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Sample records for face difficult choices

  1. Braving difficult choices alone: children's and adolescents' medical decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azzurra Ruggeri

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: What role should minors play in making medical decisions? The authors examined children's and adolescents' desire to be involved in serious medical decisions and the emotional consequences associated with them. METHODS: Sixty-three children and 76 adolescents were presented with a cover story about a difficult medical choice. Participants were tested in one of four conditions: (1 own informed choice; (2 informed parents' choice to amputate; (3 informed parents' choice to continue a treatment; and (4 uninformed parents' choice to amputate. In a questionnaire, participants were asked about their choices, preference for autonomy, confidence, and emotional reactions when faced with a difficult hypothetical medical choice. RESULTS: Children and adolescents made different choices and participants, especially adolescents, preferred to make the difficult choice themselves, rather than having a parent make it. Children expressed fewer negative emotions than adolescents. Providing information about the alternatives did not affect participants' responses. CONCLUSIONS: Minors, especially adolescents, want to be responsible for their own medical decisions, even when the choice is a difficult one. For the adolescents, results suggest that the decision to be made, instead of the agent making the decision, is the main element influencing their emotional responses and decision confidence. For children, results suggest that they might be less able than adolescents to project how they would feel. The results, overall, draw attention to the need to further investigate how we can better involve minors in the medical decision-making process.

  2. How libraries make tough choices in difficult times purposeful abandonment

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    Stern, David

    2013-01-01

    Contemporary library managers face the need to make difficult choices regarding resource allocation in the modern business environment. How Libraries Make Tough Choices in Difficult Times is a practical guide for library managers, offering techniques to analyze existing and potential services, implement best practices for maximizing existing resources, and utilize pressing financial scenarios in order to justify making difficult reallocation decisions. The book begins by asking the fundamental questions of why, what, and how, moving on to look at how to manage expectations and report to both a

  3. Honey bees selectively avoid difficult choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Clint J; Barron, Andrew B

    2013-11-19

    Human decision-making strategies are strongly influenced by an awareness of certainty or uncertainty (a form of metacognition) to increase the chances of making a right choice. Humans seek more information and defer choosing when they realize they have insufficient information to make an accurate decision, but whether animals are aware of uncertainty is currently highly contentious. To explore this issue, we examined how honey bees (Apis mellifera) responded to a visual discrimination task that varied in difficulty between trials. Free-flying bees were rewarded for a correct choice, punished for an incorrect choice, or could avoid choosing by exiting the trial (opting out). Bees opted out more often on difficult trials, and opting out improved their proportion of successful trials. Bees could also transfer the concept of opting out to a novel task. Our data show that bees selectively avoid difficult tasks they lack the information to solve. This finding has been considered as evidence that nonhuman animals can assess the certainty of a predicted outcome, and bees' performance was comparable to that of primates in a similar paradigm. We discuss whether these behavioral results prove bees react to uncertainty or whether associative mechanisms can explain such findings. To better frame metacognition as an issue for neurobiological investigation, we propose a neurobiological hypothesis of uncertainty monitoring based on the known circuitry of the honey bee brain.

  4. Full-face excavation of large tunnels in difficult conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giovanni Barla

    2016-01-01

    Following a few preliminary remarks on the tunneling methods at the beginning of the 20th century, the successful applications of the full-face method also in difficult conditions are underlined. The attention is posed on the use of a systematic reinforcement of the face and of the ground, by means of fiber-glass elements. A selection of tunnels where this method was used successfully is reported with the pur-pose of illustrating the wide spectrum of ground conditions where it has been applied. Then, following a description of the main concepts behind the method, the attention moves from the so-called “heavy method”, where deformations are restrained, to the “light method”, where deformations are allowed with the intention to decrease the stresses acting on the primary and final linings. The progress in the application of the“light method”is underlined, up to the development of a novel technique, which relies on the use of a yielding support composed of top head steel sets with sliding joints and special deformable elements inserted in the primary lining. The well-known case study of the Saint Martin La Porte access adit, along the Lyon-Turin Base Tunnel, is described. In this tunnel, a yield-control support system combined with full-face excavation has been adopted successfully in order to cope with the large deformations experienced during face advance through the Carboniferous formation. The monitoring results obtained during excavation are illustrated, together with the modeling studies performed when paying attention to the rock mass time-dependent behavior.

  5. Full-face excavation of large tunnels in difficult conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Barla

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Following a few preliminary remarks on the tunneling methods at the beginning of the 20th century, the successful applications of the full-face method also in difficult conditions are underlined. The attention is posed on the use of a systematic reinforcement of the face and of the ground, by means of fiber-glass elements. A selection of tunnels where this method was used successfully is reported with the purpose of illustrating the wide spectrum of ground conditions where it has been applied. Then, following a description of the main concepts behind the method, the attention moves from the so-called “heavy method”, where deformations are restrained, to the “light method”, where deformations are allowed with the intention to decrease the stresses acting on the primary and final linings. The progress in the application of the “light method” is underlined, up to the development of a novel technique, which relies on the use of a yielding support composed of top head steel sets with sliding joints and special deformable elements inserted in the primary lining. The well-known case study of the Saint Martin La Porte access adit, along the Lyon-Turin Base Tunnel, is described. In this tunnel, a yield-control support system combined with full-face excavation has been adopted successfully in order to cope with the large deformations experienced during face advance through the Carboniferous formation. The monitoring results obtained during excavation are illustrated, together with the modeling studies performed when paying attention to the rock mass time-dependent behavior.

  6. A Difficult Choice for Newspapers: Advertisers or Readers?

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    Barış Bulunmnaz

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Almost entire advertisement revenues are acquired by newspapers in print media. Along with rapid technological developments and the intensive competitive climate in newspaper sector; the gulf between high cost and low revenue has widened, and newspapers are obliged to subsidize this deficit with advertisement revenues. Newspapers in Turkey have two separate groups of customers. The first one of those groups is the advertisers and the other is the readers of that newspaper. Due to economic reasons, this compulsory dependency on advertisement revenue causes newspapers to fall into a paradox between advertisers and readers. In this article we will firstly explain advertisement and its place in marketing; then give information about the advertising sector and the distribution of Turkish advertising pie among media. Later, the relation between advertisers and readers that place newspapers in difficult circumstances will be explicated in detail, analysis and assessments will be made regarding about it.

  7. Simple solution for difficult face mask ventilation in children with orofacial clefts.

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    Veerabathula, Prardhana; Patil, Manajeet; Upputuri, Omkar; Durga, Padmaja

    2014-10-01

    Significant air leak from the facial cleft predisposes to difficult mask ventilation. The reported techniques of use of sterile gauze, larger face mask and laryngeal mask airway after intravenous induction have limited application in uncooperative children. We describe the use of dental impression material molded to the facial contour to cover the facial defect and aid ventilation with an appropriate size face mask in a child with a bilateral Tessier 3 anomaly.

  8. Facing Management Choices: an analysis of managerial choices in 18 complex environmental projects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E-H. Klijn (Erik-Hans); J. Edelenbos (Jurian); M.J.W. van Twist (Mark); M.B. Kort (Michiel)

    2008-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This article looks at how managers in large infrastructure projects in The Netherlands deal with difficult choices, which are labelled as dilemmas in this article, in their managerial activities. It presents the results of a survey of 32 managers in 18 complex

  9. Choosing Money over Drugs: The Neural Underpinnings of Difficult Choice in Chronic Cocaine Users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesley, Michael J; Lohrenz, Terry; Koffarnus, Mikhail N; McClure, Samuel M; De La Garza, Richard; Salas, Ramiro; Thompson-Lake, Daisy G Y; Newton, Thomas F; Bickel, Warren K; Montague, P Read

    2014-01-01

    Addiction is considered a disorder that drives individuals to choose drugs at the expense of healthier alternatives. However, chronic cocaine users (CCUs) who meet addiction criteria retain the ability to choose money in the presence of the opportunity to choose cocaine. The neural mechanisms that differentiate CCUs from non-cocaine using controls (Controls) while executing these preferred choices remain unknown. Thus, therapeutic strategies aimed at shifting preferences towards healthier alternatives remain somewhat uninformed. This study used BOLD neuroimaging to examine brain activity as fifty CCUs and Controls performed single- and cross-commodity intertemporal choice tasks for money and/or cocaine. Behavioral analyses revealed preferences for each commodity type. Imaging analyses revealed the brain activity that differentiated CCUs from Controls while choosing money over cocaine. We observed that CCUs devalued future commodities more than Controls. Choices for money as opposed to cocaine correlated with greater activity in dorsal striatum of CCUs, compared to Controls. In addition, choices for future money as opposed to immediate cocaine engaged the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of CCUs more than Controls. These data suggest that the ability of CCUs to execute choices away from cocaine relies on activity in the dorsal striatum and left DLPFC.

  10. I choose, therefore I like: preference for faces induced by arbitrary choice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Koyo Nakamura

    Full Text Available Behavioral choice alters one's preference rather than simply reflecting it. This effect to fit preferences with past choice, is known as "choice-induced preference change." After making a choice between two equally attractive options, one tends to rate the chosen option better than they initially did and/or the unchosen option worse. The present study examined how behavioral choice changes subsequent preference, using facial images for the choice options as well as blind choice techniques. Participants rated their facial preference for each face, and chose between two equally preferred faces and subsequently rated their facial preference. Results from four experiments demonstrated that randomly chosen faces were more preferred only after participants were required to choose "a preferred face," (in Experiment 1 but not "an unpreferred face," (in Experiment 2 or "a rounder face" (in Experiment 3. Further, preference change was still observed after participants were informed that choices were actually random (in Experiment 4. Our findings provide new and important implications characterizing the conditions under which random choice changes preference, and show that people are tempted to make a biased evaluation even after they know that they did not make the choice for themselves.

  11. Investing in deliberation: a definition and classification of decision support interventions for people facing difficult health decisions.

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    Elwyn, Glyn; Frosch, Dominick; Volandes, Angelo E; Edwards, Adrian; Montori, Victor M

    2010-01-01

    This article provides an analysis of 'decision aids', interventions to support patients facing tough decisions. Interest has increased since the concept of shared decision making has become widely considered to be a means of achieving desirable clinical outcomes. We consider the aims of these interventions and examine assumptions about their use. We propose three categories, interventions that are used in face-to-face encounters, those designed for use outside clinical encounters and those which are mediated, using telephone or other communication media. We propose the following definition: decision support interventions help people think about choices they face; they describe where and why choice exists; they provide information about options, including, where reasonable, the option of taking no action. These interventions help people to deliberate, independently or in collaboration with others, about options, by considering relevantattributes; they support people to forecast how they might feel about short, intermediate and long-term outcomes which have relevant consequences, in ways which help the process of constructing preferences and eventual decision making, appropriate to their individual situation. Although quality standards have been published for these interventions, we are also cautious about premature closure and consider that the need for short versions for use inside clinical encounters and long versions for external use requires further research. More work is also needed on the use of narrative formats and the translation of theory into practical designs. The interest in decision support interventions for patients heralds a transformation in clinical practice although many important areas remain unresolved.

