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Sample records for face free-air cosub

  1. FACE: Free-Air CO[sub 2] Enrichment for plant research in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R. (ed.)

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO)[sub 2] on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO[sub 2] fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO[sub 2] enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO[sub 2] in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO[sub 2] enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO[sub 2] enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  2. FACE: Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment for plant research in the field

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendrey, G.R. [ed.

    1992-08-01

    Research programs concerning the effects of Carbon Dioxide(CO){sub 2} on cotton plants are described. Biological responses studied include foliage response to CO{sub 2} fluctuations; yield of cotton exposed to CO{sub 2} enrichment; responses of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to elevated CO{sub 2} in field-grown cotton; cotton leaf and boll temperatures; root response to CO{sub 2} enrichment; and evaluations of cotton response to CO{sub 2} enrichment with canopy reflectance observations.

  3. The photosynthetic and stomatal response of Medicago sativa cv. saranac to free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (F.A.C.E.) and nitrogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bridson, N.P.

    1996-08-01

    Plots of Medicago sativa cv. saranac were grown in the field at ambient (355 {mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) or elevated (600{mu}mol CO{sub 2} mol{sup -1} air) CO{sub 2} concentrations. High (200kg yr{sup -1}) or low (20kg yr{sup -1}) nitrogen levels were applied to two isogeneic lines, one able and one unable to use nitrogen fixing bacteria. Plants were in the second year of field growth. Exposure to elevated CO{sub 2} was via a Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment System (FACE). Elevated CO{sub 2} increased diurnal assimilation by between 12% and 92%. Analysis of A/C{sub i} responses showed that effective nitrogen fertilisation was more important to rubisCO and RuBP activity than elevated CO{sub 2}. No acclimation was consistently observed. Leaves lower down the canopy were found to have lower Vc{sub max} and J{sub max} values, though age may be the cause of the latter effect. FACE conditions have only a small effect on these responses. There was some evidence found for the down-regulation of photosynthesis in the late afternoon. The FACE conditions had no affect on stomatal density but did increase epidermal cell density.

  4. Soil Carbon Storage and N(sub 2)O Emissions from Wheat Agroecosystems as Affected by Free-Air CO(sub 2) Enrichment (FACE) and Nitrogen Treatments. Annual Progress Report - Year 1: August 1, 1996 to July 31, 1997[Final Report]; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Matthias, A.; Thompson, T.L.

    1999-01-01

    Rising atmospheric CO(sub 2) concentrations have prompted concern about response of plants and crops to future elevated CO(sub 2) levels, and particularly the extent to which ecosystems will sequester carbon and thus impact the rate of rise of CO(sub 2) concentrations. Free-air CO(sub 2) enrichment (FACE) experimentation was used with wheat agroecosystems for two growing seasons to assess effects of CO(sub 2) and soil nitrogen. Over 20 researchers on this experiment variously examined plant production and grow yield, phenology, length of growing season, water-use efficiency, ecosystem productivity, below ground processes (root and microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen cycling), etc

  5. Soil Carbon Storage and N{sub 2}O Emissions from Wheat Agroecosystems as Affected by Free-Air CO{sub 2} Enrichment (FACE) and Nitrogen Treatments. Annual Progress Report - Year 1: August 1, 1996 to July 31, 1997 [Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leavitt, S.W.; Matthias, A.; Thompson, T.L.

    1999-02-17

    Rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations have prompted concern about response of plants and crops to future elevated CO{sub 2} levels, and particularly the extent to which ecosystems will sequester carbon and thus impact the rate of rise of CO{sub 2} concentrations. Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) experimentation was used with wheat agroecosystems for two growing seasons to assess effects of CO{sub 2} and soil nitrogen. Over 20 researchers on this experiment variously examined plant production and grow yield, phenology, length of growing season, water-use efficiency, ecosystem productivity, below ground processes (root and microbial activity, carbon and nitrogen cycling), etc.

  6. Investigation of the effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on a whet crop of the Free-Air Carbondioxide Enrichment (FACE) Experiment, Maricopa, USA. Final report; Untersuchung der Auswirkungen erhoehter atmosphaerischer CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf Weizenbestaende des Free-Air Carbondioxid Enrichment (FACE)-Experimentes Maricopa (USA). Abschlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartschall, T; Grossman, S; Michaelis, P; Wechsung, F [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Globaler Wandel und Natuerliche Systeme; Graefe, J; Waloszczyk, K [Professor-Hellriegel-Institut e.V., Bernburg (Germany); Wechsung, G [US Water-Conservation Lab., Phoenix, AZ (United States); Blum, E; Blum, M

    1998-02-01

    A version of the demeter model was developed which describes both the quantitative and qualitative effects of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} on a wheat crop under conditions of limited water and/or nitrogen supply. In the model`s photosynthesis and energy balance modules, first versions of components were developed which it should be possible to apply in further ecosystem models (starting with the cereals models of the demeter family). Experimental data from the Maricopa FACE wheat experiments 1992-1996, in which scientists from PIK were involved, were used for the development and testing of the model. Model solutions obtained were applied for the first time of central European climatic and site conditions as part of a regional yield study for the Federal State of Brandenburg. (orig.)

  7. The photosynthetic acclimation response of Lolium perenne to four years growth in a free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Creasey, R. [Univ. of Essex (United Kingdom)

    1996-11-01

    In this study, the photosynthetic responses of field grown Lolium perenne to ambient (354 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) and elevated (600 {mu}mol mol{sup -1}) C{sub a} were measured. The experiment utilized the FACE facility at Eschikon, Switzerland; here the L. Perenne swards had been grown at two nitrogen treatments, with six cuts per year, for 4 years. The study revealed a significant decrease in Rubisco activity (Vcmax) in the low nitrogen FACE plots; this is consistent with the theories of source-sink imbalance resulting in feedback inhibition and down-regulation. Such negative acclimation was not wholly supported by diurnal investigations which revealed an average stimulation of 53.38% and 52.78% in the low and high nitrogen, respectively. However, light response curves and AI investigations also suggested down-regulation, especially in the low nitrogen. SI is expected to decrease in response to elevated C{sub a}, if any change is seen. This was indeed observed in the high nitrogen plots but for the low nitrogen a significant increase was found. Conclusions drawn from this project center around the implications of negative acclimation to future crop productivity. For instance, inter-specific differences in response to elevated C{sub a} may result in ecosystem changes and new management techniques may be necessary. However, real predictions cannot be made from leaf level studies alone as these may not represent the overall changes at the whole plant level.

  8. ELEVATED CO{sub 2} IN A PROTOTYPE FREE-AIR CO{sub 2} ENRICHMENT FACILITY AFFECTS PHOTOSYNTHETIC NITROGEN RELATIONS IN A MATURING PINE FOREST

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ELLSWORTH,D.S.; LA ROCHE,J.; HENDREY,G.R.

    1998-03-01

    A maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest was exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} in the natural environment in a perturbation study conducted over three seasons using the free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technique. At the time measurements were begun in this study, the pine canopy was comprised entirely of foliage which had developed under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions (atmospheric [CO{sub 2}] {approx} 550 {micro}mol mol{sup {minus}1}). Measurements of leaf photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} were taken to examine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on photosynthetic N nutrition in a pine canopy under elevated CO{sub 2}. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} response curves (A-c{sub i} curves) were similar in FACE trees under elevated CO{sub 2} compared with counterpart trees in ambient plots for the first foliage cohort produced in the second season of CO{sub 2} exposure, with changes in curve form detected in the foliage cohorts subsequently produced under elevated CO{sub 2}. Differences in the functional relationship between carboxylation rate and N{sub a} suggest that for a given N{sub a} allocated among successive cohorts of foliage in the upper canopy, V{sub c max} was 17% lower in FACE versus Ambient trees. The authors also found that foliar Rubisco content per unit total protein derived from Western blot analysis was lower in late-season foliage in FACE foliage compared with ambient-grown foliage. The results illustrate a potentially important mode of physiological adjustment to growth conditions that may operate in forest canopies. Their findings suggest that mature loblolly pine trees growing in the field may have the capacity for shifts in intrinsic nitrogen utilization for photosynthesis under elevated CO{sub 2} that are not dependent on changes in leaf N. While carboxylation efficiency per unit N apparently decreased under elevated CO{sub 2}, photosynthetic rates in trees at elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations {approx} 550 pmol mol{sub {minus}1} are still

  9. Elevated CO{sub 2} in a prototype free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment facility affects photosynthetic nitrogen relations in a maturing pine forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellsworth, D.S.; LaRoche, J.; Hendrey, G.R.

    1998-03-01

    A maturing loblolly pine (Pinus taeda L.) forest was exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} in the natural environment in a perturbation study conducted over three seasons using the free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technique. At the time measurements were begun in this study, the pine canopy was comprised entirely of foliage which had developed under elevated CO{sub 2} conditions (atmospheric CO{sub 2} {approx} 550 {micro}mol/mol{sup {minus}1}). Measurements of leaf photosynthetic responses to CO{sub 2} were taken to examine the effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on photosynthetic N nutrition in a pine canopy under elevated CO{sub 2}. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} response curves (A-c{sub i} curves) were similar in FACE trees under elevated CO{sub 2} compared with counterpart trees in ambient plots for the first foliage cohort produced in the second season of CO{sub 2} exposure, with changes in curve form detected in the foliage cohorts subsequently produced under elevated CO{sub 2}. Differences in the functional relationship between carboxylation rate and N{sub a} suggest that for a given N{sub a} allocated among successive cohorts of foliage in the upper canopy, V{sub c max} was 17% lower in FACE versus Ambient trees. The authors also found that foliar Rubisco content per unit total protein derived from Western blot analysis was lower in late-season foliage in FACE foliage compared with ambient-grown foliage. The results illustrate a potentially important mode of physiological adjustment to growth conditions that may operate in forest canopies. Findings suggest that mature loblolly pine trees growing in the field may have the capacity for shifts in intrinsic nitrogen utilization for photosynthesis under elevated CO{sub 2} that are not dependent on changes in leaf N. Findings suggest a need for continued examination of internal feedbacks at the whole-tree and ecosystem level in forests that may influence long-term photosynthetic responses to elevated CO{sub 2}.

  10. Stem respiration of Populus species in the third year of free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bielen, B.; Geulemans, R. [Univ. of Antwerp, Dept. of Biology, Research Group of Plant and Vegetation Ecology, Wilrijk (Belgium); Scarascia-Mugnozza, G. [Univ. degli Studi della Tuscia, Dept. of Forest Environment and Resources, Viterbo (Italy)

    2003-04-01

    Carbon cycling in ecosystems, and especially in forests, is intensively studied to predict the effects of global climate change, and the role which forests may play in 'changing climate change'. One of the questions is whether the carbon balance of forests will be affected by increasing atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Regarding this question, effects of elevated [CO{sub 2}] on woody-tissue respiration have frequently been neglected. Stem respiration of three Populus species (P. alba L. (Clone 2AS-11), P. nigra L. (Clone Jean Pourtet), and P. x euramericana (Clone I-214)) was measured in a managed, high-density forest plantation exposed to free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (POPFACE). During the period of measurements, in May of the third year, stem respiration rates were not affected by the FACE treatment. Moreover, FACE did not influence the relationships between respiration rate and both stem temperature and relative growth rate. The results were supported by the reported absence of a FACE-effect on growth and stem wood density. (au)

  11. Final Technical Report: Science and technology reviews of FACE[Free Air Carbon Enrichment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strain, Boyd R.

    1998-03-23

    The purpose of this grant was to bring together the principals of all known facilities that had been developed, principals who had submitted proposals to develop FACE facilities, and principals who want to develop proposals for facilities. In addition, critical program personnel from potential funding agencies and a few high level science administrators were invited to observe the proceedings and to visit a working FACE facility. The objectives of this study are to conduct a three-day international meeting on scientific aspects of research with the new and developing free air carbon enrichment (FACE) technology. Immediately following the science meeting, conduct a two-day international meeting on experimental protocols to be applied in FACE research. To conduct a four day international meeting on the assessment of the responses of forest ecosystems to elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide. The three meetings supported by this grant were all highly successful meetings and resulted in the formation of an organized and identified working group with the acronym InterFACE (International Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) working group.

  12. Model-data synthesis for the next generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norby, Richard J; De Kauwe, Martin G; Domingues, Tomas F; Duursma, Remko A; Ellsworth, David S; Goll, Daniel S; Lapola, David M; Luus, Kristina A; MacKenzie, A Rob; Medlyn, Belinda E; Pavlick, Ryan; Rammig, Anja; Smith, Benjamin; Thomas, Rick; Thonicke, Kirsten; Walker, Anthony P; Yang, Xiaojuan; Zaehle, Sönke

    2016-01-01

    The first generation of forest free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments has successfully provided deeper understanding about how forests respond to an increasing CO2 concentration in the atmosphere. Located in aggrading stands in the temperate zone, they have provided a strong foundation for testing critical assumptions in terrestrial biosphere models that are being used to project future interactions between forest productivity and the atmosphere, despite the limited inference space of these experiments with regards to the range of global ecosystems. Now, a new generation of FACE experiments in mature forests in different biomes and over a wide range of climate space and biodiversity will significantly expand the inference space. These new experiments are: EucFACE in a mature Eucalyptus stand on highly weathered soil in subtropical Australia; AmazonFACE in a highly diverse, primary rainforest in Brazil; BIFoR-FACE in a 150-yr-old deciduous woodland stand in central England; and SwedFACE proposed in a hemiboreal, Pinus sylvestris stand in Sweden. We now have a unique opportunity to initiate a model-data interaction as an integral part of experimental design and to address a set of cross-site science questions on topics including responses of mature forests; interactions with temperature, water stress, and phosphorus limitation; and the influence of biodiversity. © UT-Battelle, LLC New Phytologist © 2015 New Phytologist Trust.

  13. Application of free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) technology to a forest canopy: A simulation study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipfert, F.W.; Hendrey, G.R.; Lewin, K.L.; Alexander, Y.

    1992-03-01

    Forest ecosystems constitute an important part of the planet's land cover. Understanding their exchanges of carbon with the atmosphere is crucial in projecting future net atmospheric CO 2 increases. It is also important that experimental studies of these processes be performed under conditions which are as realistic as possible, particularly with respect to photosynthesis and evapotranspiration. New technology and experimental protocols now exist which can facilitate studying an undisturbed forest canopy under long-term enriched CO 2 conditions. The International Geosphere Biosphere Program of the International Council of Scientific Unions has established a subprogram on Global Change and Terrestrial Ecosystems (GCTE). This program is driven by two major concerns: to be able to predict the effects of global change on the structure and function of ecosystems, and to predict how these changes will control both atmospheric CO 2 and climate, through various feedback pathways. Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has developed a system for exposing field-grown plants to controlled elevated concentrations of atmospheric gases, without use of confining chambers that alter important atmospheric exchange processes. This system, called FACE for Free Air CO 2 Enrichment. This paper focuses on the fluid mechanics of free-air fumigation and uses a numerical simulation model based on superposed gaussian plumes to project how the present ground-based system could be used to fumigate an elevated forest canopy

  14. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calfapietra, C.; De Angelis, P.; Scarascia-Mungozza, G.; Gielen, B.; Ceulemans, R.; Galema, A. N. J.; Lukac, M.; Moscatelli, M. C.

    2003-01-01

    The possible contribution of short rotation cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated carbon dioxide concentrations was investigated using the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) technique. Three poplar species were grown in an SRC plantation for three growing seasons. Above-ground and below-ground biomass increased by 15 to 27 per cent and by 22 to 38 per cent, respectively; light-efficiency also increased as a result. Depletion of inorganic nitrogen from the soil increased after three growing seasons at elevated carbon dioxide levels, but carbon dioxide showed no effect on stem wood density. Stem wood density also differed significantly from species to species. These results confirmed inter-specific differences in biomass production in poplar, and demonstrated that elevated carbon dioxide enhanced biomass productivity and light-use efficiency of a poplar short rotation cultivation ecosystem without changing biomass allocation. The reduction in soil nitrogen raises the possibility of reduced long-term biomass productivity. 60 refs., 4 tabs., 4 figs

  15. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) enhances biomass production in a short-rotation poplar plantation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Calfapietra, C.; Gielen, B.; Galema, A.N.J.; Lukac, M.; Angelis, de P.; Moscatelli, M.C.; Ceulemans, R.; Scarascia-Mugnozza, G.

    2003-01-01

    This paper investigates the possible contribution of Short Rotation Cultures (SRC) to carbon sequestration in both current and elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]). A dense poplar plantation (1 x 1 m) was exposed to a [CO2] of 550 ppm in Central Italy using the free-air CO2 enrichment

  16. Effects of long-term (10 years) exposure to elevated CO2 and O3 on trembling Aspen carbon and nitrogen metabolism at the aspen FACE (Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment) study site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakesh Minocha; Stephanie Long; Subhash Minocha; Paula Marquardt; Neil Nelson; Mark. Kubiske

    2010-01-01

    This study was conducted at the Aspen Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment (FACE) experimental site, Rhinelander, WI, (USA). Since 1998, 12 experimental rings planted in 1997 underwent four different treatments: control; elevated CO2 (560 ppm); elevated O3 (1.5X ambient) and elevated CO2 (560 ppm) + O...

  17. Investigation of the impacts of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}-concentrations during the Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment-Experiment. Development of universal solutions; Untersuchung der Auswirkungen erhoehter atmosphaerischer CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen innerhalb des Free-Air Carbon Dioxide Enrichment-Experimentes. Ableitung allgemeiner Modelloesungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartschall, T.; Michaelis, P. [Potsdam-Institut fuer Klimafolgenforschung e.V., Potsdam (Germany). Abt. Globaler Wandel und Natuerliche Systeme; Graefe, J.; Waloszczyk, K. [Professor-Hellriegel-Institut e.V., Bernburg (Germany); Grossman-Clarke, S.

    1999-06-01

    An improved version of the wheat model demeter including modules for important and commonly usable ecosystem compartments (i) light interception in homogenous and rowed canopies (ii) energy and gas exchange including photosynthesis (iii) water, temperature, carbon and nitrogen dynamics in mineral soils was developed. Due to the generic properties of the detailed model solutions qualitative and quantitative explanations about direct and indirect impacts of elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Graminaceae (C{sub 3}-Type) under limited water and nitrogen supply are possible. These solutions have been tested under a wide range of geographic (33 bis 52 N), soil and climatic conditions. The model was validated on a wide spectrum of temporal (time steps ranging from one minute up to one day, simulation periods ranging from several hours to several years) and spatial scales (Submodel photosynthesis of leaf level, the entire model on canopy level, regional yield studies for the entire State of Brandenburg). (orig.) [German] Es wurde eine verbesserte Version des Modells demeter mit modularem Aufbau fuer wichtige und allgemein anwendbare Oekosystemteile (i) Lichtverteilung in homogenen geschlossenen bzw. gereihten Bestaenden; (ii) Energie- und Gasaustausch einschliesslich Photosynthese; (iii) Dynamik von Wasser, Temperatur, Kohlenstoff- und Stickstoffumsatz in Mineralboeden; entwickelt. Durch den generischen Charakter der detaillierten Modelloesungen sind qualitative und quantitative Aussagen zu direkten und indirekten Auswirkungen erhoehter atmosphaerischer CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf Graminaceae des C{sub 3}-Typs bei Wasser- und Stickstofflimitierung unter breiteren geographischen (33 bis 52 N), Boden- und klimatischen Bedingungen moeglich. Das Modell wurde auf einem breiten Spektrum zeitlicher (Taktzeiten von einer Minute bis zu einem Tag, Simulationszeiten von mehreren Stunden bis zu mehreren Jahren) und raeumlicher Skalen (Teilmodell Photosynthese auf

  18. Soil and water warming accelerates phenology and down-regulation of leaf photosynthesis of rice plants grown under free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adachi, Minaco; Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Fukayama, Hiroshi; Tokida, Takeshi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Matsunami, Toshinori; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Sameshima, Ryoji; Okada, Masumi

    2014-02-01

    To enable prediction of future rice production in a changing climate, we need to understand the interactive effects of temperature and elevated [CO2] (E[CO2]). We therefore examined if the effect of E[CO2] on the light-saturated leaf photosynthetic rate (Asat) was affected by soil and water temperature (NT, normal; ET, elevated) under open-field conditions at the rice free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) facility in Shizukuishi, Japan, in 2007 and 2008. Season-long E[CO2] (+200 µmol mol(-1)) increased Asat by 26%, when averaged over two years, temperature regimes and growth stages. The effect of ET (+2°C) on Asat was not significant at active tillering and heading, but became negative and significant at mid-grain filling; Asat in E[CO2]-ET was higher than in ambient [CO2] (A[CO2])-NT by only 4%. Photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2] also became apparent at mid-grain filling; Asat compared at the same [CO2] in the leaf cuvette was significantly lower in plants grown in E[CO2] than in those grown in A[CO2]. The additive effects of E[CO2] and ET decreased Asat by 23% compared with that of A[CO2]-NT plants. Although total crop nitrogen (N) uptake was increased by ET, N allocation to the leaves and to Rubisco was reduced under ET and E[CO2] at mid-grain filling, which resulted in a significant decrease (32%) in the maximum rate of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation on a leaf area basis. Because the change in N allocation was associated with the accelerated phenology in E[CO2]-ET plants, we conclude that soil and water warming accelerates photosynthetic down-regulation at E[CO2].

  19. Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) reduces the inhibitory effect of soil nitrate on N2 fixation of Pisum sativum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterly, Clayton R; Armstrong, Roger; Chen, Deli; Tang, Caixian

    2016-01-01

    Additional carbohydrate supply resulting from enhanced photosynthesis under predicted future elevated CO2 is likely to increase symbiotic nitrogen (N) fixation in legumes. This study examined the interactive effects of atmospheric CO2 and nitrate (NO3(-)) concentration on the growth, nodulation and N fixation of field pea (Pisum sativum) in a semi-arid cropping system. Field pea was grown for 15 weeks in a Vertosol containing 5, 25, 50 or 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) under either ambient CO2 (aCO2; 390 ppm) or elevated CO2 (eCO2; 550 ppm) using free-air CO2 enrichment (SoilFACE). Under aCO2, field pea biomass was significantly lower at 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than at 90 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) soil. However, increasing the soil N level significantly reduced nodulation of lateral roots but not the primary root, and nodules were significantly smaller, with 85% less nodule mass in the 90 NO3(-)-N kg(-1) than in the 5 mg NO3(-)-N kg(-1) treatment, highlighting the inhibitory effects of NO3(-). Field pea grown under eCO2 had greater biomass (approx. 30%) than those grown under aCO2, and was not affected by N level. Overall, the inhibitory effects of NO3(-) on nodulation and nodule mass appeared to be reduced under eCO2 compared with aCO2, although the effects of CO2 on root growth were not significant. Elevated CO2 alleviated the inhibitory effect of soil NO3(-) on nodulation and N2 fixation and is likely to lead to greater total N content of field pea growing under future elevated CO2 environments. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  20. Investigation of free air in peritoneal cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Sam Gyoun; Park, Bok Hwan; Lee, Dong Hoon; Oh, Jang Suk

    1972-01-01

    On the radiographic findings of simple abdomen, detection of free air in peritoneal cavity indicates a perforation of hollow viscus. In general, free air in abdomen indicate perforation of hollow viscus caused by various disease conditions, i.e. perforation of peptic ulcer, ulcerating malignancy, colon diverticulitis and rupture of pneumatosis cystoides intestinale etc., or by trauma, however it can be rarely noticeable in the cases of intraabdominal infection with overgrowth of gas forming organisms. Eighty eight cases of free air in peritoneal cavity were analysed during the period from July, 1970 to August, 1972 at Kyungpook National University Hospital. As shown in the following tables, various clinical findings were analysed; overview of cases, causating factors and location of rupture, and it's seasonal preponderance

  1. Investigation of free air in peritoneal cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sam Gyoun; Park, Bok Hwan; Lee, Dong Hoon; Oh, Jang Suk [Kyungpook National University School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1972-12-15

    On the radiographic findings of simple abdomen, detection of free air in peritoneal cavity indicates a perforation of hollow viscus. In general, free air in abdomen indicate perforation of hollow viscus caused by various disease conditions, i.e. perforation of peptic ulcer, ulcerating malignancy, colon diverticulitis and rupture of pneumatosis cystoides intestinale etc., or by trauma, however it can be rarely noticeable in the cases of intraabdominal infection with overgrowth of gas forming organisms. Eighty eight cases of free air in peritoneal cavity were analysed during the period from July, 1970 to August, 1972 at Kyungpook National University Hospital. As shown in the following tables, various clinical findings were analysed; overview of cases, causating factors and location of rupture, and it's seasonal preponderance.

  2. Response of wheat growth, grain yield and water use to elevated CO2 under a Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiment and modelling in a semi-arid environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Garry J; Christy, Brendan; Nuttall, James; Huth, Neil; Cammarano, Davide; Stöckle, Claudio; Basso, Bruno; Shcherbak, Iurii; Fitzgerald, Glenn; Luo, Qunying; Farre-Codina, Immaculada; Palta, Jairo; Asseng, Senthold

    2014-12-05

    The response of wheat crops to elevated CO 2 (eCO 2 ) was measured and modelled with the Australian Grains Free-Air CO 2 Enrichment experiment, located at Horsham, Australia. Treatments included CO 2 by water, N and temperature. The location represents a semi-arid environment with a seasonal VPD of around 0.5 kPa. Over 3 years, the observed mean biomass at anthesis and grain yield ranged from 4200 to 10 200 kg ha -1 and 1600 to 3900 kg ha -1 , respectively, over various sowing times and irrigation regimes. The mean observed response to daytime eCO 2 (from 365 to 550 μmol mol -1 CO 2 ) was relatively consistent for biomass at stem elongation and at anthesis and LAI at anthesis and grain yield with 21%, 23%, 21% and 26%, respectively. Seasonal water use was decreased from 320 to 301 mm (P = 0.10) by eCO 2 , increasing water use efficiency for biomass and yield, 36% and 31%, respectively. The performance of six models (APSIM-Wheat, APSIM-Nwheat, CAT-Wheat, CROPSYST, OLEARY-CONNOR and SALUS) in simulating crop responses to eCO 2 was similar and within or close to the experimental error for accumulated biomass, yield and water use response, despite some variations in early growth and LAI. The primary mechanism of biomass accumulation via radiation use efficiency (RUE) or transpiration efficiency (TE) was not critical to define the overall response to eCO 2 . However, under irrigation, the effect of late sowing on response to eCO 2 to biomass accumulation at DC65 was substantial in the observed data (~40%), but the simulated response was smaller, ranging from 17% to 28%. Simulated response from all six models under no water or nitrogen stress showed similar response to eCO 2 under irrigation, but the differences compared to the dryland treatment were small. Further experimental work on the interactive effects of eCO 2 , water and temperature is required to resolve these model discrepancies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Canopy position affects photosynthetic adjustments to long-term elevated CO{sub 2} concentration (FACE) in aging needles in a mature Pinus taeda forest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crous, K. Y.; Ellsworth, D. S. [University of Michigan, School of Natural Resources and Environment, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)

    2004-09-01

    Results of an assessment of the long-term effects of exposure to elevated carbon dioxide in free-air enrichment (FACE) on two age classes of pine needles in the upper and lower canopy of a pine forest in North Carolina are discussed. The observations were made during the second through sixth year of exposure. A significant response was observed in 60 per cent of all age classes and canopy locations. Evidence of concurrent down-regulation of Rubisco and electron transport capacity in upper canopy sunlit leaves was noted beyond the sixth year. No such effect was seen in the lower canopy. Carboxylation capacity and electron transport capacity in the upper canopy was down-regulated by 17-20 per cent in one year-old needles, but this was significant across sampling years only for electron transport capacity. It is suggested that a reduction in photosynthetic capacity in aging conifer needles at the canopy top may have significant consequences for canopy carbon balance and global carbon sinks because a major proportion of the annual carbon balance of these conifers is contributed by one-year old sunlit needles. 45 refs., 3 tabs., 4 figs.

  4. A free-air system for long-term stable carbon isotope labeling of adult forest trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stable carbon (C) isotopes, in particular employed in labeling experiments, are an ideal tool to broaden our understanding of C dynamics in trees and forest ecosystems. Here, we present a free-air exposure system, named isoFACE, designed for long-term stable C isotope labeling in...

  5. Measurement of carbon dioxide fluxes in a free-air carbon dioxide enrichment experiment using the closed flux chamber technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selsted, Merete Bang; Ambus, Per; Michelsen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) fluxes, composing net ecosystem exchange (NEE), ecosystem respiration (ER), and soil respiration (SR) were measured in a temperate heathland exposed to elevated CO2 by the FACE (free-air carbon enrichment) technique, raising the atmospheric CO2 concentration from c. 380 μmol...

  6. Observations on the impurities in free air. [In French

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrigue, H

    1953-01-01

    Results of analysis of atmospheric radioactivity and pollution from measurements on free air and on atmospheric precipitation (snow) at heights from ground level to the summit of the Puy de Dome (1450 m) during January-February 1953. The radioactivity was probably of distant origin (from nuclear fission explosions); the dust and soot of local origin.

  7. Free-Air Gravity Map of Taiwan and Its Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Horng-Yuan Yen

    1990-01-01

    Full Text Available An island-wide gravity in Taiwan was conducted by the Institute of Earth Sciences, Academia Sinica, between 1980 and 1987. The 603 stations at which the gravity values were determined included 308 points in the 500 m or higher mountain range where few readings were available previously. The average spacing of the stations in the present survey is about 7 km apart. A new Free-air gravity anomaly map has been constructed based on these values. The map is dominated by a NNE-SSW gravity high trend with a maximum value of 300 mgal, that follows closely the Central Range, a folded and faulted mountain belt with many peaks 3000 m or higher. The magnitude of the Free-air anomaly in the Taiwan area is quite large compared to that elsewhere in the world. The good correlation between the Free-air anomaly and elevation suggests that the Taiwan area is not in isostatic equilibrium. An average surface rock density of 2.57 g cm-3 is estimated from the Free-air gravity data by using the least-squares method. This value can be used for both terrain and Bouguer corrections. The undulation of the geoid and the deflections of the vertical in the Taiwan area are also calculated by using the Free-air anomaly data. The geoid undulation is not rugged over the Taiwan area. The maximum difference is about 5 m. And the deflection of the vertical seems mainly to be affected by both land and submarine topographies.

  8. Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortensen, Kristine Køhler; Brotherton, Chloe

    2018-01-01

    for the face the be put into action. Based on an ethnographic study of Danish teenagers’ use of SnapChat we demonstrate how the face is used as a central medium for interaction with peers. Through the analysis of visual SnapChat messages we investigate how SnapChat requires the sender to put an ‘ugly’ face...... already secured their popular status on the heterosexual marketplace in the broad context of the school. Thus SnapChat functions both as a challenge to beauty norms of ‘flawless faces’ and as a reinscription of these same norms by further manifesting the exclusive status of the popular girl...

  9. Advances in understanding ozone impact on forest trees: Messages from novel phytotron and free-air fumigation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matyssek, R., E-mail: matyssek@wzw.tum.d [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Karnosky, D.F. [Michigan Technological University, School of Forest Resources and Environmental Sciences, Houghton, MI 49931-129 (United States); Wieser, G. [Federal Research and Trainings Centre for Forests, Natural Hazards and Landscape, Dept. of Alpine Timberline Ecophysiology, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Percy, K. [K.E. Percy Air Quality Effects Consulting Ltd., 207-230 Wilson Drive, Fort McMurray, Alberta T9H 0A4 (Canada); Oksanen, E. [Faculty of Biosciences, University of Joensuu, P.O. Box 111, FIN 80101 Joensuu (Finland); Grams, T.E.E. [Ecophysiology of Plants, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany); Kubiske, M. [Institute for Applied Ecosystem Studies, US Forest Service, Northern Research Station, 5985 Hwy K, Rhinelander, WI 54501 (United States); Hanke, D. [Department of Plant Sciences, University of Cambridge, CB2 3EA (United Kingdom); Pretzsch, H. [Forest Yield Science, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising-Weihenstephan (Germany)

    2010-06-15

    Recent evidence from novel phytotron and free-air ozone (O{sub 3}) fumigation experiments in Europe and America on forest tree species is highlighted in relation to previous chamber studies. Differences in O{sub 3} sensitivity between pioneer and climax species are examined and viewed for trees growing at the harsh alpine timberline ecotone. As O{sub 3} apparently counteracts positive effects of elevated CO{sub 2} and mitigates productivity increases, response is governed by genotype, competitors, and ontogeny rather than species per se. Complexity in O{sub 3} responsiveness increased under the influence of pathogens and herbivores. The new evidence does not conflict in principle with previous findings that, however, pointed to a low ecological significance. This new knowledge on trees' O{sub 3} responsiveness beyond the juvenile stage in plantations and forests nevertheless implies limited predictability due to complexity in biotic and abiotic interactions. Unravelling underlying mechanisms is mandatory for assessing O{sub 3} risks as an important component of climate change scenarios. - Novel phytotron and free-air O{sub 3} exposure studies on forest trees communicate sensitivity to be governed by genotype, ontogeny and biotic agents rather than species per se.

  10. Stem respiration of Populus species in the third year of free-air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gielen, Birgit; Scarascia-Mugnozza, Giuseppe; Ceulemans, Reinhart

    2003-04-01

    Carbon cycling in ecosystems, and especially in forests, is intensively studied to predict the effects of global climate change, and the role which forests may play in 'changing climate change'. One of the questions is whether the carbon balance of forests will be affected by increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations. Regarding this question, effects of elevated [CO2] on woody-tissue respiration have frequently been neglected. Stem respiration of three Populus species (P. alba L. (Clone 2AS-11), P. nigra L. (Clone Jean Pourtet), and P. x euramericana (Clone I-214)) was measured in a managed, high-density forest plantation exposed to free-air CO2 enrichment (POPFACE). During the period of measurements, in May of the third year, stem respiration rates were not affected by the FACE treatment. Moreover, FACE did not influence the relationships between respiration rate and both stem temperature and relative growth rate. The results were supported by the reported absence of a FACE-effect on growth and stem wood density.

  11. High CO/sub 2/ partial pressure effects on dark and light CO/sub 2/ fixation and metabolism in Vicia faba leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coudret, A.; Ferron, F.; Laffray, D.

    1985-01-01

    Stomatal opening on Vicia faba can be induced by high CO/sub 2/ partial pressures (10.2%) in dark as well as in light. Stomatal aperture was measured in both cases with a hydrogen porometer. The distribution of /sup 14/C among early products of photosynthesis was studied. Comparisons are made with carboxylations occurring when stomata were open in the dark with CO/sub 2/-free air and in light with 0.034% CO/sub 2/. Results showed that in high CO/sub 2/ partial pressure in light, less radioactivity was incorporated in Calvin cycle intermediates and more in sucrose. ..beta.. carboxylations and photorespiration seemed to be inhibited. In the dark in both CO/sub 2/ conditions, /sup 14/C incorporation was found in malate and aspartate but also in serine and glycerate in high CO/sub 2/ conditions. In light these changes in metabolic pathways may be related with the deleterious effects recorded on leaves after long-term expositions to high partial pressure of CO/sub 2/.

  12. Scattering study at free air ionization chamber diaphragm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santos, Alexandre Lo Bianco dos

    2011-01-01

    The maim of this work consisted in the assessment of the correction factor for air kerma, due to scattered radiation in the diaphragm of the free-air ionization chamber model 481. LNMRl measurements were made to acquire x-ray spectra corresponding to the Qualities RQR-M, described in IEC 61627 standards (2005). These spectra were used as input data in the MC simulations. The operational range of energy spectra provide up to 35 keV. This energy range is typically used in diagnostic radiology, although there is not primary standard for air kerma. The determination of this factor is a fundamental process in the primary standardization of the air kerma. These factors were obtained by computer simulation using the Penelope code. The results are k RQR-M1 =0,9946, k RQR -M2 =0,9932, k RQR-M3 =0,9978 and k RQR-M4 =0,9885; with uncertainties of 0,007 and coverage factor equal to 2. lt can be concluded that, with respect to the diaphragm, the chamber can be used in the primary standard of air kerma. (author)

  13. Effects of elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and tropospheric O{sub 3} on leaf litter production and chemistry in trembling aspen and paper birch communities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, L.; King, J.S. [Michigan Technological Univ., Houghton, MI (United States). School of Forest Resources and Environmental Science; Giardina, C.P. [United States Dept. of Agriculture Forest Service, Houghton, MI (United States)

    2005-12-01

    This study examined the effects of elevated carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) and elevated ozone (O{sub 3}) on the quantity and timing of nutrient release to plants and on soil carbon formation rates, and how they are influenced by the combined change in litter quality and quantity. The changes in leaf litter in response to environmental changes was characterized in order to understand the influence of global change on forests. Free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) technology was used to examine leaf litter production and biochemical input to soil in response to elevated CO{sub 2} and O{sub 3} treatments. The study involved collecting litter from aspen and birch-aspen communities that had been exposed to FACE and O{sub 3} treatments for 6 years. The hypothesis of growth differentiation balance was used as the basis to develop other hypotheses regarding litter chemistry responses to elevated levels of carbon dioxide and ozone. It was assumed that environmental factors that increase the net balance of plant carbon sources relative to growth sinks will increase the allocation of photosynthate to the production of carbon-based secondary compounds. Litter was analyzed for concentrations of carbon, nitrogen, soluble sugars, lipids, lignin, cellulose, hemicellulose and carbon-based defensive compounds such as soluble phenolics and condensed tannins. The study showed that high levels of ozone greatly increased litter concentrations of soluble sugars, soluble phenolics and condensed tannins, but there were no major effects of elevated carbon dioxide or elevated ozone on the concentrations of individual carbon structural carbon hydrates such as cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin. It was concluded that in the future, the inputs of nitrogen, soluble sugars, condensed tannins, soluble phenolics, cellulose and lignin to forest soils can change as a result of small changes in litter chemistry resulting from elevated CO{sub 2}, tropospheric O{sub 3}, and changes in litter biomass

  14. Thoughts about automotive industry in 2050 with respect to the objective of division by 4 of CO{sub 2} emissions; Reflexions sur l'automobile de 2050 face a l'objectif de division du CO{sub 2} par le facteur 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douaud, A.

    2005-07-01

    The long-term strategy of the automotive industry is to minimize its CO{sub 2} emissions and to progressively abandon petroleum. Today, the diesel technology is the most efficient in terms of CO{sub 2} emissions and the hybrid technology will be the medium-term challenge with the development of biofuels and synthetic fuels from biomass. According to the author, there is no certitude that the hydrogen fuel cell will be tomorrows' automobile engine and the nuclear option would be necessary to produce huge quantities of hydrogen without CO{sub 2} emissions. The alternate strategies with interesting potentialities remain the electric-powered vehicle supplied with batteries or supplied with methanol fuel cells, methanol being obtained by biomass transformation. (J.S.)

  15. 1-deg x 1-deg Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 1x1 degree Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base was...

  16. 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Anomalies

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The 30-min x 30-min Terrestrial Mean Free-Air Gravity Anomaly and Geoid Undulations Data Base was compiled and developed by the Ohio State University. This data base...

  17. Tree age dependence and within-canopy variation of leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence in Fagus sylvatica under experimental free-air ozone exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbinger, K. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria)]. E-mail: karin.herbinger@uni-graz.at; Then, Ch. [Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Abteilung Forstpflanzenphysiologie, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)]|[Lehrstuhl fuer Oekophysiologie der Pflanzen, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Sciences Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Loew, M.; Koch, N. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekophysiologie der Pflanzen, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Sciences Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Haberer, K.; Alexous, M. [Institut fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Universitaet Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79085 Freiburg (Germany); Remele, K. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Heerdt, C. [Lehrstuhl fuer Bioklimatologie und Immissionsforschung, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Grill, D. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria); Rennenberg, H. [Institut fuer Forstbotanik und Baumphysiologie, Universitaet Freiburg, Georges-Koehler-Allee 053/054, D-79085 Freiburg (Germany); Haeberle, K.-H.; Matyssek, R. [Lehrstuhl fuer Oekophysiologie der Pflanzen, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Life Sciences Center Weihenstephan, Am Hochanger 13, D-85354 Freising (Germany); Tausz, M. [Institut fuer Pflanzenwissenschaften, Universitaet Graz, Schubertstrasse 51, A-8010 Graz (Austria)]|[[School of Forest and Ecosystem Science, University of Melbourne, Water Street, Creswick, Vic. 3363 (Australia); Wieser, G. [Bundesamt und Forschungszentrum fuer Wald, Abteilung Forstpflanzenphysiologie, Rennweg 1, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2005-10-15

    We characterized leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence of two-year-old seedlings and 60-year-old trees of Fagus sylvatica exposed to ambient (1xO{sub 3}) or two-fold ambient (2xO{sub 3}) O{sub 3} concentrations (maximum of 150 ppb) in a free-air canopy exposure system throughout the growing season. Decline in photosynthesis from sun-exposed to shaded conditions was more pronounced in adult than juvenile trees. Seedling leaves and leaves in the sun-exposed canopy had higher stomatal conductance and higher internal CO{sub 2} concentrations relative to leaves of adult trees and leaves in shaded conditions. There was a weak overall depression of photosynthesis in the 2xO{sub 3} variants across age classes and canopy positions. Pigment and tocopherol concentrations of leaves were significantly affected by canopy position and tree age, whereas differences between 1xO{sub 3} and 2xO{sub 3} regimes were not observed. Glutathione concentrations were significantly increased under 2xO{sub 3} across both age classes and canopy levels. Seedlings differed from adult trees in relevant physiological and biochemical traits in ozone response. The water-soluble antioxidative systems responded most sensitively to 2xO{sub 3} without regard of tree age or canopy position. - Ozone effects on leaf gas exchange and antioxidative systems of beech across tree age and canopy level were investigated in a free air exposure system.

  18. Strength of smoke-free air laws and indoor air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kiyoung; Hahn, Ellen J; Robertson, Heather E; Lee, Seongjik; Vogel, Suzann L; Travers, Mark J

    2009-04-01

    Smoke-free air laws have been implemented in many Kentucky communities to protect the public from the harmful effects of secondhand smoke exposure. The impact of different strengths of smoke-free air laws on indoor air quality was assessed. Indoor air quality in hospitality venues was assessed in seven communities before and after comprehensive smoke-free air laws and in two communities only after partial smoke-free air laws. One community was measured three times: before any smoke-free air law, after the initial partial law, and after the law was strengthened to cover all workplaces and public places with few exemptions. Real-time measurements of particulate matters with 2.5 mum aerodynamic diameter or smaller (PM(2.5)) were obtained. When comprehensive smoke-free air laws were implemented, indoor PM(2.5) concentrations decreased significantly from 161 to 20 microg/m3. In one community that implemented a comprehensive smoke-free law after initially passing a partial law, indoor PM(2.5) concentrations were 304 microg/m3 before the law, 338 microg/m3 after the partial law, and 9 microg/m3 after the comprehensive law. The study clearly demonstrated that partial smoke-free air laws do not improve indoor air quality. A significant linear trend indicated that PM(2.5) levels in the establishments decreased with fewer numbers of burning cigarettes. Only comprehensive smoke-free air laws are effective in reducing indoor air pollution from secondhand tobacco smoke.

  19. Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis associated with massive free air mimicking perforated diffuse peritonitis

    OpenAIRE

    Sakurai, Yoichi; Hikichi, Masahiro; Isogaki, Jun; Furuta, Shinpei; Sunagawa, Risaburo; Inaba, Kazuki; Komori, Yoshiyuki; Uyama, Ichiro

    2008-01-01

    While pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a rare disease entity associated with a wide variety of gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders, PCI associated with massive intra- and retroperitoneal free air is extremely uncommon, and is difficult to diagnose differentially from perforated peritonitis. We present two cases of PCI associated with massive peritoneal free air and/or retroperitoneal air that mimicked perforated peritonitis. These cases highlight the clinical import...

  20. Limitations to soybean photosynthesis at elevated carbon dioxide in free-air enrichment and open top chamber systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bunce, James A

    2014-09-01

    It has been suggested that the stimulation of soybean photosynthesis by elevated CO2 was less in free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) systems than in open top chambers (OTC), which might explain smaller yield increases at elevated CO2 in FACE systems. However, this has not been tested using the same cultivars grown in the same location. I tested whether soybean photosynthesis at high light and elevated CO2 (ambient+180 μmol mol(-1)) was limited by electron transport (J) in FACE systems but by ribulose-bisphosphate carboxylation capacity (VCmax) in OTC. FACE systems with daytime and continuous CO2 enrichment were also compared. The results indicated that in both cultivars examined, midday photosynthesis at high light was always limited by VCmax, both in the FACE and in the OTC systems. Daytime only CO2 enrichment did not affect photosynthetic parameters or limitations, but did result in significantly smaller yields in both cultivars than continuous elevation. Photosynthesis measured at low photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) was not higher at elevated than at ambient CO2, because of an acclimation to elevated CO2 which was only evident at low measurement PPFDs. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd.

  1. CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakuta, Toshikatu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    The climate change induced by CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases is probably the most serious environmental threat that mankind has ever experienced. Nowadays fossil fuels occupy the majority of the world commercial energy supply. Most nations will be dependent on fossil fuels even in the first half of the next century. Around 30 % of CO{sub 2} in the world is emitted from thermal power plants. Recovering CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes and storing it outside the atmosphere is a promising option for the mitigation of global warming. CO{sub 2} fixation and storage include CO{sub 2} disposal into oceans and underground, and utilization of CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} separation process will be used in any CO{sub 2} storage system, and is estimated to consume almost half the energy of the total system. Research and development of highly efficient CO{sub 2} separation process is most important from the viewpoint of practical application of CO{sub 2} fixation system.

  2. A multiple stage approach to mitigate the risks of telecommunication equipment under free air cooling conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai Jun; Das, Diganta; Pecht, Michael

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Analyze the challenges posed by free air cooling (FAC). ► Present a multi-stage process to mitigate the risks of FAC. ► Propose a prognostics-based method to mitigate risks in data centers in operation. ► Present a case study to show the prognostics-based method implementation. - Abstract: The telecommunication industry is concerned about the energy costs of its operating infrastructure and the associated greenhouse gas emissions. At present, more than half of the total energy consumption of data centers is devoted to the power and cooling infrastructure that supports electronic equipment. One method of reducing energy consumption is an approach called “free air cooling,” where ambient air is used to cool the equipment directly, thereby reducing the energy consumed in cooling and conditioning the air. For example, Intel demonstrated free air cooling in a 10-megawatt (MW) data center, showing a reduction in energy use and savings of US$2.87 million annually. However, the impacts of this approach on the performance and reliability of telecommunication equipment need to be identified. The implementation of free air cooling changes the operating environment, including temperature and humidity, which may have a significant impact on the performance and reliability of telecom equipment. This paper discusses the challenges posed by free air cooling and presents a multi-stage process for evaluating and mitigating the potential risks arising from this new operating environment.

  3. Stability results of a free air ionization chamber in standard mammography beams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Xavier, Marcos; Vivolo, Vitor; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2015-01-01

    Free air ionization chambers are absolute dosimeters, because they can measure basic physical quantities directly without the need of their calibration in a standard radiation beam. They are used for measuring exposure and air kerma in X and gamma radiation beams. The Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN has a free air ionization chamber of the cylindrical type for low energies. The characterization of this ionization chamber was already performed and reported in a previous study. After a modification in the support of the micrometers used for the movement of the internal cylinder devices, the tests were redone. The objective of this work was to present the new alignment protocol of the free air ionization chamber in low energies of X-ray beams of standard mammography qualities, assuring the positioning reproducibility, and new results of stability tests performed with the application of this protocol will be presented. (author)

  4. Pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis associated with massive free air mimicking perforated diffuse peritonitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakurai, Yoichi; Hikichi, Masahiro; Isogaki, Jun; Furuta, Shinpei; Sunagawa, Risaburo; Inaba, Kazuki; Komori, Yoshiyuki; Uyama, Ichiro

    2008-11-21

    While pneumatosis cystoides intestinalis (PCI) is a rare disease entity associated with a wide variety of gastrointestinal and non-gastrointestinal disorders, PCI associated with massive intra- and retroperitoneal free air is extremely uncommon, and is difficult to diagnose differentially from perforated peritonitis. We present two cases of PCI associated with massive peritoneal free air and/or retroperitoneal air that mimicked perforated peritonitis. These cases highlight the clinical importance of PCI that mimics perforated peritonitis, which requires emergency surgery. Preoperative imaging modalities and diagnostic laparoscopy are useful to make an accurate diagnosis.

  5. Comparison of crop yield sensitivity to ozone between open-top chamber and free-air experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Zhaozhong; Uddling, Johan; Tang, Haoye; Zhu, Jianguo; Kobayashi, Kazuhiko

    2018-02-02

    Assessments of the impacts of ozone (O 3 ) on regional and global food production are currently based on results from experiments using open-top chambers (OTCs). However, there are concerns that these impact estimates might be biased due to the environmental artifacts imposed by this enclosure system. In this study, we collated O 3 exposure and yield data for three major crop species-wheat, rice, and soybean-for which O 3 experiments have been conducted with OTCs as well as the ecologically more realistic free-air O 3 elevation (O 3 -FACE) exposure system; both within the same cultivation region and country. For all three crops, we found that the sensitivity of crop yield to the O 3 metric AOT40 (accumulated hourly O 3 exposure above a cut-off threshold concentration of 40 ppb) significantly differed between OTC and O 3 -FACE experiments. In wheat and rice, O 3 sensitivity was higher in O 3 -FACE than OTC experiments, while the opposite was the case for soybean. In all three crops, these differences could be linked to factors influencing stomatal conductance (manipulation of water inputs, passive chamber warming, and cultivar differences in gas exchange). Our study thus highlights the importance of accounting for factors that control stomatal O 3 flux when applying experimental data to assess O 3 impacts on crops at large spatial scales. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Vaginal Cuff Dehiscence Presenting with Free Air 60 Days after Robotic-Assisted Hysterectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Munger

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The vast majority of patients presenting with pneumoperitoneum have visceral organ perforation and require urgent diagnostic laparoscopy. Nonsurgical causes are relatively rare and may be attributed to multiple etiologies. Case Presentation. Here we describe the case of a 38-year-old Caucasian female who presented to the emergency department with three days of cramping, epigastric abdominal pain. Her physical exam was notable for tenderness to palpation in the epigastric area and abdominal and chest X-rays showed free air under the diaphragm. Free air around the porta hepatis was verified on CT scan. Approximately 90% of pneumoperitoneum cases are due to perforation of visceral organs and therefore require operative management. An urgent exploratory laparoscopy revealed no clear source of free air, but postoperatively the patient developed a large volume of watery discharge from her vagina. Subsequent workup revealed a 1 cm vaginal cuff dehiscence which was later repaired with no postoperative complications. Conclusion. Although the majority of patients with pneumoperitoneum require urgent exploratory laparoscopy, a careful diagnostic workup may reveal sources of free air that are not related to hollow viscous perforation. Vaginal cuff dehiscence represents a rare yet nonurgent source of pneumoperitoneum. This differential should be considered in light of the possible intra- and postoperative complications of surgery.

  7. AIRSF: a new entertainment adaptive framework for stress free air tTravels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, H.; Hu, J.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.; Inakage, M.; Cheok, A.D.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we present a new entertainment adaptive framework AIRSF for stress free air travels. Based on the passenger’s current and target comfort states, user entertainment preference, and context of use, the system uses a Markov decision process to recommend context-aware and personalized

  8. Design of aircraft cabin testbed for stress free air travel experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.F.; Chen, W.; Rauterberg, G.W.M.

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents an aircraft cabin testbed that is designed and built for the stress free air travel experiment. The project is funded by European Union in the aim of improving air travel comfort during long haul flight. The testbed is used to test and validate the adaptive system that is capable

  9. Rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} and crops: Research methodology and direct effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rogers, H. [National Soil Dynamics Laboratory, Auburn, AL (United States); Acock, B. [Systems Research Laboratory, Beltsville, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Carbon dioxide is the food of trees and grass. Our relentless pursuit of a better life has taken us down a traffic jammed road, past smoking factories and forests. This pursuit is forcing a rise in the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level, and no one know when and if flood stage will be reached. Some thinkers have suggested that this increase of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere will cause warming. No matter whether this prediction is realized or not, more CO{sub 2} will directly affect plants. Data from controlled observations have usually, but not always, shown benefits. Our choices of scientific equipment for gathering CO{sub 2} response data are critical since we must see what is happening through the eye of the instrument. The signals derived from our sensors will ultimately determine the truth of our conclusions, conclusion which will profoundly influence our policy decisions. Experimental gear is selected on the basis of scale of interest and problem to be addressed. Our imaginations and our budgets interact to set bounds on our objectives and approaches. Techniques run the gamut from cellular microprobes through whole-plant controlled environment chambers to field-scale exposure systems. Trade-offs exist among the various CO{sub 2} exposure techniques, and many factors impinge on the choice of a method. All exposure chambers are derivatives of three primary types--batch, plug flow, and continuous stirred tank reactor. Systems for the generation of controlled test atmospheres of CO{sub 2} vary in two basic ways--size and degree of control. Among the newest is free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment which allows tens of square meters of cropland to be studied.

  10. Applying the Theory of Planned Behavior to Explore the Relation between Smoke-Free Air Laws and Quitting Intentions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macy, Jonathan T.; Middlestadt, Susan E.; Seo, Dong-Chul; Kolbe, Lloyd J.; Jay, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Smoke-free air policies have been shown to reduce smoking, but the mechanism of behavior change is not well understood. The authors used structural equation modeling to conduct a theory of planned behavior analysis with data from 395 smokers living in seven Texas cities, three with a comprehensive smoke-free air law and four without a…

  11. Restaurant employment before and after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Cummings, K M

    1999-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to observe trends in the number of restaurants and restaurant employees two years before and two years after the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act took effect in April, 1995. Between April 1993 and April 1997, New York City added 19,347 new restaurant jobs (18% increase) while the rest of the state outside the immediate metropolitan area added 7,423 new jobs (5% increase). The rate of growth in the number of restaurants was comparable among New York City, neighboring counties, and the rest of the state. The data suggest that the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act did not result in job losses for the city's restaurant industry.

  12. Determination of the air attenuation and electronic loss for the free air concentric cylinders ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliveira, Hebert Pinto Silveira de

    2010-01-01

    Along the latest years, the LNMRI has been proceeding a continuous research work with a concentric cylinders type free air ionizing chamber (VICTOREEN, model 481), aiming to establish it as a new national standard, and, as a consequence, replace the worldwide accepted secondary standard, calibrated by PTB. Taking into account that the absolute determination of kerma in air with a free air ionizing chamber implies the acquirement of a number of correction factors. The main objective of the present work comprises the determination of the two factors, specifically, electronic loss (k e ) and air attenuation (k a ). The correction factors were obtained through mammography qualities reference spectrum, using Monte Carlo simulation method. The Penelope code was used in the simulation procedures. Simulations took place in two stages, the acquirement of specters related to the qualities of interest (mammography) with the x ray tube (Pantak, model HF160 e Panalytical, model XRF window), and the free-air ionization chamber. The data were compared to those related to the BIPM chamber, to electronic loss were not detected. The comparison between air attenuation factors was obtained data bellow 0.13%. (author)

  13. Determination of the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia F.; Cintra, Felipe B.; Castro, Maysa C. de; Caldas, Linda V.E.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this work is to present the experimental and simulation results for the air attenuation correction factor for a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders of Victoreen, model 481-5. This correction factor was obtained for the standard mammography qualities established in the Instrument Calibration Laboratory (LCI) of IPEN. The values were compared with the results from the German primary standard laboratory Physikalisch- Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), and maximum differences of 0.40% in relation to the experimental value and 0.31% in relation to the simulated value were obtained. (author)

  14. Effects of free-air CO2 enrichment on adventitious root development of rice under low and normal soil nitrogen levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chengming Sun

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Free air CO2 enrichment (FACE and nitrogen (N have marked effects on rice root growth, and numerical simulation can explain these effects. To further define the effects of FACE on root growth of rice, an experiment was performed, using the hybrid indica cultivar Xianyou 63. The effects of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentration [CO2], 200 μmol mol− 1 higher than ambient, on the growth of rice adventitious roots were evaluated, with two levels of N: low (LN, 125 kg ha− 1 and normal (NN, 250 kg ha− 1. The results showed a significant increase in both adventitious root number (ARN and adventitious root length (ARL under FACE treatment. The application of nitrogen also increased ARN and ARL, but these increases were smaller than that under FACE treatment. On the basis of the FACE experiment, numerical models for rice adventitious root number and length were constructed with time as the driving factor. The models illustrated the dynamic development of rice adventitious root number and length after transplanting, regulated either by atmospheric [CO2] or by N application. The simulation result was supported by statistical tests comparing experimental data from different years, and the model yields realistic predictions of root growth. These results suggest that the models have strong predictive potential under conditions of atmospheric [CO2] rises in the future.

  15. CO{sub 2} sequestration technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ketzer, Marcelo [Brazilian Carbon Storage Research Center (Brazil)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the importance of the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} is outlined for the reduction of gas discharges of greenhouse effect; then the principles of CO{sub 2} storage in geologic formations are reviewed; afterwards, the analogs for the CO{sub 2} storage are commented, such as the storage of the acid gas, the natural gas storage and the natural CO{sub 2} deposits. Also it is spoken on the CO{sub 2} storage in coal, in water-bearing saline deposits and in oil fields, and finally the subject of the safety and monitoring of the CO{sub 2} storage is reviewed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se expone la importancia de la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} para la reduccion de emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero; luego se tratan los principios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en formaciones geologicas; despues se comentan los analogos para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} como el almacenamiento del gas acido, el almacenamiento de gas natural y los yacimientos naturales de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se habla sobre el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en carbon, acuiferos salinos y yacimientos petroliferos y por ultimo se toca el tema de la seguridad y monitoreo del almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  16. New Mars free-air and Bouguer gravity: Correlation with topography, geology and large impact basins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Bills, Bruce G.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Roark, James H.; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies from a 50x50 field (MGM635), derived at the Goddard Space Flight Center, with global topography, geology, and the distribution of large impact basins was compared. The free-air gravity anomalies were derived from re-analysis of Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 tracking data and have a spatial resolution of 250-300 km. Bouguer anomalies were calculated using a 50x50 expansion of the current Mars topography and the GSFC degree 50 geoid as the equipotential reference surface. Rotational flattening was removed using a moment of inertia of 0.365 and the corrections from Table B2 of Sleep and Phillips. Crustal density and mean density were assumed to be 2.9 and 3.93 gm/cm(sup 3). The spherical harmonic topography used has zero mean elevation, and differs from the USGS maps by about 2 km. Comparisons with global geology use a simplified map with about 1/3 the number of units on the current maps. For correlation with impact basins, the recent compilation by Schultz and Frey was used.

  17. Effect of free-air nuclei on fully developed individual bubble cavitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Danel, F.; Lecoffre, Y.

    1976-01-01

    Fully developed individual-bubble cavitation was studied. Nuclei population and pressure distribution at the boundary of a cavitating converging-diverging test section were measured. It was shown that some cavitation tests can only yield valid results if the free air content of the water is known. During the initial stages of bubble growth the wall pressure in the cavitation region is lower than the vapor pressure. Wall pressure rises later. For a given cavitation number and flow velocity, the pressure distribution depends on the number of expanding bubbles on the hydrofoil. Minimum pressure coefficient depends only on the cavitation number, the flow velocity and the number of expanding bubbles present. Bubbles generate pressure pulses at the wall; combined effect of all such pulses is to shift the wall pressure away from the value that would be obtained at the same cavitation number if no cavitation was present. The greater the number of expanding bubbles, the more the wall pressure tends to approach the vapor pressure. An important result of the work is to pin-point free air contents of water tunnel which lead to correct scaling of cavitation flows [fr

  18. Free-air ionization intensity in the lower atmosphere due to cosmic-ray

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Urabe, Itsumasa; Katsurayama, Kousuke

    1979-01-01

    Being able to be determined by subtracting the gamma-ray ionization intensity from that obtained with ionization chamber, cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated by using with 15l air-filled ionization chamber and 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer. Optimum applied voltage to 15l air-filled ionization chamber was determined in accordance with Scott and Greening's formula to obtain the ionization intensity caused by gamma-rays and cosmic-rays. Pulse-height distribution of cosmic-rays created in 3''diameter spherical NaI(Tl) scintillation spectrometer was investigated for the precise determination of gamma-ray ionization intensity. Field measurements were carried out by using with these two instruments at about 1.5 meter above the ground in the several locations around Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. Cosmic-ray ionization intensity in free air was estimated from the results obtained with air-filled ionization chamber and was 3.33 +- 0.15 μR/hr equivalent in natural environment near Research Reactor Institute of Kyoto University. (author)

  19. Optimized CO{sub 2} miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, R.S.; Funkhouser, G.P.; Fyten, G.; Attaway, D.; Watkins, H. [Halliburton Energy Services, Calgary, AB (Canada); Lestz, R.S. [Chevron Canada Resources, Calgary, AB (Canada); Loree, D. [FracEx Inc. (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) miscible hydrocarbon fracturing fluids address issues of fluid retention in low-permeability gas reservoirs, including undersaturated and underpressured reservoirs. An optimized surfactant gel technology using carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) hydrocarbon fracturing fluids applicable to all gas-well stimulation applications was discussed in this paper. The crosslinked surfactant gel technology improved proppant transport, leakoff control, and generation of effective fracture half-length. Tests indicated that application of the surfactant cooled the fracture face, which had the effect of extending break times and increasing viscosity during pumping periods. Rapid recovery of the fracturing fluid eliminated the need for swabbing in some cases, and the fluid system was not adversely affected by shear. However, rheological test equipment capable of mixing liquid CO{sub 2} and viscosified hydrocarbons at downhole temperatures is required to determine rheology and required chemical concentrations. It was recommended that to achieve an effective methane-drive cleanup mechanism, treatments should be designed so that the gellant system can be effective with up to 50 per cent CO{sub 2} dissolved in oil. It was concluded that it should be possible to apply the technology to low permeability gas reservoirs. Viscosity curves and friction data were presented. Issues concerning the selection of tubulars and flowback procedures were also discussed. It was suggested that the cost of the hydrocarbon fracturing fluid can be recovered by the sale of recovered load fluid. 6 refs., 4 figs.

  20. [Response of soil hydrolase and oxidoreductase activities to free-air carbon dioxide enrichment (FACE) under rice-wheat rotation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulan; Zhang, Lili; Chen, Lijun; Wu, Zhijie

    2004-06-01

    This paper studied the response of soil urease, phosphatase, arylsulphatase and dehydrogenase to 200 micromol x mol(-1) CO2 elevation under rice-wheat rotation. The results showed that under CO2 elevation, the urease activity in 0-10 cm soil layer was decreased at the early growth stages of wheat but increased at its booting stage; the activity increased at the early growth stages of rice but decreased at its ripening stage. Phosphatase activity was increased during the whole growth period of wheat; the activity increased at the tillering stage of rice but decreased at its later growth stages. Arylsulphatase activity was decreased at the over-wintering and booting stages of wheat but increased at its tillering and ripening stages. Dehydrogenase activity was decreased at the early growth stages of wheat and rice, but increased at their late growth stages.

  1. Impact of U.S. Smoke-free Air Laws on Restaurant and Bar Employment, 1990-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafer, Paul

    2017-12-23

    Secondhand smoke exposure is responsible for an estimated 50,000 deaths per year among nonsmokers in the U.S. Smoke-free air laws reduce secondhand smoke exposure but often encounter opposition over concerns about their economic impact. Expansion of these laws has stagnated and efforts to weaken existing laws may exacerbate existing disparities in exposure. Studies at the state and local levels have found that smoke-free air laws do not generally have an adverse effect, but there are no recent estimates of the impact of these laws nationally. Employment and sales are two measures commonly used to estimate the economic impact of smoke-free air laws. Sales data are gathered by state and local taxing authorities but not uniformly across jurisdictions. Dynamic panel models are used to estimate a population-weighted national average treatment effect of smoke-free air laws on restaurant and bar employment using data from the Quarterly Census of Employment and Wages for 1990 to 2015. A one-percentage point increase in population covered by a restaurant smoke-free air law is associated with a small increase (approximately 0.01%) in restaurant employment (b=0.0001, Plaw was not associated with bar employment. Smoke-free air laws are a powerful tool for protecting hospitality workers and patrons from the dangers of secondhand smoke. Using data over more than two decades, these results suggest that smoke-free air laws in the U.S. do not generally have any meaningful effect on restaurant and bar employment. Smoke-free air laws are associated with reductions in negative health outcomes and decreased smoking prevalence. Despite this clear public health argument and strong public support, passage of new laws has stagnated and exemptions are being used to weaken existing laws. The ability to make both a health and business case in support of existing laws may also bolster the case for expansion. This study provides an updated look at the economic impact of smoke-free air laws

  2. Design of the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-150, for X-ray dosimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, Seyed Mostafa; Tavakoli-Anbaran, Hossein

    2018-03-01

    The primary standard for X-ray dosimetry is based on the free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) designed the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-150, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The purpose of this work is the study of the free-air ionization chamber characteristics and the design of the FAC-IR-150. The FAC-IR-150 dosimeter has two parallel plates, a high voltage plate and a collector plate. A guard electrode surrounds the collector and is separated by an air gap. A group of guard strips is used between up and down electrodes to produce a uniform electric field in all the ion chamber volume. This design involves introducing the correction factors and determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation.

