB-FCN runs at 15 FPS on a GPU for images of size 640 x 480 with no assumption on the minimum detectable face size.
Gray, Katie L H; Murphy, Jennifer; Marsh, Jade E; Cook, Richard
When upper and lower regions from different emotionless faces are aligned to form a facial composite, observers 'fuse' the two halves together, perceptually. The illusory distortion induced by task-irrelevant ('distractor') halves hinders participants' judgements about task-relevant ('target') halves. This composite-face effect reveals a tendency to integrate feature information from disparate regions of intact upright faces, consistent with theories of holistic face processing. However, observers frequently perceive emotion in ostensibly neutral faces, contrary to the intentions of experimenters. This study sought to determine whether this 'perceived emotion' influences the composite-face effect. In our first experiment, we confirmed that the composite effect grows stronger as the strength of distractor emotion increased. Critically, effects of distractor emotion were induced by weak emotion intensities, and were incidental insofar as emotion cues hindered image matching, not emotion labelling per se . In Experiment 2, we found a correlation between the presence of perceived emotion in a set of ostensibly neutral distractor regions sourced from commonly used face databases, and the strength of illusory distortion they induced. In Experiment 3, participants completed a sequential matching composite task in which half of the distractor regions were rated high and low for perceived emotion, respectively. Significantly stronger composite effects were induced by the high-emotion distractor halves. These convergent results suggest that perceived emotion increases the strength of the composite-face effect induced by supposedly emotionless faces. These findings have important implications for the study of holistic face processing in typical and atypical populations.
Khusaini, N. S.; Ismail, A.; Rashid, A. A.
This paper presents a preliminary study on the prominent barriers to lean manufacturing implementation in Malaysian Food and Beverages Industry. A survey was carried out to determine the most prominent barriers of lean manufacturing implementation that are currently being faced in this industry. The amount of barriers identified for this study is twenty seven. Out of 1309 available organizations, a total of 300 organizations have been randomly selected as respondents, and 53 organizations responded. From the variable map, the analysis shows that, the negative perception towards lean manufacturing top the list as the most agreeable barrier, while the technical barriers came after it. It can also be seen from the variable map that averagely, lack of vision and direction is the barrier that is being faced. Finally, this is perhaps the first attempt in investigating the prominent barriers to Lean Manufacturing implementation in Malaysian food and beverages industry using Rasch Model.
Worrell, R.B.; Gould, D.J.; Wall, D.W.
A special purpose data base for physical security barriers has been developed. In addition to barriers, the entities accommodated by the Barrier Data Base (BDB) include threats and references. A threat is established as a configuration of people and equipment which has been employed to penetrate (or attempt to penetrate) a barrier. References are used to cite publications pertinent to the barriers and threats in the data base. Utilization and maintenance of the Barrier Data Base is achieved with LIST, QUERY, ENTER, DELETE, and CHANGE commands which are used to manipulate the data base entities
Farfade, Sachin Sudhakar; Saberian, Mohammad; Li, Li-Jia
In this paper we consider the problem of multi-view face detection. While there has been significant research on this problem, current state-of-the-art approaches for this task require annotation of facial landmarks, e.g. TSM , or annotation of face poses [28, 22]. They also require training dozens of models to fully capture faces in all orientations, e.g. 22 models in HeadHunter method . In this paper we propose Deep Dense Face Detector (DDFD), a method that does not require pose/lan...
Cory A. Rieth
Full Text Available We report three behavioral experiments on the spatial characteristics evoking illusory face and letter detection. False detections made to pure noise images were analyzed using a modified reverse correlation method in which hundreds of observers rated a modest number of noise images (480 during a single session. This method was originally developed for brain imaging research, and has been used in a number of fMRI publications, but this is the first report of the behavioral classification images. In Experiment 1 illusory face detection occurred in response to scattered dark patches throughout the images, with a bias to the left visual field. This occurred despite the use of a fixation cross and expectations that faces would be centered. In contrast, illusory letter detection (Experiment 2 occurred in response to centrally positioned dark patches. Experiment 3 included an oval in all displays to spatially constrain illusory face detection. With the addition of this oval the classification image revealed an eyes/nose/mouth pattern. These results suggest that face detection is triggered by a minimal face-like pattern even when these features are not centered in visual focus.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission — This dataset provides a list of Nuclear Regulartory Commission (NRC) issued significant enforcement actions. These actions, referred to as "escalated", are issued by...
Suda, Masashi; Takei, Yuichi; Aoyama, Yoshiyuki; Narita, Kosuke; Sakurai, Noriko; Fukuda, Masato; Mikuni, Masahiko
Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are characterized by impaired social interaction and communication, restricted interests, and repetitive behaviours. The severity of these characteristics is posited to lie on a continuum that extends into the general population. Brain substrates underlying ASD have been investigated through functional neuroimaging studies using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, fMRI has methodological constraints for studying brain mechanisms during social interactions (for example, noise, lying on a gantry during the procedure, etc.). In this study, we investigated whether variations in autism spectrum traits are associated with changes in patterns of brain activation in typically developed adults. We used near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS), a recently developed functional neuroimaging technique that uses near-infrared light, to monitor brain activation in a natural setting that is suitable for studying brain functions during social interactions. We monitored regional cerebral blood volume changes using a 52-channel NIRS apparatus over the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and superior temporal sulcus (STS), 2 areas implicated in social cognition and the pathology of ASD, in 28 typically developed participants (14 male and 14 female) during face-to-face conversations. This task was designed to resemble a realistic social situation. We examined the correlations of these changes with autistic traits assessed using the Autism-Spectrum Quotient (AQ). Both the PFC and STS were significantly activated during face-to-face conversations. AQ scores were negatively correlated with regional cerebral blood volume increases in the left STS during face-to-face conversations, especially in males. Our results demonstrate successful monitoring of brain function during realistic social interactions by NIRS as well as lesser brain activation in the left STS during face-to-face conversations in typically developed participants with higher levels of autistic
Necefer, Len Edward [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Jones, Thomas Elisha [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)
American Indian tribes possess lands rich with renewable energy (RE) resources. Tribes have great potential and need to develop these resources, yet face a host of barriers that continue to impede development. Understanding these challenges as well as the pathways that can be taken to overcome them may facilitate more economic development to meet community needs and better position tribes to play a role in securing a low-carbon energy future for the United States. This paper presents the results of an expert elicitation of 24 tribal energy experts from federal, tribal, academic, and private industry backgrounds to identify barriers and opportunities for federally recognized tribes in the lower 48 states. Experts identified a number of unique challenges facing tribes including financing and funding, infrastructure, tribal leadership and staff, state-level influence, and partnerships. Cultural factors were seen only to be of concern with large-scale development. Tribal sovereignty is a significant motivation for RE development and has yet to be fully realized. Cultural considerations are critical to the success of future projects; smaller residential and community-scale projects may be a better fit. Improving partnerships between tribes and the private sector can increase RE deployment and overcome historical distrust. States can have a double-ended influence on projects within tribal lands through taxation.
Ali M. Al-Khathami; Sulieman W. Kojan; Mohammed A. Aljumah; Hussein Alqahtani; Hind Alrwaili
To study Saudi patients' perception of nursing care delivered by non-Arabic speaking nurses (NASNs). A cross-sectional survey of randomly selected patients admitted to King Abdul-Aziz Medical City, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia during the summer of 2009. We conducted structured face-to-face interviews, and the Institutional Review Board approved the study. 47% were men. Half was illiterate or had a low level of education. Eighty percent was served by NASNs. Most believed that the Arabic language is important to provide high quality of care. Two thirds reported difficulties in understanding nursing instructions, and felt that NASNs could not understand their concerns on many occasions. Half believed that NASNs are more susceptible to error. Seventy percent felt uncomfortable dealing with a nurse who cannot communicate in the same language, and 30% question the reliability of information delivered by NASNs. Patients noticed that NASN avoid (50%) or end conversation (70%) due to language barriers. Sixty-one percent reported that NASNs never or rarely called the interpreter. Overall satisfaction of nursing care was high (90%), with no significant difference between patients who were served by Arabic versus NASNs. Our patients were concerned about the language barrier during nursing care delivery. It may lead to miscommunication and compromise the patient-nurse relationship. Further exploration of this issue (Author).
Full Text Available Detecting others’ emotional states from their faces is an essential component of successful social interaction. However, the ability to perceive emotional expressions is reported to be modulated by a number of factors. We have previously found that facial color modulates the judgment of facial expression, while another study has shown that background color plays a modulatory role. Therefore, in this study, we directly compared the effects of face and background color on facial expression judgment within a single experiment. Fear-to-anger morphed faces were presented in face and background color conditions. Our results showed that judgments of facial expressions was influenced by both face and background color. However, facial color effects were significantly greater than background color effects, although the color saturation of faces was lower compared to background colors. These results suggest that facial color is intimately related to the judgment of facial expression, over and above the influence of simple color.
Macleod, Ashley; Tatangelo, Gemma; McCabe, Marita; You, Emily
Family caregivers of people with dementia have significant unmet needs in regard to their caregiving role. Despite this, they are reluctant to utilize services to reduce their burden. The aim of this study was to examine the barriers and facilitators of service use among family caregivers of people with dementia. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 24 family caregivers of community-dwelling people with dementia. Of these, 12 were partner caregivers (4 men, 8 women) and 12 were offspring caregivers (2 men, 10 women). The interviews were transcribed and analyzed using thematic analysis. Six main barriers and three facilitators were identified. These barriers and facilitators were relevant across many types of services and supports. The barriers were: the inability to find information about relevant services or support, the poor quality or mistrust of the services, the inflexibility of services, caregivers' beliefs about their obligations to the caregiving role and resistance by the care recipient. Key facilitators were: having good communication with the care recipient, having an "expert" point of contact, and having beliefs about the caregiving role that enabled the use of services. Given the significant changes in the aged care service-system, it is important to discuss the barriers faced by family caregivers of people with dementia. This will inform the development of targeted strategies to address the lack of service use among these family caregivers.
He, Wei; Johnson, Blake W
Electrophysiological studies of adults indicate that brain activity is enhanced during viewing of repeated faces, at a latency of about 250 ms after the onset of the face (M250/N250). The present study aimed to determine if this effect was also present in preschool-aged children, whose brain activity was measured in a custom-sized pediatric MEG system. The results showed that, unlike adults, face repetition did not show any significant modulation of M250 amplitude in children; however children's M250 latencies were significantly faster for repeated than non-repeated faces. Dynamic causal modelling (DCM) of the M250 in both age groups tested the effects of face repetition within the core face network including the occipital face area (OFA), the fusiform face area (FFA), and the superior temporal sulcus (STS). DCM revealed that repetition of identical faces altered both forward and backward connections in children and adults; however the modulations involved inputs to both FFA and OFA in adults but only to OFA in children. These findings suggest that the amplitude-insensitivity of the immature M250 may be due to a weaker connection between the FFA and lower visual areas. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.
Verhallen, Roeland J; Bosten, Jenny M; Goodbourn, Patrick T; Lawrance-Owen, Adam J; Bargary, Gary; Mollon, J D
A recent study has linked individual differences in face recognition to rs237887, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the oxytocin receptor gene ( OXTR; Skuse et al., 2014). In that study, participants were assessed using the Warrington Recognition Memory Test for Faces, but performance on Warrington's test has been shown not to rely purely on face recognition processes. We administered the widely used Cambridge Face Memory Test-a purer test of face recognition-to 370 participants. Performance was not significantly associated with rs237887, with 16 other SNPs of OXTR that we genotyped, or with a further 75 imputed SNPs. We also administered three other tests of face processing (the Mooney Face Test, the Glasgow Face Matching Test, and the Composite Face Test), but performance was never significantly associated with rs237887 or with any of the other genotyped or imputed SNPs, after corrections for multiple testing. In addition, we found no associations between OXTR and Autism-Spectrum Quotient scores.
An option for controlling contaminant migration from plumes and buried waste sites is to construct a subsurface barrier of a low-permeability material. The successful application of subsurface barriers requires processes to verify the emplacement and effectiveness of barrier and to monitor the performance of a barrier after emplacement. Non destructive and remote sensing techniques, such as geophysical methods, are possible technologies to address these needs. The changes in mechanical, hydrologic and chemical properties associated with the emplacement of an engineered barrier will affect geophysical properties such a seismic velocity, electrical conductivity, and dielectric constant. Also, the barrier, once emplaced and interacting with the in situ geologic system, may affect the paths along which electrical current flows in the subsurface. These changes in properties and processes facilitate the detection and monitoring of the barrier. The approaches to characterizing and monitoring engineered barriers can be divided between (1) methods that directly image the barrier using the contrasts in physical properties between the barrier and the host soil or rock and (2) methods that reflect flow processes around or through the barrier. For example, seismic methods that delineate the changes in density and stiffness associated with the barrier represents a direct imaging method. Electrical self potential methods and flow probes based on heat flow methods represent techniques that can delineate the flow path or flow processes around and through a barrier
Full Text Available Some communication barriers apply particularly to elderly people. The social barriers to effective communication in old age are the barriers caused by stereotypes of old age/elderly people and the barriers arising from limitations in using mass communication by seniors. Stereotypes of old age/elderly people embrace views regarding old people’s communication skills and the ideas about the correct way of communication with them. Therefore the communication problems of old people are correlated with the little and poor communication processes they are participating in. This seems to be a result of impetuses of poor quality sent to seniors by their communication partners. Not only face to face communication but also mass communication is very important for the elderly population. Therefore limitations in using new technologies and new communication channels as well as a limited presence in the mass media of content created by seniors and for seniors have an impact on their life, their well-being, and their interpersonal relationships. These problems are especially important when we faced with the ever growing population of elderly people.