  12. Why Learning Common Fractions Is Uncommonly Difficult: Unique Challenges Faced by Students With Mathematical Disabilities.

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    Berch, Daniel B

    2016-07-18

    In this commentary, I examine some of the distinctive, foundational difficulties in learning fractions and other types of rational numbers encountered by students with a mathematical learning disability and how these differ from the struggles experienced by students classified as low achieving in math. I discuss evidence indicating that students with math disabilities exhibit a significant delay or deficit in the numerical transcoding of decimal fractions, and I further maintain that they may face unique challenges in developing the ability to effectively translate between different types of fractions and other rational number notational formats-what I call conceptual transcoding I also argue that characterizing this level of comprehensive understanding of rational numbers as rational number sense is irrational, as it misrepresents this flexible and adaptive collection of skills as a biologically based percept rather than a convergence of higher-order competencies that require intensive, formal instruction.

  13. Consumers Facing Supra-Complex Choices in the Modern Marketplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Torben; Uth Thomsen, Thyra

    2014-01-01

    of gaining mental justification of overall choices. We argue that the usage of mental markers leads to reductions in cognitive dissonance, reduced usage of mental resources and time. Drawing on the principle of mental justification as well as consumers’ propensity to use goals as blueprints for directing...

  14. Dying with Dignity: Difficult Times, Difficult Choices. Hearing before the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This document contains witness testimonies and prepared statements from the Congressional hearing called to examine the dilemma faced by the terminally ill. Opening statements are included from Congressmen Roybal, Henry, Hughes, Gordon, Wortley, Hammerschmidt, and Snowe. Jacob Javits, former United States Senator, testifies, as a terminally ill…

  15. Wire-guided (Seldinger technique intubation through a face mask in urgent, difficult and grossly distorted airways

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    Jake M Heier

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We report two cases of successful urgent intubation using a Seldinger technique for airway management through an anesthesia facemask, while maintaining ventilation in patients with difficult airways and grossly distorted airway anatomy. In both cases, conventional airway management techniques were predicted to be difficult or impossible, and a high likelihood for a surgical airway was present. This technique was chosen as it allows tracheal tube placement through the nares during spontaneous ventilation with the airway stented open and oxygen delivery with either continuous positive airway pressure and/or pressure support ventilation. This unhurried technique may allow intubation when other techniques are unsuitable, while maintaining control of the airway.

  16. Wire-guided (Seldinger technique) intubation through a face mask in urgent, difficult and grossly distorted airways.

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    Heier, Jake M; Schroeder, Kristopher M; Galgon, Richard E; Arndt, George A

    2012-07-01

    We report two cases of successful urgent intubation using a Seldinger technique for airway management through an anesthesia facemask, while maintaining ventilation in patients with difficult airways and grossly distorted airway anatomy. In both cases, conventional airway management techniques were predicted to be difficult or impossible, and a high likelihood for a surgical airway was present. This technique was chosen as it allows tracheal tube placement through the nares during spontaneous ventilation with the airway stented open and oxygen delivery with either continuous positive airway pressure and/or pressure support ventilation. This unhurried technique may allow intubation when other techniques are unsuitable, while maintaining control of the airway.

  17. Whole genome amplification for CGH analysis: Linker-adapter PCR as the method of choice for difficult and limited samples.

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    Pirker, Christine; Raidl, Maria; Steiner, Elisabeth; Elbling, Leonilla; Holzmann, Klaus; Spiegl-Kreinecker, Sabine; Aubele, Michaela; Grasl-Kraupp, Bettina; Marosi, Christine; Micksche, Michael; Berger, Walter

    2004-09-01

    Comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) is a powerful method to investigate chromosomal imbalances in tumor cells. However, DNA quantity and quality can be limiting factors for successful CGH analysis. The aim of this study was to investigate the applicability of degenerate oligonucleotide-primed PCR (DOP-PCR) and a recently developed linker-adapter-mediated PCR (LA-PCR) for whole genome amplification for use in CGH, especially for difficult source material. We comparatively analyzed DNA of variable quality derived from different cell/tissue types. Additionally, dilution experiments down to the DNA content of a single cell were performed. FISH and/or classical cytogenetic analyses were used as controls. In the case of high quality DNA samples, both methods were equally suitable for CGH. When analyzing very small amounts of these DNA samples (equivalent to one or a few human diploid cells), DOP-PCR-CGH, but not LA-PCR-CGH, frequently produced false-positive signals (e.g., gains in 1p and 16p, and losses in chromosome 4q). In case of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues, success rates by LA-PCR-CGH were significantly higher as compared to DOP-PCR-CGH. DNA of minor quality frequently could be analyzed correctly by LA-PCR-CGH, but was prone to give false-positive and/or false-negative results by DOP-PCR-CGH. LA-PCR is superior to DOP-PCR for amplification of DNA for CGH analysis, especially in the case of very limited or partly degraded source material. Copyright 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  18. Some difficult choices in cytogenetics.

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    Swansbury, John

    2003-01-01

    In making a selection of features of these technologies, it is inevitable that some will be omitted that other cytogeneticists feel should have been included. The author could probably justifiably be accused of bias. However, based on experience in a laboratory that has used almost every type of assay mentioned in this chapter, the following opinions are offered about their current value in providing a routine malignancy cytogenetics service: 1. The foundation is still a conventional cytogenetic study, preferably with the use of an automated karyotyping system. 2. Added to this, there should be the capability of performing FISH studies using chromosome paints and gene-specific probes. Cytogenetics and FISH form a powerful partnership when backed by experienced cytogeneticists. MFISH or SKY are also useful if the laboratory can afford the considerable extra expense. CGH and fibre FISH are generally better suited to research projects, and at present have few applications in a routine diagnostics service. 3. At present, molecular methods such as RT-PCR mostly tend to produce results that have a greater need of confirmation by other techniques before they can be used for clinical management.

  19. Tough Choices in Difficult Times.

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    Scheer, Sage Ann

    2002-01-01

    Key areas school districts have used in making the decision to purchase technology applications include: what the district hopes to achieve by purchasing the system; how the proposed system will support the district's vision and help achieve the strategic plan; what the effect of the proposed solution will be on staffing; and what type of timeline…

  20. Difficult Asthma

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    Ahmet Uslu

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  1. Difficult asthma

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmet Uslu; Tülay Özdemir

    1989-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a distinct entity of asthma, comprising approximately %5 of asthmatic patients. There is no agreed definition of difficult asthma. It will include asthma uncontrolled by new standard therapy, steroid dependent, steroid resistant and severe asthma. In this study difficult asthma; clinical features, risk factors, pathophysiology and novel therapies are summarized by literatures.

  2. Partner choice promotes cooperation: the two faces of testing with agent-based models.

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    Campennì, Marco; Schino, Gabriele

    2014-03-07

    Reciprocity is one of the most debated among the mechanisms that have been proposed to explain the evolution of cooperation. While a distinction can be made between two general processes that can underlie reciprocation (within-pair temporal relations between cooperative events, and partner choice based on benefits received), theoretical modelling has concentrated on the former, while the latter has been often neglected. We developed a set of agent-based models in which agents adopted a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received. Our models tested the ability of partner choice both to reproduce significant emergent features of cooperation in group living animals and to promote the evolution of cooperation. Populations formed by agents adopting a strategy of obligate cooperation and partner choice based on benefits received showed differentiated "social relationships" and a positive correlation between cooperation given and received, two common phenomena in animal cooperation. When selection across multiple generations was added to the model, agents adopting a strategy of partner choice based on benefits received outperformed selfish agents that did not cooperate. Our results suggest partner choice is a significant aspect of cooperation and provides a possible mechanism for its evolution.

  3. More than just a pretty face and a hot body: multiple cues in mate-choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonason, Peter K; Raulston, Tara; Rotolo, Ashley

    2012-01-01

    Mate preferences have been well studied in social and evolutionary psychology. In two studies (N = 490), using two different measurement techniques, we examined mate preferences for the body and the face in the context of other traits. Results replicated prior research on mate preferences across the sex of the participant and mating duration but clarified the nature of preferences for physical attractiveness. Generally, physical attractiveness was a necessity in short-term mating and for men and traits like kindness were a necessity in long-term mating and for women. Men wanted a short-term mate who had a good body, likely because that body advertises fertility whereas both sexes wanted a mate with a nice face for a long-term mate, which is likely because the face is a cue based on structural properties related to health. Sex and mating-duration differences on preferences for attractive faces and bodies were robust to differences in measurement technique.

  4. Choices in Little Rock. A Facing History and Ourselves Teaching Guide

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    Facing History and Ourselves, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This book presents a teaching unit that focuses on efforts to desegregate Central High School in Little Rock, Arkansas, in 1957--efforts that resulted in a crisis that historian Taylor Branch once described as "the most severe test of the Constitution since the Civil War." The unit explores civic choices--the decisions people make as…

  5. Gruppenleistungen beim Review von Multiple-Choice-Fragen - Ein Vergleich von face-to-face und virtuellen Gruppen mit und ohne Moderation [Review of multiple-choice-questions and group performance - A comparison of face-to-face and virtual groups with and without facilitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schüttpelz-Brauns, Katrin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Background: Multiple choice questions (MCQs are often used in exams of medical education and need careful quality management for example by the application of review committees. This study investigates whether groups communicating virtually by email are similar to face-to-face groups concerning their review process performance and whether a facilitator has positive effects.Methods: 16 small groups of students were examined, which had to evaluate and correct MCQs under four different conditions. In the second part of the investigation the changed questions were given to a new random sample for the judgement of the item quality.Results: There was no significant influence of the variables “form of review committee” and “facilitation”. However, face-to-face and virtual groups clearly differed in the required treatment times. The test condition “face to face without facilitation” was generally valued most positively concerning taking over responsibility, approach to work, sense of well-being, motivation and concentration on the task.Discussion: Face-to-face and virtual groups are equally effective in the review of MCQs but differ concerning their efficiency. The application of electronic review seems to be possible but is hardly recommendable because of the long process time and technical problems.[german] Einleitung: Multiple-Choice-Fragen (MCF werden in vielen Prüfungen der medizinischen Ausbildung verwendet und bedürfen aus diesem Grund einer sorgfältigen Qualitätssicherung, beispielsweise durch den Einsatz von Review-Komitees. Anhand der vorliegenden empirischen Studie soll erforscht werden, ob virtuell per E-Mail kommunizierende Review-Komitees vergleichbar sind mit face-to-face Review-Komitees hinsichtlich ihrer Leistung beim Review-Prozess und ob sich Moderation positiv auswirkt.Methodik: 16 Kleingruppen von Psychologie-Studenten hatten die Aufgabe unter vier verschiedenen Versuchsbedingungen MCF zu bewerten und zu

  6. Internet-Based Optimization and Choice of Insert Grooves for Face-Milling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Manufacture is facing more furiously competition in the new century. It tends to be globalized. Rapid response and technology innovation have become the key factor to the success of manufacture enterprise. At present, internet-based manufacturing develops rapidly. With the development of engineering material and machining techniques, better cutting properties of metal cutting tools are required. The world is paying more attention to the study of indexable carbide inserts with three-dimensional complex groov...