  3. Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon–nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E; De Kauwe, Martin G; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Hickler, Thomas; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; El-Masri, Bassil; Thornton, Peter; Jain, Atul; Wang, Shusen; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William; Iversen, Colleen M; Gallet-Budynek, Anne; McCarthy, Heather; Finzi, Adrien; Hanson, Paul J; Prentice, I Colin; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    We analysed the responses of 11 ecosystem models to elevated atmospheric [CO2] (eCO2) at two temperate forest ecosystems (Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments) to test alternative representations of carbon (C)–nitrogen (N) cycle processes. We decomposed the model responses into component processes affecting the response to eCO2 and confronted these with observations from the FACE experiments. Most of the models reproduced the observed initial enhancement of net primary production (NPP) at both sites, but none was able to simulate both the sustained 10-yr enhancement at Duke and the declining response at ORNL: models generally showed signs of progressive N limitation as a result of lower than observed plant N uptake. Nonetheless, many models showed qualitative agreement with observed component processes. The results suggest that improved representation of above-ground–below-ground interactions and better constraints on plant stoichiometry are important for a predictive understanding of eCO2 effects. Improved accuracy of soil organic matter inventories is pivotal to reduce uncertainty in the observed C–N budgets. The two FACE experiments are insufficient to fully constrain terrestrial responses to eCO2, given the complexity of factors leading to the observed diverging trends, and the consequential inability of the models to explain these trends. Nevertheless, the ecosystem models were able to capture important features of the experiments, lending some support to their projections. PMID:24467623

  4. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shindo, Yuji; Hakuta, Toshikatsu [National Inst. of Materials and Chemical Research, AIST, MITI, Higashi, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Most countries in the world will continue to depend on fossil fuels for their main energy at least for half a country, even in the confrontation with the threat of global warming. This indicates that the development of CO{sub 2} removal technologies such as recovering CO{sub 2} from flue gases and sequestering it of in the deep oceans or subterranean sites is necessary, at least until non-fossil fuel dependent society is developed. Ocean CO{sub 2} disposal is one of the promising options for the sequestration of CO{sub 2} recovered from flue gases. Oceans have sufficient capacity to absorb all the CO{sub 2} emitted in the world. It is very significant to research and develop the technologies for ocean CO{sub 2} disposal.

  5. Sources of CO{sub 2} efflux from soil and review of partitioning methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuzyakov, Y. [University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany). Institute of Soil Science and Land Evaluation

    2006-03-15

    Five main biogenic sources of CO{sub 2} efflux from soils have been distinguished and described according to their turnover rates and the mean residence time of carbon. They are root respiration, rhizomicrobial respiration, decomposition of plant residues, the priming effect induced by root exudation or by addition of plant residues, and basal respiration by microbial decomposition of soil organic matter (SOM). These sources can be grouped in several combinations to summarize CO{sub 2} efflux from the soil including: root-derived CO{sub 2}, plant-derived CO{sub 2}, SOM-derived CO{sub 2}, rhizosphere respiration, heterotrophic microbial respiration (respiration by heterotrophs), and respiration by autotrophs. These distinctions are important because without separation of SOM-derived CO{sub 2} from plant-derived CO{sub 2}, measurements of total soil respiration have very limited value for evaluation of the soil as a source or sink of atmospheric CO{sub 2} and for interpreting the sources of CO{sub 2} and the fate of carbon within soils and ecosystems. Additionally, the processes linked to the five sources of CO{sub 2} efflux from soil have various responses to environmental variables and consequently to global warming. This review describes the basic principles and assumptions of the following methods which allow SOM-derived and root-derived CO{sub 2} efflux to be separated under laboratory and field conditions: root exclusion techniques, shading and clipping, tree girdling, regression, component integration, excised roots and in situ root respiration; continuous and pulse labeling, {sup 13}C natural abundance and FACE, and radiocarbon dating and bomb-{sup 14}C. A short sections cover the separation of the respiration of autotrophs and that of heterotrophs, i.e. the separation of actual root respiration from microbial respiration, as well as methods allowing the amount of CO{sub 2} evolved by decomposition of plant residues and by priming effects to be estimated. All

  6. Technical Note: An investigation of polarity effects for wide-angle free-air chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, H., E-mail: Hong.Shen@nrc-cnrc.gc.ca; Ross, C. K. [Ionizing Radiation Standards, National Research Council, Ottawa, Ontario K1A 0R6 (Canada); Culberson, W. S. [Department of Medical Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53705 (United States)

    2016-07-15

    Purpose: Wide-angle free-air chambers (WAFACs) are used as primary standard measurement devices for establishing the air-kerma strength of low-energy, low-dose rate brachytherapy seeds. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is commissioning a primary standard wide-angle free-air chamber (NRC WAFAC) to serve the calibration needs of Canadian clients. The University of Wisconsin has developed a similar variable-aperture free-air chamber (UW VAFAC) to be used as a research tool. As part of the NRC commissioning, measurements were carried out for both polarities of the applied bias voltage and the resulting effects were observed to be very large. Similar effects were identified with the UW VAFAC. The authors describe the measurements carried out to determine the underlying causes of the polarity effect and the approach used to eliminate it. Methods: The NRC WAFAC is based on the WAFAC design developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the USA. Charge measurements for {sup 125}I and {sup 241}Am sources were carried out for both negative and positive polarities on the NRC WAFAC and UW VAFAC. Two aperture sizes were also investigated with the UW VAFAC. In addition, measurements on the NRC WAFAC were carried out with a small bias between the collecting electrode and the shield foil at the downstream end of the chamber. To mitigate all of the polarity effects, the downstream surface of the collecting electrode was covered with a thin layer of graphite on both the NRC and UW chambers. Results: Both chamber designs showed a difference of more than 30 % between the charge collected with positive and negative bias voltages for the smallest electrode separation. It was shown for the NRC WAFAC that charge could be collected in the small gap downstream of the collecting volume by applying a voltage between the shield foil and the collecting electrode, even though an insulating foil (Mylar or polyimide film) separated the conducting surface from the

  7. Technical Note: An investigation of polarity effects for wide-angle free-air chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shen, H.; Ross, C. K.; Culberson, W. S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Wide-angle free-air chambers (WAFACs) are used as primary standard measurement devices for establishing the air-kerma strength of low-energy, low-dose rate brachytherapy seeds. The National Research Council of Canada (NRC) is commissioning a primary standard wide-angle free-air chamber (NRC WAFAC) to serve the calibration needs of Canadian clients. The University of Wisconsin has developed a similar variable-aperture free-air chamber (UW VAFAC) to be used as a research tool. As part of the NRC commissioning, measurements were carried out for both polarities of the applied bias voltage and the resulting effects were observed to be very large. Similar effects were identified with the UW VAFAC. The authors describe the measurements carried out to determine the underlying causes of the polarity effect and the approach used to eliminate it. Methods: The NRC WAFAC is based on the WAFAC design developed at the National Institute of Standards and Technology in the USA. Charge measurements for 125 I and 241 Am sources were carried out for both negative and positive polarities on the NRC WAFAC and UW VAFAC. Two aperture sizes were also investigated with the UW VAFAC. In addition, measurements on the NRC WAFAC were carried out with a small bias between the collecting electrode and the shield foil at the downstream end of the chamber. To mitigate all of the polarity effects, the downstream surface of the collecting electrode was covered with a thin layer of graphite on both the NRC and UW chambers. Results: Both chamber designs showed a difference of more than 30 % between the charge collected with positive and negative bias voltages for the smallest electrode separation. It was shown for the NRC WAFAC that charge could be collected in the small gap downstream of the collecting volume by applying a voltage between the shield foil and the collecting electrode, even though an insulating foil (Mylar or polyimide film) separated the conducting surface from the small gap

  8. {sup 15}N methodologies for quantifying the response of N{sub 2}-fixing associations to elevated [CO{sub 2}]: A review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalk, Phillip M., E-mail: chalkphillip@gmail.com; Lam, Shu K., E-mail: shukee.lam@unimelb.edu.au; Chen, Deli, E-mail: delichen@unimelb.edu.au

    2016-11-15

    Methodologies based on {sup 15}N enrichment (E) and {sup 15}N natural abundance (NA) have been used to obtain quantitative estimates of the response of biological N{sub 2} fixation (BNF) of legumes (woody, grain and forage) and actinorhizal plants grown in artificial media or in soil exposed to elevated atmospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide e[CO{sub 2}] for extended periods of time, in growth rooms, greenhouses, open top chambers or free-air CO{sub 2} enrichment (FACE) facilities. {sup 15}N{sub 2} has also been used to quantify the response of endophytic and free-living diazotrophs to e[CO{sub 2}]. The primary criterion of response was the proportional dependence of the N{sub 2}-fixing system on the atmosphere as a source of N. i.e. the symbiotic dependence (P{sub atm}). The unique feature of {sup 15}N-based methods is their ability to provide time-integrated and yield-independent estimates of P{sub atm}. In studies conducted in artificial media or in soil using the E methodology there was either no response or a positive response of P{sub atm} to e[CO{sub 2}]. The interpretation of results obtained in artificial media or with {sup 15}N{sub 2} is straight forward, not being subject to the assumptions on which the E and NA soil-cultured methods are based. A variety of methods have been used to estimate isotopic fractionation attendant on the NA technique, the so-called ‘B value’, which attaches a degree of uncertainty to the results obtained. Using the NA technique, a suite of responses of P{sub atm} to e[CO{sub 2}] has been published, from positive to neutral to sometimes negative effects. Several factors which interact with the response of N{sub 2}-fixing species to e[CO{sub 2}] were identified.

  9. Distinction between upper and lower gastrointestinal perforation: Usefulness of the periportal free air sign on computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Young-Hwan; Yoon, Kwon-Ha

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the periportal free air (PPFA) sign on computed tomography (CT) to distinguish upper from lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation. Materials and methods: During a 30-month period, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT images of 53 consecutive patients with surgically proven GI tract perforation. We divided the patients into two groups, i.e. upper and lower GI tract perforation groups. According to the distribution of free air, we divided the peritoneal cavity into supramesocolic compartment and inframesocolic compartment. We observed the presence or absence of free air in each compartment in each group. When there was free air in the periportal area, it was defined as periportal free air (PPFA) and the sign was positive. To evaluate the usefulness of the PPFA sign, we compared the PPFA sign with the falciform ligament sign and the ligamentum teres sign, both of which are well-known CT signs of pneumoperitoneum. Statistical analyses were performed with univariate and multivariate analyses using SPSS version 11.5 for significant findings among the CT signs. Results: Free air was seen in supramesocolic compartment in 29 of 30 (97%) patients in the upper GI perforation group and in 17 of 23 (74%) in the lower GI perforation group. Free air in inframesocolic compartment did not show significant difference in either group (p = .16). The PPFA sign was seen in 28 of 30 (93%) patients with upper GI tract perforation, but in only 8 of 23 (35%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p < .0001). The falciform ligament sign was seen in 24 of 30 (80%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 10 of 23 (43%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .020). The ligamentum teres sign was seen in 16 of 30 (53%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 2 of 23 (8%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the PPFA sign was the only variable, which

  10. Distinction between upper and lower gastrointestinal perforation: Usefulness of the periportal free air sign on computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, Hyun Sun; Yoon, Seong Eon; Park, Seong Hoon; Kim, Hyewon; Lee, Young-Hwan [Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 344-2 Sinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-711 (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Kwon-Ha [Department of Radiology, Wonkwang University School of Medicine, 344-2 Sinyong-dong, Iksan, Jeonbuk 570-711 (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: khy1646@wonkwang.ac.kr

    2009-01-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the usefulness of the periportal free air (PPFA) sign on computed tomography (CT) to distinguish upper from lower gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation. Materials and methods: During a 30-month period, we retrospectively analyzed abdominal CT images of 53 consecutive patients with surgically proven GI tract perforation. We divided the patients into two groups, i.e. upper and lower GI tract perforation groups. According to the distribution of free air, we divided the peritoneal cavity into supramesocolic compartment and inframesocolic compartment. We observed the presence or absence of free air in each compartment in each group. When there was free air in the periportal area, it was defined as periportal free air (PPFA) and the sign was positive. To evaluate the usefulness of the PPFA sign, we compared the PPFA sign with the falciform ligament sign and the ligamentum teres sign, both of which are well-known CT signs of pneumoperitoneum. Statistical analyses were performed with univariate and multivariate analyses using SPSS version 11.5 for significant findings among the CT signs. Results: Free air was seen in supramesocolic compartment in 29 of 30 (97%) patients in the upper GI perforation group and in 17 of 23 (74%) in the lower GI perforation group. Free air in inframesocolic compartment did not show significant difference in either group (p = .16). The PPFA sign was seen in 28 of 30 (93%) patients with upper GI tract perforation, but in only 8 of 23 (35%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p < .0001). The falciform ligament sign was seen in 24 of 30 (80%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 10 of 23 (43%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .020). The ligamentum teres sign was seen in 16 of 30 (53%) patients with upper GI tract perforation and in 2 of 23 (8%) patients with lower GI tract perforation (p = .008). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the PPFA sign was the only variable, which

  11. The economic impact of state cigarette taxes and smoke-free air policies on convenience stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jidong; Chaloupka, Frank J

    2013-03-01

    To investigate whether increasing state cigarette taxes and/or enacting stronger smoke-free air (SFA) policies have negative impact on convenience store density in a state, a proxy that is determined by store openings and closings, which reflects store profits. State-level business count estimates for convenience stores for 50 states and District of Columbia from 1997 to 2009 were analysed using two-way fixed effects regression techniques that control for state-specific and year-specific determinants of convenience store density. The impact of tax and SFA policies was examined using a quasi-experimental research design that exploits changes in cigarette taxes and SFA policies within a state over time. Taxes are found to be uncorrelated with the density of combined convenience stores and gas stations in a state. Taxes are positively correlated with the density of convenience stores; however, the magnitude of this correlation is small, with a 10% increase in state cigarette taxes associated with a 0.19% (pconvenience stores per million people in a state. State-level SFA policies do not correlate with convenience store density in a state, regardless whether gas stations were included. These results are robust across different model specifications. In addition, they are robust with regard to the inclusion/exclusion of other state-level tobacco control measures and gasoline prices. Contrary to tobacco industry and related organisations' claims, higher cigarette taxes and stronger SFA policies do not negatively affect convenience stores.

  12. Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies and the Martian crustal dichotomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Herbert; Bills, Bruce G.; Kiefer, Walter S.; Nerem, R. Steven; Roark, James H.; Zuber, Maria T.

    1993-01-01

    Free-air and Bouguer gravity anomalies from a 50x50 field, derived from re-analysis of Viking Orbiter and Mariner 9 tracking data and using a 50x50 expansion of the current Mars topography and the GSFC degree 50 geoid as the equipotential reference surface, with the Martian crustal dichotomy are compared. The spherical harmonic topography used has zero mean elevation, and differs from the USGS maps by about 2 km. In this field the dichotomy boundary in eastern Mars lies mostly at -1 to -2 km elevation. Bouguer gravity anomalies are shown on a map of Noachian, Hesperian, and Amazonian age terrains, simplified from current geologic maps. The map is centered at 300 deg W to show the continuity of the dichotomy boundary. Contour interval is 100 mgals. Gravity and topography were compared along approximately 40 profiles oriented parallel to the dichotomy boundary topographic gradient, to determine how the geophysical character of the boundary changes along its length and what this implies for its origin and development.

  13. Photosynthesis, chloroplast pigments, and antioxidants in Pinus canariensis under free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Then, Ch.; Herbinger, K.; Luis, V.C.; Heerdt, C.; Matyssek, R.; Wieser, G.

    2009-01-01

    High O 3 levels, driving uptake and challenging defense, prevail on the Canary Islands, being associated with the hot and dry summers of the Mediterranean-type climate. Pinus canariensis is an endemic conifer species that forms forests across these islands. We investigated the effects of ozone on photosynthesis and biochemical parameters of P. canariensis seedlings exposed to free-air O 3 fumigation at Kranzberg Forest, Germany, where ambient O 3 levels were similar to those at forest sites in the Canary Islands. The twice-ambient O 3 regime (2xO 3 ) neither caused visible injury-like chlorotic or necrotic spots in the needles nor significantly affected violaxanthin, antheraxanthin and zeaxanthin levels and the de-epoxidation state of the xanthophyll cycle. In parallel, stomatal conductance for water vapour, net photosynthesis, intercellular CO 2 concentration, chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, as well as antioxidant levels were hardly affected. It is concluded that presently prevailing O 3 levels do not impose severe stress on P. canariensis seedlings. - Twice-ambient ozone does not significantly affect the physiological behavior of Pinus canariensis seedlings

  14. Structures for capturing CO.sub.2, methods of making the structures, and methods of capturing CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Christopher W; Hicks, Jason C; Fauth, Daniel J; McMahan, Gray

    2012-10-30

    Briefly described, embodiments of this disclosure, among others, include carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) sorption structures, methods of making CO.sub.2 sorption structures, and methods of using CO.sub.2 sorption structures.

  15. The sequestration of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le Thiez, P

    2004-07-01

    The reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, especially CO{sub 2}, represents a major technological and societal challenge in the fight against climate change. Among the measures likely to reduce anthropic CO{sub 2} emissions, capture and geological storage holds out promise for the future. (author)

  16. Do the rich always become richer? Characterizing the leaf physiological response of the high-yielding rice cultivar Takanari to free-air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Charles P; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2014-02-01

    The development of crops which are well suited to growth under future environmental conditions such as higher atmospheric CO2 concentrations ([CO2]) is essential to meeting the challenge of ensuring food security in the face of the growing human population and changing climate. A high-yielding indica rice variety (Oryza sativa L. cv. Takanari) has been recently identified as a potential candidate for such breeding, due to its high productivity in present [CO2]. To test if it could further increase its productivity under elevated [CO2] (eCO2), Takanari was grown in the paddy field under season-long free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE, approximately 200 µmol mol(-1) above ambient [CO2]) and its leaf physiology was compared with the representative japonica variety 'Koshihikari'. Takanari showed consistently higher midday photosynthesis and stomatal conductance than Koshihikari under both ambient and FACE growth conditions over 2 years. Maximum ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylation and electron transport rates were higher for Takanari at the mid-grain filling stage in both years. Mesophyll conductance was higher in Takanari than in Koshihikari at the late grain-filling stage. In contrast to Koshihikari, Takanari grown under FACE conditions showed no decrease in total leaf nitrogen on an area basis relative to ambient-grown plants. Chl content was higher in Takanari than in Koshihikari at the same leaf nitrogen level. These results indicate that Takanari maintains its superiority over Koshihikari in regards to its leaf-level productivity when grown in elevated [CO2] and it may be a valuable resource for rice breeding programs which seek to increase crop productivity under current and future [CO2].

  17. Comprehensive ecosystem model-data synthesis using multiple data sets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: Model performance at ambient CO2 concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Anthony P.; Hanson, Paul J.; De Kauwe, Martin G.; Medlyn, Belinda E.; Zaehle, Sönke; Asao, Shinichi; Dietze, Michael; Hickler, Thomas; Huntingford, Chris; Iversen, Colleen M.; Jain, Atul; Lomas, Mark; Luo, Yiqi; McCarthy, Heather; Parton, William J.; Prentice, I. Colin; Thornton, Peter E.; Wang, Shusen; Wang, Ying-Ping; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Warren, Jeffrey M.; Woodward, F. Ian; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J.

    2014-05-01

    Free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data which can be used to evaluate and improve terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In the FACE model-data synthesis project, 11 TEMs were applied to two decadelong FACE experiments in temperate forests of the southeastern U.S.—the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge Forest. In this baseline paper, we demonstrate our approach to model-data synthesis by evaluating the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration, and leaf area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Model outputs were compared against observations using a range of goodness-of-fit statistics. Many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. We demonstrate, however, that high goodness-of-fit values do not necessarily indicate a successful model, because simulation accuracy may be achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, transpiration accuracy was sometimes achieved with compensating biases in leaf area index and transpiration per unit leaf area. Our approach to model-data synthesis therefore goes beyond goodness-of-fit to investigate the success of alternative representations of component processes. Here we demonstrate this approach by comparing competing model hypotheses determining peak LAI. Of three alternative hypotheses—(1) optimization to maximize carbon export, (2) increasing specific leaf area with canopy depth, and (3) the pipe model—the pipe model produced peak LAI closest to the observations. This example illustrates how data sets from intensive field experiments such as FACE can be used to reduce model uncertainty despite compensating biases by evaluating individual model assumptions.

  18. Free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, designed for medium energy X-ray dosimetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohammadi, S.M.; Tavakoli-Anbaran, H.; Zeinali, H.Z.

    2017-01-01

    The primary standard for X-ray photons is based on parallel-plate free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Therefore, the Atomic Energy Organization of Iran (AEOI) is tried to design and build the free-air ionization chamber, FAC-IR-300, for low and medium energy X-ray dosimetry. The main aim of the present work is to investigate specification of the FAC-IR-300 ionization chamber and design it. FAC-IR-300 dosimeter is composed of two parallel plates, a high voltage (HV) plate and a collector plate, along with a guard electrode that surrounds the collector plate. The guard plate and the collector were separated by an air gap. For obtaining uniformity in the electric field distribution, a group of guard strips was used around the ionization chamber. These characterizations involve determining the exact dimensions of the ionization chamber by using Monte Carlo simulation and introducing correction factors.

  19. Evaluation of 11 terrestrial carbon-nitrogen cycle models against observations from two temperate Free-Air CO2 Enrichment studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaehle, Sönke; Medlyn, Belinda E; De Kauwe, Martin G; Walker, Anthony P; Dietze, Michael C; Hickler, Thomas; Luo, Yiqi; Wang, Ying-Ping; El-Masri, Bassil; Thornton, Peter; Jain, Atul; Wang, Shusen; Warlind, David; Weng, Ensheng; Parton, William; Iversen, Colleen M; Gallet-Budynek, Anne; McCarthy, Heather; Finzi, Adrien; Hanson, Paul J; Prentice, I Colin; Oren, Ram; Norby, Richard J

    2014-05-01

    We analysed the responses of 11 ecosystem models to elevated atmospheric [CO2 ] (eCO2 ) at two temperate forest ecosystems (Duke and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Free-Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments) to test alternative representations of carbon (C)-nitrogen (N) cycle processes. We decomposed the model responses into component processes affecting the response to eCO2 and confronted these with observations from the FACE experiments. Most of the models reproduced the observed initial enhancement of net primary production (NPP) at both sites, but none was able to simulate both the sustained 10-yr enhancement at Duke and the declining response at ORNL: models generally showed signs of progressive N limitation as a result of lower than observed plant N uptake. Nonetheless, many models showed qualitative agreement with observed component processes. The results suggest that improved representation of above-ground-below-ground interactions and better constraints on plant stoichiometry are important for a predictive understanding of eCO2 effects. Improved accuracy of soil organic matter inventories is pivotal to reduce uncertainty in the observed C-N budgets. The two FACE experiments are insufficient to fully constrain terrestrial responses to eCO2 , given the complexity of factors leading to the observed diverging trends, and the consequential inability of the models to explain these trends. Nevertheless, the ecosystem models were able to capture important features of the experiments, lending some support to their projections. © 2014 The Authors. New Phytologist © 2014 New Phytologist Trust.

  20. CO{sub 2} uptake by the Kalanchoe plant; CO{sub 2}-opname bij Kalanchoe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verberkt, H.

    1994-01-01

    The results of a study on the assimilation of the Kalanchoe plant are presented. The aim of the study is to determine the optimal time period of a natural day (24 hours) to supply carbon dioxide to a Kalanchoe plant. A Kalanchoe plant originally is a so-called CAM (Crassulacean Acid Metabolism) plant: CO{sub 2} uptake at night and chemical conversion of CO{sub 2} into malic acid. By day the fixed CO{sub 2} is used for photosynthesis. It appears that a Kalanchoe plant also takes up CO{sub 2} by day, which is directly used for photosynthesis. For Dutch horticulture conditions (20C, sufficient moisture) extra CO{sub 2} supply by day in the spring results in an increase of both the fresh weight and the dry weight compared to no extra CO{sub 2} supply. 10 figs., 3 tabs., 19 refs., 4 appendices

  1. The role of vegetation dynamics in the control of atmospheric CO{sub 2} content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sitch, Stephen

    2000-04-01

    This thesis contains a description of the Lund-Potsdam-Jena Dynamic Global Vegetation Model (LPJ-DGVM) and its application to infer the role of vegetation dynamics on atmospheric CO{sub 2} content at different time-scales. The model combines vegetation dynamics and biogeochemistry in a modular framework. Individual modules describe ecosystems processes, including vegetation resource competition and production, tissue turnover, growth, fire and mortality, soil and litter biogeochemistry, including the effects of CO{sub 2} on these processes. The model simulates realistic post-disturbance succession in different environments. Seasonal exchange of H{sub 2}O and CO{sub 2} between the terrestrial biosphere and the atmosphere is modelled in reasonable agreement with observation. Global estimates of carbon stocks in soil, litter and vegetation are within their acceptable ranges and the model captures the present-day patterns in vegetation. Fire return intervals are simulated correctly in most regions. Results emphasise the important role of the terrestrial biosphere in both the seasonal cycle and in the inter-annual variability in the growth rate of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. LPJ successfully reproduced both the amplitude and phase of the seasonal cycle of atmospheric CO{sub 2} content as measured at a global network of monitoring stations. The model predicted a small net terrestrial biosphere uptake of CO{sub 2} during the 1980s with a strong CO{sub 2} fertilisation effect, which enhances plant production, reduced by the effects of climate and land use change. Historical land use change and CO{sub 2} fertilisation have been the dominant, albeit opposing factors governing the response of the terrestrial biosphere with respect to carbon storage during the 20th century. LPJ is run using one future climate and atmospheric CO{sub 2} scenario until 2200. Enhanced production due to the CO{sub 2} fertilisation effect eventually reaches an asymptote, and consequently the ability of

  2. Possibility of high CO{sub 2} fixation rate by coral reef ecosystems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    K. Yamada; Y. Suzuki; B.E. Casareto; H. Komiyama [Shinshu University, Tokida (Japan). Dept. of Fine Materials Engineering

    2003-07-01

    Previous net rates of CO{sub 2} fixation by coral reef ecosystems have been said to be nearly zero due to a balance between CO{sub 2} fixed by organic carbon production and CO{sub 2} released by both organic carbon decomposition and inorganic carbon formation. But this study, conducted in Bora Bay, Miyako Island, Japan showed net rates of about 7 gC m{sup -2} d{sup -1} inside a coral reef and on a coral reef. It was found by experiment that the photosynthetic rate of coral increased with the increase of the flow rate of seawater. The authors tried to calculate net primary production (= net rates of CO{sub 2} fixation) outside a coral reef with flow rate. A flow rate on the coral reef of the open seaside is much higher than that in a lagoon. As an example, the CO{sub 2} fixation rates at the flow rates of 6 and 30 cm/s are compared. When it is assumed that the length of the whole coral reef facing the ocean is 50,000 km and its width is 100 m, and the flow rate is 30cm/s, the CO{sub 2} fixation rate is calculated to be 6.3 x 10{sup 6} t-C/y (3.5g-C/m{sup 2}d). This value is 2.2 times higher than that at the flow rate of 6 cm/s. This fixation rate is only by the coral itself. It means that the CO{sub 2} fixation rate by coral reef ecosystems can be much higher and the magnitude for worldwide ecosystems can be in the order of 10{sup 6}-10{sup 7} t-C/y. 14 refs., 5 tabs.

  3. Causes of variation among rice models in yield response to CO2 examined with Free-Air CO2 Enrichment and growth chamber experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Toshihiro; Li, Tao; Yin, Xinyou; Zhu, Yan; Boote, Kenneth; Baker, Jeffrey; Bregaglio, Simone; Buis, Samuel; Confalonieri, Roberto; Fugice, Job; Fumoto, Tamon; Gaydon, Donald; Kumar, Soora Naresh; Lafarge, Tanguy; Marcaida Iii, Manuel; Masutomi, Yuji; Nakagawa, Hiroshi; Oriol, Philippe; Ruget, Françoise; Singh, Upendra; Tang, Liang; Tao, Fulu; Wakatsuki, Hitomi; Wallach, Daniel; Wang, Yulong; Wilson, Lloyd Ted; Yang, Lianxin; Yang, Yubin; Yoshida, Hiroe; Zhang, Zhao; Zhu, Jianguo

    2017-11-01

    The CO 2 fertilization effect is a major source of uncertainty in crop models for future yield forecasts, but coordinated efforts to determine the mechanisms of this uncertainty have been lacking. Here, we studied causes of uncertainty among 16 crop models in predicting rice yield in response to elevated [CO 2 ] (E-[CO 2 ]) by comparison to free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) and chamber experiments. The model ensemble reproduced the experimental results well. However, yield prediction in response to E-[CO 2 ] varied significantly among the rice models. The variation was not random: models that overestimated at one experiment simulated greater yield enhancements at the others. The variation was not associated with model structure or magnitude of photosynthetic response to E-[CO 2 ] but was significantly associated with the predictions of leaf area. This suggests that modelled secondary effects of E-[CO 2 ] on morphological development, primarily leaf area, are the sources of model uncertainty. Rice morphological development is conservative to carbon acquisition. Uncertainty will be reduced by incorporating this conservative nature of the morphological response to E-[CO 2 ] into the models. Nitrogen levels, particularly under limited situations, make the prediction more uncertain. Improving models to account for [CO 2 ] × N interactions is necessary to better evaluate management practices under climate change.

  4. Advances in FACE and manipulation techniques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beier, Claus; Larsen, Klaus S.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    Experimental techniques to expose plants and ecosystems to elevated CO2 have been around for decades, starting out with branch cuvettes, chambers and green houses and in the 90ies leading to the development of the FACE (Free Air Carbon Enrichment) technique, which has been and still is widely used....... The FACE technique is used under field conditions and has been developed over the years to be applied for many types of ecosystems from low stature shrub, grass and arable lands to high stature forest trees. These experiments have provided extensive knowledge and data on CO2 effects on individual plants...

  5. Process for analyzing CO{sub 2} in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, J.E.; Akse, J.R.; DeHart, J.

    1997-07-01

    The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO{sub 2} into a first CO{sub 2} sample phase and a second CO{sub 2} analyte phase. CO{sub 2} is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO{sub 2} with the membrane into a first CO{sub 2} sample phase and a second CO{sub 2} analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species in the second CO{sub 2} analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO{sub 2} to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO{sub 2} in the first CO{sub 2} sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO{sub 2} species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument. 43 figs.

  6. Process for analyzing CO.sub.2 in seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atwater, James E.; Akse, James R.; DeHart, Jeffrey

    1997-01-01

    The process of this invention comprises providing a membrane for separating CO.sub.2 into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte phase. CO.sub.2 is then transported through the membrane thereby separating the CO.sub.2 with the membrane into a first CO.sub.2 sample phase and a second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase including an ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species. Next, the concentration of the ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species in the second CO.sub.2 analyte liquid phase is chemically amplified using a water-soluble chemical reagent which reversibly reacts with undissociated CO.sub.2 to produce conductivity changes therein corresponding to fluctuations in the partial pressure of CO.sub.2 in the first CO.sub.2 sample phase. Finally, the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species is introduced to a conductivity measuring instrument. Conductivity changes in the chemically amplified, ionized, conductive, dissociated CO.sub.2 species are detected using the conductivity measuring instrument.

  7. Interpretation of free-air gravity anomaly data for determining the crustal structure across the continental margins and aseismic ridges: Some examples from Indian continental margins and deep-sea basins

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Ramana, M.V.

    Content-Type text/plain; charset=UTF-8 202 Interpretation of free-air gravity anomaly data for determining the crustal structure across the continental margins and aseismic ridges: Some examples from Indian continental margins and deep... will undertake either regional, reconnaissance or detail gravity surveys. We generally deal with free air gravity anomalies in oceans. The free air gravity anomalies mostly mimic the seabed configuration and at times, the deviation observed in the free air...

  8. History of CO/sub 2/

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Degens, E T

    1979-01-01

    Upon arrival on earth, the reduced carbon pool split into a series of compartments: core, mantle, crust, hydrosphere, atmosphere, and biosphere. This distribution pattern is caused by the ability of carbon to adjust structurally to a wide range of pressure and temperature, and to form simple and complex molecules with oxygen, hydrogen and nitrogen. Transformation also involved oxidation of carbon to CO/sub 2/ which is mediated at depth by minerals, such as magnetite, and by water vapor above critical temperature. Guided by mineral-organic interactions, simple carbon compounds evolved in near surface environments towards physiologically interesting biochemicals. Life, as an autocatalytic system, is considered an outgrowth of such a development. This article discusses environmental parameters that control the CO/sub 2/ system, past and present. Mantle and crustal evolution is the dynamo recharging the CO/sub 2/ in sea and air; the present rate of CO/sub 2/ release from the magma is 0.05 x 10/sup 15/ g C per year. Due to the enormous buffer capacity of the chemical system ocean, such rates are too small to seriously effect the level of CO/sub 2/ in our atmosphere. In the light of geological field data and stable isotope work, it is concluded that the CO/sub 2/ content in the atmosphere has remained fairly uniform since early Precambrian time; CO/sub 2/ should thus have had little impact on paleoclimate. In contrast, the massive discharge of man-made CO/sub 2/ into our atmosphere may have serious consequences for climate, environment and society in the years to come.

  9. Elevated CO2 effects on canopy and soil water flux parameters measured using a large chamber in crops grown with free-air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkart, S; Manderscheid, R; Wittich, K-P; Löpmeier, F J; Weigel, H-J

    2011-03-01

    An arable crop rotation (winter barley-sugar beet-winter wheat) was exposed to elevated atmospheric CO(2) concentrations ([CO(2) ]) using a FACE facility (Free-Air CO(2) Enrichment) during two rotation periods. The atmospheric [CO(2) ] of the treatment plots was elevated to 550 ppm during daylight hours (T>5°C). Canopy transpiration (E(C) ) and conductance (G(C) ) were measured at selected intervals (>10% of total growing season) using a dynamic CO(2) /H(2) O chamber measuring system. Plant available soil water content (gravimetry and TDR probes) and canopy microclimate conditions were recorded in parallel. Averaged across both growing seasons, elevated [CO(2) ] reduced E(C) by 9%, 18% and 12%, and G(C) by 9%, 17% and 12% in barley, sugar beet and wheat, respectively. Both global radiation (Rg) and vapour pressure deficit (VPD) were the main driving forces of E(C) , whereas G(C) was mostly related to Rg. The responses of E(C) and especially G(C) to [CO(2) ] enrichment were insensitive to weather conditions and leaf area index. However, differences in LAI between plots counteracted the [CO(2) ] impact on E(C) and thus, at least in part, explained the variability of seasonal [CO(2) ] responses between crops and years. As a consequence of lower transpirational canopy water loss, [CO(2) ] enrichment increased plant available soil water content in the course of the season by ca. 15 mm. This was true for all crops and years. Lower transpirational cooling due to a [CO(2) ]-induced reduction of E(C) increased canopy surface and air temperature by up to 2 °C and 0.5 °C, respectively. This is the first study to address effects of FACE on both water fluxes at canopy scale and water status of a European crop rotation. © 2010 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  10. Comprehensive ecosystem model-experiment synthesis using multiple datasets at two temperate forest free-air CO2 enrichment experiments: model performance and compensating biases

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Anthony P [ORNL; Hanson, Paul J [ORNL; DeKauwe, Martin G [Macquarie University; Medlyn, Belinda [Macquarie University; Zaehle, S [Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry; Asao, Shinichi [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Dietze, Michael [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Hickler, Thomas [Goethe University, Frankfurt, Germany; Huntinford, Chris [Centre for Ecology and Hydrology, Wallingford, United Kingdom; Iversen, Colleen M [ORNL; Jain, Atul [University of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign; Lomas, Mark [University of Sheffield; Luo, Yiqi [University of Oklahoma; McCarthy, Heather R [Duke University; Parton, William [Colorado State University, Fort Collins; Prentice, I. Collin [Macquarie University; Thornton, Peter E [ORNL; Wang, Shusen [Canada Centre for Remote Sensing (CCRS); Wang, Yingping [CSIRO Marine and Atmospheric Research; Warlind, David [Lund University, Sweden; Weng, Ensheng [University of Oklahoma, Norman; Warren, Jeffrey [ORNL; Woodward, F. Ian [University of Sheffield; Oren, Ram [Duke University; Norby, Richard J [ORNL

    2014-01-01

    Free Air CO2 Enrichment (FACE) experiments provide a remarkable wealth of data to test the sensitivities of terrestrial ecosystem models (TEMs). In this study, a broad set of 11 TEMs were compared to 22 years of data from two contrasting FACE experiments in temperate forests of the south eastern US the evergreen Duke Forest and the deciduous Oak Ridge forest. We evaluated the models' ability to reproduce observed net primary productivity (NPP), transpiration and Leaf Area index (LAI) in ambient CO2 treatments. Encouragingly, many models simulated annual NPP and transpiration within observed uncertainty. Daily transpiration model errors were often related to errors in leaf area phenology and peak LAI. Our analysis demonstrates that the simulation of LAI often drives the simulation of transpiration and hence there is a need to adopt the most appropriate of hypothesis driven methods to simulate and predict LAI. Of the three competing hypotheses determining peak LAI (1) optimisation to maximise carbon export, (2) increasing SLA with canopy depth and (3) the pipe model the pipe model produced LAI closest to the observations. Modelled phenology was either prescribed or based on broader empirical calibrations to climate. In some cases, simulation accuracy was achieved through compensating biases in component variables. For example, NPP accuracy was sometimes achieved with counter-balancing biases in nitrogen use efficiency and nitrogen uptake. Combined analysis of parallel measurements aides the identification of offsetting biases; without which over-confidence in model abilities to predict ecosystem function may emerge, potentially leading to erroneous predictions of change under future climates.

  11. CO{sub 2} separation from exhaust gas; CO{sub 2} separasjon fra eksosgass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magelssen, Paul Fr. [Saga Petroleum A/S, Forus (Norway)

    1998-07-01

    When Saga wanted to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions from Snorre B, cleaning of CO{sub 2} from exhaust gas was one of several options considered. CO{sub 2} cleaning using membrane/amine technology is under development. Saga required that the technology should be qualified and that the yield of the Snorre B project should not be reduced. This presentation discusses qualification of combined membrane/amine technology, environmental issues, economic issues and implementation on the Snorre B platform. Flue gas from the gas turbine is passed to a CO{sub 2} absorption and desorption stage from which the CO{sub 2} is passed on for compression and disposal while the cleaned flue is let out. The membrane is situated between the flue gas and the absorbent liquid. The pores are large enough for the CO{sub 2} to pass through quickly and small enough to prevent the liquid from penetrating into the pores. The packing factor is high, 500 - 1000 m2/m3, there is no formation of froth, ducts or entrainment of the liquid. New technology implies 65 - 70% size reduction of the main equipment and 39 - 40% reduction of the energy consumption. Research on amines brings out new chemicals which imply 80% reduction in the consumption of chemicals and the quantity of special waste produced. If a CO{sub 2} cleaning plant is installed on a LM 2500, the CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by 97,200 ton/year given the right operational conditions. Although it was decided in 1998 not to install the module with the CO{sub 2} pilot cleaning plant, Snorre B is still a good environmental project having CO{sub 2} emission within the values set by Miljoesok.

  12. Advances in understanding ozone impact on forest trees: Messages from novel phytotron and free-air fumigation studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matyssek, R.; Karnosky, D.F.; Wieser, G.; Percy, K.; Oksanen, E.; Grams, T.E.E.; Kubiske, M.; Hanke, D.; Pretzsch, H.

    2010-01-01

    Recent evidence from novel phytotron and free-air ozone (O 3 ) fumigation experiments in Europe and America on forest tree species is highlighted in relation to previous chamber studies. Differences in O 3 sensitivity between pioneer and climax species are examined and viewed for trees growing at the harsh alpine timberline ecotone. As O 3 apparently counteracts positive effects of elevated CO 2 and mitigates productivity increases, response is governed by genotype, competitors, and ontogeny rather than species per se. Complexity in O 3 responsiveness increased under the influence of pathogens and herbivores. The new evidence does not conflict in principle with previous findings that, however, pointed to a low ecological significance. This new knowledge on trees' O 3 responsiveness beyond the juvenile stage in plantations and forests nevertheless implies limited predictability due to complexity in biotic and abiotic interactions. Unravelling underlying mechanisms is mandatory for assessing O 3 risks as an important component of climate change scenarios. - Novel phytotron and free-air O 3 exposure studies on forest trees communicate sensitivity to be governed by genotype, ontogeny and biotic agents rather than species per se.

  13. ISOSTATICALLY DISTURBED TERRAIN OF NORTHWESTERN ANDES MOUNTAINS FROM SPECTRALLY CORRELATED FREE-AIR AND GRAVITY TERRAIN DATA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernández P Orlando

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Recently revised models on global tectonics describe the convergence of the North Andes, Nazca, Caribbean and South American Plates and their seismicity, volcanism, active faulting and extreme
    topography. The current plate boundaries of the area are mainly interpreted from volcanic and seismic datasets with variable confidence levels. New insights on the isostatic state and plate boundaries of
    the northwestern Andes Mountains can be obtained from the spectral analysis of recently available gravity and topography data.
    Isostatically disturbed terrain produces free-air anomalies that are highly correlated with the gravity effects of the terrain. The terrain gravity effects (TGE and free air gravity anomalies (FAGA of the
    Andes mountains spectral correlation data confirms that these mountains are isostatically disturbed. Strong negative terrain-correlated FAGA along western South America and the Greater and Lesser Antilles are consistent with anomalously deepened mantle displaced by subducting oceanic plates.

    Inversion of the compensated terrain gravity effects (CTGE reveals plate subduction systems with alternating shallower and steeper subduction angles. The gravity modeling highlights crustal
    deformation from plate collision and subduction and other constraints on the tectonism of the plate boundary zones for the region.

  14. Face to Face

    OpenAIRE

    Robert Leckey

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowabl...

  15. The effects of reduced CO{sub 2} emissions on employment; Sysselsettingsvirkninger av redusert CO{sub 2}-utslipp

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mathiesen, L

    1995-06-01

    This report discusses how reducing the CO{sub 2} emission might affect employment, adaptation and job mobility between trades. It confirms and expands the results of many previous studies. The socio-economic costs involved in regulation of greenhouse gas emissions appear to be low and perhaps negative, and very unevenly distributed on the sectors which must be regulated if the emission goals are to be achieved. The author`s analyses show that in addition to affecting the transport sectors, regulations have an especially strong impact on trades within the processing industries such as refining of crude oil, production of ferro alloys, fertilizers, cement and primary aluminium. For the Norwegian CO{sub 2} emissions in 2000 not to exceed the 1989 level, the activities within crude oil refining and ferro alloys production must be halved and the activities within the three other industries must go down by 10-15%. This ranking is very stable under changes in common external conditions provided all the sectors face the same tax per unit emitted. The trades most strongly influenced by regulations are mostly found in places with few alternative job possibilities, which results in frictional unemployment. Some of the unemployed may get lost forever so that the unemployment becomes permanent. However, less than 1% of the total manpower of Norway work in the five sectors and so the loss of work places will be 0.2%, or 4000. 35 refs., 9 figs., 6 tabs.

  16. [Response of rice grain quality traits to free-air CO2 enrichment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guichun; Wang, Yulong; Huang, Jianye; Yang, Hongjian; Gu, Hui; Peng, Bin; Ju, Jing; Yang, Lianxin; Zhu, Jianguo; Shan, Yuhua

    2004-07-01

    The study showed that under field condition, when the CO2 concentration was elevated 200 micromol x mol(-1) above control, the average brown rice rate of japonica variety Wuxiangjing 14 was 1.4% higher, while lead milled rice rate was 12.3% lower than control. The brown rice rate increased at lower nitrogen supply level (LN), while lead milled rice rate increased at higher nitrogen supply level (HN). The percentage of chalky grain was 11.9% higher, and chalkiness degree was 2.8% higher than control, but no obvious difference was found in chalkiness area between the FACE and the control. The chalkiness area, percentage of chalky grain and chalkiness degree decreased at HN plus higher phosphorus supply level (HP). The gelatinization temperature was elevated 0.52 degrees C, gel consistency increased, while amylose content was not statistically significant. The amylose content decreased at HN plus HP, while gel consistency and gelatinization temperature decreased at LN plus HP and at LN, respectively. The protein content was decreased 0.6% under FACE treatment and at LN plus lower phosphorus supply level.

  17. An alpine treeline in a carbon dioxide-rich world: synthesis of a nine-year free-air carbon dioxide enrichment study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawes, Melissa A; Hagedorn, Frank; Handa, Ira Tanya; Streit, Kathrin; Ekblad, Alf; Rixen, Christian; Körner, Christian; Hättenschwiler, Stephan

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the impacts of elevated CO2 in a treeline ecosystem in the Swiss Alps in a 9-year free-air CO2 enrichment (FACE) study. We present new data and synthesize plant and soil results from the entire experimental period. Light-saturated photosynthesis (A max) of ca. 35-year-old Larix decidua and Pinus uncinata was stimulated by elevated CO2 throughout the experiment. Slight down-regulation of photosynthesis in Pinus was consistent with starch accumulation in needle tissue. Above-ground growth responses differed between tree species, with a 33 % mean annual stimulation in Larix but no response in Pinus. Species-specific CO2 responses also occurred for abundant dwarf shrub species in the understorey, where Vaccinium myrtillus showed a sustained shoot growth enhancement (+11 %) that was not apparent for Vaccinium gaultherioides or Empetrum hermaphroditum. Below ground, CO2 enrichment did not stimulate fine root or mycorrhizal mycelium growth, but increased CO2 effluxes from the soil (+24 %) indicated that enhanced C assimilation was partially offset by greater respiratory losses. The dissolved organic C (DOC) concentration in soil solutions was consistently higher under elevated CO2 (+14 %), suggesting accelerated soil organic matter turnover. CO2 enrichment hardly affected the C-N balance in plants and soil, with unaltered soil total or mineral N concentrations and little impact on plant leaf N concentration or the stable N isotope ratio. Sustained differences in plant species growth responses suggest future shifts in species composition with atmospheric change. Consistently increased C fixation, soil respiration and DOC production over 9 years of CO2 enrichment provide clear evidence for accelerated C cycling with no apparent consequences on the N cycle in this treeline ecosystem.

  18. Increasing canopy photosynthesis in rice can be achieved without a large increase in water use-A model based on free-air CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ikawa, Hiroki; Chen, Charles P; Sikma, Martin; Yoshimoto, Mayumi; Sakai, Hidemitsu; Tokida, Takeshi; Usui, Yasuhiro; Nakamura, Hirofumi; Ono, Keisuke; Maruyama, Atsushi; Watanabe, Tsutomu; Kuwagata, Tsuneo; Hasegawa, Toshihiro

    2018-03-01

    Achieving higher canopy photosynthesis rates is one of the keys to increasing future crop production; however, this typically requires additional water inputs because of increased water loss through the stomata. Lowland rice canopies presently consume a large amount of water, and any further increase in water usage may significantly impact local water resources. This situation is further complicated by changing the environmental conditions such as rising atmospheric CO 2 concentration ([CO 2 ]). Here, we modeled and compared evapotranspiration of fully developed rice canopies of a high-yielding rice cultivar (Oryza sativa L. cv. Takanari) with a common cultivar (cv. Koshihikari) under ambient and elevated [CO 2 ] (A-CO 2 and E-CO 2 , respectively) via leaf ecophysiological parameters derived from a free-air CO 2 enrichment (FACE) experiment. Takanari had 4%-5% higher evapotranspiration than Koshihikari under both A-CO 2 and E-CO 2 , and E-CO 2 decreased evapotranspiration of both varieties by 4%-6%. Therefore, if Takanari was cultivated under future [CO 2 ] conditions, the cost for water could be maintained at the same level as for cultivating Koshihikari at current [CO 2 ] with an increase in canopy photosynthesis by 36%. Sensitivity analyses determined that stomatal conductance was a significant physiological factor responsible for the greater canopy photosynthesis in Takanari over Koshihikari. Takanari had 30%-40% higher stomatal conductance than Koshihikari; however, the presence of high aerodynamic resistance in the natural field and lower canopy temperature of Takanari than Koshihikari resulted in the small difference in evapotranspiration. Despite the small difference in evapotranspiration between varieties, the model simulations showed that Takanari clearly decreased canopy and air temperatures within the planetary boundary layer compared to Koshihikari. Our results indicate that lowland rice varieties characterized by high-stomatal conductance can play a

  19. Application of in-situ stress measurement on bursts disasters of rock and CO{sub 2} in coal mine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lian-Jie Wang; Dong-Sheng Sun; Li-Rong Zhang; Guan-Wu Zhou [Ministry of Land and Resources, Beijing (China)

    2009-01-15

    For the purpose of reduction and prevention of rock burst disasters and CO{sub 2}, measurements were made of in-situ stress and mechanical parameters of rock in Yingcheng mine. Geological structure and gas measurements were studied and the stress field was simulated and distribution of stress field was obtained in this area. On the basis of the study, the danger areas of rockbursts and CO{sub 2} were predicted. Preventive measures were suggested to decrease gas pressure and in-situ stress in front of the working face with advance boreholes relieving blasting. 12 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Characterization of a free-air ionization chamber in direct X-ray beams as used in mammography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lima, Mateus Hilario de

    2014-01-01

    At this work stability and characterization tests were undertaken on a Victoreen free-air ionization chamber, model 481. The tests were realized using direct X-ray beams as a contribution for its establishment as a primary standard system of the quantity air kerma. The characterization tests were: saturation curve, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, response linearity with the air kerma rate and response linearity with the chamber volume variation. The ion collection efficiency allowed the determination of the ion recombination factor. Most of the test results showed agreement with the limits established by international standards. Furthermore, the air attenuation factors for the mammography beams with aluminum and molybdenum filters were obtained. The factors for photon transmission and scattering at the diaphragm edges were also determined for mammography beams with aluminum filter and for the standard beam with molybdenum filter. (author)

  1. Response of CR-39 based personnel neutron dosemeter in terms of directional dose equivalent, in free air and on phantom

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pal, Rupali R.; Sathian, Deepa; Jayalakshmi, V.; Chougaonkar, M.P.

    2011-01-01

    CR-39 is the most sensitive of nuclear track detectors for protons and is recommended as an effective neutron dosimeter because of it's low threshold energy of 100 keV neutrons. The fraction of protons that gives detectable tracks in CR-39 depends on the energy of the proton angle of incidence and etching conditions. As a consequence the registration efficiency of neutrons in the CR-39 plastics used for neutron personnel monitoring is strongly influenced by the direction of radiation incidence. This paper presents the relative response of CR-39 at varying neutron incident angles, for 241 Am-Be neutron source spectra in free air and on ISO phantom, in terms of operational quantities. It is observed that the angular dependence of CR-39 for irradiations in air and on phantom is essentially the same indicating that the phantom does not affect the directional response of CR-39. (author)

  2. Analysis of taxable sales receipts: was New York City's Smoke-Free Air Act bad for restaurant business?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hyland, A; Cummings, K M; Nauenberg, E

    1999-01-01

    This article examines the results of a study to determine if the New York City Smoke-Free Air Act has had an adverse economic impact on the taxable sales receipts from the city's restaurant and hotel industries. The study found that real taxable sales from eating and drinking places and hotels in New York City increased by 2.1 percent and 36.9 percent, respectively, compared with levels two years before the smoke-free law took effect. During the same period, real taxable sales for eating and drinking establishments and hotels in the rest of the state experienced a 3.8 percent decrease and a modest 2.4 percent increase in sales, respectively.

  3. CO{sub 2} regulation. The case of Denmark

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tinggaard Svendsen, G. [Faculty of Business Administration, Dept. of Economics (Denmark)

    1996-12-31

    For economic, political, and administrative reasons, a mixed design of permit market, bubble and tax is preferable for CO{sub 2} regulation in Denmark. A CO{sub 2} market should be introduced for the private manufacturing sector in Denmark and an administratively set CO{sub 2} bubble should be introduced for the public electricity sector. Permits are then to be devaluated in year 2005 by 20%. A CO{sub 2} tax should be correctly set at a US dollar 50 level in year 2005 for households, transportation sector and private firms not participating in the CO{sub 2} market. (au) 49 p.

  4. Mesoporous carbon composite for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, Chih-Chau; Jin, Zhong; Lu, Wei; Sun, Zhengzong; Alemany, Lawrence; Tour, James M. [Rice University, Houston, TX (United States); Lomeda, Jay R.; Flatt, Austen K. [Nalco Company, Naperville, IL (United States)

    2012-07-01

    Herein we report a carbon based technology that can be used to rapidly adsorb and release CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} uptake by the synthesized composites was determined using a gravimetric method at room temperature and atmospheric pressure. 39% polyethylenimine-mesocarbon (PEI-CMK-3) composite had {approx} 12 wt% CO{sub 2} uptake capacity and a 37% polyvinylamine meso-carbon (PVA-CMK-3) composite had {approx} 13 wt% CO{sub 2} uptake capacity. The sorbents were easily regenerated at 75 deg C and exhibit excellent stability over multiple regeneration cycles. CO{sub 2} uptake was equivalent when using 10% CO{sub 2} in 90% CH{sub 4}, C{sub 2}H{sub 6} and C{sub 3}H{sub 9} mixture, underscoring the efficacy for CO{sub 2} separation from natural gas. (author)

  5. Face to Face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Leckey

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper uses Queer theory, specifically literature on Bowers v. Hardwick, to analyze debates over legislation proposed in Quebec regarding covered faces. Queer theory sheds light on legal responses to the veil. Parliamentary debates in Quebec reconstitute the polity, notably as secular and united. The paper highlights the contradictory and unstable character of four binaries: legislative text versus social practice, act versus status, majority versus minority, and knowable versus unknowable. As with contradictory propositions about homosexuality, contradiction does not undermine discourse but makes it stronger and more agile. Este artículo utiliza la teoría Queer, más concretamente la literatura sobre Bowers vs. Hardwick, para analizar los debates sobre la legislación propuesta en Quebec en relación al velo. La teoría Queer arroja luz sobre las respuestas legales al velo. Los debates parlamentarios en Quebec reconstituyen la forma de gobierno, especialmente como secular y unido. El documento pone de relieve el carácter contradictorio e inestable de cuatro binarios: texto legislativo frente a las prácticas sociales; legislación frente a estado; mayoría versus minoría; y conocible frente a incognoscible. Al igual que con las proposiciones contradictorias acerca de la homosexualidad, la contradicción no socava el discurso, sino que lo hace más fuerte y más ágil.

  6. Effects of increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on transpiration of a wheat field in consideration of water and nitrogen limitation; Die Wirkung von erhoehten atmosphaerischen CO{sub 2}-Konzentrationen auf die Transpiration eines Weizenbestandes unter Beruecksichtigung von Wasser- und Stickstofflimitierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossman-Clarke, S

    2000-09-01

    Primary responses of C{sub 3}-plants to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are an increase in the net assimilation rate, leading to greater biomass, and an associated decrease in the transpiration rate per unit leaf area due to CO{sub 2}-induced stomatal closure. The question has therefore arisen: does canopy transpiration increase because of the greater biomass, or decrease because of the stomatal closure? The direct impact of an elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration of 550 {mu}mol mol{sup -1} on the seasonal course of canopy transpiration of a spring wheat crop was investigated by means of the simulation model DEMETER for production under unlimited water and nutrient supply, production under limited water but unlimited nutrient supply and the production under unlimited water but limited nitrogen supply. Independent data of the free-air carbon dioxide enrichment wheat experiments in Arizona, USA (1993-96) were used to test if the model is able to make reasonable predictions of water use and productivity of the spring wheat crop using only parameters derived from the literature. A model integrating leaf photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and energy fluxes between the plant and the atmosphere was scaled to a canopy level in order to be used in the wheat crop growth model. Temporal changes of the model parameters were considered by describing them as dependent on the changing leaf nitrogen content. Comparison of the simulation and experimental results showed that the applicability of the model approach was limited after anthesis by asynchronous changes in mesophyll and stomatal conductance. Therefore a new model approach was developed describing the interaction between assimilation rate and stomatal conductance during grain filling. The simulation results revealed only small differences in the cumulative sum of canopy transpiration and soil evaporation between elevated CO{sub 2} and control conditions. For potential growth conditions the model

  7. Size effect on the adsorption and dissociation of CO{sub 2} on Co nanoclusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Haiyan; Cao, Dapeng; Fisher, Adrian [International Research Center for Soft Matter, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China); Johnston, Roy L. [School of Chemistry, University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham, B15 2TT (United Kingdom); Cheng, Daojian, E-mail: chengdj@mail.buct.edu.cn [International Research Center for Soft Matter, State Key Laboratory of Organic-Inorganic Composites, Beijing University of Chemical Technology, Beijing 100029 (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters were predicted as the high-symmetry structures. • CO{sub 2} dissociation on the size-selected Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters was studied. • Co{sub 55} nanocluster possesses the highest activity relevant to CO{sub 2} dissociation. • A non-monotonous behavior of the dissociation barrier of CO{sub 2} with the size was found. - Abstract: Spin-polarized density functional theory calculations were carried out to study the adsorption and dissociation properties of CO{sub 2} on size-selected Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters. Based on genetic algorithm method, Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters were predicted as the most stable high-symmetry structures among these Co{sub n} (n = 2–58) nanoclusters from the Gupta potential. For the adsorption of CO{sub 2}, CO and O on size-selected Co{sub 13}, Co{sub 38} and Co{sub 55} nanoclusters, the lowest adsorption strength is found for all the different adsorbates on Co{sub 55} nanocluster. For the dissociation of CO{sub 2} on these size-selected Co nanoclusters, the largest Co{sub 55} nanocluster possesses the greatest catalytic activity for the dissociation of CO{sub 2}, with the smallest reaction barrier of 0.38 eV. Our results reveal a non-monotonous behavior of the catalytic activities of Co nanoclusters on size, which is of fundamental interest for the design of new Co catalysts for the conversion of CO{sub 2}.

  8. Economics of the Nuclear Energy Considered CO{sub 2} Emission

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Su Jin; Kim, Yong Min [Catholic University of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    The energy consumption in Korea has greatly increased along with its rapid economic growth and industrialization since the 1970s. Total energy consumption increased at an average annual growth rate. Due to the lack of domestic energy resources, however, the overseas dependence rate of energy consumption has continuously increased. Also Climate change, resulting from increases in greenhouse gas emissions (GHG), is considered one of the biggest environmental dangers facing the world today. The objective and approach of this study are to compare the different types of scenarios in terms of the power plant type and CO{sub 2} emission from each power plant. We estimated cost of electricity generation using fuel cost, O and M cost(Operation and Maintenance Cost) and CO{sub 2} emission

  9. International trade and CO{sub 2} emissions; International handel og CO{sub 2}-udledning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Munksgaard, J.; Pade, L.L. [AKF, Copenhagen (Denmark); Lenzen, M. [Univ. of Sydney (Australia)

    2005-04-01

    International trade has an impact on national CO{sub 2} emissions and consequently on the ability to fulfil national CO{sub 2} reduction targets. Through goods and services traded in a globally interdependent world, the consumption in each country is linked to greenhouse gas emissions in other countries. It has been argued that in order to achieve equitable reduction targets, international trade has to be taken into account when assessing nations' responsibility for abating climate change. Especially for open economies such as Denmark, greenhouse gases embodied in international traded commodities can have a considerable influence on the national greenhouse gas responsibility. Founded in the concepts of 'producer CO{sub 2} responsibility', 'consumer CO{sub 2} responsibility' and 'CO{sub 2} trade balance' the aim of the present study has been to develop the single-region input-output model as used in a previous study into a multi-region input-output model in order to get a more realistic description of the production technologies actually used in the countries of imports. The study concludes that trade is the key to define CO{sub 2} responsibility on macroeconomics level and that imports should be founded in a multi-region model approach. The study also points at the need to consider the impact from foreign trade when negotiating national reduction targets and base line scenarios within the context of international climate agreements. (BA)

  10. CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe - Phase 2; CO{sub 2}-Erdwaermesonde - Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grueniger, A.; Wellig, B.

    2009-12-15

    In this project the fluid dynamics and thermodynamics inside a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe have been investigated. The functionality of such a probe, which works like a thermosyphon, was analyzed by means of a simulation model in MATLAB. The model couples the behaviour inside the heat probe with the heat conduction in the earth. A parameter study revealed that the self-circulation character of such a probe leads to flattening of the vertical earth temperature profile near the probe and, hence, leads to more uniform heat removal along the probe. The circulation of CO{sub 2} even goes on when the heat pump is off. This might be advantageous for the regeneration phase. The heat transfer resistance of the evaporating CO{sub 2} film flowing down the probe wall is very small compared to the conduction resistance of the earth. Therefore, no difference has been found between the performances of a conventional heat pipe and a configuration where the liquid phase injection is distributed on different height stages along the probe. It is estimated that the seasonal performance factor of heat pumps can be improved by 15-25% with a CO{sub 2} geothermal heat probe. The main advantage is that the heat transfer to the evaporator of the heat pump (condensation of CO{sub 2} / evaporation of refrigerant) is much more efficient than in a conventional brine probe without phase change. Furthermore, no circulation pump is needed. (authors)

  11. Chemical composition and digestibility of Trifolium exposed to elevated ozone and carbon dioxide in a free-air (FACE) fumigation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.B. Muntifering; A.H. Chappelka; J.C. Lin; D.F. Karnosky; G.L. Somers

    2006-01-01

    Tropospheric ozone (O3) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are significant drivers of plant growth and chemical composition. We hypothesized that exposure to elevated concentrations of O3 and CO2, singly and in combination, would modify the chemical composition of Trifolium...

  12. Forest atmosphere carbon transfer and storage (FACTS-II) the aspen Free-air CO2 and O3 Enrichment (FACE) project: an overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    R.E. Dickson; K.F. Lewin; J.G. Isebrands; M.D. Coleman; W.E. Heilman; D.E. Riemenschneider; J. Sober; G.E. Host; D.R. Zak; G.R. Hendrey; K.S. Pregitzer; D.F. Karnosky

    2000-01-01

    This publication briefly reviews the impact of increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide and tropospheric ozone on global climate change, and the response of forest trees to these atmospheric pollutants and their interactions; points out the need for large-scale field experiments to evaluate the response of plants to these environmental stresses; and describes the...

  13. Scattering study at free air ionization chamber diaphragm; Estudo do espalhamento no diafragma da camara de ionizacao de ar livre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Alexandre Lo Bianco dos

    2011-07-01

    The maim of this work consisted in the assessment of the correction factor for air kerma, due to scattered radiation in the diaphragm of the free-air ionization chamber model 481. LNMRl measurements were made to acquire x-ray spectra corresponding to the Qualities RQR-M, described in IEC 61627 standards (2005). These spectra were used as input data in the MC simulations. The operational range of energy spectra provide up to 35 keV. This energy range is typically used in diagnostic radiology, although there is not primary standard for air kerma. The determination of this factor is a fundamental process in the primary standardization of the air kerma. These factors were obtained by computer simulation using the Penelope code. The results are k{sub RQR-M1}=0,9946, k{sub RQR} {sub -M2}=0,9932, k{sub RQR-M3}=0,9978 and k{sub RQR-M4}=0,9885; with uncertainties of 0,007 and coverage factor equal to 2. lt can be concluded that, with respect to the diaphragm, the chamber can be used in the primary standard of air kerma. (author)

  14. Establishment of a primary standard system for low energy X-rays using a free air ionization chamber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Natalia Fiorini da

    2016-01-01

    In this work a primary standard system was established for low energy X-rays (10 kV to 50 kV), using a free air ionization chamber with concentric cylinders, Victoreen (Model 481-5), at the Calibration Laboratory of Instruments (LCI) of the Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP). For this, a new ionization chamber alignment protocol was developed for the radiation system and a modification on the micrometer housing used for the movement of the internal cylinders was ma de. The results obtained for the stability and characterization tests showed to be within the limits established by the standards IEC 61674 and IEC 60731. The correction factors for photon attenuation in the air, transmission and scattering in the diaphragm, scattering and fluorescence and ion recombination were also determined. These values were compared with those obtained by the German primary standard laboratory, Physikalisch-Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB), showing good agreement. Finally, the absolute values of the quantity air kerma rate for the standard qualities direct beams MWV28 and WMV35 and the attenuated beams WMH28 and WMH35 were determined; the results are in agreement, with a maximum difference of 3,8% with the values obtained using the secondary standard system of LCI. (author)

  15. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P. [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J.; Pohjola, J. [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1996-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  16. Economic effects on taxing CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haaparanta, P [Helsinki School of Economics (Finland); Jerkkola, J; Pohjola, J [The Research Inst. of the Finnish Economy, Helsinki (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    The CO{sub 2} emissions can be reduced by using economic instruments, like carbon tax. This project included two specific questions related to CO{sub 2} taxation. First one was the economic effects of increasing CO{sub 2} tax and decreasing other taxes. Second was the economic adjustment costs of reducing net emissions instead of gross emissions. A computable general equilibrium (CGE) model was used in this analysis. The study was taken place in Helsinki School of Economics

  17. New transcritical CO{sub 2} compressor series; Neue transkritische CO{sub 2}-Verdichterbaureihe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Froeschle, Manuel [GEA Bock GmbH, Frickenhausen (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    The use of natural refrigerants that is recently discussed, is not a new development, but has grown in importance in the last few years. Particularly in the supermarket- and heat pump area, a growing demand in CO{sub 2}-systems for subcritical and transcritical applications could be observed. An extension of the CO{sub 2} components in this area is therefore absolutely necessary. For this reason a completely new transcritical compressor series for maximum pressures of up to 150 bar and extended capacity stages was developed especially. (orig.)