Borkow, Gadi; Zhou, Steve S; Page, Tom; Gabbay, Jeffrey
Protective respiratory face masks protect the nose and mouth of the wearer from vapor drops carrying viruses or other infectious pathogens. However, incorrect use and disposal may actually increase the risk of pathogen transmission, rather than reduce it, especially when masks are used by non-professionals such as the lay public. Copper oxide displays potent antiviral properties. A platform technology has been developed that permanently introduces copper oxide into polymeric materials, conferring them with potent biocidal properties. We demonstrate that impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent biocidal properties in addition to their inherent filtration properties. Both control and copper oxide impregnated masks filtered above 99.85% of aerosolized viruses when challenged with 5.66+/-0.51 and 6.17+/-0.37 log(10)TCID(50) of human influenza A virus (H1N1) and avian influenza virus (H9N2), respectively, under simulated breathing conditions (28.3 L/min). Importantly, no infectious human influenza A viral titers were recovered from the copper oxide containing masks within 30 minutes (masks. Similarly, the infectious avian influenza titers recovered from the copper oxide containing masks were masks 5.03+/-0.54 log(10)TCID(50). The copper oxide containing masks successfully passed Bacterial Filtration Efficacy, Differential Pressure, Latex Particle Challenge, and Resistance to Penetration by Synthetic Blood tests designed to test the filtration properties of face masks in accordance with the European EN 14683:2005 and NIOSH N95 standards. Impregnation of copper oxide into respiratory protective face masks endows them with potent anti-influenza biocidal properties without altering their physical barrier properties. The use of biocidal masks may significantly reduce the risk of hand or environmental contamination, and thereby subsequent infection, due to improper handling and disposal of the masks.
Eleftheriadis, Iordanis M.; Anagnostopoulou, Evgenia G.
Rapid diffusion of renewable energy sources (RES) in the electricity power sector is crucial if the EU wants to fulfill its 2050 CO 2 reduction commitments. For this reason, identifying and alleviating all barriers that hinder the development of RES is necessary to the successful deployment of these technologies. This paper discusses the main barriers in the diffusion of wind and photovoltaic (PV) solar power in the Greek electricity sector by drawing on the literature of technological innovation systems and system functions. Furthermore, we provide an explanation of the different diffusion rates between the two technologies. Inadequate financial resources, low grid capacity, delays in the issuance of building permits, opposition from local communities to the construction of wind farms and the lack of a stable institutional framework are among the most important barriers that inhibit the diffusion of the wind and PV solar power. The nature of the barriers identified in this study calls for policy intervention. - Highlights: • Firms in the Greek wind and solar power sectors assess RES barriers. • Lack of financial resources is the most important RES barrier. • Lack of a stable institutional framework negatively affects RES deployment. • The support of the public sector is crucial to the diffusion of RES. •Wind power faces strong legitimization barriers
Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: To better understand barriers to glycaemic control from the patient's perspective. METHODS: An interpretative phenomenological approach was used to study the experiences of 15 adults with Type 2 diabetes. Participants each gave a semi-structured interview of their experiences of living with diabetes. Interviews were transcribed, and themes extracted and organised using a patientcentred framework. FINDINGS: Participants' stories confirmed many of the barriers in the literature, particularly those related to context, such as family, finances, work. Barriers also related to negative emotional reactions to diabetes: fear of new events (diagnosis, starting pills/insulin; guilt about getting diabetes and not controlling it; and shame about having diabetes. Barriers also related to unscientific beliefs and personal beliefs. There were additional barriers related to poor clinician-patient relationships. Overall, participants had a poor understanding of diabetes, and complained that their clinician simply 'told them what to do'. CONCLUSION: Using a patient-centred approach, this study identified many barriers to glycaemic control. We suggest that a key barrier is clinician ignorance of their patients' fears, beliefs, expectations, context; of what constitutes a positive therapeutic relationship; and of the limitations of a biomedical approach to patient non-adherence. Faced with both a worsening diabetes epidemic and increasing health care workforce shortages, clinicians urgently need to understand that it is they, not their patients, who must change their approach if diabetes care is to be improved.
Osbaldestin, A H; Adamson, L N C
We study autocorrelation functions in symmetric barrier billiards for golden mean trajectories with arbitrary barriers. Renormalization analysis reveals the presence of a chaotic invariant set and thus that, for a typical barrier, there are chaotic correlations. The chaotic renormalization set is the analogue of the so-called orchid that arises in a generalized Harper equation. (paper)
Face recognition has several applications, including security, such as (authentication and identification of device users and criminal suspects), and in medicine (corrective surgery and diagnosis). Facial recognition programs rely on algorithms that can compare and compute the similarity between two sets of images. This eBook explains some of the similarity measures used in facial recognition systems in a single volume. Readers will learn about various measures including Minkowski distances, Mahalanobis distances, Hansdorff distances, cosine-based distances, among other methods. The book also summarizes errors that may occur in face recognition methods. Computer scientists "facing face" and looking to select and test different methods of computing similarities will benefit from this book. The book is also useful tool for students undertaking computer vision courses.
Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A J
Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition ( n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition ( n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning
Lading, Brian; Larsen, Rasmus; Astrom, K
We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations......We build a 3D face shape model, including inter- and intra-shape variations, derive the analytical Jacobian of its resulting 2D rendered image, and show example of its fitting performance with light, pose, id, expression and texture variations...
Fischer, Aaron J; Collier-Meek, Melissa A; Bloomfield, Bradley; Erchul, William P; Gresham, Frank M
School psychologists who experience challenges delivering face-to-face consultation may utilize videoconferencing to facilitate their consultation activities. Videoconferencing has been found to be an effective method of service delivery in related fields and emerging research suggests that it may be effective for providing teacher training and support in school settings. In this exploratory investigation, we used the Consultation Analysis Record (Bergan & Tombari, 1975) and its four indices to assess the effectiveness of conducting problem identification interviews via videoconferencing versus face-to-face. Overall, findings indicated significant differences across these two conditions, with videoconference interviews coded as having higher indices of content relevance, process effectiveness, and message control, but lower content focus, compared to face-to-face interviews. As these indices have been positively associated with favorable consultation outcomes, the results provide initial support for the effectiveness of consultation delivered via videoconferencing. Copyright © 2017 Society for the Study of School Psychology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Charee M; Crook, Brittani; Love, Brad; Macpherson, Catherine Fiona; Johnson, Rebecca
We compared adolescent and young adult cancer patient and survivor language between mediated and face-to-face support communities in order to understand how the use of certain words frame conversations about family, friends, health, work, achievement, and leisure. We analyzed transcripts from an online discussion board (N = 360) and face-to-face support group (N = 569) for adolescent and young adults using Linguistic Inquiry and Word Count, a word-based computerized text analysis software that counts the frequency of words and word stems. There were significant differences between the online and face-to-face support groups in terms of content (e.g. friends, health) and style words (e.g. verb tense, negative emotion, and cognitive process). © The Author(s) 2015.
Nygren, Richard E., E-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Youchison, Dennis L. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wirth, Brian D. [University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Snead, Lance L.
Highlights: • New approach recommended to develop refractory fusion plasma facing components. • Need to develop engineered materials architecture with nano-features. • Need to develop PFCs with gas jet cooling with very fine scale for jet arrays. • Emphasis on role of additive manufacturing as needed method for fabrication. - Abstract: This paper advances a vision for plasma facing components (PFCs) that includes the following points. The solution for plasma facing materials likely consists of engineered structures in which the layer of plasma facing material (PFM) is integrated with an engineered structure that cools the PFM and may also transition with graded composition. The key to achieving this PFC architecture will likely lie in advanced manufacturing methods, e.g., additive manufacturing, that can produce layers with controlled porosity and features such as micro-fibers and/or nano-particles that can collect He and transmutation products, limit tritium retention, and do all this in a way that maintains adequate robustness for a satisfactory lifetime. This vision has significant implications for how we structure a development program.
The present study compared the impact of face to face teaching with a short online game informed learning activity on health participants' knowledge about, and confidence in, managing aggressive situations. Both forms of teaching resulted in a significant increase in participants' knowledge and confidence. Face to face training led to significantly greater increases in knowledge but was equivalent in terms of confidence. Both forms of teaching were rated positively, but face to face teaching received significantly higher ratings than the online activity. The study suggests that short online game informed learning activities may offer an effective alternative for health professional training where face to face training is not possible. Further research is needed on the longer term impact of both types of training on practice.
Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.
A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper will cover the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier. 8 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab
Jones, E.O.; Freeman, H.D.
A sorbent barrier uses sorbent material such as activated carbon or natural zeolites to prevent the migration of radionuclides from a low-level waste site to the aquifer. The sorbent barrier retards the movement of radioactive contaminants, thereby providing time for the radionuclides to decay. Sorbent barriers can be a simple, effective, and inexpensive method for reducing the migration of radionuclides to the environment. Designing a sorbent barrier consists of using soil and sorbent material properties and site conditions as input to a model which will determine the necessary sorbent barrier thickness to meet contaminant limits. The paper covers the following areas: techniques for measuring sorption properties of barrier materials and underlying soils, use of a radionuclide transport model to determine the required barrier thickness and performance under a variety of site conditions, and cost estimates for applying the barrier
Laura V Cuaya
Full Text Available Dogs have a rich social relationship with humans. One fundamental aspect of it is how dogs pay close attention to human faces in order to guide their behavior, for example, by recognizing their owner and his/her emotional state using visual cues. It is well known that humans have specific brain regions for the processing of other human faces, yet it is unclear how dogs' brains process human faces. For this reason, our study focuses on describing the brain correlates of perception of human faces in dogs using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI. We trained seven domestic dogs to remain awake, still and unrestrained inside an MRI scanner. We used a visual stimulation paradigm with block design to compare activity elicited by human faces against everyday objects. Brain activity related to the perception of faces changed significantly in several brain regions, but mainly in the bilateral temporal cortex. The opposite contrast (i.e., everyday objects against human faces showed no significant brain activity change. The temporal cortex is part of the ventral visual pathway, and our results are consistent with reports in other species like primates and sheep, that suggest a high degree of evolutionary conservation of this pathway for face processing. This study introduces the temporal cortex as candidate to process human faces, a pillar of social cognition in dogs.
Rhodes, Gillian; Jeffery, Linda; Evangelista, Emma; Ewing, Louise; Peters, Marianne; Taylor, Libby
Perceptual adaptation not only produces striking perceptual aftereffects, but also enhances coding efficiency and discrimination by calibrating coding mechanisms to prevailing inputs. Attention to simple stimuli increases adaptation, potentially enhancing its functional benefits. Here we show that attention also increases adaptation to faces. In Experiment 1, face identity aftereffects increased when attention to adapting faces was increased using a change detection task. In Experiment 2, figural (distortion) face aftereffects increased when attention was increased using a snap game (detecting immediate repeats) during adaptation. Both were large effects. Contributions of low-level adaptation were reduced using free viewing (both experiments) and a size change between adapt and test faces (Experiment 2). We suggest that attention may enhance adaptation throughout the entire cortical visual pathway, with functional benefits well beyond the immediate advantages of selective processing of potentially important stimuli. These results highlight the potential to facilitate adaptive updating of face-coding mechanisms by strategic deployment of attentional resources. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Campo, Shelly; Kohler, Connie; Askelson, Natoshia M; Ortiz, Cristina; Losch, Mary
Little is known about barriers that Latinas in the United States face in preventing unintended pregnancies beyond those of language and cost. This study examined factors inhibiting contraceptive use among 18- to 30-year-old Latinas in the Midwest. Individual interviews (N = 31) were conducted in Spanish with Latinas residing across the state. The interview protocol included questions about contraceptives and unintended pregnancies. Interviews were recorded, transcribed, translated, and coded for themes related to barriers. The majority of the barriers were related to communication but not English proficiency. Respondents talked about specific situations and experiences in which communication presented obstacles to using contraceptives. While language and cost are important barriers, attention needs to be paid to the other communication issues that women face related to culture, religion, partners, family, and spontaneity. Health care providers need to address the range of communication barriers that affect Latinas' contraceptive use. © The Author(s) 2014.
Cleland, Jennifer A; Watson, Margaret C; Walker, Leighton; Denison, Alan; Vanes, Neil; Moffat, Mandy
Effective communication by pharmacists is essential to ensure patient safety in terms of provision and use of medications by patients. Global migration trends mean community pharmacists increasingly encounter patients with a variety of first languages. The aim of this study was to explore community pharmacists' perceptions of communication barriers during the provision of care to A8 (nationals from central/Eastern European states) migrants. A qualitative face-to-face interview study of purposively sampled community pharmacists, North East Scotland. Participants (n = 14) identified a number of barriers to providing optimal care to A8 migrants including: communication (information gathering and giving); confidentiality when using family/friends as translators; the impact of patient healthcare expectations on communication and the length of the consultation; and frustration with the process of the consultation. Several barriers were specific to A8 migrants but most seemed pertinent to any group with limited English proficiency and reflect those found in studies of healthcare professionals caring for more traditional UK migrant populations. Further research is needed using objective outcome measures, such as consultation recordings, to measure the impact of these perceived barriers on pharmacist-patient consultations. Language and cultural barriers impact on the quality of pharmacist-patient communication and thus may have patient safety and pharmacist training implications. © 2011 The Authors. IJPP © 2011 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.