  7. Face recognition method under difficult lighting condition%一种复杂光照下的人脸识别算法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙劲光; 孙琦; 孟祥福; 丁胜锋

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve the rate of face recognition under illumination change, a method of face recognition based on Local Contrast Enhancement (LCE) and Local Phase Quantification (LPQ) is put forward. The face image with uneven illumination is compensated by using facial symmetry combined with LCE algorithm. The enhanced images are marked with LPQ operators, and their dimensions are reduced with block Discrete Cosine Transform (DCT). LPQ histogram sequence is calculated block by block as the description vector of face image, and it is recognized by the nearest neighbor classifier. The method is proved to be effectiveness with the experiment on the Yale B and CASPEAL database.%为提高光照变化下的人脸识别率,提出了一种基于局部对比增强(LCE)和局部相位量化(LPQ)的人脸识别方法.采用面部对称的思想结合LCE算法对受不均匀光照的人脸图像进行光照补偿;利用LPQ算子对增强后的图片进行标记,并用分块离散余弦变换(DCT)进行降维;分块计算LPQ直方图序列作为人脸图像的特征描述向量,送入最近邻分类器进行分类识别.通过Yale B和CAS PEAL数据库上的实验,证实了所提方法的有效性.

  8. Gender-linked Choice of Politeness Strategies Applied to Translation of Persian Face-threatening Acts into English

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    Mojde Yaqubi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available In this article, we will concentrate on translation of Persian face-threatening acts (FTAs into English. The present paper possesses both social and pragmatic objectives. These objectives are: 1 to identify the politeness strategies (PSs applied for rendering FTAs in Persian and English languages, 2 compare and contrast the frequencies and kinds of these strategies between two source and target languages (SL and TL to examine the discrepancies in the presentation of the PSs in two cultures and 3 to focus on the renderings of two gender groups of translators in order to establish a comparison of male and female’s translations of FTAs based on their choice and number of PSs. To gather the data, the following steps were taken: first, twenty FTAs done with different PSs (Brown and Levinson. 1987 were extracted from five Persian movies. The collected data were given to twenty male and female Persian-speaking post- graduate students of translation studies to render them into English. Then, PSs used for translating these FTAs were found in target texts and their types of strategies and frequencies were compared and contrasted with the original. As the final stage, the same comparison and contrast were done in case of the renderings of two gender groups of translators. The findings of the study indicated that from among 14 PSs applied in Persian and English, 12 PSs were commonly used in both SL and TL. Further, analysis of the data showed that although male and female translators applied the same PSs, male translators applied more PSs than females. Finally results revealed that ‘give deference’ was the most frequent PS applied by male translators while female translators used ‘give hint’ more than other PSs. Keywords: Sociolinguists, Face-threatening acts (FTAs, Politeness Strategy (PS, Gender

  9. The introduction of a choice to learn pre-symptomatic DNA test results for BRCA or Lynch syndrome either face-to-face or by letter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorwinden, J. S.; Jaspers, J. P. C.; ter Beest, J. G.; Kievit, Y.; Sijmons, R. H.; Oosterwijk, J. C.

    2012-01-01

    In predictive DNA testing for hereditary cancer, test results should traditionally be disclosed face-to-face. Increasingly, however, counselees ask to receive their test result at home by letter. To compare the quality of genetic counselling in the traditional way to a procedure in which counselees

  10. Evaluation of face-validity of multiple choice questions in special lessons of dentistry at Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences

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    M. H Toodehzaiem

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Evaluation is an important part of all educational activities and considering of these evaluations help us to improve all educational institutes . The aim of this study was evaluation of face validity of multiple choice questions in faculty of dentistry in second semester of 1385-1386 at Shahid Sadughi University of medical sciences. Methods : In this study, for evaluating of face validity, all of the multiple choice questions were examined with a check list which were considered and the percentage of face validity established . Then data were analyzed. Results : Introduction page, time of the exam and name of the professor(s were written in all of the exams. The independency of the questions and the lack of vague words in the question's stem were 100%. The percentage of each professor's contribution in the exam and the length of the choices for each question were 8.7% and 27.7% respectively. Conclusion : Face validity of the questions was 92-99.7%. According to this investigation it is concluded that some of the professors need to pass the question plan courses.

  11. It is not all pheromones: No evidence that pheromones affect digging face choice during ant nest excavation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruce, Andrew I

    2016-01-01

    Ants create nests of a size that is tailored to the number of individuals in a nest via a self-organized process. It is not yet clear how they accomplish this. Deposition and evaporation of pheromones at the digging face has been hypothesised by Deneubourg and Franks (1995) and Buhl et al. (2005) to be part of the nest construction process, with models being presented to support this contention. This hypothesis was tested by allowing groups of 5 Acromyrmex lundi workers to choose between two excavation sites, one that was freshly exposed to digging and one where digging had ceased an hour previously. It was expected that if pheromones played a role in stimulating digging, then ants would show a preference for digging in the "fresh" sites rather than the "aged" sites where the putative digging pheromone had decayed. No significant difference in digging activity between "fresh" and "aged" sites was detected. It is therefore likely that, while digging pheromones may play other roles in other parts of the digging system, they do not play an important role in regulation of soil excavation at the digging face. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Conflict Management: Difficult Conversations with Difficult People

    OpenAIRE

    Overton, Amy R.; Lowry, Ann C.

    2013-01-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  13. Conflict management: difficult conversations with difficult people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overton, Amy R; Lowry, Ann C

    2013-12-01

    Conflict occurs frequently in any workplace; health care is not an exception. The negative consequences include dysfunctional team work, decreased patient satisfaction, and increased employee turnover. Research demonstrates that training in conflict resolution skills can result in improved teamwork, productivity, and patient and employee satisfaction. Strategies to address a disruptive physician, a particularly difficult conflict situation in healthcare, are addressed.

  14. A Comparative Approach to Testing Face Perception: Face and object identification by adults in a simultaneous matching task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice de Gelder

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental studies of face perception tend to use small samples of participants taken from a narrow age range. This often makes it difficult to use the results in clinical studies. Combined with the fact that current face processing tests are of limited use for an in depth analysis of prosopagnosia it is often difficult to assess face recognition problems. Here we present the results from a study of a wide age group (21-50 yrs tested with a comprehensive face perception battery that was developed to provide a new tool for critically measuring intact face perception. We critically review existing tests and motivate our choice for the present design which is unique in that it uses in the same task setting faces and objects and therefore allows a more specific evaluation of face specific abilities than was hitherto possible.

  15. Tragic Choices in Humanitarian Aid : A Framework of Organizational Determinants of NGO Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Liesbet

    2013-01-01

    Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to an

  16. Tragic Choices in Humanitarian Aid : A Framework of Organizational Determinants of NGO Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Liesbet

    2013-01-01

    Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to an

  17. Tragic Choices in Humanitarian Aid : A Framework of Organizational Determinants of NGO Decision Making

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heyse, Liesbet

    Humanitarian NGOs face difficult choices about whom to help and whom not on a daily basis. The research question in this article is how humanitarian NGOs make these difficult decisions and why in a particular way. March's study on consequential and appropriate decision-making processes is used to

  18. A novel rescue technique for difficult intubation and difficult ventilation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zestos, Maria M; Daaboul, Dima; Ahmed, Zulfiqar; Durgham, Nasser; Kaddoum, Roland

    2011-01-17

    We describe a novel non surgical technique to maintain oxygenation and ventilation in a case of difficult intubation and difficult ventilation, which works especially well with poor mask fit. Can not intubate, can not ventilate" (CICV) is a potentially life threatening situation. In this video we present a simulation of the technique we used in a case of CICV where oxygenation and ventilation were maintained by inserting an endotracheal tube (ETT) nasally down to the level of the naso-pharynx while sealing the mouth and nares for successful positive pressure ventilation. A 13 year old patient was taken to the operating room for incision and drainage of a neck abscess and direct laryngobronchoscopy. After preoxygenation, anesthesia was induced intravenously. Mask ventilation was found to be extremely difficult because of the swelling of the soft tissue. The face mask could not fit properly on the face due to significant facial swelling as well. A direct laryngoscopy was attempted with no visualization of the larynx. Oxygen saturation was difficult to maintain, with saturations falling to 80%. In order to oxygenate and ventilate the patient, an endotracheal tube was then inserted nasally after nasal spray with nasal decongestant and lubricant. The tube was pushed gently and blindly into the hypopharynx. The mouth and nose of the patient were sealed by hand and positive pressure ventilation was possible with 100% O2 with good oxygen saturation during that period of time. Once the patient was stable and well sedated, a rigid bronchoscope was introduced by the otolaryngologist showing extensive subglottic and epiglottic edema, and a mass effect from the abscess, contributing to the airway compromise. The airway was secured with an ETT tube by the otolaryngologist.This video will show a simulation of the technique on a patient undergoing general anesthesia for dental restorations.

  19. What Makes Physics Difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornek, Funda; Robinson, William R.; Haugan, Mark P.