  18. CO{sub 2} emissions - sequestration, costs; Emisja CO{sub 2} - sekwestracja, koszty

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rakowski, J. [Inst. of Power Industry, Warsaw (Poland). Thermal Process Department

    2004-07-01

    The paper discusses and compares costs of technologies for limiting emissions of carbon dioxide in both before and after combustion in power generation - natural gas combined cycle; coal power unit with pulverised fuel boiler at both supercritical conditions and ultra supercritical conditions; and integrated gasification combined cycle. It then discusses in some detail the concept of an IGCC unit adapted to the removal of CO{sub 2} with the simultaneous production of hydrogen, and the use of an oxygen plant with CO{sub 2} recycling. 17 refs., 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  19. Low energy, low cost, efficient CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael C. Trachtenberg; Lihong Bao; David A. Smith; Remy Dumortier [Carbozyme, Inc., Monmouth Junction, NJ (United States)

    2006-07-01

    This paper discusses the development and some characteristics of a new, enzyme-based, contained liquid membrane contactor to capture CO{sub 2}. The enzyme carbonic anhydrase catalyzes the removal of CO{sub 2} while the membrane contactor increases the surface area to allow the reduction of the size of the system. The modular system design is easily scaled to any required size reducing the investment costs. The system captures CO{sub 2} at a low energy and low cost promising to be a cost effective technology for CO{sub 2} capture. 5 refs., 7 figs.

  20. INEXPENSIVE CO{sub 2} THICKENING AGENTS FOR IMPROVED MOBILITY CONTROL OF CO{sub 2} FLOODS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert M. Enick; Eric J. Beckman; Andrew Hamilton

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this research was the design, synthesis and evaluation of inexpensive, nonfluorous carbon dioxide thickening agents. We followed the same strategy employed in the design of fluorinated CO{sub 2} polymeric thickeners. First, a highly CO{sub 2}-philic, hydrocarbon-based monomer was to be identified. Polymers or oligomers of this monomer were then synthesized. The second step was to be completed only when a CO{sub 2}-soluble polymer that was soluble in CO{sub 2} at pressures comparable to the MMP was identified. In the second step, viscosity-enhancing associating groups were to be incorporated into the polymer to make it a viable thickener that exhibited high CO{sub 2} solubility at EOR MMP conditions. This final report documents the CO{sub 2} solubility of a series of commercial and novel polymers composed of carbon, hydrogen, oxygen and, in some cases, nitrogen.

  1. Estimating CO{sub 2} Emission Reduction of Non-capture CO{sub 2} Utilization (NCCU) Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Lee, Dong Woog; Gyu, Jang Se; Kwak, No-Sang; Lee, In Young; Jang, Kyung Ryoung; Shim, Jae-Goo [KEPCO Research Institute, Daejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jong Shin [Korea East-West Power Co., LTD(ETP), Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    Estimating potential of CO{sub 2} emission reduction of non-capture CO{sub 2} utilization (NCCU) technology was evaluated. NCCU is sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue gas. For the estimating the CO{sub 2} emission reduction, process simulation using process simulator (PRO/II) based on a chemical plant which could handle CO{sub 2} of 100 tons per day was performed, Also for the estimation of the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction, the solvay process which is a conventional technology for the production of sodium carbonate/sodium bicarbonate, was studied. The results of the analysis showed that in case of the solvay process, overall CO{sub 2} emission was estimated as 48,862 ton per year based on the energy consumption for the production of NaHCO{sub 3} (7.4 GJ/tNaHCO{sub 3}). While for the NCCU technology, the direct CO{sub 2} reduction through the CO{sub 2} carbonation was estimated as 36,500 ton per year and the indirect CO{sub 2} reduction through the lower energy consumption was 46,885 ton per year which lead to 83,385 ton per year in total. From these results, it could be concluded that sodium bicarbonate production technology through the carbonation reaction of CO{sub 2} contained in the flue was energy efficient and could be one of the promising technology for the low CO{sub 2} emission technology.

  2. Evasion of CO{sub 2} injected into the ocean in the content of CO{sub 2} stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheshgi, H.S. [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Co., Annandale, NJ (United States)

    2004-08-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO{sub 2} as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO{sub 2} emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO{sub 2} concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO{sub 2} injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO{sub 2} concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO{sub 2} emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO{sub 2} concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO{sub 2} concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time. (author)

  3. Evasion of CO{sub 2} injected into the ocean in the context of CO{sub 2} stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haroon S. Kheshgi [ExxonMobil Research and Engineering Company, Annandale, NJ (United States)

    2003-07-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep sea disposal of CO{sub 2} as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO{sub 2} emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO{sub 2} concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO{sub 2} injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO{sub 2} concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO{sub 2} emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO{sub 2} concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO{sub 2} concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  4. Evasion of CO{sub 2} injected into the ocean in the context of CO{sub 2} stabilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kheshgi, Haroon S

    2004-08-01

    The eventual evasion of injected CO{sub 2} to the atmosphere is one consideration when assessing deep-sea disposal of CO{sub 2} as a potential response option to climate change concerns. Evasion estimated using an ocean carbon cycle model is compared to long-term trajectories for future CO{sub 2} emissions, including illustrative cases leading to stabilization of CO{sub 2} concentration at various levels. Modeled residence time for CO{sub 2} injected into the deep ocean exceeds the 100-year time-scale usually considered in scenarios for future emissions, and the potential impacts of climate change. Illustrative cases leading monotonically to constant CO{sub 2} concentration have been highlighted by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change to give guidance on possible timing of emission reductions that may be required to stabilize greenhouse gas concentrations at various levels. For stabilization cases considered, significant modeled evasion does not occur until long after CO{sub 2} emissions have reached a maximum and begun to decline. Illustrative cases can also lead to a maximum in CO{sub 2} concentration followed by a decline to slowly decreasing concentrations. In such cases, future injection of emissions into the deep ocean leads to lower maximum CO{sub 2} concentration, with less effect on concentration later on in time.

  5. The Abundance of Atmospheric CO{sub 2} in Ocean Exoplanets: a Novel CO{sub 2} Deposition Mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levi, A.; Sasselov, D. [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Podolak, M., E-mail: amitlevi.planetphys@gmail.com [Dept. of Geosciences, Tel Aviv University, Tel Aviv, 69978 (Israel)

    2017-03-20

    We consider super-Earth sized planets which have a water mass fraction large enough to form an external mantle composed of high-pressure water-ice polymorphs and also lack a substantial H/He atmosphere. We consider such planets in their habitable zone, so that their outermost condensed mantle is a global, deep, liquid ocean. For these ocean planets, we investigate potential internal reservoirs of CO{sub 2}, the amount of CO{sub 2} dissolved in the ocean for the various saturation conditions encountered, and the ocean-atmosphere exchange flux of CO{sub 2}. We find that, in a steady state, the abundance of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere has two possible states. When wind-driven circulation is the dominant CO{sub 2} exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of tens of bars of CO{sub 2} results, where the exact value depends on the subtropical ocean surface temperature and the deep ocean temperature. When sea-ice formation, acting on these planets as a CO{sub 2} deposition mechanism, is the dominant exchange mechanism, an atmosphere of a few bars of CO{sub 2} is established. The exact value depends on the subpolar surface temperature. Our results suggest the possibility of a negative feedback mechanism, unique to water planets, where a reduction in the subpolar temperature drives more CO{sub 2} into the atmosphere to increase the greenhouse effect.

  6. CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifers; Stockage du CO{sub 2} dans les aquiferes salins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bentham, M.; Kirby, G. [British Geological Survey (BGS), Kingsley Dunham Centre, Keyworth, Nottingham (United Kingdom)

    2005-06-01

    Saline aquifers represent a promising way for CO{sub 2} sequestration. Storage capacities of saline aquifers are very important around the world. The Sleipner site in the North Sea is currently the single case world-wide of CO{sub 2} storage in a saline aquifer. A general review is given on the specific risks for CO{sub 2} storage in saline aquifer. The regional distribution of CO{sub 2} storage potential is presented. Finally, the knowledge gaps and the future research in this field are defined. (authors)

  7. To learn to live with CO[sub 2]. Mit CO[sub 2] leben lernen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moeller, K.P. (Eduard-Pestel-Institut fuer Systemforschung, Hannover (Germany))

    1993-03-01

    Based on the assumption that the energy demand in developing and threshold countries will increase the CO[sub 2] reduction strategies of industrialized nations cannot be successful or would - if rigorously pursued - produce world-wide economy disaster. Thus the author pleads for a strategy of adaptation to climate changes which are not to stop any more. (KW)

  8. About Face

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  9. About Face

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  10. CO{sub 2} emission calculations and trends

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boden, T.A.; Marland, G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Andres, R.J. [Alaska Univ., Fairbanks, AK (United States). Inst. of Northern Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Evidence that the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is believed to result from CO{sub 2} releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO{sub 2} concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention`s stated objectives was the ``stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. `` Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO{sub 2} emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented.

  11. Photoreduction of CO{sub 2} using metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Etsuko [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Photochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to fuels and chemicals is a challenging task. Work in the area of photochemical CO{sub 2} reduction from the early 1980s to the present is summarized to provide a perspective on the achievements and problems involved in the process.

  12. Thermodynamic Optimization of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rhim, Dong-Ryul; Park, Sung-Ho; Kim, Su-Hyun; Yeom, Choong-Sub [Institute for Advanced Engineering, Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has been studied for nuclear applications, mainly for one of the alternative power conversion systems of the sodium cooled fast reactor, since 1960's. Although the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle has not been expected to show higher efficiency at lower turbine inlet temperature over the conventional steam Rankine cycle, the higher density of supercritical CO{sub 2} like a liquid in the supercritical region could reduce turbo-machinery sizes, and the potential problem of sodium-water reaction with the sodium cooled fast reactor might be solved with the use of CO{sub 2} instead of water. The supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle was proposed for the better thermodynamic efficiency than for the simple supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle. Thus this paper presents the efficiencies of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle along with several decision variables for the thermodynamic optimization of the supercritical CO{sub 2} recompression Brayton cycle. The analytic results in this study show that the system efficiency reaches its maximum value at a compressor outlet pressure of 200 bars and a recycle fraction of 30 %, and the lower minimum temperature approach at the two heat exchangers shows higher system efficiency as expected.

  13. Photoreduction of CO{sub 2} using metal complexes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujita, Etsuko

    1996-04-01

    Photochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to fuels and chemicals is a challenging task. Work in the area of photochemical CO{sub 2} reduction from the early 1980s to the present is summarized to provide a perspective on the achievements and problems involved in the process.

  14. CO{sub 2} Emission Calculations and Trends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boden, T. A.; Marland, G.; Andres, R. J.

    1995-06-01

    Evidence that the atmospheric CO{sub 2}concentration has risen during the past several decades is irrefutable. Most of the observed increase in atmospheric CO{sub 2} is believed to result from CO{sub 2} releases from fossil-fuel burning. The United Nations (UN) Framework Convention on Climate Change (FCCC), signed in Rio de Janeiro in June 1992, reflects global concern over the increasing CO{sub 2} concentration and its potential impact on climate. One of the convention`s stated objectives was the stabilization of greenhouse gas concentrations in the atmosphere at a level that would prevent dangerous anthropogenic interference with the climate system. Specifically, the FCCC asked all 154 signing countries to conduct an inventory of their current greenhouse gas emissions, and it set nonbinding targets for some countries to control emissions by stabilizing them at 1990 levels by the year 2000. Given the importance of CO{sub 2} as a greenhouse gas, the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and increases in atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels, and the potential impacts of a greenhouse gas-induced climate change; it is important that comprehensive CO{sub 2} emissions records be compiled, maintained, updated, and documented.

  15. Comparison of regional and ecosystem CO{sub 2} fluxes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gryning, S. E. (Wind Energy Department, Risoe National Laboratory for Sustainable Energy, Technical Univ. of Denmark, Roskilde (Denmark)); Soegaard, H. (Institute of Geography and Geology, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen (Denmark)); Batchvarova, E. (National Institute of Meteorology and Hydrology, Bulgarian Academy of Sciences, Sofia (Bulgaria))

    2009-07-01

    A budget method to derive the regional surface flux of CO{sub 2} from the evolution of the boundary layer is presented and applied. The necessary input for the method can be deduced from a combination of vertical profile measurements of CO{sub 2} concentrations by i.e. an airplane, successive radio-soundings and standard measurements of the CO{sub 2} concentration near the ground. The method was used to derive the regional flux of CO{sub 2} over an agricultural site at Zealand in Denmark during an experiment on 12-13 June 2006. The regional fluxes of CO{sub 2} represent a combination of agricultural and forest surface conditions. It was found that the regional flux of CO{sub 2} in broad terms follows the behavior of the flux of CO{sub 2} at the agricultural (grassland) and the deciduous forest station. The regional flux is comparable not only in size but also in the diurnal (daytime) cycle of CO{sub 2} fluxes at the two stations. (orig.)

  16. Energy economics. CO{sub 2} emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wei, Yiming [Beijing Institute of Technology (China). Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research; Liu, Lancui [Ministry of Environmental Protection of the People' s Republic of China, Beijing (China). Center for Climate and Environmental Policy; Wu, Gang; Zou, Lele [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing (China). Inst. of Policy and Management

    2011-07-01

    ''Energy Economics: CO{sub 2} Emissions in China'' presents a collection of the researches on China's CO{sub 2} emissions as studied by the Center for Energy and Environmental Policy Research (CEEP). Based on the analysis of factors related to global climate change and CO{sub 2} emissions, it discusses China's CO{sub 2} emissions originating from various sectors, diverse impact factors, as well as proposed policies for reducing carbon emissions. Featuring empirical research and policy analysis on focused and critical issues involving different stages of CO{sub 2} emissions in China, the book provides scientific supports for researchers and policy makers in dealing with global climate change. (orig.)

  17. Seismic characterization of CO{sub 2} in coals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCrank, J.; Lawton, D.C. [Calgary Univ., AB (Canada). Dept. of Geoscience, Consortium for Research in Elastic Wave Exploration Seismology

    2008-07-01

    The Mynheer coal seam was targeted for an enhanced coalbed methane (CBM) experiment. During initial testing of the reservoir permeability, 180 tonnes of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) was injected into the seam. The objective of the study was to characterize the coal zones and to determine if the small volume of CO{sub 2} in the thinly bedded and seismically tuned reservoir can be detected in the 3D surface seismic data. The multi-well pilot project took place in the Pembina Field of west-central Alberta. The Ardley coals were tested for CO{sub 2} injection, enhanced CBM production, and CO{sub 2} sequestration. The seismic survey captured the condition of the reservoir after formation permeability tests. It was concluded that the anomalies seen in the seismic data can be attributed to changes in the physical properties of the coal due to CO{sub 2} adsorption. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  18. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    artist Marnix de Nijs' Physiognomic Scrutinizer is an interactive installation whereby the viewer's face is scanned and identified with historical figures. The American artist Zach Blas' project Fag Face Mask consists of three-dimensional portraits that blend biometric facial data from 30 gay men's faces...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled...

  19. The relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions: Empirical evidence from China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shaojian, E-mail: 1987wangshaojian@163.com [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China); Li, Qiuying [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Fang, Chuanglin, E-mail: fangcl@igsnrr.ac.cn [Institute of Geographic Sciences and Natural Resources Research, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100101 (China); Zhou, Chunshan [School of Geography and Planning, Sun Yat-Sen University, Guangzhou 510275 (China)

    2016-01-15

    Following several decades of rapid economic growth, China has become the largest energy consumer and the greatest emitter of CO{sub 2} in the world. Given the complex development situation faced by contemporary China, Chinese policymakers now confront the dual challenge of reducing energy use while continuing to foster economic growth. This study posits that a better understanding of the relationship between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions is necessary, in order for the Chinese government to develop the energy saving and emission reduction strategies for addressing the impacts of climate change. This paper investigates the cointegrating, temporally dynamic, and casual relationships that exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions in China, using data for the period 1990–2012. The study develops a comprehensive conceptual framework in order to perform this analysis. The results of cointegration tests suggest the existence of long-run cointegrating relationship among the variables, albeit with short dynamic adjustment mechanisms, indicating that the proportion of disequilibrium errors that can be adjusted in the next period will account for only a fraction of the changes. Further, impulse response analysis (which describes the reaction of any variable as a function of time in response to external shocks) found that the impact of a shock in CO{sub 2} emissions on economic growth or energy consumption was only marginally significant. Finally, Granger casual relationships were found to exist between economic growth, energy consumption, and CO{sub 2} emissions; specifically, a bi-directional causal relationship between economic growth and energy consumption was identified, and a unidirectional causal relationship was found to exist from energy consumption to CO{sub 2} emissions. The findings have significant implications for both academics and practitioners, warning of the need to develop and implement long

  20. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    unilateral lesions, we found no patient with a selective deficit in either reading or face processing. Rather, the patients showing a deficit in processing either words or faces were also impaired with the other category. One patient performed within the normal range on all tasks. In addition, all patients......It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...... perception of faces and words is affected by unilateral posterior stroke. Two patients with lesions in their dominant hemisphere and two with lesions in their non-dominant hemisphere were tested on sensitive tests of face and word perception during the stable phase of recovery. Despite all patients having...

  1. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.; Herzog, H.; Auerbach, D. [and others

    1995-11-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO{sub 2} Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO{sub 2} disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO{sub 2}. The term disposal is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a timescale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO{sub 2} is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO{sub 2} injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. Our project has been examining these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. The end-product will be a report issued during the summer of 1996 consisting of two volumes an executive summary (Vol I) and a series of six, individually authored topical reports (Vol II). A workshop with invited participants from the U.S. and abroad will review the draft findings in January, 1996.

  2. About Face

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  6. What determines the periportal free air, and ligamentum teres and falciform ligament signs on CT: Can these specific air distributions be valuable predictors of gastroduodenal perforation?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, A Lam; Jang, Kyung Mi; Kim, Min-Jeong; Koh, Sung Hye; Lee, Yul; Min, Kwangseon; Choi, Dongil

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this retrospective study was to determine what gives rise to the periportal free air, and ligamentum teres and falciform ligament signs on CT in patients with gastrointestinal (GI) tract perforation, and whether these specific air distributions can play a clinically meaningful role in the diagnosis of gastroduodenal perforation. Material and methods: Ninety-three patients who underwent a diagnostic CT scan before laparotomy for a GI tract perforation were included. The readers assessed the presence of specific air distributions on CT (periportal free air, and ligamentum teres and falciform ligament signs). The readers also assessed the presence of strong predictors of gastroduodenal perforation (focal defects in the stomach and duodenal bulb wall, concentrated extraluminal air bubbles in close proximity to the stomach and duodenal bulb, and wall thickening at the stomach and duodenal bulb). The specific air distributions were assessed according to perforation sites, and the elapsed time and amount of free air, and then compared with the strong predictors of gastroduodenal perforation by using statistical analysis. Results: All specific air distributions were more frequently present in patients with gastroduodenal perforation than lower GI tract perforation, but only the falciform ligament sign was statistically significant (p < 0.05). The presence of all three specific air distributions was demonstrated in only 13 (20.6%) of 63 patients with gastroduodenal perforation. Regardless of the perforation sites, the falciform ligament sign was present significantly more frequently with an increase in the amount of free air on multiple logistic regression analysis (adjusted odds ratio, 1.29; p < 0.001). The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, and positive predictive and negative predictive values of each strong predictor for the diagnosis of gastroduodenal perforation were higher than those of specific air distributions. The focal wall thickening

  7. CO{sub 2} control technologies: ALSTOM Power approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stamatelopoulos, G.N.; Marion, J.L.; Nsakala, N.; Griffin, T.; Bill, A. [ALSTOM Power Boiler GmbH, Stuttgart (Germany)

    2002-07-01

    ALSTOM Power is one of the largest providers of power generation equipment, turnkey power plants and services in the world. The Company is aware of the present scientific concerns regarding greenhouse gas emissions and the role of fossil fuels used in power generation. ALSTOM Power R&D laboratories run various programs aiming to find options that reduce greenhouse gas emissions through: Increasing the efficiency of power generation equipment by implementing the most modern technologies. Application of technologies to remove and sequester carbon dioxide created in power plants in an environmentally and economically favorable manner. In this paper an overview of ALSTOM's on-going CO{sub 2} mitigation development activities will be presented. First, energy efficiency improvements for both new and existing fossil fuel power plants are reviewed for both coal and natural gas fuels. Second, the development of novel power generation processes, including those involving combustion in O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} atmospheres using pure or enriched oxygen for the purpose of CO{sub 2} capture is discussed. And finally, novel chemical-looping CO{sub 2} capture process technologies are introduced. The major challenge in CO{sub 2} capture techniques is the efficient separation and capture of CO{sub 2}. Conclusions are drawn herein regarding the technical feasibility, the resultant efficiency penalties, and the CO{sub 2} mitigation costs for the various options under study and development within ALSTOM Power. 7 refs., 8 figs.

  8. What does CO{sub 2} geological storage really mean?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-01

    It is now accepted that human activities are disturbing the carbon cycle of the planet. CO{sub 2}, a greenhouse gas, has accumulated in the atmosphere where it contributes to climate change. Amongst the spectrum of short term measures that need to be urgently implemented to mitigate climate change, CO{sub 2} capture and storage can play a decisive role as it could contribute 33% of the CO{sub 2} reduction needed by 2050. This document aims to explain this solution by answering the following questions: where and how much CO{sub 2} can we store underground, How can we transport and inject large quantities of CO{sub 2}, What happens to the CO{sub 2} once in the storage reservoir? Could CO{sub 2} leak from the reservoir and if so, what might be the consequences? How can we monitor the storage site at depth and at the surface? What safety criteria need to be imposed and respected? (A.L.B.)

  9. Confined release of CO{sub 2} into the ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, E.E.; Zhang, X.Y.; Herzog, H.J. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology, Cambridge, MA (United States)] [and others

    1993-12-31

    To help reduce global warming, it has been proposed to sequester some CO{sub 2} in the deep ocean. However, current pipe technology is limited to about 600-650 m{sup 4}, so deeper transport requires other means. Recently, it was suggested that CO{sub 2} could be released at depths of 200 - 400 m as a concentrated seawater solution. The dense solution would form a negatively buoyant gravity current and sink to greater depth. In the following we expand our previous calculations showing that an unconfined release of CO{sub 2} will not create sufficient concentration or negative buoyancy. However, release of either compressed gaseous or liquid CO{sub 2} into an appropriately designed confinement vessel could produce sufficient concentration to transport the current to deeper water. Furthermore, such a scheme may facilitate formation of CO{sub 2} hydrate particles that are heavier than seawater, causing further sinking. A recently completed Research Needs assessment study which we conducted for DOE concludes that shallow water disposal of CO{sub 2} may be the most promising CO{sub 2} disposal option.

  10. Accelerated Carbonation of Steel Slags Using CO{sub 2} Diluted Sources: CO{sub 2} Uptakes and Energy Requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baciocchi, Renato, E-mail: baciocchi@ing.uniroma2.it; Costa, Giulia [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy); Polettini, Alessandra; Pomi, Raffaella; Stramazzo, Alessio [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Rome “La Sapienza”, Rome (Italy); Zingaretti, Daniela [Department of Civil Engineering and Computer Science Engineering, University of Rome “Tor Vergata”, Rome (Italy)

    2016-01-18

    This work presents the results of carbonation experiments performed on Basic Oxygen Furnace (BOF) steel slag samples employing gas mixtures containing 40 and 10% CO{sub 2} vol. simulating the gaseous effluents of gasification and combustion processes respectively, as well as 100% CO{sub 2} for comparison purposes. Two routes were tested, the slurry-phase (L/S = 5 l/kg, T = 100°C and Ptot = 10 bar) and the thin-film (L/S = 0.3–0.4 l kg, T = 50°C and Ptot = 7–10 bar) routes. For each one, the CO{sub 2} uptake achieved as a function of the reaction time was analyzed and on this basis, the energy requirements associated with each carbonation route and gas mixture composition were estimated considering to store the CO{sub 2} emissions of a medium size natural gas fired power plant (20 MW). For the slurry-phase route, maximum CO{sub 2} uptakes ranged from around 8% at 10% CO{sub 2}, to 21.1% (BOF-a) and 29.2% (BOF-b) at 40% CO{sub 2} and 32.5% (BOF-a) and 40.3% (BOF-b) at 100% CO{sub 2}. For the thin-film route, maximum uptakes of 13% (BOF-c) and 19.5% (BOF-d) at 40% CO{sub 2}, and 17.8% (BOF-c) and 20.2% (BOF-d) at 100% were attained. The energy requirements of the two analyzed process routes appeared to depend chiefly on the CO{sub 2} uptake of the slag. For both process route, the minimum overall energy requirements were found for the tests with 40% CO{sub 2} flows (i.e., 1400−1600 MJ/t{sub CO{sub 2}} for the slurry-phase and 2220 – 2550 MJ/t{sub CO{sub 2}} for the thin-film route).

  11. Potential and economics of CO{sub 2} sequestration; Sequestration du CO{sub 2}: faisabilite et cout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jean-Baptiste, Ph.; Ciais, Ph.; Orr, J. [CEA Saclay, 91 - Gif sur Yvette (France). Direction des Sciences de la Matiere; Ducroux, R. [Centre d' Initiative et de Recherche sur l' Energie et l' Environnement, CIRENE, 91 - Palaiseau (France)

    2001-07-01

    Increasing atmospheric level of greenhouse gases are causing global warming and putting at risk the global climate system. The main anthropogenic greenhouse gas is CO{sub 2}. Some techniques could be used to reduced CO{sub 2} emission and stabilize atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration, including i) energy savings and energy efficiency, ii) switch to lower carbon content fuels (natural gas) and use energy sources with zero CO{sub 2} emissions such as renewable or nuclear energy, iii) capture and store CO{sub 2} from fossil fuels combustion, and enhance the natural sinks for CO{sub 2} (forests, soils, ocean...). The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the technology and cost for capture and storage of CO{sub 2} and to review the various options for CO{sub 2} sequestration by enhancing natural carbon sinks. Some of the factors which will influence application, including environmental impact, cost and efficiency, are discussed. Capturing CO{sub 2} and storing it in underground geological reservoirs appears as the best environmentally acceptable option. It can be done with existing technology, however, substantial R and D is needed to improve available technology and to lower the cost. Applicable to large CO{sub 2} emitting industrial facilities such as power plants, cement factories, steel industry, etc., which amount to about 30% of the global anthropic CO{sub 2} emission, it represents a valuable tool in the baffle against global warming. About 50% of the anthropic CO{sub 2} is being naturally absorbed by the biosphere and the ocean. The 'natural assistance' provided by these two large carbon reservoirs to the mitigation of climate change is substantial. The existing natural sinks could be enhanced by deliberate action. Given the known and likely environmental consequences, which could be very damaging indeed, enhancing ocean sinks does not appears as a satisfactory option. In contrast, the promotion of land sinks through demonstrated carbon

  12. CO/sub 2/ carbon cycle and climate interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H; Maier-Reimer, E; Degens, E T; Kempe, S; Spitzy, A

    1984-03-01

    Past and expected emissions of anthropogenic CO/sub 2/ stimulate carbon cycle and climate research. Prognoses of future CO/sub 2/ levels depend on energy scenarios and on the reaction of the biosphere and hydrosphere to elevated atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations. The reaction of the reservoirs vegetation, freshwater and oceans to disturbances of the carbon cycle is reviewed. For the oceans first results of a simple carbon cycle model implanted in a three-dimensional general circulation model are presented. This model allows experiments not possible with previous box models.

  13. Detecting CO/sub 2/-induced climatic change

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wigley, T M.L.; Jones, P D

    1981-07-16

    Although it is widely believed that increasing atmospheric CO/sub 2/ levels will cause noticeable global warming, the effects are not yet detectable, possibly because of the 'noise' of natural climatic variability. An examination of the spatial and seasonal distribution of signal-to-noise ratio shows that the highest values occur in summer and annual mean surface temperatures averaged over the Northern Hemisphere or over mid-latitudes. The spatial and seasonal characteristics of the early twentieth century warming were similar to those expected from increasing CO/sub 2/ based on an equilibrium response model. This similarity may hinder the early detection of CO/sub 2/ effects on climate.

  14. Foamed Cement Interactions with CO>2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Montross, Scott [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spaulding, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Dalton, Laura [Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Crandall, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Moore, Johnathan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Huerta, Nik [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Kutchko, Barb [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-02-02

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially viable strategy to reduce greenhouse emissions. Understanding the risks to engineered and geologic structures associated with GCS is an important first step towards developing practices for safe and effective storage. The widespread utilization of foamed cement in wells may mean that carbon dioxide (CO>2)/brine/foamed cement reactions may occur within these GCS sites. Characterizing the difference in alteration rates as well as the physical and mechanical impact of CO>2/brine/foamed cement is an important preliminary step to ensuring offshore and onshore GCS is a prudent anthropogenic CO>2 mitigation choice.

  15. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, ...

  16. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help PTSD We've been there. After a traumatic event — ... you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is ...

  17. The synthesis of porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} micro cuboid structures by solvothermal approach and investigation of its gas sensing properties and catalytic activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamil, Saba, E-mail: saba_hrb@yahoo.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Jing, Xiaoyan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Wang, Jun, E-mail: zhqw1888@sohu.com [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Li, Songnan; Liu, Jingyuan [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Zhang, Milin [Key Laboratory of Superlight Material and Surface Technology, Ministry of Education, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China); Institute of Advanced Marine Materials, Harbin Engineering University, 150001 (China)

    2013-11-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Micro cuboid Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} particle prepared by solvothermal method. • Study of morphology of synthesized cuboids before and after calcinations. • Investigation of formation mechanism of porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} from cuboid CoCO{sub 3}. • Investigation of gas sensing properties of porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}. • Study of catalytic activity of product. - Abstract: The cobalt carbonate cuboids are prepared by adopting a simple solvothermal approach by using diethylene glycol and water in specific ratio as solvent. The prepared cobalt carbonate is subjected to different instrumentation to investigate its morphology and other properties. It is clear from the scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) that the product is distinct cuboid in shape with a size of approximately 3 μm from each face of the cube. Each particle of cuboid cobalt carbonate seems to comprise of layer by layer assembly of unit cells that consequently leads to a cuboid geometry. The cuboid cobalt carbonate was calcined at 700 °C in a furnace under argon atmosphere that decompose cobalt carbonate into porous Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} with the loosely packed arrangement of nano architectures. The gas sensing properties and catalytic activity of porous cuboids Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} are also investigated.

  18. Development of new generations filling equipment that enables filling of CO{sub 2} in the car and cooling system industries; Udvikling af nye generationer fyldestationer, der muliggoer paefyldning af CO{sub 2} i automibil- og koeleindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillipsen, K. [AGRAMKOW Fluid Systems A/S (Denmark)

    2005-07-01

    Climatic change is among the biggest global environmental challenges, if not the biggest, that mankind is facing. Therefore, it is necessary to make an effort to reduce the impact of greenhouse gases and at the same time look for alternatives to known and used refrigerants. Substitution of greenhouse gases within car, air condition and cooling industry is in progress, but at very different levels with very different time frames. The car industry and the commercial cooling systems will undergo conversion in the first phase. Subsequently the conversion will take place in the air condition and heat pump markets. AGRAMKOW has extensive experiences from previous conversions of production plants to new refrigerants. The complexity behind the development of a filling station to CO{sub 2} is extremely difficult due to the fact that CO{sub 2} differs significantly from known and used means. (BA)

  19. CO{sub 2} CAPTURE BY ABSORPTION WITH POTASSIUM CARBONATE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gary T. Rochelle; J.Tim Cullinane; Marcus Hilliard; Eric Chen; Babatunde Oyenekan; Ross Dugas

    2005-01-31

    The objective of this work is to improve the process for CO{sub 2} capture by alkanolamine absorption/stripping by developing an alternative solvent, aqueous K{sub 2}CO{sub 3} promoted by piperazine. Thermodynamic modeling predicts that the heat of desorption of CO{sub 2} from 5m K+/2.5 PZ from 85 kJ/mole at 40 C to 30 kJ/mole at 120 C. Mass transfer modeling of this solvent suggests that carbonate and general salt concentration play a major role in catalyzing the rate of reaction of CO{sub 2} with piperazine. Stripper modeling suggests that with the multipressure stripper, the energy consumption with a generic solvent decreases by 15% as the heat of desorption is decreased from 23.8 to 18.5 kcal/gmol. A second pilot plant campaign with 5m K+/2.5 PZ was successfully completed.

  20. Correction factors for the NMi free-air ionization chamber for medium-energy x-rays calculated with the Monte Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimbergen, T.W.M.; Dijk, E. van; Vries, W. de

    1998-01-01

    A new method is described for the determination of x-ray quality dependent correction factors for free-air ionization chambers. The method is based on weighting correction factors for mono-energetic photons, which are calculated using the Monte Carlo method, with measured air kerma spectra. With this method, correction factors for electron loss, scatter inside the chamber and transmission through the diaphragm and front wall have been calculated for the NMi free-air chamber for medium-energy x-rays for a wide range of x-ray qualities in use at NMi. The newly obtained correction factors were compared with the values in use at present, which are based on interpolation of experimental data for a specific set of x-ray qualities. For x-ray qualities which are similar to this specific set, the agreement between the correction factors determined with the new method and those based on the experimental data is better than 0.1%, except for heavily filtered x-rays generated at 250 kV. For x-ray qualities dissimilar to the specific set, differences up to 0.4% exist, which can be explained by uncertainties in the interpolation procedure of the experimental data. Since the new method does not depend on experimental data for a specific set of x-ray qualities, the new method allows for a more flexible use of the free-air chamber as a primary standard for air kerma for any x-ray quality in the medium-energy x-ray range. (author)

  1. Automobile technology in a CO{sub 2}-constrained world

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kypreos, S; Barreto Gomez, L; Dietrich, Ph [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Schafer, A; Jacoby, H D [MIT, Cambridge (United States)

    1999-08-01

    This study identifies the environmental conditions under which less CO{sub 2}-emitting and more expensive automobile technology might enter the North American transportation sector. For that purpose, different exogenous CO{sub 2}-reduction targets are imposed and the resulting market shares of hypothetical future automobile technologies calculated. The criteria for the selection of different types of automobiles/fuels is the minimisation of discounted, cumulative transport sector costs over the scenario time horizon. (author) 1 tab., 6 refs.

  2. Constructive solution to the CO/sub 2/ problem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marchetti, C

    1979-03-01

    CO/sub 2/ effects on climate receive increasing attention at the scientific, public, and political level. Three proposals for dealing with the CO/SUB/2 problem are briefly examined and their cost very roughly assessed. The first one, originally proposed by W. Nordhaus, uses an economical constraint, taxation, to scare the energy consumer out of fossil fuels into energy sources which do not release CO/SUB/2: nuclear, solar or even biomass. Taxes are so adjusted that a predetermined CO/SUB/2 level in the atmosphere will never be reached. The intermediate path is however left free for an eventual optimization, i.e. minimization of economic costs. In the second, originally proposed by Dyson, 10/SUP/1/SUP/2 sycamore trees should be planted, hoping they will in time mop up CO/SUB/2 from the atmosphere and store it in form of standing crop and humus. Apart from a certain number of problems arising from such a large scale plantation - after all active humanity is made of only about 10/SUP/9 people - the system appears up to a point selfdefeating because the resulting decrease in albedo will increase temperature, at least at the beginning, and only after many years the CO/SUB/2 sequestered will compensate for that. In the third, originally proposed by the author, a fuel cycle is suggested in analogy to the fuel cycle of nuclear reactors. CO/SUB/2 is then separated from stack gases, together with SO/SUB/2 and other noxious components, and then stored in geological structures, e.g. exhausted oil and gas fields, or in the deep ocean making use of thermohaline currents to diffuse it in depth. The same result can be obtained by separating air and burning fuels with oxygen. The costs for CO/SUB/2 control are relatively high in all three cases, but are certainly inside the capacity of the energy system to digest them.

  3. The performance of the INER improved free-air ionization chamber in the comparison of air kerma calibration coefficients for medium-energy X-rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, J.-H. E-mail: jhlee@iner.gov.tw; Kotler, L.H.; Bueermann, Ludwig; Hwang, W.-S.; Chiu, J.-H.; Wang, C.-F

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes modifications to an original design, correction factors and uncertainty evaluations for an improved free-air ionization chamber constructed at the Institute of Nuclear Energy Research (INER, Taiwan). In addition, a comparison of secondary standard air kerma calibration coefficients for 100-250 kV medium-energy X-rays was performed to verify the experimental accuracy and measurement consistency of the improved chamber. The comparison results showed a satisfactory agreement in the measurements which were within the combined expanded uncertainties (k=2)

  4. CO{sub 2}-GeoNet. A European network of excellence on geological storage of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schulz, H.M. [GeoForschungsZentrum GFZ, Potzdam (Germany); May, F.; Gerling, P.; Kosinowski, M.; Krueger, M.; Faber, E.; Poggenburg, J.; Teschner, M. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The Network of Excellence ''CO{sub 2}GeoNet'' contains a critical mass of European research institutions in the field of underground carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage. World projections of energy use show that fossil fuel dependency will continue to 2030 and beyond; but sustainability will need CO{sub 2} emissions to be reduced by 60% by 2050. This will be difficult and will require various strategies. The associated rise in global CO{sub 2} emissions, without abatement, will be at an average rate of 1.8% per annum (from the current value of 25 Gt p.a., to 38 Gt by 2030); a rise of over 50%. Urgent action is needed to cope with policy's objectives. Europe's CO{sub 2} emissions will rise by an average of 0.6% p.a. up to 2020, from a 2000 level of 3.1 Gt to 3.5 Gt by 2020. The rocks under the North Sea have a theoretical capacity for storing over 800 Gt of CO{sub 2}. Capturing CO{sub 2} from industrial point sources and storing it underground seems to be a very attractive route to making cuts in CO{sub 2} emissions. CO{sub 2} capture and storage allows diverse fuel inputs and outputs, enhances security of supply and is well aligned with hydrogen production from fossil fuels. Through a number of projects supported by the European Commission (e.g. Joule 2, Research Framework Programmes 4 and 5) Europe has led the World on R and D in this area, with rapid growth during the last decade. National programmes are also emerging. This success has a downside, by creating fragmentation through diversification. North America despite its rejection of the Kyoto protocol (except Canada), has recently embraced CO{sub 2} capture and geological storage and is allocating huge resources (over $4bn) over the next 10 years. Europe, as a result, risks losing its head start. We therefore must work more effectively and restructure our efforts. The main aim of CO{sub 2}GeoNet will be to integrate, strengthen, and build upon the momentum of previous and existing

  5. Industrial Analogues on CO{sub 2} Storage; Analogos Industriales del Almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, R; Campos, R; Perez del Villar, L; Suarez, I; Zapatero, M A

    2008-08-06

    This volume tries to introduce the study of industrial analogues of CO{sub 2} storage, those industrial activities that, because of some specific conditions, are considered similar to CO{sub 2} geological storage activities. The goal is to obtain useful conclusions for application in the incipient exploration of this type of storages. Therefore, strategic storages of natural gas have been studied, with a special emphasis in the project developed in the surroundings of Yela (Guadalajara). Other activities are also described, as some projects that include CO{sub 2} injection to increase the recovery of oil and/or gas in nearly depleted reservoirs, and also a case of CO{sub 2} storage in a saline aquifer (Salipriina). Finally, Rewopol Project methodology is summarized, as an experimental case of CO{sub 2} storage on coal, coupled with coal bed methane production. Summing up, the main goal of this work is to determine the most adequate technologies that have to be developed in a successful CO{sub 2} storage, exploration and exploitation project. (Author) 28 refs.

  6. Tree age dependence and within-canopy variation of leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence in Fagus sylvatica under experimental free-air ozone exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herbinger, K.; Then, Ch.; Loew, M.; Haberer, K.; Alexous, M.; Koch, N.; Remele, K.; Heerdt, C.; Grill, D.; Rennenberg, H.; Haeberle, K.-H.; Matyssek, R.; Tausz, M.; Wieser, G.

    2005-01-01

    We characterized leaf gas exchange and antioxidative defence of two-year-old seedlings and 60-year-old trees of Fagus sylvatica exposed to ambient (1xO 3 ) or two-fold ambient (2xO 3 ) O 3 concentrations (maximum of 150 ppb) in a free-air canopy exposure system throughout the growing season. Decline in photosynthesis from sun-exposed to shaded conditions was more pronounced in adult than juvenile trees. Seedling leaves and leaves in the sun-exposed canopy had higher stomatal conductance and higher internal CO 2 concentrations relative to leaves of adult trees and leaves in shaded conditions. There was a weak overall depression of photosynthesis in the 2xO 3 variants across age classes and canopy positions. Pigment and tocopherol concentrations of leaves were significantly affected by canopy position and tree age, whereas differences between 1xO 3 and 2xO 3 regimes were not observed. Glutathione concentrations were significantly increased under 2xO 3 across both age classes and canopy levels. Seedlings differed from adult trees in relevant physiological and biochemical traits in ozone response. The water-soluble antioxidative systems responded most sensitively to 2xO 3 without regard of tree age or canopy position. - Ozone effects on leaf gas exchange and antioxidative systems of beech across tree age and canopy level were investigated in a free air exposure system

  7. SU-F-I-13: Correction Factor Computations for the NIST Ritz Free Air Chamber for Medium-Energy X Rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergstrom, P

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses 3 free-air chambers to establish primary standards for radiation dosimetry at x-ray energies. For medium-energy × rays, the Ritz free-air chamber is the main measurement device. In order to convert the charge or current collected by the chamber to the radiation quantities air kerma or air kerma rate, a number of correction factors specific to the chamber must be applied. Methods: We used the Monte Carlo codes EGSnrc and PENELOPE. Results: Among these correction factors are the diaphragm correction (which accounts for interactions of photons from the x-ray source in the beam-defining diaphragm of the chamber), the scatter correction (which accounts for the effects of photons scattered out of the primary beam), the electron-loss correction (which accounts for electrons that only partially expend their energy in the collection region), the fluorescence correction (which accounts for ionization due to reabsorption ffluorescence photons and the bremsstrahlung correction (which accounts for the reabsorption of bremsstrahlung photons). We have computed monoenergetic corrections for the NIST Ritz chamber for the 1 cm, 3 cm and 7 cm collection plates. Conclusion: We find good agreement with other’s results for the 7 cm plate. The data used to obtain these correction factors will be used to establish air kerma and it’s uncertainty in the standard NIST x-ray beams.

  8. SU-F-I-13: Correction Factor Computations for the NIST Ritz Free Air Chamber for Medium-Energy X Rays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bergstrom, P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 100 Bureau Drive, Gaithersburg, MD 20899 (United States)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) uses 3 free-air chambers to establish primary standards for radiation dosimetry at x-ray energies. For medium-energy × rays, the Ritz free-air chamber is the main measurement device. In order to convert the charge or current collected by the chamber to the radiation quantities air kerma or air kerma rate, a number of correction factors specific to the chamber must be applied. Methods: We used the Monte Carlo codes EGSnrc and PENELOPE. Results: Among these correction factors are the diaphragm correction (which accounts for interactions of photons from the x-ray source in the beam-defining diaphragm of the chamber), the scatter correction (which accounts for the effects of photons scattered out of the primary beam), the electron-loss correction (which accounts for electrons that only partially expend their energy in the collection region), the fluorescence correction (which accounts for ionization due to reabsorption ffluorescence photons and the bremsstrahlung correction (which accounts for the reabsorption of bremsstrahlung photons). We have computed monoenergetic corrections for the NIST Ritz chamber for the 1 cm, 3 cm and 7 cm collection plates. Conclusion: We find good agreement with other’s results for the 7 cm plate. The data used to obtain these correction factors will be used to establish air kerma and it’s uncertainty in the standard NIST x-ray beams.

  9. Seasonal differences and within-canopy variations of antioxidants in mature spruce (Picea abies) trees under elevated ozone in a free-air exposure system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofer, Nora; Alexou, Maria; Heerdt, Christian; Loew, Markus; Werner, Herbert; Matyssek, Rainer; Rennenberg, Heinz; Haberer, Kristine

    2008-01-01

    The effect of free-air ozone fumigation and crown position on antioxidants were determined in old-growth spruce (Picea abies) trees in the seasonal course of two consecutive years (2003 and 2004). Levels of total ascorbate and its redox state in the apoplastic washing fluid (AWF) were increased under double ambient ozone concentrations (2 x O 3 ), whilst ascorbate concentrations in needle extracts were unchanged. Concentrations of apoplastic and symplastic ascorbate were significantly higher in 2003 compared to 2004 indicating a combined effect of the drought conditions in 2003 with enhanced ozone exposure. Elevated ozone had only weak effects on total glutathione levels in needle extracts, phloem exudates and xylem saps. Total and oxidised glutathione concentrations were higher in 2004 compared to 2003 and seemed to be more affected by enhanced ozone influx in the more humid year 2004 compared to the combined effect of elevated ozone and drought in 2003 as observed for ascorbate. - Antioxidant defence in sun and shade needles of Picea abies under free-air ozone fumigation in the seasonal course of two consecutive years

  10. CO{sub 2} and energy France and world indicators 2007; CO{sub 2} et energie France et Monde reperes edition 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2007-07-01

    In the framework of a sustainable development, the carbon dioxide is a very controlled greenhouse effect gases to limit the climatic change. This paper presents and explains the greenhouse effect, the consequences of the climatic change, the other greenhouse effect gases as the CO{sub 2}, the CO{sub 2} emissions from the energy production, the emission factors of CO{sub 2}, the sectorial emissions of CO{sub 2}, the Kyoto protocol and the european market of the CO{sub 2} quotas. (A.L.B.)

  11. Environmental potential of the use of CO{sub 2} from alcoholic fermentation processes. The CO{sub 2}-AFP strategy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Moreno, Carlos, E-mail: carlos.amoreno@uclm.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Orgánica y Bioquímica, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Paseo de los Estudiantes, 02071 Albacete (Spain); García-Yuste, Santiago, E-mail: santiago.gyuste@uclm.es [Departamento de Química Inorgánica, Orgánica y Bioquímica, Facultad de Ciencias y Tecnologías Químicas, Universidad de Castilla-La Mancha, Campus Universitario, 13071 Ciudad Real (Spain)

    2016-10-15

    A novel Carbon Dioxide Utilization (CDU) approach from a relatively minor CO{sub 2} emission source, i.e., alcoholic fermentation processes (AFP), is presented. The CO{sub 2} produced as a by-product from the AFP is estimated by examining the EtOH consumed per year reported by the World Health Organization in 2014. It is proposed that the extremely pure CO{sub 2} from the AFP is captured in NaOH solutions to produce one of the Top 10 commodities in the chemical industry, Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, as a good example of an atomic economy process. The novel CDU strategy could yield over 30.6 Mt of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in oversaturated aqueous solution on using ca. 12.7 Mt of captured CO{sub 2} and this process would consume less energy than the synthetic methodology (Solvay ammonia soda process) and would not produce low-value by-products. The quantity of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} obtained by this strategy could represent ca. 50% of the world Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} production in one year. In terms of the green economy, the viability of the strategy is discussed according to the recommendations of the CO{sub 2}Chem network, and an estimation of the CO{sub 2}negative emission achieved suggests a capture of around 280.0 Mt of CO{sub 2} from now to 2020 or ca. 1.9 Gt from now to 2050. Finally, the results obtained for this new CDU proposal are discussed by considering different scenarios; the CO{sub 2} production in a typical winemaking corporation, the CO{sub 2} released in the most relevant wine-producing countries, and the use of CO{sub 2} from AFP as an alternative for the top Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-producing countries. - Highlights: • A new CDU strategy to mitigate the CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere is assessed. • An environmental action towards negligible emission sources such as AFP. • The waste CO{sub 2} from AFP could be converted into Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. • Capture 12.7 Mt yr{sup –1} of CO{sub 2} to generate ca. 1.9 Gt of CO{sub 2}negative emissions by 2050.

  12. Cellulose-Supported Ionic Liquids for Low-Cost Pressure Swing CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reed, Daniel G.; Dowson, George R. M.; Styring, Peter, E-mail: p.styring@sheffield.ac.uk [UK Centre for Carbon Dioxide Utilisation, Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, The University of Sheffield, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2017-07-07

    Reducing the cost of capturing CO{sub 2} from point source emitters is a major challenge facing carbon capture, utilization, and storage. While solid ionic liquids (SoILs) have been shown to allow selective and rapid CO{sub 2} capture by pressure swing separation of flue gases, expectations of their high cost hinders their potential application. Cellulose is found to be a reliable, cheap, and sustainable support for a range of SoILs, reducing the total sorbent cost by improving the efficiency of the ionic liquid (IL) through increased ionic surface area that results from coating. It was also found that cellulose support imparts surface characteristics, which increased total sorbent uptake. Combined, these effects allowed a fourfold to eightfold improvement in uptake per gram of IL for SoILs that have previously shown high uptake and a 9- to 39-fold improvement for those with previously poor uptake. This offers the potential to drastically reduce the amount of IL required to separate a given gas volume. Furthermore, the fast kinetics are retained, with adsorb–desorb cycles taking place over a matter of seconds. This means that rapid cycling can be achieved, which results in high cumulative separation capacity relative to a conventional temperature swing process. The supported materials show an optimum at 75% cellulose:25% IL as a result of even coating of the cellulose surface. The projected reduction in plant size and operational costs represents a potentially ground-breaking step forward in carbon dioxide capture technologies.

  13. The millennial atmospheric lifetime of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Archer, D. [University of Chicago, IL (United States). Department of the Geophysical Sciences; Brovkin, V. [Potsdam Institute for Climate Impact Research (Germany)

    2008-10-15

    The notion is pervasive in the climate science community and in the public at large that the climate impacts of fossil fuel CO{sub 2} release will only persist for a few centuries. This conclusion has no basis in theory or models of the atmosphere/ocean carbon cycle, which we review here. The largest fraction of the CO{sub 2} recovery will take place on time scales of centuries, as CO{sub 2} invades the ocean, but a significant fraction of the fossil fuel CO{sub 2}, ranging in published models in the literature from 20-60%, remains airborne for a thousand years or longer. Ultimate recovery takes place on time scales of hundreds of thousands of years, a geologic longevity typically associated in public perceptions with nuclear waste. The glacial/interglacial climate cycles demonstrate that ice sheets and sea level respond dramatically to millennial-timescale changes in climate forcing. There are also potential positive feedbacks in the carbon cycle, including methane hydrates in the ocean, and peat frozen in permafrost, that are most sensitive to the long tail of the fossil fuel CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere.

  14. Study on CO{sub 2} Recovery System Design in Supercritical CO{sub 2} Cycle for SFR Application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Min Seok; Jung, Hwa-Young; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    As a part of Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) development in Korea, the supercritical CO{sub 2} (S-CO{sub 2}) Brayton cycle is considered as an alternative power conversion system to eliminate sodium-water reaction (SWR) when the current conventional steam Rankine cycle is utilized with SFR. The parasitic loss caused by the leakage flow should be minimized since this greatly influences the cycle efficiency. Thus, a simple model for estimating the critical flow in a turbo-machinery seal was developed to predict the leakage flow rate and calculate the required total mass of working fluid in a S-CO{sub 2} power system to minimize the parasitic loss. In this work, study on CO{sub 2} recovery system design was conducted by finding the suitable recovery point with the developed simple CO{sub 2} critical flow model and sensitivity analysis was performed on the power system performance with respect to multiple CO{sub 2} recovery process options. The study of a CO{sub 2} recovery system design was conducted to minimize the thermal efficiency losses caused by CO{sub 2} inventory recovery system. For the first step, the configuration of a seal was selected. A labyrinth seal has suitable features for the S-CO{sub 2} power cycle application. Then, thermal efficiency losses with different CO{sub 2} leak rate and recovery point were evaluated. To calculate the leak rate in turbo-machinery by using the developed CO{sub 2} critical flow model, the conditions of storage tank is set to be closer to the recovery point. After modifying the critical flow model appropriately, total mass flow rate of leakage flow was calculated. Finally, the CO{sub 2} recovery system design work was performed to minimize the loss of thermal efficiency. The suggested system is not only simple and intuitive but also has relatively very low additional work loss from the compressor than other considered systems. When each leak rate is set to the conventional leakage rate of 1 kg/s per seal, the minimum and

  15. Subsurface Water as Natural CO{sub 2} Sink

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillon, M. [Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (UMR CNRS 8148-IDES), Interaction et Dynamique des Environnements de Surface, Universite Paris 11 and Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (UMR UAPV-INRA EMMAH), Environnement Mediterraneen et Modelisation des Agro-Hydrosystemes, Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Avignon, (France); Barbecot, F.; Gibert, E.; Massault, M. [Centre National de La Recherche Scientifique (UMR CNRS 8148-IDES), Interaction et Dynamique des Environnements de Surface, Universite Paris 11 (France)

    2013-07-15

    In aquifer recharge areas, groundwater mineralization acts as an important sink for CO{sub 2} (assessed at 100 Mt{sub co2}/a on a European scale). An isotopic study of C fluxes in the unsaturated zone of a sand carbonate aquifer shows that the physical and geochemical processes controlling CO{sub 2} abstraction induce changes in the isotopic composition of both dissolved and matrix carbonates. An integrated record of these fluxes toward the aquifers is evidenced through isotopic investigation of the recharge areas. It is evidenced that the unsaturated zone represents an archive of pristine conditions, and would help to quantify downward C fluxes and environmental changes related to this CO{sub 2} abstraction process. (author)

  16. MCFC power plant with CO{sub 2} separation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinoshita, Noboru [Ishikawajima-Harima Heavy Industries Co., Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1996-12-31

    Fuel cell power plant has been developed for many years with expectation of high system efficiency. In the meantime the gas turbine combined cycle has shown its considerable progress in improving system efficiency. Fuel cell power plant will no longer be attractive unless it exceeds the gas turbine combined cycle at least in the system efficiency. It is said CO{sub 2} separation could improve the efficiency of fuel cell power plant. IHI has developed the CO{sub 2} separator for fuel cell power plant. This study describes that the CO{sub 2} separator can increase the efficiency of the molten carbonate fuel cell (MCFC) power plant by 5% and the expected efficiency reaches 63 % in HHV basis.

  17. Oxyfuel combustion for below zero CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boeg Toftegaard, M; Hansen, Kim G; Fisker, D [DONG Energy Power, Hvidovre (Denmark); Brix, J; Brun Hansen, B; Putluru, S S.R.; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Glarborg, Peter; Degn Jensen, A [Technical Univ. of Denmark. CHEC Research Centre, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Montgomery, M [Technical Univ. of Denmark. DTU Mechanical Engineering, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark)

    2011-07-01

    The reduction of CO{sub 2} emissions is of highest concern in relation to limiting the anthropogenic impacts on the environment. Primary focus has gathered on the large point sources of CO{sub 2} emissions constituted by large heat and power stations and other heavy, energy-consuming industry. Solutions are sought which will enable a significant reduction of the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions during the transformation period from the use of fossil fuels to renewable sources of energy. Carbon capture and storage (CCS) has the potential to significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from power stations while allowing for the continuous utilisation of the existing energy producing system in the transformation period. Oxyfuel combustion is one of the possible CCS technologies which show promising perspectives for implementation in industrial scale within a relatively short period of time. Oxyfuel combustion deviates from conventional combustion in air by using a mixture of pure oxygen and recirculated flue gas as the combustion medium thereby creating a flue gas highly concentrated in CO{sub 2} making the capture process economically more feasible compared to technologies with capture from more dilute CO{sub 2} streams. This project has investigated a number of the fundamental and practical issues of the oxyfuel combustion process by experimental, theoretical, and modelling investigations in order to improve the knowledge of the technology. The subjects investigated cover: general combustion characteristics of coal and biomass (straw) and mixtures thereof, formation and emission of pollutants, ash characteristics, flue gas cleaning for SO{sub 2} by wet scrubbing with limestone and for NO{sub x} by selective catalytic reduction (SCR), corrosion of boiler heat transfer surfaces, operation and control of large suspension-fired boilers, and the perspectives for the implementation of oxyfuel combustion s a CO{sub 2} sequestration solution in the Danish power production

  18. Energy implications of CO{sub 2} stabilization. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffert, M.I.; Caldeira, K.; Jain, A.K. [and others

    1997-12-01

    Analysis of carbon emissions paths stabilizing atmospheric CO{sub 2} in the 350--750 ppmv range reveals that implementing the UN Climate Convention will become increasingly difficult as the stabilization target decreases because of increasing dependence on carbon-free energy sources. Even the central Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change scenario (IS92a) requires carbon-free primary power by 2050 equal to the humankind`s present fossil-fuel-based primary power consumption {approximately}10 TW (1 TW = 10{sup 12} W). The authors describe and critique the assumptions on which this projection is based, and extend the analysis to scenarios in which atmospheric CO{sub 2} stabilizes. For continued economic growth with CO{sub 2} stabilization, new, cost-effective, carbon-free technologies that can provide primary power of order 10 TW will be needed in the coming decades, and certainly by mid-century, in addition to improved economic productivity of primary energy.

  19. Electric field variations measured continuously in free air over a conductive thin zone in the tilted Lias-epsilon black shales near Osnabrück, Northwest Germany

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurk, M.; Bosch, F. P.; Tougiannidis, N.

    2013-04-01

    Common studies on the static electric field distribution over a conductivity anomaly use the self-potential method. However, this method is time consuming and requires nonpolarizable electrodes to be placed in the ground. Moreover, the information gained by this method is restricted to the horizontal variations of the electric field. To overcome the limitation in the self-potential technique, we conducted a field experiment using a non conventional technique to assess the static electric field over a conductivity anomaly. We use two metallic potential probes arranged on an insulated boom with a separation of 126 cm. When placed into the electric field of the free air, a surface charge will be induced on each probe trying to equalize with the potential of the surrounding atmosphere. The use of a plasma source at both probes facilitated continuous and quicker measurement of the electric field in the air. The present study shows first experimental measurements with a modified potential probe technique (MPP) along a 600-meter-long transect to demonstrate the general feasibility of this method for studying the static electric field distribution over shallow conductivity anomalies. Field measurements were carried out on a test site on top of the Bramsche Massif near Osnabrück (Northwest Germany) to benefit from a variety of available near surface data over an almost vertical conductivity anomaly. High resolution self-potential data served in a numerical analysis to estimate the expected individual components of the electric field vector. During the experiment we found more anomalies in the vertical and horizontal components of the electric field than self-potential anomalies. These contrasting findings are successfully cross-validated with conventional near surface geophysical methods. Among these methods, we used self-potential, radiomagnetotelluric, electric resistivity tomography and induced polarization data to derive 2D conductivity models of the subsurface in

  20. Distribution of Large Visible and Buried Impact Basins on Mars: Comparison with Free-Air Gravity, Crustal Thickness and Magnetization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, H. V.

    2004-01-01

    A comparison of the distribution of visible and buried impact basins (Quasi-Circular Depressions or QCDs) on Mars > 200 km in diameter with free air gravity, crustal thickness and magnetization models shows some QCDs have coincident gravity anomalies but most do not. Very few QCDs have closely coincident magnetization anomalies, and only the oldest of the very large impact basins have strong magnetic anomalies within their main rings. Crustal thickness data show a large number of Circular Thinned Areas (CTAs). Some of these correspond to known impact basins, while others may represent buried impact basins not always recognized as QCDs in topography data alone. If true, the buried lowlands may be even older than we have previously estimated.

  1. CO{sub 2}-mitigation measures through reduction of fossil fuel burning in power utilities. Which road to go?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaupp, A. [Energetica International Inc., Suva (Fiji)

    1996-12-31

    Five conditions, at minimum, should be examined in the comparative analysis of CO{sub 2}-mitigation options for the power sector. Under the continuing constraint of scarce financial resources for any private or public investment in the power sector, the following combination of requirements characterise a successful CO{sub 2}-mitigation project: (1) Financial attractiveness for private or public investors. (2) Low, or even negative, long range marginal costs per ton of `CO{sub 2} saved`. (3) High impact on CO{sub 2}-mitigation, which indicates a large market potential for the measure. (4) The number of individual investments required to achieve the impact is relatively small. In other words, logistical difficulties in project implementation are minimised. (5) The projects are `socially fair` and have minimal negative impact on any segment of the society. This paper deals with options to reduce carbonaceous fuel burning in the power sector. Part I explains how projects should be selected and classified. Part II describes the technical options. Since reduction of carbonaceous fuel burning may be achieved through Demand Side Management (DSM) and Supply Side Management (SSM) both are treated. Within the context of this paper SSM does not mean to expand power supply as demand grows. It means to economically generate and distribute power as efficiently as possible. In too many instances DSM has degenerated into efficient lighting programs and utility managed incentives and rebate programs. To what extent this is a desirable situation for utilities in Developing Countries that face totally different problems as their counterparts in highly industrialised countries remains to be seen. Which road to go is the topic of this paper.

  2. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J; Silvola, J [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1997-12-31

    The objectives of the research were to measure photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in long term exposure to four CO{sub 2} levels at semi-natural conditions, to find out if there is an acclimation of net photosynthesis into prevailing CO{sub 2} concentrations and to measure the moisture dependent net photosynthesis at various CO{sub 2} concentrations of samples grown at different CO{sub 2} concentrations

  3. The effect of elevated CO{sub 2} concentration on photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J.; Silvola, J. [Joensuu Univ. (Finland). Dept. of Biology

    1996-12-31

    The objectives of the research were to measure photosynthesis of Sphagnum fuscum in long term exposure to four CO{sub 2} levels at semi-natural conditions, to find out if there is an acclimation of net photosynthesis into prevailing CO{sub 2} concentrations and to measure the moisture dependent net photosynthesis at various CO{sub 2} concentrations of samples grown at different CO{sub 2} concentrations

  4. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  5. Ozone visible symptoms and reduced root biomass in the subalpine species Pinus uncinata after two years of free-air ozone fumigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Díaz-de-Quijano, Maria; Schaub, Marcus; Bassin, Seraina; Volk, Matthias; Peñuelas, Josep

    2012-01-01

    Concentrations of ozone often exceed the thresholds of forest protection in the Pyrenees, but the effect of ozone on Pinus uncinata, the dominant species in subalpine forests in this mountainous range, has not yet been studied. We conducted an experiment of free-air ozone fumigation with saplings of P. uncinata fumigated with ambient O 3 (AOT40 May–Oct: 9.2 ppm h), 1.5 × O 3amb (AOT40 May–Oct: 19.2 ppm h), and 1.8 × O 3amb (AOT40 May–Oct: 32.5 ppm h) during two growing seasons. We measured chlorophyll content and fluorescence, visible injury, gas exchange, and above- and below-ground biomass. Increased exposures to ozone led to a higher occurrence and intensity of visible injury from O 3 and a 24–29% reduction of root biomass, which may render trees more susceptible to other stresses such as drought. P. uncinata is thus a species sensitive to O 3 , concentrations of which in the Pyrenees are already likely affecting this species. - Highlights: ► We assessed sensitivity to O 3 in Pinus uncinata using a free-air O 3 fumigation system. ► Occurrence and intensity of visible injury from O 3 correlated with exposure to O 3 . ► Increased O 3 reduced root biomass 24–29%. ► O 3 weakens P. uncinata, making it more susceptible to other stresses. ► Ambient [O 3 ] in the Pyrenees is thus likely to already be affecting P. uncinata stands. - Ozone concentrations similar to those in the Pyrenees affect Pinus uncinata by reducing root biomass and possibly increasing susceptibility to other stresses.

  6. CALIOPE airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mietz, D.; Archuleta, B.; Archuleta, J. [and others

    1997-09-01

    Los Alamos National Laboratory is currently developing an airborne CO{sub 2} Differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) system based on second generation technology demonstrated last summer at NTS. The CALIOPE Airborne CO{sub 2} DIAL (CACDI) system requirements have been compiled based on the mission objectives and SONDIAL model trade studies. Subsystem designs have been developed based on flow down from these system requirements, as well as experience gained from second generation ground tests and N-ABLE (Non-proliferation AirBorne Lidar Experiments) airborne experiments. This paper presents the CACDI mission objectives, system requirements, the current subsystem design, and provides an overview of the airborne experimental plan.

  7. Swiss taxation policies to curb CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bahn, O.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland); Fragniere, E. [HEC-Lausanne, Lausanne (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    This study offers insights about the design of economically efficient policies to curb carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in Switzerland. The method uses MARKAL, a bottom-up engineering model of the energy system. Based on a stochastic programming approach, this study proposes as a first option the introduction of a hedging carbon tax. Using then a multinational MARKAL model, this study considers as a second alternative an international co-operation to curb jointly CO{sub 2} emissions by means of a uniform carbon tax. (author) 1 fig., 6 refs.

  8. Electrochemical fabrication, microstructure and magnetic properties of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}/Fe{sub 7}Co{sub 3} dual phase nanocomposite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, Chunxiang, E-mail: hutcui@hebut.edu.cn [Key Lab. for New Type of Functional Materials in Hebei Province, Hebei University of Technology, No.8, Road No.1, Dingzigu, Hongqiao District, Tianjin 300130 (China); Chen, Fenghua [Tianjin Sanhuan Lucky New Materials Inc., Tianjin Economical-Technological Development Area (TEDA), Tianjin 300457 (China); Yang, Wei; Li, Hongfang; Liu, Qiaozhi; Sun, Jibing [Key Lab. for New Type of Functional Materials in Hebei Province, Hebei University of Technology, No.8, Road No.1, Dingzigu, Hongqiao District, Tianjin 300130 (China)

    2015-06-15

    By utilizing alternate electrochemical reaction, atomic migration and deposition of Fe, Co, Sm and other chemical substances in the electrochemical solution, a large number of Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}/Fe{sub 7}Co{sub 3} dual phase nanowire arrays were carried out in the anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with highly uniform and orderly. The Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}/Fe{sub 7}Co{sub 3} dual phase nanowire arrays with diameter of 50 nm and length of 12 μm have the smooth surface and uniform diameter. The morphology and microstructure of annealed Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}/Fe{sub 7}Co{sub 3} dual phase nanowires were observed and analyzed using SEM, TEM and HRTEM. Compared with single-phase nanowires, dual phase magnetic nanowires have higher coercivity and saturation magnetization. In this composite system, both the hard and the soft phases have a high Curie temperature, therefore, we believe that the Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}/Fe{sub 7}Co{sub 3} dual phase nanowire arrays is a new type of high-temperature magnetic composites. - Highlights: • Sm{sub 2}Co{sub 17}/Fe{sub 7}Co{sub 3} dual phase nanowires were prepared by electrochemical method. • The interface pinning is the main factor to improve anisotropy field of the nanowires. • The dual phase magnetic nanowires have higher coercivity and saturation magnetization.