Grazier, Kyle L; Smith, Judith E; Song, Jean; Smiley, Mary L
Despite the prevailing consensus as to its value, the adoption of integrated care models is not widespread. Thus, the objective of this article it to examine the barriers to the adoption of depression and primary care models in the United States. A literature search focused on peer-reviewed journal literature in Medline and PsycInfo. The search strategy focused on barriers to integrated mental health care services in primary care, and was based on previously existing searches. The search included: MeSH terms combined with targeted keywords; iterative citation searches in Scopus; searches for grey literature (literature not traditionally indexed by commercial publishers) in Google and organization websites, examination of reference lists, and discussions with researchers. Integration of depression care and primary care faces multiple barriers. Patients and families face numerous barriers, linked inextricably to create challenges not easily remedied by any one party, including the following: vulnerable populations with special needs, patient and family factors, medical and mental health comorbidities, provider supply and culture, financing and costs, and organizational issues. An analysis of barriers impeding integration of depression and primary care presents information for future implementation of services.
Turbitt, Erin; Kunin, Marina; Gafforini, Sarah; Freed, Gary L
The aim of this study was to identify motivators and barriers that paediatricians face when discharging patients from outpatient specialty care. A questionnaire was administered to outpatient care paediatricians in Victoria working in one of five speciality public hospital clinics. Questions focused on how important various motivators and barriers were in respondents' decision to discharge a patient from their clinic. Nearly all (91%, n=74) paediatricians invited to participate provided responses. The factor influencing the greatest proportion of paediatricians in their decision to discharge patients back to primary care was the potential that patients may not receive the required care from a GP. The next most highly rated barrier was that it is too complicated to arrange discharge; rated as a very important influence by one-third of paediatricians (33%, n=24). Improvements to the discharge process may encourage more paediatricians to discharge patients back to their GP, therefore freeing up appointment slots. This in turn could reduce waiting times for paediatric outpatient clinics in Victoria. The concern from paediatricians that patients may not receive the required care from a GP warrants attention and should be further investigated.
Full Text Available China promoted the large-scale adoption of Electric Vehicles (EVs in its 13th five-year plan; however, this target faces many obstacles. This paper analyzes the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs through a survey in Shenzhen, which has the biggest EVs market share out of China’s major cities. Based on previous research, this paper conducted a new study using 406 approved questionnaires among 500 participants. Our study proposed five hypotheses to examine the main barriers to widespread adoption of EVs. The analysis was conducted using statistical method that included two-way frequency tables, chi-square test, and factor analysis. The results indicated that perception of advantages of EVs and access to recharging EVs remained the main barriers in large-scale penetration. Furthermore, our study revealed that a drop in financial incentives would not cause a significant decline in the future adoption of EVs. The study provides suggestions to car manufacturers and government policy advisors based on our analysis and discussion.
Ferng, Yu-hui; Wong-McLoughlin, Jennifer; Barrett, Angela; Currie, Leanne; Larson, Elaine
To identify barriers to mask wearing and to examine the factors associated with the willingness to wear masks among households. We used data sources from a study assessing the impact of 3 nonpharmaceutical interventions on the rates of influenza: exit interviews; home visits with a subset of the mask group; and a focus group. Risk perception score, univariate analysis, and logistic regression were conducted to identify the characteristics and predictors of mask use. Thematic barriers to mask wearing were identified from qualitative data obtained at home visits and focus group. Respondents from the mask group, when compared with the nonmask group, demonstrated higher risk perception scores concerning influenza (maximum score: 60, means: 37.6 and 30.2, pmask wearing (maximum score: 10, means: 7.8 and 7.3, p=.043). There was no significant association between demographic, attitudinal, or knowledge variables and adherence to wearing masks. Thematic barriers were identified such as social acceptability of mask use, comfort and fit, and perception of the risk/need for masks. Face masks may not be an effective intervention for seasonal or pandemic influenza unless the risk perception of influenza is high. Dissemination of culturally appropriate mask use information by health authorities and providers must be emphasized when educating the public. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the proposal that specific human cortical regions in the ventral occipitotemporal cortex, commonly called the fusiform face area (FFA and occipital face area (OFA, are specialized for face processing. Here, we present findings from a fMRI study of identity discrimination of faces and objects that demonstrates the FFA and OFA are equally responsive to processing stimuli at the level of individuals (i.e., individuation, be they human faces or non-face objects. The FFA and OFA were defined via a passive viewing task as regions that produced greater activation to faces relative to non-face stimuli within the middle fusiform gyrus and inferior occipital gyrus. In the individuation task, participants judged whether sequentially presented images of faces, diverse objects, or wristwatches depicted the identical or a different exemplar. All three stimulus types produced equivalent BOLD activation within the FFA and OFA; that is, there was no face-specific or face-preferential processing. Critically, individuation processing did not eliminate an object superiority effect relative to faces within a region more closely linked to object processing in the lateral occipital complex (LOC, suggesting that individuation processes are reasonably specific to the FFA and OFA. Taken together, these findings challenge the prevailing view that the FFA and OFA are face-specific processing regions, demonstrating instead that they function to individuate -- i.e., identify specific individuals -- within a category. These findings have significant implications for understanding the function of a brain region widely believed to play an important role in social cognition.
Guines, F.; Sanchez-Dehesa, J.; Flores, F.
In this paper a realistic selfconsistent calculation of an abrupt metal-semiconductor junction is presented by means of a tight-binding approach. A specific Si-Ag junction has been considered, and the charge neutrality level as well as the barrier height have been determined in good agreement with experiments. For a generaljunction it is shown that the interface properties depend essentially on the characteristics of the first metal layer and its interaction with the semiconductor. (Author) [pt
Mizel, Ari; Mitchell, M. W.; Cohen, Marvin L.
We propose a ground-state approach to realizing quantum computers. This scheme is time-independent and inherently defends against decoherence by possessing an energy barrier to excitation. We prove that our time-independent qubits can perform the same algorithms as their time-dependent counterparts. Advantages and disadvantages of the time-independent approach are described. A model involving quantum dots is provided for illustration
Del Líbano, Mario; Calvo, Manuel G; Fernández-Martín, Andrés; Recio, Guillermo
This study investigated (a) how prototypical happy faces (with happy eyes and a smile) can be discriminated from blended expressions with a smile but non-happy eyes, depending on type and intensity of the eye expression; and (b) how smile discrimination differs for human perceivers versus automated face analysis, depending on affective valence and morphological facial features. Human observers categorized faces as happy or non-happy, or rated their valence. Automated analysis (FACET software) computed seven expressions (including joy/happiness) and 20 facial action units (AUs). Physical properties (low-level image statistics and visual saliency) of the face stimuli were controlled. Results revealed, first, that some blended expressions (especially, with angry eyes) had lower discrimination thresholds (i.e., they were identified as "non-happy" at lower non-happy eye intensities) than others (especially, with neutral eyes). Second, discrimination sensitivity was better for human perceivers than for automated FACET analysis. As an additional finding, affective valence predicted human discrimination performance, whereas morphological AUs predicted FACET discrimination. FACET can be a valid tool for categorizing prototypical expressions, but is currently more limited than human observers for discrimination of blended expressions. Configural processing facilitates detection of in/congruence(s) across regions, and thus detection of non-genuine smiling faces (due to non-happy eyes). Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Rajaram, V.; Dean, P.V.; McLellan, S.A.
Engineered barriers, both vertical and horizontal, have been used to isolate hazardous wastes from contact, precipitation, surface water and groundwater. The primary objective of this study was to determine the performance of subsurface barriers installed throughout the U.S. over the past 20 years to contain hazardous wastes. Evaluation of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Subtitle C or equivalent caps was a secondary objective. A nationwide search was launched to select hazardous waste sites at which vertical barrier walls and/or caps had been used as the containment method. None of the sites selected had an engineered floor. From an initial list of 130 sites, 34 sites were selected on the basis of availability of monitoring data for detailed analysis of actual field performance. This paper will briefly discuss preliminary findings regarding the design, construction quality assurance/construction quality control (CQA/CQC), and monitoring at the 34 sites. In addition, the short-term performance of these sites (less than 5 years) is presented since very little long-term performance data was available
A double Schottky barrier is often formed at the grain boundary in polycrystalline semiconductors. The barrier height is shown to fluctuate in value due to the random nature of the impurity positions. The magnitude of the fluctuations is 0.1 eV, and the fluctuations cause the barrier height measured by capacitance to differ from the one measured by electrical conductivity
This phenomenological study investigated barriers to higher education faced by 11 college students labeled with learning disabilities (LD) using their voice as the primary data. Data were analyzed and interpreted through a disability theory perspective revealing barriers stemmed largely from external social causes rather than individual pathology. Barriers included being misunderstood by faculty, being reluctant to request accommodations for fear of invoking stigma, and having to work considerably longer hours than nonlabeled peers. Findings indicated barriers could be overcome through raising faculty awareness about LD issues, engaging the assistance of the college LD specialist, and participation in a LD democratic empowerment community on campus.
Reardon, Tessa; Harvey, Kate; Young, Bridget; O'Brien, Doireann; Creswell, Cathy
Anxiety disorders are among the most common mental health disorders experienced by children, but only a minority of these children access professional help. Understanding the difficulties parents face seeking support for child anxiety disorders could inform targeted interventions to improve treatment access. The aims of the study were to identify barriers and facilitators to seeking and accessing professional support for child anxiety disorders, and ways to minimise these barriers. A qualitative interview study was conducted with parents of 16 children (aged 7-11 years) with anxiety disorders identified through screening in schools. Barriers and facilitators were identified in relation to four distinct stages in the help-seeking process: parents recognising the anxiety difficulty, parents recognising the need for professional support, parents contacting professionals, and families receiving professional support. Barriers and facilitators at each stage related to the child's difficulties, the role of the parent, and parent perceptions of professionals and services. Findings illustrate the need (1) for readily available tools to help parents and professionals identify clinically significant anxiety in children, (2) to ensure that families and professionals can easily access guidance on the help-seeking process and available support, and (3) to ensure existing services offer sufficient provision for less severe difficulties that incorporates direct support for parents.
O’Brien, Doireann; Harvey, Kate; Howse, Jessica; Reardon, Tessa; Creswell, Cathy
Background Mental health problems are common and typically have an early onset. Effective treatments for mental health problems in childhood and adolescence are available, yet only a minority of children who are affected access them. This is of serious concern, considering the far-reaching and long-term negative consequences of such problems. Primary care is usually the first port of call for concerned parents so it is important to understand how primary care practitioners manage child and adolescent mental health problems and the barriers they face. Aim To ascertain primary care practitioners’ perceptions of the barriers that prevent effective management of child and adolescent mental health problems. Design and setting A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature in a primary care setting. Method A database search of peer-reviewed articles using PsycINFO, MEDLINE®, Embase, and Web of Science, from inception (earliest 1806) until October 2014, was conducted. Additional studies were identified through hand searches and forward-citation searches. Studies needed to have at least one search term in four categories: primary care, childhood/adolescence, mental health, and barriers. Results A total of 4151 articles were identified, of which 43 were included (30 quantitative studies and 13 qualitative studies). The majority of the barriers related to identification, management, and/or referral. Considerable barriers included a lack of providers and resources, extensive waiting lists, and financial restrictions. Conclusion The identification of a broad range of significant barriers highlights the need to strengthen the ability to deal with these common difficulties in primary care. There is a particular need for tools and training to aid accurate identification and management, and for more efficient access to specialist services. PMID:27621291
O'Brien, Doireann; Harvey, Kate; Howse, Jessica; Reardon, Tessa; Creswell, Cathy
Mental health problems are common and typically have an early onset. Effective treatments for mental health problems in childhood and adolescence are available, yet only a minority of children who are affected access them. This is of serious concern, considering the far-reaching and long-term negative consequences of such problems. Primary care is usually the first port of call for concerned parents so it is important to understand how primary care practitioners manage child and adolescent mental health problems and the barriers they face. To ascertain primary care practitioners' perceptions of the barriers that prevent effective management of child and adolescent mental health problems. A systematic review of qualitative and quantitative literature in a primary care setting. A database search of peer-reviewed articles using PsycINFO, MEDLINE(®), Embase, and Web of Science, from inception (earliest 1806) until October 2014, was conducted. Additional studies were identified through hand searches and forward-citation searches. Studies needed to have at least one search term in four categories: primary care, childhood/adolescence, mental health, and barriers. A total of 4151 articles were identified, of which 43 were included (30 quantitative studies and 13 qualitative studies). The majority of the barriers related to identification, management, and/or referral. Considerable barriers included a lack of providers and resources, extensive waiting lists, and financial restrictions. The identification of a broad range of significant barriers highlights the need to strengthen the ability to deal with these common difficulties in primary care. There is a particular need for tools and training to aid accurate identification and management, and for more efficient access to specialist services. © British Journal of General Practice 2016.
Amirav, Israel; Halamish, Asaf; Gorenberg, Miguel; Omar, Hamza; Newhouse, Michael T
Various hard face models are commonly used to evaluate the efficiency of aerosol face masks. Softer more realistic "face" surface materials, like skin, deform upon mask application and should provide more relevant in-vitro tests. Studies that simultaneously take into consideration many of the factors characteristic of the in vivo face are lacking. These include airways, various application forces, comparison of various devices, comparison with a hard-surface model and use of a more representative model face based on large numbers of actual faces. To compare mask to "face" seal and aerosol delivery of two pediatric masks using a soft vs. a hard, appropriately representative, pediatric face model under various applied forces. Two identical face models and upper airways replicas were constructed, the only difference being the suppleness and compressibility of the surface layer of the "face." Integrity of the seal and aerosol delivery of two different masks [AeroChamber (AC) and SootherMask (SM)] were compared using a breath simulator, filter collection and realistic applied forces. The soft "face" significantly increased the delivery efficiency and the sealing characteristics of both masks. Aerosol delivery with the soft "face" was significantly greater for the SM compared to the AC (pmasks was observed with the hard "face." The material and pliability of the model "face" surface has a significant influence on both the seal and delivery efficiency of face masks. This finding should be taken into account during in-vitro aerosol studies.