    2008-01-01

    According to many students, introductory physics is difficult. We are investigating what students believe makes physics difficult and what can be done to overcome these difficulties. Our investigation includes an initial free-response survey given to approximately 1400 students in an introductory physics course and a second survey, which was given…

  20. Navigating language barriers under difficult circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenker, Yael; Lo, Bernard; Ettinger, Katharine M; Fernandez, Alicia

    2008-08-19

    The proportion of the U.S. population with limited English proficiency is growing. Physicians often find themselves caring for patients with limited English proficiency in settings with limited language services. There has been little exploration of the decisions physicians face when providing care across language barriers. The authors offer a conceptual framework to aid physicians in thinking through difficult choices about language services and provide responses to common questions encountered in the care of patients with limited English proficiency. Specifically, they describe 4 factors that should inform the decision to call an interpreter (the clinical situation, degree of language gap, available resources, and patient preference), discuss who may be an appropriate interpreter, and offer strategies for when a professional interpreter is not available. The authors use a hypothetical case to illustrate how decisions about language services may evolve over the course of an interaction. This conceptual and practical approach can help clinicians to improve the quality of care provided to patients with limited English proficiency.

  1. 面中部除皱的小切口选择%Choice of Minimal Incision in Mid-Face Lift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫飞; 王克明; 马继光

    2016-01-01

    皮肤衰老是多种机制共同参与的一种复杂的多因素过程。随着人们对面中部老化过程及解剖认识的进一步加深,各种手术方式得以改进,并出现一些新的微创外科技术,术后恢复快、瘢痕小,如小切口除皱、内窥镜除皱、埋线等。本文对近几年面中部微创除皱手术中有关切口选择的进展进行综述。%[Summary] Skin aging is a complex and multifactorial process with multiple mechanisms participating at the same time. More recently, improvements in understanding of mid-facial aging and anatomy have paralleled the development of minimally invasive surgical techniques. Those techniques provide rapid postoperative recovery and small scar, which contain small incision rhytidectomy, endoscopic rhytidectomy and thread-lift. In this paper, the choice of minimal incision in mid-face lift in recent years was reviewed.

  2. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  3. WHAT MAKES CHEMISTRY DIFFICULT?

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    IICBA01

    regarded as a difficult subject for students by many researchers, teachers and science educators. [7-8] because ... Learning difficulties are important for both teaching and learning. Both ..... Concept –Cartoons as a strategy in teaching, learning.

  4. Psychopathology in difficult asthma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.; van Son, M.J.M.; Keimpema, A.R.; van Ranst, D; Pommer, A; Meijer, J.W.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  5. A difficult beginning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suneth Agampodi

    2013-10-01

    receives. But the manuscripts are submitted according to the quality of the journal (impact factor, indexation, circulation,. This is a vicious circle almost similar to what we and many others faced as start up researchers yesteryear. Without a grant, it is difficult to do research but to receive a grant you have to show research (publications. Journal impact factors should not be used to assess individual researcher’s contribution to science and for hiring, promotion, or funding decisions (2. Impact factors can be manipulated by journal editors and Thomson Scientific (the private company who creates impact factors is neither transparent about the process or have a clear policy (3.We are determined to elevate the quality of the journal. You will be the jury, but don’t be a silent assassin. Please let us know what you think at least by an E-mail. Otherwise, same fate that happened to our ancient kingdom of Rajarata will befall on the AMJ!

  6. Making marketing difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2005-01-01

    embraced by the market-place, while maintaining the old scientific alienation from political life. The case is made that modern science was born ambiguous towards the market-place, and that such ambivalence - relating to different interpretations of the idea of knowledge as a common good - is still...... to be encountered among scientists. Drawing on series of interviews with scientists from bioscience and biotechnology it is argued that, on the one hand, scientists are into marketing and PR exercises; but, on the other hand, they also voice a demand that journalists should make such marketing difficult...

  7. A Difficult Diagnosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Primholdt, Nina; Primdahl, Jette; Hendricks, Oliver

    2017-01-01

    the onset of symptoms to diagnosis of 5.4 years. The analysis resulted in the following three themes: 'Daily living and psychological reactions', 'A difficult diagnosis' and 'Working life and identity'. CONCLUSIONS: It took a long time to make the correct diagnosis, and the period before diagnosis...... framework was grounded in critical psychology, and the analysis was based on Kvale and Brinkmann's meaning condensation. RESULTS: The five men interviewed were 21-37 years old. At the time of the interview, the participants had been diagnosed with AS for an average of 2.6 years, with an average time from...

  8. Making marketing difficult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Gitte

    2005-01-01

    embraced by the market-place, while maintaining the old scientific alienation from political life. The case is made that modern science was born ambiguous towards the market-place, and that such ambivalence - relating to different interpretations of the idea of knowledge as a common good - is still...... to be encountered among scientists. Drawing on series of interviews with scientists from bioscience and biotechnology it is argued that, on the one hand, scientists are into marketing and PR exercises; but, on the other hand, they also voice a demand that journalists should make such marketing difficult...

  9. Dealing with difficult pasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAtackney, Laura

    2013-01-01

    with in the post-conflict context differs dramatically. Robben Island, in South Africa, closed in 1996 and was quickly transformed into a museum (1997) and then World Heritage site (1999), thus confirming its significance to both the national and international community as a symbolic cornerstone of the new...... ‘Rainbow’ nation. In comparison, the best known political prison in Northern Ireland – Long Kesh / Maze – closed in 2000 and despite three different proposals for its future ‘regeneration’ its remains are closed to the public whilst plans for a conflict transformation centre based at the site tentatively...... develop. I argue that such politically loaded manifestations of difficult pasts are highly significant during post-conflict renegotiations of society. They act as reminders of what happened, a commentary on how far society has – or has not moved on – and the potential for future relations and directions...

  10. What do mentors find difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, Laurence G; Davies, Moira

    2008-06-01

    (i) To assess whether mentors had a positive or negative attitude towards their role; and (ii) to discover what aspects of the role they found easy or difficult. The fact that mentorship is an important element in nurse training was recognized by Sir Leonard Peach, the United Kingdom Central Council for Nursing, Midwifery and Health Visiting and the Nursing and Midwifery Council which has recently published new standards to support learning and assessment in practice, which include standards for the preparation of Mentors, to be implemented by September 2007. There are many anecdotal reports of the problems which face mentors, but little firm evidence. This paper reports a study of those problems. It used a Thurstone scale to assess role satisfaction among mentors (n = 86, response rate 89%) and two Likert scales to assess where problems, if any, lay. Unlike anecdotal reports, the Thurstone scale found that, overall, mentors regarded the role positively. In addition, a principal components analysis of responses to the Likert scales showed that there were two clearly delineated factors. The first (interpersonal/organisational factors) had been widely discussed in the literature. The second (cognitive/intellectual factors) has been rarely discussed and could with profit be more strongly stressed in mentor training. (i) Mentors had a positive attitude towards their role and enjoyed it. (ii) When looking at what caused mentors difficulty, in addition to the commonly discussed dimensions of organisational constraints (workload, skill mix) and interpersonal factors, there was clearly an additional cognitive one. Knowledge, not just personality, mattered. Mentors and those who train them could with profit pay more attention to cognitive components of the role, even if that meant laying a lesser stress on the interpersonal ones.

  11. Overcoming difficult conversations in clinical supervision

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams B

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brett Williams,1 Christine King,1 Tanya Edlington,21Department of Community Emergency Health and Paramedic Practice, Monash University, Franskton, VIC, 2The Conversation Clinic Pty Ltd, Melbourne, VIC, Australia Background: Clinical supervisors are responsible for managing many facets of clinical learning and face a range of challenges when the need for "difficult" conversations arises, including the need to manage conflict and relationships. Methods: Spotlight on Conversations Workshop was developed to improve the capacity of clinical supervisors to engage in difficult conversations. They were designed to challenge the mindset of clinical supervisors about difficult conversations with students, the consequences of avoiding difficult conversations, and to offer activities for practicing difficult conversations. Preworkshop, postworkshop, and 4-month follow-up evaluations assessed improvements in knowledge, intent to improve, and confidence along with workshop satisfaction. Results: Nine workshops were delivered in a range of locations across Victoria, Australia, involving a total of 117 clinical supervisors. Preworkshop evaluations illustrated that more than half of the participants had avoided up to two difficult conversations in the last month in their workplace. Postworkshop evaluation at 4 months showed very high levels of satisfaction with the workshop's relevancy, content, and training, as well as participants' intention to apply knowledge and skills. Also shown were significant changes in participants' confidence to have difficult conversations not only with students but also with other peers and colleagues. In follow-up in-depth interviews with 20 of the 117 participants, 75% said they had made definite changes in their practice because of what they learned in the workshop and another 10% said they would make changes to their practice, but had not had the opportunity yet to do so. Conclusion: We conclude that the Spotlight on

  12. Control of roofs difficult to break down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lukashov, V.G.; Suslyakov, V.P.; Korobov, A.N.

    1981-03-01

    This paper describes a method of advanced torpedoing a roof difficult to break down at the Polysaevskaya coal mine. It consists in placing explosive charges in the roof ahead of the coal face. Three schemes were tested: boreholes were drilled parallel to the face, perpendicular or inclined at an angle to the face. Boreholes were 112 mm in diameter and their length ranged from 30 to 100 m, distance between the boreholes amounted to 20 m. 6ZhV ammonite explosive, 90 mm in diameter and 500 mm long, were used. Torpedos were 2 m long, and separated by 3 to 4 m long air pockets. When a roof characterized by a high compressive strength coefficient (about 10 on the Protod'yakonov scale) was torpedoed, 250 kg of ammonite were used for a borehole 80 m long, and 160 kg for a borehole 50 m long. When borehole length was reduced to 40 m explosive consumption decreased to 117 kg. In the case of rocks with compressive strength coefficient of 6, explosive amount was two times lower. In a coal mine in which an OKP-70 face system was used applying advanced torpedoing increased labor productivity of the face by 30% and reduced cost of mining by 42%. Number of work accidents was reduced 13 times. (In Russian)

  13. Unusual tumour ablations: report of difficult and interesting cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mauri, Giovanni; Nicosia, Luca; Varano, Gianluca Maria; Shyn, Paul; Sartori, Sergio; Tombesi, Paola; Di Vece, Francesca; Orsi, Franco; Solbiati, Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Image-guided ablations are nowadays applied in the treatment of a wide group of diseases and in different organs and regions, and every day interventional radiologists have to face more difficult and unusual cases of tumour ablation. In the present case review, we report four difficult and unusual cases, reporting some tips and tricks for a successful image-guided treatment. PMID:28487751

  14. The Fiscal Impact of a Tuition Assistance Grant for Virginia's Special Education Students. Parent Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan L.