  9. Duke FACE -- Forest-Atmosphere Carbon Transfer and Storage (FACTS I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oren, Ram [Duke Univ., Durham, NC (United States)

    2016-02-08

    The Duke FACE experiment increases atmospheric [CO>2] to a height of 25 m in four 30-m diameter plots, each containing ~100 canopy trees and many sub-canopy individuals. The experiment was initiated in 1994 with CO>2 fumigation of the prototype plot, and reached full CO>2-fumigation capacity in 1996 when three additional FACE plots came on line. All elevated plots enriched the atmospheric CO>2 concentration by 200 ppmv relative to paired, ambient-CO2 plots. Formalizing the analysis of CO>2 x N interactions, in March of 2005 each of the six FACE plots established in 1996 was trenched in half, and one half plot fertilized with nitrogen (N) at a rate of 11 g m-2 yr-1, following the approach established in 1998 in the prototype and its reference plot. The δ 13C of the fumigated plots’ atmosphere was -42.6‰, and while the 15N of the fertilizer did not affect the δ 15N of tissues directly it greatly reduced the effect of a 15N tracer study on tissue δ 15N. The CO>2 enrichment was completed in early November, 2010. Prior to termination of fumigation, 1-8 branches from 4-5 Pinus taeda individuals in each half plot were harvested, as well as most Juniperus occidentalis and broadleaved individuals <2 cm in diameter (1.4 m aboveground), including vine and herbaceous individuals. Following the termination, all individuals <8 cm in diameter, followed by all remaining individuals were harvested in half of each plot (a quarter in each CO>2 X N treatment). In all, 189 m3 of dry material and 826 m3 of wet material, or a total of 1014 m3 of material is stored in various suited settings. The project quantified the effect of CO>2 X N on carbon uptake, allocation to various pools, accumulation of carbon in these pools, the release of carbon to the atmosphere, and factors

  10. Experimental investigation of CO{sub 2} condensation process using cryogen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Cheonkyu; Yoo, Junghyun; Lee, Jisung; Park, Hana; Jeong, Sangkwon [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-29

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is one of the dominant gas molecules that causes greenhouse effect, i.e. global warming. Numerous studies have been carried out to regulate the emission of CO{sub 2} to reduce greenhouse gas. The liquid CO{sub 2} is a convenient form of transportation compared to high-pressurized gaseous CO{sub 2}. Therefore, the direct liquefaction mechanism of CO{sub 2} at low temperature draws technical attention recently. In particular, cold thermal energy of Liquefied Natural Gas (LNG) could be a candidate to condense gaseous CO{sub 2}, especially in the LNG powered ship. In this paper, the detailed direct condensation process of CO{sub 2} using LN{sub 2} with intermittent solidification is investigated. Pressurized CO{sub 2} at 600 kPa is directly liquefied in a vessel by liquid nitrogen which is supplied into the coiled tube heat exchanger inside the CO{sub 2} vessel. The heat exchanger temperature is controlled from 130 K to 205 K to regulate the solidification and sublimation of CO{sub 2} by duty control with cryogenic solenoid valve. The characteristics of CO{sub 2} condensation process with cryogen are analyzed from the measurement results. The results show that the solidification causes the significant degradation of CO{sub 2} condensation heat transfer. Finally, the condensation rate with and without solidification is compared.

  11. Operational behaviour of CO{sub 2} booster systems; Betriebsverhalten von CO{sub 2}-Booster-Systemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Javerschek, Oliver; Hieble, Tobias [BITZER Kuehlmaschinenbau GmbH, Sindelfingen (Germany)

    2011-07-01

    The operating characteristics of booster systems and the resulting operating conditions of CO{sub 2} booster systems in supermarket refrigeration are explained and discussed. Criteria and challenges of different operating and load conditions are gone into. Simulated and measured operating states of a small-scale booster system are compared and evaluated. [German] In der vorliegenden Veroeffentlichung werden unterschiedliche Betriebsverhalten und die daraus resultierenden Betriebsbedingungen von CO{sub 2}-Booster-Systemen in der Supermarktkaelte erlaeutert und diskutiert. Dabei werden wesentliche Kriterien und Herausforderungen bei den unterschiedlichen Betriebs- und Lastbedingungen besprochen. Ausserdem werden simulierte und gemessene Betriebszustaende einer kleinen Booster-Kaelteanlage vergleichend betrachtet und bewertet.

  12. Virtual & Real Face to Face Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teneqexhi, Romeo; Kuneshka, Loreta

    2016-01-01

    In traditional "face to face" lessons, during the time the teacher writes on a black or white board, the students are always behind the teacher. Sometimes, this happens even in the recorded lesson in videos. Most of the time during the lesson, the teacher shows to the students his back not his face. We do not think the term "face to…

  13. Repetitively pulsed, double discharge TEA CO/sub 2/ laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, D C; James, D J; Ramsden, S A

    1975-10-01

    The design and operation of a repetitively pulsed TEA CO/sub 2/ laser is described. Average powers of up to 400 W at a repetition frequency of 200 pulses/s have been obtained. The system has also been used to provide long pulses (over 20 ..mu..s) and tunable single axial mode pulses.

  14. HARNESSING THE CHEMISTRY OF CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Louie, Janis

    2012-11-30

    Our research presents several strategies for addressing the challenges of activating CO2. In addition, our cycloaddition chemistry addresses several fundamental issues pertaining to catalysis as it applies to energy conservation. Topics addressed include: DEVELOPMENT OF A CYCLOADDITION CATALYST; INCREASING THE UTILITY OF THE NI CYCLOADDITION CATALYST; UNDERSTANDING THE MECHANISM OF NI-CATALYZED CYCLOADDITION; and METAL-FREE CO{sub 2} ACTIVATION.

  15. Alcohol synthesis from CO or CO.sub.2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Jianli [Kennewick, WA; Dagle, Robert A [Richland, WA; Holladay, Jamelyn D [Kennewick, WA; Cao, Chunshe [Houston, TX; Wang, Yong [Richland, WA; White, James F [Richland, WA; Elliott, Douglas C [Richland, WA; Stevens, Don J [Richland, WA

    2010-12-28

    Methods for producing alcohols from CO or CO.sub.2 and H.sub.2 utilizing a palladium-zinc on alumina catalyst are described. Methods of synthesizing alcohols over various catalysts in microchannels are also described. Ethanol, higher alcohols, and other C.sub.2+ oxygenates can produced utilizing Rh--Mn or a Fisher-Tropsch catalyst.

  16. CO{sub 2} emissions resulting from the energy use; Les emissions de CO{sub 2} dues a l'utilisation de l'energie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-07-01

    This document brings statistical data on the carbon dioxide emissions resulting from the energy use only. Tables and charts present data for the CO{sub 2} emissions in France, in the world (2001-2002), in the OECD (2000-2002), the CO{sub 2} emissions from electric power plants and refineries in France (1996-1999) and archives of statistics on CO{sub 2} emissions. (A.L.B.)

  17. Investigation of scleral buckling by CO{sub 2} laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maswadi, S

    2001-05-01

    This thesis investigates the effect of using the infrared wavelength CO{sub 2} laser (10.6{mu}m) as a localised heat source for inducing scleral buckling on eyes. Retinal detachment disease is a major cause of blindness and the scleral buckling is an important technique used in treatment. A radio-frequency excited 10.6{lambda}m laser source is used to heat collagen in the sclera above its shrinkage temperature so as to produce a localised indentation and deformation in the human eye (in vitro). Basic measurements of the onset shrinkage temperatures of porcine and human sclera are taken. Optical properties of sclera tissue at 10.6{mu}m are also determined to provide information about the interaction of the CO{sub 2} laser with the sclera. It is found that CO{sub 2} laser radiation is highly absorbed by the scleral water. Optical diffraction technique is investigated to quantify in-plane deformation in the sclera tissue as result of heating by producing grating on porcine and human sclera using the ArF laser (193nm). Photothermal deflection technique is also used to investigate scleral ablation by using the TEA and Ultrapulse CO{sub 2} laser. This technique provides a useful guide to the regime where ablation rather than heat shrinkage of collagen in the sclera will dominate using the Ultrapulse CO{sub 2} laser. A quantitative assessment of buckling using the technique of projection moire interferometry is described which allows a non-contact measurement to be made of the out-of-plane displacement by laser radiation. In-plane surface strain (shrinkage) has also been demonstrated using in-situ optical microscopy of the laser treated eye. The moire method is suitable to obtain information on buckling in real time and to obtain a three-dimensional view of the eye surface as laser treatment proceeds. A theoretical heat flow model is described for predicting the temperature profile produced in the sclera using the Ultrapulse CO{sub 2} laser. For appropriate exposure

  18. Method for measuring energy-input inhomogeneities in electroionization CO/sub 2/-lasers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borovkov, V V; Kornilov, V G; Sukhanov, L V; Chelpanov, V I

    1987-08-01

    A Michelson interferometer at a wavelength of 0.63 micron was used to measure optical inhomogeneities due to variations of the polarizability of the molecular components in CO/sub 2/-laser mixtures under vibrational excitation in a nonself-sustained electric discharge. It is suggested that the observed effect can be used for the noninertial and noncontact diagnostics of energy-input distribution over the cross section of the active medium of an electroionization CO/sub 2/-laser. Results are presented for N/sub 2/-He, CO/sub 2/-He, CO/sub 2/-N/sub 2/-He, and CO/sub 2/-He mixtures. 10 references.

  19. Northern California CO>2 Reduction Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hymes, Edward [C6 Resources LLC, Houston, TX (United States)

    2010-06-16

    C6 Resources LLC, a wholly owned subsidiary of Shell Oil Company, worked with the US Department of Energy (DOE) under a Cooperative Agreement to develop the Northern California CO>2 Reduction Project. The objective of the Project is to demonstrate the viability of using Carbon Capture and Sequestration (CCS) to reduce existing greenhouse gas emissions from industrial sources on a large-scale. The Project will capture more than 700,000 metric tonnes of CO>2 per year, which is currently being vented to the atmosphere from the Shell Martinez Refinery in Contra Costa County. The CO>2 will be compressed and dehydrated at the refinery and then transported via pipeline to a sequestration site in a rural area in neighboring Solano County. The CO>2 will be sequestered into a deep saline formation (more than two miles underground) and will be monitored to assure secure, long-term containment. The pipeline will be designed to carry as much as 1,400,000 metric tonnes of CO>2 per year, so additional capacity will be available to accommodate CO>2 captured from other industrial sources. The Project is expected to begin operation in 2015. The Project has two distinct phases. The overall objective of Phase 1 was to develop a fully definitive design basis for the Project. The Cooperative Agreement with the DOE provided cost sharing for Phase 1 and the opportunity to apply for additional DOE cost sharing for Phase 2, comprising the design, construction and operation of the Project. Phase 1 has been completed. DOE co-funding is provided by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. As prescribed by ARRA, the Project will stimulate the local economy by creating manufacturing, transportation, construction, operations, and management jobs while addressing the need to reduce greenhouse gas emissions at an accelerated pace. The Project, which will also assist in meeting the CO>2 reduction requirements set

  20. CO[sub 2] exchange and growth of the Crassulacean acid metabolism plant opuntia ficus-indica under elevated CO[sub 2] in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States))

    1993-10-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of Opuntia ficus-indica, a Crassulacean acid metabolism species, were studied at CO[sub 2] concentrations of 370, 520, and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] in open-top chambers during a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 76 and 98% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Eight weeks after daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35 and 49% higher at 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, than at 370 L L[sup [minus]1]. Daily water-use efficiency was 88% higher under elevated CO[sub 2] for basal cladodes and 57% higher for daughter cladodes. The daily net CO[sub 2] uptake capacity for basal cladodes increased for 4 weeks after planting and then remained fairly constant, whereas for daughter cladodes, it increased with cladode age, became maximal at 8 to 14 weeks, and then declined. The percentage enhancement in daily net CO[sub 2] uptake caused by elevated CO[sub 2] was greatest initially for basal cladodes and at 8 to 14 weeks for daughter cladodes. The chlorophyll content per unit fresh weight of chlorenchyma for daughter cladodes at 8 weeks was 19 and 62% lower in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2], respectively, compared with 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. Despite the reduced chlorophyll content, plant biomass production during 23 weeks in 520 and 720 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1] of CO[sub 2] was 21 and 55% higher, respectively, than at 370 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]. The root dry weight nearly tripled as the CO[sub 2] concentration was doubled, causing the root/shoot ratio to increase with CO[sub 2] concentration. During the 23-week period, elevated CO[sub 2] significantly increased CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production of O. 35 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Novel CO{sub 2} capture. Final CRADA Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Snyder, S. W.; Energy Systems

    2009-11-30

    The goal of this work was to use electrochemically driven pH control to develop a second generation, enzyme-based contained liquid membrane (CLM) permeator to extract CO{sub 2} from a variety of coal-based flue gas streams more efficiently than does the CLM current design, while achieving performance coincident with DOE targets of less than 45% Cost of electricity (COE) in 2007 and less than 20% COE in 2012. Central to this goal the CLM would be alkaline (>pH 8) at the feed gas side and acid (CO{sub 2} capture and release using Argonne's resin-wafer electrode ionization (RW-EDI) system integrated with Carbozyme's carbonic anhydrase (CA) enzyme. Argonne developed RW-EDI for pH controlled desalination of process streams (e.g. Patents 7,452,920 & 7,306,934). In the current work, Argonne captured CO{sub 2} as HCO{sub 3}{sup -} and released it as CO{sub 2}. The goal is to both capture CO{sub 2} from a simulated flue gas stream and release it within the DOE targets for increase in COE. Initial performance results indicate that the 2012 COE targets are achievable with the developed technology. The design is subject to patent-hold. This task was funded in an exploratory phase, so no process optimization was attempted. Argonne believes that with optimization this performance could be significantly improved.

  2. Effects of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cherchi, Annalisa; Masina, Simona; Navarra, Antonio [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici and Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Bologna (Italy); Alessandri, Andrea [Centro Euro-Mediterraneo per i Cambiamenti Climatici, Bologna (Italy)

    2011-07-15

    Increased atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration provided warmer atmospheric temperature and higher atmospheric water vapor content, but not necessarily more precipitation. A set of experiments performed with a state-of-the-art coupled general circulation model forced with increased atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration (2, 4 and 16 times the present-day mean value) were analyzed and compared with a control experiment to evaluate the effect of increased CO{sub 2} levels on monsoons. Generally, the monsoon precipitation responses to CO{sub 2} forcing are largest if extreme concentrations of carbon dioxide are used, but they are not necessarily proportional to the forcing applied. In fact, despite a common response in terms of an atmospheric water vapor increase to the atmospheric warming, two out of the six monsoons studied simulate less or equal summer mean precipitation in the 16 x CO{sub 2} experiment compared to the intermediate sensitivity experiments. The precipitation differences between CO{sub 2} sensitivity experiments and CTRL have been investigated specifying the contribution of thermodynamic and purely dynamic processes. As a general rule, the differences depending on the atmospheric moisture content changes (thermodynamic component) are large and positive, and they tend to be damped by the dynamic component associated with the changes in the vertical velocity. However, differences are observed among monsoons in terms of the role played by other terms (like moisture advection and evaporation) in shaping the precipitation changes in warmer climates. The precipitation increase, even if weak, occurs despite a weakening of the mean circulation in the monsoon regions (''precipitation-wind paradox''). In particular, the tropical east-west Walker circulation is reduced, as found from velocity potential analysis. The meridional component of the monsoon circulation is changed as well, with larger (smaller) meridional (vertical) scales. (orig.)

  3. Regulating forest rotation to increase CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, P.; Kristroem, B.

    1999-06-01

    Previous studies have shown that the optimal forest rotation age increases considerably if the benefits of CO{sub 2} sequestration are included in rotation decisions. While these studies provide some guidelines for managing public forests, private forest owners may not choose the socially optimal rotation age. This paper discusses a regulation measure to increase CO{sub 2} sequestration in privately owned forests. The regulation problem is treated as a sequential game, where the regulator chooses a subsidy scheme and forest owners respond by changing rotation ages. A private forest owner receives a subsidy at the time of harvesting if he/she changes the rotation age towards the socially optimal one. The subsidy is proportional to the associated change in timber yield. The forest owner`s objective is to maximize the net present value of after-tax timber production profits and subsidies. The regulator`s decision problem is to find the subsidy rate that maximizes the net benefits of implementing the policy (the net of increased CO{sub 2} sequestration benefits, subsidy costs, and changes in forestry taxation income). Empirical results for Swedish examples show that the optimal subsidy rate is sensitive to the marginal benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration, the social discount rate, and site quality. The optimal subsidy rate is found to be significantly lower than the marginal benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration. With the proposed subsidy scheme, private forest owners will choose rotation ages longer than the Faustmann rotation, but significantly shorter than the socially optimal rotation age 21 refs, 6 tabs. Arbetsrapport 272

  4. The IFP and the CO{sub 2}; L'IFP et le CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    The IFP (french petroleum institute) developed research programs on the CO{sub 2} emissions decrease. This colloquium presents the IFP research programs in the domain the greenhouse effect fight (regulations framework implementation, the European Union actions); the carbon dioxide emissions fight (motors combustion improvement, the alternative fuels) and the carbon dioxide capture storage. (A.L.B.)

  5. CO{sub 2} contain of the electric heating; Contenu en CO{sub 2} du chauffage electrique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bacher, P

    2008-02-15

    A recent announcement of the RTE and the ADEME on the CO{sub 2} contain of the electric kW, refuting a 2005 study of EDF and ADEME, perturbed the public opinion and was presented as the proof that the nuclear has no part in the fight against the climatic change. The author aims to set things straight. (A.L.B.)

  6. CO{sub 2}-balance in the athmosphere and CO{sub 2}-utilisation : an engineering approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turunen, H.

    2012-07-01

    The subject of the thesis was to analyze by an engineering approach the global CO{sub 2} balance and CO{sub 2} utilisation. The aim was to apply methods and knowledge used in engineering sciences to describe the global CO{sub 2} balance and the role of CO{sub 2} in anthropogenic utilisation applications. Moreover barriers restricting commercialisation of new applications are discussed. These subjects were studied by literature reviews and calculations based on thermodynamics models. Engineering methods have shown to be applicable to describe the global balance of CO{sub 2} and to define by a numerical way the Earth's system carrying capacity. Direct and indirect actions, which mitigate the overload situation, were derived from the results. To screen out the attractive CO{sub 2} properties in utilisation applications a mapping analysis was carried out. Properties, which enhance mass and heat transfer, are one of the most meaningful characteristics from the chemical engineering point of view. Attractive properties are often achieved at the supercritical state. Engineering thermodynamic methods were used in fluid phase determination of the case studies. Even simple methods are sufficient to advice experimental research work. The thermodynamic knowledge is the basement in creation of industrial scale chemical processes. If detailed information on system properties is needed, a model development due to the special requirements of high pressure systems and CO{sub 2} features is required. This knowledge covers property information from all the components involved in chemical reactions. In addition to engineering knowledge successful technology transfer requires positive social structure as well. Finally, if the humankind is willing to mimic Nature and use light of the Sun as an energy source in engineering systems, development of thermodynamic methods is required also in this area. Especially the work terms, originally defined in classical mechanical thermodynamics

  7. Re-assessment of plant carbon dynamics at the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment site: interactions of atmospheric [CO2] with nitrogen and water availability over stand development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heather R. McCarthy; Ram Oren; Kurt H Johnsen; Anne Gallet-Budynek; Seth G. Pritchard; Charles W Cook; Shannon L. LaDeau; Robert B. Jackson; Adrien C. Finzi

    2010-01-01

    The potential for elevated [CO2]-induced changes to plant carbon (C) storage, through modifications in plant production and allocation of C among plant pools, is an important source of uncertainty when predicting future forest function. Utilizing 10 yr of data from the Duke free-air CO2 enrichment site, we evaluated the...

  8. Impact of CO>2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO>2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering; Lowry, Gregory V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States). Dept. of Civil and Environmental Engineering

    2016-06-20

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO>2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO>2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO>2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO>2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO>2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO>2 concentration and will create CO>2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO>2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO>2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO>2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO>2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO>2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO>2 injection/leakage plume where CO>2 concentrations are highest. At CO>2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO>2 plume, selected microorganisms

  9. Impact of CO>2 on the Evolution of Microbial Communities Exposed to Carbon Storage Conditions, Enhanced Oil Recovery, and CO>2 Leakage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gulliver, Djuna [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Gregory, Kelvin B. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Lowry, Gregorgy V. [Carnegie Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2016-06-20

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a crucial part of a proposed mitigation strategy to reduce the anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO>2) emissions to the atmosphere. During this process, CO>2 is injected as super critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) in confined deep subsurface storage units, such as saline aquifers and depleted oil reservoirs. The deposition of vast amounts of CO>2 in subsurface geologic formations could unintentionally lead to CO>2 leakage into overlying freshwater aquifers. Introduction of CO>2 into these subsurface environments will greatly increase the CO>22 concentration and will create CO>2 concentration gradients that drive changes in the microbial communities present. While it is expected that altered microbial communities will impact the biogeochemistry of the subsurface, there is no information available on how CO>2 gradients will impact these communities. The overarching goal of this project is to understand how CO>2 exposure will impact subsurface microbial communities at temperatures and pressures that are relevant to GCS and CO>2 leakage scenarios. To meet this goal, unfiltered, aqueous samples from a deep saline aquifer, a depleted oil reservoir, and a fresh water aquifer were exposed to varied concentrations of CO>2 at reservoir pressure and temperature. The microbial ecology of the samples was examined using molecular, DNA-based techniques. The results from these studies were also compared across the sites to determine any existing trends. Results reveal that increasing CO>2 leads to decreased DNA concentrations regardless of the site, suggesting that microbial processes will be significantly hindered or absent nearest the CO>2 injection/leakage plume where CO>2 concentrations are highest. At CO>2 exposures expected downgradient from the CO>2 plume, selected microorganisms

  10. Capture of atmospheric CO{sub 2} into (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}/graphene or graphene oxide nanocomposites with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wendong [Department of Scientific Research Management, Chongqing Normal University, Chongqing, 401331 (China); Dong, Fan, E-mail: dfctbu@126.com [Chongqing Key Laboratory of Catalysis and Functional Organic Molecules, College of Environment and Resources, Chongqing Technology and Business University, Chongqing, 400067 (China); Zhang, Wei, E-mail: andyzhangwei@163.com [Chongqing Institute of Green and Intelligent Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Chongqing 400714 (China)

    2015-12-15

    Graphical abstract: Self-assembly of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanoflakes on graphene and graphene oxide nanosheets were realized by a one-pot efficient capture of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at room temperature. - Highlights: • A facile one-step method was developed for graphene-based composites. • The synthesis was conducted by utilization of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. • (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}-graphene and (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}-graphene oxide composites were synthesized. • The nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity. - Abstract: Self-assembly of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} nanoflakes on graphene (Ge) and graphene oxide (GO) nanosheets, as an effective strategy to improve the photocatalytic performance of two-dimensional (2D) nanostructured materials, were realized by a one-pot efficient capture of atmospheric CO{sub 2} at room temperature. The as-synthesized samples were characterized by XRD, SEM, TEM, XPS, UV–vis DRS, Time-resolved ns-level PL and BET-BJH measurement. The photocatalytic activity of the obtained samples was evaluated by the removal of NO at the indoor air level under simulated solar-light irradiation. Compared with pure (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}, (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}/Ge and (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}/GO nanocomposites exhibited enhanced photocatalytic activity due to their large surface areas and pore volume, and efficient charge separation and transfer. The present work could provide a simple method to construct 2D nanocomposites by efficient utilization of CO{sub 2} in green synthetic strategy.

  11. Improved solar-driven photocatalytic performance of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} prepared in-situ

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Junbo, E-mail: junbozhong@163.com [Key Laboratory of Green Catalysis of Higher Education Institutes of Sichuan, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Li, Jianzhang, E-mail: lschmanuscript@163.com [Key Laboratory of Green Catalysis of Higher Education Institutes of Sichuan, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Huang, Shengtian; Cheng, Chaozhu; Yuan, Wei [Key Laboratory of Green Catalysis of Higher Education Institutes of Sichuan, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Li, Minjiao [Key Laboratory of Green Catalysis of Higher Education Institutes of Sichuan, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Sichuan Provincial Academician (Expert) Workstation, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China); Ding, Jie [Key Laboratory of Green Catalysis of Higher Education Institutes of Sichuan, College of Chemistry and Pharmaceutical Engineering, Sichuan University of Science and Engineering, Zigong 643000 (China)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} photocatalysts were prepared in-situ. • The photo-induced charge separation rate has been greatly increased. • The photocatalytic activity has been greatly promoted. - Abstract: Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} composites have been fabricated in-situ via a facile parallel flaw co-precipitation method. The specific surface area, structure, morphology, and the separation rate of photo-induced charge pairs of the photocatalysts were characterized by Brunauer–Emmett–Teller (BET) method, X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy(DRS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), and surface photovoltage (SPV) spectroscopy, respectively. XRD patterns and DRS demonstrated that Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} has no effect on the crystal phase and bandgap of (BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The existence of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in the composites enhances the separation rate of photo-induced charge pairs of the photocatalysts. The photocatalytic performance of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} was evaluated by the decolorization of methyl orange (MO) aqueous solution under simulated solar irradiation. It was found that the simulated solar-induced photocatalytic activity of Ag{sub 2}CO{sub 3}/(BiO){sub 2}CO{sub 3} copmposites was significantly improved, which was mainly attributed to the enhanced surface area and the separation rate of photo-induced charge pairs.

  12. Design of CO{sub 2} absorption plant for recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of gas turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mofarahi, Masoud [Chemical Engineering Department, Persian Gulf University, Boushehr (Iran); Khojasteh, Yaser; Khaledi, Hiwa; Farahnak, Arsalan [Delta Consultant Engineering Group, Tehran (Iran)

    2008-08-15

    The ongoing human-induced emission of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) threatens to change the earth's climate. A major factor in global warming is CO{sub 2} emission from thermal power plants, which burn fossil fuels. One possible way of decreasing CO{sub 2} emissions is to apply CO{sub 2} removal, which involves recovering of CO{sub 2} from energy conversion processes. This study is focused on recovery of CO{sub 2} from gas turbine exhaust of Sarkhun gas refinery power station. The purpose of this study is to recover the CO{sub 2} with minimum energy requirement. Many of CO{sub 2} recovery processes from flue gases have been studied. Among all CO{sub 2} recovery processes which were studied, absorption process was selected as the optimum one, due to low CO{sub 2} concentration in flue gas. The design parameters considered in this regard, are: selection of suitable solvent, solvent concentration, solvent circulation rate, reboiler and condenser duty and number of stages in absorber and stripper columns. In the design of this unit, amine solvent such as, diethanolamine (DEA), diglycolamine (DGA), methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), and monoethanolamine (MEA) were considered and the effect of main parameters on the absorption and stripping columns is presented. Some results with simultaneous changing of the design variables have been obtained. The results show that DGA is the best solvent with minimum energy requirement for recovery of CO{sub 2} from flue gases at atmospheric pressure. (author)

  13. The public perspective of carbon capture and storage for CO{sub 2} emission reductions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Hongxia [China Center for Energy Economics Research, Building B202, School of Economics, Xiamen University Siming Nanlu No. 422 361005 Xiamen, Fujian (China)

    2010-09-15

    To explore public awareness of carbon capture and storage (CCS), attitudes towards the use of CCS and the determinants of CCS acceptance in China, a study was conducted in July 2009 based on face-to-face interviews with participants across the country. The result showed that the awareness of CCS was low among the surveyed public in China, compared to other clean energy technologies. Respondents indicated a slightly supportive attitude towards the use of CCS as an alternative technology to CO{sub 2} emission reductions. The regression model revealed that in addition to CCS knowledge, respondents' understanding of the characteristics of CCS, such as the maturity of the technology, risks, capability of CO2 emission reductions, and CCS policy were all significant factors in predicting the acceptance of CCS. The findings suggest that integrating public education and communication into CCS development policy would be an effective strategy to overcome the barrier of low public acceptance. (author)

  14. The public perspective of carbon capture and storage for CO{sub 2} emission reductions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan Hongxia, E-mail: hxduan@xmu.edu.c [China Center for Energy Economics Research, Building B202, School of Economics, Xiamen University Siming Nanlu No. 422 361005 Xiamen, Fujian (China)

    2010-09-15

    To explore public awareness of carbon capture and storage (CCS), attitudes towards the use of CCS and the determinants of CCS acceptance in China, a study was conducted in July 2009 based on face-to-face interviews with participants across the country. The result showed that the awareness of CCS was low among the surveyed public in China, compared to other clean energy technologies. Respondents indicated a slightly supportive attitude towards the use of CCS as an alternative technology to CO{sub 2} emission reductions. The regression model revealed that in addition to CCS knowledge, respondents' understanding of the characteristics of CCS, such as the maturity of the technology, risks, capability of CO2 emission reductions, and CCS policy were all significant factors in predicting the acceptance of CCS. The findings suggest that integrating public education and communication into CCS development policy would be an effective strategy to overcome the barrier of low public acceptance.

  15. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elsaesser, T.

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different

  16. A Face Inversion Effect without a Face

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandman, Talia; Yovel, Galit

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have attributed the face inversion effect (FIE) to configural processing of internal facial features in upright but not inverted faces. Recent findings suggest that face mechanisms can be activated by faceless stimuli presented in the context of a body. Here we asked whether faceless stimuli with or without body context may induce…

  17. Morphological changes on development of Tenebrio molitor L. (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) in rearing room system, free air CO2 enrichment system and open roof ventilation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramli, Nur Hasyimah; Yaakop, Salmah

    2018-04-01

    Tenebrio molitor known as darkling beetle is burrowing insects and can be found all over the world. Tenebrio molitor samples were put in Open Roof Ventilation System, Free Air CO2 Enrichment and Rearing Room system. The development of Tenebrio molitor adult parents (P) and first generation (F1) that more exposed to high level of CO2 were studied. As the results, parent and first generation (F1) of T. molitor shows that there are no significant effects of CO2 on their development. But, decreased development pattern showed between parent and F1 can be used to estimate that prolonged exposure of CO2 will change their development. The highest development of parent showed by OFVSP (0.1708±0.0013) mm, while the lowest showed by FACEP (0.1686±0.0013) mm. For F1, the highest development showed by OFVS F1 (0.1705±0.0015) mm, while RR F1 becomes the lowest (0.1649±0.0023) mm. No significant difference shown by ANOVA test. Unfortunately, the data cannot be used to prove that the development of parent and F1 were affected by CO2 because no significant difference recorded between them. Correlation coefficient analysis of OFVSP and OFVS F1 presented to support the results. It shows that the correlation coefficient among characters from parents and F1 are different. Further study should be done in future to increase our knowledge of the climate change on insects.

  18. New Bouguer Gravity Maps of Venezuela: Representation and Analysis of Free-Air and Bouguer Anomalies with Emphasis on Spectral Analyses and Elastic Thickness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Sanchez-Rojas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A new gravity data compilation for Venezuela was processed and homogenized. Gravity was measured in reference to the International Gravity Standardization Net 1971, and the complete Bouguer anomaly was calculated by using the Geodetic Reference System 1980 and 2.67 Mg/m3. A regional gravity map was computed by removing wavelengths higher than 200 km from the Bouguer anomaly. After the anomaly separation, regional and residual Bouguer gravity fields were then critically discussed in term of the regional tectonic features. Results were compared with the previous geological and tectonic information obtained from former studies. Gravity and topography data in the spectral domain were used to examine the elastic thickness and depths of the structures of the causative measured anomaly. According to the power spectrum analysis results of the gravity data, the averaged Moho depths for the massif, plains, and mountainous areas in Venezuela are 42, 35, and 40 km, respectively. The averaged admittance function computed from the topography and Free-Air anomaly profiles across Mérida Andes showed a good fit for a regional compensation model with an effective elastic thickness of 15 km.

  19. Effect of 3 years' free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Percy, Kevin E.; Manninen, Sirkku; Haeberle, Karl-Heinz; Heerdt, C.; Werner, H.; Henderson, Gary W.; Matyssek, Rainer

    2009-01-01

    We examined the effect of ozone (O 3 ) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2x ambient O 3 ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 μl O 3 l -1 h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O 3 l -1 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O 3 concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2x O 3 . Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O 3 treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2x O 3 . Exposure to 2x O 3 increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O 3 on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O 3 -induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees. - Free-air ozone exposure induced changes in needle wax characteristics of mature Picea abies.

  20. Effects of warming on uptake and translocation of cadmium (Cd) and copper (Cu) in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Li-Qiang; Cang, Long; Liu, Hui; Zhou, Dong-Mei

    2016-07-01

    Global warming has received growing attentions about its potential threats to human in recent, however little is known about its effects on transfer of heavy metals in agro-ecosystem, especially for Cd in rice. Pot experiments were conducted to evaluate Cd/Cu translocation in a contaminated soil-rice system under Free Air Temperature Increase (FATI). The results showed that warming gradually decreased soil porewater pH and increased water-soluble Cd/Cu concentration, reduced formation of iron plaque on root surface, and thus significantly increased total uptake of Cd/Cu by rice. Subsequently, warming significantly promoted Cd translocation from root to shoot, and increased Cd distribution percentage in shoot, while Cu was not significantly affected. Enhanced Cd uptake and translocation synergistically resulted in higher rice grain contamination with increasing concentration from 0.27 to 0.65 and 0.14-0.40 mg kg(-1) for Indica and Japonica rice, respectively. However increase of Cu in brown grain was only attributed to its uptake enhancement under warming. Our study provides a new understanding about the food production insecurity of heavy metal contaminated soil under the future global warming. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Effect of 3 years' free-air exposure to elevated ozone on mature Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) needle epicuticular wax physicochemical characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Percy, Kevin E., E-mail: kpercy@nbnet.nb.c [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5P7 (Canada); Manninen, Sirkku [Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, P.O. Box 56, University of Helsinki, 00014 Helsinki (Finland); Department of Biology, P.O. Box 3000, University of Oulu, 90014 Oulu (Finland); Haeberle, Karl-Heinz [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Heerdt, C.; Werner, H. [Ecoclimatology, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany); Henderson, Gary W. [Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service-Atlantic Forestry Centre, 1350 Regent Street, Fredericton, NB, E3B 5P7 (Canada); Matyssek, Rainer [Ecophysiology of Plants, Department of Ecology, Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Am Hochanger 13, 85354 Freising (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    We examined the effect of ozone (O{sub 3}) on Norway spruce (Picea abies) needle epicuticular wax over three seasons at the Kranzberg Ozone Fumigation Experiment. Exposure to 2x ambient O{sub 3} ranged from 64.5 to 74.2 mul O{sub 3} l{sup -1} h AOT40, and 117.1 to 123.2 nl O{sub 3} l{sup -1} 4th highest daily maximum 8-h average O{sub 3} concentration. The proportion of current-year needle surface covered by wax tubes, tube aggregates, and plates decreased (P = 0.011) under 2x O{sub 3}. Epistomatal chambers had increased deposits of amorphous wax. Proportion of secondary alcohols varied due to year (P = 0.004) and O{sub 3} treatment (P = 0.029). Secondary alcohols were reduced by 9.1% under 2x O{sub 3}. Exposure to 2x O{sub 3} increased (P = 0.037) proportions of fatty acids by 29%. Opposing trends in secondary alcohols and fatty acids indicate a direct action of O{sub 3} on wax biosynthesis. These results demonstrate O{sub 3}-induced changes in biologically important needle surface characteristics of 50-year-old field-grown trees. - Free-air ozone exposure induced changes in needle wax characteristics of mature Picea abies.

  2. Enthalpies of formation of selected Co{sub 2}YZ Heusler compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yin, Ming, E-mail: myin1@hawk.iit.edu; Chen, Song; Nash, Philip

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: •Enthalpies of formation of selected Co{sub 2}YZ were measured by drop calorimeters. •Enthalpy decreases as the Z element approaches the top right corner of the periodic table. •For the Y element, enthalpy increases on increasing the number of d electrons. •Result of L2{sub 1} structured compounds agrees with first principles data. •Lattice parameters and related phase relationships were consistent with literature data. -- Abstract: Standard enthalpies of formation at 298 K of selected ternary Co{sub 2}-based Heusler compounds Co{sub 2}YZ (Y = Fe, Hf, Mn, Ti, V, Zr; Z = Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge, Sn) were measured by high temperature direct synthesis calorimetry. The measured enthalpies of formation (in kJ/mole of atoms) of the L2{sub 1} compounds are: Co{sub 2}FeGa (−25.8 ± 2.6); Co{sub 2}FeSi (−38.4 ± 2.2); Co{sub 2}FeGe (−11.6 ± 2.1); Co{sub 2}MnGa (−30.1 ± 2.3); Co{sub 2}MnSi (−42.4 ± 1.2); Co{sub 2}MnGe (−31.6 ± 3.0); Co{sub 2}MnSn (−15.6 ± 2.8); Co{sub 2}TiAl (−55.0 ± 3.7); Co{sub 2}TiGa (−54.2 ± 2.6); Co{sub 2}TiSi (−61.4 ± 1.7); Co{sub 2}TiGe (−59.3 ± 3.8); Co{sub 2}TiSn (−38.4 ± 2.0); Co{sub 2}VGa (−28.4 ± 1.1) and for the B2 compounds: Co{sub 2}FeAl (−22.5 ± 2.5), Co{sub 2}MnAl (−27.6 ± 2.7). Values are compared with those from first principles calculation when available and the extended semi-empirical model of Miedema. Trends in enthalpy of formation with element atomic number are discussed. Lattice parameters of the compounds with L2{sub 1} structure are determined by X-ray diffraction analysis.

  3. NETL CO>2 Storage prospeCtive Resource Estimation Excel aNalysis (CO>2-SCREEN) User's Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanguinito, Sean M. [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Goodman, Angela [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Levine, Jonathan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-04-03

    This user’s manual guides the use of the National Energy Technology Laboratory’s (NETL) CO>2 Storage prospeCtive Resource Estimation Excel aNalysis (CO>2-SCREEN) tool, which was developed to aid users screening saline formations for prospective CO>2 storage resources. CO>2- SCREEN applies U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) methods and equations for estimating prospective CO>2 storage resources for saline formations. CO2-SCREEN was developed to be substantive and user-friendly. It also provides a consistent method for calculating prospective CO>2 storage resources that allows for consistent comparison of results between different research efforts, such as the Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnerships (RCSP). CO>2-SCREEN consists of an Excel spreadsheet containing geologic inputs and outputs, linked to a GoldSim Player model that calculates prospective CO>2 storage resources via Monte Carlo simulation.

  4. Favourable Formations for CO{sub 2} Storage in the Almazan Basin; Formaciones Favorables para el Almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} en la Cuenca de Almazan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Rivas, C.; Lomba Falcon, L.

    2008-04-10

    Geological storage of carbon dioxide is one of the technological options that have been considered nowadays for global climate change mitigation. Underground CO{sub 2} storage requires the selection and identification of deep geological formations which must meet criteria for health and environmental safety in the middle-term of one thousand years. Deep permeable formations, depleted oil and gas fields, unminable coal seams and saline rocks are possible geological formations for CO{sub 2} storage. Some areas in our country have been selected to search potential CO{sub 2} reservoirs. Among these areas, sedimentary basins are highlighted because of their thick stratigraphic sequences and the availability of extensive geological data which are coming from fossil fuel exploration. In this report, the identification and selection of favourable geological formations in the Almazan basin is presented. A 3D simplified subsurface basin geological model that was based on a Geographic Information System is included as well. The report also includes suitable CO{sub 2} injection areas in the surface for the selected geological formations. Finally, a preliminary CO{sub 2} storage capacity estimation of a potential structural trap has been calculated, considering only physical CO{sub 2} trapping. This work has been undertaken in the framework of the Geological CO{sub 2} Storage Project which is within the Singular Strategic Project of the Ministry of Education and Science Generation, Capture and Storage advanced technologies of CO{sub 2}. (Author) 84 refs.

  5. Numerical analysis of capillary entrapment for effective CO{sub 2} aquifer storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uelker, B.; Pusch, G. [Technische Univ. Clausthal (Germany). Inst. fuer Erdoel- und Erdgastechnik; May, F. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany)

    2007-09-13

    The success of underground CO{sub 2} sequestration projects relies on the ability of keeping CO{sub 2} immobilized. The risk of CO{sub 2} leakage into the atmosphere through faults, cap rock formations or wellbore must be evaluated for the long term safety of storage. In case of CO{sub 2} sequestration in a saline aquifer capillary trapping of CO{sub 2} is one of the essential mechanisms controlling the upward and lateral migration of CO{sub 2} plumes after the injection phase. Therefore, assessment of CO{sub 2} immobilization requires accurate modelling of multi phase flow performance. A generic reservoir model was created to examine the impact of the relative permeabilities and capillary forces on capillary trapping. This study reveals how the mechanism of capillary trapping is affected by varying the CO{sub 2} injection rate, hysteresis between drainage and imbibition processes and residual phase saturations. The leakage risk of injected CO{sub 2} in vertical and horizontal wells was also compared to identify the effective injection geometry. Vertical injection across the entire storage formation interval leads to extensive contact with cap rock and leakage through it. Horizontal wells located in the lower part of the formation both increase the aquifer utilization and eliminate contact with cap rock immediately. Thus horizontal wells can be an alternative to inject more CO{sub 2} and minimize leakage. (orig.)

  6. Current Travertines Precipitation from CO{sub 2}-rich Groundwaters as an alert of CO{sub 2} Leakages from a Natural CO{sub 2} Storage at Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary Basin (Murcia, Spain)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodrigo-Naharro, J.; Delgado, A.; Herrero, M. J.; Granados, A.; Perez del Villar, L.

    2013-02-01

    Carbon capture and storage technologies (CCS) represent the most suitable solutions related to the high anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. As a consequence, monitoring of the possible CO{sub 2} leakages from an artificial deep geological CO{sub 2} storage (DGS) is indispensable to guarantee its safety. Fast surficial travertine precipitation related to these CO{sub 2} leakages can be used as an alert for these escapes. Since few studies exist focusing on the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} DGS, natural CO{sub 2} storage affected by natural or artificial escapes must be studied as natural analogues for predicting the long-term behaviour of an artificial CO{sub 2} storage. In this context, a natural CO{sub 2} reservoir affected by artificial CO{sub 2} escapes has been studied in this work. This study has mainly focused on the current travertines precipitation associated with the upwelling CO{sub 2}-rich waters from several hydrogeological wells drilled in the Ganuelas-Mazarron Tertiary basin (SE Spain), and consists of a comprehensive characterisation of parent-waters and their associated carbonates, including elemental and isotopic geochemistry, mineralogy and petrography. Geochemical characterisation of groundwaters has led to recognise 4 hydrofacies from 3 different aquifers. These groundwaters have very high salinity and electrical conductivity; are slightly acid; present high dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) and free CO{sub 2}; are oversaturated in both aragonite and calcite; and dissolve, mobilize and transport low quantities of heavy and/or toxic elements. Isotopic values indicate that: i) the origin of parent-waters is related to rainfalls from clouds originated in the Mediterranean Sea or continental areas; ii) the origin of C is mainly inorganic; and iii) sulphate anions come mainly from the dissolution of the Messinian gypsum from the Tertiary Basin sediments. Current travertines precipitation seems to be controlled by a

  7. Enthalpy storage concept for reducing CO{sub 2}; Enthalpiespeicherkonzept zur CO{sub 2}-Reduzierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eilemann, Andreas; Koelblin, Ruediger; Mueller, Rolf; Strauss, Thomas [Behr GmbH und Co. KG, Stuttgart (Germany); Pramhas, Jochen [Technische Univ. Graz (Austria). Inst. fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen und Thermodynamik (IVT); Danninger, Alois [Forschungsgesellschaft mbH (ViF), Graz (Austria). Kompetenzzentrum Das virtuelle Fahrzeug

    2012-11-01

    Prompted by increasingly stringent directives governing fleet CO{sub 2} emissions, today, development activities are focusing more than ever on identifying technical solutions that permit further reductions in fuel consumption. Moreover, growing awareness among vehicle owners means that the measures employed need to be evaluated not only on the basis of emission cycle studies but also in real-world driving operations. At the same time, such fuel-efficient vehicles inevitably have lower amounts of waste heat trapped in the coolant due to the optimized efficiency of the internal combustion engine. Consequently, heating the vehicle cabin in the cold season is proving to be an increasingly difficult task. Aside from the justified demand for high comfort, safety is also a major factor, for instance when windows ice up or fogging occurs. One possibility of resolving these conflicting aims is to store the residual heat - after the vehicle has been parked - which is trapped in the coolant and in the engine structure rather than releasing it unused into the colder atmosphere. This can help not only to cut the additional fuel consumption during engine warm-up; it can also contribute to enhancing the level of comfort in the vehicle cabin. One technical approach to implementing this concept is the use of thermally insulated storage tanks. Solutions such as these are not new to the market and are still available even today as retrofit kits. However, given the packaging space required and the considerable cost involved, such systems have so far failed to achieve any long-term, commercial success. In this paper we will show examples of product-specific innovations that can help translate such concepts into a marketable product. With the help of measurements recorded both under real-world driving conditions as well as in the emission cycle and - critical to cabin heating - in winter operation, we will discuss the benefits that can be secured in terms of fuel economy, emissions and

  8. Enhanced oil recovery by CO{sub 2} injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moctezuma Berthier, Andres E. [Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Firstly are presented some basic concepts on the enhanced oil recovery; then a description is made of where the oil deposits in Mexico are located; comments are made over what has been done in Mexico in terms of enhanced oil recovery, the projects of the Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo that have dealt with the subject of enhanced oil recovery, and finally an approach is presented towards the problem of oil recovery using CO{sub 2}. [Spanish] Primeramente se presentan unos conceptos basicos sobre la recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; luego se hace una descripcion de donde se encuentran los yacimientos de petroleo en Mexico; se comenta sobre que se ha hecho en Mexico en terminos de recuperacion mejorada de petroleo; se mencionan los proyectos del Instituto Mexicano del Petroleo que han abordado el tema de la recuperacion mejorada del petroleo y por ultimo se presenta un enfoque hacia el problema de la recuperacion del petroleo usando CO{sub 2}.

  9. Solar photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} to methanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryba, G.; Shelnutt, J.; Prairie, M.R.; Assink, R.A.

    1997-02-01

    This report summarizes the three-year LDRD program directed at developing catalysts based on metalloporphyrins to reduce carbon dioxide. Ultimately it was envisioned that such catalysts could be made part of a solar-driven photoredox cycle by coupling metalloporphyrins with semiconductor systems. Such a system would provide the energy required for CO{sub 2} reduction to methanol, which is an uphill 6-electron reduction. Molecular modeling and design capabilities were used to engineer metalloporphyrin catalysts for converting CO{sub 2} to CO and higher carbon reduction products like formaldehyde, formate, and methanol. Gas-diffusion electrochemical cells were developed to carry out these reactions. A tin-porphyrin/alumina photocatalyst system was partially developed to couple solar energy to this reduction process.

  10. Theoretical Investigation of CO{sub 2} Adsorption on Graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kunjoon; Kim, Seungjoon [Hannam Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The adsorption of carbon dioxide on graphene sheets was theoretically investigated using density functional theory (DFT) and MP{sub 2} calculations. Geometric parameters and adsorption energies were computed at various levels of theory. The CO{sub 2} chemisorption energies on graphene-C{sub 40} assuming high pressure are predicted to be 71.2-72.1 kcal/mol for the lactone systems depending on various C-O orientations at the UCAM-B3LYP level of theory. Physisorption energies of CO{sub 2} on graphene were predicted to be 2.1 and 3.3 kcal/mol, respectively, at the single-point UMP2/6-31G{sup **} level of theory for perpendicular and parallel orientations.

  11. Modelling regional trade of CO{sub 2} certificates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bueeler, B.; Bahn, O.; Kypreos, S. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-06-01

    Many countries have developed energy models (such as MARKAL-MACRO---MM) to assess their energy policies, in particular concerning the curbing of their carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions. To integrate national MM models, we propose a multi-regional MARKAL-MACRO (3M) model. It enables one to study an international co-operation to curb jointly CO{sub 2} emissions through a market of emission permits. Furthermore, from a decision support perspective, the 3M model can be used to integrate aspects of ecological sustainability (in relation to global climate change issue), economic welfare, efficient resource use and technological innovation. To solve 3M, we follow two alternative mathematical methods. (author) 4 refs.

  12. CO{sub 2} audit 1990/2005. Emissions from energy generation and transport; CO{sub 2}-Bilanz 1990/2005. Energie- und verkehrsbedingte Emissionen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueth, B.; Hoffmann-Kallen, A. (comps.)

    2007-04-15

    There were two studies investigating changes in energy related CO{sub 2} emissions (including CO{sub 2} equivalents) for Hannover (Federal Republic of Germany) within the period 1990 to 2005. CO{sub 2} emissions result from the combustion of fossil fuels. These have been divided into emissions due to energy consumption (electricity and heating) and the transport sector. The first study, 'Emissions caused by energy consumption (electricity and heating)' depicts the development of energy and CO{sub 2} audits for the years 1990 to 2005. Heating energy demand for 2005 was 8% lower than for 1990 due to increased energy efficiency. Furthermore, CO{sub 2} emissions were in effect reduced by 19% due to increases in the use of district heating and natural gas as alternatives to heating oil and coal. Although electricity consumption rose by 17% an increase of only 1% in CO{sub 2} emissions was registered due to improved energy efficiency through the deployment of combined heat and power plants for electricity generation. The second study, 'CO{sub 2} emissions from the transport sector' examined data for motorised traffic, local public transport, rail and air travel. Although traffic volume for these areas of transport increased during the period 1990 to 2005, effectively energy consumption for the total distance travelled decreased. Road traffic increased by 9% in Hannover over the period but fuel savings from more efficient vehicle engines resulted in an overall reduction of 6% in CO{sub 2} emissions. Despite an increase in carrying capacity of 31% (measured in seat-kilometres), CO{sub 2} emissions could be reduced by 22%. A similar trend was identified in the German rail traffic sector (local- and long-distance). Despite an overall increase in traveller kilometres across Germany, when relating this to the population of Hannover a local reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions of 17% was recorded. Air travel has doubled in Germany over the last 15 years. Thus

  13. Practical guidebook about the market of CO{sub 2} emission quotas; Guide pratique du marche des quotas d'emission de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-07-01

    Since January 1, 2005, the European directive about the trading of CO{sub 2} emission quotas foresees the allocation of CO{sub 2} emission quotas to the industrial sectors that generate huge amounts of greenhouse gases (energy generation, cement, glass, steel-making, mineral and paper industries). A system of trading of CO{sub 2} quotas has been implemented and allows the companies to exchange, sale or purchase quotas in order to be conformable with the volume of CO{sub 2} they have been authorized to release in the atmosphere. This guidebook is a vade mecum of the management of emission quotas. It explains the actions of the international community in favor of the fight against greenhouse emissions, the 3 flexibility mechanisms, the French environmental policy, the European system of fight against climatic change, the CO{sub 2} quotas system and its practical implementation. (J.S.)

  14. CO{sub 2} capture and biofuels production with microalgae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benemann, J.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1995-11-01

    Microalgae cultivation in large open ponds is the only biological process capable of directly utilizing power plant flue gas CO{sub 2} for production of renewable fuels, such as biodiesel, thus mitigating the potential for global warming. Past and recent systems studies have concluded that in principle this concept could be economically feasible, but that this technology still requires both fundamental and applied long-term R&D.

  15. Simulation of CO>2 Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNabb, W. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Myers, K. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-26

    This report is a compilation of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory’s (LLNL) accomplishments on CO>2 storage simulation and modeling research, performed for the US-­China Clean Energy Research Center (CERC). Within the CERC project management structure, this work is referred to as Subtask 6.4.a Simulation and Modeling. The task falls under CERC’s Advanced Coal Technology Consortium (ACTC) Research Theme 6—CO2 Sequestration Capacity and Near-­Term Opportunities. The goals of the task were to develop new CO>2 sequestration simulation approaches and tools, then apply them to CO>2 storage projects in the U.S. and China. Work on this task paused when funding was redirected to CERC’s other efforts. Two sections of this report provide valuable snapshot of LLNL’s progress when funding was curtailed: 1) Section 5.2.2 is a 14-­page presentation written January 8, 2013; and 2) Section 5.1.3 is a progress report from the first quarter of Fiscal year 2013.

  16. Triazine containing N-rich microporous organic polymers for CO{sub 2} capture and unprecedented CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhunia, Subhajit; Bhanja, Piyali; Das, Sabuj Kanti [Department of Material Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India); Sen, Tapas [Nanobiomaterials Research Group, Centre for Materials Science, School of Physical Sciences and Computing, University of Central Lancashire, Preston PR1 2HE (United Kingdom); Bhaumik, Asim, E-mail: msab@iacs.res.in [Department of Material Science, Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, Jadavpur, Kolkata 700032 (India)

    2017-03-15

    Targeted synthesis of microporous adsorbents for CO{sub 2} capture and storage is very challenging in the context of remediation from green house gases. Herein we report two novel N-rich microporous networks SB-TRZ-CRZ and SB-TRZ-TPA by extensive incorporation of triazine containing tripodal moiety in the porous polymer framework. These materials showed excellent CO{sub 2} storage capacities: SB-TRZ-CRZ displayed the CO{sub 2} uptake capacity of 25.5 wt% upto 1 bar at 273 K and SB-TRZ-TPA gave that of 16 wt% under identical conditions. The substantial dipole quadruple interaction between network (polar triazine) and CO{sub 2} boosts the selectivity for CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2}. SB-TRZ-CRZ has this CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity ratio of 377, whereas for SB-TRZ-TPA it was 97. Compared to other porous polymers, these materials are very cost effective, scalable and very promising material for clean energy application and environmental issues. - Graphical abstract: We report two novel N-rich microporous polymeric materials by doping of triazine containing tripodal dopant in the organic framework. These materials showed excellent CO{sub 2} storage capacities as high as 25.5 wt% under 1 bar pressure with exceptional CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity of 377. - Highlights: • Triazine containing trimodal moiety incorporated in polycarbazolic and poly triphenylamine networks. • N-rich crosslinked polymers with high BET surface area and 1.5–1.7 nm size large micropores. • CO{sub 2} uptake capacity of 25.5 wt% upto 1 bar at 273 K. • These crosslinked porous polymers showed exceptional CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity.

  17. Response of a natural Phytoplankton community from the Qingdao coast (Yellow Sea, China) to variable CO>2 levels over a short-term incubation experiment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Biswas, H.; Jie, J.; Li, Y.; Zhang, G.; Zhu, Z.-Y.; Wu, Y.; Zhang, G.-L.; Li, Y.-W.; Liu, S.M.; Zhang, J.

    ) under low CO>2 levels, and diffusive CO>2 uptake increased upon the increase of external CO>2 levels. Although, considerable increase in phytoplankton biomass was noticed in all CO>2 treatments, CO>2

  18. Study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding active carbon particles into MEA solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qian, Juan; Sun, Rui; Ma, Lian; Sun, Shaozeng [Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin (China). School of Energy Science and Engineering

    2013-07-01

    The chemical absorption of CO{sub 2} is generally recognized as the most efficient post-combustion technology of CO{sub 2} separation at present. A study on CO{sub 2} absorption enhancement by adding small particles of active carbon into MEA solution is investigated within a self-designed glass stirring tank. Experiments of different particle loadings and different particle sizes have been conducted. When active carbon particle concentration is fewer, compared to the absorption rate of CO{sub 2} gas absorbed by MEA aqueous solution, the role of active carbon adsorption CO{sub 2} gas is negligible. The enhancement efficiency of CO{sub 2} absorption could be improved by 10% to the upmost in this liquid-particle system.

  19. Identification and capacity quantification of CO{sub 2} storage sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bachu, Stefan [Energy Resources Conservation Board (Canada)

    2008-07-15

    In this presentation the subject of scales of evaluation of the sites of CO{sub 2} storage is commented. Also the criteria to identify river basins and sites appropriated for the CO{sub 2} storage are analyzed and finally the matter of the estimation of the capacities of CO{sub 2} storage is analyzed. [Spanish] En esta presentacion se comenta sobre las escalas de evaluacion de los sitios de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se analizan los criterios para identificar cuencas y lugares adecuados para el almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} y por ultimo se habla sobre la estimacion de las capacidades de almacenamiento de CO{sub 2}.

  20. Tailings and mineral carbonation : the potential for atmospheric CO{sub 2} sequestration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rollo, H.A. [Lorax Environmental Services Ltd., Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, H.E. [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada). Dept. of Geological Sciences and Geological Engineering; Lee, C.A. [Dillon Consulting Ltd., Cambridge, ON (Canada)

    2009-02-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration includes geological storage, ocean storage, organic storage, and mineral storage (mineral carbonation). This presentation discussed tailings and mineral carbonation and the potential for atmospheric CO{sub 2} sequestration. In particular, it outlined CO{sub 2} sequestration and presented a history of investigations. The Ekati Diamond Mine was discussed with particular reference to its location, geology, and processing. Other topics that were presented included mineralogy; water chemistry; modeling results; and estimates of annual CO{sub 2} sequestration. Conclusions and implications were also presented. It was concluded that ore processing at mines with ultramafic host rocks have the potential to partially offset CO{sub 2} emissions. In addition, it was found that existing tailings at ultramafic deposits may be viable source materials for CO{sub 2} sequestration by mineral carbonation. tabs., figs.

  1. Energy matrix and CO{sub 2} balance; Matriz energetica e balanco de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pessoa, Isac Quintao; Lins, Vanessa; Miranda, Luciano Lellis; Fullin Junior, Benjamin; Fabri, David Fagundes [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica], e-mails: Isacqp@ufmg.br, vlins@deq.ufmg.br, ll.miranda@uol.com.br, fullinjr@gmail.com, fabri8676@yahoo.com.br

    2012-07-15

    This paper presents the situation of global energy and national energy matrix and the change of a steel company with the substitution of mineral coke by charcoal and liquefied petroleum gas (LPG) to natural gas. In terms of energy efficiency, this paper presents the implementation of various projects for the energy used in the company. The World Steel Association methodology was used to calculate the reductions in CO{sub 2} emissions after the implanting of all projects. (author)

  2. Projection of Chinese motor vehicle growth, oil demand, and CO{sub 2}emissions through 2050.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, M.; Huo, H.; Johnson, L.; He, D.

    2006-12-20

    not definitively indicate what will happen in the Chinese transportation sector by 2050, they do demonstrate that by allowing uncontained growth in the number of motor vehicles and pursuing only incremental improvements in fuel economy, China may face severe consequences in terms of oil use and CO{sub 2} emissions. Many argue that China--and, in fact, the world--will not be able to accommodate such uncontained vehicle growth. The potential problems related to transportation energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions in China are, indeed, global problems; solving these problems will require international collaboration.

  3. Sex-specific responses of Populus yunnanensis exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ling Li; Yuanbin Zhang; Chunyang Li [Chinese Academy of Sciences. Chengdu Institute of Biology, Chengdu (Switzerland); Jianxun Luo, Sichuan Academy of Forestry, Chengdu (Switzerland)); Korpelainen, H. [Univ. of Helsinki. Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Helsinki (Finland)

    2013-04-15

    Populus yunnanensis Dode., a native dioecious woody plant in southwestern China, was employed as a model species to study sex-specific morphological, physiological and biochemical responses to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. To investigate the effects of elevated CO{sub 2}, salinity and their combination, the cuttings were exposed to two CO{sub 2} regimes (ambient CO{sub 2} and double ambient CO{sub 2}) and two salt treatments in growth chambers. Males exhibited greater downregulation of net photosynthesis rate (A{sub net}) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) than females at elevated CO{sub 2}, whereas these sexual differences were lessened under salt stress. On the other hand, salinity induced a higher decrease in Anet and CE, more growth inhibition and leaf Cl{sup -} accumulation and more damage to cell organelles in females than in males, whereas the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth were lessened at elevated CO{sub 2}. Moreover, elevated CO{sub 2} exacerbated membrane lipid peroxidation and organelle damage in females but not in males under salt stress. Our results indicated that: (1) females are more sensitive and suffer from greater negative effects than do males under salt stress, and elevated CO{sub 2} lessens the sexual differences in photosynthesis and growth under salt stress; (2) elevated CO{sub 2} tends to aggravate the negative effects of salinity in females; and (3) sex-specific reactions under the combination of elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity are distinct from single-stress responses. Therefore, these results provide evidence for different adaptive responses between plants of different sexes exposed to elevated CO{sub 2} and salinity. (Author)

  4. Detection Test for Leakage of CO{sub 2} into Sodium Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Sun Hee; Wi, Myung-Hwan; Min, Jae Hong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    This report is about the facility for the detection test for leakage of CO{sub 2} into sodium loop. The facility for the detection test for leakage of CO{sub 2} into sodium loop was introduced. The test will be carried out. Our experimental results are going to be expected to be used for approach methods to detect CO{sub 2} leaking into sodium in heat exchangers. A sodium-and-carbon dioxide (Na-CO{sub 2}) heat exchanger is one of the key components for the supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle power conversion system of sodium-cooled fast reactors (SFRs). A printed circuit heat exchanger (PCHE) is considered for the Na-CO{sub 2} heat exchanger, which is known to have potential for reducing the volume occupied by the exchangers compared to traditional shell-and-tube heat exchangers. Among various issues about the Na- CO{sub 2} exchanger, detection of CO{sub 2} leaking into sodium in the heat exchanger is most important thing for its safe operation. It is known that reaction products from sodium and CO{sub 2} such as sodium carbonate (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) and amorphous carbon are hardly soluble in sodium, which cause plug sodium channels. Detection technique for Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} in sodium loop has not been developed yet. Therefore, detection of CO{sub 2} and CO from reaction of sodium and CO{sub 2} are proper to detect CO{sub 2} leakage into sodium loop.

  5. Poster - 15: Air kerma rate measurements using a cylindrical free-air ionization chamber on the 05B1-1 beamline at the Canadian Light Source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Danielle; Siegbahn, Albert; Fallone, Gino; Warkentin, Brad [BCCA - Sindi Ahluwalia Hawkins Centre for the Southern Interior, Kelowna BC, Stockholm University, Sweden, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services and University of Alberta, Edmonton AB, Cross Cancer Institute, Alberta Health Services and University of Alberta, Edmonton AB (Sweden)

    2016-08-15

    Purpose: The BioMedical Imaging and Therapy (BMIT) beamlines at the Canadian Light Source offer the opportunity for investigating novel imaging and therapy applications of synchrotron radiation. A necessary component in advancing this research, and in progressing toward clinical applications, is the availability of accurate dosimetry that is traceable to a standards institution. However, dosimetry in this setting is challenging. These beams are typically small, non-uniform, and highly intense. This work describes air kerma rate measurements on a BMIT beamline using a free-air ionization chamber (FAC). Methods: The measurements were taken at the 05B1-1 beamline (∼8 – 100 keV) for several beam qualities with mean energies between 20.0 and 84.0 keV. The Victoreen Model 480 cylindrical FAC, with a specially fabricated 0.52 mm diameter aperture, was used to measure air kerma rates. The required correction factors were determined using a variety of methods: tabulated data, measurements, theoretical calculations and Monte Carlo simulations (EGSnrc user code egs-fac). Results: The experimental air kerma rates measured between 0.270 ± 13.6% and 312 ± 2.7% Gy/min. At lower energies (low filtration), the most impactful correction factors were those for ion recombination and for x-ray attenuation. Conclusions: These measurements marked the first absolute dosimetry performed at the BMIT beamlines. The experimental and Monte Carlo methods developed will allow air kerma rates to be measured under other experimental conditions, provide a benchmark to which other dosimeters will be compared, and provide a reference for imaging and therapy research programs on this beamline.

  6. CO{sub 2} solubility in brines of sedimentary basins. Application to CO{sub 2} sequestration (greenhouse gas); Solubilite de CO{sub 2} dans les saumures des bassins sedimentaires. Application au stockage de CO{sub 2} (gaz a effet de serre)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Portier, S.