GE Xinliang; YANG Jie; LI Feng; WANG Huahua
A robust face pose estimation approach is proposed by using face shape statistical model approach and pose parameters are represented by trigonometric functions. The face shape statistical model is firstly built by analyzing the face shapes from different people under varying poses. The shape alignment is vital in the process of building the statistical model. Then, six trigonometric functions are employed to represent the face pose parameters. Lastly, the mapping function is constructed between face image and face pose by linearly relating different parameters. The proposed approach is able to estimate different face poses using a few face training samples. Experimental results are provided to demonstrate its efficiency and accuracy.
A wide variety of magnetic confinement devices have found transitions to an enhanced confinement regime. Simple dynamical models have been able to capture much of the dynamics of these barriers however an open question has been the disconnected nature of the electron thermal transport channel sometimes observed in the presence of a standard ('ion channel' barrier. By adding to simple barrier model an evolution equation for electron fluctuations we can investigate the interaction between the formation of the standard ion channel barrier and the somewhat less common electron channel barrier. Barrier formation in the electron channel is even more sensitive to the alignment of the various gradients making up the sheared radial electric field than the ion barrier is. Electron channel heat transport is found to significantly increase after the formation of the ion channel barrier but before the electron channel barrier is formed. This increased transport is important in the barrier evolution. (author)
Ding, Changxing; Xu, Chang; Tao, Dacheng
Face images captured in unconstrained environments usually contain significant pose variation, which dramatically degrades the performance of algorithms designed to recognize frontal faces. This paper proposes a novel face identification framework capable of handling the full range of pose variations within ±90° of yaw. The proposed framework first transforms the original pose-invariant face recognition problem into a partial frontal face recognition problem. A robust patch-based face representation scheme is then developed to represent the synthesized partial frontal faces. For each patch, a transformation dictionary is learnt under the proposed multi-task learning scheme. The transformation dictionary transforms the features of different poses into a discriminative subspace. Finally, face matching is performed at patch level rather than at the holistic level. Extensive and systematic experimentation on FERET, CMU-PIE, and Multi-PIE databases shows that the proposed method consistently outperforms single-task-based baselines as well as state-of-the-art methods for the pose problem. We further extend the proposed algorithm for the unconstrained face verification problem and achieve top-level performance on the challenging LFW data set.
2D face analysis techniques, such as face landmarking, face recognition and face verification, are reasonably dependent on illumination conditions which are usually uncontrolled and unpredictable in the real world. An illumination robust preprocessing method thus remains a significant challenge in reliable face analysis. In this paper we propose a novel approach for improving lighting normalization through building the underlying reflectance model which characterizes interactions between skin surface, lighting source and camera sensor, and elaborates the formation of face color appearance. Specifically, the proposed illumination processing pipeline enables the generation of Chromaticity Intrinsic Image (CII) in a log chromaticity space which is robust to illumination variations. Moreover, as an advantage over most prevailing methods, a photo-realistic color face image is subsequently reconstructed which eliminates a wide variety of shadows whilst retaining the color information and identity details. Experimental results under different scenarios and using various face databases show the effectiveness of the proposed approach to deal with lighting variations, including both soft and hard shadows, in face recognition.
Full Text Available Evaluating the familiarity of faces is critical for social animals as it is the basis of individual recognition. In the present study, we examined how face familiarity is reflected in neural activities in our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. Skin-surface event-related brain potentials (ERPs were measured while a fully awake chimpanzee observed photographs of familiar and unfamiliar chimpanzee faces (Experiment 1 and human faces (Experiment 2. The ERPs evoked by chimpanzee faces differentiated unfamiliar individuals from familiar ones around midline areas centered on vertex sites at approximately 200 ms after the stimulus onset. In addition, the ERP response to the image of the subject’s own face did not significantly diverge from those evoked by familiar chimpanzees, suggesting that the subject’s brain at a minimum remembered the image of her own face. The ERPs evoked by human faces were not influenced by the familiarity of target individuals. These results indicate that chimpanzee neural representations are more sensitive to the familiarity of conspecific than allospecific faces.
A dielectric barrier discharge (DBD) is a transient discharge occurring between two electrodes in coaxial or planar arrangements separated by one or two layers of dielectric material. The charge accumulated on the dielectric barrier generates a field in a direction opposite to the applied field. The discharge is quenched before an arc is formed. It is one of the few non-thermal discharges that operates at atmospheric pressure and has the potential for use in pollution control. In this work, a numerical model of the dielectric barrier discharge is developed, along with the numerical approach. Adaptive grids based on the charge distribution is used. A self-consistent method is used to solve for the electric field and charge densities. The Successive Overrelaxation (SOR) method in a non-uniform grid spacing is used to solve the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate. The Flux Corrected Transport (FCT) method is modified to solve the continuity equations in the non-uniform grid spacing. Parametric studies of dielectric barrier discharges are conducted. General characteristics of dielectric barrier discharges in both anode-directed and cathode-directed streamer are studied. Effects of the dielectric capacitance, the applied field, the resistance in external circuit and the type of gases (O2, air, N2) are investigated. We conclude that the SOR method in an adaptive grid spacing for the solution of the Poisson's equation in the cylindrically-symmetric coordinate is convergent and effective. The dielectric capacitance has little effect on the g-factor of radical production, but it determines the strength of the dielectric barrier discharge. The applied field and the type of gases used have a significant role on the current peak, current pulse duration and radical generation efficiency, discharge strength, and microstreamer radius, whereas the external series resistance has very little effect on the streamer properties. The results are helpful in
Zhou, Wei; Apted, J.J.
A computer code COMPASS based on compartment model approach is developed to calculate the near-field source term of the High-Level-Waste repository under unsaturated conditions. COMPASS is applied to evaluate the expected performance of Richard's (capillary) barriers as backfills to divert infiltrating groundwater at Yucca Mountain. Comparing the release rates of four typical nuclides with and without the Richard's barrier, it is shown that the Richard's barrier significantly decreases the peak release rates from the Engineered-Barrier-System (EBS) into the host rock
The problem of a particle tunneling through the potential barrier is solved within quasi-relativistic Schroedinger equation. It is shown that the subbarrier relativistic effects give a significant addition to penetration coefficient when some relations between parameters of the barrier and mass of a tunneling particle are satisfied. For instance an account of these effects for penetration of low energy π + -mesons through Coulomb barrier of the 298 U nuclei would give the increasing of penetration coefficient to 30 percent as compared to the nonrelativistic one. Also we give the criteria under which the contribution of the ''under barrier relativism'' to penetration coefficient becomes essential. 3 refs.; 6 figs. (author)
Bai, Yancheng; Ghanem, Bernard
Face detection is a fundamental problem in computer vision. It is still a challenging task in unconstrained conditions due to significant variations in scale, pose, expressions, and occlusion. In this paper, we propose a multi-branch fully
Lange, Thomas; Ottens, Melanie; Taylor, Andrea
Analysis of Scottish small and medium-sized enterprises reveals that small business culture is a significant barrier to skill development. Other barriers include awareness, finance, and access to training. A welter of recent policy initiatives has added to a state of confusion about the role of training. (SK)
The four most reported common barriers among stroke survivors were access to exercise facilities (95.0 %), being embarrassed to exercise (94.2%), economic cost demands of exercise (94.2 %) and notion that people in exercise clothes look funny (94.2%) respectively. There were no significant differences found in barriers ...
Tiedemann, Daniel; Clausen, Maja Lisa; John, Swen Malthe
that the negative effect of occlusion in itself is limited, and that only extensive and long-term occlusion will cause barrier impairment. However, studies investigating combined effect of occlusion and exposure to soaps/detergents indicate that occlusion significantly enhances the skin barrier damage caused...... by detergents/soaps in a dose-response fashion....
Paré, Guy; Trudel, Marie-Claude
Drawing on the classical theory of diffusion of innovations advanced by Rogers [E.M. Rogers, Diffusion of Innovations, 4th ed., Free Press, New York, NY, 1995] and on the theory of barriers to innovation [P. Attewell, Technology diffusion and organizational learning: the case of business computing. Organ. Sci. 3 (1992) 1-19; H. Tanriverdi, C.S. Iacono, Knowledge barriers to diffusion of telemedicine. Proceedings of the 20th International Conference on Information Systems, Charlotte, NC, 1999, pp. 39-50; S. Nambisan, Y.-M. Wang, Roadblocks to web technology adoption? Commun. ACM, 42 (1) (1999) 98-101], this study seeks a better understanding of challenges faced in PACS implementations in hospitals and of the strategies required to ensure their success. To attain this objective, we describe and analyze the process used to adopt and implement PACS at two Canadian hospitals. Our findings clearly demonstrate the importance of treating any PACS deployment not simply as a rollout of new technology but as a project that will transform the organization. Proponents of these projects must not lose sight of the fact that, even if technological complexity represents a significant issue, it must not garner all the project team's attention. This situation is even more dangerous, inasmuch as the greatest risk to the implementation often lies elsewhere. It would also appear to be crucial to anticipate and address organizational and behavioral challenges from the very first phase of the innovation process, in order to ensure that all participants will be committed to the project. In order to maximize the likelihood of PACS success, it appears crucial to adopt a proactive implementation strategy, one that takes into consideration all the technical, economic, organizational, and human factors, and does so from the first phase of the innovation process.
Dunbar, P. K.; Furtney, M.; McLean, S. J.; Sweeney, A. D.
Tsunamis have inflicted death and destruction on the coastlines of the world throughout history. The occurrence of tsunamis and the resulting effects have been collected and studied as far back as the second millennium B.C. The knowledge gained from cataloging and examining these events has led to significant changes in our understanding of tsunamis, tsunami sources, and methods to mitigate the effects of tsunamis. The most significant, not surprisingly, are often the most devastating, such as the 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake and tsunami. The goal of this poster is to give a brief overview of the occurrence of tsunamis and then focus specifically on several significant tsunamis. There are various criteria to determine the most significant tsunamis: the number of deaths, amount of damage, maximum runup height, had a major impact on tsunami science or policy, etc. As a result, descriptions will include some of the most costly (2011 Tohoku, Japan), the most deadly (2004 Sumatra, 1883 Krakatau), and the highest runup ever observed (1958 Lituya Bay, Alaska). The discovery of the Cascadia subduction zone as the source of the 1700 Japanese "Orphan" tsunami and a future tsunami threat to the U.S. northwest coast, contributed to the decision to form the U.S. National Tsunami Hazard Mitigation Program. The great Lisbon earthquake of 1755 marked the beginning of the modern era of seismology. Knowledge gained from the 1964 Alaska earthquake and tsunami helped confirm the theory of plate tectonics. The 1946 Alaska, 1952 Kuril Islands, 1960 Chile, 1964 Alaska, and the 2004 Banda Aceh, tsunamis all resulted in warning centers or systems being established.The data descriptions on this poster were extracted from NOAA's National Geophysical Data Center (NGDC) global historical tsunami database. Additional information about these tsunamis, as well as water level data can be found by accessing the NGDC website www.ngdc.noaa.gov/hazard/
Andrade, L. H.; Alonso, J.; Mneimneh, Z.; Wells, J. E.; Al-Hamzawi, A.; Borges, G.; Bromet, E.; Bruffaerts, R.; de Girolamo, G.; de Graaf, R.; Florescu, S.; Gureje, O.; Hinkov, H. R.; Hu, C.; Huang, Y.; Hwang, I.; Jin, R.; Karam, E. G.; Kovess-Masfety, V.; Levinson, D.; Matschinger, H.; O’Neill, S.; Posada-Villa, J.; Sagar, R.; Sampson, N. A.; Sasu, C.; Stein, D.; Takeshima, T.; Viana, M. C.; Xavier, M.; Kessler, R. C.
Background To examine barriers to initiation and continuation of mental health treatment among individuals with common mental disorders. Methods Data are from the WHO World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys. Representative household samples were interviewed face-to-face in 24 countries. Reasons to initiate and continue treatment were examined in a subsample (n= 63,678) and analyzed at different levels of clinical severity. Results Among those with a DSM-IV disorder in the past twelve months, low perceived need was the most common reason for not initiating treatment and more common among moderate and mild than severe cases. Women and younger people with disorders were more likely to recognize a need for treatment. Desire to handle the problem on one’s own was the most common barrier among respondents with a disorder who perceived a need for treatment (63.8%). Attitudinal barriers were much more important than structural barriers both to initiating and continuing treatment. However, attitudinal barriers dominated for mild-moderate cases and structural barriers for severe cases. Perceived ineffectiveness of treatment was the most commonly reported reason for treatment dropout (39.3%) followed by negative experiences with treatment providers (26.9% of respondents with severe disorders). Conclusions Low perceived need and attitudinal barriers are the major barriers to seeking and staying in treatment among individuals with common mental disorders worldwide. Apart from targeting structural barriers, mainly in countries with poor resources, increasing population mental health literacy is an important endeavor worldwide. PMID:23931656
Full Text Available Barrier layers are defined as the layer between the pycnocline and the thermocline when the latter are different as a result of salinity stratification. We present a revisited 2-degree resolution global climatology of monthly mean oceanic Barrier Layer (BL thickness first proposed by de Boyer Montégut et al. (2007. In addition to using an extended data set, we present a modified computation method that addresses the observed porosity of BLs. We name porosity the fact that barrier layers distribution can, in some areas, be very uneven regarding the space and time scales that are considered. This implies an intermittent alteration of air-sea exchanges by the BL. Therefore, it may have important consequences for the climatic impact of BLs. Differences between the two computation methods are small for robust BLs that are formed by large-scale processes. However, the former approach can significantly underestimate the thickness of short and/or localized barrier layers. This is especially the case for barrier layers formed by mesoscale mechanisms (under the intertropical convergence zone for example and along western boundary currents and equatorward of the sea surface salinity subtropical maxima. Complete characterisation of regional BL dynamics therefore requires a description of the robustness of BL distribution to assess the overall impact of BLs on the process of heat exchange between the ocean interior and the atmosphere.