    2007-01-01

    Parents of students with disabilities face a number of difficult choices in determining how to get the best education for their children. Too often, the special education system in public schools fails its students. Parents must become both experts and advocates for their children in order to navigate a burdensome maze of regulations to fight for…

  15. Effective communication during difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polito, Jacquelyn M

    2013-06-01

    A strong interest and need exist in the workplace today to master the skills of conducting difficult conversations. Theories and strategies abound, yet none seem to have found the magic formula with universal appeal and success. If it is such an uncomfortable skill to master is it better to avoid or initiate such conversations with employees? Best practices and evidence-based management guide us to the decision that quality improvement dictates effective communication, even when difficult. This brief paper will offer some suggestions for strategies to manage difficult conversations with employees. Mastering the skills of conducting difficult conversations is clearly important to keeping lines of communication open and productive. Successful communication skills may actually help to avert confrontation through employee engagement, commitment and appropriate corresponding behavior

  16. Psychopathology in difficult asthma : Review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prins, L.C.J.; van Son, M.A.C.; van Keimpema, A.R.J.; van Ranst, D.; Antonissen-Pommer, A.M.; Meijer, J.W.G.; Pop, V.J.M.

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Within the asthma population, difficult asthma (DA) is a severe condition in which patients present with frequent exacerbations, hospitalizations and emergency room visits. The identification and treatment of psychopathology is included in the management of DA. Psychopathology is supposed

  17. Choices after Graduation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    正From the above table,we can see that the students of this university have three main choices after graduation.Of these choices,the students who have found a job only take up 50%.In contrast,students who pursue further study by taking the postgraduate entrance exam or going abroad have increased greatly than before, with the total percentage of 47%.Indeed,this phenomenon is also quite common in other universities. The following factors can account for the choices of graduates.Above all,with the enrollment extension of universities,college graduates are facing the severe em-

  18. Drastic Measures for Difficult Times

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Peter

    2008-01-01

    This article discusses how colleges and universities are taking drastic measure for difficult times. Hit hard by the global financial crisis, colleges are cutting their budgets in ways that prompt fears about access and retention for minority students. Schools are considering layoffs, unpaid furloughs for faculty and staff, hiring freezes and…

  19. Investigating intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio; Parisi, Domenico; Patacchiola, Massimiliano; Petrosino, Giancarlo

    2015-06-01

    In intertemporal choices, subjects face a trade-off between value and delay: achieving the most valuable outcome requires a longer time, whereas the immediately available option is objectively poorer. Intertemporal choices are ubiquitous, and comparative studies reveal commonalities and differences across species: all species devalue future rewards as a function of delay (delay aversion), yet there is a lot of inter-specific variance in how rapidly such devaluation occurs. These differences are often interpreted in terms of ecological rationality, as depending on environmental factors (e.g., feeding ecology) and the physiological and morphological constraints of different species (e.g., metabolic rate). Evolutionary hypotheses, however, are hard to verify in vivo, since it is difficult to observe precisely enough real environments, not to mention ancestral ones. In this paper, we discuss the viability of an approach based on evolutionary robotics: in Study 1, we evolve robots without a metabolism in five different ecologies; in Study 2, we evolve metabolic robots (i.e., robots that consume energy over time) in three different ecologies. The intertemporal choices of the robots are analyzed both in their ecology and under laboratory conditions. Results confirm the generality of delay aversion and the usefulness of studying intertemporal choice through experimental evolutionary robotics.

  20. The composite face illusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Jennifer; Gray, Katie L H; Cook, Richard

    2017-04-01

    Few findings in cognitive science have proved as influential as the composite face effect. When the top half of one face is aligned with the bottom half of another, and presented upright, the resulting composite arrangement induces a compelling percept of a novel facial configuration. Findings obtained using composite face procedures have contributed significantly to our understanding of holistic face processing, the detrimental effects of face inversion, the development of face perception, and aberrant face perception in clinical populations. Composite paradigms continue to advance our knowledge of face perception, as exemplified by their recent use for investigating the perceptual mechanisms underlying dynamic face processing. However, the paradigm has been the subject of intense scrutiny, particularly over the last decade, and there is a growing sense that the composite face illusion, whilst easy to illustrate, is deceptively difficult to measure and interpret. In this review, we provide a focussed overview of the existing composite face literature, and identify six priorities for future research. Addressing these gaps in our knowledge will aid the evaluation and refinement of theoretical accounts of the illusion.

  1. Pacific Trade Deal Faces Tough Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Financial Times

    2011-01-01

    @@ The annual meeting of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum in Hawaii will have something more concrete to focus on than the usual bromides about extending free trade in the region. Barack Obama, the host, will use the occasion to laud progress in the "trans-Pacific partnership" (TPP), a nascent trade deal aiming to knit together a coalition including the US, Chile, Australia, Vietnam and Malaysia.

  2. Social attributions from faces bias human choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivola, Christopher Y; Funk, Friederike; Todorov, Alexander

    2014-11-01

    Our success and well-being, as individuals and societies, depend on our ability to make wise social decisions about important interpersonal matters, such as the leaders we select and the individuals we choose to trust. Nevertheless, our impressions of people are shaped by their facial appearances and, consequently, so too are these social decisions. This article summarizes research linking facial morphological traits to important social outcomes and discusses various factors that moderate this relationship.

  3. Familiar Face Recognition in Children with Autism: The Differential Use of Inner and Outer Face Parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Rebecca; Pascalis, Olivier; Blades, Mark

    2007-01-01

    We investigated whether children with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD) have a deficit in recognising familiar faces. Children with ASD were given a forced choice familiar face recognition task with three conditions: full faces, inner face parts and outer face parts. Control groups were children with developmental delay (DD) and typically…

  4. School Choice in South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maile, Simeon

    2004-01-01

    In this article, the author investigates the basic elements of choice and markets theory. In recent years, children were moving from rural and township schools to suburban White schools. This trend emerged in the late 1980s and simmered after the demise of apartheid. At face value, school choice appears to be happening merely for the reason of…

  5. Cuffed oropharyngeal airway for difficult airway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takaishi, Kazumi; Kawahito, Shinji; Tomioka, Shigemasa; Eguchi, Satoru; Kitahata, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Difficulties with airway management are often caused by anatomic abnormalities due to previous oral surgery. We performed general anesthesia for a patient who had undergone several operations such as hemisection of the mandible and reconstructive surgery with a deltopectoralis flap, resulting in severe maxillofacial deformation. This made it impossible to ventilate with a face mask and to intubate in the normal way. An attempt at oral awake intubation using fiberoptic bronchoscopy was unsuccessful because of severe anatomical abnormality of the neck. We therefore decided to perform retrograde intubation and selected the cuffed oropharyngeal airway (COPA) for airway management. We inserted the COPA, not through the patient's mouth but through the abnormal oropharyngeal space. Retrograde nasal intubation was accomplished with controlled ventilation through the COPA, which proved to be very useful for this difficult airway management during tracheal intubation even though the method was unusual.

  6. Several difficult problems in lubrication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Whether in industry or in our human life, we will encounter many lubrication problems. A goodlubricant not only should have good performance, but also should meet the needs of the specific condi-tions. Here we give some examples about the difficult problems in lubrication and their solutions. Theseexamples are: (i) hydrolysis and emulsion of ZDTP; (ii) corrosion of chlorowax; (iii) coexistence of greencompressor oil and cryogen (R-134A); (iv) lubrication of cystoscope and catheter. On the same time,some achievements in lubrication field provided by Lubrication Chemistry Laboratory of Shanghai Uni-versity will be introduced in this paper.

  7. [Difficult to control severe asthma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnan, Antoine; Pipet, Anaïs

    2011-03-01

    Difficult to control severe asthma is characterized by the persistence of inacceptable symptoms of asthma despite a continuous treatment with at least high doses of inhaled steroids and long acting bronchodilators. The diagnosis is done after a period of observation and some investigations that will allow confirm the diagnosis of asthma, eliminate alternative diagnosis and etiological forms that would be difficult to treat intrinsically (allergic broncho-pulmonary aspergillosis, Churg and Strauss disease, chronic eosinophilic pneumonia, occupational asthma). At the end of this period devoted to diagnosis a systematic approach is set up to take care of these patients. Therapeutic education includes action plans and measures for triggering factors avoidance in order to prevent exacerbations. Comorbidities such as rhinitis, nasal polyposis, gastro-oesophageal reflux and obesity are taken into account. Lastly, the treatment must be adapted according to the patient's preferences and aims, and to the asthma severity. Ultimately in steroid-dependent asthma, the lowest efficient dose is tracked continuously. For these patients, new molecules are needed.

  8. Intramuscular triamcinolone for difficult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panickar, Jayachandran R; Kenia, Priti; Silverman, Michael; Grigg, Jonathan

    2005-05-01

    We treated a selected group of children attending a difficult asthma clinic with intramuscular triamcinolone acetonide. This study retrospectively reviews markers of asthma severity in those who received one or more monthly doses for three periods: 1) 3 months preceding the first injection (pretreatment), 2) from the first injection to 1 month after the last injection (treatment period), and 3) 3 months after the treatment period (follow-up period). Severity markers during the treatment and follow-up periods were compared with the pretreatment period by paired t-test. Five children (5-13 years old) received a single dose, and 8 children (12-15 years old) received multiple doses. Multiple doses of triamcinolone (n = 3-5) were associated with a fall in the number of asthma exacerbations (P < 0.01) and hospital admissions (P < 0.01) in both the treatment and follow-up periods. A single dose reduced exacerbations (P < 0.05, treatment vs. pretreatment) but not hospital admissions. We conclude that intramuscular triamcinolone is a useful short-term therapy in difficult asthma. Whether its efficacy is due to improved compliance, or an improved anti-inflammatory profile compared with oral steroids, remains unclear. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc

  9. Parallel Processing in Face Perception

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martens, Ulla; Leuthold, Hartmut; Schweinberger, Stefan R.