    2005-04-01

    Large scale combustion of fossil energy leads today to a production of 20 billions tons of CO{sub 2} annually. This increases continuously the CO{sub 2} concentration in the atmosphere, responsible of the observed climatic increase of the temperature since one century. One of the most acceptable solutions consists in the so called CO{sub 2} sequestration in natural geological formations. The control of the process and the prediction of the final quantity of CO{sub 2} trapped in the deep saline aquifers depend on the knowledge of the solubility of acid gas in natural brines in the in situ temperature and pressure conditions. The possible dissolution of acid gases in aqueous phases brings a new complexity, owing to the fact that they behave like electrolytes in aqueous mediums A thermodynamic model for CO{sub 2} solubility is presented. The vapour phase is described by a cubic state equation. The aqueous phase is described by apparent constants of CO{sub 2} dissolution and dissociation, adjusted on literature data. This model is validated by measurements of the British Geological Survey (CO{sub 2} sequestration at Sleipner oil field, North Sea). The results of this study made it possible to calculate the impact of a CO{sub 2} injection on the solubility of calcite by acidification of formation water. The consequences in terms of CO{sub 2} storage capacity of deep saline aquifers are estimated. (author)

  7. Photocatalytic conversion of CO{sub 2} into value-added and renewable fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan, Lan [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China); Xu, Yi-Jun, E-mail: yjxu@fzu.edu.cn [State Key Laboratory of Photocatalysis on Energy and Environment, College of Chemistry, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350002 (China); College of Chemistry, New Campus, Fuzhou University, Fuzhou 350108 (China)

    2015-07-01

    Graphical abstract: Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels is considered to be a promising avenue to solve the problems relating to CO{sub 2}. However, the state-of-the-art photocatalytic efficiency of CO{sub 2} reduction is far from being optimal as a viable economical process. The present review is mainly focused on the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} photoreduction and the undergoing mechanisms, which is anticipated to contribute to further advancement in CO{sub 2} photoreduction with on-going efforts. - Highlights: • Brief introduction about the basic principle of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2}. • Progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts for CO{sub 2} reduction. • Efforts devoted to excavate the in-depth mechanism of CO{sub 2} photoreduction. • Perspectives on future research directions and open issues in CO{sub 2} photoreduction. - Abstract: The increasing energy crisis and the worsening global climate caused by the excessive utilization of fossil fuel have boosted tremendous research activities about CO{sub 2} capture, storage and utilization. Artificial photosynthesis that uses solar light energy to convert CO{sub 2} to form value-added and renewable fuels such as methane or methanol has been consistently drawing increasing attention. It is like killing two birds with one stone since it can not only reduce the greenhouse effects caused by CO{sub 2} emission but also produce value added chemicals for alternative energy supplying. This review provides a brief introduction about the basic principles of artificial photosynthesis of CO{sub 2} and the progress made in exploring more efficient photocatalysts from the viewpoint of light harvesting and photogenerated charge carriers boosting. Moreover, the undergoing mechanisms of CO{sub 2} photoreduction are discussed with selected examples, in terms of adsorption of

  8. Attention Capture by Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langton, Stephen R. H.; Law, Anna S.; Burton, A. Mike; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2008-01-01

    We report three experiments that investigate whether faces are capable of capturing attention when in competition with other non-face objects. In Experiment 1a participants took longer to decide that an array of objects contained a butterfly target when a face appeared as one of the distracting items than when the face did not appear in the array.…

  9. Underground CO{sub 2} Storage: Approach for Favourable Formations in Ebro Basin; AGP de CO{sub 2}: Seleccion de Formaciones Favorables en la Cuenca del Ebro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campos, R.; Perucha, A.; Recreo, F.

    2008-04-10

    The study of the possibilities of conducting Deep Geological CO{sub 2} Storage inside Spanish territory is being performed through the Strategic Singular Project PS-120000-2005-2 of the National Program of Energy from the Education and Science Ministry, and called CO{sub 2} generation, sequestration and storage advanced technologies, sub project N3 CO{sub 2} Geological Storage This report studies the possibilities the Ebro basin offers for definitive CO{sub 2} storage as one of the Spanish selected areas from previous studies. The study and reinterpretation of the information obtained from the hydrocarbon exploration accomplished in the area has lead to the selection of a series of geological formations. These formations have been chosen attending certain characteristics such as their disposition, extension, depth and porosity. The study has also been conducted considering the characteristics of the geological formations above the CO{sub 2} storage formations so as to guarantee the sealing of the storage. The study includes the approximate estimation of the storage capacity for each of the formations in Megatons of CO{sub 2}, which can be useful in future decision making. Deep geological storage is one of the more relevant international initiatives in order to eliminate or reduce the anthropogenic CO{sub 2} emissions to the atmosphere. (Author) 68 refs.

  10. CO{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of Agaves and Cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Terminal report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-06-01

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net CO{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  11. Determination of the dissociation constant of molten Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3//Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3//K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ using a stabilized zirconia oxide-ion indicator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ito, Yasuhiko; Tsuru, Kiyoshi; Oishi, Jun; Miyazaki, Yoshinori; Kodama, Teruo

    1985-09-01

    An Li/sub 2/CO/sub 3//Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3//K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ eutectic melt has been selected as an example of a molten-carbonate system and the suitability of a stabilized zirconia-air electrode as an oxide-ion concentration indicator for this melt has been confirmed. With this indicator, the dissociation constant of the reaction CO/sub 3//sup 2 -/(l)=CO/sub 2/(g)+O/sup 2 -/(l) in this melt has been determined to be Ksub(d)=P sub(CO/sub 2/) (O/sup 2 -/)=4.03 x 10/sup -3/ Pa at 873 K. Reproducible measurements were obtained throughout the experiment and this method might find further application in the study of reactions related to the oxide ion in carbonate melts. (orig.).

  12. Familiar face + novel face = familiar face? Representational bias in the perception of morphed faces in chimpanzees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshi-Taka Matsuda

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Highly social animals possess a well-developed ability to distinguish the faces of familiar from novel conspecifics to induce distinct behaviors for maintaining society. However, the behaviors of animals when they encounter ambiguous faces of familiar yet novel conspecifics, e.g., strangers with faces resembling known individuals, have not been well characterised. Using a morphing technique and preferential-looking paradigm, we address this question via the chimpanzee’s facial–recognition abilities. We presented eight subjects with three types of stimuli: (1 familiar faces, (2 novel faces and (3 intermediate morphed faces that were 50% familiar and 50% novel faces of conspecifics. We found that chimpanzees spent more time looking at novel faces and scanned novel faces more extensively than familiar or intermediate faces. Interestingly, chimpanzees looked at intermediate faces in a manner similar to familiar faces with regards to the fixation duration, fixation count, and saccade length for facial scanning, even though the participant was encountering the intermediate faces for the first time. We excluded the possibility that subjects merely detected and avoided traces of morphing in the intermediate faces. These findings suggest a bias for a feeling-of-familiarity that chimpanzees perceive familiarity with an intermediate face by detecting traces of a known individual, as 50% alternation is sufficient to perceive familiarity.

  13. Capture and geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}: fighting against global warming; Capture et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}: lutter contre le rechauffement planetaire

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czernichowski-Lauriol, I

    2006-07-01

    In order to take up the global warming challenge, a set of emergency measures is to be implemented: energy saving, clean transportation systems, development of renewable energy sources.. CO{sub 2} sequestration of massive industrial emission sources inside deep geologic formations is another promising solution, which can contribute to the division by two of the world CO{sub 2} emissions between today and 2050. The CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration industry is developing. Research projects and pilot facilities are on the increase over the world. Their aim is to warrant the efficiency and security of this technology over the centuries to come. (J.S.)

  14. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 2: Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) storage and utilisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}, from saline aquifer sequestration to oil and gas reservoir and coal bed storage, including coverage of reservoir sealing, and monitoring and modelling techniques used to verify geological sequestration of CO{sub 2}. Terrestrial and ocean sequestration are also reviewed, along with the environmental impact and performance assessments for these routes. The final section reviews advanced concepts for CO{sub 2} storage and utilization, such as industrial utilization, biofixation, mineral carbonation and photocatalytic reduction.

  15. Determination of the air attenuation and electronic loss for the free air concentric cylinders ionization chamber; Determinacao da atenuacao do ar e perda eletronica para a camara de ionizacao de ar livre de cilindros concentricos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oliveira, Hebert Pinto Silveira de

    2010-07-01

    Along the latest years, the LNMRI has been proceeding a continuous research work with a concentric cylinders type free air ionizing chamber (VICTOREEN, model 481), aiming to establish it as a new national standard, and, as a consequence, replace the worldwide accepted secondary standard, calibrated by PTB. Taking into account that the absolute determination of kerma in air with a free air ionizing chamber implies the acquirement of a number of correction factors. The main objective of the present work comprises the determination of the two factors, specifically, electronic loss (k{sub e}) and air attenuation (k{sub a}). The correction factors were obtained through mammography qualities reference spectrum, using Monte Carlo simulation method. The Penelope code was used in the simulation procedures. Simulations took place in two stages, the acquirement of specters related to the qualities of interest (mammography) with the x ray tube (Pantak, model HF160 e Panalytical, model XRF window), and the free-air ionization chamber. The data were compared to those related to the BIPM chamber, to electronic loss were not detected. The comparison between air attenuation factors was obtained data bellow 0.13%. (author)

  16. Magnetic properties improvement of melt spun Co{sub 86.5}Hf{sub 11.5}B{sub 2} nanocomposites by refractory elements substitution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, H.W. [Department of Applied Physics, Tunghai University, Taichung 407, Taiwan (China); Lin, Y.H.; Shih, C.W.; Liao, M.C.; Lee, Y.I. [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Chang, W.C., E-mail: phywcc@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Physics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi 621, Taiwan (China); Yang, C.C. [Department of Physics, Chung-Yuan Christian University, Chungli 320, Taiwan (China); Shaw, C.C. [Superrite Electronics Co. Ltd., Taipei 111, Taiwan (China)

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic properties of melt spun Co{sub 86.5}Hf{sub 10.5}MB{sub 2} ribbons with refractory elements substitution (M=Cr, Nb, Ti, Zr) have been studied. For ternary Co{sub 86.5}Hf{sub 11.5}B{sub 2} ribbon, permanent magnetic properties of B{sub r}=0.71 T, {sub i}H{sub c}=192 kA/m, and (BH){sub max}=34.4 kJ/m{sup 3} are obtained, and they are significantly improved to B{sub r}=0.73–0.76 T, {sub i}H{sub c}=136–216 kA/m and (BH){sub max}=38.4–52.8 kJ/m{sup 3} with M substitution. Summarized with the results of x-ray diffraction refinement, thermal magnetic analysis, and transmission electron microscopy, the Co{sub 86.5}Hf{sub 10.5}MB{sub 2} nanocomposites following the optimal crystallization treatment mainly consist of orthorhombic 7:1 and face-center-cubic Co phases. Fine microstructure with average grain size in the range of 12.5−19.6 nm promotes exchange coupling effect between magnetic grains, thus improving permanent magnetic properties. The magnetic field dependence of coercivity reveals that coercivity of the studied Co{sub 86.5}Hf{sub 10.5}MB{sub 2} nonocomposites is mainly governed by the reverse domain nucleation mechanism. - Highlights: • M substitution refines the grain size. • M substitution strengthens the exchange coupling effect between grains. • M substitution improves hard magnetic properties of Co{sub 86.5}Hf{sub 10.5}MB{sub 2} ribbons. • The coercivity is mainly governed by the reverse domain nucleation mechanism. • Co{sub 86.5}Hf{sub 10.5}MB{sub 2} ribbons are relevant candidate for RE free permanent magnets.

  17. Dynamic Modeling and Control Studies of a Two-Stage Bubbling Fluidized Bed Adsorber-Reactor for Solid-Sorbent CO{sub 2} Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Modekurti, Srinivasarao; Bhattacharyya, Debangsu; Zitney, Stephen E.

    2013-07-31

    A one-dimensional, non-isothermal, pressure-driven dynamic model has been developed for a two-stage bubbling fluidized bed (BFB) adsorber-reactor for solid-sorbent carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture using Aspen Custom Modeler® (ACM). The BFB model for the flow of gas through a continuous phase of downward moving solids considers three regions: emulsion, bubble, and cloud-wake. Both the upper and lower reactor stages are of overflow-type configuration, i.e., the solids leave from the top of each stage. In addition, dynamic models have been developed for the downcomer that transfers solids between the stages and the exit hopper that removes solids from the bottom of the bed. The models of all auxiliary equipment such as valves and gas distributor have been integrated with the main model of the two-stage adsorber reactor. Using the developed dynamic model, the transient responses of various process variables such as CO{sub 2} capture rate and flue gas outlet temperatures have been studied by simulating typical disturbances such as change in the temperature, flowrate, and composition of the incoming flue gas from pulverized coal-fired power plants. In control studies, the performance of a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller, feedback-augmented feedforward controller, and linear model predictive controller (LMPC) are evaluated for maintaining the overall CO{sub 2} capture rate at a desired level in the face of typical disturbances.

  18. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bonding compounds were evaluated. Random copolymers of styrene and heptadecafluorodecyl acrylate were characterized by high solubility ion dense carbon dioxide and the most substantial increases in solution viscosity. Falling cylinder viscometry results indicated that the 29%styrene--71%fluoroacylate bulk-polymerized copolymer induced 2--250 fold increases in viscosity at copolymer concentrations of 0.2--5.0wt%.

  19. Novel CO{sub 2}-thickeners for improved mobility control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enick, Dr. Robert M.; Beckman, Dr. Eric J.; Hamilton, Dr. Andrew

    2000-02-02

    The objective of this study was to design, synthesize, and characterize thickening agents for dense carbon dioxide and to evaluate their solubility and viscosity-enhancing potential in CO{sub 2}. Previously, fluoroacrylate homopolymers and fluorinated telechelic ionomers were shown to increase the viscosity of carbon dioxide by a factor of 3--4 at concentrations of 2--3 at concentrations of 4--5 wt%. This report details the findings for several new types of carbon dioxide thickening candidates. Hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, sulfonated hydrocarbon-fluorocarbon random copolymers, semifluorinated trialkyltin fluorides and small hydrogen-bounding compounds were evaluated.

  20. Membrane Process to Capture CO{sub 2} from Coal-Fired Power Plant Flue Gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, Tim; Wei, Xiaotong; Firat, Bilgen; He, Jenny; Amo, Karl; Pande, Saurabh; Baker, Richard; Wijmans, Hans; Bhown, Abhoyjit

    2012-03-31

    This final report describes work conducted for the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE NETL) on development of an efficient membrane process to capture carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) from power plant flue gas (award number DE-NT0005312). The primary goal of this research program was to demonstrate, in a field test, the ability of a membrane process to capture up to 90% of CO{sub 2} in coal-fired flue gas, and to evaluate the potential of a full-scale version of the process to perform this separation with less than a 35% increase in the levelized cost of electricity (LCOE). Membrane Technology and Research (MTR) conducted this project in collaboration with Arizona Public Services (APS), who hosted a membrane field test at their Cholla coal-fired power plant, and the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) and WorleyParsons (WP), who performed a comparative cost analysis of the proposed membrane CO{sub 2} capture process. The work conducted for this project included membrane and module development, slipstream testing of commercial-sized modules with natural gas and coal-fired flue gas, process design optimization, and a detailed systems and cost analysis of a membrane retrofit to a commercial power plant. The Polaris? membrane developed over a number of years by MTR represents a step-change improvement in CO{sub 2} permeance compared to previous commercial CO{sub 2}-selective membranes. During this project, membrane optimization work resulted in a further doubling of the CO{sub 2} permeance of Polaris membrane while maintaining the CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} selectivity. This is an important accomplishment because increased CO{sub 2} permeance directly impacts the membrane skid cost and footprint: a doubling of CO{sub 2} permeance halves the skid cost and footprint. In addition to providing high CO{sub 2} permeance, flue gas CO{sub 2} capture membranes must be stable in the presence of contaminants including SO{sub 2}. Laboratory tests showed no

  1. Ultra-supercritical (USC) technology. The best practical and economic way to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mao, Jianxiong [Tsinghua Univ., Beijing (China). Dept. of Thermal Engineering

    2013-07-01

    China is the largest coal producer and consumer with largest coal power capacity in the world. By the end of 2010, the total installed power capacity in China was 962,190 MWe, in which coal fired power capacity was 706,630 MWe, accounting for over 73.4%. China has been the largest CO{sub 2} emission country as well and its huge coal power capacity is the largest CO{sub 2} emission source. How does China reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants is an austere challenge now we are facing. How does China reduce its CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants? There are three ways to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants: (1) carbon capture and storage (CCS); (2) co-firing biomass with coal; (3) much improvement of efficiency. For the first option of CCS, the technology is still under development and there are still several uncertainties today to be widely used for coal fired power plants in the short term. For the second option of biomass co-firing, it can reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in a way, but it is difficult to implement it in China without strong support of incentive policy. Therefore, the third option of improvement of efficiency is the only but also the best and feasible economic option for China to much reduce CO{sub 2} emissions from coal fired power plants. This paper will discuss how China to take a active policy to strongly promote the application of supercritical (SC)/Ultra supercritical (USC) technology. Only in 4 years from 2007 to 2010, ordered capacity of coal fired SC/USC units was 482 units with installed capacity of 230,060 MWe, in which, 1,000 MWe USC with 600 C steam parameters was almost 100 units with 100,000 MWe in which 33 units have been in operation. Today, China has been a country with the largest SC/USC units and capacity. The fast application of SC/USC units for coal fired power plants has resulted in energy saving and reduction of emissions. The average coal consumption in China reduced from 366

  2. Performance investigation of a novel frost-free air-source heat pump water heater combined with energy storage and dehumidification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Fenghao; Wang, Zhihua; Zheng, Yuxin; Lin, Zhang; Hao, Pengfei; Huan, Chao; Wang, Tian

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Experiments are carried out to investigate a novel frost-free ASHPWH system. • Dynamic characteristics of the system are studied at different ambient conditions. • Test results confirm the expected potential to control the frost-free process. • The COP increased 17.9% and 3.4% respectively in comparison with RCD at −3 °C and 3 °C. - Abstract: Air-source heat pump (ASHP) often operates with substantial frost formation on the outdoor heat exchanger at low ambient temperature in winter, it insulates the finned surface and also reduces heat transfer rate, leading to performance degradation or even shutdown of ASHP systems. Although several defrosting methods have been reported, the frosting and defrosting processes reduced energy efficiency and resulted in, in some cases, heat pump breakdown. To solve this problem, a novel frost-free air-source heat pump water heater (ASHPWH) system has been developed, which coupled with an extra heat exchanger coated by a solid desiccant (EHECSD) with an energy storage device (ESD). Based on the previous studies, a further analysis and comprehensive research on the novel frost-free ASHPWH system is presented in this paper. The dynamic characteristics of the novel system are investigated experimentally in different ambient conditions. An experimental setup and experimental procedures are described in detail. Thereafter, the dehumidification efficiency and regeneration efficiency of EHECSD, suction and discharge pressures of the compressor, the temperature of PCM are evaluated during the heating and regeneration modes respectively. Results indicate that the system can keep the evaporator frost-free for 32, 34, 36 min during heating mode at the ambient temperatures of −3 °C, 0 °C and 3 °C and 85% RH. Compared with the reverse-cycle defrosting (RCD), COP of the frost-free ASHPWH are 17.9% and 3.4% higher at the ambient temperature of −3 °C and 3 °C respectively. With this innovative technology, it has

  3. O3 flux-related responsiveness of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance of adult Fagus sylvatica to experimentally enhanced free-air O3 exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löw, M; Häberle, K-H; Warren, C R; Matyssek, R

    2007-03-01

    Knowledge of responses of photosynthesis, respiration, and stomatal conductance to cumulative ozone uptake (COU) is still scarce, and this is particularly the case for adult trees. The effect of ozone (O(3)) exposure on trees was examined with 60-year-old beech trees (FAGUS SYLVATICA) at a forest site of southern Germany. Trees were exposed to the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)) or an experimentally elevated twice-ambient O(3) regime (2 x O(3)). The elevated 2 x O (3) regime was provided by means of a free-air O(3) canopy exposure system. The hypotheses were tested that (1) gas exchange is negatively affected by O(3) and (2) the effects of O(3) are dose-dependent and thus the sizes of differences between treatments are positively related to COU. Gas exchange (light-saturated CO(2) uptake rate A(max), stomatal conductance g (s), maximum rate of carboxylation Vc (max), ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate turnover limited rate of photosynthesis J (max), CO(2) compensation point CP, apparent quantum yield of net CO(2) uptake AQ, carboxylation efficiency CE, day- and nighttime respiration) and chlorophyll fluorescence (electron transfer rate, ETR) were measured IN SITU on attached sun and shade leaves. Measurements were made periodically throughout the growing seasons of 2003 (an exceptionally dry year) and 2004 (a year with average rainfall). In 2004 Vc(max), J(max), and CE were lower in trees receiving 2 x O(3) compared with the ambient O(3) regime (1 x O(3)). Treatment differences in Vc (max), J (max), CE were rather small in 2004 (i.e., parameter levels were lower by 10 - 30 % in 2 x O(3) than 1 x O(3)) and not significant in 2003. In 2004 COU was positively correlated with the difference between treatments in A (max), g (s), and ETR (i.e., consistent with the dose-dependence of O(3)'s deleterious effects). However, in 2003, differences in A(max), g (s), and ETR between the two O(3) regimes were smaller at the end of the dry summer 2003 (i.e., when COU was greatest). The

  4. Distinct patterns in the diurnal and seasonal variability in four components of soil respiration in a temperate forest under free-air CO2 enrichment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Gonzalez-Meler

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Soil respiration (RS is a major flux in the global carbon (C cycle. Responses of RS to changing environmental conditions may exert a strong control on the residence time of C in terrestrial ecosystems and in turn influence the atmospheric concentration of greenhouse gases. Soil respiration consists of several components oxidizing soil C from different pools, age and chemistry. The mechanisms underlying the temporal variability of RS components are poorly understood. In this study, we used the long-term whole-ecosystem 13C tracer at the Duke Forest Free Air CO2 Enrichment site to separate forest RS into its autotrophic (RR and heterotrophic components (RH. The contribution of RH to RS was further partitioned into litter decomposition (RL, and decomposition of soil organic matter (RSOM of two age classes – up to 8 yr old and SOM older than 8 yr. Soil respiration was generally dominated by RSOM during the growing season (44% of daytime RS, especially at night. The contribution of heterotrophic respiration (RSOM and RL to RS was not constant, indicating that the seasonal variability in RR alone cannot explain seasonal variation in RS. Although there was no diurnal variability in RS, there were significant compensatory differences in the contribution of individual RS components to daytime and nighttime rates. The average contribution of RSOM to RS was greater at night (54% than during the day (44%. The average contribution of RR to total RS was ~30% during the day and ~34% during the night. In contrast, RL constituted 26% of RS during the day and only 12% at night. About 95% of the decomposition of soil C older than 8 yr (Rpre-tr originated from RSOM and showed more pronounced and consistent diurnal variability than any other RS component; nighttime rates were on average 29% higher than daytime rates. In contrast, the decomposition of more recent, post-treatment C (Rpre-tr did not vary diurnally. None of the diurnal variations in components of RH

  5. Editing faces in videos

    OpenAIRE

    Amberg, Brian

    2011-01-01

    Editing faces in movies is of interest in the special effects industry. We aim at producing effects such as the addition of accessories interacting correctly with the face or replacing the face of a stuntman with the face of the main actor. The system introduced in this thesis is based on a 3D generative face model. Using a 3D model makes it possible to edit the face in the semantic space of pose, expression, and identity instead of pixel space, and due to its 3D nature allows...

  6. Biotic Processes Regulating the Carbon Balance of Desert Ecosystems - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nowak, Robert S [UNR; Smith, Stanley D [UNLV; Evans, Dave [WSU; Ogle, Kiona [ASU; Fenstermaker, Lynn [DRI

    2012-12-13

    Our results from the 10-year elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration study at the Nevada Desert FACE (Free-air CO{sub 2} Enrichment) Facility (NDFF) indicate that the Mojave Desert is a dynamic ecosystem with the capacity to respond quickly to environmental changes. The Mojave Desert ecosystem is accumulating carbon (C), and over the 10-year experiment, C accumulation was significantly greater under elevated [CO{sub 2}] than under ambient, despite great fluctuations in C inputs from year to year and even apparent reversals in which [CO{sub 2}] treatment had greater C accumulations.

  7. Experiences of PEMEX in CO{sub 2} re-injection; Experiencias de Pemex en reinyeccion de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez Bujanos, Jose Luis [PEMEX (Mexico)

    2008-07-15

    Mexico enters the processes of secondary oil recovery the years 50s, by means of water injection. The CO{sub 2} injection is one of the techniques that better results produce in the oil recovery. In this presentation the strategic goals that have been determined within PEMEX Exploracion y Produccion (PEP) are mentioned, and which are the projects of CO{sub 2} injection for oil recovery already existing in Mexico. [Spanish] Mexico entra a los procesos de recuperacion secundaria de petroleo en los anos 50s, mediante inyeccion de agua. La inyeccion de CO{sub 2} es una de las tecnicas que mejores resultados produce en la recuperacion de petroleo. En esta presentacion se mencionan las metas estrategicas que se han fijado dentro de Pemex Exploracion y Produccion (PEP) y cuales son los proyectos de inyeccion de CO{sub 2} para recuperacion de petroleo, existentes actualmente en Mexico.

  8. Biocarbon can reduce the CO{sub 2} discharges from the ferric alloy industry; Biokarbon kan redusere CO{sub 2}-utslippene i ferrolegeringsindustrien

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lind, Oddvar

    1999-07-01

    The article discusses the use of biocarbon mainly peat, for reduction processes and thereby reduce CO{sub 2} discharge. The costs have however, to be reduced considerably. Research in the field is briefly described.

  9. Skating rinks: a contribution to the discussion on using CO{sub 2} as a refrigerant; CO{sub 2} als Kaeltetraeger - ein Diskussionsbeitrag

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buehrer, B. W.

    2003-07-01

    This article examines the situation with regard to the use of carbon dioxide as a refrigerant for ice rinks instead of more risky and costly direct-evaporation ammonia installations. Tighter regulations on the operation of such ammonia-based installations and the advantages of CO{sub 2}-based systems are discussed. Although not poisonous, CO{sub 2} can present dangers if leaks occur as it is heavier than air and can lead to suffocation. Also, the energy consumption of CO{sub 2} refrigeration plants is compared with that of ammonia and glycol-based systems. The role played by other factors such as thermal insulation, good dehumidification systems and infra-red radiation shields are discussed. An installation in Zug, Switzerland, is briefly described that features cold-generation with ammonia and secondary distribution systems using CO{sub 2} and glycol for the main hall and the curling rinks respectively.

  10. Effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on Chesapeake Bay wetlands. [Progress report, 1988--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drake, B.G.; Arp, W.J.; Balduman, L.

    1990-12-31

    Research during 1988--89 focused on several new aspects of the response of the salt marsh ecosystem to elevated CO{sub 2}. In previous years we gave highest priority to studies of the effect of CO{sub 2} on biomass production into above and below-ground tissues, nitrogen content, light response of photosynthesis of single leaves, leaf water potential and carbon dioxide and water vapor exchange between the plant canopy and the ambient air. Result from the work in 87 and 88 had shown that the C3 plant, Scirpus olneyi, responded vigorously to elevated CO{sub 2} but the two C4 species, Spartina patens and Distichlis spicata did not. The responses of photosynthesis were also reflected in the canopy and ecosystem processes. Thus our emphasis shifted from determining the growth responses to exploring photosynthesis in greater detail. The main questions were: does acclimation to high CO{sub 2} involve reduction of some aspect of photosynthesis either at the single leaf level or in canopy structure? How much more carbon will be accumulated in a high CO{sub 2} than under present CO{sub 2} concentration? Our results give us partial answers to these questions but since the long term aspect of CO{sub 2} stimulation remains the most important one, it is unlikely that we can do more than add some pieces of data to a continuing debate in the ecological community regarding the eventual effect of CO{sub 2} on ecosystems.

  11. Developing strategies for the regeneration of polyethylenimine based CO{sub 2} adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trevor C. Drage; Karl M. Smith; Ana Arenillas; Colin E. Snape [University of Nottingham, Nottingham (United Kingdom). Nottingham Fuel and Energy Centre, School of Chemical, Environmental and Mining Engineering

    2007-07-01

    Adsorption is considered to be one of the more promising technologies for capturing CO{sub 2} from flue gases. The efficient adsorption of CO{sub 2} at low partial pressures, associated with post-combustion capture, require chemical type adsorbents containing basic amine functional groups. It has been demonstrated that amine polymers, for example polyethylenimine (PEI), immobilised on various porous substrates, silica, zeolites and fly ash, are effective adsorbents for CO{sub 2}. When considering the use of adsorption for large scale CO{sub 2} capture, the ease of regeneration and the lifetime of the adsorbents are critical factors in determining their efficiency, cost and therefore feasibility for use. In this paper two approaches, thermal swing adsorption (TSA) cycles over a range of temperatures and time in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2} and thermally assisted pressure swing desorption, are explored for the regeneration of the PEI based adsorbents. The reactions occurring during the TSA regeneration of PEI based adsorbents in an atmosphere of CO{sub 2}, especially the formation of a thermostable complex between PEI and CO{sub 2} above 130{sup o}C are described. Identification of the complex by FTIR, XPS and 13C NMR and its attempted regeneration will be described. Overall, the results from this research have implications for the selection of regeneration strategies of all amine based CO{sub 2} adsorbents. 5 refs., 1 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Elevated temperature and CO{sub 2} concentration effects on xylem anatomy of Scots pine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kilpelainen, A.; Gerendiain, A.Z.; Luostarinen, K.; Peltola, H.; Kellomaki, S. [Joensuu Univ., Joensuu (Finland). Faculty of Forestry

    2007-09-15

    The effects of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) concentrations and elevated temperatures on the xylem anatomy of 20-year old Scots pine trees were investigated. The experiment was conducted in 16 chambers containing 4 trees each with a factorial combination of both ambient and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations and 2 different temperature regimes. CO{sub 2} concentrations were doubled with a corresponding increase of between 2 and 6 degrees C according to each season over a period of 6 years. The study showed that elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations increased the ring width in 4 of the 6 analyzed treatment years. Earlywood width increased during the first 2 years of the experiment, while latewood width increased during the third year of the study. The study also showed that the tracheid walls in both the latewood and earlywood samples were thicker when either temperature levels or CO{sub 2} levels were increased. It was noted that combined CO{sub 2} and temperature elevations resulted in thinner tracheid walls. However, latewood tracheid lumen diameters were larger in all CO{sub 2} and temperature treatments than trees grown in ambient conditions. It was concluded that xylem anatomy was impacted more by increases in temperature than by elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. 48 refs., 2 tabs., 6 figs.

  13. Use of Chlorella vulgaris for CO{sub 2} mitigation in a photobioreactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keffer, J.E.; Kleinheinz, G.T.

    2002-07-01

    One of the most understudied methods for CO{sub 2} mitigation is the use of biological processes in engineered systems such as photobioreactors. This research project describes the effectiveness of Chlorella vulgaris, used in a photobioreactor with a very short gas residence time, in sequestering CO{sub 2} from an elevated CO{sub 2} airstream. We evaluated a flow-through photobioreactor's operational parameters, as well as the growth characteristics of the C. vulgaris inoculum when exposed to an airstream with over 1850 ppm CO{sub 2}. When using dry weight, chlorophyll, and direct microscopic measurements, it was apparent that the photobioreactor's algal inoculum responded well to the elevated CO{sub 2} levels and there was no build-up of CO{sub 2} or carbonic acid in the photobioreactor. The photobioreactor, with a gas residence time of approximately 2 s, was able to remove up to 74% of the CO{sub 2} in the airstream to ambient levels. This corresponded to a 63.9-g/m(3)/h bulk removal for the experimental photobioreactor. Consequently, this photobioreactor shows that biological processes may have some promise for treating point source emissions of CO{sub 2} and deserve further study.

  14. Surface Ocean CO>2 Atlas (SOCAT) gridded data products

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sabine, C.L.; Hankin, S.; Koyuk, H.; Bakker, D.C.E.; Pfeil, B.; Olsen, A; Metzl, N.; Kozyr, A; Fassbender, A; Manke, A; Malczyk, J.; Akl, J.; Alin, S.R.; Bellerby, R.G.J.; Borges, A; Boutin, J.; Brown, P.J.; Cai, W.-J.; Chavez, F.P.; Chen, A.; Cosca, C.; Feely, R.A.; Gonzalez-Davila, M.; Goyet, C.; Hardman-Mountford, N.; Heinze, C.; Hoppema, M.; Hunt, C.W.; Hydes, D.; Ishii, M.; Johannessen, T.; Key, R.M.; Kortzinger, A.; Landschutzer, P.; Lauvset, S.K.; Lefevre, N.; Lenton, A.; Lourantou, A.; Merlivat, L.; Midorikawa, T.; Mintrop, L.; Miyazaki, C.; Murata, A.; Nakadate, A.; Nakano, Y.; Nakaoka, S.; Nojiri, Y.; Omar, A.M.; Padin, X.A.; Park, G.-H.; Paterson, K.; Perez, F.F.; Pierrot, D.; Poisson, A.; Rios, A.F.; Salisbury, J.; Santana-Casiano, J.M.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; et al.

    As a response to public demand for a well-documented, quality controlled, publically available, global surface ocean carbon dioxide (CO>2) data set, the international marine carbon science community developed the Surface Ocean CO>2...

  15. Fossil Fuel (CO>2) Emission Verification Capability07-ERD-064Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guilderson, T. P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Cameron-Smith, P. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Lucas, D. D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2011-04-26

    This work focused exclusively on designing a system for California as a test-bed. Fossil fuel CO>2 emissions account for ~96% of the total California anthropogenic CO>2 emissions (CEC GHG Inventory, 2006).

  16. An independent assessment of CO{sub 2} capture research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    St. John, B. [INTECH, Inc., Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    1993-12-31

    The United States generates on the order of five billion metric tons of CO{sub 2} annually. Of this, approximately 1.8 billion metric tons is from electric utilities. Other industrial sources of CO{sub 2}, such as cement plants, coke ovens, ammonia plants, oil refineries, etc. are small relative to the emissions from power plants. The majority of the emissions from U.S. electric utilities are from coal-fired power plants. Thus, any large scale program to control CO{sub 2} emissions needs to include abatement of CO{sub 2} from power plants. Currently, there are very few proven options to mitigate CO{sub 2} emissions: (1) Improve thermal efficiency, thereby decreasing the amount of CO{sub 2} generated per unit of output. (2) Improve the efficiency of end use. (3) Convert to lower carbon fuels or non-fossil energy sources. (4) Plant trees to offset CO{sub 2} emitted. (5) Produce a concentrated CO{sub 2} stream for utilization or disposal. The first four options are well known and are being actively pursued at the present time. This paper examines the last option from the perspective that the gap between what is needed and what is available defines the research and development opportunities.

  17. Chemical and Molecular Descriptors for the Reactivity of Amines with CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Anita S.; Kitchin, John R.

    2012-10-24

    Amine-based solvents are likely to play an important role in CO{sub 2} capture applications in the future, and the identification of amines with superior performance will facilitate their use in CO{sub 2} capture. While some improvements in performance will be achieved through process modifications, modifying the CO{sub 2} capture performance of an amine also implies in part an ability to modify the reactions between the amine and CO{sub 2} through development of new functionalized amines. We present a computational study of trends in the reactions between CO{sub 2} and functionalized amines with a focus on identifying molecular descriptors that determine trends in reactivity. We examine the formation of bicarbonate and carbamate species on three classes of functionalized amines: alkylamines, alkanolamines, and fluorinated alkylamines including primary, secondary and tertiary amines in each class. These functional groups span electron-withdrawing to donating behavior, hydrogen-bonding, extent of functionalization, and proximity effects of the functional groups. Electron withdrawing groups tend to destabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products, whereas electron-donating groups tend to stabilize CO{sub 2} reaction products. Hydrogen bonding stabilizes CO{sub 2} reaction products. Electronic structure descriptors based on electronegativity were found to describe trends in the bicarbonate formation energy. A chemical correlation was observed between the carbamate formation energy and the carbamic acid formation energy. The local softness on the reacting N in the amine was found to partially explain trends carbamic acid formation energy.

  18. Series 'Facing Radiation'. 2 Facing radiation is facing residents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzawa, Takahiro

    2013-01-01

    The series is to report how general people, who are not at all radiological experts, have faced and understood the problems and tasks of radiation given by the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident (Mar. 2011). The section 2 is reported by an officer of Date City, which localizes at 60 km northern west of the Plant, borders on Iitate Village of Fukushima prefecture, and is indicated as the important area of contamination search (IACS), which the reporter has been conducted for as responsible personnel. In July 2011, the ambient dose was as high as 3.0-3.5 mc-Sv/h and the tentative storage place of contaminated materials was decided by own initiative of residents of a small community, from which the real decontamination started in the City. The target dose after decontamination was defined to be 1.0 mc-Sv/h: however, 28/32 IACS municipalities in the prefecture had not defined the target although they had worked for 2 years after the Accident for their areas exceeding the standard 0.23 mc-Sv/h. At the moment of decontamination of the reporter's own house, he noticed that resident's concerns had directed toward its work itself, not toward the target dose, and wondered if these figures had obstructed to correctly face the radiation. At present that about 2.5 years have passed since the Accident, all of Date citizens have personal accumulated glass dosimeters for seeing the effective external dose and it seems that their dose will not exceed 1 mSv/y if the ambient dose estimated is 0.3-5 mc-Sv/h. Media run to popularity not to face radiation, experts tend to hesitate to face media and residents, and radiation dose will be hardly reduced to zero, despite that correct understanding of radiation is a shorter way for residents' own ease: facing radiation is facing residents. (T.T.)

  19. The soil microbiome at the Gi-FACE experiment responds to a moisture gradient but not to CO2 enrichment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Menezes, Alexandre B; Müller, Christoph; Clipson, Nicholas; Doyle, Evelyn

    2016-09-01

    The soil bacterial community at the Giessen free-air CO2 enrichment (Gi-FACE) experiment was analysed by tag sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene. No substantial effects of CO2 levels on bacterial community composition were detected. However, the soil moisture gradient at Gi-FACE had a significant effect on bacterial community composition. Different groups within the Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia phyla were affected differently by soil moisture content. These results suggest that modest increases in atmospheric CO2 may cause only minor changes in soil bacterial community composition and indicate that the functional responses of the soil community to CO2 enrichment previously reported at Gi-FACE are due to factors other than changes in bacterial community composition. The effects of the moisture gradient revealed new information about the relationships between poorly known Acidobacteria and Verrucomicrobia and soil moisture content. This study contrasts with the relatively small number of other temperate grassland free-air CO2 enrichment microbiome studies in the use of moderate CO2 enrichment and the resulting minor changes in the soil microbiome. Thus, it will facilitate the development of further climate change mitigation studies. In addition, the moisture gradient found at Gi-FACE contributes new knowledge in soil microbial ecology, particularly regarding the abundance and moisture relationships of the soil Verrucomicrobia.

  20. CO{sub 2} neutral steam production for the production of bioethanol; CO{sub 2}-neutrale Dampferzeugung fuer die Bioethanolproduktion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wetter, Christof; Bruegging, Elmar; Baumkoetter, Daniel [Fachhochschule Muenster (Germany)

    2011-10-15

    Conventional plants for the production of bioethanol use fossil fuels such as heating oil or lignite for the supply of process energy. The authors of the contribution under consideration report on a tightly connection of an agricultural company with a biogas plant with a distillery by means an energy center consisting of two cogeneration plants and a steam generator. With this, a CO{sub 2} neutral fuel is produced from a CO{sub 2} neutral vapor.

  1. Developments and innovation in carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture and storage technology. Volume 1: carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) capture, transport and industrial applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mercedes Maroto-Valer, M. (ed.)

    2010-07-01

    This volume initially reviews the economics, regulation and planning of CCS for power plants and industry, and goes on to explore developments and innovation in post- and pre-combustion and advanced combustion processes and technologies for CO{sub 2} capture in power plants. This coverage is extended with sections on CO{sub 2} compression, transport and injection and industrial applications of CCS technology, including in the cement and concrete and iron and steel industries.

  2. Modeling and assessment of future IGCC plant concepts with CO{sub 2} capture; Simulation und Bewertung zukuenftiger IGCC-Kraftwerkskonzepte mit CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kunze, Christian A.

    2012-07-13

    The thesis focuses on the assessment of efficiency potential of future IGCC plants with CO{sub 2} capture. Starting point is a comprehensive analysis (thermodynamic, economic and exergy) of a state of the art IGCC. Additionally, five future IGCC concepts are proposed and evaluated for their efficiency potential in the mid- and long-term. The concepts showed significantly higher efficiencies up to approximately 60% and enable an almost CO{sub 2}-free operation.

  3. The integrated CO{sub 2} pilot in the SW of France (oxycombustion and geological storage) : a potential answer to CO{sub 2} mitigation in bitumen production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aimard, N.; Prebende, C. [Total, Pau (France); Cieutat, D.; Sanchez-Molinero, I.; Tsiava, R. [Air Liquide, Jouy-en-Josas (France)

    2008-10-15

    Carbon capture and storage technologies are promising options in the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions in extra heavy oil production fields. The research centre at Total launched an integrated carbon capture and storage project at Lacq in the southwest of France. It involves the conversion of a steam boiler into an oxy-fuel combustion unit. The pilot plant is expected to emit up to 120,000 tons of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) over a 2-year period. The CO{sub 2} rich flue gas will be cleaned up and compressed and the resulting CO{sub 2} will be conveyed via pipeline to a depleted gas field, where it will be injected into a deep carbonate reservoir. This paper demonstrated that oxycombustion could have some advantages compared to post-combustion for CO{sub 2} capture in terms of energy efficiency for steam generation. It discussed a pilot plant whose objectives were to demonstrate the technical feasibility and reliability of an integrated scheme for steam production including CO{sub 2} capture, transportation, injection and storage, at a reduced scale, typically one tenth of future larger scale facilities. This paper also described how to develop and apply geological storage qualification methodologies, monitoring and verification techniques in a real operational situation to prepare future larger scale long term storage projects. It also presented the characteristics of one of the world's first industrial oxy-combustion units, the 30MWth oxy-gas boiler. It was concluded that the Lacq CO{sub 2} pilot project is a unique challenging project as it integrates both industrial CO{sub 2} capture facilities within an existing gas treatment complex with CO{sub 2} compression, transportation, injection and storage into an onshore gas depleted reservoir. 5 refs., 3 tabs., 9 figs.

  4. CO{sub 2} emissions from battery-driven electromobiles; CO{sub 2}-Emissionen von Batterie-Elektrofahrzeugen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdmann, Georg [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Fachgebiet Energiesysteme

    2009-10-15

    For all the euphoria currently surrounding electromobility, electrically powered road vehicles too have their drawbacks. While the vehicles themselves emit no climatically harmful greenhouses gases during operation, the production of the electricity that drives them is associated with a greater or lesser amount of CO{sub 2} emissions, depending on the production chain. Is it conceivable that private electromobiles offer no advantage after all in terms of climate protection? Be it as it may, this question must be answered before electromobiles become a means of mass transport.

  5. CO{sub 2} and climate protection. Facts, mistakes, policy; CO{sub 2} und Klimaschutz. Fakten, Irrtuemer, Politk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luedecke, H.J.

    2008-07-01

    The author outlines the technical fundamental coherences of the CO{sub 2} problem generally clear and without unnecessary technical details. ''Which measuring methods founds on climate warning, are extrem weather disasters increasing, is the sea level raising, is a warmer climate harmful or useful, are wind turbines solar cells or biofuels meaningful, who is profitting from climate fear, which role play policy and ideology?'' are questions this book dealt with. Expert fundamentals, not political opinions are derived from reports of Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), the climatic department of the UN, reference items from internet contributions and specialist books. (GL)

  6. Solubility of {beta}-carotene in ethanol- and triolein-modified CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Araus, Karina A. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Canales, Roberto I. [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Valle, Jose M. del [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Bioprocesos, Pontificia Universidad Catolica de Chile, Avda. Vicuna Mackenna 4860, Macul, Santiago (Chile); Fuente, Juan C. de la, E-mail: juan.delafuente@usm.cl [Departamento de Ingenieria Quimica y Ambiental, Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Avda. Espana 1680, Valparaiso (Chile); Centro Regional de Estudios en Alimentos Saludables, Blanco 1623, Valparaiso (Chile)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: > We measure solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with ethanol and triolein as co-solvents. > We model the solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2}, and with co-solvents. > The co-solvent effect of triolein over solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} was higher than ethanol. - Abstract: Modification of an experimental device and methodology improved speed and reproducibility of measurement of solubility of {beta}-carotene in pure and modified SuperCritical (SC) CO{sub 2} at (313 to 333) K. Solubilities of {beta}-carotene in pure CO{sub 2} at (17 to 34) MPa ranged (0.17 to 1.06) {mu}mol/mol and agreed with values reported in literature. The solubility of {beta}-carotene in CO{sub 2} modified with (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol increased by a factor of 1.7 to 3.0 as compared to its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. The concentration of triolein in equilibrated ternary (CO{sub 2} + {beta}-carotene + triolein) mixtures having excess triolein reached values (0.01 to 0.39) mmol/mol corresponding to its solubility in pure SC CO{sub 2} under equivalent conditions. Under these conditions, the solubility of {beta}-carotene in triolein-modified CO{sub 2} increased by a factor of up to 4.0 in relation with its solubility in pure CO{sub 2} at comparable system temperature and pressure, reaching an uppermost value of 3.3 {mu}mol/mol at 333 K and 32 MPa. Unlike in the case of ethanol, where enhancements in solubility where relatively independent on system conditions, solubility enhancements using triolein as co-solvent increased markedly with system pressure, being larger than using (1.2 to 1.6) % mol ethanol at about (24 to 28) MPa, depending on system temperature. The increase in the solubility {beta}-carotene in SC CO{sub 2} as a result of using ethanol or triolein as co-solvent apparently does not depend on the increase in density associated with the dissolution of the co-solvent in CO{sub 2}. Enhancements may be due

  7. Development of pure Mg open-cell foams as structured CO{sub 2} captor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Figueroa, I.A., E-mail: iafiguera@unam.mx [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Suarez, M.A.; Velasco-Castro, M.; Pfeiffer, H.; Alcántar-Vázquez, B.; González, G. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico); Alfonso, I. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Unidad Morelia, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México, Campus Morelia UNAM, Antigua Carretera a Pátzcuaro No. 8701, Col. Ex-Hacienda de San José de la Huerta, C.P. 58190 Morelia, Michoacán (Mexico); Lara-Rodríguez, G.A. [Instituto de Investigaciones en Materiales, Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México (UNAM), Circuito Exterior S/N, Cd. Universitaria, C.P. 04510 México, D.F. (Mexico)

    2015-12-10

    Highlights: • The CO{sub 2} capture capacity of the open-cell Mg foams was studied at low temperatures. • Open-cell Mg foams with pore size of 350 μm were used for the CO{sub 2} capture study. • The highest amount of CO{sub 2} captured was obtained at 60 °C and 80% of relative humidity. • A CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 0.87 mmol/g was obtained for the open-cell Mg foams. • The oxidized open-cell Mg foams can be used as CO{sub 2} captors. - Abstract: The CO{sub 2} capture capacity of the superficial oxide layer formed in pure open-cell Mg foams was studied at low temperatures (40–60 °C) varying the relative humidity from 40 to 80%. Mg foam samples with pore size of 350 μm and surface area of 5.4 m{sup 2}/g were used for these analyses. Optical microscopy and X-ray diffraction techniques were used to characterize the cell structure and the superficial oxide formed in the cell-foams, respectively. The final products formed after the CO{sub 2}–H{sub 2}O capture experiments were identified by scanning electron microscopy and attenuated total reflexion-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). The MgCO{sub 3} and other products, formed after CO{sub 2} + H{sub 2}O capture process, were thermally decomposed, to quantify the amount of CO{sub 2} captured by the superficial MgO layer using standard thermogravimetric analysis. The results showed that the highest amount of CO{sub 2} captured was obtained at 60 °C and 80% of relative humidity, with a CO{sub 2} capture capacity of 0.87 mmol/g, which is comparable with others CO{sub 2} MgO-based captors. The considerable CO{sub 2} capture capacity at low temperatures supports the potential of the pure open-cell Mg foams to be used as structured CO{sub 2} captors.

  8. Optimizing and Quantifying CO>2 Storage Resource in Saline Formations and Hydrocarbon Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosshart, Nicholas W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Azzolina, Nicholas A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Peck, Wesley D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Ge, Jun [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Jiang, Tao [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Burton-Kelly, Matthew E. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Anderson, Parker W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center; Gorz, Andrew J. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Folks, ND (United States). Energy & Environmental Research Center

    2017-06-30

    In an effort to reduce carbon dioxide (CO>2) emissions from large stationary sources, carbon capture and storage (CCS) is being investigated as one approach. This work assesses CO>2 storage resource estimation methods for deep saline formations (DSFs) and hydrocarbon reservoirs undergoing CO>2 enhanced oil recovery (EOR). Project activities were conducted using geologic modeling and simulation to investigate CO>2 storage efficiency. CO>2 storage rates and efficiencies in DSFs classified by interpreted depositional environment were evaluated at the regional scale over a 100-year time frame. A focus was placed on developing results applicable to future widespread commercial-scale CO>2 storage operations in which an array of injection wells may be used to optimize storage in saline formations. The results of this work suggest future investigations of prospective storage resource in closed or semiclosed formations need not have a detailed understanding of the depositional environment of the reservoir to generate meaningful estimates. However, the results of this work also illustrate the relative importance of depositional environment, formation depth, structural geometry, and boundary conditions on the rate of CO>2 storage in these types of systems. CO>2 EOR occupies an important place in the realm of geologic storage of CO>2, as it is likely to be the primary means of geologic CO>2 storage during the early stages of commercial implementation, given the lack of a national policy and the viability of the current business case. This work estimates CO>2 storage efficiency factors using a unique industry database of CO>2 EOR sites and 18 different reservoir simulation models capturing fluvial clastic and shallow shelf carbonate depositional environments for reservoir depths of 1219 and 2438 meters (4000 and 8000 feet) and 7.6-, 20-, and 64-meter (25-, 66

  9. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    .... Specifically, the report addresses the problem of detecting faces in color images in the presence of various lighting conditions and complex backgrounds as well as recognizing faces under variations...

  10. Measuring External Face Appearance for Face Classification

    OpenAIRE

    Masip, David; Lapedriza, Agata; Vitria, Jordi

    2007-01-01

    In this chapter we introduce the importance of the external features in face classification problems, and propose a methodology to extract the external features obtaining an aligned feature set. The extracted features can be used as input to any standard pattern recognition classifier, as the classic feature extraction approaches dealing with internal face regions in the literature. The resulting scheme follows a top-down segmentation approach to deal with the diversity inherent to the extern...

  11. Case history of a successful CO{sub 2} miscible gas WAG injection project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harpole, Ken

    1998-07-01

    A successful fieldwide CO{sub 2} miscible gas injection project has been underway at the East Vacuum Grayburg San Andres Unit (EVGSAU) in eastern New Mexico, USA since 1985. This presentation follows the evolution of CO{sub 2} miscible gas WAG injection operations at EVGSAU and discusses some of the significant changes in reservoir strategy management which have been implemented over the past 13 years. These changes parallel the evolution in the industry's understanding of and experience with CO{sub 2} miscible gs injection processes. The operating problems and reservoir management challenges encountered at East Vacuum - injection performance, sweep efficiency, effective management of WAG operations, rapidly changing requirements for handling produced gas, and maintaining efficient utilization of injected CO{sub 2} - reflect the kinds of challenges typically encountered in managing a large CO{sub 2} injection project. 1 fig., 1 tab.

  12. Investigation into interaction of CO/sub 2/ molecules with zeolites by infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ignat' eva, L A; Levshin, L V; Chukin, G D; Efimenko, L V; Kozlova, T I [Moskovskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (USSR). Kafedra Optiki

    1975-07-01

    Interaction of CO/sub 2/ molecules with zeolites, particularly with SrNaJ was studied by infrared-spectroscopy. To obtain infrared-spectra the zeolites were pressed into tablets and were calcinated at 500 deg. In the spectra the bands of chemisorbed CO/sub 2/ absorption were found in the range 1300 - 1600 cm/sup -1/. The CO/sub 2/ molecule was found to be strongly deformed due to chemisorption. In terms of electronic structure of the zeolite crystalline skeleton several types of CO/sub 2/ molecules interaction with different active zeolites were found. The position of the high-frequency band of CO/sub 2/ absorption in zeolites spectra was found to be a linear function of electrostatic field of the cations.

  13. Feasibility of CO{sub 2} geological storage in the Xingou oil field, Jianghan Basin, China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peng, Sanxi [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China); Shana, Huimei; Li, Yilian [School of Environmental Studies, China University of Geosciences, Wuhan, 430074 (China); Yang, Zhen; Zhong, Zhaohong [Changsha Engineering and Research Institute Ltd. of Nonferrous Metallurgy, Changsha, 410001 (China)

    2013-07-01

    Geological storage of CO{sub 2} as an effective way of reducing CO{sub 2} output to the atmosphere receives growing attention worldwide. To evaluate the feasibility of this technique in the Xingou oil field of Jianghan Basin in China, 2D and 3D models of CO{sub 2} geological storage were established using TOUGH2 software. Results showed that CO{sub 2} gas can be stored in the deepest reservoir through continuous injection over 50 years, and will remain effectively confined within the space under the second cap-rock during its diffusion over 500 years. Compared with 2D models, 3D models showed that the diffusion process of CO{sub 2} gas in the reservoir will create a mushroom-shaped zone of influence. (authors)

  14. Photochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} to fuels and chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DuBois, D. [National Renewable Energy Lab., Golden, CO (United States); Eisenberg, R. [Univ. of Rochester, NY (United States); Fujita, E. [Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Photochemical reduction of CO{sub 2} represents a potentially useful approach to developing a sustainable source of carbon-based chemicals, fuels, and materials. In this report the present status of photochemical CO{sub 2} reduction is assessed, areas that need to be better understood for advancement are identified, and approaches to overcoming barriers are suggested. Because of the interdisciplinary nature of this field, assessments of three closely interrelated areas are given including integrated photochemical systems for catalytic CO{sub 2} reduction, thermal catalytic CO{sub 2} reactions, and electrochemical CO{sub 2} reduction. The report concludes with a summary and assessment of potential impacts of this area on chemical and energy technologies.

  15. Method to reduce CO.sub.2 to CO using plasmon-enhanced photocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, George W.; Upadhye, Aniruddha A.; Kim, Hyung Ju; Ro, Insoo; Tejedor-Anderson, M. Isabel

    2017-08-22

    Described is a method of reducing CO.sub.2 to CO using visible radiation and plasmonic photocatalysts. The method includes contacting CO.sub.2 with a catalyst, in the presence of H.sub.2, wherein the catalyst has plasmonic photocatalytic reductive activity when exposed to radiation having a wavelength between 380 nm and 780 nm. The catalyst, CO.sub.2, and H.sub.2 are exposed to non-coherent radiation having a wavelength between 380 nm and 780 nm such that the catalyst undergoes surface plasmon resonance. The surface plasmon resonance increases the rate of CO.sub.2 reduction to CO as compared to the rate of CO.sub.2 reduction to CO without surface plasmon resonance in the catalyst.

  16. Coral reefs - sources or sinks of atmospheric CO[sub 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ware, J R; Smith, S V; Reakakudla, M L [Hawaii University, Honolulu, HI (USA). Dept. of Oceanography

    1992-09-01

    Because the precipitation of calcium carbonate results in the sequestering of carbon, it frequently has been thought that coral reefs function as sinks of global atmospheric CO[sub 2]. However, the precipitation of calcium carbonate is accompanied by a shift of pH that results in the release of CO[sub 2]. This release of CO[sub 2] is less in buffered sea water than fresh water systems; nevertheless, coral reefs are sources, not sinks, of atmospheric carbon. Using estimated rates of coral reef carbonate production, we compute that coral reefs release 0.02 to 0.08 Gt C as CO[sub 2] annually. This is approximately 0.4% to 1.4% of the current anthropogenic CO[sub 2] production due to fossil fuel combustion.

  17. Emerging terawatt picosecond CO{sub 2} laser technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pogorelsky, I V [Accelerator Test Facility, Brookhaven National Lab., Upton, NY (United States)

    1998-03-01

    The first terawatt picosecond (TWps) CO{sub 2} laser is under construction at the BNL Accelerator Test Facility (ATF). TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers, having an order of magnitude longer wavelength than the well-known table-top terawatt solid state lasers, offer new opportunities for strong-field physics research. For laser wakefield accelerators (LWFA) the advantage of the new class of lasers is due to a gain of two orders of magnitude in the ponderomotive potential. The large average power of CO{sub 2} lasers is important for the generation of hard radiation through Compton back-scattering of the laser off energetic electron beams. We discuss applications of TWps-CO{sub 2} lasers for LWFA modules of a tentative electron-positron collider, for {gamma}-{gamma} (or {gamma}-lepton) colliders, for a possible `table-top` source of high-intensity x-rays and gamma rays, and the generation of polarized positron beams. (author)

  18. Description of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Compressor Experiment Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Je Kyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik; Ahn, Yoonhan; Kim, Seong Gu [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cha, Je Eun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-10-15

    The full scope of SCIEL project is to demonstrate high efficiency with simple recuperated cycle layout or recompressing layout, which the final cycle layout will be determined by the obtained compressor performance data. As a part of SCIEL project, S-CO{sub 2} compressor experiment facility has been constructed in KAERI. In this paper, current status of S-CO{sub 2} compressor experiment loop will be reviewed. With the growing interest in developing an advanced nuclear power plant, power conversion cycle innovation has been the part of this effort to secure high economics and enhanced safety. One of the main activities of power conversion cycle innovation is the development of Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle technology. S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle concept was suggested in 1960s but the development and realization of the technology has been delayed up to now. In Korea, KAIST, KAERI and POSTECH are conducting research and development of Korean S-CO{sub 2} Brayton cycle technology by erecting the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL)

  19. Protection of G2 and G3 against CO{sub 2}; La protection contre le CO{sub 2} des ensembles G.2 et G.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chassany, J Ph; Rodier, J [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Service de Protection contre les Radiations, Marcoule (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1961-07-01

    The presence of 60.000 m{sup 3} of CO{sub 2} at 15 kg/cm{sup 2} pressure has made necessary to set up a detection and protection system on a scale equal to that used for ionising radiations. Instruments to check CO and CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere carry out measurements continuously, alarm systems give warning if the CO{sub 2} content increases, and the working areas may be surveyed by a whole series of portable instruments. The order for evacuation is given by sirens, and respiratory units are placed at strategic points along the exit paths. (author) [French] La presence de 60000 m{sup 3} de CO{sub 2} a 15 kg/cm{sup 2} de pression a exige la mise en place d'un dispositif de detection et de protection aussi important que celui realise pour les radiations ionisantes. Des appareils de controle d'ambiance pour le CO et le CO{sub 2} effectuent des mesures en permanence, des appareils d'alarme donnent l'alerte en cas d'augmentation de la teneur en CO{sub 2} et tout une serie d'appareils portatifs permettant la surveillance des chantiers. L'evacuation est demandee par sirene et des appareils respiratoires autonomes jalonnent les trajets vers les sorties. (auteur)

  20. Directed technical change and the adoption of CO{sub 2} abatement technology. The case of CO{sub 2} capture and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otto, Vincent M.; Reilly, John [Joint Program on the Science and Policy of Global Change, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States)

    2008-11-15

    This paper studies the cost-effectiveness of combining traditional environmental policy, such as CO{sub 2}-trading schemes, and technology policy that has aims of reducing the cost and speeding the adoption of CO{sub 2} abatement technology. For this purpose, we develop a dynamic general equilibrium model that captures empirical links between CO{sub 2} emissions associated with energy use, directed technical change and the economy. We specify CO{sub 2} capture and storage (CCS) as a discrete CO{sub 2} abatement technology. We find that combining CO{sub 2}-trading schemes with an adoption subsidy is the most effective instrument to induce adoption of the CCS technology. Such a subsidy directly improves the competitiveness of the CCS technology by compensating for its markup over the cost of conventional electricity. Yet, introducing R and D subsidies throughout the entire economy leads to faster adoption of the CCS technology as well and in addition can be cost-effective in achieving the abatement target. (author)

  1. CO{sub 2} exchange environmental productivity indices, and productivity of agaves and cacti under current and elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1994-12-31

    The research described in the proposal investigated net CO{sub 2} uptake and biomass accumulation for an extremely productive CAM plant, the prickly pear cactus Opuntia ficus-indica, under conditions of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations for relatively long periods. The influences of soil water status, air temperature, and the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) on net CO{sub 2} uptake over 24-h periods were evaluated to enable predictions to be made based on an Environmental Productivity Index (EPI). Specifically, EPI predicts the fraction of maximal daily net CO{sub 2} uptake based on prevailing environmental conditions. It is the product of indices for temperature, soil water, and intercepted PPF, each of which range from 0.00 when that index factor completely inhibits net CO{sub 2} uptake to 1.00 when no limitation occurs. For instance, the Water Index is 1.00 under wet conditions and decreases to 0.00 during prolonged drought. Although the major emphasis of the research was on net C0{sub 2} uptake and the resulting biomass production for O. ficus-indica, effects of elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations on root: shoot ratios and on the activities of the two carboxylating enzymes were also investigated. Moreover, experiments were also done on other CAM plants, including Agave deserti, Agave salmiana, and Hylocereus undatus, and Stenocereus queretaroensis.

  2. Sea ice contribution to the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange in the Arctic and Southern Oceans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rysgaard, Soeren (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Earth Observation Science, CHR Faculty of Environment Earth and Resources, Univ. of Manitoba, Winnipeg (Canada)), e-mail: rysgaard@natur.gl; Bendtsen, Joergen (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Centre for Ice and Climate, Niels Bohr Inst., Univ. of Copenhagen, Copenhagen O (Denmark)); Delille, Bruno (Unit' e d' Oceanographie Chimique, Interfacultary Centre for Marine Research, Universite de Liege, Liege (Belgium)); Dieckmann, Gerhard S. (Alfred Wegener Inst. for Polar and Marine Research, Bremerhaven (Germany)); Glud, Ronnie N. (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark); Scottish Association of Marine Sciences, Scotland UK, Southern Danish Univ. and NordCee, Odense M (Denmark)); Kennedy, Hilary; Papadimitriou, Stathys (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom)); Mortensen, John (Greenland Climate Research Centre, Greenland Inst. of Natural Resources, Nuuk, Greenland (Denmark)); Thomas, David N. (School of Ocean Sciences, Bangor Univ., Menai Bridge, Anglesey, Wales (United Kingdom); Finnish Environment Inst. (SYKE), Marine Research Centre, Helsinki (Finland)); Tison, Jean-Louis (Glaciology Unit, Dept. of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Universite Libre de Bruxelles, Bruxelles, (Belgium))

    2011-11-15

    Although salt rejection from sea ice is a key process in deep-water formation in ice-covered seas, the concurrent rejection of CO{sub 2} and the subsequent effect on air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange have received little attention. We review the mechanisms by which sea ice directly and indirectly controls the air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange and use recent measurements of inorganic carbon compounds in bulk sea ice to estimate that oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake during the seasonal cycle of sea-ice growth and decay in ice-covered oceanic regions equals almost half of the net atmospheric CO{sub 2} uptake in ice-free polar seas. This sea-ice driven CO{sub 2} uptake has not been considered so far in estimates of global oceanic CO{sub 2} uptake. Net CO{sub 2} uptake in sea-ice-covered oceans can be driven by; (1) rejection during sea-ice formation and sinking of CO{sub 2}-rich brine into intermediate and abyssal oceanic water masses, (2) blocking of air-sea CO{sub 2} exchange during winter, and (3) release of CO{sub 2}-depleted melt water with excess total alkalinity during sea-ice decay and (4) biological CO{sub 2} drawdown during primary production in sea ice and surface oceanic waters

  3. Foamed Cement Interactions with CO>2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verba, Circe [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Montross, Scott [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); Spaulding, Richard [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Dalton, Laura [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States). Oak Ridge Inst. for Science and Education (ORISE); National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Crandall, Dustin [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Moore, Jonathan [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Morgantown, WV (United States); Glosser, Deborah [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States); Huerta, Nicolas [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States); Kutchko, Barbara [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Pittsburgh, PA, (United States)

    2017-01-23

    Geologic carbon storage (GCS) is a potentially viable strategy to reduce greenhouse emissions. Understanding the risks to engineered and geologic structures associated with GCS is an important first step towards developing practices for safe and effective storage. The widespread utilization of foamed cement in wells may mean that carbon dioxide (CO>2)/brine/foamed cement reactions may occur within these GCS sites. Characterizing the difference in alteration rates as well as the physical and mechanical impact of CO>2/brine/foamed cement is an important preliminary step to ensuring offshore and onshore GCS is a prudent anthropogenic CO>2 mitigation choice. In a typical oil and gas well, cement is placed in the annulus between the steel casing and formation rock for both zonal isolation and casing support. The cement must have sufficient strength to secure the casing in the hole and withstand the stress of drilling, perforating, and fracturing (e.g. API, 1997, 2010 Worldwide Cementing Practices). As such, measuring the mechanical and properties of cement is an important step in predicting cement behavior under applied downhole stresses (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation is the prevention of fluids migrating to different zones outside of the casing and is strongly impacted by the permeability of the wellbore cement (Nelson, 2006). Zonal isolation depends on both the mechanical behavior and permeability (a physical property) of the cement (Mueller and Eid, 2006; Nelson, 2006). Long-term integrity of cement depends on the mechanical properties of the cement sheath, such as Young’s Modulus (Griffith et al., 2004). The cement sheath’s ability to withstand the stresses from changes in pressure and temperature is predominantly determined by the mechanical properties, including Young’s modulus, Poisson’s ratio, and tensile strength. Any geochemical alteration may impact both the mechanical and physical properties of the cement, thus

  4. Reduction of CO{sub 2} emission and oil dependency with biomass-based polygeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joelsson, Jonas M; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology and Environmental Science, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-07-15

    We compare different options for the use of lignocellulosic biomass to reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, focusing on polygeneration of biomass-based motor fuels and electricity, and discuss methodological issues related to such comparisons. The use of biomass can significantly reduce CO{sub 2} emission and oil use, but there is a trade-off between the reductions in CO{sub 2} emission and oil use. Bioelectricity from stand-alone plants replacing coal-based electricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 99 kg per GJ biomass input but gave no oil use reduction. Stand-alone produced methanol replacing diesel reduced the CO{sub 2} emission with 38 kg and the oil use with 0.67 GJ per GJ biomass, indicating that a potential CO{sub 2} emission reduction of 90 kg is lost per GJ oil reduced. CO{sub 2} emission and oil use reduction for alternatives co-producing fuel and electricity fall between the stand-alone alternatives. Plug-in hybrid-electric vehicles using bioelectricity reduced CO{sub 2} emission by 75-88 kg and oil use by 0.99-1.2 GJ, per GJ biomass input. Biomass can also reduce CO{sub 2} emission and/or oil use more efficiently if fossil-fuel-fired boilers or electric heating is replaced by district heating from biomass-based combined heat and power generation. This is also true if electricity or motor fuel is produced from black liquor gasification in pulp mills or if wood is used instead of concrete in building construction. Biomass gasification is an important technology to achieve large reductions, irrespective of whether CO{sub 2} emission or oil use reduction is prioritised. (author)

  5. Does growth under elevated CO{sub 2} moderate photoacclimation in rice?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hubbart, S.; Murchie, E.H.; Lake, J.A. [Univ. of Nottingham. School of Bioscience, Sutton Bonington (United Kingdom); Bird, S. [Univ. of York. Centre for Novel Agricultural Products, Dept. of Biology, York (United Kingdom)

    2013-06-01

    Acclimation of plant photosynthesis to light irradiance (photoacclimation) involves adjustments in levels of pigments and proteins and larger scale changes in leaf morphology. To investigate the impact of rising atmospheric CO{sub 2} on crop physiology, we hypothesize that elevated CO{sub 2} interacts with photoacclimation in rice (Oryza sativa). Rice was grown under high light (HL: 700 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), low light (LL: 200 {mu}mol m{sup -2} s{sup -1}), ambient CO{sub 2} (400 {mu}l l{sup -1}) and elevated CO{sub 2} (1000 {mu}l l{sup -1}). Leaf six was measured throughout. Obscuring meristem tissue during development did not alter leaf thickness indicating that mature leaves are responsible for sensing light during photoacclimation. Elevated CO{sub 2} raised growth chamber photosynthesis and increased tiller formation at both light levels, while it increased leaf length under LL but not under HL. Elevated CO{sub 2} always resulted in increased leaf growth rate and tiller production. Changes in leaf thickness, leaf area, Rubisco content, stem and leaf starch, sucrose and fructose content were all dominated by irradiance and unaffected by CO{sub 2}. However, stomata responded differently; they were significantly smaller in LL grown plants compared to HL but this effect was significantly suppressed under elevated CO{sub 2}. Stomatal density was lower under LL, but this required elevated CO{sub 2} and the magnitude was adaxial or abaxial surface-dependent. We conclude that photoacclimation in rice involves a systemic signal. Furthermore, extra carbohydrate produced under elevated CO{sub 2} is utilized in enhancing leaf and tiller growth and does not enhance or inhibit any feature of photoacclimation with the exception of stomatal morphology. (Author)

  6. Enhanced CO{sub 2} capture on graphene via N, S dual-doping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jieyuan; Hou, Meiling [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University (China); Chen, Yanqiu [Institute of New Energy and Low Carbon Technology, Sichuan University (China); Cen, Wanglai [Institute of New Energy and Low Carbon Technology, Sichuan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization (China); Chu, Yinghao, E-mail: chuyinghao@scu.edu.cn [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University (China); National Engineering Research Center for Flue Gas Desulfurization (China); Yin, Shi, E-mail: yinshi_scu@foxmail.com [College of Architecture and Environment, Sichuan University (China)

    2017-03-31

    Highlights: • Sluggish conjugated π bonds of graphene should be weakened to promote adsorption activity. • A charge delivery channel along S → N → CO{sub 2} path should be prior responsible for the enhancement of CO{sub 2} capture on graphene. • Applicative temperature range of graphene-based adsorbents for CO{sub 2} capture is extend to about 100 °C via N, S dual-doping. - Abstract: N, S doped graphene-based materials have been recently recognized as promising adsorbents for CO{sub 2} capture, but understanding of the adsorption mechanism at the atomic level is still limited. Herein, the local structures and promotion mechanism of CO{sub 2} capture by N, S doped graphene were investigated by combining density functional theory and ab initio thermodynamics. A single vacancy defected graphene involving N, S dual-doping was found to be a superior adsorbent for CO{sub 2} capture under mild conditions (<100 °C, 1 atm). The enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption performance should be ascribed to a charge delivery channel along the S → N → CO{sub 2} path, leading to extra charge transfer from graphene to CO{sub 2}. It is worth mentioning that the extra charge transfer was stimulated by the unique sp{sup 2} hybridization of pyridine N and further enhanced by S in N, S dual-doped graphene. A possible mechanism has been proposed to explain the high adsorption performance of CO{sub 2} by N, S dual-doped graphene, which offers insights for the design of new graphene-based adsorbents.