Logan, Henrietta L.; Catalanotto, Frank; Guo, Yi; Marks, John; Dharamsi, Shafik
Background Finding dentists who treat Medicaid-enrolled children is a struggle for many parents. The purpose of this study was to identify non-reimbursement factors that influence the decision by dentists about whether or not to participate in the Medicaid program in Florida. Methods Data from a mailed survey was analyzed using a logistic regression model to test the association of Medicaid participation with the Perceived Barriers and Social Responsibility variables. Results General and pediatric dentists (n=882) who identified themselves as either Medicaid (14%) or Non-Medicaid (86%) participants responded. Five items emerged as significant predictors of Medicaid participation, with a final concordance index of 0.905. Two previously unreported barriers to participation in Medicaid emerged: 1) dentists’ perception of social stigma from other dentists for participating in Medicaid, and 2) the lack of specialists to whom Medicaid patients can be referred. Conclusions This study provides new information about non-reimbursement barriers to Medicaid participation. PMID:25702734
Anwar, Nabila; Fida, Mubassar
To determine the effect of altered lip line on attractiveness and to find preferred lip line for vertical face types in both genders. Cross-sectional analytical study. The Aga Khan University Hospital, Karachi, from May to July 2009. Photographs of two selected subjects were altered to produce three face types for the same individual with the aim of keeping the frame of the smile constant. Lip line was then altered for both the subjects as: both dentitions visible, upper incisors visible, upper incisors and 2 mm gum and 4 mm gum visible. The pictures were rated by different professionals for attractiveness. Descriptive statistics for the raters and multiple factor ANOVA was used to find the most attractive lip line. The total number of raters was 100 with the mean age of 30.3 ± 8 years. The alterations in the smile parameters produced statistically significant difference in the attractiveness of faces, whereas the perception difference was found to be insignificant amongst raters of different professions. Preferred lip line was the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects. The variability in lip line showed significant difference in the perceived attractiveness. Preferred lip lines as the one showing only the upper incisors in dolico and mesofacial male and female genders whereas 2 mm gum show was preferred in brachyfacial subjects.
Face clustering and face tracking are two areas of active research in automatic facial video processing. They, however, have long been studied separately, despite the inherent link between them. In this paper, we propose to perform simultaneous face clustering and face tracking from real world videos. The motivation for the proposed research is that face clustering and face tracking can provide useful information and constraints to each other, thus can bootstrap and improve the performances of each other. To this end, we introduce a Coupled Hidden Markov Random Field (CHMRF) to simultaneously model face clustering, face tracking, and their interactions. We provide an effective algorithm based on constrained clustering and optimal tracking for the joint optimization of cluster labels and face tracking. We demonstrate significant improvements over state-of-the-art results in face clustering and tracking on several videos.
Bennett, Matthew R.; Cassidy, Nigel J.; Pile, Jeremy
Chesil Beach (Dorset) is one of the most famous coastal landforms on the British coast. The gravel beach is over 18 km long and is separated for much of its length from land by a tidal lagoon known as The Fleet. The beach links the Isle of Portland in the east to the mainland in the west. Despite its iconic status there is little available information on its internal geometry and evolutionary history. Here we present a three-fold model for the evolution of Chesil Beach based on a series of nine ground penetrating radar (GPR) traverses located at three sites along its length at Abbotsbury, Langton Herring and at Ferry Bridge. The GPR traverses reveal a remarkably consistent picture of the internal structure of this barrier beach. The first phase of evolution involves the landward transgression of a small sand and gravel beach which closed upon the coast leading to deposition of freshwater peat between 5 and 7 k yr BP. The second evolutionary phase involves the 'bulking-out' of the beach during continued sea level rise, but in the presence of abundant gravel supplied by down-drift erosion of periglacial slope deposits. This episode of growth was associated with a series of washover fans which accumulated on the landward flank of the barrier increasing its breadth and height but without significant landward transgression of the barrier as a whole. The final phase in the evolution of Chesil Beach involves the seaward progradation of the beach crest and upper beach face associated with continued sediment abundance, but during a still-stand or slight fall in relative sea level. This phase may provide further evidence of a slight fall in relative sea level noted elsewhere along the South Coast of Britain and dated to between 1.2 and 2.4 k yr BP. Subsequently the barrier appears to have become largely inactive, except for the reworking of sediment on the beach face during storm events. The case study not only refines the evolutionary picture of Chesil Beach, but
Martin, Domingo; Maté, Amaia; Zabalegui, Paula; Valenzuela, Jaime
The FACE philosophy is characterized by clearly defined treatment goals: facial esthetics, dental esthetics, periodontal health, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The purpose is to establish ideal occlusion with good facial esthetics and an orthopedic stable joint position. The authors present all the concepts of FACE philosophy and illustrate them through one case report. Taking into account all the FACE philosophy concepts increases diagnostic ability and improves the quality and stability of treatment outcomes. The goal of this philosophy is to harmonize the facial profile, tooth alignment, periodontium, functional occlusion, neuromuscular mechanism and joint function. The evaluation and treatment approach to vertical problems are unique to the philosophy. © EDP Sciences, SFODF, 2017.
Gagnon, Suzanne; Minguet, Cassian
For some family medicine supervisors working in rural and remote areas, access to face-to-face training is problematic. They need distance training programs designed specifically for them. To study the advantages, disadvantages, and feasibility of a training program for these supervisors that is delivered over the Internet. This was a pilot project for international on-line training consisting of a platform of courses and a collaborative type of Web conferencing that ran for 2 hours each week for 5 weeks. The training focused on the acquisition of teaching skills and the use of information and communications technology, and included discussions on topics related to practising and teaching in rural areas. Such a program is feasible and economical. The main difficulties are recruiting participants, keeping them in the program, and the amount of time spent on development and supervision. Participants who persevered reported high levels of satisfaction. The content of this type of training, barriers to participation, and the role of distance education in rural supervisor training programs remain to be explored.
This paper responds to key aspects of Bill Dixon's article, Understanding 'Pointy Face': What is criminology for?1 It suggests that criminology should unambiguously be 'for' social justice in South Africa's transhistorically unequal context. South African prison statistics are used as a conceptual shortcut to briefly highlight ...
A.A. Salah (Albert Ali); N. Alyuz; L. Akarun
htmlabstractThe accuracy of a 3D face recognition system depends on a correct registration that aligns the facial surfaces and makes a comparison possible. The best results obtained so far use a costly one-to-all registration approach, which requires the registration of each facial surface to all
Consolo, Michael J; Syed, Kirin K; Robison, Christopher; McFadden, Jacob; Shalowitz, David I; Brown, Gordon A; Sussman, David O; Figler, Bradley D
Urethroplasty is an effective treatment for men with anterior urethral strictures, but is utilized less frequently than ineffective treatments such as internal urethrotomy. We sought to identify provider-level barriers to urethroplasty. An anonymous online survey was emailed to all Mid-Atlantic American Urological Association members. Six scenarios in which urethroplasty was the most appropriate treatment were presented. Primary outcome was recommendation for urethroplasty in ≥ three clinical scenarios. Other factors measured include practice zip code, urethroplasty training, and proximity to a urethroplasty surgeon. Multivariate logistic regression identified factors associated with increased likelihood of urethroplasty recommendation. Of 670 members emailed, 109 (16%) completed the survey. Final analysis included 88 respondents. Mean years in practice was 17.2. Most respondents received formal training in urethroplasty: 43 (49%) in residency, 5 (6%) in fellowship, and 10 (11%) in both; 48 respondents (55%) had a urethroplasty surgeon in their practice, whereas 18 (20%) had a urethroplasty surgeon within 45 minutes of his or her primary practice location. The only covariate that was associated with an increased likelihood of recommending urethroplasty in ≥ three scenarios was formal urethroplasty training. Most members (68%) reported no barriers to referring patients for urethroplasty; the most common barriers cited were long distance to urethroplasty surgeon (n 5 13, 15%) and concern about complications (n 5 8, 9%). Urethroplasty continues to be underutilized in men with anterior urethral strictures, potentially due to lack of knowledge dissemination and access to a urethroplasty surgeon. Appropriate urethroplasty utilization may increase with greater exposure to urethroplasty in training.
Renewable Energy Technologies (RETS) have over the years become an integral part of the energy supply chain in most developed countries. Recent projections show that 13.5% of the world's primary energy supply comes from renewable and this figure has an aggregated annual growth rate of 16%. Wind has the highest annual growth rate of 22% while the least annual growth rate of 2% is for hydropower. The main push for renewable like wind in the OECD countries are environmental concerns and the business aspect in power generation. The situation is however completely different in Africa, where the thrust for RETs is developmental based. Although the continent has abundant renewable energy resources like solar, biomass, wind and hydro potential, they have remained largely unexploited. Several efforts have been made to help African countries like Zimbabwe to exploit such resources. The main objectives of this country study included review of Zimbabwe's development of past RETs, establish barriers related lessons learnt from such projects and currently running RETs projects, identify barriers experienced by other projects and then select a few barrier removal projects and then develop them with the help of all stake holders in the country. The methodology of this study involved a review of past RETs projects to establish barriers faced and barriers related lessons learnt. An examination of the policy instruments related to RETs was done to establish how they promote the dissemination of the technologies as well as their adequacy. A survey of all possible RETs projects in the country was carried out and in this survey the end-users were visited and interviewed by the research team. An initial workshop, which was attended by all stake holders, was held in November 1999. An Advisory committee on RETs in Zimbabwe was then set up comprising of various stake holders from government, the private sector, research institutions, interviewed end-users and the NGO community
Bjerre, Jacob Halvas
. This paper analyzes the racial policies pursued in the foreign trade and argues that we need to recognize Aryanization as a world-wide policy in order to fully understand its character and possible consequences. I focus on the pre-war period and analyze the case of Denmark from three different perspectives......: perpetrators, victims and bystanders. The analysis will show that race, economy and foreign trade were combined in an attempt to raise racial trade barriers. This forced the question of German racial policies on the Danish government, Danish-Jewish businesses, and German companies involved in foreign trade...
Sanden, Guro Refsum; Lønsmann, Dorte
This study offers a critical look at how corporate-level language management influences front-line language practices among employees in three multinational corporations (MNCs) headquartered in Scandinavia. Based on interview and document data, we examine, firstly, what front-line practices...... employees use to cross language boundaries in their everyday work, and, secondly, how these practices relate to top-down language management in the case companies. Our findings show that employees are often dependent on ad hoc and informal solutions in cross- language situations, which leads us...... to a discussion of how a company’s language policy may be seen as both support and a barrier....
Caro, N M; Else, D
The authors carried out a survey of face sizes of men and women of four different ethnic origins and carried out face-seal leakage trials on four corresponding test panels. No single respirator design is likely to fit all members of the workforce, and it may be necessary to stock respirators from more than one manufacturers.Three or four different respirators or size of respirator may be needed. However, the use of lossely-fitting respirators such as Airsteam helmets could remove the necessity for exhaustive fitting procedures.
Get to grips with a new technology, understand what it is and what it can do for you, and then get to work with the most important features and tasks. Instant Primefaces Starter is a fast-paced, introductory guide designed to give you all the information you need to start using Primfaces, instantly.Instant PrimeFaces Starter is great for developers looking to get started quickly with PrimeFaces. It's assumed that you have some JSF experience already, as well as familiarity with other Java technologies such as CDI and JPA and an understanding of MVC principles, object-relational mapping (ORM),
Full Text Available The need to increase security in open or public spaces has in turn given rise to the requirement to monitor these spaces and analyse those images on-site and on-time. At this point, the use of smart cameras – of which the popularity has been increasing – is one step ahead. With sensors and Digital Signal Processors (DSPs, smart cameras generate ad hoc results by analysing the numeric images transmitted from the sensor by means of a variety of image-processing algorithms. Since the images are not transmitted to a distance processing unit but rather are processed inside the camera, it does not necessitate high-bandwidth networks or high processor powered systems; it can instantaneously decide on the required access. Nonetheless, on account of restricted memory, processing power and overall power, image processing algorithms need to be developed and optimized for embedded processors. Among these algorithms, one of the most important is for face detection and recognition. A number of face detection and recognition methods have been proposed recently and many of these methods have been tested on general-purpose processors. In smart cameras – which are real-life applications of such methods – the widest use is on DSPs. In the present study, the Viola-Jones face detection method – which was reported to run faster on PCs – was optimized for DSPs; the face recognition method was combined with the developed sub-region and mask-based DCT (Discrete Cosine Transform. As the employed DSP is a fixed-point processor, the processes were performed with integers insofar as it was possible. To enable face recognition, the image was divided into sub-regions and from each sub-region the robust coefficients against disruptive elements – like face expression, illumination, etc. – were selected as the features. The discrimination of the selected features was enhanced via LDA (Linear Discriminant Analysis and then employed for recognition. Thanks to its
Eriksson, Tor; Mao, Lei; Villeval, Marie-Claire
their self- but also other group members' image. This behavior is frequent even in the absence of group identity. When group identity is more salient, individuals help regardless of whether the least performer is an in-group or an out-group. This suggests that saving others' face is a strong social norm.......Are people willing to sacrifice resources to save one's and others' face? In a laboratory experiment, we study whether individuals forego resources to avoid the public exposure of the least performer in their group. We show that a majority of individuals are willing to pay to preserve not only...