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined face perception models with regard to the functional and temporal organization of facial identity and expression analysis. Participants performed a manual 2-choice go/no-go task to classify faces, where response hand depended on facial familiarity (famous vs. unfamiliar) and response execution depended on facial expression…

  10. Les difficultés de la filière brésilienne face à la nouvelle organisation mondiale du négoce des pierres de couleur As dificuldades da cadeia produtiva brasileira diante da nova organização do mercado mundial de gemas de cor The Brazilian commodity chain difficulties facing the new world trade organization of colored gemstones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurélien Reys

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Les filières des pierres de couleur, à l’image de la plupart des ressources naturelles exploitées, ont longtemps représenté un négoce hiérarchisé largement dominé par les principales puissances occidentales. Leur organisation serait à présent en pleine restructuration notamment sous l’influence croissante d’acteurs originaires d’Asie. La nouvelle division des tâches et la multipolarisation du commerce ne profiteraient toutefois pas à la majorité des pays extracteurs qui connaitraient toujours d’importantes difficultés à jouer un rôle autre que celui strictement en lien avec les activités d’extraction. Le Brésil, considéré comme l’une des plus grandes réserves de pierres de couleur au monde, n’aurait semble-t-il pas réussi à tirer profit de cette réorganisation du commerce. En effet, bien qu’il réussisse à l’inverse de nombreux autres pays extracteurs à tailler une partie des pierres extraites, les gemmes à l’état brut continuent de constituer une grande part de ses exportations. Cette situation se traduirait depuis quelques années par une stagnation de ses bénéfices, d’autant plus que les acteurs locaux doivent désormais faire face à de nouvelles sources de concurrence, en provenance d’Afrique de l’Est pour les activités d’extraction et de Chine pour celles de taille et de commerce. Néanmoins, l’élévation du niveau de vie des populations à l’échelle mondiale permet d’envisager à long terme une croissance positive de ce type de négoce. La cartographie mondiale du commerce des gemmes est dès lors certainement loin d’être aboutie, laissant encore une certaine marge de manœuvre pour des pays comme le Brésil, ce dernier pouvant de plus compter sur une classe moyenne nationale en pleine croissance qui pourrait à terme constituer une nouvelle source de demande.As diferentes cadeias produtivas mundiais de gemas de cor, assim como a exploração da maioria das riquezas

  11. School Choice Acceptance: An Exploratory Explication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koven, Steven G.; Khan, Mobin

    2014-01-01

    School choice is presented by some as a panacea to the challenges facing education in the United States. Acceptance of choice as a solution, however, is far from universal. This article examines two possible contributors to choice adoption: ideology and political culture. Political culture was found to better explain the complex phenomenon of…

  12. Face pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... begin in other places in the body. Abscessed tooth (ongoing throbbing pain on one side of the lower face that ... face, and aggravated by eating. Call a dentist. Pain is persistent, ... by other unexplained symptoms. Call your primary provider.

  13. Age-dependent face detection and face categorization performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon, Claus-Christian; Grüter, Martina; Grüter, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, featural and relational nature, reflecting difficult real world face processing conditions. We found that performance in the assessment of gender and age from Mooney faces increases up to about age 15, and decreases from 65 years on. The implications of these findings are discussed in the light of classic and recent findings from face development literature.

  14. New techniques and devices for difficult airway management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirgoska, Biljana; Netkovski, Jane

    2012-09-01

    The purpose of this review is to compare old conventional techniques and devices for difficult airway management and new sophisticated techniques and devices. Recent techniques and devices are defined as the American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) practice guidelines for the management of difficult airway, published in 1992, reviewed in 1993 and updated in 2003. According to ASA, the techniques for difficult airway management are divided into techniques for difficult intubation and techniques for difficult ventilation. Awake fiberoptic intubation is the technique of choice for difficult airway management prescribed by the World Health Organization document for patient safety in the operating theater. Conventional techniques for intubation used direct visualization. The new generation of devices does not require direct visualization of the vocal cords for endotracheal tube placement. They allow better glottis view and successful endotracheal placement of the tube with indirect laryngoscopy. New intubation devices such as video laryngoscopes facilitate endotracheal intubation by indirect visualization of glottis structures without aligning the oral, pharyngeal and laryngeal axes in patients with cervical spine abnormality. Video laryngoscopes such as V-Mac and C-Mac, Glide scope, McGrath, Airway Scope, Airtraq, Bonfils and Bullard laryngoscope are widely available at the market. Airway gadgets are lighted stylets and endotracheal tube guides. The principal conclusion of this review is that utilization of these devices can be easily learned. The technique of indirect laryngoscopy is currently used for managing difficult airway in the operating room as well as for securing the airway in daily anesthesia routine.

  15. Choice experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas P Holmes; Wiktor L Adamawicz; Fredrik Carlsson

    2017-01-01

    There has been an explosion of interest during the past two decades in a class of nonmarket stated-preference valuation methods known as choice experiments. The overall objective of a choice experiment is to estimate economic values for characteristics (or attributes) of an environmental good that is the subject of policy analysis, where...

  16. Clostridium difficile phages: still difficult?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katherine Rose Hargreaves

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phages that infect Clostridium difficile were first isolated for typing purposes in the 1980s, but their use was short lived. However, the rise of C. difficile epidemics over the last decade has triggered a resurgence of interest in using phages to combat this pathogen. Phage therapy is an attractive treatment option for C. difficile infection, however developing suitable phages is challenging. In this review we summarise the difficulties faced by researchers in this field, and we discuss the solutions and strategies used for the development of C. difficile phages for use as novel therapeutics.Epidemiological data has highlighted the diversity and distribution of C. difficile, and shown that novel strains continue to emerge in clinical settings. In parallel with epidemiological studies, advances in molecular biology have bolstered our understanding of C. difficile biology, and our knowledge of phage-host interactions in other bacterial species. These three fields of biology have therefore paved the way for future work on C. difficile phages to progress and develop. Benefits of using C. difficile phages as therapeutic agents include the fact that they have highly specific interactions with their bacterial hosts. Studies also show that they can reduce bacterial numbers in both in vitro and in vivo systems. Genetic analysis has revealed the genomic diversity among these phages and provided an insight into their taxonomy and evolution.No strictly virulent C. difficile phages have been reported and this contributes to the difficulties with their therapeutic exploitation. Although treatment approaches using the phage-encoded endolysin protein have been explored, the benefits of using whole-phages are such that they remain a major research focus. Whilst we don’t envisage working with C. difficile phages will be problem free, sufficient study should inform future strategies to facilitate their development to combat this problematic pathogen.

  17. Complex Strategic Choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leleur, Steen

    . Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value...... and students in the field of planning and decision analysis as well as practitioners dealing with strategic analysis and decision making. More broadly, Complex Strategic Choices acts as guide for professionals and students involved in complex planning tasks across several fields such as business...... to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students...

  18. Choice set size and decision making: the case of Medicare Part D prescription drug plans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundorf, M Kate; Szrek, Helena

    2010-01-01

    The impact of choice on consumer decision making is controversial in US health policy. The authors' objective was to determine how choice set size influences decision making among Medicare beneficiaries choosing prescription drug plans. The authors randomly assigned members of an Internet-enabled panel age 65 and older to sets of prescription drug plans of varying sizes (2, 5, 10, and 16) and asked them to choose a plan. Respondents answered questions about the plan they chose, the choice set, and the decision process. The authors used ordered probit models to estimate the effect of choice set size on the study outcomes. Both the benefits of choice, measured by whether the chosen plan is close to the ideal plan, and the costs, measured by whether the respondent found decision making difficult, increased with choice set size. Choice set size was not associated with the probability of enrolling in any plan. Medicare beneficiaries face a tension between not wanting to choose from too many options and feeling happier with an outcome when they have more alternatives. Interventions that reduce cognitive costs when choice sets are large may make this program more attractive to beneficiaries.

  19. Using scalar products to refine the interpretative value of an orientation choice test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meunier, Nicolas; Nielsen, Birte L

    2014-07-01

    Choice tests, which are often used to examine animal preferences, can be difficult to interpret when no clear choice has been made or when using very young animals which exclude test repetition. We present a new method to evaluate the behavior in a choice test based on the orientation of the animal and illustrate its use when facing those conditions. Using rat pups in an open field maze with a choice of odors, we obtained x,y coordinates of 2 markers (head and body center) using a video-tracking freeware. Two vectors were calculated: an animal orientation vector (body to head) and a perfect orientation vector (body to odor source). The angle between the 2 vectors in each frame was converted into a scalar product ranging from 1 (pup oriented directly towards the odor source) to -1 (facing the opposite direction). A mean scalar product was calculated for each odor source, with the difference between the 2 mean scalar products indicating degree of preference for an odor. The information provided by the mean scalar product difference (MSPD) could not be obtained from other measures, such as binary choice, velocity, or distance moved. The MSPD provides a single, noncategorical value for each animal to describe degree of preference in a choice test. This variable was more effective in differentiating animals, thus allowing a reduction in the number of animals or tests necessary to reach significance.

  20. Study of Face Recognition Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangeeta Kaushik

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available A study of both face recognition and detection techniques is carried out using the algorithms like Principal Component Analysis (PCA, Kernel Principal Component Analysis (KPCA, Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA and Line Edge Map (LEM. These algorithms show different rates of accuracy under different conditions. The automatic recognition of human faces presents a challenge to the pattern recognition community. Typically, human faces are different in shapes with minor similarity from person to person. Furthermore, lighting condition changes, facial expressions and pose variations further complicate the face recognition task as one of the difficult problems in pattern analysis.

  1. Making healthy choices easy choices: the role of empowerment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelen, M.A.; Lindström, B.

    2005-01-01

    An important goal of health promotion is to make it easier for people to make healthy choices. However, this may be difficult if people do not feel control over their environment and their personal circumstances. An important concept in relation to this is empowerment. Health professionals are expec

  2. Face Search at Scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dayong; Otto, Charles; Jain, Anil K

    2016-06-20

    rsons of interest among the billions of shared photos on these websites. Despite significant progress in face recognition, searching a large collection of unconstrained face images remains a difficult problem. To address this challenge, we propose a face search system which combines a fast search procedure, coupled with a state-of-the-art commercial off the shelf (COTS) matcher, in a cascaded framework. Given a probe face, we first filter the large gallery of photos to find the top-k most similar faces using features learned by a convolutional neural network. The k retrieved candidates are re-ranked by combining similarities based on deep features and those output by the COTS matcher. We evaluate the proposed face search system on a gallery containing 80 million web-downloaded face images. Experimental results demonstrate that while the deep features perform worse than the COTS matcher on a mugshot dataset (93.7% vs. 98.6% TAR@FAR of 0.01%), fusing the deep features with the COTS matcher improves the overall performance (99.5% TAR@FAR of 0.01%). This shows that the learned deep features provide complementary information over representations used in state-of-the-art face matchers. On the unconstrained face image benchmarks, the performance of the learned deep features is competitive with reported accuracies. LFW database: 98.20% accuracy under the standard protocol and 88.03% TAR@FAR of 0.1% under the BLUFR protocol; IJB-A benchmark: 51.0% TAR@FAR of 0.1% (verification), rank 1 retrieval of 82.2% (closed-set search), 61.5% FNIR@FAR of 1% (open-set search). The proposed face search system offers an excellent trade-off between accuracy and scalability on galleries with millions of images. Additionally, in a face search experiment involving photos of the Tsarnaev brothers, convicted of the Boston Marathon bombing, the proposed cascade face search system could find the younger brother's (Dzhokhar Tsarnaev) photo at rank 1 in 1 second on a 5M gallery and at rank 8 in 7

  3. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available Skip to Content Menu Closed (Tap to Open) Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All ... What is AboutFace? Resources for Professionals Get Help Home Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search ...