  7. Liquid CO>2/Coal Slurry for Feeding Low Rank Coal to Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marasigan, Jose [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Goldstein, Harvey [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States); Dooher, John [Electric Power Research Institute, Inc., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    This study investigates the practicality of using a liquid CO>2/coal slurry preparation and feed system for the E-Gas™ gasifier in an integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) electric power generation plant configuration. Liquid CO>2 has several property differences from water that make it attractive for the coal slurries used in coal gasification-based power plants. First, the viscosity of liquid CO>2 is much lower than water. This means it should take less energy to pump liquid CO>2 through a pipe compared to water. This also means that a higher solids concentration can be fed to the gasifier, which should decrease the heat requirement needed to vaporize the slurry. Second, the heat of vaporization of liquid CO>2 is about 80% lower than water. This means that less heat from the gasification reactions is needed to vaporize the slurry. This should result in less oxygen needed to achieve a given gasifier temperature. And third, the surface tension of liquid CO>2 is about 2 orders of magnitude lower than water, which should result in finer atomization of the liquid CO>2 slurry, faster reaction times between the oxygen and coal particles, and better carbon conversion at the same gasifier temperature. EPRI and others have recognized the potential that liquid CO>2 has in improving the performance of an IGCC plant and have previously conducted systemslevel analyses to evaluate this concept. These past studies have shown that a significant increase in IGCC performance can be achieved with liquid CO>2 over water with certain gasifiers. Although these previous analyses had produced some positive results, they were still based on various assumptions for liquid CO>2/coal slurry properties.

  8. Capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. Innovation, industrial stakes and realizations; Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}. Innovation, enjeux industriels et realisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavergne, R.; Podkanski, J.; Rohner, H.; Otter, N.; Swift, J.; Dance, T.; Vesseron, Ph.; Reich, J.P.; Reynen, B.; Wright, L.; Marliave, L. de; Stromberg, L.; Aimard, N.; Wendel, H.; Erdol, E.; Dino, R.; Renzenbrink, W.; Birat, J.P.; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I.; Christensen, N.P.; Le Thiez, P.; Paelinck, Ph.; David, M.; Pappalardo, M.; Moisan, F.; Marston, Ph.; Law, M.; Zakkour, P.; Singer, St.; Philippe, Th.; Philippe, Th

    2007-07-01

    The awareness of the international community and the convergence of scientific data about the global warming confirm the urgency of implementing greenhouse gases abatement technologies at the world scale. The growth of world energy demand will not allow to rapidly get rid of the use of fossil fuels which are the main sources of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} is a promising way to conciliate the use of fossil fuels and the abatement of pollutants responsible for the global warming. The economical and industrial stakes of this technique are enormous. In front of the success of a first international colloquium on this topic held in Paris in 2005, the IFP, the BRGM and the Ademe have jointly organized a second colloquium in October 2007, in particular to present the first experience feedbacks of several pilot experiments all over the world. This document gathers the transparencies of 27 presentations given at this colloquium and dealing with: the 4. IPCC report on the stakes of CO{sub 2} capture and storage; the factor 4: how to organize the French economy transition from now to 2050; the technology perspectives, scenarios and strategies up to 2050; the European technological platform on 'zero-emission thermal plants'; the CO{sub 2} capture and storage road-map in the USA; research, development and implementation of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in Australia; the Canadian experience; ten years of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in Norway; the In Salah operations (Algeria); CO{sub 2} capture and storage: from vision to realisation; the oxi-combustion and storage pilot unit of Lacq (France); the Altmark gas field (Germany): analysis of CO{sub 2} capture and storage potentialities in the framework of a gas assisted recovery project; oil assisted recovery and CO{sub 2} related storage activities in Brazil: the Buracica and Miranga fields experience; carbon capture and storage, an option for coal power generation; steel

  9. Capture and geological storage of CO{sub 2}. Innovation, industrial stakes and realizations; Captage et stockage geologique du CO{sub 2}. Innovation, enjeux industriels et realisations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavergne, R; Podkanski, J; Rohner, H; Otter, N; Swift, J; Dance, T; Vesseron, Ph; Reich, J P; Reynen, B; Wright, L; Marliave, L de; Stromberg, L; Aimard, N; Wendel, H; Erdol, E; Dino, R; Renzenbrink, W; Birat, J P; Czernichowski-Lauriol, I; Christensen, N P; Le Thiez, P; Paelinck, Ph; David, M; Pappalardo, M; Moisan, F; Marston, Ph; Law, M; Zakkour, P; Singer, St; Philippe, Th; Philippe, Th

    2007-07-01

    The awareness of the international community and the convergence of scientific data about the global warming confirm the urgency of implementing greenhouse gases abatement technologies at the world scale. The growth of world energy demand will not allow to rapidly get rid of the use of fossil fuels which are the main sources of greenhouse gases. Therefore, the capture and disposal of CO{sub 2} is a promising way to conciliate the use of fossil fuels and the abatement of pollutants responsible for the global warming. The economical and industrial stakes of this technique are enormous. In front of the success of a first international colloquium on this topic held in Paris in 2005, the IFP, the BRGM and the Ademe have jointly organized a second colloquium in October 2007, in particular to present the first experience feedbacks of several pilot experiments all over the world. This document gathers the transparencies of 27 presentations given at this colloquium and dealing with: the 4. IPCC report on the stakes of CO{sub 2} capture and storage; the factor 4: how to organize the French economy transition from now to 2050; the technology perspectives, scenarios and strategies up to 2050; the European technological platform on 'zero-emission thermal plants'; the CO{sub 2} capture and storage road-map in the USA; research, development and implementation of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in Australia; the Canadian experience; ten years of CO{sub 2} capture and storage in Norway; the In Salah operations (Algeria); CO{sub 2} capture and storage: from vision to realisation; the oxi-combustion and storage pilot unit of Lacq (France); the Altmark gas field (Germany): analysis of CO{sub 2} capture and storage potentialities in the framework of a gas assisted recovery project; oil assisted recovery and CO{sub 2} related storage activities in Brazil: the Buracica and Miranga fields experience; carbon capture and storage, an option for coal power generation; steel-making industries

  10. CO{sub 2} separation from biogas with ceramic membranes; CO{sub 2}-Abtrennung aus Biogas mit keramischen Membranen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fassauer, Burkhardt; Richter, Hannes; Schwarz, Bjoern; Reger-Wagner, Norman; Kaemnitz, Susanne [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Keramische Technologien und Systeme IKTS, Dresden (Germany); Lubenau, Udo; Mothes, Raimund [DBI Gas- und Umwelttechnik GmbH, Leipzig (Germany)

    2015-07-01

    Biogas contains after the production of up to 55% CO{sub 2}. In order to use biogas as a fuel or to feed it into the natural gas network, it must be purified before. Adsorption and scrubbing processes are primarily used technically. Membrane processes offer the advantage of continuous operation and a simple modular and flexible system design, which imply relatively low investment costs and low energy needs. Moreover, membrane systems can be started up and shut down quickly without any problems. Ceramic membranes are characterised by high stability (thermal, chemical, mechanical) and very high flows in comparison to polymeric membranes. [German] Biogas enthaelt nach der Erzeugung bis zu 55 % CO{sub 2}. Um Biogas als Kraftstoff zu nutzen oder in das Erdgasnetz einspeisen zu koennen, muss es zuvor gereinigt werden. Technisch genutzt werden vor allem Adsorptions- und Waschverfahren. Membranverfahren bieten den Vorteil eines kontinuierlichen Betriebes sowie einer einfachen, modularen und flexiblen Anlagenkonzeption, die vergleichsweise niedrige Investitionskosten und einen geringen Energiebedarf bedeuten. Darueber hinaus koennen Membrananlagen schnell an- und abgefahren werden und voellig ohne Probleme abgeschaltet werden. Keramische Membranen zeichnen sich gegenueber Polymermembranen durch hohe Stabilitaet (thermisch, chemisch, mechanisch) und sehr hohe Fluesse aus.

  11. Acute physiological impacts of CO{sub 2} ocean sequestration on marine animals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishimatsu, A.; Hayashi, M.; Lee, K.S.; Murata, K.; Kumagai, E. [Nagasaki Univ., Nagasaki (Japan). Marine Research Inst.; Kikkawa, T. [Marine Ecology Research Inst., Chiba (Japan). Central Laboratory; Kita, J. [Research Inst. of Innovative Technology for the Earth, Kyoto (Japan)

    2005-07-01

    The biological impacts of ocean carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestration must be carefully considered before it is implemented as a mitigation strategy. This paper presented details of a study investigating the effects of high CO{sub 2} concentrations on marine fish, lobster, and octopus. The influence of water temperature on the physiological effects of CO{sub 2} was also discussed. In the first part of the study, eggs and larvae of red seabream were exposed to both CO{sub 2} and HCI-acidified seawater at identical pH levels. Seabream in the CO{sub 2} group showed a much higher mortality rate than fish in the HCI group. Other tests showed that Japanese Flounder died after complete recovery of pH in seawater equilibrated with 5 per cent CO{sub 2}. Cardiac output was rapidly depressed in Yellowtail fish without significant changes in blood oxygen concentrations. Lower temperatures resulted in higher mortality and delayed pH recovery during hypercapnia in all fish. Western rock lobsters were the most tolerant to CO{sub 2} among all species tested. The recovery of hemolymph pH was complete at exposure to CO{sub 2} concentrations of 1 per cent. Changes in hemolymph bicarbonate concentrations indicated that acid-based regulatory mechanisms differed between fish and lobsters. Mortality rates for octopus were significant at CO{sub 2} concentrations of 1 per cent. The results of all tests showed that aquatic animals are more susceptible to increases in ambient CO{sub 2} levels than terrestrial animals. It was concluded that even slight elevations in CO{sub 2} concentration levels adversely affected physiological functioning in the tested species. It was concluded that CO{sub 2} sequestration in deeper, colder waters will have a more pronounced effect on aquatic animals due to the interactions between CO{sub 2} and lower temperatures, as well as the fact that most deep-sea fish are less tolerant to environmental perturbations. 3 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  12. CO{sub 2} capture and utilization for enhanced oil recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vilhelmsen, P.J.; Well, W. van; Nielsen, Charles [DONG Energy Generation, Fredericia (Denmark); Harrar, W.; Reffstrup, J. [DONG Energy Exploration and Production, Hoersholm (Denmark)

    2007-05-15

    CO{sub 2} is an international theme and the cap-and-trade systems under implementation will lead to significant alterations in the energy market and in the energy system altogether. A possible technical step to reduce atmospheric emissions is CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR). CO{sub 2} capture is to some extent a know technology but has not yet been optimised and commercialised for power plant utilisation. Correspondingly CO{sub 2} utilisation for EOR is a known method in other areas of the world where the reservoir conditions are different from those of the North Sea. For several years Elsam and Energi E2, part of DONG Energy, have worked on reducing CO{sub 2} emissions through increased efficiency at the coal-fired power plants, and this work has now been extended to also include capture and utilisation of CO{sub 2}. DONG E and P within DONG Energy has started work on the utilisation of CO{sub 2} for EOR at the company's fields in the North Sea. Based on DONG Energy's interest in working through the whole value chain from power plants to EOR utilisation in the North Sea, this paper describes our experience with CO{sub 2} capture at the trial plant CASTOR at Esbjerg power plant and the actual work of investigating and preparing the pilot test of CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. The paper also illustrates the perspectives of retrofitting the existing fleet of super critical coal-fired power plants close to the North Sea with CO{sub 2} capture and the utilisation of the CO{sub 2} for EOR in the North Sea. DONG Energy's perspective is that CO{sub 2} for EOR can contribute to materialising the vision that the central power plant can be developed into an energy refinery. The development work presented will be carried out in cooperation with leading international players and Danish universities and knowledge centres Technical University of Denmark (DTU), The Danish Geotechnical Institute (GEO) and Geological

  13. Face time: educating face transplant candidates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamparello, Brooke M; Bueno, Ericka M; Diaz-Siso, Jesus Rodrigo; Sisk, Geoffroy C; Pomahac, Bohdan

    2013-01-01

    Face transplantation is the innovative application of microsurgery and immunology to restore appearance and function to those with severe facial disfigurements. Our group aims to establish a multidisciplinary education program that can facilitate informed consent and build a strong knowledge base in patients to enhance adherence to medication regimes, recovery, and quality of life. We analyzed handbooks from our institution's solid organ transplant programs to identify topics applicable to face transplant patients. The team identified unique features of face transplantation that warrant comprehensive patient education. We created a 181-page handbook to provide subjects interested in pursuing transplantation with a written source of information on the process and team members and to address concerns they may have. While the handbook covers a wide range of topics, it is easy to understand and visually appealing. Face transplantation has many unique aspects that must be relayed to the patients pursuing this novel therapy. Since candidates lack third-party support groups and programs, the transplant team must provide an extensive educational component to enhance this complex process. As face transplantation continues to develop, programs must create sound education programs that address patients' needs and concerns to facilitate optimal care.

  14. Study of CO{sub 2} capture processes in power plants; Etude de procedes de captage du CO{sub 2} dans les centrales thermiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amann, J.M

    2007-12-15

    The aim of the present study is to assess and compare various processes aiming at recover CO{sub 2} from power plants fed with natural gas (NGCC) and pulverized coal (PC). These processes are post-combustion CO{sub 2} capture using chemical solvents, natural gas reforming for pre-combustion capture by methanol and oxy-fuel combustion with cryogenic recovery of CO{sub 2}. These processes were evaluated using the process software Aspen PlusTM to give some clues for choosing the best option for each type of power plant. With regard to post-combustion, an aqueous solution based on a mixture of amines (N-methyldiethanolamine (MDEA) and triethylene tetramine (TETA)) was developed. Measurements of absorption were carried out between 298 and 333 K in a Lewis cell. CO{sub 2} partial pressure at equilibrium, characteristic of the CO{sub 2} solubility in the solvent, was determined up to 393 K. The solvent performances were compared with respect to more conventional solvents such as MDEA and monoethanolamine (MEA). For oxy-fuel combustion, a recovery process, based on a cryogenic separation of the components of the flue gas, was developed and applied to power plants. The study showed that O{sub 2} purity acts on the CO{sub 2} concentration in the flue gas and thus on the performances of the recovery process. The last option is natural gas reforming with CO{sub 2} pre-combustion capture. Several configurations were assessed: air reforming and oxygen reforming, reforming pressure and dilution of the synthesis gas. The comparison of these various concepts suggests that, in the short and medium term, chemical absorption is the most interesting process for NGCC power plants. For CP power plants, oxy-combustion can be a very interesting option, as well as post-combustion capture by chemical solvents. (author)

  15. Potential for geological sequestration of CO{sub 2} in Switzerland - Final report; Studie zur Abschaetzung des Potenzials fuer CO{sub 2}-Sequestrierung in der Schweiz - Schlussbericht

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Diamond, L. W.; Chevalier, G. [Institut fuer Geologie, Universitaet Bern, Bern (Switzerland); Leu, W. [Geoform AG, Geologische Beratungen und Studien, Villeneuve (former Minusio) (Switzerland)

    2010-08-15

    One approach to dispose of the greenhouse gas CO{sub 2} is to inject it into deep, porous geological formations, where is remains safely trapped over periods of many millennia. This report evaluates the potential for this option within Switzerland, based on a literature review. Only geological criteria for CO{sub 2} sequestration are taken into account, following international best-practice principles for reservoir safety. Simultaneous consideration of nine geological attributes (including faulting and natural seismicity) allows the sequestration potential to be mapped at a resolution of a few km{sup 2}, using a scale between 0 (negligible potential) and 1 (high potential). It is concluded that the crystalline rocks of the Alps and the sediments underlying the valleys of Valais, Ticino and Grisons are unsuitable for CO{sub 2} sequestration. However, the sedimentary rocks below the Central Plateau (and to lesser extent below the Jura Chain), locally show moderate to very good potential. At least four formations of porous sandstones and limestones (saline aquifers) underlie large areas of the Plateau within the technically favoured depth interval of 800-2500 m. Approximately 5000 km{sup 2} of the Plateau (mostly in the sector Fribourg-Olten-Lucerne) exhibits sequestration potentials above 0.6, offering a theoretical (unproven) storage capacity for approximately 2680 million tonnes of CO{sub 2}. From a purely geological point of view these results are promising. Although the high potentials do not guarantee the feasibility of CO{sub 2} sequestration, they serve as guides to areas that warrant detailed investigation. If this CO{sub 2} storage option is pursued in Switzerland, then more detailed geological investigations and a pilot study would be necessary to prove its feasibility. The assessed risks, leakage-monitoring procedures and non-geological criteria (proximity to CO{sub 2} point-sources, economics, conflicts of use of the subsurface, etc.) would have to be

  16. Penn West Energy Trust CO{sub 2} EOR storage monitoring project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chalaturnyk, R. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada)

    2007-07-01

    This presentation described Penn West Energy Trust's carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) enhanced oil recovery (EOR) storage monitoring project. The project formed part of a royalty credit program that offered a royalty reduction to energy companies as part of a plan to encourage the development of a CO{sub 2} storage industry in Alberta. The multi-agency project is expected to provide a better understanding of the fate of CO{sub 2} injected into petroleum reservoirs and the role that CO{sub 2} storage will play in reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. The project is located in a reservoir that had previously been waterflooded. High purity CO{sub 2} is injected through 2 directional wells. Data acquired from the field is used to provide information on baseline geology and hydrogeology, as well as to provide details of baseline leakages. Rock properties are investigated in order identify issues affecting rock strength. Geophysical monitoring is conducted to interpret baseline seismic profile datasets as well as to integrate active and passive survey analyses with geochemical characterization studies and reservoir models. The project is currently in the stage of developing a simulation model based on a comprehensive understanding of CO{sub 2} injection mechanisms. The model will be used to predict CO{sub 2} storage capacity and movement. refs., tabs., figs.

  17. FIRST INFRARED BAND STRENGTHS FOR AMORPHOUS CO{sub 2}, AN OVERLOOKED COMPONENT OF INTERSTELLAR ICES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gerakines, Perry A.; Hudson, Reggie L., E-mail: Reggie.Hudson@NASA.gov [Astrochemistry Laboratory, NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)

    2015-08-01

    Solid carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) has long been recognized as a component of both interstellar and solar system ices, but a recent literature search has revealed significant qualitative and quantitative discrepancies in the laboratory spectra on which the abundances of extraterrestrial CO{sub 2} are based. Here we report new infrared (IR) spectra of amorphous CO{sub 2}-ice along with band intensities (band strengths) of four mid-IR absorptions, the first such results in the literature. A possible thickness dependence for amorphous-CO{sub 2} IR band shapes and positions also is investigated, and the three discordant reports of amorphous CO{sub 2} spectra in the literature are addressed. Applications of our results are discussed with an emphasis on laboratory investigations and results from astronomical observations. A careful comparison with earlier work shows that the IR spectra calculated from several databases for CO{sub 2} ices, all ices being made near 10 K, are not for amorphous CO{sub 2}, but rather for crystalline CO{sub 2} or crystalline-amorphous mixtures.

  18. Integrated basic treatment of activated carbon for enhanced CO{sub 2} selectivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adelodun, Adedeji Adebukola; Jo, Young-Min, E-mail: ymjo@khu.ac.kr

    2013-12-01

    We attempted the use of three chemical agents viz nitric acid (HN), calcium nitrate (CaN) and calcium ethanoate (CaEt) to achieve enhanced CO{sub 2} selective adsorption by activated carbon (AC). In dry phase treatment, microporous coconut shell-based carbon (CS) exhibits higher CO{sub 2} capacity than coal-based. However, upon wet-phase pre-treatment, modified CS samples showed lesser CO{sub 2} adsorption efficiency. Surface characterization with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms the presence of calcium and amine species on the samples with integrated treatment (A-CaN). These samples recorded the highest low-level CO{sub 2} capture despite calcinated CaEt-doped samples (C-CaEt) showing the highest value for pure and high level CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities. The slope and linearity values of isobaric desorption were used to estimate the proportion of CO{sub 2} chemisorbed and heterogeneity of the adsorbents’ surfaces respectively. Consequently, integrated basic impregnation provides the most efficient adsorbents for selective adsorption of both indoor and outdoor CO{sub 2} levels.

  19. CO{sub 2} INFRARED PHONON MODES IN INTERSTELLAR ICE MIXTURES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooke, Ilsa R. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, McCormick Road, Charlottesville, VA 22904 (United States); Fayolle, Edith C.; Öberg, Karin I., E-mail: irc5zb@virginia.edu [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States)

    2016-11-20

    CO{sub 2} ice is an important reservoir of carbon and oxygen in star- and planet-forming regions. Together with water and CO, CO{sub 2} sets the physical and chemical characteristics of interstellar icy grain mantles, including desorption and diffusion energies for other ice constituents. A detailed understanding of CO{sub 2} ice spectroscopy is a prerequisite to characterize CO{sub 2} interactions with other volatiles both in interstellar ices and in laboratory experiments of interstellar ice analogs. We report laboratory spectra of the CO{sub 2} longitudinal optical (LO) phonon mode in pure CO{sub 2} ice and in CO{sub 2} ice mixtures with H{sub 2}O, CO, and O{sub 2} components. We show that the LO phonon mode position is sensitive to the mixing ratio of various ice components of astronomical interest. In the era of the James Webb Space Telescope , this characteristic could be used to constrain interstellar ice compositions and morphologies. More immediately, LO phonon mode spectroscopy provides a sensitive probe of ice mixing in the laboratory and should thus enable diffusion measurements with higher precision than has been previously possible.

  20. Integrated Energy System with Beneficial Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) Use

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Xiaolei; Rink, Nancy

    2011-04-30

    To address the public concerns regarding the consequences of climate change from anthropogenic carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions, the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory (DOE-NETL) is actively funding a CO{sub 2} management program to develop technologies capable of reducing the CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel power plants and other industrial facilities. Over the past decade, this program has focused on reducing the costs of carbon capture and storage technologies. Recently, DOE-NETL launched an alternative CO{sub 2} mitigation program focusing on beneficial CO{sub 2} reuse and supporting the development of technologies that mitigate emissions by converting CO{sub 2} to solid mineral form that can be utilized for enhanced oil recovery, in the manufacturing of concrete or as a benign landfill, in the production of valuable chemicals and/or fuels. This project was selected as a CO{sub 2} reuse activity which would conduct research and development (R&D) at the pilot scale via a cost-shared Cooperative Agreement number DE-FE0001099 with DOE-NETL and would utilize funds setaside by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009 for Industrial Carbon Capture and Sequestration R&D,

  1. An intelligent system for monitoring and diagnosis of the CO{sub 2} capture process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Q.; Chan, C.W.; Tontiwachwuthikul, P. [University of Regina, Regina, SK (Canada). Faculty of Engineering

    2011-07-15

    Amine-based carbon dioxide capture has been widely considered as a feasible ideal technology for reducing large-scale CO{sub 2} emissions and mitigating global warming. The operation of amine-based CO{sub 2} capture is a complicated task, which involves monitoring over 100 process parameters and careful manipulation of numerous valves and pumps. The current research in the field of CO{sub 2} capture has emphasized the need for improving CO{sub 2} capture efficiency and enhancing plant performance. In the present study, artificial intelligence techniques were applied for developing a knowledge-based expert system that aims at effectively monitoring and controlling the CO{sub 2} capture process and thereby enhancing CO{sub 2} capture efficiency. In developing the system, the inferential modeling technique (IMT) was applied to analyze the domain knowledge and problem-solving techniques, and a knowledge base was developed on DeltaV Simulate. The expert system helps to enhance CO{sub 2} capture system performance and efficiency by reducing the time required for diagnosis and problem solving if abnormal conditions occur. The expert system can be used as a decision-support tool that helps inexperienced operators control the plant: it can be used also for training novice operators.

  2. Design of Stratified Functional Nanoporous Materials for CO>2 Capture and Conversion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J. Karl [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States); Ye, Jingyun [Univ. of Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    2017-10-03

    The objective of this project is to develop novel nanoporous materials for CO>2 capture and conversion. The motivation of this work is that capture of CO>2 from flue gas or the atmosphere coupled with catalytic hydrogenation of CO>2 into valuable chemicals and fuels can reduce the net amount of CO>2 in the atmosphere while providing liquid transportation fuels and other commodity chemicals. One approach to increasing the economic viability of carbon capture and conversion is to design a single material that can be used for both the capture and catalytic conversion of CO>2, because such a material could increase efficiency through process intensification. We have used density functional theory (DFT) methods to design catalytic moieties that can be incorporated into various metal organic framework (MOF) materials. We chose to work with MOFs because they are highly tailorable, can be functionalized, and have been shown to selectively adsorb CO>2 over N2, which is a requirement for CO>2 capture from flue gas. Moreover, the incorporation of molecular catalytic moieties into MOF, through covalent bonding, produces a heterogeneous catalytic material having activities and selectivities close to those of homogeneous catalysts, but without the draw-backs associated with homogeneous catalysis.

  3. Flow Vaporization of CO{sub 2} in Microchannel Tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersen, Jostein

    2002-07-01

    Carbon dioxide is receiving renewed interest as an efficient and environmentally safe refrigerant in a number of applications, including mobile air conditioning and heat pump systems, and hot water heat pumps. Compact heat exchangers for CO{sub 2} systems are designed with small-diameter tubing. The purpose of this study is therefore to provide a better basis for understanding and predicting heat transfer and pressure drop during flow vaporization of CO{sub 2} in microchannels. The ''unusual'' properties of carbon dioxide give heat transfer and two-phase flow characteristics that are very different from those of conventional refrigerants. Examples of these differences are the much higher pressure, the resulting high vapour density, a very low surface tension, and a low liquid viscosity. High pressure and low surface tension has a major effect on nucleate boiling characteristics, and earlier test data have shown a clear dominance of nucleate boiling even at very high mass flux. Heat transfer tests were conducted in a rig using a flat, extruded aluminium microchannel tube of 540 mm length with 25 channels of 0.81 mm diameter. The horizontal test tube was heated by a water jacket in order to get representative boundary conditions for air-to-refrigerant heat transfer (''fluid heating''). Constant heat flux conditions do not simulate these boundary conditions well, and may give unrealistic behaviour especially in relation to dryout and post-dryout heat transfer. Systematic tests at constant heat flux with single-phase CO{sub 2} flow on the inside generated data that were used in the derivation of a model for water-side beat transfer coefficient. A regression based on these data gave a calibrated equation for water-side heat transfer on the form NuNu(Re,Pr). This equation was then used in later experiments to subtract water-side thermal resistance from the measured overall resistance (1/UA), thereby finding the internal heat

  4. Selection of nanoparticles using CO.sub.2-expanded liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Christopher B; McLeod, Marshall Chandler; Anand, Madhu

    2013-02-19

    A method for size selection of nanostructures comprising utilizing a gas-expanded liquids (GEL) and controlled pressure to precipitate desired size populations of nanostructures, e.g., monodisperse. The GEL can comprise CO.sub.2 antisolvent and an organic solvent. The method can be carried out in an apparatus comprising a first open vessel configured to allow movement of a liquid/particle solution to specific desired locations within the vessel, a second pressure vessel, a location controller for controlling location of the particles and solution within the first vessel, a inlet for addition of antisolvent to the first vessel, and a device for measuring the amount of antisolvent added. Also disclosed is a method for forming nanoparticle thin films comprising utilizing a GEL containing a substrate, pressurizing the solution to precipitate and deposit nanoparticles onto the substrate, removing the solvent thereby leaving a thin nanoparticle film, removing the solvent and antisolvent, and drying the film.

  5. CO{sub 2} laser-aided waste incineration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Costes, J R; Guiberteau, P [CEA Centre d` Etudes de la Vallee du Rhone, 30 - Marcoule (France). Dept. d` Exploitation du Retraitement et de Demantelement; Caminat, P; Bournot, P

    1994-12-31

    Lasers are widely employed in laboratories and in certain industrial applications, notably for welding, cutting and surface treatments. This paper describes a new application, incineration, which appears warranted when the following features are required: high-temperature incineration (> 1500 deg C) with close-tolerance temperature control in an oxidizing medium while ensuring containment of toxic waste. These criteria correspond to the application presented here. Following a brief theoretical introduction concerning the laser/surface interaction, the paper describes the incineration of graphite waste contaminated with alpha-emitting radionuclides. Process feasibility has been demonstrated on a nonradioactive prototype capable of incinerating 10 kg{sup -h-1} using a 7 kW CO{sub 2} laser. An industrial facility with the same capacity, designed to operate within the constraints of an alpha-tight glove box environment, is now at the project stage. Other types of applications with similar requirements may be considered. (authors). 3 refs., 7 figs.

  6. CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology at Westinghouse Hanford

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldridge, T.L.; Aldrich, L.K. II; Bowman, E.V. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1995-03-01

    Experimentation and testing with CO{sub 2} pellet decontamination technology is being conducted at Westinghosue Hanford Company (WHC), Richland, Washington. There are 1,100 known existing waste sites at Hanford. The sites specified by federal and state agencies are currently being studied to determine the appropriate cleanup methods best for each site. These sites are contaminated and work on them is in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA). There are also 63 treatment, storage, and disposal units, for example: groups of waste tanks or drums. In 1992, there were 100 planned activities scheduled to bring these units into the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) compliance or close them after waste removal. Ninety-six of these were completed. The remaining four were delayed or are being negotiated with regulatory agencies. As a result of past defense program activities at Hanford a tremendous volume of materials and equipment have accumulated and require remediation.

  7. Supercritical CO{sub 2} Compressor with Active Magnetic Bearing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Jae Eun [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Seong Kuk; Lee, JeKyoung; Lee, Jeong Ik [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    For the stable operation of the sCO{sub 2} integral test facility SCIEL, KAERI prepared Active Magnetic Bearing sCO{sub 2} compressor for the 70,000RPM operation. Power generation test with AMB compressor will be finished within first half year of 2016 under supercritical state. The principal advantages of the sCO{sub 2} Cycle are high efficiency at moderate temperature range, compact components size, simple cycle configuration, and compatibility with various heat sources. The Supercritical CO{sub 2} Brayton Cycle Integral Experiment Loop (SCIEL) has been installed in Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute (KAERI) to develop the base technologies for the sCO{sub 2} cycle power generation system. The operation of the SCIEL has mainly focused on sCO{sub 2} compressor development and establishing sCO{sub 2} system control logic.

  8. Ultrafine needle CO{sub 2} splenoportography: A comparative investigation with transarterial portography and MR portography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teng Gaojun [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)]. E-mail: gjteng@vip.sina.com; Deng Gang [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Liu Zhensheng [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Fang Wen [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Zhu Guangyu [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Li Guozhao [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Guo Jinhe [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); He Shicheng [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China); Dong Yonghua [Department of Radiology, Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, 87 Dingjiaqiao Road, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2006-09-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the safety and quality of CO{sub 2} splenoportography (CO{sub 2}-SP) by comparison to 3-dimensional dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance portography (3D-DCE-MRP) and transarterial portography (TAP). Materials and methods: CO{sub 2}-SP, 3D-DCE-MRP and TAP were performed within 3 days in 35 patients. CO{sub 2}-SP was conducted with a 26 G needle by puncture of spleen under fluoroscopy and/or ultrasound guidance. A fifty mm{sup 3} of CO{sub 2} was manually injected within 3 s. The safety and the side effects of CO{sub 2}-SP were assessed with a scoring system based on both the subjective feeling of patients questioned and the objective appearances of vital signs, electrocardiogram (ECG) and saturation of percutaneous blood oxygen (SpO{sub 2}). The quality of the imaging was compared among the three groups using different methods by a scoring criterion based on visualization of the portal branches. Results: Transient mild discomfortable reaction was present in 18 patients (51.4%). The scores measured for quality of portal vein branch visualization in the groups with CO{sub 2}-SP, 3D-DCE-MRP and TAP were 226, 196 and 167, respectively (P < 0.001, the higher of the scores, the better of the quality). The visibility of collateral veins was not significantly different amongst the three imaging techniques. Conclusion: Ultrafine needle CO{sub 2}-SP is safe and minimally invasive. The quality of CO{sub 2}-SP is better than that with 3D-DCE-MRP and TAP in terms of the visualizing portal vein branches.

  9. Ammonia-treated porous carbon derived from ZIF-8 for enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Xiancheng [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Li, Liqing, E-mail: liqingli@hotmail.com [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Wang, Shaobin [Department of Chemical Engineering, Curtin University, GPO Box U1987, Perth 6845, WA (Australia); Lu, Mingming [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States); Li, Hailong; Ma, Weiwu [School of Energy Science and Engineering, Central South University, Changsha 410083, Hunan (China); Keener, Tim C. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati, OH 45221 (United States)

    2016-04-30

    Graphical abstract: The role of nitrogen species in increasing CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity has been explained with the mechanisms of base–acid interaction, as well as hydrogen bonds interaction. - Highlights: • A porous carbon (ZC) was prepared at 900 °C using ZIF-8 as a solid template for CO{sub 2} adsorption. • The ZC was further treated by ammonia functionalization to improve CO{sub 2} uptake. • The detailed interaction mechanism between N-containing groups and CO{sub 2} molecules is elucidated. - Abstract: A porous carbon (ZC) was prepared at 900 °C using zeolitic imidazolate framework-8 (ZIF-8) as a solid template for CO{sub 2} adsorption. The ZC was further treated by ammonia functionalization to improve CO{sub 2} uptake. The textural and surface characteristics of ZC samples were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). It was revealed that ammonia treatment at 600 °C considerably enhanced the specific surface area and N-content of ZC. However, the pyrrolic-N group was decreased, yet the pyridinic-N group was increased with an increased temperature. The pyrrolic-N significantly enhanced CO{sub 2} adsorption. The ammonia treatment, on the one hand, increases the alkalinity of ZC sample and the base–acid interaction between N-containing functional groups with CO{sub 2}. On the other hand, the ammonia treatment increased pyrrolic-N group (NH) into carbon surface facilitating the hydrogen-bonding interactions between proton of pyrrolic-N and CO{sub 2} molecules.

  10. CO{sub 2} expansion work recovery by impulse turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toendell, Espen

    2006-07-01

    This study focuses on refrigeration processes with relatively low cooling capacities and hereby low circulation rates. The presented theory for turbines focuses on work extraction in impulse turbines. For an impulse turbine, the optimal rotational speed gives a turbine blade tip speed equal to half the nozzle jet velocity. With small volume flow rates, the turbine will have small dimensions, and hereby the rotational speed will be high. Together with principles for work extraction, the losses in the turbine were discussed. The main losses are nozzle losses (Friction and incomplete flashing), rotational losses, disc friction, windage, changing angles, non-rotational losses, fluid friction between jet and turbine blade, jet not hitting turbine blade, mechanical losses in bearings. A literature survey was made to show some examples on two-phase turbines and to create a theoretical basis for fluid expansion in a nozzle. The literature survey on two-phase expanders showed some examples on Helium expanders with small dimensions and good efficiencies. Compared to a helium expander, a CO{sub 2} expander will be working on a higher pressure, and hereby some extra losses must be expected. Some work on expander for R134a was also referred. That work was however focused on high cooling capacities, which means that the R134a expander will have much higher mass flow than the CO{sub 2} expander in this study. The literature survey on fluid expansion and nucleation showed that the critical radius is important in nucleation. The critical radius is dependent on the surface tension and the difference between the liquid saturation pressure and the local pressure. For the current study, understanding of nucleation will be important in order to understand the function of the nozzle. Finally some models for critical flow were presented (author) (ml)

  11. The Secrets of Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Enquist, Magnus; Ghirlanda, Stefano

    1998-01-01

    This is a comment on an article by Perrett et al., on the same issue of Nature, investigating face perception. With computer graphics, Perrett and colleagues have produced exaggerated male and female faces, and asked people to rate them with respect to femininity or masculinity, and personality traits such as intelligence, emotionality and so on. The key question is: what informations do faces (and sexual signals in general) convey? One view, supported by Perrett and colleagues, is that all a...

  12. Analysis of mineral trapping for CO{sub 2} disposal in deep aquifers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-07-20

    CO{sub 2} disposal into deep aquifers has been suggested as a potential means whereby atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases may be reduced. However, our knowledge of the geohydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and geomechanics of CO{sub 2} disposal must be refined if this technology is to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. As a prelude to a fully coupled treatment of physical and chemical effects of CO{sub 2} injection, we have analyzed the impact of CO{sub 2} immobilization through carbonate precipitation. A survey of all major classes of rock-forming minerals, whose alteration would lead to carbonate precipitation, indicated that very few minerals are present in sufficient quantities in aquifer host rocks to permit significant sequestration of CO{sub 2}. We performed batch reaction modeling of the geochemical evolution of three different aquifer mineralogies in the presence of CO{sub 2} at high pressure. Our modeling considered (1) redox processes that could be important in deep subsurface environments, (2) the presence of organic matter, (3) the kinetics of chemical interactions between the host rock minerals and the aqueous phase, and (4) CO{sub 2} solubility dependence on pressure, temperature and salinity of the system. The geochemical evolution under both natural background and CO{sub 2} injection conditions was evaluated. In addition, changes in porosity were monitored during the simulations. Results indicate that CO{sub 2} sequestration by matrix minerals varies considerably with rock type. Under favorable conditions the amount of CO{sub 2} that may be sequestered by precipitation of secondary carbonates is comparable with and can be larger than the effect of CO{sub 2} dissolution in pore waters. The precipitation of ankerite and siderite is sensitive to the rate of reduction of ferric mineral precursors such as glauconite, which in turn is dependent on the reactivity of associated organic material. The accumulation of carbonates in

  13. Effects of CO(sub 2) and nitrogen fertilization on soils planted with ponderosa pine; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The effects of elevated CO(sub 2) (ambient, 525, and 700(micro)l l(sup -1))and N fertilization (0, 10, and 20 g N m(sup 2) yr(sup -1)) on soil pCO(sub 2), CO(sub 2) efflux, soil solution chemistry, and soil C and nutrients in an open-top chamber study with Pinus ponderosa are described. Soil pCO(sub 2) and CO(sub 2) efflux were significantly greater with elevated CO(sub 2), at first (second growing season) in the 525(micro)l l(sup -1) and later (fourth and fifth growing seasons) in the 700(micro)l l(sup -1) CO(sub 2) treatments. Soil solution HCO(sub 3)(sup -) concentrations were temporarily elevated in the 525(micro)l l(sup -1) CO(sub 2) treatment during the second growing season, consistent with the elevated pCO(sub 2). Nitrogen fertilization had no consistent effect on soil pCO(sub 2) or CO(sub 2) efflux, but did have the expected negative effect on exchangeable Ca(sup 2+), K(sup+), and Mg(sup 2+), presumed to be caused by increased nitrate leaching. Elevated CO(sub 2) had no consistent effects on exchangeable Ca(sup 2+), K(sup+), and Mg(sup 2+), but did cause temporary reductions in soil NO(sup 3(sup -)) (second growing season). Statistically significant negative effects of elevated CO(sub 2) on soil extractable P were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons. However, these patterns in extractable P reflected pre-treatment differences, which, while not statistically significant, followed the same pattern. Statistically significant effects of elevated CO(sub 2) on total C and N in soils were noted in the third and sixth growing seasons, but these effects were inconsistent among N treatments and years. The clearest effect of elevated CO(sub 2) was in the case of C/N ratio in year 6, where there was a consistent, positive effect. The increases in C/N ratio with elevated CO(sub 2) in year six were largely a result of reductions in soil N rather than increases in soil C. Future papers will assess whether this apparent reduction in soil N could have been

  14. Aminopropyl-functionalized mesoporous silicas as CO{sub 2} adsorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knowles, Gregory P.; Graham, Jeremy V.; Delaney, Seamus W.; Chaffee, Alan L. [School of Chemistry, PO Box 23, Monash University, Vic 3800 (Australia)

    2005-10-15

    A range of mesoporous silica substrates were functionalized with 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane to form hybrid products suitable for carbon dioxide adsorption. A 'cylindrical pore' model was employed to characterize the extent of surface modification per unit substrate surface area and to permit its comparison on a common basis. The extent of surface functionalisation varied with substrate morphology. Combined DTA/TGA was used to characterise CO{sub 2} adsorption. Substantial reversible CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities were observed under anhydrous conditions (at 20 {sup o}C). In the presence of water, CO{sub 2} capacity was enhanced, but the rate of desorption was diminished. (author)

  15. CO/sub 2/, carbon cycle and climate interactions. Pt. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grassl, H; Maier-Reimer, E; Degens, E T; Kempe, S; Spitzy, A

    1984-05-01

    To assess the reaction of the climate system on increased CO/sub 2/ in the air either numerical atmospheric models have been used, or one has tried to filter a CO/sub 2/-induced climate trend (such as increasing temperature) from existing meteorological records. Even though a serious effect of increased CO/sub 2/ on climate has become highly probable, it has neither been empirically proven so far (diagnosis of observations) nor is the effect theoretically undisputed (prognosis by climate models).

  16. CO>2 Problems and waste recycling. Research at the Institute of ferrous metallurgy

    OpenAIRE

    Gudenau, H. W.; Senk, D.; Babich, A.; Fröhling, C.; Kueon, O. S.; Wang, S.; Wieting, X.

    2005-01-01

    In a short introduction tests and calculations about CO>2-ice-blocs in the deep sea, use of CO>2 for underground-coal-gasification and tertiary processes to increase oil-production by C02-flooding are shown. New activities are presented e.g. CO>2-injection into EAF combined with injection of coal, coke or directreduction-fines. After research of injection of coals, fine ores or dust into blast furnaces and other shaft furnaces ...

  17. Analysis of mineral trapping for CO(sub 2) disposal in deep aquifers; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Tianfu; Apps, John A.; Pruess, Karsten

    2001-01-01

    CO(sub 2) disposal into deep aquifers has been suggested as a potential means whereby atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases may be reduced. However, our knowledge of the geohydrology, geochemistry, geophysics, and geomechanics of CO(sub 2) disposal must be refined if this technology is to be implemented safely, efficiently, and predictably. As a prelude to a fully coupled treatment of physical and chemical effects of CO(sub 2) injection, we have analyzed the impact of CO(sub 2) immobilization through carbonate precipitation. A survey of all major classes of rock-forming minerals, whose alteration would lead to carbonate precipitation, indicated that very few minerals are present in sufficient quantities in aquifer host rocks to permit significant sequestration of CO(sub 2). We performed batch reaction modeling of the geochemical evolution of three different aquifer mineralogies in the presence of CO(sub 2) at high pressure. Our modeling considered (1) redox processes that could be important in deep subsurface environments, (2) the presence of organic matter, (3) the kinetics of chemical interactions between the host rock minerals and the aqueous phase, and (4) CO(sub 2) solubility dependence on pressure, temperature and salinity of the system. The geochemical evolution under both natural background and CO(sub 2) injection conditions was evaluated. In addition, changes in porosity were monitored during the simulations. Results indicate that CO(sub 2) sequestration by matrix minerals varies considerably with rock type. Under favorable conditions the amount of CO(sub 2) that may be sequestered by precipitation of secondary carbonates is comparable with and can be larger than the effect of CO(sub 2) dissolution in pore waters. The precipitation of ankerite and siderite is sensitive to the rate of reduction of ferric mineral precursors such as glauconite, which in turn is dependent on the reactivity of associated organic material. The accumulation of carbonates in

  18. Geological characterization of CO{sub 2} storage sites: lessons from Sleipner, Northern North Sea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.A. Chadwick; P. Zweigel; U. Gregersen; G.A. Kirby; S. Holloway; P.N. Johannessen [British Geological Survey, Keyworth (United Kingdom). Kingsley Dunham Centre

    2003-07-01

    The paper aims to draw some generic conclusions on reservoir characterization based on the Sleipner operation in the North Sea where CO{sub 2} is being injected into the Utsira Sand, a saline aquifer. Regional mapping and petrophysical characterization of the reservoir, based on 2D seismic and well data, enable gross storage potential to be evaluated. Site specific injection studies, however, require precision depth mapping based on 3D seismic data and detailed knowledge of reservoir stratigraphy. Stratigraphical and structural permeability barriers, difficult to detect prior to CO{sub 2} injection, can radically affect CO{sub 2} migration within the aquifer. 5 refs., 5 figs.

  19. Energy intensity, CO{sub 2} emissions and the environmental Kuznets curve. The Spanish case

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca, J. [Universitat de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Teoria Economica; Alcantara, V. [Universitat Autonoma de Barcelona (Spain). Dpt. Economia Aplicada

    2001-06-01

    This article analyses the role of energy intensity and the relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and primary energy in order to explain the evolution of CO{sub 2} emissions by unit of real GDP. It also distinguishes two different meanings of CO{sub 2} emissions Kuznets curve hypothesis: the weak and the strong sense. It considers the case of Spain in the period 1972-1997 as an example in which there is not any evidence supporting this hypothesis in either sense. (author)

  20. Supersonic Post-Combustion Inertial CO>2 Extraction System Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balepin, Vladimir [Alliant Techsystems Operations LLC, Ronkonkoma, NY (United States)

    2017-04-05

    This report summarizes the effort carried out under NETL contract DE- FE0013122 from 1 October 2013 to 31 March 2017. As described in this document, technical challenges realized during the performance of this project resulted in completion of only the first two of three planned budget periods. Despite this outcome, substantial progress was made toward understanding and maturing the CO>2 capture technology under consideration and considerable future promise remains for applications requiring lower CO>2 capture and/or lower CO>2.

  1. Learning discriminant face descriptor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Zhen; Pietikäinen, Matti; Li, Stan Z

    2014-02-01

    Local feature descriptor is an important module for face recognition and those like Gabor and local binary patterns (LBP) have proven effective face descriptors. Traditionally, the form of such local descriptors is predefined in a handcrafted way. In this paper, we propose a method to learn a discriminant face descriptor (DFD) in a data-driven way. The idea is to learn the most discriminant local features that minimize the difference of the features between images of the same person and maximize that between images from different people. In particular, we propose to enhance the discriminative ability of face representation in three aspects. First, the discriminant image filters are learned. Second, the optimal neighborhood sampling strategy is soft determined. Third, the dominant patterns are statistically constructed. Discriminative learning is incorporated to extract effective and robust features. We further apply the proposed method to the heterogeneous (cross-modality) face recognition problem and learn DFD in a coupled way (coupled DFD or C-DFD) to reduce the gap between features of heterogeneous face images to improve the performance of this challenging problem. Extensive experiments on FERET, CAS-PEAL-R1, LFW, and HFB face databases validate the effectiveness of the proposed DFD learning on both homogeneous and heterogeneous face recognition problems. The DFD improves POEM and LQP by about 4.5 percent on LFW database and the C-DFD enhances the heterogeneous face recognition performance of LBP by over 25 percent.

  2. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  3. Face inversion increases attractiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leder, Helmut; Goller, Juergen; Forster, Michael; Schlageter, Lena; Paul, Matthew A

    2017-07-01

    Assessing facial attractiveness is a ubiquitous, inherent, and hard-wired phenomenon in everyday interactions. As such, it has highly adapted to the default way that faces are typically processed: viewing faces in upright orientation. By inverting faces, we can disrupt this default mode, and study how facial attractiveness is assessed. Faces, rotated at 90 (tilting to either side) and 180°, were rated on attractiveness and distinctiveness scales. For both orientations, we found that faces were rated more attractive and less distinctive than upright faces. Importantly, these effects were more pronounced for faces rated low in upright orientation, and smaller for highly attractive faces. In other words, the less attractive a face was, the more it gained in attractiveness by inversion or rotation. Based on these findings, we argue that facial attractiveness assessments might not rely on the presence of attractive facial characteristics, but on the absence of distinctive, unattractive characteristics. These unattractive characteristics are potentially weighed against an individual, attractive prototype in assessing facial attractiveness. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Isotope effect in the photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) by Lyman-{alpha} radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yuan Chunqing; Yates, John T. Jr. [Department of Chemistry, University of Virginia, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2013-04-21

    The photochemical decomposition of CO{sub 2}(ice) at 75 K by Lyman-{alpha} radiation (10.2 eV) has been studied using transmission infrared spectroscopy. An isotope effect in the decomposition of the CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice has been discovered, favoring {sup 12}CO{sub 2} photodecomposition over {sup 13}CO{sub 2} by about 10%. The effect is caused by electronic energy transfer from the excited CO{sub 2} molecule to the ice matrix, which favors quenching of the heavier electronically-excited {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule over {sup 12}CO{sub 2}. The effect is similar to the Menzel-Gomer-Redhead isotope effect in desorption from adsorbed molecules on surfaces when electronically excited. An enhancement of the rate of formation of lattice-trapped CO and CO{sub 3} species is observed for the photolysis of the {sup 12}CO{sub 2} molecule compared to the {sup 13}CO{sub 2} molecule in the ice. Only 0.5% of the primary photoexcitation results in O-CO bond dissociation to produce trapped-CO and trapped-CO{sub 3} product molecules and the majority of the electronically-excited CO{sub 2} molecules return to the ground state. Here either vibrational relaxation occurs (majority process) or desorption of CO{sub 2} occurs (minority process) from highly vibrationally-excited CO{sub 2} molecules in the ice. The observation of the {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C isotope effect in the Lyman-{alpha} induced photodecomposition of CO{sub 2} (ice) suggests that over astronomical time scales the isotope enrichment effect may distort historical information derived from isotope ratios in space wherever photochemistry can occur.

  5. Environmental impacts of ocean disposal of CO{sub 2}. Final report volume 2, September 1994--August 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herzog, H.J.; Adams, E.E. [eds.

    1996-12-01

    One option to reduce atmospheric CO{sub 2} levels is to capture and sequester power plant CO{sub 2}. Commercial CO{sub 2} capture technology, though expensive, exists today. However, the ability to dispose of large quantities of CO{sub 2} is highly uncertain. The deep ocean is one of only a few possible CO{sub 2} disposal options (others are depleted oil and gas wells or deep, confined aquifers) and is a prime candidate because the deep ocean is vast and highly unsaturated in CO{sub 2}. Technically, the term `disposal` is really a misnomer because the atmosphere and ocean eventually equilibrate on a time scale of 1000 years regardless of where the CO{sub 2} is originally discharged. However, peak atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations expected to occur in the next few centuries could be significantly reduced by ocean disposal. The magnitude of this reduction will depend upon the quantity of CO{sub 2} injected in the ocean, as well as the depth and location of injection. Ocean disposal of CO{sub 2} will only make sense if the environmental impacts to the ocean are significantly less than the avoided impacts of atmospheric release. In this project, we examined these ocean impacts through a multi-disciplinary effort designed to summarize the current state of knowledge. In the process, we have developed a comprehensive method to assess the impacts of pH changes on passive marine organisms. This final report addresses the following six topics: CO{sub 2} loadings and scenarios, impacts of CO{sub 2} transport, near-field perturbations, far-field perturbations, environmental impacts of CO{sub 2} release, and policy and legal implications of CO{sub 2} release.

  6. Enhancement of farmland greenhouse gas emissions from leakage of stored CO{sub 2}: Simulation of leaked CO{sub 2} from CCS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xueyan [Chinese Academy of Meteorological Sciences, Beijing 100-081 (China); Ma, Xin, E-mail: max@ami.ac.cn [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Agricultural Environment and Climate Change, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100-081 (China); Wu, Yang [Engineering Consulting Centre, China Meteorological Administration, Beijing 100-081 (China); Li, Yue [Institute of Environment and Sustainable Development in Agriculture, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Beijing (China); Laboratory of Agricultural Environment and Climate Change, Ministry of Agriculture, Beijing 100-081 (China)

    2015-06-15

    The effects of leaked CO{sub 2} on plant and soil constitute a key objective of carbon capture and storage (CCS) safety. The effects of leaked CO{sub 2} on trace soil gas (e.g., methane (CH{sub 4}) and nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O) emissions in farmlands are not well-understood. This study simulated the effects of elevated soil CO{sub 2} on CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O through pot experiments. The results revealed that significant increases of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions were induced by the simulated CO{sub 2} leakages; the emission rates of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O were substantial, reaching about 222 and 48 times than that of the control, respectively. The absolute global warming potentials (GWPs) of the additional CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O are considerable, but the cumulative GWPs of the additional CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O only accounted for 0.03% and 0.06%, respectively, of the cumulative amount of leaked CO{sub 2} under high leakage conditions. The results demonstrate that leakage from CCS projects may lead to additional greenhouse gas emissions from soil; however, in general, the amount of additional CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions is negligible when compared with the amount of leaked CO{sub 2}. - Highlights: • Relationship between CO{sub 2} leakage and CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions was examined. • Geologically stored CO{sub 2} leaking into surface soil enhances CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions. • GWP of additional CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O is negligible compared with amount of leaked CO{sub 2}. • Significant increase of CH{sub 4} and N{sub 2}O emissions from soil could indicate CCS leakage.

  7. Subtask – CO>2 storage and enhanced bakken recovery research program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sorensen, James [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Hawthorne, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Smith, Steven [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Braunberger, Jason [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Liu, Guoxiang [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Klenner, Robert [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Botnen, Lisa [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Steadman, Edward [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Harju, John [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Doll, Thomas [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2014-05-31

    Small improvements in productivity could increase technically recoverable oil in the Bakken Petroleum System by billions of barrels. The use of CO>2 for enhanced oil recovery (EOR) in tight oil reservoirs is a relatively new concept. The large-scale injection of CO>2 into the Bakken would also result in the geological storage of significant amounts of CO>2. The Energy & Environmental Research Center (EERC) has conducted laboratory and modeling activities to examine the potential for CO>2 storage and EOR in the Bakken. Specific activities included the characterization and subsequent modeling of North Dakota study areas as well as dynamic predictive simulations of possible CO>2 injection schemes to predict the potential CO>2 storage and EOR in those areas. Laboratory studies to evaluate the ability of CO>2 to remove hydrocarbons from Bakken rocks and determine minimum miscibility pressures for Bakken oil samples were conducted. Data from a CO>2 injection test conducted in the Elm Coulee area of Montana in 2009 were evaluated with an eye toward the possible application of knowledge gained to future injection tests in other areas. A first-order estimation of potential CO>2 storage capacity in the Bakken Formation in North Dakota was also conducted. Key findings of the program are as follows. The results of the research activities suggest that CO>2 may be effective in enhancing the productivity of oil from the Bakken and that the Bakken may hold the ability to geologically store between 120 Mt and 3.2 Gt of CO>2. However, there are no clear-cut answers regarding the most effective approach for using CO>2 to improve oil productivity or the storage capacity of the Bakken. The results underscore the notion that an unconventional resource will likely require unconventional methods of both assessment and implementation when it comes to the injection of CO

  8. Elevated CO{sub 2} and development of frost hardiness in Norway spruce (picea abies (L.) Karst.); Oekt CO{sub 2} og utvikling av frostherdighet i gran

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dalen, Lars Sandved

    1998-09-01

    This thesis discusses controlled laboratory experiments carried out to study the effects of CO{sub 2} pollution on Norwegian spruce. It was found that elevated CO{sub 2} increased height growth and biomass production. It slightly increased frost hardiness, but only at high nitrogen values. There was no evidence of adverse effects of elevated CO{sub 2} on the phenology of bud set and the development of frost hardiness. Although not statistically significant, there seemed to be a consistently higher concentration of soluble carbohydrates in one-season-old Norway spruce seedlings treated with elevated CO{sub 2}. This was not found in three-year-old seedlings grown in open top chambers, possibly indicating a down-regulation of photosynthesis or a transition from free to predetermined growth, and change in allocation of photosynthates with age. Treatment with high or low concentrations of CO{sub 2} and nitrogen fertilizer did not affect apoplastic chitinolytic activity during cold acclimation, nor were there any effects on antifreeze activity in these apoplastic extracts from cold acclimated needles. 149 refs., 21 figs., 8 tabs.

  9. Facile synthesis and electrochemical performance of Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} nanocomposite for lithium-ion batteries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    An, Bonan [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ru, Qiang, E-mail: ruqiang@scnu.edu.cn [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China); Laboratory of Quantum Engineering and Quantum Materials, School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Hu, Shejun; Song, Xiong; Li, Juan [School of Physics and Telecommunication Engineering, South China Normal University, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Engineering Research Center of Materials and Technology for Electrochemical Energy Storage (Ministry of Education), Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: TEM of Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite and the discharge curves of pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4}, pure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite. - Highlights: • Novel Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite has been prepared by simple co-precipitation method. • Small spherical nanocrystals adhering to the surface of large polyhedral particles. • Formation mechanism is relate to solubility of Sn(OH){sub 6}{sup 2−} in high concentration OH{sup −} . • The composite shows better electrochemical performance than Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} and Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} - Abstract: A novel dispersed structure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite has been successfully synthesized by a conventional co-precipitation method with certain amount of NaOH concentration. The obtained composite exhibits dispersed structure with small spherical nanocrystals adhering to the surface of large polyhedral particles, which has been studied as an anode material in lithium-ion battery. Galvanostatic charge–discharge and cyclic voltammetry has been conducted to measure the electrochemical properties of the material. The results show that Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite demonstrates good reversible capacity of 702.5 mA h g{sup −1} after 50 cycles at a current density of 100 mA h g{sup −1}, much better than that of pure Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} (375.1 mA h g{sup −1}) and pure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4} (194.1 mA h g{sup −1}). This material also presents improved rate performance with capacity retention of 71.1% when the current ranges from 100 mA g{sup −1} to 1000 mA g{sup −1}. The excellent electrochemical performance of the as-prepared dispersed structure Co{sub 2}SnO{sub 4}/Co{sub 3}O{sub 4} composite could be attributed to the good dispersibility of nanoparticles which can effectively alleviate the volume expansion and improve the conductivity, thus enhance the cycling stability.

  10. Influences of elevated CO[sub 2] on CO[sub 2] uptake and biomass production for the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica in open-top chambers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cui, M.; Miller, P.M.; Nobel, P.S. (Univ. of California, Los Angeles (United States))

    1993-06-01

    CO[sub 2] uptake, water vapor conductance, and biomass production of the CAM plant Opuntia ficus-indica were studied at the current and two elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations (plus 150 and plus 350 [mu]L L[sup [minus]1]) in open-top chambers over a 23-week period. Nine weeks after planting, daily net CO[sub 2] uptake for basal cladodes in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 49% and 84% higher, respectively, than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Nine weeks after the first-daughter cladodes emerged, their daily net CO[sub 2] uptake was 35% and 49% higher, respectively, in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments than at the current CO[sub 2] concentration. Despite significantly lower chlorophyll contents (19% and 62%, respectively) in the first-daughter cladodes, biomass production over 23 weeks in the medium and the high CO[sub 2] treatments was 22% and 50% higher, respectively, than for plants at the current CO[sub 2].

  11. Morphing morphing faces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lier, R.J. van

    2009-01-01

    We have made cyclic morphing animations using two different faces. The morphing animations gradually evolved from one face to the other, and vice versa. When free viewing, the perceived changes were not very large, but the changes could easily be observed. Observers were asked to fixate on a dot

  12. Long-lived CO/sub 2/ lasers with distributed heterogeneous catalysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Browne, P G; Smith, A L.S.

    1974-12-11

    In a sealed CO/sub 2/-N/sub 2/-He system with a clean discharge tube the degree of dissociation of the CO/sub 2/ is greater than 80 percent (with no hydrogen present), and laser action cannot be obtained. If Pt is distributed along the discharge tube walls as a discontinuous film it catalyses back-reactions reforming CO/sub 2/. The degree of dissociation is then less than 40 percent, and efficient laser action at 10.6 ..mu.. is obtained. Using such distributed heterogeneous catalysis, a CO/sub 2/-N/sub 2/-He-Xe laser has operated for more than 3000 h. In this system, both H/sub 2/ and D/sub 2/ are undesirable additives because they decrease the excitation rate of the upper laser level. (auth)

  13. Heat Transfer Characteristics of the Supercritical CO{sub 2} Flowing in a Vertical Annular Channel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Tae Ho; Bae, Yoon Yeong; Kim, Hwan Yeol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    Heat transfer test facility, SPHINX(Supercritical Pressure Heat transfer Investigation for NeXt generation), has been operated at KAERI for an investigation of the thermal-hydraulic characteristics of supercritical CO{sub 2} at several test sections with a different geometry. The loop uses CO{sub 2} because it has much lower critical pressure and temperature than those of water. Experimental study of heat transfer to supercritical CO{sub 2} in a vertical annular channel with and hydraulic diameter of 4.5 mm has been performed. CO{sub 2} flows downward through the annular channel simulating the downward-flowing coolant in a multi-pass reactor or water rod moderator in a single pass reactor. The heat transfer characteristics in a downward flow were analyzed and compared with the upward flow test results performed previously with the same test section at KAERI

  14. Potential CO{sub 2} reduction by fuel substitution to generate electricity in Malaysia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masjuki, H.H.; Mahlia, T.M.I.; Choudhury, I.A.; Saidur, R. [University of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur (Malaysia). Dept. of Mechanical Engineers

    2002-04-01

    Because of changing fossil fuel prices, sources and environmental consciousness, Malaysian utilities have been forced to change the type of energy sources to generate electricity. This new policy of electricity generation companies will change fuel use gradually from 70% gas, 15% coal, 10% hydro and 5% petroleum in the year 2000 to 40% gas, 30% hydro, 29% coal and only 1% petroleum in the year of 2020. These changes tend to reduce CO{sub 2} emission. This study predicts the potential CO{sub 2} reduction due to these changes. The calculation is based on CO{sub 2} emission for unit electricity generated and the changing type of fuel percentages for electricity generation in Malaysia. The study found that the substitution will reduce CO{sub 2} emission from power plants in this country.