Walder, Christian; Breidt, Martin; Bulthoff, Heinrich
We present a novel algorithm for the markerless tracking of deforming surfaces such as faces. We acquire a sequence of 3D scans along with color images at 40Hz. The data is then represented by implicit surface and color functions, using a novel partition-of-unity type method of efficiently...... the scanned surface, using the variation of both shape and color as features in a dynamic energy minimization problem. Our prototype system yields high-quality animated 3D models in correspondence, at a rate of approximately twenty seconds per timestep. Tracking results for faces and other objects...
Jung, Wookyoung; Kang, Joong-Gu; Jeon, Hyeonjin; Shim, Miseon; Sun Kim, Ji; Leem, Hyun-Sung; Lee, Seung-Hwan
Faces are processed best when they are presented in the left visual field (LVF), a phenomenon known as LVF superiority. Although one eye contributes more when perceiving faces, it is unclear how the dominant eye (DE), the eye we unconsciously use when performing a monocular task, affects face processing. Here, we examined the influence of the DE on the LVF superiority for faces using event-related potentials. Twenty left-eye-dominant (LDE group) and 23 right-eye-dominant (RDE group) participants performed the experiments. Face stimuli were randomly presented in the LVF or right visual field (RVF). The RDE group exhibited significantly larger N170 amplitudes compared with the LDE group. Faces presented in the LVF elicited N170 amplitudes that were significantly more negative in the RDE group than they were in the LDE group, whereas the amplitudes elicited by stimuli presented in the RVF were equivalent between the groups. The LVF superiority was maintained in the RDE group but not in the LDE group. Our results provide the first neural evidence of the DE's effects on the LVF superiority for faces. We propose that the RDE may be more biologically specialized for face processing. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.
consensus that one of the solutions to the current environmental challenge will be based on low-carbon-technologies, there are many issues that set a barrier for its adequate development and still many actors in these sectors are sceptical about the possibilities. Illumination is a very interesting sector...... to target, since it uses 19% of the total electricity produced in the world. Consequently, this paper takes the Danish office lighting sector as a study object and discusses the question: What are the main barriers and possibilities for the energy saving illumination technologies to efficiently reduce...... their ecological footprint. The discussion is supported by using relevant elements of the cradle-to-grave, eco-design and environmental-innovation theories. It is based on active participation in interdisciplinary projects and face-to-face in-depth interviews with relevant actors along the entire Danish...
Lawton, M.D. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Brown, W.C. [Morrison Hershfield Ltd., Ottawa, ON (Canada)
Most building envelope assemblies in Canada must include a vapour barrier in order to comply with Canadian building codes. The installation of sheet polyethylene between the studs and the interior sheathing has been the most common method because it provides more diffusion resistance than necessary to control condensation within a building envelope assembly. It has been suggested that the presence of a polyethylene vapour barrier on the warm-in-winter side of the insulation may actually cause moisture problems because a very low permeance material increases average moisture levels. This paper examined the theory that a vapour barrier at this location restricts drying of moisture that enters the building from outside. Pacific coastal regions of Canada and the United States were presented as examples. Other ways that a polyethylene vapour barrier affects wall performance were also presented. The advanced hygrothermal model HygIRC, developed by Canada's National Research Council, was used to simulate the performance of a wall assembly. Results indicate that eliminating the low permeance polyethylene vapour barrier does not necessarily reduce the risk of moisture problems. Removal of the vapour barrier may have some negative effects, such as increased risk of periodic moisture accumulation and mold growth on paper-faced gypsum board. 7 refs., 2 tabs., 7 figs.
Daws, Laura Beth
Courses: This activity will work in any face-to-face communication lecture course. Objectives: By the end of the semester in a face-to-face lecture class, every student will have engaged in verbal discussion.
Tsurusawa, Reimi; Goto, Yoshinobu; Mitsudome, Akihisa; Nakashima, Taisuke; Tobimatsu, Shozo
The aim of this study was to investigate the differences between children and adults in recognizing facial expressions of simple line drawings of "Chernoff's face". First, the angles of the eyebrows and mouth of Chernoff's face were changed in a stepwise way with a personal computer, and the emotional response of the subjects was evaluated by a questionnaire. Second, three drawings of non-target stimuli (neutral face, angry face, and wheelchair) and target stimuli were used to elicit event-related potentials (ERPs). Children had higher scores for the facial expressions than adults, and relied much more on the angles of the eyebrows and mouth. The major ERP findings were (1) the latencies of P100 and N170 were significantly longer in children than adults, (2) the amplitudes of P100 were significantly larger in children than adults, but the N170 amplitudes were not significantly different, and (3) a slow negative shift was recorded with a latency of 240-460ms at the posterior-temporal site for angry face compared with neutral face in adults but not in children. These results suggest that the differences in the electrophysiological recognition of facial expressions can be set at 240ms after appearance of the Chernoff's face in adults but not in children.
Fisher, Patrick M; Grady, Cheryl L; Madsen, Martin K
The effects of the 5-HTTLPR polymorphism on neural responses to emotionally salient faces have been studied extensively, focusing on amygdala reactivity and amygdala-prefrontal interactions. Despite compelling evidence that emotional face paradigms engage a distributed network of brain regions...... to fearful faces was significantly greater in S' carriers compared to LA LA individuals. These findings provide novel evidence for emotion-specific 5-HTTLPR effects on the response of a distributed set of brain regions including areas responsive to emotionally salient stimuli and critical components...... involved in emotion, cognitive and visual processing, less is known about 5-HTTLPR effects on broader network responses. To address this, we evaluated 5-HTTLPR differences in the whole-brain response to an emotional faces paradigm including neutral, angry and fearful faces using functional magnetic...
Duan, Xiaodong; Tan, Zheng-Hua
In this paper, we present a local feature learning method for face recognition to deal with varying poses. As opposed to the commonly used approaches of recovering frontal face images from profile views, the proposed method extracts the subject related part from a local feature by removing the pose...... related part in it on the basis of a pose feature. The method has a closed-form solution, hence being time efficient. For performance evaluation, cross pose face recognition experiments are conducted on two public face recognition databases FERET and FEI. The proposed method shows a significant...... recognition improvement under varying poses over general local feature approaches and outperforms or is comparable with related state-of-the-art pose invariant face recognition approaches. Copyright ©2015 by IEEE....
Joachim I. Krueger
Full Text Available The practice of Significance Testing (ST remains widespread in psychological science despite continual criticism of its flaws and abuses. Using simulation experiments, we address four concerns about ST and for two of these we compare ST’s performance with prominent alternatives. We find the following: First, the 'p' values delivered by ST predict the posterior probability of the tested hypothesis well under many research conditions. Second, low 'p' values support inductive inferences because they are most likely to occur when the tested hypothesis is false. Third, 'p' values track likelihood ratios without raising the uncertainties of relative inference. Fourth, 'p' values predict the replicability of research findings better than confidence intervals do. Given these results, we conclude that 'p' values may be used judiciously as a heuristic tool for inductive inference. Yet, 'p' values cannot bear the full burden of inference. We encourage researchers to be flexible in their selection and use of statistical methods.
Lew, B.S.; Yee, D.; Brewer, W.K.; Quattro, P.J.; Kirby, K.D.
This paper reports that the Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E), in cooperation with ABZ, Incorporated and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), investigated the use of artificial intelligence-based programming techniques to assist utility personnel in regulatory compliance problems. The result of this investigation is that artificial intelligence-based programming techniques can successfully be applied to this problem. To demonstrate this, a general methodology was developed and several prototype systems based on this methodology were developed. The prototypes address U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) event reportability requirements, technical specification compliance based on plant equipment status, and quality assurance assistance. This collection of prototype modules is named the safety significance evaluation system
Nirula, Ram; Talmor, Daniel; Brasel, Karen
Identification of motor vehicle crash (MVC) characteristics associated with thoracoabdominal injury would advance the development of automatic crash notification systems (ACNS) by improving triage and response times. Our objective was to determine the relationships between MVC characteristics and thoracoabdominal trauma to develop a torso injury probability model. Drivers involved in crashes from 1993 to 2001 within the National Automotive Sampling System were reviewed. Relationships between torso injury and MVC characteristics were assessed using multivariate logistic regression. Receiver operating characteristic curves were used to compare the model to current ACNS models. There were a total of 56,466 drivers. Age, ejection, braking, avoidance, velocity, restraints, passenger-side impact, rollover, and vehicle weight and type were associated with injury (p < 0.05). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (83.9) was significantly greater than current ACNS models. We have developed a thoracoabdominal injury probability model that may improve patient triage when used with ACNS.
This paper briefly describes the wellhead prices of natural gas compared to crude oil over the past 70 years. Although natural gas prices have never reached price parity with crude oil, the relative value of a gas BTU has been increasing. It is one of the reasons that the total amount of money coming from natural gas wells is becoming more significant. From 1920 to 1955 the revenue at the wellhead for natural gas was only about 10% of the money received by producers. Most of the money needed for exploration, development, and production came from crude oil. At present, however, over 40% of the money from the upstream portion of the petroleum industry is from natural gas. As a result, in a few short years natural gas may become 50% of the money revenues generated from wellhead production facilities
George, Siân; Daniels, Katy; Fioratou, Evridiki
Minority vulnerable communities, such as the European Roma, often face numerous barriers to accessing healthcare services, resulting in negative health outcomes. Both these barriers and outcomes have been reported extensively in the literature. However, reports on barriers faced by European non-Roma native communities are limited. The "Health Care Access Barriers" (HCAB) model identifies pertinent financial, structural and cognitive barriers that can be measured and potentially modified. The present study thus aims to explore the barriers to accessing healthcare for a vulnerable population of mixed ethnicity from a charity community centre in Romania, as perceived by the centre's family users and staff members, and assess whether these reflect the barriers identified from the HCAB model. Eleven community members whose children attend the centre and seven staff members working at the centre participated in face-to-face semi-structured interviews, exploring personal experiences and views on accessing healthcare. The interviews were transcribed and analysed using an initial deductive and secondary inductive approach to identify HCAB themes and other emerging themes and subthemes. Identified themes from both groups aligned with HCAB's themes of financial, structural and cognitive barriers and emergent subthemes important to the specific population were identified. Specifically, financial barriers related mostly to health insurance and bribery issues, structural barriers related mostly to service availability and accessibility, and cognitive barriers related mostly to healthcare professionals' attitudes and discrimination and the vulnerable population's lack of education and health literacy. A unique theme of psychological barriers emerged from both groups with associated subthemes of mistrust, hopelessness, fear and anxiety of this vulnerable population. The current study highlights healthcare access barriers to a vulnerable non-Roma native population involved with a
Eisenberg, Marla E; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A; Sieving, Renee E
Sexuality education teachers' perspectives are important to gain a full understanding of the issues surrounding teaching this subject. This study uses a statewide sample of public school teachers to examine what sexuality education content is taught, what barriers teachers face, and which barriers are associated with teaching specific topics. Participants included 368 middle and high school teachers with sexuality education assignments in Minnesota. Survey data included topics they teach, what they think they should teach, and barriers they face. Logistic regression was used to examine associations between barriers and teaching each of 9 sexual health topics, among those who believed the topic should be taught. Almost two thirds of participants faced structural barriers; 45% were concerned about parent, student, or administrator response; and one quarter reported restrictive policies. Structural barriers were inversely associated with teaching about communication (OR = 0.20), teen parenting (OR = 0.34), and abortion (OR = 0.32); concerns about responses were associated only with teaching about sexual violence (OR = 0.42); and restrictive policies were inversely associated with teaching about abortion (OR = 0.23) and sexual orientation (OR = 0.47). Addressing teachers' barriers requires a multipronged approach, including curriculum development and evaluation, training, and reframing the policy debate to support a wider range of sexuality education topics. © 2013, American School Health Association.
Granlien, Maren Sander; Hertzum, Morten
Clinicians’ adoption of the information systems deployed at hospitals is crucial to achieving the intended effects of the systems, yet many systems face substantial adoption barriers. In this study we analyse the adoption and use of an electronic medication record (EMR) 2-4 years after its...... deployment. We investigate mid-and-lower-level managers’ perception of (a) the extent to which clinicians have adopted the EMR and the work procedures associated with its use and (b) possible barriers toward adopting the EMR and work procedures, including the managers’ perception of the usefulness and ease...... obtained. Eleven categories of barrier are identified with uncertainty about what the barriers concretely are as the prime barrier. This prime barrier is particularly noteworthy because the respondents are formally responsible for the adoption of the EMR. It is apparent that time alone has not led...