  4. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What is AboutFace? ... Watch Videos by Topic Videos by Type Search All Videos Learn More PTSD Basics PTSD Treatment What ...

  5. Face Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Last November, surgeons in France successfully performed the world's first face transplant surgery. Ten days later, Chen Huanran in Beijing began soliciting patients who were ready to accept a face transplant, searching for China's first such patient through an advertisement on his website and other channels. Chen, chief orthopedic surgeon at the Plastic Surgery Hospital under the Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences, has conducted more than 300 transsexual operations and was considered one of the top com...

  6. Framing and conflict: aspiration level contingency, the status quo, and current theories of risky choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, S L

    1992-09-01

    The effect of positive versus negative frames on risky choice was examined for a variety of scenarios and risks. Preferences in the positive domain were strong and mainly risk averse, with notable exceptions. Preferences in the negative domain, however, were marked by their inconsistency, shown both by an overwhelming lack of significant majority preferences and a surprisingly strong tendency of individual subjects to vacillate in their negatively framed choices across presentations. This finding is accounted for by a proposed aspiration level contingency in which aspiration levels are systematically set to be more difficult to achieve in the face of a perceived loss than a gain. The implications of the results, and the aspiration level contingency, are explored with respect to current theories of risky choice, including Kahneman and Tversky's (1979) prospect theory and Lopes's (1987, 1990) security-potential/aspiration theory.

  7. Cathodal tDCS over the left prefrontal cortex diminishes choice-induced preference change.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengarelli, Flavia; Spoglianti, Silvia; Avenanti, Alessio; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe

    2015-05-01

    In everyday life, people often find themselves facing difficult decisions between options that are equally attractive. Cognitive dissonance theory states that after making a difficult choice between 2 equally preferred options, individuals no longer find the alternatives similarly desirable. Rather, they often change their existing preferences to align more closely with the choice they have just made. Despite the relevance of cognitive dissonance in modulating behavior, little is known about the brain processes crucially involved in choice-induced preference change. In the present study, we applied cathodal transcranial Direct Current Stimulation (tDCS) with the aim of downregulating the activity of the left or the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during a revised version of Brehm's (in 1956. Post-decision changes in the desirability of alternatives. J Abnorm Soc Psychol. 52:384-389) free-choice paradigm. We found that cathodal tDCS over the left, but not over the right, DLPFC caused a reduction of the typical behavior-induced preference change relative to sham stimulation. Our findings highlight the role of prefrontal cortex in cognitive dissonance and provide evidence that left DLPFC plays a necessary role in the implementation of choice-induced preference change. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  8. Familiar Face Detection in 180ms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Visconti di Oleggio Castello, Matteo; Gobbini, M. Ida

    2015-01-01

    The visual system is tuned for rapid detection of faces, with the fastest choice saccade to a face at 100ms. Familiar faces have a more robust representation than do unfamiliar faces, and are detected faster in the absence of awareness and with reduced attentional resources. Faces of family and close friends become familiar over a protracted period involving learning the unique visual appearance, including a view-invariant representation, as well as person knowledge. We investigated the effect of personal familiarity on the earliest stages of face processing by using a saccadic-choice task to measure how fast familiar face detection can happen. Subjects made correct and reliable saccades to familiar faces when unfamiliar faces were distractors at 180ms—very rapid saccades that are 30 to 70ms earlier than the earliest evoked potential modulated by familiarity. By contrast, accuracy of saccades to unfamiliar faces with familiar faces as distractors did not exceed chance. Saccades to faces with object distractors were even faster (110 to 120 ms) and equivalent for familiar and unfamiliar faces, indicating that familiarity does not affect ultra-rapid saccades. We propose that detectors of diagnostic facial features for familiar faces develop in visual cortices through learning and allow rapid detection that precedes explicit recognition of identity. PMID:26305788

  9. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerk, C; Mitchell, V S; McNarry, A F; Mendonca, C; Bhagrath, R; Patel, A; O'Sullivan, E P; Woodall, N M; Ahmad, I

    2015-12-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team.

  10. Holistic crowding of Mooney faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farzin, Faraz; Rivera, Susan M; Whitney, David

    2009-06-29

    An object or feature is generally more difficult to identify when other objects are presented nearby, an effect referred to as crowding. Here, we used Mooney faces to examine whether crowding can also occur within and between holistic face representations (C. M. Mooney, 1957). Mooney faces are ideal stimuli for this test because no cues exist to distinguish facial features in a Mooney face; to find any facial feature, such as an eye or a nose, one must first holistically perceive the image as a face. Through a series of six experiments we tested the effect of crowding on Mooney face recognition. Our results demonstrate crowding between and within Mooney faces and fulfill the diagnostic criteria for crowding, including eccentricity dependence and lack of crowding in the fovea, critical flanker spacing consistent with less than half the eccentricity of the target, and inner-outer flanker asymmetry. Further, our results show that recognition of an upright Mooney face is more strongly impaired by upright Mooney face flankers than inverted ones. Taken together, these results suggest crowding can occur selectively between high-level representations of faces and that crowding must occur at multiple levels in the visual system.

  11. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In these videos, Veterans, family members, and ... to hear what they have to say. What is PTSD? → How does PTSD affect loved ones? → Am ...

  12. About Face

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... traumatic event — like combat, an assault, or a disaster — it's normal to feel scared, keyed up, or sad at first. But if it's been months or years since the trauma and you're not feeling better, you may have PTSD (posttraumatic stress disorder). Watch the intro This is AboutFace In ...

  13. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  14. Choice & Consequence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khan, Azam

    between cause and effect in complex systems complicates decision making. To address this issue, we examine the central role that data-driven decision making could play in critical domains such as sustainability or medical treatment. We developed systems for exploratory data analysis and data visualization...... of data analysis and instructional interface design, to both simulation systems and decision support interfaces. We hope that projects such as these will help people to understand the link between their choices and the consequences of their decisions....

  15. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B. D.; Dzhelyova, M.; Perrett, D. I.; Barraclough, N. E.

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals. PMID:23801979

  16. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keefe, B D; Dzhelyova, M; Perrett, D I; Barraclough, N E

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces, respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs) were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice (2-IFC) adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  17. Adaptation improves face trustworthiness discrimination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce D Keefe

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Adaptation to facial characteristics, such as gender and viewpoint, has been shown to both bias our perception of faces and improve facial discrimination. In this study, we examined whether adapting to two levels of face trustworthiness improved sensitivity around the adapted level. Facial trustworthiness was manipulated by morphing between trustworthy and untrustworthy prototypes, each generated by morphing eight trustworthy and eight untrustworthy faces respectively. In the first experiment, just-noticeable differences (JNDs were calculated for an untrustworthy face after participants adapted to an untrustworthy face, a trustworthy face, or did not adapt. In the second experiment, the three conditions were identical, except that JNDs were calculated for a trustworthy face. In the third experiment we examined whether adapting to an untrustworthy male face improved discrimination to an untrustworthy female face. In all experiments, participants completed a two-interval forced-choice adaptive staircase procedure, in which they judged which face was more untrustworthy. JNDs were derived from a psychometric function fitted to the data. Adaptation improved sensitivity to faces conveying the same level of trustworthiness when compared to no adaptation. When adapting to and discriminating around a different level of face trustworthiness there was no improvement in sensitivity and JNDs were equivalent to those in the no adaptation condition. The improvement in sensitivity was found to occur even when adapting to a face with different gender and identity. These results suggest that adaptation to facial trustworthiness can selectively enhance mechanisms underlying the coding of facial trustworthiness to improve perceptual sensitivity. These findings have implications for the role of our visual experience in the decisions we make about the trustworthiness of other individuals.

  18. Mate choice turns cognitive.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, G F; Todd, P M

    1998-05-01

    Evolutionary psychology has revolutionized research on human mate choice and sexual attraction in recent years, combining a rigorous Darwinian framework based on sexual selection theory with a loosely cognitivist orientation to task analysis and mechanism modelling. This hard Darwinian, soft computational approach has been most successful at revealing the adaptive logic behind physical beauty, demonstrating that many sexual cues computed from face and body shape are not arbitrary, but function as reliable indicators of phenotypic and genetic quality. The same approach could be extended from physical to psychological cues if evolutionary psychology built stronger ties with personality psychology, psychometrics and behavioral genetics. A major challenge for mate choice research is to develop more explicit computational models at three levels, specifying: (1) the perceptual adaptations that register sexual cues given sensory input, (2) the judgment adaptations that integrate multiple cues into assessments of overall attractiveness, and (3) the search strategies that people follow in trying to form mutually attracted pairs. We describe both recent efforts and possible extensions in these directions. The resulting confluence between evolutionary principles, cognitive models and game-theoretic insights can put mate choice research at the vanguard of an emerging `evolutionary cognitive science' more concerned with domain-specific mental adaptations than with domain-general intelligence.

  19. Difficult asthma: assessment and management, Part 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long, Aidan A; Fanta, Christopher H

    2012-01-01

    A minority of asthma patients have disease that proves difficult to control with usual medications and experience ongoing symptoms, poor quality of life, and limitations in activity and/or frequent asthma exacerbations. This group of patients accounts for much of the expense associated with asthma care and is the focus of national and international collaborative study groups. Distinguishing between "difficult-to-manage asthma" and truly "therapy-resistant asthma" is helpful and promotes a systematic consideration of contributory factors. Critical evaluation of factors contributing to difficult-to-manage asthma including adverse environment, comorbidities, nonadherence, and incorrect diagnosis is recommended in a systematic fashion in Part 1 of this contribution.