  15. Assessment of coal combustion in O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} by equilibrium calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Ligang [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy Technology Centre, 1 Haanel Drive, Nepean, ON (Canada); Furimsky, Edward [IMAF Group, 184 Marlborough Avenue, Ottawa, ON (Canada)

    2003-04-15

    The facility for analysis of chemical thermodynamics (F*A*C*T) method based on the Gibbs energy minimization principle was used for the environmental assessment of coal combustion in O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} mixture compared with that in air. For the former case, the calculations predict higher emissions of CO and lower emissions of NO{sub x}. For both combustion media, SO{sub x} emissions are governed by O{sub 2} concentration, whereas distribution of trace metals was unaffected when O{sub 2} concentration in the O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} mixture approached that in air. The effect of O{sub 2}+CO{sub 2} mixture on the distribution of chlorine- and alkali-containing compounds in the vapor phase was minor compared with that in air. In spite of the large excess of CO{sub 2} in combustion medium, sulfation was the predominant reaction occurring in ash.

  16. Developing a Comprehensive Risk Assessment Framework for Geological Storage CO>2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, Ian [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2014-08-31

    The operational risks for CCS projects include: risks of capturing, compressing, transporting and injecting CO₂; risks of well blowouts; risk that CO>2 will leak into shallow aquifers and contaminate potable water; and risk that sequestered CO>2 will leak into the atmosphere. This report examines these risks by using information on the risks associated with analogue activities such as CO>2 based enhanced oil recovery (CO>2-EOR), natural gas storage and acid gas disposal. We have developed a new analysis of pipeline risk based on Bayesian statistical analysis. Bayesian theory probabilities may describe states of partial knowledge, even perhaps those related to non-repeatable events. The Bayesian approach enables both utilizing existing data and at the same time having the capability to adsorb new information thus to lower uncertainty in our understanding of complex systems. Incident rates for both natural gas and CO>2 pipelines have been widely used in papers and reports on risk of CO>2 pipelines as proxies for the individual risk created by such pipelines. Published risk studies of CO>2 pipelines suggest that the individual risk associated with CO2 pipelines is between 10-3 and 10-4, which reflects risk levels approaching those of mountain climbing, which many would find unacceptably high. This report concludes, based on a careful analysis of natural gas pipeline failures, suggests that the individual risk of CO>2 pipelines is likely in the range of 10-6 to 10-7, a risk range considered in the acceptable to negligible range in most countries. If, as is commonly thought, pipelines represent the highest risk component of CCS outside of the capture plant, then this conclusion suggests that most (if not all) previous quantitative- risk assessments of components of CCS may be orders of magnitude to high. The potential lethality of unexpected CO>2 releases

  17. CO{sub 2} capture by adsorption with nitrogen enriched carbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.G. Plaza; C. Pevida; A. Arenillas; F. Rubiera; J.J. Pis [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), Oviedo (Spain)

    2007-09-15

    The success of CO{sub 2} capture with solid sorbents is dependent on the development of a low cost sorbent with high CO{sub 2} selectivity and adsorption capacity. Immobilised amines are expected to offer the benefits of liquid amines in the typical absorption process, with the added advantages that solids are easy to handle and that they do not give rise to corrosion problems. In this work, different alkylamines were evaluated as a potential source of basic sites for CO{sub 2} capture, and a commercial activated carbon was used as a preliminary support in order to study the effect of the impregnation. The amine coating increased the basicity and nitrogen content of the carbon. However, it drastically reduced the microporous volume of the activated carbon, which is chiefly responsible for CO{sub 2} physisorption, thus decreasing the capacity of raw carbon at room temperature. 33 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  18. Impact of CO/sub 2/ on cooling of snow and water surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choudhury, B [Computer Sciences Corp., Silver Spring, MD; Kukla, G

    1979-08-23

    The levels of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere are being increased by the burning of fossil fuels and reduction of biomass. It has been calculated that the increase in CO/sub 2/ levels should lead to global warming because of increased absorption by the atmosphere of terrestrial longwave radiation in the far IR (> 5 ..mu..m). From model computations, CO/sub 2/ is expected to produce the largest climatic effect in high latitudes by reducing the size of ice and snow fields. We present here computations of spectral radiative transfer and scattering within a snow pack and water. The results suggest that CO/sub 2/ significantly reduces the shortwave energy absorbed by the surface of snow and water. The energy deficit, when not compensated by downward atmospheric radiation, may delay the recrystallisation of snow and dissipation of packice and result in a cooling rather than a warming effect.

  19. Photosynthetic CO{sub 2} fixation and energy production - microalgae as a main subject

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asada, Yasuo [National Inst. of Bioscience and Human-Technology, Tsukuba-shi, Ibaraki-ken (Japan)

    1993-12-31

    Research activities for application of microalgal photosynthesis to CO{sub 2} fixation in Japan are overviewed. Presenter`s studies on energy (hydrogen gas) production by cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) and photosynthetic bacteria are also introduced.

  20. Remarks on CO{sub 2} capture from electric power plants and recommendations for future investigations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolsky, A.M. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)

    1993-12-31

    This paper recommends investigation of several topics that have not yet received sustained attention. Each bears directly on the cost and funding of CO{sub 2} capture and sequestration. The reasons why each topic deserves attention are briefly sketched.

  1. Response of vegetation to carbon dioxide - sorghum at elevated levels of CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burnett, R.B.; Chaudhuri, U.N.; Kanemasu, E.T.; Kirkham, M.B.

    1985-12-31

    Enhancement of plant growth is an important effect of the rising concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. Crops vary in response to elevated CO{sub 2}. Growth often appears greater in C{sub 3} plants than in C{sub 4} plants. But relatively little work has been done with C{sub 4} plants, and most of it has been with corn. The few existing C{sub 4} data conflict. Some studies indicate that the yield of C{sub 4} plants at elevated CO{sub 2} is about one-fourth that of C{sub 3} crops, but other studies show that C{sub 4} plants with increased CO{sub 2} yield at a rate the average for all crops.

  2. Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} using copper-deposited on boron-doped diamond (BDD)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Panglipur, Hanum Sekar; Ivandini, Tribidasari A., E-mail: ivandini.tri@sci.ui.ac.id [Department of Chemistry, FMIPA, Universitas Indonesia, Kampus UI Depok (Indonesia); Einaga, Yasuaki [Department of Chemistry, Keio University (Japan); Wibowo, Rahmat

    2016-04-19

    Electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was studied at copper-modified boron-doped diamond (Cu-BDD) electrodes as the working electrode. The Cu-BDD electrodes were prepared by electrochemical reduction with various concentrations of CuSO{sub 4} solutions. FE-SEM was utilized to characterize the electrodes. At Cu-BDD electrodes, a reduction peak at around -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) attributtable to CO{sub 2} reductions could be observed by cyclic voltammetry technique of CO{sub 2} bubbled in water containing 0.1M NaCl. Accordingly, electroreduction of CO{sub 2} was conducted at -1.2 V (vs Ag/AgCl) using amperometry technique. The chemical products of the electroreduction analyzed by using HPLC showed the formation of formaldehyde, formic acid, and acetic acid at Cu-BDD electrodes.

  3. Environment Kuznets curve for CO{sub 2} emissions. A cointegration analysis for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalil, Abdul [Centre for Economic Development Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 437002 (China); Mahmud, Syed F. [Department of Economics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    This study examines the long-run relationship between carbon emissions and energy consumption, income and foreign trade in the case of China by employing time series data of 1975-2005. In particular the study aims at testing whether environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and per capita real GDP holds in the long run or not. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed for empirical analysis. A quadratic relationship between income and CO{sub 2} emission has been found for the sample period, supporting EKC relationship. The results of Granger causality tests indicate one way causality runs through economic growth to CO{sub 2} emissions. The results of this study also indicate that the carbon emissions are mainly determined by income and energy consumption in the long run. Trade has a positive but statistically insignificant impact on CO{sub 2} emissions. (author)

  4. Environment Kuznets curve for CO{sub 2} emissions: A cointegration analysis for China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jalil, Abdul, E-mail: jalil.hanif@gmail.co [Centre for Economic Development Research, Wuhan University, Wuhan 437002 (China); Mahmud, Syed F., E-mail: syed@bilkent.edu.t [Department of Economics, Bilkent University, Ankara 06800 (Turkey)

    2009-12-15

    This study examines the long-run relationship between carbon emissions and energy consumption, income and foreign trade in the case of China by employing time series data of 1975-2005. In particular the study aims at testing whether environmental Kuznets curve (EKC) relationship between CO{sub 2} emissions and per capita real GDP holds in the long run or not. Auto regressive distributed lag (ARDL) methodology is employed for empirical analysis. A quadratic relationship between income and CO{sub 2} emission has been found for the sample period, supporting EKC relationship. The results of Granger causality tests indicate one way causality runs through economic growth to CO{sub 2} emissions. The results of this study also indicate that the carbon emissions are mainly determined by income and energy consumption in the long run. Trade has a positive but statistically insignificant impact on CO{sub 2} emissions.

  5. CO{sub 2} in underground openings and mine rescue training

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weyer, J. [Freiburg Univ. of Mining and Technology (Germany). Inst. of Mining Engineering and Special Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    Mine rescue training procedures related to dangerous gases in mines were discussed. Methods of detecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) in abandoned opening and old adits were presented. High concentrations of CO{sub 2} combine with hemoglobin and lead to a lack of oxygen supply to the inner organs. Nitric acid forms in the alveoli and can lead to injuries or death after a period of 4 to 12 hours. Exposure to very high concentrations of CO{sub 2} can cause people to immediately lose consciousness. CO{sub 2} concentrations in the blood can change pH blood values. Members of mine rescue teams should be equipped with breathing equipment and be between 18 and 40 years old. Training rescue operations should be conducted 4 times per year. While larger mines have their own rescue teams, smaller mines must ensure that guest rescue teams are familiar with their mines. Various mine training activities were reviewed. 5 refs.

  6. Guidelines for prediction of CO{sub 2} corrosion in oil and gas production systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nyborg, Rolf

    2009-09-15

    A group of corrosion experts from different oil companies has prepared guidelines for use of CO{sub 2} corrosion prediction tools. The guidelines are intended for use in design and engineering practice applied by companies operating oil and gas production facilities. This document attempts to set minimum guidelines that should be common to most companies. The document is sufficiently flexible to allow individual companies to adapt the information set forth in this document to their own environment and requirements. A methodology for defining the Iikelihood of corrosion and the impact on CO{sub 2} prediction is developed. The CO{sub 2} prediction is based on existing tools. An overview of available CO{sub 2} corrosion prediction models evaluated by the participants is given. It is the responsibility of the operator to select which model to use. (Author)

  7. High spin-polarization in ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galanakis, I., E-mail: galanakis@upatras.gr

    2015-03-01

    Half-metallic Co{sub 2}MnSi finds a broad spectrum of applications in spintronic devices either in the form of thin films or as spacer in multilayers. Using state-of-the-art ab-initio electronic structure calculations we exploit the electronic and magnetic properties of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. We show that these heterostructures combine high values of spin-polarization at the Co{sub 2}MnSi spacer with the perpendicular magnetic anisotropy of binary compounds such as CoPd. Thus they could find application in spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices. - Highlights: • Ab-initio study of ultrathin Co{sub 2}MnSi/CoPd multilayers. • Large values of spin-polarization at the Fermi are retained. • Route for novel spintronic/magnetoelectronic devices.

  8. CO>2 Binding Organic Liquids Gas Capture with Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heldebrant, David [Battelle Memorial Institute, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2014-05-31

    This report outlines the comprehensive bench-scale testing of the CO>2-binding organic liquids (CO>2BOLs) solvent platform and its unique Polarity Swing Assisted Regeneration (PSAR). This study outlines all efforts on a candidate CO>2BOL solvent molecule, including solvent synthesis, material characterization, preliminary toxicology studies, and measurement of all physical, thermodynamic and kinetic data, including bench-scale testing. Equilibrium and kinetic models and analysis were made using Aspen Plus™. Preliminary process configurations, a technoeconomic assessment and solvent performance projections for separating CO>2 from a subcritical coal-fired power plant are compared to the U.S. Department of Energy's Case 10 monoethanolamine baseline.

  9. CO{sub 2} emission from coal-based electricity generation in Germany; CO{sub 2}-Emissionen aus der Kohleverstromung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke; Harthan, Ralph O.

    2014-03-10

    In 2013 the coal based electricity generation has increased, mainly because emission trade can actually not produce an adequate tax effect. From 10 coal-fired power plants in Germany nine use brown coal only one uses hard coal. Productivity analyses show that brown coal-fired plants have higher productivities than gas or hard coal fired power plants, but the CO{sub 2} emissions are significantly higher in case of brown coal. The oldest (older than 40 years) and least efficient brown coal fired power plants are operated in Nordrhein-Westfalen. Germany has committed itself to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions until 2020 by 40% compared to 1990. If this has to be generated by emission trading the prices would have to increase to more than 40 Euro/ton CO{sub 2} long before 2020. Otherwise administrative regulations would be necessary to reach the environmental goal.

  10. Novel CO>2 Foam Concepts and Injection Schemes for Improving CO>2 Sweep Efficiency in Sandstone and Carbonate Hydrocarbon Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Quoc [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Petroleum & Geosystems Engineering; Hirasaki, George [Rice Univ., Houston, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering; Johnston, Keith [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States). Department of Chemical Engineering

    2015-02-05

    We explored cationic, nonionic and zwitterionic surfactants to identify candidates that have the potential to satisfy all the key requirements for CO>2 foams in EOR. We have examined the formation, texture, rheology and stability of CO>2 foams as a function of the surfactant structure and formulation variables including temperature, pressure, water/CO2 ratio, surfactant concentration, salinity and concentration of oil. Furthermore, the partitioning of surfactants between oil and water as well as CO>2 and water was examined in conjunction with adsorption measurements on limestone by the Hirasaki lab to develop strategies to optimize the transport of surfactants in reservoirs.

  11. Response of Sphagnum mosses to increased CO{sub 2} concentration and nitrogen deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jauhiainen, J.

    1998-12-31

    The main objective of this work was to study the effects of different CO{sub 2} concentration and N deposition rates on Sphagna adapted to grow along a nutrient availability gradient (i.e. ombrotrophy-mesotrophy-eutrophy). The study investigated: (i) the effects of various longterm CO{sub 2} concentrations on the rate of net photosynthesis in Sphagna, (ii) the effects of the CO{sub 2} and N treatments on the moss density, shoot dry masses, length increment and dry mass production in Sphagna, (iii) the concentrations of the major nutrients in Sphagna after prolonged exposure to the CO{sub 2} and N treatments, and (iv) species dependent differences in potential NH{sub 4}{sup +} and NO{sub 3}{sup -} uptake rates. The internal nutrient concentration of the capitulum and the production of biomass were effected less by the elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations because the availability of N was a controlling factor. In addition responses to the N treatments were related to ecological differences between the Sphagna species. Species with a high tolerance of N availability were able to acclimatise to the increased N deposition rates. The data suggests a high nutrient status is less significant than the adaptation of the Sphagna to their ecological niche (e.g. low tolerance of meso-eutrophic S. warnstorfii to high N deposition rate). At the highest N deposition rate the ombrotrophic S. fuscum had the highest increase in tissue N concentration among the Sphagna studied. S. fuscum almost died at the highest N deposition rate because of the damaging effects of N to the plant`s metabolism. Ombrotrophic hummock species such as S. fuscum, were also found to have the highest potential N uptake rate (on density of dry mass basis) compared to lawn species. The rate of net photosynthesis was initially increased with elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations, but photosynthesis was down regulated with prolonged exposure to CO{sub 2}. The water use efficiency in Sphagna appeared not to be coupled

  12. Forecasting of CO{sub 2} emissions from fuel combustion using trend analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koene, Aylin Cigdem [Mugla University, Faculty of Economics and Administrative Sciences, Department of Economics, 48000 Mugla (Turkey); Bueke, Tayfun [Mugla University, Faculty of Arts and Sciences, Department of Physics, 48000 Mugla (Turkey)

    2010-12-15

    The accelerating use of fossil fuels since the Industrial Revolution and the rapid destruction of forests causes a significant increase in greenhouse gases. The increasing threat of global warming and climate change has been the major, worldwide, ongoing concern especially in the last two decades. The impacts of global warming on the world economy have been assessed intensively by researchers since the 1990s. Worldwide organizations have been attempting to reduce the adverse impacts of global warming through intergovernmental and binding agreements. Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is one of the most foremost greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The energy sector is dominated by the direct combustion of fuels, a process leading to large emissions of CO{sub 2}. CO{sub 2} from energy represents about 60% of the anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions of global emissions. This percentage varies greatly by country, due to diverse national energy structures. The top-25 emitting countries accounted 82.27% of the world CO{sub 2} emissions in 2007. In the same year China was the largest emitter and generated 20.96% of the world total. Trend analysis is based on the idea that what has happened in the past gives traders an idea of what will happen in the future. In this study, trend analysis approach has been employed for modelling to forecast of energy-related CO{sub 2} emissions. To this aim first, trends in CO{sub 2} emissions for the top-25 countries and the world total CO{sub 2} emissions during 1971-2007 are identified. On developing the regression analyses, the regression analyses with R{sup 2} values less than 0.94 showing insignificant influence in statistical tests have been discarded. Statistically significant trends are indicated in eleven countries namely, India, South Korea, Islamic Republic of Iran, Mexico, Australia, Indonesia, Saudi Arabia, Brazil, South Africa, Taiwan, Turkey and the world total. The results obtained from the analyses showed that the models for

  13. Simulation of oxygen-steam gasification with CO{sub 2} adsorption for hydrogen production from empty fruit bunch

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, M.M.; Inayat, A.; Yusup, S.; Sabil, K.M. [Universiti Teknologi Petronas, Bandar Seri Iskandar, Tronoh (Malaysia). Center of Biofuel and Biochemical, Green Technology Mission Oriented Research

    2011-07-01

    The world is facing a critical situation in which fossil fuel reservoir is depleting while the demand for energy is increasing worldwide. Scientists globally have shifted their effort towards developing alternative sustainable fuels and quite a number of technologies have been discovered. One potential alternative solution is to produce energy from hydrogen as its energy content per kilogram is three times larger than that of gasoline. The combustion of hydrogen produces water instead of greenhouse gases, along with energy, making hydrogen even more attractive as a clean fuel. Current study focuses on the process development of hydrogen production via gasification of Empty Fruit Bunch (EFB) with in-situ adsorption of CO{sub 2} based on equilibrium modeling approach. The process flowsheet simulation is performed using iCON, PETRONAS process simulation software. This work investigates the influence of the temperature within the range of 600 to 1000 C and steam/biomass ratio between 0.1 and 1.0 on the hydrogen yield and product gas composition. The importance of different reactions involved in the system is also discussed. Using the simulation, the optimal operating conditions are predicted to be at 800 C and steam/biomass ratio of 0.6. Hydrogen yield of 149g kg{sup -1} of EFB can be obtained at 1000 C. The preliminary economic potential per annum of the oxygen-steam gasification system coupled with in situ CO{sub 2} adsorption is RM 6.64 x 10{sup 6} or approximately USD 2 x 10{sup 6}.

  14. Abatement of CO{sub 2} emissions: IFP's solutions; Reduction des emissions de CO{sub 2}: les solutions IFP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    In a context of increasing energy consumption and world economic growth, the fight against greenhouse gases has become a major technological challenge for the coming years. The capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} in the underground is a promising solution in terms of environmental impact, especially in places and sectors characterized by a strong concentration of CO{sub 2} emissions (power generation plants, big industries). However, such a solution requires important R and D efforts to reduce the costs and warrant the long-term reliability of the storage. The French institute of petroleum (IFP) will play an important role in the implementation of the geological sequestration. This press kit comprises 7 documents: a press release from November 4, 2003; a press conference with a series of slides presenting the stakes, solutions and actions proposed by the IFP in collaboration with several foreign partners (CO{sub 2} capture, storage in depleted hydrocarbon deposits, saline aquifers or abandoned coal seams, storage potential, reduction of costs); a summary of the stakes and solutions for CO{sub 2} sequestration in deep underground; a similar document presented at the Panorama 2003 colloquium; the CO{sub 2} constraint in France and in Europe (international consensus on climatic change, Kyoto protocol, European directive about tradable carbon permits, voluntary commitment of companies in the fight against greenhouse effects (AERES)); the European project Castor (CO{sub 2} from capture to storage); and the IFP brochure 'innovating for a sustainable development in the energy domain'. (J.S.)

  15. Area 2. Use Of Engineered Nanoparticle-Stabilized CO>2 Foams To Improve Volumetric Sweep Of CO>2 EOR Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DiCarlo, David [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Huh, Chun [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States); Johnston, Keith P. [Univ. of Texas, Austin, TX (United States)

    2015-01-31

    The goal of this project was to develop a new CO>2 injection enhanced oil recovery (CO>2-EOR) process using engineered nanoparticles with optimized surface coatings that has better volumetric sweep efficiency and a wider application range than conventional CO>2-EOR processes. The main objectives of this project were to (1) identify the characteristics of the optimal nanoparticles that generate extremely stable CO>2 foams in situ in reservoir regions without oil; (2) develop a novel method of mobility control using “self-guiding” foams with smart nanoparticles; and (3) extend the applicability of the new method to reservoirs having a wide range of salinity, temperatures, and heterogeneity. Concurrent with our experimental effort to understand the foam generation and transport processes and foam-induced mobility reduction, we also developed mathematical models to explain the underlying processes and mechanisms that govern the fate of nanoparticle-stabilized CO>2 foams in porous media and applied these models to (1) simulate the results of foam generation and transport experiments conducted in beadpack and sandstone core systems, (2) analyze CO>2 injection data received from a field operator, and (3) aid with the design of a foam injection pilot test. Our simulator is applicable to near-injection well field-scale foam injection problems and accounts for the effects due to layered heterogeneity in permeability field, foam stabilizing agents effects, oil presence, and shear-thinning on the generation and transport of nanoparticle-stabilized C/W foams. This report presents the details of our experimental and numerical modeling work and outlines the highlights of our findings.

  16. CO>2 capture from IGCC gas streams using the AC-ABC process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagar, Anoop [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); McLaughlin, Elisabeth [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Hornbostel, Marc [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Krishnan, Gopala [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States); Jayaweera, Indira [SRI International, Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2017-02-16

    The objective of this project was to develop a novel, low-cost CO>2 capture process from pre-combustion gas streams. The bench-scale work was conducted at the SRI International. A 0.15-MWe integrated pilot plant was constructed and operated for over 700 hours at the National Carbon Capture Center, Wilsonville, AL. The AC-ABC (ammonium carbonate-ammonium bicarbonate) process for capture of CO>2 and H2S from the pre-combustion gas stream offers many advantages over Selexol-based technology. The process relies on the simple chemistry of the NH3-CO2-H2O-H2S system and on the ability of the aqueous ammoniated solution to absorb CO>2 at near ambient temperatures and to release it as a high-purity, high-pressure gas at a moderately elevated regeneration temperature. It is estimated the increase in cost of electricity (COE) with the AC-ABC process will be ~ 30%, and the cost of CO>2 captured is projected to be less than $27/metric ton of CO>2 while meeting 90% CO>2 capture goal. The Bechtel Pressure Swing Claus (BPSC) is a complementary technology offered by Bechtel Hydrocarbon Technology Solutions, Inc. BPSC is a high-pressure, sub-dew-point Claus process that allows for nearly complete removal of H2S from a gas stream. It operates at gasifier pressures and moderate temperatures and does not affect CO>2 content. When coupled with AC-ABC, the combined technologies allow a nearly pure CO>2 stream to be captured at high pressure, something which Selexol and other solvent-based technologies cannot achieve.

  17. The role of sink strength in determining tree responses to enriched atmospheric CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodfellow, J.E. [Northern Territory Univ., Darwin (Australia)

    1995-06-01

    Rising levels of atmospheric CO{sub 2} have the potential to enhance assimilation (A{sub max}) and dry matter gain in trees. This paper address the question, does long term sustained A{sub max} and dry matter gain require the maintenance of an adequate sink? Mangifera indica were grown in the ground for three years under 350 or 700 ppm CO{sub 2}, and under non-limiting nutrient conditions. A{sub max} was higher in trees grown under enriched CO{sub 2} ([CO{sub 2}]e) particularly during high growth periods. Seasonal above ground growth was enhanced by [CO{sub 2}]e. Fruit productivity was enhanced under [CO{sub 2}]e but the presences of developing fruit did not affect A{sub max}. Growth under [CO{sub 2}]e resulted in a reduction in specific leaf area (SLA), an increase in foliar starch concentration, and a diurnal decrease in A{sub max}. Removal of a large proportion of the vegetative structure promoted vigorous regrowth. Leaves developed in the vegetative regrowth under [CO{sub 2}]e enhanced A{sub max}, but there was no reduction in SLA, no change in foliar starch concentration and no diurnal depression in A{sub max}. These results suggests that vegetative growth acts seasonally as a sink. In the absence of, growth, starch is stored in the leaves reducing SLA. Slow export of foliar assimilates causes diurnal fluxes in A{sub max}. Growth inducement by pruning enhances A{sub max} by promoting sink strength.

  18. Sustainable urban transportation: impact of CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies on local pollutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sudhakar Yedla; Jyoti K Parikh [Indira Ghandi Institute of Development Research, Mumbai (India); Ram M Shrestha [Asian Institute of Technology, Pathumthani (Thailand). School of Environment Resource and Development

    2003-07-01

    This paper assesses CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies in Delhi and Mumbai against the dynamics of local pollutants. After testing against techno-economic feasibility, compressed natural gas (CNG) technology, four-stroke two-wheelers and battery-operated vehicles (BOV) were selected as candidate options for Mumbai and Delhi. Multiple constrained optimization for finding out the optimal mix of vehicles to meet the travel demand under the business-as-usual scenario for the period of 1998-2020 revealed the dominance of CNG vehicles. CO{sub 2} mitigation targets of 5, 10, 15, 20, 25% resulted in reduced stock of diesel and petrol vehicles, with the reduction spanning over different points of the above time period. In the case of Mumbai, battery-operated three-wheelers dominated the vehicular mix, with the share of CNG vehicles remaining at a standard level. CO{sub 2} reduction targets did not influence the CNG option significantly. CO{sub 2} mitigation influenced the dynamics of local pollutants considerably in both Delhi and Mumbai. In Delhi, TSP and SO{sub x} reduction levels against the CO{sub 2} mitigation target were found to be significant. In Mumbai, the percentage reduction in local pollution (TSP in particular) was higher than the target CO{sub 2} reduction. Local pollutants other than TSP and SO{sub x} showed an increasing trend against the CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies in Delhi. In the case of Mumbai, all non-target pollutants showed a falling trend against the CO{sub 2} mitigation strategies, though insignificantly for pollutants other than TSP and SO{sub x}. (author)

  19. Mixed and Doped Solid Sorbents for CO>2 Capture Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duan, Yuhua [National Energy Technology Lab. (NETL), Albany, OR (United States)

    2016-06-14

    The objectives of this presentation are to capture CO2 we need materials with optimal performance and low costs; establish a theoretical procedure to identify most potential candidates of CO>2 solid sorbents from a large solid material databank; computational synthesis new materials to fit industrial needs; and explore the optimal working conditions for the promised CO>2 solid sorbents, especially from room to warm T ranges with optimal energy usage.

  20. [Regulation of alternative CO[sub 2] fixation pathways in procaryotic and eucaryotic photosynthetic organisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-01-01

    The major goal of this project is to determine how microorganisms regulate the assimilation of CO[sup 2] via pathways alternative to the usual Calvin reductive pentose phosphate scheme. In particular, we are interest in the molecular basis for switches in CO[sub 2] metabolic paths. Several earlier studies had indicated that purple nonsulfur photosynthetic bacteria assimilate significant amounts of CO[sub 2] via alternative non-Calvin routes. We have deleted the gene that encodes. RubisCo (ribulose bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) in both the Rhodobacter sphaeroids and Rhodospirillum rubrum. The R. sphaeroides RubisCO deletion strain (strain 16) could not grow under photoheterotrophic conditions with malate as electron donor and CO[sub 2] as the electron acceptor; however the R. rub RubisCO deletion strain (strain I-19) could. Over the past year we have sought to physiologically characterize strain 16PHC. We found that, 16PHC exhibited rates of whole-cell CO[sub 2] fixation which were significantly higher than strain 16. Strain 16PHC could not grow photolithoautotrophically in a CO[sub 2] atmosphere; however, CO[sub 2] fixation catalyzed by photoheterotrophically grown 16PHC was repressed by the addition of DMSO. Likewise, we found that cells initially grown in the presence of DMSO could induce the CO[sub 2] fixation system when DMSO was removed. Thus, these results suggested that both PHC and I-19 could be used to study alternative CO[sub 2] fixation reactions and their significance in R. sphaexoides and R. rubrum.

  1. Does an elevated CO>2 concentration decrease dark respiration in trees? Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, Stephen [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States)

    2003-12-31

    Averaged across many previous investigations, doubling the CO>2 concentration ([CO>2]) has frequently been reported to cause an instantaneous reduction of leaf dark respiration measured as CO>2 efflux. No known mechanism accounts for this effect. While four recent studies have shown that the measurement of respiratory CO>2 efflux is prone to experimental artifacts that could account for the reported response, papers published since the start of the current research continue to report an instantaneous depression of respiratory CO>2 efflux by elevation of [CO>2]. Here, these artifacts are avoided by use of a high-resolution dual channel oxygen analyzer within an open gas exchange system to measure respiratory 02 uptake in normal air. Leaf 02 uptake was determined in response to instantaneous elevation of [CO>2] in nine contrasting species and to long-term elevation in seven species from four of the DOE-sponsored long-term elevated [CO>2] field experiments. Over one thousand separate measurements of respiration failed to reveal any decrease in respiratory 02 uptake with an instantaneous increase in [CO>2]. Respiration was found insensitive not only to doubling [CO>2], but also to a five-fold increase and to decrease to zero.

  2. Strategic research on CO{sub 2} emission reduction for China. Application of MARKAL to China energy system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yongping, Wang [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1995-09-01

    MARKAL was applied to the energy system for analyzing the CO{sub 2} emission reduction in China over the time period from 1990 to 2050. First the Chinese Reference Energy System (CRES) was established based on the framework of MARKAL model. The following conclusions can be drawn from this study. When shifting from scenario LH (low useful energy demand and high import fuel prices) to HL (high demand and low prices), another 33 EJ of primary energy will be consumed and another 2.31 billion tons of CO{sub 2} will be emitted in 2050. Detailed analyses on the disaggregation of CO{sub 2} emissions by Kaya Formula show. The energy intensity (primary energy/GDP) decreases much faster in scenario HL, but the higher growth rate of GDP per capita is the overwhelming factor that results in higher CO{sub 2} emission per capita in the baseline case of scenario HL in comparison with LH. When the carbon taxes are imposed on CO{sub 2} emissions, the residential sector will make the biggest contribution to CO{sub 2} emission abatement from a long-term point of view. However, it`s difficult to stabilize CO{sub 2} emission per capita before 2030 in both scenarios even with heavy carbon taxes. When nuclear moratorium occurs, more 560 million tons of CO{sub 2} will be emitted to the atmosphere in 2050 under the same CO{sub 2} tax regime. From the analysis of value flow, CO{sub 2} emission reduction depends largely on new or advanced technologies particularly in the field of electricity generation. The competent technologies switch to those CO{sub 2} less-emitting technologies when surcharging CO{sub 2} emissions. Nuclear power shows significant potential in saving fossil energy resources and reducing CO{sub 2} emissions. (J.P.N.).

  3. Climate and domestic projects CO{sub 2}: why and how?; Climat et projets domestiques CO{sub 2}: pourquoi et comment?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    In order to fight against the climatic change, the France decided to divide by four the greenhouse gases for 2050. With the emission trading, the industrialists and the energy producers progress in this way. But nothing is existing for the emission sectors as the transport, the agriculture, the building and for the greenhouse gases except the CO{sub 2}. The domestic projects CO{sub 2} approach aims to stimulate the realization of projects reducing the greenhouse gases emissions in these sectors, with a remuneration of these reductions. (A.L.B.)

  4. An Overview of CO{sub 2} capture technologies. What are the challenges ahead?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Stanley (IEA Greenhouse Gas R& amp; D Programme)

    2008-07-15

    In this paper it is described what the program of R&D of the International Energy Agency consists of, for the reduction of greenhouse effect gasses. Some of the factors that have impelled the policy of the development of technologies for the CO{sub 2} capture are synthesized. Also an overview is given of the 3 main technologies for the capture and storage of CO{sub 2} that are the capture post-combustion, the capture oxy-combustion and the capture pre-combustion; finally several aspects related to the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} are mentioned. [Spanish] En esta ponencia se describe en que consiste el programa de I&D para la reduccion de gases de efecto invernadero de la Agencia Internacional de Energia. Se sintetizan algunos de los factores que han impulsado a la politica del desarrollo de tecnologias para la captura de CO{sub 2}. Tambien se da un panorama de las 3 principales tecnologias para la captura y almacenamiento de CO{sub 2} que son la captura post-combustion, la captura oxi-combustion y la captura pre-combustion; finalmente se mencionan varios aspectos relacionados con la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}.

  5. Integrated Electrochemical Processes for CO>2 Capture and Conversion to Commodity Chemicals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hatton, T. Alan [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Jamison, Timothy [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2013-09-30

    The Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) and Siemens Corporations (SCR) are developing new chemical synthesis processes for commodity chemicals from CO>2. The process is assessed as a novel chemical sequestration technology that utilizes CO>2 from dilute gas streams generated at industrial carbon emitters as a raw material to produce useful commodity chemicals. Work at Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) commenced on October 1st, 2010, and finished on September 30th, 2013. During this period, we have investigated and accomplished five objectives that mainly focused on converting CO>2 into high-value chemicals: 1) Electrochemical assessment of catalytic transformation of CO>2 and epoxides to cyclic carbonates; 2) Investigation of organocatalytic routes to convert CO>2 and epoxide to cyclic carbonates; 3) Investigation of CO>2 Capture and conversion using simple olefins under continuous flow; 4) Microwave assisted synthesis of cyclic carbonates from olefins using sodium bicarbonates in a green pathway; 5) Life cycle analyses of integrated chemical sequestration process. In this final report, we will describe the detailed study performed during the three year period and findings and conclusions drawn from our research.

  6. Energy-efficient and low CO{sub 2} office building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Airaksinen, M., Email: miimu.airaksinen@vtt.fi

    2012-06-15

    Current office buildings are becoming more and more energy efficient. In particular the importance of heating is decreasing, but the share of electricity use is increasing. When the CO{sub 2} equivalent emissions are considered, the emissions from embodied energy make up an important share of the total, indicating that the building materials have a high importance which is often ignored when only the energy efficiency of running the building is considered. This paper studies a new office building in design phase. The results showed that the reduction of energy use reduces both the primary energy use and CO{sub 2} eq. emissions. Especially the reduction of electricity use has a high importance for both primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions when fossil fuels are used. The lowest CO{sub 2} eq. emissions were achieved when bio-based, renewable energies or nuclear power was used to supply energy for the office building. Evidently then the share of CO{sub 2} eq. emissions from the embodied energy of building materials and products became the dominant source of CO{sub 2} eq. emissions. (orig.)

  7. Effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on Pinus ponderosa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Surano, K.A.; Kercher, J.R. [eds.

    1993-10-01

    This report details the results from an experiment of the effects of long-term elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations on ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa Laws.) saplings and seedlings. The study began in 1983 as a pilot study designed to explore the feasibility of using open-top chambers for continuous multi-year exposures on sapling-sized trees and to examine possible CO{sub 2} responses so that future research could be adequately designed. however, following the first year of exposure, preliminary results from the study indicated that measurements of CO{sub 2} responses should be intensified. Open-top chambers proved suitable for use in multiyear exposures of mature trees. With respect to the preliminary examination of CO{sub 2} responses, many interesting observations were made. The nature of the preliminary results suggests that future long-term field CO{sub 2} exposures on perennial species may be critical to the understanding and preparation for future environments. Other research reported here attempted to adapt an existing western coniferous forest growth and succession model for use in elevated CO{sub 2} scenarios using differential species responses, and assessed the usefulness of the model in that regard. Seven papers have been processed separately for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  8. Energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions in Iran, 2025

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mirzaei, Maryam [Department of Banking and Finance, Multimedia University (Malaysia); Bekri, Mahmoud [Economic and Statistic Institute, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Climate change and global warming as the key human societies' threats are essentially associated with energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emissions. A system dynamic model was developed in this study to model the energy consumption and CO{sub 2} emission trends for Iran over 2000–2025. Energy policy factors are considered in analyzing the impact of different energy consumption factors on environmental quality. The simulation results show that the total energy consumption is predicted to reach 2150 by 2025, while that value in 2010 is 1910, which increased by 4.3% yearly. Accordingly, the total CO{sub 2} emissions in 2025 will reach 985 million tonnes, which shows about 5% increase yearly. Furthermore, we constructed policy scenarios based on energy intensity reduction. The analysis show that CO{sub 2} emissions will decrease by 12.14% in 2025 compared to 2010 in the scenario of 5% energy intensity reduction, and 17.8% in the 10% energy intensity reduction scenario. The results obtained in this study provide substantial awareness regarding Irans future energy and CO{sub 2} emission outlines. - Highlights: • Creation of an energy consumption model using system dynamics. • The effect of different policies on energy consumption and emission reductions. • An ascending trend for the environmental costs caused by CO{sub 2} emissions is observed. • An urgent need for energy saving and emission reductions in Iran.

  9. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia: Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R., E-mail: gtimilsina@worldbank.or [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States); Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes.

  10. Transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Asia. Underlying factors and policy options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timilsina, Govinda R.; Shrestha, Ashish [Development Research Group, The World Bank, 1818H Street, NW, Washington, DC 20433 (United States)

    2009-11-15

    This study analyze the potential factors influencing the growth of transport sector carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions in selected Asian countries during the 1980-2005 period by decomposing annual emissions growth into components representing changes in fuel mix, modal shift, per capita gross domestic product (GDP) and population, as well as changes in emission coefficients and transportation energy intensity. We find that changes in per capita GDP, population growth and transportation energy intensity are the main factors driving transport sector CO{sub 2} emission growth in the countries considered. While growth in per capita income and population are responsible for the increasing trend of transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions in China, India, Indonesia, Republic of Korea, Malaysia, Pakistan, Sri Lanka and Thailand; the decline of transportation energy intensity is driving CO{sub 2} emissions down in Mongolia. Per capita GDP, population and transportation energy intensity effects are all found responsible for transport sector CO{sub 2} emissions growth in Bangladesh, the Philippines and Vietnam. The study also reviews existing government policies to limit CO{sub 2} emissions growth, such as fiscal instruments, fuel economy standards and policies to encourage switching to less emission intensive fuels and transportation modes. (author)

  11. Magnetic hardening of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} by rotary swaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gröb, T., E-mail: t.groeb@phm.tu-darmstadt.de [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Wießner, L. [Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines, Otto-Berndt-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Bruder, E. [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Faske, T.; Donner, W. [Divison Structure Research, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Groche, P. [Institute for Production Engineering and Forming Machines, Otto-Berndt-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany); Müller, C. [Division Physical Metallurgy, Alarich-Weiß-Str. 2, 64287 Darmstadt (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} was subjected to incremental forming by rotary swaging with the aim of tailoring the coercivity by changing the microstructure. The challenging part of a deformation of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} is an ordering phase present at room temperature, leading to low formability. To increase the formability of the alloy the presence of the ordering phase was supressed by two different concepts. The first concept consists of a heat treatment above the phase transition followed by rapid cooling and deformation at room temperature. The second concept was rotary swaging at temperatures above the phase transition temperature. A comparison in terms of resulting microstructure and magnetic properties shows that both concepts have a potential for tailoring the coercivity of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50}. - Highlights: • Magnetic hardening of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} was achieved by rotary swaging with two different concepts. • The influences of the microstructural changes during the rotary swaging process have been linked to magnetic hardening. • Increase in coercivity for Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} by rotary swaging at elevated temperature is limited by the dynamic restoration. • Coercivity of Fe{sub 50}Co{sub 50} can be tailored by the induced plastic strain.

  12. Geomechanical Simulation of CO>2 Leakage and Cap Rock Remediation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nygaard, Runar [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Bai, Baojun [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States); Eckert, Andreas [Univ. of Missouri, Rolla, MO (United States)

    2012-09-30

    CO>2 sequestration into porous and permeable brine filled aquifers is seen as one of the most likely near-term solutions for reducing greenhouse gases. Safely storing injected CO>2, which is less dense than water, requires trapping the CO>2 under an impermeable rock which would act as a seal. One of the concerns with CO>2 sequestration is the generation of new fractures or reactivation of existing fractures and faults caused by CO>2 injection into the sealing formation. Mitigation strategies must be developed to remediate potentially leaking faults or fractures. This project evaluated potential storage scenarios in the state of Missouri and developed coupled reservoir and geomechanic simulations to identify storage potential and leakage risks. Further, several injectable materials used to seal discontinuities were evaluated under subsurface conditions. The four sealant materials investigated were paraffin wax, silica based gel, polymer based gel, and micro-cement, which all significantly reduced the fracture permeability. However, the micro-cement was the most effective sealing agent and the only sealant able to withstand the large differential pressure caused by CO>2 or brine injection and create a strong seal to prevent further fracturing.

  13. A Pareto analysis approach to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprint for petroleum products

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tehrani, Nejad M. Alireza, E-mail: alireza.tehraninejad@gmail.com

    2015-07-15

    Recently, linear programing (LP) models have been extended to track the marginal CO{sub 2} intensity of automotive fuels at the refinery gate. The obtained CO{sub 2} data are recommended for policy making because they capture the economic and environmental tensions as well as the processing effects related to oil products. However, they are proven to be extremely sensitive to small perturbations and therefore useless in practice. In this paper, we first investigate the theoretical reasons of this drawback. Then, we develop a multiple objective LP framework to assess relevant marginal CO{sub 2} footprints that preserve both defensibility and stability at a satisfactory level of acceptance. A case study illustrates this new methodology. - Highlights: • Refining LP models have limitations to provide useful marginal CO{sub 2} footprints. • A multi objective optimization framework is developed to assess relevant CO{sub 2} data. • Within a European Refinig industry, diesel is more CO{sub 2} intensive than gasoline.

  14. Elevated CO[sub 2] alters deployment of roots in small growth containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berntson, G M; McConnaughay, K D.M.; Bazzaz, F A [Harvard University, Cambridge, MA (United States). Dept. of Organismic and Evolutionary Biology

    1993-07-01

    Previously the authors examined how limited rooting space and nutrient supply influenced plant growth under elevated atmospheric CO[sub 2] concentrations. To gain insight into how elevated CO[sub 2] atmospheres affect how plants utilize available belowground space, when rooting space and nutrient supply are limited, they measured the deployment of roots within pots through time. Contrary to aboveground responses, patterns of belowground deployment were most strongly influenced by elevated CO[sub 2] in pots of different volume and shape. Further, elevated CO[sub 2] conditions interacted differently with limited belowground space for the two species studied, Abutilon theophrasti, a C[sub 3] dicot with a deep taproot, and Setaria faberii, a C4 monocot with a shallow fibrous root system. For Setaria, elevated CO[sub 2] increased the size of the largest region of low root density at the pot surface in larger rooting volumes independent of nutrient content, thereby decreasing their efficiency of deployment. For Abutilon, plants responded to elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations by equalizing the pattern of deployment in all the pots. Nutrient concentration, and not pot size or shape, greatly influenced the density of root growth. Root densities for Abutilon and Setaria were similar to those observed in field conditions, for annual dicots and monocots respectively, suggesting that studies using pots may successfully mimic natural conditions.

  15. Amelioration of chilling effects by CO/sub 2/ enrichment. [Echinochloa crus-galli; Eleusine indica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Potvin, C.

    1985-01-01

    To analyze the effect of CO/sub 2/ enrichment on the chilling-sensitivity of C/sub 4/ plants from contrasting habitats, plants of Echinochloa crus-galli from Quebec, North Carolina and Mississippi and Eleusine indica from Mississippi were grown for 4 weeks under three thermoperiods (28/22, 24/18 and 21/15/sup 0/C) and two atmospheric CO/sub 2/ concentrations (350 and 675 ..mu..l l/sup -1/). They were then submitted to 1 night chilling at 7/sup 0/C. Photosynthetic carbon uptake, stomatal conductances, and internal CO/sub 2/ concentration were measured using an infra-red gas analyzer in an open system before and after the chilling and during the recovery. Chilling induces a decrease in photosynthesis and conductance and, at 350 ..mu..l l/sup -1/, in internal CO/sub 2/. The decrease in photosynthesis is less important for high CO/sub 2/ grown plants at 28/22/sup 0/C. Chilling generates chlorotic bands on leaf blades but less chlorosis is observed in enriched CO/sub 2/. 17 references, 3 figures, 3 tables.

  16. Pathway of /sup 14/Co/sub 2/ fixation in marine algae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joshi, G V; Karekar, M D [Shivaji Univ., Kolhapur (India). Dept. of Botany

    1973-08-01

    Marine plants have a different metabolic environment which is likely to affect pathways of CO/sub 2/ fixation. It has been observed that in marine alga, Ulva lactuca, during short term light fixation of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, besides PGA, an appreciable amount of activity was located in aspartate. This curious observation can now be explained on the basis of Hatch, Slack and Kortschak pathway of CO/sub 2/ fixation. In order to trace pathways of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in marine algae, a wide variety of algal specimens were exposed to NaH/sup 14/CO/sub 3/ in light and the products were analyzed. The algae selected were Ulva lactuca, Sargassum ilicifolium, Sphacelaria sp., Padina tetrastromatica, Chaetomorpha media and Enteromorpha tubulosa. It has been found that the pathways of CO/sub 2/ in the above marine algae differ from the conventional pattern recorded in Chlorella. The early labelling of aspartate and its subsequent utilization indicates that HSK pathway is operative in the marine algae. Malate synthesis is inhibited due to the effect of saline environment on the activity of malic dehydrogenase. Appreciable label in PGA is suggestive of the fact that Calvin and Bassham pathway as well as the HSK route are simultaneously operating. (auth)

  17. Trend of CO{sub 2} emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany; Trendentwicklung der CO{sub 2}-Emissionen der 30 groessten Kraftwerke in Deutschland. Kurzanalyse basierend auf aktuellen Emissionshandelsdaten

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hermann, Hauke

    2014-04-02

    The brochure on the trend of CO{sub 2} emissions of the 30 largest power plants in Germany includes tables of the emissions of these power plants. The CO{sub 2} emissions of these power plants in 2013 (25% of the total German greenhouse gas emissions) have increased by 5% compared to 2012. The total CO{sub 2} emission sin Germany increased by 1.5%. The differences between brown coal and black coal fired power plants are discussed.

  18. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohske Takahashi

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon. While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  19. Gaze cueing by pareidolia faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Kohske; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cueing effect was comparable between the face-like objects and a cartoon face. However, the cueing effect was eliminated when the observer did not perceive the objects as faces. These results demonstrated that pareidolia faces do more than give the impression of the presence of faces; indeed, they trigger an additional face-specific attentional process.

  20. Face Detection and Recognition

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Jain, Anil K

    2004-01-01

    This report describes research efforts towards developing algorithms for a robust face recognition system to overcome many of the limitations found in existing two-dimensional facial recognition systems...

  1. Evidence for CO>2 reactive adsorption on nanoporous S- and N-doped carbon at ambient conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bandosz, Teresa J. [City College of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Seredych, Mykola [City College of New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Chemistry; Rodríguez-Castellón, Enrique [Univ. of Malaga (Spain). Dept. of Inorganic Chemistry; Cheng, Yongqiang [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Daemen, Luke L. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division; Ramírez-Cuesta, Anibal J. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Chemical and Engineering Materials Division

    2015-10-08

    CO>2 interactions with nanoporous S- and N-doped polymer-derived carbon and commercial wood-based carbon were investigated in a broad range of conditions. The results showed that during CO>2 adsorption nitrogen and sulfur species as well as water were released from the carbon surface as a result of chemical reactions of the surface groups with CO>2. Inelastic neutron scattering experiments provided the unprecedented ability to characterize very small amounts of CO>2 and H2O and revealed for the first time their physical/chemical status in the confined space of nanoporous carbons. The results obtained suggest that the reactivity of the carbon surface should be considered when CO>2 storage media are chosen and when CO>2 is used as a probe to determine the microporosity of carbon materials.

  2. Potential and cost-effectiveness of CO{sub 2}-reducing measures in the pulp and paper industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moellersten, K.; Westermark, M.; Yan, J. [Royal Institute of Technology (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Chemical Engineering and Technology/Energy Processes

    2001-07-01

    Using the two criteria of potential CO{sub 2} reduction and cost of CO{sub 2} reduction several technical options in the pulp and paper industry are investigated. Principal CO{sub 2} reducing measures include: decreasing fuel consumption through improved heat exchanging or new processes with lower heat demand, decreasing electricity consumption, substituting fossil fuels with biofuels, exporting refined biofuels for external use, increasing CO{sub 2} neutral electricity generation, improving waste heat utilization and decreasing specific raw material consumption. The results show that electricity conservation and improvement of existing steam power cycles are the most cost-effective options that have a large potential to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. Outsourcing of industrial energy operations to utilities may enable CO{sub 2} reducing measures that would not be carried out by industry due to differences in demands for profit on spent capita. 21 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  3. Spray process for the recovery of CO.sub.2 from a gas stream and a related apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soloveichik, Grigorii Lev; Perry, Robert James; Wood, Benjamin Rue; Genovese, Sarah Elizabeth

    2014-02-11

    A method for recovering carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a gas stream is disclosed. The method includes the step of reacting CO.sub.2 in the gas stream with fine droplets of a liquid absorbent, so as to form a solid material in which the CO.sub.2 is bound. The solid material is then transported to a desorption site, where it is heated, to release substantially pure CO.sub.2 gas. The CO.sub.2 gas can then be collected and used or transported in any desired way. A related apparatus for recovering carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) from a gas stream is also described herein.

  4. A method for projecting full-scale performance of CO/sub 2/ flooding in the Willard Unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilhartz, H.L.; Charlson, G.S.; Stalkup, F.I.; Miller, C.C.

    1985-01-01

    A non-producing CO/sub 2/ flood tertiary recovery test was recently completed in the Willard Unit of Wasson Field. Flood responses during waterflood and alternate injection of CO/sub 2/ and water were monitored at a logging observation well using compensated neutron and pulsed neutron logs. A pressure core was taken to measure residual oil saturations at the test conclusion. The overall objective of the testing was to obtain information for evaluating the potential for full-scale CO/sub 2/ flooding in the unit. Out method for making this evaluation involves: (1) defining CO/sub 2/ flood displacement efficiency and representing this efficiency in a miscible flood reservoir simulator; (2) defining a representative average reservoir description; and (3) projecting full-scale CO/sub 2/ flood performance with the simulator. The paper provides a status report on progress to assess CO/sub 2/ flooding potential for the Willard Unit in this manner

  5. Rational bioenergy utilisation in energy systems and impacts on CO{sub 2} emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wahlund, Bertil

    2003-04-01

    The increased use of biomass in energy systems is an important strategy to reduce CO{sub 2} emissions. The purpose of this thesis has been to analyse the opportunities for Sweden to further reduce CO{sub 2} emissions in the energy system, by rationally utilising woody biomass energy. The characteristics of current commercially operating biofuel-based CHP plants in Sweden are surveyed and systematically presented. A consistent and transparent comprehensive reference base for system comparisons is given. Furthermore, the fuel effectiveness and contribution to CO{sub 2} reduction is calculated. The governmental subsidies of the CHP plants investment, expressed as cost of specific CO{sub 2} reduction, appears to be low. The competitiveness of biomass-fuelled energy production in relation to fossil-based production with carbon capture is analysed, showing that the biomass-fuelled systems provide a competitive option, in terms of cost of electricity and efficiencies. The remaining Swedish woody biofuel potential of at least 100 PJ/yr is principally available in regions with a biomass surplus. Transportation is therefore required to enable its utilisation in national and international markets. Refining the biofuel feedstock to pellets, or even further refining to motor fuels (DME, methanol or ethanol) or power, could facilitate this transport. Different options for fuel refining are studied and compared. The entire fuel chain, from fuel feedstock to end users, is considered and CO{sub 2} emissions are quantified. Substituting fuel pellets for coal appears to be the most cost effective alternative and shows the largest CO{sub 2} reduction per energy unit biofuel. Motor fuels appear more costly and give about half the CO{sub 2} reduction. Transportation of the upgraded biofuel pellets is highly feasible from CO{sub 2} emissions point of view and does not constitute a hindrance for further utilisation, i.e. the pellets can be transported over long distances efficiently with

  6. Elevated CO{sub 2} levels and herbivore damage alter host plant preferences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Agrell, J. [Lund Univ., Dept. of Animal Ecology, Lund (Sweden); Anderson, Peter, Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Crop Sciences, Alnarp (SE)); Oleszek, W.; Stochmal, Anna [Inst. of Soil Science and Plant Cultivation, Dept. of Biochemistry, Pulawy (Poland); Agrell, Cecilia [Lund Univ., Dept. of Chemical Ecology and Ecotoxicology, Lund (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between the moth Spodoptera littoralis and two of its host plants, alfalfa (Medicago sativa) and cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) were examined, using plants grown under ambient (350 ppm) and elevated (700 ppm) CO{sub 2} conditions. To determine strength and effects of herbivore-induced responses assays were performed with both undamaged (control) and herbivore damaged plants. CO{sub 2} and damage effects on larval host plant preferences were determined through dual-choice bioassays. In addition, larvae were reared from hatching to pupation on experimental foliage to examine effects on larval growth and development. When undamaged plants were used S. littoralis larvae in consumed more cotton than alfalfa, and CO{sub 2} enrichment caused a reduction in the preference for cotton. With damaged plants larvae consumed equal amounts of the two plant species (ambient CO{sub 2} conditions), but CO{sub 2} enrichment strongly shifted preferences towards cotton, which was then consumed three times more than alfalfa. Complementary assays showed that elevated CO{sub 2} levels had no effect on the herbivore-induced responses of cotton, whereas those of alfalfa were significantly increased. Larval growth was highest for larvae fed undamaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} level, and lowest for larvae on damaged alfalfa from the high CO{sub 2} treatment. Development time increased on damaged cotton irrespectively of CO{sub 2} treatment, and on damaged alfalfa in the elevated CO{sub 2} treatment. (au) These results demonstrate that elevated CO2 levels can cause insect herbivores to alter host plant preferences, and that effects on herbivore-induced responses may be a key mechanism behind these processes. Furthermore, since the insects were shown to avoid foliage that reduced their physiological performance, our data suggest that behavioural host plant shifts result in partial escape from negative consequences of feeding on high CO2 foliage. Thus, CO2 enrichment can alter

  7. Violet Grove CO{sub 2} injection project : monitoring with timelapse VSP surveys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coueslan, M.; Lawton, D. [Calgary Univ., Calgary, AB (Canada); Jones, M. [Schlumberger Canada Ltd., Calgary, AB (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Several oil and gas fields in western Canada have been depleted through primary production and secondary recovery methods. Injecting carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) into a reservoir can enhance oil recovery (EOR) and has the potential benefit of CO{sub 2} sequestration, which reduces greenhouse gas emissions into the atmosphere. It has been estimated that western Canada has a practical CO{sub 2} storage capacity of about 3.3 Gt in its oil and gas reservoirs. In order to claim a reduction in CO{sub 2} emissions, however, the injected CO{sub 2} must be monitored to prove that it is being trapped in these reservoirs. For that reason, the Violet Grove site, near Drayton Valley, Alberta was chosen as a pilot site to study CO{sub 2} injection into a reservoir for enhanced recovery and carbon sequestration purposes. The reservoir is located in the Cardium Formation in the Pembina Field. It was expected that the CO{sub 2} would flow preferentially in the reservoir's dominant fracture orientation, which is northeast-southwest. Simultaneously acquired time-lapse multicomponent surface and borehole seismic surveys were used to monitor changes in the reservoir. Prior to CO{sub 2} injection, a baseline survey was acquired in March 2005. A second survey was acquired 8 months after CO{sub 2} injection. The borehole seismic data displayed higher bandwidth and increased resolution compared to the surface seismic data. The PS-wave borehole seismic data in particular showed much better results. Together, these seismic surveys provide lateral coverage of the area as well as high resolution images near the observation well. Preliminary results from the time-lapse analysis show an increase of 30 to 60 per cent in the reservoir reflectivity amplitudes in the 8 months between the baseline and monitor surveys, suggesting that the CO{sub 2} flood has progressed southwest of the injector, most likely along the dominant fracture trend. 7 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Subtask 2.17 - CO>2 Storage Efficiency in Deep Saline Formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorecki, Charles D. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Liu, Guoxiang [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Braunberger, Jason R. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Klenner, Robert C. L. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Ayash, Scott C. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Dotzenrod, Neil W. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Steadman, Edward N. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Harju, John A. [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2014-02-01

    As the field of carbon capture and storage (CCS) continues to advance, and large-scale implementation of geologic carbon dioxide (CO>2) storage progresses, it will be important to understand the potential of geologic formations to store meaningful amounts of CO>2. Geologic CO>2 storage in deep saline formations (DSFs) has been suggested as one of the best potential methods for reducing anthropogenic CO>2 emission to the atmosphere, and as such, updated storage resource estimation methods will continue to be an important component for the widespread deployment of CCS around the world. While there have been several methodologies suggested in the literature, most of these methods are based on a volumetric calculation of the pore volume of the DSF multiplied by a storage efficiency term and do not consider the effect of site-specific dynamic factors such as injection rate, injection pattern, timing of injection, pressure interference between injection locations, and overall formation pressure buildup. These volumetric methods may be excellent for comparing the potential between particular formations or basins, but they have not been validated through real-world experience or full-formation injection simulations. Several studies have also suggested that the dynamic components of geologic storage may play the most important role in storing CO>2 in DSFs but until now have not directly compared CO>2 storage resource estimates made with volumetric methodologies to estimates made using dynamic CO>2 storage methodologies. In this study, two DSFs, in geographically separate areas with geologically diverse properties, were evaluated with both volumetric and dynamic CO>2 storage resource estimation methodologies to compare the results and determine the applicability of both approaches. In the end, it was determined that the dynamic CO>2 storage resource potential is timedependent and it

  9. A conversion of CO{sub 2}-ECBM related lab observations to reservoir requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gensterblum, Y.; Merkel, A.; Busch, A. [RWTH Aachen Univ. (Germany). Inst. of Geology and Geochemistry of Petroleum and Coal; Krooss, B.M. [Shell Global Solutions International, Rijswijk (Netherlands)

    2013-08-01

    To predict a CBM production profile either during primary or secondary production, aspects like coal permeability and porosity, density, ash and moisture content, initial gas-in-place (GIP) (from canister desorption tests), gas sorption capacity from laboratory isotherms (to obtain gas saturations and desorption pressure), gas diffusivities, coal volumetrics (thickness and areal extent) need to be understood as a minimum requirement. When dealing with CO{sub 2}-ECBM selective adsorption, counter diffusion in the coal matrix, or coal shrinkage and swelling (from CH{sub 4} desorption and CO{sub 2} adsorption, respectively) and the influence of moisture need to be investigated in addition to the parameters above. During CO{sub 2}-ECBM processes, the areal distribution of the CO{sub 2} injected is accomplished by flow through the cleat network. When CO{sub 2} is entering the coal matrix by a combined sorption/diffusion process it will adsorb to the coal inner surface and at the same time replace part of the CH{sub 4}. This replacement occurs either by a reduction in the CH{sub 4} partial pressure or by a higher selective sorption of CO{sub 2} over CH{sub 4}. Because of a concentration gradient between CH{sub 4} in the matrix compared to the cleat system, CH{sub 4} diffuses from the coal matrix into the cleat system where, by pressure drawdown towards a production well, it can be produced. In this context this presentation summarizes gas (CO{sub 2}, CH{sub 4}) and water sorption on coal and specifically addresses the following topics: - CH{sub 4} saturation development in CBM reservoir with depth (thermodynamic considerations); - CO{sub 2}-ECBM 'sweet spot' identification; - CH{sub 4} and CO{sub 2} sorption capacity as a function depth and rank; - CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} sorption on natural coals and its dependence on coal specific parameters like coal rank, maceral composition or ash content (Busch and Gensterblum, 2011); - Water sorption on coal, its

  10. Cost Implications of Uncertainty in CO{sub 2} Storage Resource Estimates: A Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, Steven T., E-mail: sanderson@usgs.gov [National Center, U.S. Geological Survey (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Carbon capture from stationary sources and geologic storage of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is an important option to include in strategies to mitigate greenhouse gas emissions. However, the potential costs of commercial-scale CO{sub 2} storage are not well constrained, stemming from the inherent uncertainty in storage resource estimates coupled with a lack of detailed estimates of the infrastructure needed to access those resources. Storage resource estimates are highly dependent on storage efficiency values or storage coefficients, which are calculated based on ranges of uncertain geological and physical reservoir parameters. If dynamic factors (such as variability in storage efficiencies, pressure interference, and acceptable injection rates over time), reservoir pressure limitations, boundaries on migration of CO{sub 2}, consideration of closed or semi-closed saline reservoir systems, and other possible constraints on the technically accessible CO{sub 2} storage resource (TASR) are accounted for, it is likely that only a fraction of the TASR could be available without incurring significant additional costs. Although storage resource estimates typically assume that any issues with pressure buildup due to CO{sub 2} injection will be mitigated by reservoir pressure management, estimates of the costs of CO{sub 2} storage generally do not include the costs of active pressure management. Production of saline waters (brines) could be essential to increasing the dynamic storage capacity of most reservoirs, but including the costs of this critical method of reservoir pressure management could increase current estimates of the costs of CO{sub 2} storage by two times, or more. Even without considering the implications for reservoir pressure management, geologic uncertainty can significantly impact CO{sub 2} storage capacities and costs, and contribute to uncertainty in carbon capture and storage (CCS) systems. Given the current state of available information and the

  11. Comparative CO{sub 2} flux measurements by eddy covariance technique using open- and closed-path gas analysers over the equatorial Pacific Ocean

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo, Fumiyoshi (Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan); Atmosphere and Ocean Research Inst., Univ. of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan)), Email: fkondo@aori.u-tokyo.ac.jp; Tsukamoto, Osamu (Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Okayama Univ., Okayama (Japan))

    2012-04-15

    Direct comparison of airsea CO{sub 2} fluxes by open-path eddy covariance (OPEC) and closed-path eddy covariance (CPEC) techniques was carried out over the equatorial Pacific Ocean. Previous studies over oceans have shown that the CO{sub 2} flux by OPEC was larger than the bulk CO{sub 2} flux using the gas transfer velocity estimated by the mass balance technique, while the CO{sub 2} flux by CPEC agreed with the bulk CO{sub 2} flux. We investigated a traditional conflict between the CO{sub 2} flux by the eddy covariance technique and the bulk CO{sub 2} flux, and whether the CO{sub 2} fluctuation attenuated using the closed-path analyser can be measured with sufficient time responses to resolve small CO{sub 2} flux over oceans. Our results showed that the closed-path analyser using a short sampling tube and a high volume air pump can be used to measure the small CO{sub 2} fluctuation over the ocean. Further, the underestimated CO{sub 2} flux by CPEC due to the attenuated fluctuation can be corrected by the bandpass covariance method; its contribution was almost identical to that of H{sub 2}O flux. The CO{sub 2} flux by CPEC agreed with the total CO{sub 2} flux by OPEC with density correction; however, both of them are one order of magnitude larger than the bulk CO{sub 2} flux

  12. SU-E-T-552: Monte Carlo Calculation of Correction Factors for a Free-Air Ionization Chamber in Support of a National Air-Kerma Standard for Electronic Brachytherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mille, M; Bergstrom, P [National Institute of Standards and Technology, Gaithersburg, MD (United States)

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To use Monte Carlo radiation transport methods to calculate correction factors for a free-air ionization chamber in support of a national air-kerma standard for low-energy, miniature x-ray sources used for electronic brachytherapy (eBx). Methods: The NIST is establishing a calibration service for well-type ionization chambers used to characterize the strength of eBx sources prior to clinical use. The calibration approach involves establishing the well-chamber’s response to an eBx source whose air-kerma rate at a 50 cm distance is determined through a primary measurement performed using the Lamperti free-air ionization chamber. However, the free-air chamber measurements of charge or current can only be related to the reference air-kerma standard after applying several corrections, some of which are best determined via Monte Carlo simulation. To this end, a detailed geometric model of the Lamperti chamber was developed in the EGSnrc code based on the engineering drawings of the instrument. The egs-fac user code in EGSnrc was then used to calculate energy-dependent correction factors which account for missing or undesired ionization arising from effects such as: (1) attenuation and scatter of the x-rays in air; (2) primary electrons escaping the charge collection region; (3) lack of charged particle equilibrium; (4) atomic fluorescence and bremsstrahlung radiation. Results: Energy-dependent correction factors were calculated assuming a monoenergetic point source with the photon energy ranging from 2 keV to 60 keV in 2 keV increments. Sufficient photon histories were simulated so that the Monte Carlo statistical uncertainty of the correction factors was less than 0.01%. The correction factors for a specific eBx source will be determined by integrating these tabulated results over its measured x-ray spectrum. Conclusion: The correction factors calculated in this work are important for establishing a national standard for eBx which will help ensure that dose

  13. Recent Advances in Anhydrous Solvents for CO{sub 2} Capture: Ionic Liquids, Switchable Solvents, and Nanoparticle Organic Hybrid Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Youngjune [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju (Korea, Republic of); Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Chung Hsing University, Taichung City (China); Park, Ah-Hyung Alissa, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Earth and Environmental Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Department of Chemical Engineering, Lenfest Center for Sustainable Energy, Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Petit, Camille, E-mail: ap2622@columbia.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering, Imperial College London, London (United Kingdom)

    2015-10-01

    CO{sub 2} capture by amine scrubbing, which has a high CO{sub 2} capture capacity and a rapid reaction rate, is the most employed and investigated approach to date. There are a number of recent large-scale demonstrations including the Boundary Dam Carbon Capture Project by SaskPower in Canada that have reported successful implementations of aqueous amine solvent in CO{sub 2} capture from flue gases. The findings from these demonstrations will significantly advance the field of CO{sub 2} capture in the coming years. While the latest efforts in aqueous amine solvents are exciting and promising, there are still several drawbacks to amine-based CO{sub 2} capture solvents including high volatility and corrosiveness of the amine solutions as well as the high parasitic energy penalty during the solvent regeneration step. Thus, in a parallel effort, alternative CO{sub 2} capture solvents, which are often anhydrous, have been developed as the third-generation CO{sub 2} capture solvents. These novel classes of liquid materials include ionic liquids, CO{sub 2}-triggered switchable solvents (i.e., CO{sub 2}-binding organic liquids, reversible ionic liquids), and nanoparticle organic hybrid materials. This paper provides a review of these various anhydrous solvents and their potential for CO{sub 2} capture. Particular attention is given to the mechanisms of CO{sub 2} absorption in these solvents, their regeneration and their processability – especially taking into account their viscosity. While not intended to provide a complete coverage of the existing literature, this review aims at pointing the major findings reported for these new classes of CO{sub 2} capture media.