Bru, Jan Gunnar
The article puts the attention to market relations in connection with the Norwegian petroleum industry. The paradox facing Norwegian yards involved in the offshore industry is that while the sector is now experiencing a market boom, within two years contractors could find themselves scrambling for work in a reduced market. 1 tab
Face recognition is a technology that appeals to the imagination of many people. This is particularly reflected in the popularity of science-fiction films and forensic detective series such as CSI, CSI New York, CSI Miami, Bones and NCIS. Although these series tend to be set in the present, their
This colloquium aimed to analyze the relations between the climatic changes and extreme meteorological events and on the associated risks. It provides information and knowledge on the state of the art concerning the today scientific knowledge, the prevention measures and the adaptation facing the risks and the difficult estimation of the climatic damages costs. (A.L.B.)
Jacobs, Judith Bula
Discusses attitudes of 12 families participating in group which was formed to focus on issues related to the possibility of a nuclear disaster. Why and how these families are facing the nuclear taboo plus various outcomes of doing so are discussed as well as the role of the professional in encouraging such openness about these difficult issues.…
Fagertun, Jens; Stegmann, Mikkel Bille
Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Lieuwe Jan; Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.
In this paper we present a methodology and experimental results for evidence evaluation in the context of forensic face recognition. In forensic applications, the matching score (hereafter referred to as similarity score) from a biometric system must be represented as a Likelihood Ratio (LR). In our
Tervo, John N.
Valve plate made to translate as well as rotate. Valve opened and closed by turning shaft and lever. Interactions among lever, spring, valve plate, and face seal cause plate to undergo combination of translation and rotation so valve plate clears seal during parts of opening and closing motions.
Full Text Available In order to develop security systems for identity authentication, face recognition (FR technology has been applied. One of the main problems of applying FR technology is that the systems are especially vulnerable to attacks with spoofing faces (e.g., 2D pictures. To defend from these attacks and to enhance the reliability of FR systems, many anti-spoofing approaches have been recently developed. In this paper, we propose a method for face liveness detection using the effect of defocus. From two images sequentially taken at different focuses, three features, focus, power histogram and gradient location and orientation histogram (GLOH, are extracted. Afterwards, we detect forged faces through the feature-level fusion approach. For reliable performance verification, we develop two databases with a handheld digital camera and a webcam. The proposed method achieves a 3.29% half total error rate (HTER at a given depth of field (DoF and can be extended to camera-equipped devices, like smartphones.
Ng, K.Y.; /Fermilab
A barrier bucket with very small separation between the rf barriers (relative to the barrier widths) or even zero separation has its synchrotron tune decreasing rather slowly from a large value towards the boundary of the bucket. As a result, large area at the bucket edges can become unstable under the modulation of rf voltage and/or rf phase. In addition, chaotic regions may form near the bucket center and extend outward under increasing modulation. Application is made to those barrier buckets used in the process of momentum mining at the Fermilab Recycler Ring.
Full Text Available This study was a comparative investigation of face-to-face and written electronic conferences. The participants were advanced English as a second language (hereafter: ESL students. The two types of conferences were compared in terms of textual features and participation. There was no statistically significant difference in the total number of words that students produced in an equivalent amount of time in the two types of conferences. The discourse in written electronic conferences displayed greater lexical range, and students in these conferences produced more discourse demonstrating interactive competence. The statistically significant finding of increased lexical range in written electronic conferences persisted even when the interactive discourse was eliminated from the conference transcripts and the transcripts were reanalyzed. This finding suggests that, during written electronic conferences, students were better able to use and practice a wider range of vocabulary related to the topics. For one of the groups, participation in written electronic conferences was more balanced among students, while for the other group participation was about equally balanced regardless of the conference setting. This last finding came as a surprise and points to a need for further research into variables that might mediate balanced participation in face-to-face and written electronic conferences.
Supe, S.J.; Nagalaxmi, K.V.; Meenakshi, L.
In the practice of radiotherapy, various concepts like NSD, CRE, TDF, and BIR are being used to evaluate the biological effectiveness of the treatment schedules on the normal tissues. This has been accepted as the tolerance of the normal tissue is the limiting factor in the treatment of cancers. At present when various schedules are tried, attention is therefore paid to the biological damage of the normal tissues only and it is expected that the damage to the cancerous tissues would be extensive enough to control the cancer. Attempt is made in the present work to evaluate the concent of tumor significant dose (TSD) which will represent the damage to the cancerous tissue. Strandquist in the analysis of a large number of cases of squamous cell carcinoma found that for the 5 fraction/week treatment, the total dose required to bring about the same damage for the cancerous tissue is proportional to T/sup -0.22/, where T is the overall time over which the dose is delivered. Using this finding the TSD was defined as DxN/sup -p/xT/sup -q/, where D is the total dose, N the number of fractions, T the overall time p and q are the exponents to be suitably chosen. The values of p and q are adjusted such that p+q< or =0.24, and p varies from 0.0 to 0.24 and q varies from 0.0 to 0.22. Cases of cancer of cervix uteri treated between 1978 and 1980 in the V. N. Cancer Centre, Kuppuswamy Naidu Memorial Hospital, Coimbatore, India were analyzed on the basis of these formulations. These data, coupled with the clinical experience, were used for choice of a formula for the TSD. Further, the dose schedules used in the British Institute of Radiology fraction- ation studies were also used to propose that the tumor significant dose is represented by DxN/sup -0.18/xT/sup -0.06/
Lavelli, Manuela; Fogel, Alan
Investigated development of face-to-face communication in infants between 1 and 14 weeks old and their mothers. Found a curvilinear development of early face-to-face communication, with increases occurring between weeks 4 and 9. When placed on a sofa, infants' face-to-face communication was longer than when they were held. Girls spent a longer…
Bolsen, Toby; Evans, Michael; Fleming, Anna McCaghren
This article reports results from a large study comparing four different approaches to teaching Introduction to American Government: (1) traditional, a paper textbook with 100% face-to-face lecture-style teaching; (2) breakout, a paper textbook with 50% face-to-face lecture-style teaching and 50% face-to-face small-group breakout discussion…
Full Text Available The emphasis in the published literature has mostly been on symmetry as the critical source for beauty judgment. In fact, both symmetry and asymmetry serve as highly aesthetic sources of beauty, whether the context is perceptual or conceptual. The human brain is characterized by symbolic cognition and this type of cognition facilitates a range of aesthetic reactions. For example, both art and natural scenery contain asymmetrical elements, which nevertheless render the whole effect beautiful. A further good case in point is, in fact, human faces. Normally, faces are structurally left-right symmetrical content-wise but not size-wise or function-wise. Attractiveness has often been discussed in terms of content-wise full-face symmetry. To test whether or not attractiveness can be gleaned only from the presence of left-right full-faces we tested half faces. Three separate groups of participants viewed and rated the attractiveness of 56 full-faces (women’s and men’s, their 56 vertical left hemi-faces and 56 vertical right hemi-faces. We found no statistically significant differences in the attractiveness ratings of full- and hemi-faces (whether left or right. Instead, we found a strong and significant positive correlation between the ratings of the hemi- and full-faces. These results are consistent with the view that the underpinning of human facial beauty is complex and that bilateral symmetry does not constitute a principle factor in beauty assessment. We discuss that the highly evolved human brain, compared to other animals, as well as symbolic and abstract cognition in humans enable a wide variety of aesthetic reactions.
The author reviews recent progress in uranium chemistry achieved in CEA laboratories. Like its neighbors in the Mendeleev chart uranium undergoes hydrolysis, oxidation and disproportionation reactions which make the chemistry of these species in water highly complex. The study of the chemistry of uranium in an anhydrous medium has led to correlate the structural and electronic differences observed in the interaction of uranium(III) and the lanthanides(III) with nitrogen or sulfur molecules and the effectiveness of these molecules in An(III)/Ln(III) separation via liquid-liquid extraction. Recent work on the redox reactivity of trivalent uranium U(III) in an organic medium with molecules such as water or an azide ion (N 3 - ) in stoichiometric quantities, led to extremely interesting uranium aggregates particular those involved in actinide migration in the environment or in aggregation problems in the fuel processing cycle. Another significant advance was the discovery of a compound containing the uranyl ion with a degree of oxidation (V) UO 2 + , obtained by oxidation of uranium(III). Recently chemists have succeeded in blocking the disproportionation reaction of uranyl(V) and in stabilizing polymetallic complexes of uranyl(V), opening the way to to a systematic study of the reactivity and the electronic and magnetic properties of uranyl(V) compounds. (A.C.)
Ph D Student Roman Mihaela
Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.
Xue, Zhiyun; Antani, Sameer; Long, L. R.; Demner-Fushman, Dina; Thoma, George R.
The National Library of Medicine (NLM) has made a collection of over a 1.2 million research articles containing 3.2 million figure images searchable using the Open-iSM multimodal (text+image) search engine. Many images are visible light photographs, some of which are images containing faces ("face images"). Some of these face images are acquired in unconstrained settings, while others are studio photos. To extract the face regions in the images, we first applied one of the most widely-used face detectors, a pre-trained Viola-Jones detector implemented in Matlab and OpenCV. The Viola-Jones detector was trained for unconstrained face image detection, but the results for the NLM database included many false positives, which resulted in a very low precision. To improve this performance, we applied a deep learning technique, which reduced the number of false positives and as a result, the detection precision was improved significantly. (For example, the classification accuracy for identifying whether the face regions output by this Viola- Jones detector are true positives or not in a test set is about 96%.) By combining these two techniques (Viola-Jones and deep learning) we were able to increase the system precision considerably, while avoiding the need to manually construct a large training set by manual delineation of the face regions.
Nagy, Emese; Pilling, Karen; Watt, Rachel; Pal, Attila; Orvos, Hajnalka
The main aims of the study were to examine whether human neonates' responses to communication disturbance modelled by the still-face paradigm were stable and whether their responses were affected by their previous experience with the still-face paradigm. The still face procedure, as a laboratory model of interpersonal stress, was administered repeatedly, twice, to 84 neonates (0 to 4 day olds), with a delay of an average of 1.25 day. Frame-by-frame analysis of the frequency and duration of gaze, distressed face, crying, sleeping and sucking behaviours showed that the procedure was stressful to them both times, that is, the still face effect was stable after repeated administration and newborns consistently responded to such nonverbal violation of communication. They averted their gaze, showed distress and cried more during the still-face phase in both the first and the second administration. They also showed a carry-over effect in that they continued to avert their gaze and displayed increased distress and crying in the first reunion period, but their gaze behaviour changed with experience, in the second administration. While in the first administration the babies continued averting their gaze even after the stressful still-face phase was over, this carry-over effect disappeared in the second administration, and the babies significantly increased their gaze following the still-face phase. After excluding explanations of fatigue, habituation and random effects, a self-other regulatory model is discussed as a possible explanation for this pattern.
Pavlova, Marina A; Guerreschi, Michele; Tagliavento, Lucia; Gitti, Filippo; Sokolov, Alexander N; Fallgatter, Andreas J; Fazzi, Elisa
Faces convey valuable information for social cognition, effective interpersonal interaction, and non-verbal communication. Face perception is believed to be atypical in autism, but the origin of this deficit is controversial. Dominant featural face encoding is suggested to be responsible for face tuning scarcity. Here we used a recently developed Face-n-Food paradigm for studying face tuning in individuals with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). The key benefit of these images is that single components do not explicitly trigger face processing. In a spontaneous recognition task, adolescents with autism and typically developing matched controls were presented with a set of Face-n-Food images in different degree resembling a face (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). The set of images was shown in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Thresholds for recognition of the Face-n-Food images as a face in ASD individuals were substantially higher than in typically developing controls: they did not report seeing a face on the images, which controls easily recognized as a face, and gave overall fewer face responses. This outcome not only lends support to atypical face tuning, but provides novel insights into the origin of face encoding deficits in autism.
Dale, Ann Marie; Jaegers, Lisa; Welch, Laura; Barnidge, Ellen; Weaver, Nancy; Evanoff, Bradley A.
Background Rates of musculoskeletal disorders in construction remain high. Few studies have described barriers and facilitators to the use of available ergonomic solutions. This paper describes these barriers and facilitators and their relationship to the level of adoption. Methods Three analysts rated 16 proposed ergonomic solutions from a participatory ergonomics study and assessed the level of adoption, six adoption characteristics, and identified the category of adoption from a theoretical model. Results Twelve solutions were always or intermittently used and were rated positively for characteristics of relative advantage, compatibility with existing work processes, and trialability. Locus of control (worker vs. contractor) was not related to adoption. Simple solutions faced fewer barriers to adoption than those rated as complex. Conclusions Specific adoption characteristics can help predict the use of new ergonomic solutions in construction. Adoption of complex solutions must involve multiple stakeholders, more time, and shifts in culture or work systems. PMID:28195660
Full Text Available Facial recognition system is fundamental a computer application for the automatic identification of a person through a digitized image or a video source. The major cause for the overall poor performance is related to the transformations in appearance of the user based on the aspects akin to ageing, beard growth, sun-tan etc. In order to overcome the above drawback, Self-update process has been developed in which, the system learns the biometric attributes of the user every time the user interacts with the system and the information gets updated automatically. The procedures of Plastic surgery yield a skilled and endurable means of enhancing the facial appearance by means of correcting the anomalies in the feature and then treating the facial skin with the aim of getting a youthful look. When plastic surgery is performed on an individual, the features of the face undergo reconstruction either locally or globally. But, the changes which are introduced new by plastic surgery remain hard to get modeled by the available face recognition systems and they deteriorate the performances of the face recognition algorithm. Hence the Facial plastic surgery produces changes in the facial features to larger extent and thereby creates a significant challenge to the face recognition system. This work introduces a fresh Multimodal Biometric approach making use of novel approaches to boost the rate of recognition and security. The proposed method consists of various processes like Face segmentation using Active Appearance Model (AAM, Face Normalization using Kernel Density Estimate/ Point Distribution Model (KDE-PDM, Feature extraction using Local Gabor XOR Patterns (LGXP and Classification using Independent Component Analysis (ICA. Efficient techniques have been used in each phase of the FRAS in order to obtain improved results.
Archer, Charles J; Blocksome, Michael A; Ratterman, Joseph D; Smith, Brian E
Performing a local barrier operation with parallel tasks executing on a compute node including, for each task: retrieving a present value of a counter; calculating, in dependence upon the present value of the counter and a total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a base value, the base value representing the counter's value prior to any task joining the local barrier; calculating, in dependence upon the base value and the total number of tasks performing the local barrier operation, a target value of the counter, the target value representing the counter's value when all tasks have joined the local barrier; joining the local barrier, including atomically incrementing the value of the counter; and repetitively, until the present value of the counter is no less than the target value of the counter: retrieving the present value of the counter and determining whether the present value equals the target value.
Jo A. Ziegler
The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M&O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M&O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''.
This study employs a multiple-case study method, identifies barriers to the adoption of low carbon production, and categorizes these barriers into four domains: structural, regulatory, cultural, and contextual. The two most frequently mentioned barriers were “lack of financial incentives to stimulate low carbon innovation” and “lack of a common definition of low carbon production”. The two least frequently mentioned barriers were “silos exist between planning and production” and “operational staff are often physically separated from planning staff, which isolates them from planning decisions”. Furthermore, contextual barriers were significantly related to structural and regulatory barriers, while regulatory barriers were significantly related to structural barriers. Larger firms tend to have a more structured organization and lower perceptions of the employment term barrier. However, larger structured organizations have been affected by a long history of a planning-oriented economy and hence tend to have inflexible hierarchical systems. In contrast, small firms have hierarchical systems with less effect on low carbon production than those of large enterprises. Another interesting trend is the direct size effect on cultural barriers, which is evident in a culture of risk aversion, as well as the lack of low carbon technology and the existence of silos between planning and production. - Highlights: • Barriers were categorized as structural, regulatory, cultural and contextual. • Contextual barriers were significantly related to structural and regulatory barriers. • Regulatory barriers were significantly related to structural barriers. • Firm size directly affected firm hierarchical systems and cultural barriers
Gee, G.W.; Ward, A.L.; Fayer, M.J.
At the DOE Hanford Site, a field-scale prototype surface barrier was constructed in 1994 over an existing waste site as a part of a CERCLA treatability test. The above-grade barrier consists of a fine-soil layer overlying coarse layers of sands, gravels, basalt rock (riprap), and a low permeability asphalt layer. Two sideslope configurations, clean-fill gravel on a 10:1 slope and basalt riprap on a 2:1 slope, were built and are being tested. Design considerations included: constructability; drainage and water balance monitoring, wind and water erosion control and monitoring; surface revegetation and biotic intrusion; subsidence and sideslope stability, and durability of the asphalt layer. The barrier is currently in the final year of a three-year test designed to answer specific questions related to stability and long-term performance. One half of the barrier is irrigated such that the total water applied, including precipitation, is 480 mm/yr (three times the long-term annual average). Each year for the past two years, an extreme precipitation event (71 mm in 8 hr) representing a 1,000-yr return storm was applied in late March, when soil water storage was at a maximum. While the protective sideslopes have drained significant amounts of water, the soil cover (2-m of silt-loam soil overlying coarse sand and rock) has never drained. During the past year there was no measurable surface runoff or wind erosion. This is attributed to extensive revegetation of the surface. In addition, the barrier elevation has shown a small increase of 2 to 3 cm that is attributed to a combination of root proliferation and freeze/thaw activity. Testing will continue through September 1997. Performance data from the prototype barrier will be used by DOE in site-closure decisions at Hanford
Full Text Available Terminally ill people with disabilities face multiple barriers when seeking physician aid in dying (PAD in the United States. The first is legality. Efforts to legalize the practice have been thwarted in dozens of states in part due to vocal opposition by advocates for people with disabilities who contend that legalized aid in dying discriminates against and harms people with disabilities by leading to their premature and unnecessary deaths. Some disability rights advocates disagree with their colleagues, however, and support legalization on the ground that it promotes autonomy and independence at the end of life. For proponents, legalization in six states is proving to be an illusive victory. Emerging reports from the states where PAD is legal suggest that people with disabilities may face special and impenetrable barriers when seeking legal aid in dying. This article identifies four such barriers: procedural protections embedded in PAD statutes; physician objection; cost; and a rule pertaining to California veterans. The article calls for additional study to determine the extent to which these barriers have a disparate impact on care options available to terminally-ill people with disabilities.
Full Text Available The quality of the smartphone’s camera enables us to capture high quality pictures at a high resolution, so we can perform different types of recognition on these images. Face detection is one of these types of recognition that is very common in our society. We use it every day on Facebook to tag friends in our pictures. It is also used in video games alongside Kinect concept, or in security to allow the access to private places only to authorized persons. These are just some examples of using facial recognition, because in modern society, detection and facial recognition tend to surround us everywhere. The aim of this article is to create an appli-cation for smartphones that can recognize human faces. The main goal of this application is to grant access to certain areas or rooms only to certain authorized persons. For example, we can speak here of hospitals or educational institutions where there are rooms where only certain employees can enter. Of course, this type of application can cover a wide range of uses, such as helping people suffering from Alzheimer's to recognize the people they loved, to fill gaps persons who can’t remember the names of their relatives or for example to automatically capture the face of our own children when they smile.
Riley, Jeffrey D.; Fling, Brett W.; Cramer, Steven C.; Lin, Jack J.
SUMMARY Objective Deficits in social cognition are common and significant in people with temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), but the functional and structural underpinnings remain unclear. The present study investigated how the side of seizure focus impacts face processing networks in temporal lobe epilepsy. Methods We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) of a face processing paradigm to identify face responsive regions in 24 individuals with unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy (Left = 15; Right = 9) and 19 healthy controls. fMRI signals of face responsive regions ispilateral and contralateral to the side of seizure onset were delineated in TLE and compared to the healthy controls with right and left side combined. Diffusion tensor images were acquired to investigate structural connectivity between face regions that differed in fMRI signals between the two groups. Results In temporal lobe epilepsy, activation of the cortical face processing networks varied according to side of seizure onset. In temporal lobe epilepsy, the laterality of amygdala activation was shifted to the side contralateral to the seizure focus while controls showed no significant asymmetry. Furthermore, compared to controls, patients with TLE showed decreased activation of the occipital face responsive region in the ipsilateral side and an increased activity of the anterior temporal lobe in the contralateral side to the seizure focus. Probabilistic tractography revealed that the occipital face area and anterior temporal lobe are connected via the inferior longitudinal fasciculus, which in individuals with temporal lobe epilepsy showed reduced integrity. Significance Taken together, these findings suggest that brain function and white matter integrity of networks subserving face processing are impaired on the side of seizure onset, accompanied by altered responses on the side contralateral to the seizure. PMID:25823855
Parr, Lisa A; Taubert, Jessica
Understanding how individual identity is processed from faces remains a complex problem. Contrast reversal, showing faces in photographic negative, impairs face recognition in humans and demonstrates the importance of surface-based information (shading and pigmentation) in face recognition. We tested the importance of contrast information for face encoding in chimpanzees and rhesus monkeys using a computerized face-matching task. Results showed that contrast reversal (positive to negative) selectively impaired face processing in these two species, although the impairment was greater for chimpanzees. Unlike chimpanzees, however, monkeys performed just as well matching negative to positive faces, suggesting that they retained some ability to extract identity information from negative faces. A control task showed that chimpanzees, but not rhesus monkeys, performed significantly better matching face parts compared with whole faces after a contrast reversal, suggesting that contrast reversal acts selectively on face processing, rather than general visual-processing mechanisms. These results confirm the importance of surface-based cues for face processing in chimpanzees and humans, while the results were less salient for rhesus monkeys. These findings make a significant contribution to understanding the evolution of cognitive specializations for face processing among primates, and suggest potential differences between monkeys and apes.
Maher, S; Mashhoon, Y; Ekstrom, T; Lukas, S; Chen, Y
Face detection, an ability to identify a visual stimulus as a face, is impaired in patients with schizophrenia. It is unclear whether impaired face processing in this psychiatric disorder results from face-specific domains or stems from more basic visual domains. In this study, we examined cortical face-sensitive N170 response in schizophrenia, taking into account deficient basic visual contrast processing. We equalized visual contrast signals among patients (n=20) and controls (n=20) and between face and tree images, based on their individual perceptual capacities (determined using psychophysical methods). We measured N170, a putative temporal marker of face processing, during face detection and tree detection. In controls, N170 amplitudes were significantly greater for faces than trees across all three visual contrast levels tested (perceptual threshold, two times perceptual threshold and 100%). In patients, however, N170 amplitudes did not differ between faces and trees, indicating diminished face selectivity (indexed by the differential responses to face vs. tree). These results indicate a lack of face-selectivity in temporal responses of brain machinery putatively responsible for face processing in schizophrenia. This neuroimaging finding suggests that face-specific processing is compromised in this psychiatric disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Thompson, Laura A; Malloy, Daniel M; Cone, John M; Hendrickson, David L
We introduce a novel paradigm for studying the cognitive processes used by listeners within interactive settings. This paradigm places the talker and the listener in the same physical space, creating opportunities for investigations of attention and comprehension processes taking place during interactive discourse situations. An experiment was conducted to compare results from previous research using videotaped stimuli to those obtained within the live face-to-face task paradigm. A headworn apparatus is used to briefly display LEDs on the talker's face in four locations as the talker communicates with the participant. In addition to the primary task of comprehending speeches, participants make a secondary task light detection response. In the present experiment, the talker gave non-emotionally-expressive speeches that were used in past research with videotaped stimuli. Signal detection analysis was employed to determine which areas of the face received the greatest focus of attention. Results replicate previous findings using videotaped methods.
Bhat, Chandra M.
Recently, many interesting applications of the barrier RF system in hadron synchrotrons have been realized. A remarkable example of this is the development of longitudinal momentum mining and implementation at the Fermilab Recycler for extraction of low emittance pbars for the Tevatron shots. At Fermilab, we have barrier RF systems in four different rings. In the case of Recycler Ring, all of the rf manipulations are carried out using a barrier RF system. Here, the author reviews various uses of barrier rf systems in particle accelerators including some new schemes for producing intense proton beam and possible new applications
Zakhariev, B N.
The transmission of two particles through the same barrier is considered. The limiting cases are compared when the particles are joined together in a single particle with double mass-energy and potential and when they pass the barrier independently. As an intermediate case a pair of particles bound in a quasideuteron of a finite size is considered. It is shown that long-range collective correlations of particles (of the superfluidity type and others) simplify very much for them passing through high potential barriers. This happens due to the transfer of the additional energy from the particles outside the barriers to those inside it
Pawlowski, Charlotte Skau; Tjørnhøj-Thomsen, Tine; Schipperijn, Jasper
BACKGROUND: Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender...... differences in children's perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. METHODS: Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools...... this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and organizational environment....
Nagasawa, Miho; Murai, Kensuke; Mogi, Kazutaka; Kikusui, Takefumi
Dogs have a unique ability to understand visual cues from humans. We investigated whether dogs can discriminate between human facial expressions. Photographs of human faces were used to test nine pet dogs in two-choice discrimination tasks. The training phases involved each dog learning to discriminate between a set of photographs of their owner's smiling and blank face. Of the nine dogs, five fulfilled these criteria and were selected for test sessions. In the test phase, 10 sets of photographs of the owner's smiling and blank face, which had previously not been seen by the dog, were presented. The dogs selected the owner's smiling face significantly more often than expected by chance. In subsequent tests, 10 sets of smiling and blank face photographs of 20 persons unfamiliar to the dogs were presented (10 males and 10 females). There was no statistical difference between the accuracy in the case of the owners and that in the case of unfamiliar persons with the same gender as the owner. However, the accuracy was significantly lower in the case of unfamiliar persons of the opposite gender to that of the owner, than with the owners themselves. These results suggest that dogs can learn to discriminate human smiling faces from blank faces by looking at photographs. Although it remains unclear whether dogs have human-like systems for visual processing of human facial expressions, the ability to learn to discriminate human facial expressions may have helped dogs adapt to human society.
Masumoto, Kouhei; Yaguchi, Takaharu; Matsuda, Hiroshi; Tani, Hideaki; Tozuka, Keisuke; Kondo, Narihiko; Okada, Shuichi
A number of interventions have been undertaken to develop and promote social networks among community-dwelling older adults. However, it has been difficult to examine the effects of these interventions, because of problems in assessing interactions. The present study was designed to quantitatively measure and visualize face-to-face interactions among elderly participants in an exercise program. We also examined relationships among interactional variables, personality and interest in community involvement, including interactions with the local community. Older adults living in the same community were recruited to participate in an exercise program that consisted of four sessions. We collected data on face-to-face interactions of the participants by using a wearable sensor technology device. Network analysis identified the communication networks of participants in the exercise program, as well as changes in these networks. Additionally, there were significant correlations between the number of people involved in face-to-face interactions and changes in both interest in community involvement and interactions with local community residents, as well as personality traits, including agreeableness. Social networks in the community are essential for solving problems caused by the aging society. We showed the possible applications of face-to-face interactional data for identifying core participants having many interactions, and isolated participants having only a few interactions within the community. Such data would be useful for carrying out efficient interventions for increasing participants' involvement with their community. Geriatr Gerontol Int 2017; 17: 1752-1758. © 2017 Japan Geriatrics Society.