  14. Sensitivity of terrestrial ecosystems to elevated atmospheric CO{sub 2}: Comparisons of model simulation studies to CO{sub 2} effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Y. [Marine Biological Lab., Woods Hole, MA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In the context of a project to compare terrestrial ecosystem models, the Vegetation/Ecosystem Modeling and Analysis Project (VEMAP), we have analyzed how three biogeochemistry models link plant growth to doubled atmospheric CO{sub 2}. A common set of input data was used to drive three biogeochemistry models, BIOME-BGC, CENTURY and TEM. For the continental United States the simulation results show that with doubled CO{sub 2}, NPP increased by 8.7%, 5.0% and 10.8% for TEM, CENTURY and BIOME-BGC, respectively. At the biome level the range of NPP estimates varied considerably among models. TEM-simulated enhancement of NPP ranged from 2% to 28%; CENTURY, from 2% to 9%; and BIOME-BGC, from 4% to 27%. A transect analysis across several biomes along a latitude at 41.5 N shows that the TEM-simulated CO{sub 2} enhancement of NPP ranged from 0% to 22%; CENTURY, from 1% to 10% and BIOME-BGC, from 1% to 63%. In this study, we have investigated the underlying mechanisms of the three models to reveal how increased CO{sub 2} affects photosynthesis rate, water using efficiency and nutrient cycles. The relative importance of these mechanisms in each of the three biogeochemistry models will be discussed.

  15. Workshop on capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} (CCS); Taller sobre captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} (CCS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2008-07-15

    In this workshop diverse communications related to the capture and sequestration of CO{sub 2} are presented. This workshop was realized in the Technological Museum of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), in Mexico City on the ninth and tenth of July, 2008, and it had the objective of reflecting the necessity of considering in Mexico the application of the capture and sequestration technologies of CO{sub 2} (CCS), as well as to put in touch the technicians and managers of the Mexican institutions with the world-wide leaders in these technologies and with the managers of companies that are successfully applying CCS technologies. [Spanish] En este taller se presentan diversas ponencias relacionadas con la captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2}. Este taller se realizo en el Museo Tecnologico de la Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE), en la Ciudad de Mexico, los dias 9 y 10 de julio de 2008 y tuvo como objetivo reflexionar sobre la necesidad de considerar en Mexico, la aplicacion de las tecnologias de captura y secuestro de CO{sub 2} (CCS), asi como poner en contacto a los tecnicos y directivos de las instituciones mexicanas con los lideres mundiales en estas tecnologias y con los directivos de empresas que estan aplicando con exito tecnologias de CCS.

  16. Co{sub 2} exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO{sub 2} concentrations. Carbon Dioxide Research Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-12-31

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO{sub 2}. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO{sub 2} condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} plants under elevated CO{sub 2}, which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C{sub 3} and C{sub 4} Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO{sub 2} compared with 360 ppM.

  17. Co[sub 2] exchange, environmental productivity indices, and productivity of opuntia ficus-indica under current and elevated CO[sub 2] concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nobel, P.S.

    1992-01-01

    This project involved placing mature cladodes (flattened stem segments) of Opuntia ficus-indica in growth chambers containing 360 or 720 ppM CO[sub 2]. After nine weeks, the new daughter cladodes initiated on the planted cladodes averaged 7% higher in biomass but 8% less is area, leading to a specific stem mass for this Crassulacean acid metabolism (CAM) species that was 16% higher under the elevated CO[sub 2] condition. This is similar to be less dramatic than the increase in specific leaf mass for C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] plants under elevated CO[sub 2], which generally ranges from 28% to 40%. Another contrast with C[sub 3] and C[sub 4] Plants was the reliance of the new organs of the CAM plant on biomass translocated from existing organs instead of derived directly from current photosynthate. In this regard, 18% less dry weight was translocated from basal cladodes into daughter cladodes of Q. ficus-indica at 720 ppM CO[sub 2] compared with 360 ppM.

  18. Bioethanol: the new source for growing CO{sub 2} demand?; Bioetanol: a nova fonte para a demanda crescente por CO{sub 2}?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martynowicz, Emile T.M.J. [Norit Haffmans, Venlo (Netherlands); Mekss, Varidots Dainis Thorvalds [Norit do Brasil Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-11-01

    In recent years, while customers demand a more sustainable greener CO{sub 2} source, the worldwide demand for food-grade CO{sub 2} is steadily increasing. In Brazil, a large bio-ethanol producer, the CO{sub 2} from the bio-ethanol production is an alternative. The research focused on the activated carbon filter in a CO{sub 2} recovery plant in respect to its removal efficiency for sulfurous compounds, such as H{sub 2}S and COS. Five different types of activated carbons were investigated both in pilot scale tests as well as in full scale tests. The different adsorption behavior in respect to COS for the activated carbon was attributed to the variance in mineral trace element composition of the activated carbon. Finally, an activated carbon was selected, that could remove H{sub 2}S, DMS and COS concentrations in the low ppm range to levels of less than 20 ppbw, in even more than 50 thermal adsorption/desorption cycles. This activated carbon was tested in a full scale plant and proved to be very suitable for the process conditions encountered in a bioethanol plant. (author)

  19. The economy-energy CO{sub 2} connection: a review of trends and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darmstadter, J. [Resources for the Future, Washington, DC (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Though highly aggregative and a straightforward arithmetic identity, a useful 'decomposition' of the change in CO{sub 2} emissions breaks out four constituent elements: (1) population, (2) GDP/person, (3) energy consumption/unit GDP, and (4) CO{sub 2} emissions/unit energy consumption. Other things equal, slower population growth means less growth in CO{sub 2} release, while higher GDP/capita signifies a greater volume of CO{sub 2} emitted. The energy/GDP ratio measures an economy's aggregate energy intensity, reflecting structural, technological and energy-use characteristics of society. The CO{sub 2}/energy element spotlights the effect of a changing mix of energy sources with varying carbon characteristics. This paper concentrates in particular on the 3rd and 4th components of this dissection. In the case of the energy/GDP ratio, the author examines the impact of energy price change on energy demand as well as the contribution of 'autonomous' technological advance. Electronic commerce injects a growing and conceivably significant factor into enhanced energy efficiency. In the case of the CO{sub 2}/energy ratio, such developments as increased use of natural gas in electric generation and - more conjecturally - use of renewables, are likely to prove important. The prospect of a sharp turnaround in the trend of US (and other industrial country) CO{sub 2} emissions and of at least moderate deceleration in the case of developing countries is found to constitute a formidable, but by no means hopeless, challenge. The deterrent effect of rising energy prices would appear to be at least one condition for that goal to be attainable. 15 refs., 2 tabs.

  20. Modification of bifunctional epoxy resin using CO{sub 2} fixation process and nanoclay

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoshkish, Morteza; Bouhendi, Hosein, E-mail: H.boohendi@ippi.ac.ir; Vafayan, Mehdi

    2014-10-15

    A bifunctional epoxy resin was modified by using a CO{sub 2} fixation solution process in the presence of tetra n-butyl ammonium bromide (TBAB) as catalyst and the modified treated resin was treated by cloisite 30B as nano additive. The Unmodified epoxy resin (UME), CO{sub 2} fixated modified epoxy resin (CFME), and CFME/clay nano composite (CFMEN), were cured by diethylenetriamine (DETA). A cycloaliphatic compound as a reactive diluent was used to control the viscosity of high viscose CFME. The exfoliation of organoclay in UME and CFME was investigated by X-ray diffraction and activation energy was computed using the advanced integral isoconversional method. The activation energy dependency demonstrated that the mechanism of UME curing did not change in the presence of nanoclay. In contrast, the CO{sub 2} fixation results showed a significant change in the activation energy dependency. The Thermal stability parameters include the initial degradation temperature (IDT), the temperature at the maximum rate of weight loss (T{sub max}), and the decomposition activation energy (E{sub d}) were determined by thermal gravimetry analysis. Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis measurements showed that the presence of organoclay in CFME increases the T{sub g} of nano composite in contrast to UME. The fracture roughness of UME, CFME and CFNE were determined by scanning electron microscope. The exfoliated UME/1%clay nanocomposite was confirmed by TEM image. - Highlights: • A new epoxy resin was synthesized using CO{sub 2} fixation reaction. • The synthesized epoxy resin was modified by an organo nano-clay. • CO{sub 2} fixation noticeably changed the curing mechanism. • CO{sub 2} fixation reaction consumes CO{sub 2} which is a harmful greenhouse gas.

  1. Alstom's development of advanced CFB based technologies for CO{sub 2} mitigation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nsakala ya Nsakala; David G. Turek; Gregory N. Liljedahl; Herbert E. Andrus; John H. Chiu; Jean-Xavier Morin [Alstom Power Inc., Windsor, CT (United States)

    2005-07-01

    ALSTOM Power Inc. (ALSTOM) is actively working to develop advanced circulating fluidized bed (CFB) based technologies for the purpose of CO{sub 2} mitigation. Two of the more promising ideas currently being investigated at ALSTOM are the oxygen-fired CFB and chemical looping technologies. The oxygen-fired CFB is a near-term CO{sub 2} capture technology, which uses pure oxygen tempered with recirculated flue gas to combust the fuel. The oxygen for combustion may be supplied by a cryogenic air separation unit, or in the future by more efficient processes such as oxygen transport membrane. This produces a flue gas stream comprising mostly CO{sub 2} and water vapor. Simple condensation of most of the water vapor leaves a CO{sub 2}-rich product stream which can be simply compressed for sequestration or purified for use in enhanced oil recovery or enhanced coal bed methane. Chemical looping is a longer-term development path towards CO{sub 2} mitigation. In ALSTOM's processes, a regenerable solid carrier extracts oxygen from air and transports it for combustion or gasification of the fuel. The chemical looping combustion process produces a high CO{sub 2} flue gas stream (similar to the O{sub 2} fired CFB flue gas stream) and steam for a Rankine cycle. The chemical looping gasification process captures CO{sub 2} in a separate chemical loop and produces hydrogen-rich synthesis gas for use in IGCCs, fuel cells, or for other industrial uses. This paper discusses ALSTOM's latest test work in these areas and the technical, economic and environmental implications of these advanced CFB-based systems. These advanced power generation units can be built from proven fluid bed design features and systems. 6 refs., 15 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Development of TRPN dendrimer-modified disordered mesoporous silica for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Zhang, Sisi; Qin, Hongyan; Wu, Wei, E-mail: wuweiupc@upc.edu.cn

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • A novel series of TRPN dendrimers are synthesized. • Structurally disordered mesoporous silica was used to develop the CO{sub 2} adsorbent. • The CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity is relatively high. • The sorbent exhibits a high stability after 12 cycling runs. • The sorbent achieves complete desorption at low temperature (60 °C). - Abstract: A novel series of tri(3-aminopropyl) amine (TRPN) dendrimers were synthesized and impregnated on structurally disordered mesoporous silica (DMS) to generate CO{sub 2} adsorbents (TS). The physicochemical and adsorption properties of the adsorbents before and after dendrimer modification were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N{sub 2} adsorption–desorption (N{sub 2}-BET) techniques. CO{sub 2} adsorption–desorption tests indicated that the sorbent demonstrates high CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity (138.1 mg g{sup −1} for G1 sample TS-G1-3CN-50 and 91.7 mg g{sup −1} for G2 sample TS-G2-6CN-50), and can completely desorb CO{sub 2} under vacuum at 60 °C. Its CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity at 25 °C increases with the amine loading, achieving the highest adsorption capacity (140.6 mg g{sup −1} for TS-G1-3CN) at 60%. The developed TS materials exhibited excellent cycling stability. After 12 consecutive adsorption–desorption runs, TS-G1-3CN-50 shows an adsorption capacity of 136.0 mg g{sup −1}, retaining 98.5% of its original value.

  3. Tradable CO{sub 2} permits in Danish and European energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varming, S.; Vesterdal, M. [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S (Denmark); Boerre Eriksen, P. [Eltra I/S (Denmark); Grohnheit, P.E.; Nielsen, L. [RISOe (Denmark); Tinggaard Svendsen, G. [Handelshoejskolen i Aarhus (Denmark)

    2000-08-01

    This report presents the results of the project 'Tradable CO{sub 2} permits in Danish and European energy policy'. The project was financed by a grant from the Danish Energy Research Programme 1998 (Grant 1753/98-0002). The project was conducted in co-operation between Elsamprojekt A/S (project manager), Risoe National Laboratory, Aarhus School of Business and I/S Eltra. The three major objectives of the project were: To identify and analyse the economical and political issues that are relevant with regard to the construction of a tradable CO{sub 2} permit market as well as proposing a suitable design for a tradable CO{sub 2} permit market for the energy sector in the EU. Experience from the tradable S{sub O}2 permit market in the US is taken into consideration as well. To present an overview of price estimates of CO{sub 2} and greenhouse gas permits in different models as well as discussing the assumptions leading to the different outcomes. Furthermore, the special role of backstop technologies in relation to permit prices is analysed. To analyse the connection between CO{sub 2} permit prices and technology choice in the energy sector in the medium and longer term (i.e., 2010 and 2020) with a special emphasis on combined heat and power and renewables. In addition, the short-term effects on CO{sub 2} emissions and electricity trade of introducing tradable CO{sub 2} permit with limited coverage (i.e. a national system) as well as complete coverage (i.e. including all the countries) in the Nordic electricity system are analysed. (au)

  4. Natural CO{sub 2} migrations in the South-Eastern Basin of France: implications for the CO{sub 2} storage in sedimentary formations; Contribution a la connaissance des migrations de CO{sub 2} naturel dans le Bassin du Sud-Est de la France: enseignements pour le stockage geologique du CO{sub 2} dans les reservoirs sedimentaires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rubert, Y.

    2009-03-15

    Study of natural CO{sub 2} analogues brings key informations on the factors governing the long term stability/instability of future anthropogenic CO{sub 2} storages. The main objective of this work, through the study of cores from V.Mo.2 well crosscutting the Montmiral natural reservoir (Valence Basin, France), is to trace the deep CO{sub 2} migrations in fractures. Petrographic, geochemical and micro-thermometric studies of the V.Mo.2 cores were thus performed in order: 1) to describe the reservoir filling conditions and 2) to detect possible CO{sub 2}-leakage through the sediments overlying the reservoir. Fluid inclusions from the Paleozoic crystalline basement record the progressive unmixing of a hot homogeneous aquo-carbonic fluid. The Montmiral reservoir was therefore probably fed by a CO{sub 2}-enriched gas component at the Late Cretaceous-Paleogene. The study of the sedimentary column in V.Mo.2 well, demonstrates that the CO{sub 2} did not migrate towards the surface through the thick marly unit (Domerian-Middle Oxfordian). These marls have acted as an impermeable barrier that prevented the upward migration of fluids. Two main stages of fluid circulation have been recognized: 1) an ante- Callovian one related to the Tethysian extension 2) a tertiary stage during which the upper units underwent a karstification, with CO{sub 2} leakage related but which remained confined into the deeper parts of the Valence Basin. Since the Paleogene, the Montmiral reservoir has apparently remained stable, despite the Pyrenean and alpine orogeneses. This is mainly due to the efficient seal formed by the thick marly levels and also to the local structuration in faulted blocks which apparently acted as efficient lateral barriers. (author)

  5. Efficient Regeneration of Physical and Chemical Solvents for CO>2 Capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tande, Brian [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Seames, Wayne [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States); Benson, Steve [Univ. of North Dakota, Grand Forks, ND (United States)

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this project was to evaluate the use of composite polymer membranes and porous membrane contactors to regenerate physical and chemical solvents for capture of carbon dioxide (CO>2) from synthesis gas or flue gas, with the goal of improving the energy efficiency of carbon capture. Both a chemical solvent (typical for a post-combustion capture of CO>2 from flue gas) and a physical solvent (typical for pre- combustion capture of CO>2 from syngas) were evaluated using two bench-scale test systems constructed for this project. For chemical solvents, polytetrafluoroethylene and polypropylene membranes were found to be able to strip CO>2 from a monoethanolamine (MEA) solution with high selectivity without significant degradation of the material. As expected, the regeneration temperature was the most significant parameter affecting the CO>2 flux through the membrane. Pore size was also found to be important, as pores larger than 5 microns lead to excessive pore wetting. For physical solvents, polydimethyl-siloxane (PDMS)-based membranes were found to have a higher CO>2 permeability than polyvinylalcohol (PVOH) based membranes, while also minimizing solvent loss. Overall, however, the recovery of CO>2 in these systems is low – less than 2% for both chemical and physical solvents – primarily due to the small surface area of the membrane test apparatus. To obtain the higher regeneration rates needed for this application, a much larger surface area would be needed. Further experiments using, for example, a hollow fiber membrane module could determine if this process could be commercially viable.

  6. Tradable CO{sub 2} permits in Danish and European energy policy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Varming, S; Vesterdal, M [ELSAMPROJEKT A/S (Denmark); Boerre Eriksen, P [Eltra I/S (Denmark); Grohnheit, P E; Nielsen, L [RISOe (Denmark); Tinggaard Svendsen, G [Handelshoejskolen i Aarhus (Denmark)

    2000-08-01

    This report presents the results of the project 'Tradable CO{sub 2} permits in Danish and European energy policy'. The project was financed by a grant from the Danish Energy Research Programme 1998 (Grant 1753/98-0002). The project was conducted in co-operation between Elsamprojekt A/S (project manager), Risoe National Laboratory, Aarhus School of Business and I/S Eltra. The three major objectives of the project were: To identify and analyse the economical and political issues that are relevant with regard to the construction of a tradable CO{sub 2} permit market as well as proposing a suitable design for a tradable CO{sub 2} permit market for the energy sector in the EU. Experience from the tradable S{sub O}2 permit market in the US is taken into consideration as well. To present an overview of price estimates of CO{sub 2} and greenhouse gas permits in different models as well as discussing the assumptions leading to the different outcomes. Furthermore, the special role of backstop technologies in relation to permit prices is analysed. To analyse the connection between CO{sub 2} permit prices and technology choice in the energy sector in the medium and longer term (i.e., 2010 and 2020) with a special emphasis on combined heat and power and renewables. In addition, the short-term effects on CO{sub 2} emissions and electricity trade of introducing tradable CO{sub 2} permit with limited coverage (i.e. a national system) as well as complete coverage (i.e. including all the countries) in the Nordic electricity system are analysed. (au)

  7. Experiments and geochemical modelling of CO{sub 2} sequestration by olivine: Potential, quantification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia, B., E-mail: Bruno.Garcia@ifp.fr [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Beaumont, V.; Perfetti, E.; Rouchon, V.; Blanchet, D. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France); Oger, P.; Dromart, G. [Universite de Lyon, CNRS, UMR 5570, ENS de Lyon, Site Monod, 15 Parvis Rene Descartes BP 7000, Lyon F-69342 (France); Huc, A.-Y.; Haeseler, F. [Institut Francais du Petrole, 1 et 4 Avenue du Bois Preau, 92852 Rueil Malmaison (France)

    2010-09-15

    Aqueous solutions equilibrated with supercritical CO{sub 2} (150 deg. C and total pressure of 150 bar) were investigated in order to characterize their respective conditions of carbonation. Dissolution of olivine and subsequent precipitation of magnesite with a net consumption of CO{sub 2} were expected. A quantified pure mineral phase (powders with different olivine grain diameter [20-80 {mu}m], [80-125 {mu}m], [125-200 {mu}m] and [>200 {mu}m]), and CO{sub 2} (as dried ice) were placed in closed-batch reactors (soft Au tubes) in the presence of solutions. Different salinities (from 0 to 3400 mM) and different ratios of solution/solid (mineral phase) (from 0.1 to 10) were investigated. Experiments were performed over periods from 2 to 8 weeks. Final solid products were quantified by the Rock-Eval 6 technique, and identified using X-ray diffraction, Raman spectroscopy, electron microprobe and scanning electron microscopy. Gaseous compounds were quantified by a vacuum line equipped with a Toepler pump and identified and measured by gas chromatography (GC). Carbon mass balances were calculated. Olivine reacted completely with CO{sub 2}, trapping up to 57 {+-} 2% (eqC of initial CO{sub 2}) as magnesite; some amorphous silica also formed. Olivine grain diameter and solution/mineral ratios appeared to be the primary controls on the reaction, salinity acting as a second order parameter. During the experiments, fluid analyses may not be performed with approach adopted but, geochemical modelling was attempted to give information about the solution composition. This showed an interesting mineral matrix evolution. Under the experimental conditions, olivine appeared to be a good candidate for CO{sub 2} trapping into a geologically stable carbonate, magnesite. The possible use of mafic and ultramafic rocks for CO{sub 2} sequestration is discussed.

  8. Effects of high CO{sub 2} seawater on the copepod (Acartia tsuensis) through all life stages and subsequent generations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurihara, Haruko [Institute for East China Sea Research, Nagasaki University, 1551-7 Tairamachi, Nagasaki 851-2213 (Japan)], E-mail: harukoku@e-mail.jp; Ishimatsu, Atsushi [Institute for East China Sea Research, Nagasaki University, 1551-7 Tairamachi, Nagasaki 851-2213 (Japan)

    2008-06-15

    We studied the effects of exposure to seawater equilibrated with CO{sub 2}-enriched air (CO{sub 2} 2380 ppm) from eggs to maturity and over two subsequent generations on the copepod Acartia tsuensis. Compared to the control (CO{sub 2} 380 ppm), high CO{sub 2} exposure through all life stages of the 1st generation copepods did not significantly affect survival, body size or developmental speed. Egg production and hatching rates were also not significantly different between the initial generation of females exposed to high CO{sub 2} and the 1st and 2nd generation females developed from eggs to maturity in high CO{sub 2}. Thus, the copepods appear more tolerant to increased CO{sub 2} than other marine organisms previously investigated for CO{sub 2} tolerance (i.e., sea urchins and bivalves). However, the crucial importance of copepods in marine ecosystems requires thorough evaluation of the overall impacts of marine environmental changes predicted to occur with increased CO{sub 2} concentrations, i.e., increased temperature, enhanced UV irradiation, and changes in the community structure and nutritional value of phytoplankton.

  9. The carbon dioxide capture and geological storage; Le captage et le stockage geologique de CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-06-15

    This road-map proposes by the Group Total aims to inform the public on the carbon dioxide capture and geological storage. One possible means of climate change mitigation consists of storing the CO{sub 2} generated by the greenhouse gases emission in order to stabilize atmospheric concentrations. This sheet presents the CO{sub 2} capture from lage fossil-fueled combustion installations, the three capture techniques and the CO{sub 2} transport options, the geological storage of the CO{sub 2} and Total commitments in the domain. (A.L.B.)

  10. Retrospective of CO{sub 2} emissions of the Mexican industrial sector; Retrospectiva de emisiones de CO{sub 2} del sector industrial mexicano

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonzalez, Domingo; Martinez, Manuel [Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-11-15

    The carbon dioxide emissions of the Mexican Industrial Sector throughout the period of 1965-2003 are analyzed, in terms of 16 branches of the industrial economic activity, as it is marked by the proposed disintegration of the Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales of the Intituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) and the National Balance of Energy 2003 (BNE-2003). The CO{sub 2} emissions by the energy use have a behavior very similar to the one of the consumption of the final energy, which reflects that non significant changes in the composition of used fuels have existed. During this period the CO{sub 2} emissions increased 230%. The industrial branches that have shown significant changes in the CO{sub 2} emission are Construction, Bottled Water, Rubber, Cement, Beer and Malta and Chemistry. In order to evaluate the effects of the Activity, Structure, Power Intensity, fuel Mixture of final use and fuel Mixture used in electricity generation the decomposition model of CO{sub 2} is used based on the Laspeyres index. The calculated effects show that the main increase of total carbon dioxide of the SIM is referred to the Activity with an average rate of annual growth (TMCA) of 4.32%; whereas the effect that mitigates more the CO{sub 2} emission is the one described by the power Intensity and is equivalent to a TMCA of -0.85%. [Spanish] Se analizan las emisiones de bioxido de carbono del Sector Industrial Mexicano a lo largo del periodo de 1965-2003, en termino de 16 ramas de actividad economica industrial como lo marca la desagregacion propuesta por el Sistema de Cuentas Nacionales del Instituto Nacional de Estadistica, Geografia e Informatica (INEGI) y el Balance Nacional de Energia 2003 (BNE-2003). Las emisiones de CO{sub 2} por el uso de energia tienen un comportamiento muy similar al de consumo de energia final, lo que refleja que no han existido cambios significativos en la composicion de los combustibles empleados. Durante este periodo las

  11. Buzz: Face-to-Face Contact and the Urban Economy

    OpenAIRE

    Michael Storper; Anthony J. Venables

    2003-01-01

    This paper argues that existing models of urban concentrations are incomplete unless grounded in the most fundamental aspect of proximity; face-to-face contact. Face-to-face contact has four main features; it is an efficient communication technology; it can help solve incentive problems; it can facilitate socialization and learning; and it provides psychological motivation. We discuss each of these features in turn, and develop formal economic models of two of them. Face-to-face is particular...

  12. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carr?, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judge...

  13. Characterization of a free-air ionization chamber in direct X-ray beams as used in mammography; Caracterizacao de uma camara de ionizacao de ar-livre em feixes diretos de raios X utilizados em mamografia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Mateus Hilario de

    2014-08-01

    At this work stability and characterization tests were undertaken on a Victoreen free-air ionization chamber, model 481. The tests were realized using direct X-ray beams as a contribution for its establishment as a primary standard system of the quantity air kerma. The characterization tests were: saturation curve, ion collection efficiency, polarity effect, response linearity with the air kerma rate and response linearity with the chamber volume variation. The ion collection efficiency allowed the determination of the ion recombination factor. Most of the test results showed agreement with the limits established by international standards. Furthermore, the air attenuation factors for the mammography beams with aluminum and molybdenum filters were obtained. The factors for photon transmission and scattering at the diaphragm edges were also determined for mammography beams with aluminum filter and for the standard beam with molybdenum filter. (author)

  14. Vertical vector face lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somoano, Brian; Chan, Joanna; Morganroth, Greg

    2011-01-01

    Facial rejuvenation using local anesthesia has evolved in the past decade as a safer option for patients seeking fewer complications and minimal downtime. Mini- and short-scar face lifts using more conservative incision lengths and extent of undermining can be effective in the younger patient with lower face laxity and minimal loose, elastotic neck skin. By incorporating both an anterior and posterior approach and using an incision length between the mini and more traditional face lift, the Vertical Vector Face Lift can achieve longer-lasting and natural results with lesser cost and risk. Submentoplasty and liposuction of the neck and jawline, fundamental components of the vertical vector face lift, act synergistically with superficial musculoaponeurotic system plication to reestablish a more youthful, sculpted cervicomental angle, even in patients with prominent jowls. Dramatic results can be achieved in the right patient by combining with other procedures such as injectable fillers, chin implants, laser resurfacing, or upper and lower blepharoplasties. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Successful decoding of famous faces in the fusiform face area.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vadim Axelrod

    Full Text Available What are the neural mechanisms of face recognition? It is believed that the network of face-selective areas, which spans the occipital, temporal, and frontal cortices, is important in face recognition. A number of previous studies indeed reported that face identity could be discriminated based on patterns of multivoxel activity in the fusiform face area and the anterior temporal lobe. However, given the difficulty in localizing the face-selective area in the anterior temporal lobe, its role in face recognition is still unknown. Furthermore, previous studies limited their analysis to occipito-temporal regions without testing identity decoding in more anterior face-selective regions, such as the amygdala and prefrontal cortex. In the current high-resolution functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging study, we systematically examined the decoding of the identity of famous faces in the temporo-frontal network of face-selective and adjacent non-face-selective regions. A special focus has been put on the face-area in the anterior temporal lobe, which was reliably localized using an optimized scanning protocol. We found that face-identity could be discriminated above chance level only in the fusiform face area. Our results corroborate the role of the fusiform face area in face recognition. Future studies are needed to further explore the role of the more recently discovered anterior face-selective areas in face recognition.

  16. Techno-economic study of CO{sub 2} capture from an existing coal-fired power plant: MEA scrubbing vs. O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} recycle combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D; Croiset, E; Douglas, P L [Waterloo Univ., Dept. of Chemical Engineering, Waterloo, ON (Canada); Douglas, M A [Natural Resources Canada, CANMET Energy Technology Centre, Nepean, ON (Canada)

    2003-11-01

    The existing fleet of modern pulverised coal fired power plants represents an opportunity to achieve significant reductions in greenhouse gas emissions in the coming years providing that efficient and economical CO{sub 2} capture technologies are available for retrofit. One option is to separate CO{sub 2} from the products of combustion using conventional approaches such as amine scrubbing. An emerging alternative, commonly known as O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} recycle combustion, involves burning the coal with oxygen in an atmosphere of recycled flue gas. Both approaches can be retrofitted to existing units, however they consume significant amounts of energy to capture, purify and compress the CO{sub 2} for subsequent sequestration. This paper presents a techno-economic comparison of the performance of the two approaches. The comparison was developed using the commercial process simulation packages, Hysys and Aspen Plus. The results show that both processes are expensive options to capture CO{sub 2} from coal power plants, however O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} appears to be a more attractive retrofit than MEA scrubbing. The CO{sub 2} capture cost for the MEA case is USD 53/ton of CO{sub 2} avoided, which translates into 3.3 cent/kW h. For the O{sub 2}/CO{sub 2} case the CO{sub 2} capture cost is lower at USD 35/ton of CO{sub 2} avoided, which translates into 2.4 cent/kW h. These capture costs represent an approximate increase of 20-30% in current electricity prices. (Author)

  17. How Well Do Computer-Generated Faces Tap Face Expertise?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate Crookes

    Full Text Available The use of computer-generated (CG stimuli in face processing research is proliferating due to the ease with which faces can be generated, standardised and manipulated. However there has been surprisingly little research into whether CG faces are processed in the same way as photographs of real faces. The present study assessed how well CG faces tap face identity expertise by investigating whether two indicators of face expertise are reduced for CG faces when compared to face photographs. These indicators were accuracy for identification of own-race faces and the other-race effect (ORE-the well-established finding that own-race faces are recognised more accurately than other-race faces. In Experiment 1 Caucasian and Asian participants completed a recognition memory task for own- and other-race real and CG faces. Overall accuracy for own-race faces was dramatically reduced for CG compared to real faces and the ORE was significantly and substantially attenuated for CG faces. Experiment 2 investigated perceptual discrimination for own- and other-race real and CG faces with Caucasian and Asian participants. Here again, accuracy for own-race faces was significantly reduced for CG compared to real faces. However the ORE was not affected by format. Together these results signal that CG faces of the type tested here do not fully tap face expertise. Technological advancement may, in the future, produce CG faces that are equivalent to real photographs. Until then caution is advised when interpreting results obtained using CG faces.

  18. Electron acceleration by CO/sub 2/ laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujita, H.; Kitagawa, Y.; Daido, H.

    1986-01-01

    Experiments on electron acceleration have been performed by LEKKO VIII CO/sub 2/ laser system. The laser light was focused by an off-axis parabolic mirror with the F-number of 1.5 and irradiated to thin foil and pipe targets in order to obtain uniform underdense plasmas. Energy spectrum of electrons was measured by an electron spectrometer in the range of 0.3-1.1 MeV. In the single frequency case, electrons up to 1 MeV were observed in the direction of the laser axis for the laser intensity above 1.6 x 10/sup 14/ W/cm/sup 2/ which was equal to the estimated threshold for forward Raman scattering. Amount of high energy electrons depended on the interaction length and the background hot electron temperature. More electrons could resonate with the plasma wave for the higher hot electron temperature. This was confirmed by particle simulation. In most experiments, the plasma density was estimated of about 0.1 n/sub c/. When the plasma density was reduced to 0.01 n/sub c/ using pre-pulse, high energy electrons were not observed because of the low background hot electron temperature and the higher instability threshold. In the two frequency case, energetic electron beam injection is planned for efficient coupling with fast plasma wave. Pipe target seems to be hopeful because 1) the laser light is confined by the plasma fiber and 2) the phase velocity of the plasma wave is controlled by the transverse mode

  19. Methane Production from Gas Hydrate Deposits through Injection of Supercritical CO>2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthias Haeckel

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The recovery of natural gas from CH4-hydrate deposits in sub-marine and sub-permafrost environments through injection of CO>2 is considered a suitable strategy towards emission-neutral energy production. This study shows that the injection of hot, supercritical CO>2 is particularly promising. The addition of heat triggers the dissociation of CH4-hydrate while the CO>2, once thermally equilibrated, reacts with the pore water and is retained in the reservoir as immobile CO>2-hydrate. Furthermore, optimal reservoir conditions of pressure and temperature are constrained. Experiments were conducted in a high-pressure flow-through reactor at different sediment temperatures (2 °C, 8 °C, 10 °C and hydrostatic pressures (8 MPa, 13 MPa. The efficiency of both, CH4 production and CO>2 retention is best at 8 °C, 13 MPa. Here, both CO>2- and CH4-hydrate as well as mixed hydrates can form. At 2 °C, the production process was less effective due to congestion of transport pathways through the sediment by rapidly forming CO>2-hydrate. In contrast, at 10 °C CH4 production suffered from local increases in permeability and fast breakthrough of the injection fluid, thereby confining the accessibility to the CH4 pool to only the most prominent fluid channels. Mass and volume balancing of the collected gas and fluid stream identified gas mobilization as equally important process parameter in addition to the rates of methane hydrate dissociation and hydrate conversion. Thus, the combination of heat supply and CO>2 injection in one supercritical phase helps to overcome the mass transfer limitations usually observed in experiments with cold liquid or gaseous CO>2.

  20. In-Situ MVA of CO>2 Sequestration Using Smart Field Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohaghegh, Shahab D. [West Virginia Univ. Research Corporation, Morgantown, WV (United States)

    2014-09-01

    Capability of underground carbon dioxide storage to confine and sustain injected CO>2 for a long period of time is the main concern for geologic CO>2 sequestration. If a leakage from a geological CO>2 sequestration site occurs, it is crucial to find the approximate amount and the location of the leak, in a timely manner, in order to implement proper remediation activities. An overwhelming majority of research and development for storage site monitoring has been concentrated on atmospheric, surface or near surface monitoring of the sequestered CO>2 . This study aims to monitor the integrity of CO>2 storage at the reservoir level. This work proposes developing in-situ CO>2 Monitoring and Verification technology based on the implementation of Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG) or “Smart Wells” along with Artificial Intelligence and Data Mining (AI&DM). The technology attempts to identify the characteristics of the CO>2 leakage by de-convolving the pressure signals collected from Permanent Down-hole Gauges (PDG). Citronelle field, a saline aquifer reservoir, located in the U.S. was considered as the basis for this study. A reservoir simulation model for CO>2 sequestration in the Citronelle field was developed and history matched. PDGs were installed, and therefore were considered in the numerical model, at the injection well and an observation well. Upon completion of the history matching process, high frequency pressure data from PDGs were generated using the history matched numerical model using different CO>2 leakage scenarios. Since pressure signal behaviors were too complicated to de-convolute using any existing mathematical formulations, a Machine Learning-based technology was introduced for this purpose. An Intelligent Leakage Detection System (ILDS) was developed as the result of this effort using the machine learning and pattern recognition technologies. The ILDS

  1. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audience´s...... interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  2. Intrinsic Fiber Optic Chemical Sensors for Subsurface Detection of CO>2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, Jesus [Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc., Torrance, CA (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Intelligent Optical Systems, Inc. has developed distributed intrinsic fiber optic sensors to directly quantify the concentration of dissolved or gas-phase CO>2 for leak detection or plume migration in carbon capture and sequestration (CCS). The capability of the sensor for highly sensitive detection of CO>2 in the pressure and temperature range of 15 to 2,000 psi and 25°C to 175°C was demonstrated, as was the capability of operating in highly corrosive and contaminated environments such as those often found in CO>2 injection sites. The novel sensor system was for the first time demonstrated deployed in a deep well, detecting multiple CO>2 releases, in real time, at varying depths. Early CO>2 release detection, by means of a sensor cable integrating multiple sensor segments, was demonstrated, as was the capability of quantifying the leak. The novel fiber optic sensor system exhibits capabilities not achieved by any other monitoring technology. This project represents a breakthrough in monitoring capabilities for CCS applications.

  3. Enhancement of direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuanmin [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, Hebei Province (China); Zhuang, Ye [Energy and Environmental Research Center, University of North Dakota, 15 North 23rd Street, Grand Forks, ND 58203 (United States); Wang, Chunbo [Department of Power engineering, North China Electric Power University, Baoding 071003, Hebei Province (China)

    2009-07-15

    For an oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed combustion system, the limestone calcination is normally prevented due to excessive CO{sub 2} partial pressures and the limestone is subject to a direct sulfation reaction. The enhancement of the direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was investigated under high CO{sub 2} partial pressure in a thermogravimetric apparatus (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis method. A commercial limestone with a mean size of 18.8 {mu}m was used. Experimental results indicate that the incorporation of Na{sup +} ions in solid product CaSO{sub 4} lattice structures results in formation of more extrinsic point defects in the crystal lattices of CaSO{sub 4} and a significantly increased solid-state diffusivity/mobility in the solid product. So the direct sulfation of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-doped limestone shows higher rate and higher degree of conversion in the later stage of sulfation, in comparison with the direct sulfation of original limestone. The reaction changes from diffusional control to chemical reaction control in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} because of the effect of foreign ions on accelerating the solid-state diffusion. (author)

  4. Enhancement of direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} addition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chuanmin Chen; Ye Zhuang; Chunbo Wang [North China Electric Power University, Baoding (China). School of Environmental Science & Engineering

    2009-07-15

    For an oxy-fuel circulating fluidized bed combustion system, the limestone calcination is normally prevented due to excessive CO{sub 2} partial pressures and the limestone is subject to a direct sulfation reaction. The enhancement of the direct sulfation of limestone by Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} was investigated under high CO{sub 2} partial pressure in a thermogravimetric apparatus (TGA) and scanning electron microscope (SEM) analysis method. A commercial limestone with a mean size of 18.8 {mu}m was used. Experimental results indicate that the incorporation of Na{sup +} ions in solid product CaSO{sub 4} lattice structures results in formation of more extrinsic point defects in the crystal lattices of CaSO{sub 4} and a significantly increased solid-state diffusivity/mobility in the solid product. So the direct sulfation of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}-doped limestone shows higher rate and higher degree of conversion in the later stage of sulfation, in comparison with the direct sulfation of original limestone. The reaction changes from diffusional control to chemical reaction control in the presence of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} because of the effect of foreign ions on accelerating the solid-state diffusion. 33 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Determinants of CO{sub 2} emissions in ASEAN countries using energy and mining indicators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordin, Sayed Kushairi Sayed; Samat, Khairul Fadzli [Faculty of Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya, 76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Ismail, Siti Fatimah [Faculty of Entrepeneurship and Business, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Kampus Bandar, 16100 Kota Bharu, Kelantan (Malaysia); Hamzah, Khairum [Faculty of Engineering Technology, Universiti Teknikal Malaysia, Hang Tuah Jaya,76100 Durian Tunggal, Melaka (Malaysia); Halim, Bushra Abdul [Faculty of Computer and Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Teknologi MARA (Perak), Tapah Campus, 35400 Tapah Road, Perak (Malaysia); Kun, Sek Siok [School of Mathematical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800 Penang (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) is the main greenhouse gas emitted from human activities. Industrial revolution is one of the triggers to accelerate the quantity of CO{sub 2} in the atmosphere which lead to undesirable changes in the cycle of carbon. Like China and United States which are affected by the economic development growth, the atmospheric CO{sub 2} level in ASEAN countries is expected to be higher from year to year. This study focuses on energy and mining indicators, namely alternative and nuclear energy, energy production, combustible renewables and waste, fossil fuel energy consumption and the pump price for diesel fuel that contribute to CO{sub 2} emissions. Six ASEAN countries were examined from 1970 to 2010 using panel data approach. The result shows that model of cross section-fixed effect is the most appropriate model with the value of R-squared is about 86%. Energy production and fossil fuel energy consumption are found to be significantly influenced to CO{sub 2} emissions.

  6. N-doped polypyrrole-based porous carbons for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevilla, Marta; Valle-Vigon, Patricia; Fuertes, Antonio B. [Instituto Nacional del Carbon (CSIC), P.O. Box 73, 33080 Oviedo (Spain)

    2011-07-22

    Highly porous N-doped carbons have been successfully prepared by using KOH as activating agent and polypyrrole (PPy) as carbon precursor. These materials were investigated as sorbents for CO{sub 2} capture. The activation process was carried out under severe (KOH/PPy = 4) or mild (KOH/PPy = 2) activation conditions at different temperatures in the 600-800 C range. Mildly activated carbons have two important characteristics: i) they contain a large number of nitrogen functional groups (up to 10.1 wt% N) identified as pyridonic-N with a small proportion of pyridinic-N groups, and ii) they exhibit, in relation to the carbons prepared with KOH/PPy = 4, narrower micropore sizes. The combination of both of these properties explains the large CO{sub 2} adsorption capacities of mildly activated carbon. In particular, a very high CO{sub 2} adsorption uptake of 6.2 mmol.g{sup -1} (0 C) was achieved for porous carbons prepared with KOH/PPy = 2 and 600 C (1700 m{sup 2}.g{sup -1}, pore size {approx} 1 nm and 10.1 wt% N. Furthermore, we observed that these porous carbons exhibit high CO{sub 2} adsorption rates, a good selectivity for CO{sub 2}-N{sub 2} separation and it can be easily regenerated. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  7. CO{sub 2}-EQ emissions of forest chip production in Finland in 2020

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kariniemi, Arto; Kaerhae, Kalle (Metsaeteho Oy, Helsinki (Finland)), e-mail: arto.kariniemi@metsateho.fi

    2010-07-15

    The research carried out by Metsaeteho Oy calculated what would be the total fuel consumption and CO{sub 2}-eq emissions of forest chip production if the use of forest chips is 24 TWh in 2020 in Finland in accordance with the target set of Long-term Climate and Energy Strategy. CO{sub 2}-eq emissions were determined with Metsaeteho Oy's updated Emissions Calculation Model. If the production and consumption of forest chips in Finland are 24 TWh in 2020, then the total CO{sub 2}-eq emissions would be around 230,000 tonnes. The volume of diesel consumption was 73 million litres and petrol 1.7 million litres. Electric rail transportation and chipping at the mill site consumed 17 GWh of electricity. The supply chain with the lowest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions was logging residues comminuted at plant. Conversely, the highest CO{sub 2}-eq emissions came from stump wood when operating with terminal comminuting. Less than 3% of the energy content was consumed during the forest chip production. Energy input/output ratio in the total volume was 0.026 MWh/MWh which varied from 0.019 to 0.038 between the supply systems researched. Hence, forest chip production gave a net of some 97% of the energy content delivered at the plant

  8. Late-glacial atmospheric CO{sub 2} reconstructions from western Norway using fossil leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birks, H H; Birks, H J.B. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences; Beerling, D J; Woodward, F I [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Botanical Inst.

    1996-12-31

    Analyses of air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice-cores have shown that atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are 180-200 ppmv during glacial periods, and ca. 280 ppmv during interglacials, including the Holocene. The change from glacial to Holocene concentrations occurred steadily over ca. 5000 years, slightly lagging the temperature increase inferred from {delta}{sup 18}. Antarctic ice cores lack fine time resolution over the late-glacial/early Holocene period 12-9000 {sup 14}C yr BP, that includes the Younger Dryas cold oscillation. The stomatal density on leaves is inversely proportional to the concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. A late glacial sequence at Kraakenes, western Norway, contains well-preserved Salix herbacea (dwarf willow) leaves, dated from 11700-9600 {sup 14}C yr BP. If the stomatal density is measured on the fossil leaves, a calibration derived from the relationship of stomatal density of modern material of the same species to known CO{sub 2} concentrations can be used to reconstruct CO{sub 2} concentrations of the past. Because of the decadal time-resolution available at Kraakenes through the late-glacial and early Holocene, a detailed record of CO{sub 2} concentrations can be reconstructed over this period, that will complement the ice core record. (author)

  9. Comparison of MEA capture cost for low CO{sub 2} emissions sources in Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ho, M.T.; Allinson, G.W.; Wiley, D.E. [University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW (Australia). School of Chemical Engineering

    2011-01-15

    This paper estimates the cost of CO{sub 2} capture for three Australian industrial emission sources: iron and steel production, oil refineries and cement manufacturing. It also compares the estimated capture costs with those of post-combustion capture from a pulverised black coal power plant. The cost of capture in 2008 using MEA solvent absorption technology ranges from less than A$60 per tonne CO{sub 2} avoided for the iron and steel production to over A$70 per tonne CO{sub 2} avoided for cement manufacture and over A$100 per tonne CO{sub 2} avoided for oil refineries. The costs of capture for the iron and steel and cement industries are comparable to or less than that for post-combustion capture from a pulverised black coal power plant. This paper also investigates costs for converting low partial pressure CO{sub 2} streams from iron and steel production to a more concentrated stream using pressurisation and the water-gas shift reaction. In those cases, the costs were found to be similar to or less than the cost estimates without conversion. The analyses in this paper also show that estimated costs are highly dependent on the characteristics of the industrial emission source, the assumptions related to the type and price of energy used by the capture facilities and the economic parameters of the project such as the discount rate and capital costs.

  10. Reduction of CO/sub 2/ emissions through fuel economy standards for diesel cars in pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, L.A.; Mehlia, T.M.I.; Hassan, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    In Pakistan, like many developing countries, the increasing prosperity and population growth are resulting in accelerated growth in vehicle population and vehicle kilometers traveled. This causes air pollution due to huge CO/sub 2/ emissions. Automobile fuel economy standards have proven to be one of the most effective tools to control oil demand thereby reducing the GHG (Green House Gas) emissions like CO/sub 2/, This study presents the investigation to apply fuel economy standards in Pakistan, in order to predict the potential reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions and saving in fuel demand. The study is focused on only diesel cars and the data of diesel car owners for previous fifteen years is obtained from the related sources in Pakistan. A growth trend of diesel car owners was analyzed and the number of diesel car owners in future was predicted by applying database computer software. Calculations were made to study the effect of fuel economy standards in terms of saving in fuel demand and the reduction in CO/sub 2/ emissions. The results reveal the potential application of fuel economy standards and it was found that a cumulative amount of fuel 39266775 liters can be saved and CO/sub 2/ emissions can be reduced by 106021 tons at the end of 2011-2012, if fuel economy standards are implemented in 2008-2009. (author)

  11. Hydrogen production from coal gasification for effective downstream CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gnanapragasam, Nirmal V.; Reddy, Bale V.; Rosen, Marc A. [Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science, University of Ontario Institute of Technology, 2000 Simcoe Street North, Oshawa, Ontario, L1H 7K4 (Canada)

    2010-05-15

    The coal gasification process is used in commercial production of synthetic gas as a means toward clean use of coal. The conversion of solid coal into a gaseous phase creates opportunities to produce more energy forms than electricity (which is the case in coal combustion systems) and to separate CO{sub 2} in an effective manner for sequestration. The current work compares the energy and exergy efficiencies of an integrated coal-gasification combined-cycle power generation system with that of coal gasification-based hydrogen production system which uses water-gas shift and membrane reactors. Results suggest that the syngas-to-hydrogen (H{sub 2}) system offers 35% higher energy and 17% higher exergy efficiencies than the syngas-to-electricity (IGCC) system. The specific CO{sub 2} emission from the hydrogen system was 5% lower than IGCC system. The Brayton cycle in the IGCC system draws much nitrogen after combustion along with CO{sub 2}. Thus CO{sub 2} capture and compression become difficult due to the large volume of gases involved, unlike the hydrogen system which has 80% less nitrogen in its exhaust stream. The extra electrical power consumption for compressing the exhaust gases to store CO{sub 2} is above 70% for the IGCC system but is only 4.5% for the H{sub 2} system. Overall the syngas-to-hydrogen system appears advantageous to the IGCC system based on the current analysis. (author)

  12. Thermo physical and flow properties of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry - Scientific paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sari, O.; Hu, J.; Eicher, S.; Egolf, P. W. [Institute of Thermal Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Homsy, P. [Nestec, Vevey (Switzerland)

    2008-07-01

    The apparent viscosity and flow regime of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry were investigated with a XL7-100 on-line resonant viscometer. Possible reasons for the viscosity changes before and after the nucleation of hydrates are discussed. In addition, super saturation of the CO{sub 2} solution under certain pressure and temperature conditions as well as its density and apparent viscosity were examined. The hydrate's solid fraction and the dissociation enthalpy were evaluated by an on-line Micro DSC system. Real-time coupled multi-electrode array sensor (CMAS) probes were applied to measure the maximal localized corrosion rate of three different materials subjected to CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry and saturated CO{sub 2} solution in the temperature range of 1 to 18 {sup o}C and pressure range of 25 to 30 bar. The density of CO{sub 2} hydrate slurry was also experimentally investigated and the relation between the density and the solid fraction has been established. (author)

  13. Energy development and CO>2 emissions in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xi, Xiaolin [Carnegie-Mellon Univ., Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1993-03-01

    The objective of this research is to provide a better understanding of future Chinese energy development and CO>2 emissions from burning fossil fuels. This study examines the current Chinese energy system, estimates CO>2 emissions from burning fossil fuels and projects future energy use and resulting CO>2 emissions up to the year of 2050. Based on the results of the study, development strategies are proposed and policy implications are explored. This study first develops a Base scenario projection of the Chinese energy development based upon a sectoral analysis. The Base scenario represents a likely situation of future development, but many alternatives are possible. To explore this range of alternatives, a systematic uncertainty analysis is performed. The Base scenario also represents an extrapolation of current policies and social and economic trends. As such, it is not necessarily the economically optimal future course for Chinese energy development. To explore this issue, an optimization analysis is performed. For further understanding of developing Chinese energy system and reducing CO>2 emissions, a Chinese energy system model with 84 supply and demand technologies has been constructed in MARKAL, a computer LP optimization program for energy systems. Using this model, various technological options and economic aspects of energy development and CO>2 emissions reduction in China during the 1985-2020 period are examined.

  14. A modelling study of the multiphase leakage flow from pressurised CO{sub 2} pipeline

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Xuejin; Li, Kang [Department of Safety Science Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Tu, Ran [College of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Huaqiao University, Jimei, Xiamen 361000 (China); Yi, Jianxin; Xie, Qiyuan [Department of Safety Science Engineering & State Key Laboratory of Fire Science, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei, Anhui 230026 (China); Jiang, Xi, E-mail: x.jiang@lancaster.ac.uk [Engineering Department, Lancaster University, Lancaster LA1 4YR (United Kingdom)

    2016-04-05

    Highlights: • A simplified model for CO{sub 2} decompression from high pressure pipelines is proposed. • The multiphase fluid was considered as a homogeneous equilibrium mixture. • Different real gas equations of state were incorporated into the model. • Detailed chocked flow calculation with capillary tube assumption was performed. • The model was validated against experimental data with discrepancies discussed. - Abstract: The accidental leakage is one of the main risks during the pipeline transportation of high pressure CO{sub 2}. The decompression process of high pressure CO{sub 2} involves complex phase transition and large variations of the pressure and temperature fields. A mathematical method based on the homogeneous equilibrium mixture assumption is presented for simulating the leakage flow through a nozzle in a pressurised CO{sub 2} pipeline. The decompression process is represented by two sub-models: the flow in the pipe is represented by the blowdown model, while the leakage flow through the nozzle is calculated with the capillary tube assumption. In the simulation, two kinds of real gas equations of state were employed in this model instead of the ideal gas equation of state. Moreover, results of the flow through the nozzle and measurement data obtained from laboratory experiments of pressurised CO{sub 2} pipeline leakage were compared for the purpose of validation. The thermodynamic processes of the fluid both in the pipeline and the nozzle were described and analysed.

  15. Preparation of activated carbon from fly ash and its application for CO{sub 2} capture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alhamed, Yahia Abobakor; Rather, Sami Ullah; El-Shazly, Ahmad Hasan; Zaman, Sharif Fakhruz; Daous, Mohammad Abdulrhaman; Al-Zahrani, Abdulrahim Ahmad [King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah (Saudi Arabia)

    2015-04-15

    Power and desalination plants are one of the main anthropogenic sources for CO{sub 2} generation, which is one of the key elements to cause greenhouse gas effect and thus contribute to the global warming. Fly ash (FA) generated in desalination and power plants was converted into activated carbon (AC) treated with KOH at higher temperature and tested for CO{sub 2} capturing efficiency. Morphological characteristics of FA such as BET specific surface area (SSA), pore volume, pore diameter, and pore size distribution (PSD) were performed using N{sub 2} adsorption isotherm. CO{sub 2} adsorption capacity and adsorption isotherms of CO{sub 2} over AC were measured by performing thermogravimetric analysis at different temperatures. BET SSA of 161m{sup 2}g{sup -1} and adsorption capacity of 26mg CO{sub 2}/g AC can be obtained by activation at KOH/FA ratio of 5 at 700 .deg. C and activation time of 2 h. Therefore, great potential exists for producing AC from FA, which will have the positive effect of reducing the landfill problem and global warming.

  16. CO{sub 2} emission reduction strategy and roles of nuclear energy in Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Osamu; Shimoda, Makoto; Takematsu, Kenji; Tadokoro, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1999-03-01

    An analysis was made on the potential and cost of reducing carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) emissions from Japan`s long-term energy systems by using the MARKAL model, developed in the Energy Technology Systems Analysis Programme (ETSAP) of International Energy Agency (IEA). Assuming future growths of GDP, the demand for energy services was estimated for the analytical time horizon 1990-2050. Assumptions were made also on prices and availability of fossil fuels, and on availability of nuclear and renewable energy. CO{sub 2} emissions and system costs were compared between energy demand and supply scenarios defined with different assumptions on nuclear energy, a CO{sub 2} disposal option, and natural gas imports. Main results were as follows. Without nuclear energy, the CO{sub 2} emissions will hardly be reduced because of the increases of coal utilization. CO{sub 2} disposal will be effective in reducing the emissions, however at much higher costs than the case with nuclear energy. The expansion of natural gas imports alone will not reduce the emissions at enough low levels. (author)

  17. Late-glacial atmospheric CO{sub 2} reconstructions from western Norway using fossil leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Birks, H.H.; Birks, H.J.B. [Sheffield Univ. (United Kingdom). Dept. of Animal and Plant Sciences; Beerling, D.J.; Woodward, F.I. [Bergen Univ. (Norway). Botanical Inst.

    1995-12-31

    Analyses of air bubbles trapped in Antarctic ice-cores have shown that atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentrations are 180-200 ppmv during glacial periods, and ca. 280 ppmv during interglacials, including the Holocene. The change from glacial to Holocene concentrations occurred steadily over ca. 5000 years, slightly lagging the temperature increase inferred from {delta}{sup 18}. Antarctic ice cores lack fine time resolution over the late-glacial/early Holocene period 12-9000 {sup 14}C yr BP, that includes the Younger Dryas cold oscillation. The stomatal density on leaves is inversely proportional to the concentration of atmospheric CO{sub 2}. A late glacial sequence at Kraakenes, western Norway, contains well-preserved Salix herbacea (dwarf willow) leaves, dated from 11700-9600 {sup 14}C yr BP. If the stomatal density is measured on the fossil leaves, a calibration derived from the relationship of stomatal density of modern material of the same species to known CO{sub 2} concentrations can be used to reconstruct CO{sub 2} concentrations of the past. Because of the decadal time-resolution available at Kraakenes through the late-glacial and early Holocene, a detailed record of CO{sub 2} concentrations can be reconstructed over this period, that will complement the ice core record. (author)

  18. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  19. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shawn N Geniole

    Full Text Available The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio, is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01. In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively and masculinity (negatively ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  20. Facing aggression: cues differ for female versus male faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N; Keyes, Amanda E; Mondloch, Catherine J; Carré, Justin M; McCormick, Cheryl M

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F(1,36) = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as "honest signals".

  1. Gaze Cueing by Pareidolia Faces

    OpenAIRE

    Kohske Takahashi; Katsumi Watanabe

    2013-01-01

    Visual images that are not faces are sometimes perceived as faces (the pareidolia phenomenon). While the pareidolia phenomenon provides people with a strong impression that a face is present, it is unclear how deeply pareidolia faces are processed as faces. In the present study, we examined whether a shift in spatial attention would be produced by gaze cueing of face-like objects. A robust cueing effect was observed when the face-like objects were perceived as faces. The magnitude of the cuei...

  2. AIRS retrieved CO{sub 2} and its association with climatic parameters over India during 2004–2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumar, K. Ravi; Revadekar, J.V.; Tiwari, Yogesh K., E-mail: yktiwari@gmail.com

    2014-04-01

    Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) retrieved mid-tropospheric Carbon Dioxide (CO{sub 2}) have been used to study the variability and its association with the climatic parameters over India during 2004 to 2011. The study also aims in understanding transport of CO{sub 2} from surface to mid-troposphere over India. The annual cycle of mid-tropospheric CO{sub 2} shows gradual increase in concentration from January till the month of May at the rate ∼ 0.6 ppm/month. It decreases continuously in summer monsoon (JJAS) at the same rate during which strong westerlies persists over the region. A slight increase is seen during winter monsoon (DJF). Being a greenhouse gas, annual cycle of CO{sub 2} show good resemblance with annual cycle of surface air temperature with correlation coefficient (CC) of + 0.8. Annual cycle of vertical velocity indicate inverse pattern compared to annual cycle of CO{sub 2}. High values of mid-tropospheric CO{sub 2} correspond to upward wind, while low values of mid-tropospheric CO{sub 2} correspond to downward wind. In addition to vertical motion, zonal winds are also contributing towards the transport of CO{sub 2} from surface to mid-troposphere. Vegetation as it absorbs CO{sub 2} at surface level, show inverse annual cycle to that of annual cycle of CO{sub 2} (CC-0.64). Seasonal variation of rainfall-CO{sub 2} shows similarities with seasonal variation of NDVI-CO{sub 2}. However, the use of long period data sets for CO{sub 2} at the surface and at the mid-troposphere will be an advantage to confirm these results. - Highlights: • Association of AIRS CO{sub 2} with climate parameters over India • CO{sub 2} show positive correlation with surface temperature • Vertical/horizontal winds contribute towards CO{sub 2} transport • Vegetation and monsoonal rainfall show inverse relationship with CO{sub 2}.

  3. Comprehensive evaluation of industrial CO{sub 2} emission (1989-2004) in Taiwan by input-output structural decomposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Yih F. [Department of Tourism and Management, Chia-Nan University of Pharmacy and Science, Tainan 717 (China); Lewis, Charles [Department of Resources Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China); Lin, Sue J. [Department of Environmental Engineering, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701 (China)

    2008-07-15

    Taiwan currently emits approximately 1% of the world's CO{sub 2} - ranking it 22nd among nations. Herein, we use the input-output (I-O) structural decomposition method to examine the changes in CO{sub 2} emission over a 15-year period. By decomposing the CO{sub 2} emission changes into nine factors for the periods of 1989-1994, 1994-1999, and 1999-2004, we have identified the key factors causing the emission changes, as well as the most important trends regarding the industrial development process in Taiwan. The 5-year increment with the largest increase of CO{sub 2} emission was that of 1999-2004, due to the rapid increase of electricity consumption. From the decomposition, the industrial energy coefficient and the CO{sub 2} emission factors were identified as the most important parameters for the determination of the highway, petrochemical materials, iron and steel, the commercial sector, and electric machinery as the major sources of increased CO{sub 2} emission during the past 15 years. From 1989 to 2004, the level of exports and the level of domestic final demand were the largest contributors to the increase in the total increment of CO{sub 2} change. During 1989-2004, the industrial energy coefficient and CO{sub 2} emission factors, being minimally significant during 1989-1994, became extremely important, joining the domestic final demand and the level of exports factors as the major causes of the increase increment of CO{sub 2}. This indicates a heavy reliance upon high-energy (and CO{sub 2}) intensity for Taiwanese industries; therefore, continuous efforts to improve energy intensity and fuel mix toward lower carbon are important for CO{sub 2} reduction, especially for the electricity and power generation sectors. Relevant strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions from major industries are also highlighted. (author)

  4. Surface modification and enhanced photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction performance of TiO{sub 2}: a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Low, Jingxiang; Cheng, Bei [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Yu, Jiaguo, E-mail: jiaguoyu@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Technology for Materials Synthesis and Processing, Wuhan University of Technology, Luoshi Road 122, Wuhan 430070 (China); Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, King Abdulaziz University, Jeddah 21589 (Saudi Arabia)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • Application of modified TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction is summarized. • Different surface modification strategies of TiO{sub 2} are highlighted. • Summary and future perspectives in photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction are presented. - Abstract: Recently, the excessive consumption of fossil fuels has caused high emissions of the greenhouse gases, CO{sub 2} into atmosphere and global energy crisis. Mimicking the natural photosynthesis by using semiconductor materials to achieve photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction into valuable solar fuels such as CH{sub 4}, HCO{sub 2}H, CH{sub 2}O, and CH{sub 3}OH is known as one of the best solutions for addressing the aforementioned issue. Among various proposed photocatalysts, TiO{sub 2} has been extensively studied over the past several decades for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction because of its cheapness and environmental friendliness. Particularly, surface modification of TiO{sub 2} has attracted numerous interests due to its capability of enhancing the light absorption ability, facilitating the electron-hole separation, tuning the CO{sub 2} reduction selectivity and increasing the CO{sub 2} adsorption and activation ability of TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction. In this review, recent approaches of the surface modification of TiO{sub 2} for photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction, including impurity doping, metal deposition, alkali modification, heterojunction construction and carbon-based material loading, are presented. The photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction mechanism and pathways of TiO{sub 2} are discussed. The future research direction and perspective of photocatalytic CO{sub 2} reduction over surface-modified TiO{sub 2} are also presented.

  5. CO{sub 2} ICE TOWARD LOW-LUMINOSITY EMBEDDED PROTOSTARS: EVIDENCE FOR EPISODIC MASS ACCRETION VIA CHEMICAL HISTORY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyo Jeong; Evans, Neal J. II [Department of Astronomy, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400 Austin, TX 78712-1205 (United States); Dunham, Michael M. [Department of Astronomy, Yale University, P.O. Box 208101, New Haven, CT 06520 (United States); Lee, Jeong-Eun [Department of Astronomy and Space Science, Kyung Hee University, Yongin-si, Gyeonggi-do 446-701 (Korea, Republic of); Pontoppidan, Klaus M., E-mail: hyojeong@astro.as.utexas.edu [Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States)

    2012-10-10

    We present Spitzer IRS spectroscopy of CO{sub 2} ice bending mode spectra at 15.2 {mu}m toward 19 young stellar objects (YSOs) with luminosity lower than 1 L{sub Sun} (3 with luminosity lower than 0.1 L{sub Sun }). Ice on dust grain surfaces can encode the history of heating because pure CO{sub 2} ice forms only at elevated temperature, T > 20 K, and thus around protostars of higher luminosity. Current internal luminosities of YSOs with L < 1L{sub Sun} do not provide the conditions needed to produce pure CO{sub 2} ice at radii where typical envelopes begin. The presence of detectable amounts of pure CO{sub 2} ice would signify a higher past luminosity. Many of the spectra require a contribution from a pure, crystalline CO{sub 2} component, traced by the presence of a characteristic band splitting in the 15.2 {mu}m bending mode. About half of the sources (9 out of 19) in the low-luminosity sample have evidence for pure CO{sub 2} ice, and 6 of these have significant double-peaked features, which are