  20. Mind wandering while reading easy and difficult texts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Shi; D'Mello, Sidney; Graesser, Arthur C

    2013-06-01

    Mind wandering is a phenomenon in which attention drifts away from the primary task to task-unrelated thoughts. Previous studies have used self-report methods to measure the frequency of mind wandering and its effects on task performance. Many of these studies have investigated mind wandering in simple perceptual and memory tasks, such as recognition memory, sustained attention, and choice reaction time tasks. Manipulations of task difficulty have revealed that mind wandering occurs more frequently in easy than in difficult conditions, but that it has a greater negative impact on performance in the difficult conditions. The goal of this study was to examine the relation between mind wandering and task difficulty in a high-level cognitive task, namely reading comprehension of standardized texts. We hypothesized that reading comprehension may yield a different relation between mind wandering and task difficulty than has been observed previously. Participants read easy or difficult versions of eight passages and then answered comprehension questions after reading each of the passages. Mind wandering was reported using the probe-caught method from several previous studies. In contrast to the previous results, but consistent with our hypothesis, mind wandering occurred more frequently when participants read difficult rather than easy texts. However, mind wandering had a more negative influence on comprehension for the difficult texts, which is consistent with the previous data. The results are interpreted from the perspectives of the executive-resources and control-failure theories of mind wandering, as well as with regard to situation models of text comprehension.

  1. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    It has long been argued that perceptual processing of faces and words is largely independent, highly specialised and strongly lateralised. Studies of patients with either pure alexia or prosopagnosia have strongly contributed to this view. The aim of our study was to investigate how visual...

  2. Reading faces and Facing words

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Robotham, Julia Emma; Lindegaard, Martin Weis; Delfi, Tzvetelina Shentova

    performed within normal range on at least one test of visual categorisation, strongly suggesting that their abnormal performance with words and faces does not represent a generalised visuo-perceptual deficit. Our results suggest that posterior areas in both hemispheres may be critical for both reading...

  3. Quantified Faces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Mette-Marie Zacher

    2016-01-01

    Abstract: The article presents three contemporary art projects that, in various ways, thematise questions regarding numerical representation of the human face in relation to the identification of faces, for example through the use of biometric video analysis software, or DNA technology. The Dutch...... and critically examine bias in surveillance technologies, as well as scientific investigations, regarding the stereotyping mode of the human gaze. The American artist Heather Dewey-Hagborg creates three-dimensional portraits of persons she has “identified” from their garbage. Her project from 2013 entitled....... The three works are analysed with perspectives to historical physiognomy and Francis Galton's composite portraits from the 1800s. It is argued that, rather than being a statistical compression like the historical composites, contemporary statistical visual portraits (composites) are irreversible...

  4. Difficult Airway Society 2015 guidelines for management of unanticipated difficult intubation in adults†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frerk, C.; Mitchell, V. S.; McNarry, A. F.; Mendonca, C.; Bhagrath, R.; Patel, A.; O'Sullivan, E. P.; Woodall, N. M.; Ahmad, I.

    2015-01-01

    These guidelines provide a strategy to manage unanticipated difficulty with tracheal intubation. They are founded on published evidence. Where evidence is lacking, they have been directed by feedback from members of the Difficult Airway Society and based on expert opinion. These guidelines have been informed by advances in the understanding of crisis management; they emphasize the recognition and declaration of difficulty during airway management. A simplified, single algorithm now covers unanticipated difficulties in both routine intubation and rapid sequence induction. Planning for failed intubation should form part of the pre-induction briefing, particularly for urgent surgery. Emphasis is placed on assessment, preparation, positioning, preoxygenation, maintenance of oxygenation, and minimizing trauma from airway interventions. It is recommended that the number of airway interventions are limited, and blind techniques using a bougie or through supraglottic airway devices have been superseded by video- or fibre-optically guided intubation. If tracheal intubation fails, supraglottic airway devices are recommended to provide a route for oxygenation while reviewing how to proceed. Second-generation devices have advantages and are recommended. When both tracheal intubation and supraglottic airway device insertion have failed, waking the patient is the default option. If at this stage, face-mask oxygenation is impossible in the presence of muscle relaxation, cricothyroidotomy should follow immediately. Scalpel cricothyroidotomy is recommended as the preferred rescue technique and should be practised by all anaesthetists. The plans outlined are designed to be simple and easy to follow. They should be regularly rehearsed and made familiar to the whole theatre team. PMID:26556848

  5. Holistic face training enhances face processing in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeGutis, Joseph; Cohan, Sarah; Nakayama, Ken

    2014-06-01

    Prosopagnosia has largely been regarded as an untreatable disorder. However, recent case studies using cognitive training have shown that it is possible to enhance face recognition abilities in individuals with developmental prosopagnosia. Our goal was to determine if this approach could be effective in a larger population of developmental prosopagnosics. We trained 24 developmental prosopagnosics using a 3-week online face-training program targeting holistic face processing. Twelve subjects with developmental prosopagnosia were assessed before and after training, and the other 12 were assessed before and after a waiting period, they then performed the training, and were then assessed again. The assessments included measures of front-view face discrimination, face discrimination with view-point changes, measures of holistic face processing, and a 5-day diary to quantify potential real-world improvements. Compared with the waiting period, developmental prosopagnosics showed moderate but significant overall training-related improvements on measures of front-view face discrimination. Those who reached the more difficult levels of training ('better' trainees) showed the strongest improvements in front-view face discrimination and showed significantly increased holistic face processing to the point of being similar to that of unimpaired control subjects. Despite challenges in characterizing developmental prosopagnosics' everyday face recognition and potential biases in self-report, results also showed modest but consistent self-reported diary improvements. In summary, we demonstrate that by using cognitive training that targets holistic processing, it is possible to enhance face perception across a group of developmental prosopagnosics and further suggest that those who improved the most on the training task received the greatest benefits.

  6. Difficult airway management patterns among anesthesiologists practicing in Cairo University Hospitals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neamat I. Abdel rahman

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: The practice of anesthesiologists in Cairo university hospitals is close to the recommendations of the ASA guidelines for management of difficult airway. There is increased skills in fiberoptic bronchoscopes and SGA with increased frequency of difficult airway managements training courses; however, they need to improve their skills in awake fiberoptic intubations technique and they need to be trained on invasive airway management access to close the discrepancy between their theoretical choices in different situations and their actual skills.

  7. Facilitating Endotracheal Intubation in Difficult Cases Using an External Magnet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahin Seyedhejazi

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Difficult airway is conventionally defined as a medical scenario in which a trained examiner faces difficulty in either facemask ventilation or tracheal intubation (1. Unlike difficult intubation, the incidence of difficult mask ventilation in adults is considerable (2, 3. Anesthesiologists and those who practice intubation should be familiar with the management of airway and be able to recognize and identify potentially difficult airways including congenital craniofacial deformities with micrognathia (e.g. Pier Robin, Treacher Collins, Goldenhar's, and Crouzon's syndromes and metabolic diseases causing the deposition of accumulated by-products (e.g., Hurler's, Morquio's, and Beckwith-Wiedemann syndromes. Cormack and Lehane grades 3 and 4 at laryngoscopy are an indication for advanced techniques for intubation. Laryngeal mask airway (LMA and fiberscope with a directable tip are useful and important modalities in handling difficult airway and intubation (5. Even normal pediatric airway could become critical due to the anatomical and physiological differences between pediatric and adult airway; this particularly becomes a concern in infants, i.e. children younger than one year old. This hazard is augmented in the presence of congenital or acquired difficulties affecting airway. Consequently, proper preoperative assessment is considered as the cornerstone of pediatric difficult airway management. Every anesthetic plan should be tailored according to patients considering the scenario and also the expertise of the practitioner. Opting for spontaneous respiration maintenance and intervening in a step-wise manner are strongly suggested (6. Multiple airway devices have been and are developed that all of which can be placed under direct vision or blindly; most of these devices consistently both provide and maintain safe oxygenation and ventilation. Furthermore, a wide range of ancillary devices have also been introduced to be of assistance in the

  8. Difficult childhood asthma: management and future.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tillie-Leblond, Isabelle; Deschildre, Antoine; Gosset, Philippe; de Blic, Jacques

    2012-09-01

    Diagnosis and management of severe asthma implies the definition of different entities, that is, difficult asthma and refractory severe asthma, but also the different phenotypes included in the term refractory severe asthma. A complete evaluation by a physician expert in asthma is necessary, adapted for each child. Identification of mechanisms involved in different phenotypes in refractory severe asthma may improve the therapeutic approach. The quality of care and monitoring of children with severe asthma is as important as the prescription drug, and is also crucial for differentiating between severe asthma and difficult asthma, whereby expertise is required.

  9. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuLifang; ShenLansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to rec-ognize faces with variant postures from front-view face.A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to facial symmetry.Then based on the relationship between the two mesh models,the nrmalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping.Finally,the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis(PCA).Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  10. FACE RECOGNITION FROM FRONT-VIEW FACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Lifang; Shen Lansun

    2003-01-01

    This letter presents a face normalization algorithm based on 2-D face model to recognize faces with variant postures from front-view face. A 2-D face mesh model can be extracted from faces with rotation to left or right and the corresponding front-view mesh model can be estimated according to the facial symmetry. Then based on the inner relationship between the two mesh models, the normalized front-view face is formed by gray level mapping. Finally, the face recognition will be finished based on Principal Component Analysis (PCA). Experiments show that better face recognition performance is achieved in this way.

  11. Are faces of different species perceived categorically by human observers?

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, R.; Pascalis, O.; Coleman, M.; Wallace, S B; Benson, P. J.

    1997-01-01

    What are the species boundaries of face processing? Using a face-feature morphing algorithm, image series intermediate between human, monkey (macaque), and bovine faces were constructed. Forced-choice judgement of these images showed sharply bounded categories for upright face images of each species. These predicted the perceptual discrimination boundaries for upright monkey-cow and cow-human images, but not human-monkey images. Species categories were also well-judged for inverted face image...

  12. Polishing Difficult-To-Reach Cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malinzak, R. Michael; Booth, Gary N.

    1990-01-01

    Springy abrasive tool used to finish surfaces of narrow cavities made by electrical-discharge machining. Robot arm moves vibrator around perimeters of cavities, polishing walls of cavities as it does so. Tool needed because such cavities inaccessible or at least difficult to reach with most surface-finishing tools.

  13. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills...

  14. The difficult encounter between inspector and farmer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Anneberg, Inger; Sørensen, Jan Tind; Vaarst, Mette

    2012-01-01

    When the inspector drives into the farmyard and asks to see the animal barns to inspect the welfare of the animals, a tense situation may arise because inspections transcend limits and are complex and difficult for many farmers to relate to. A new research project is examining the interaction...... between authorities and farmers....

  15. Panel Conditioning in Difficult Attitudinal Questions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Binswanger, J.; Schunk, D.; Toepoel, V.

    2013-01-01

    We investigate whether survey answers of trained respondents differ systematically from answers of novice respondents. Focusing on difficult attitudinal or preference questions, we find that novice respondents answer “don’t know” significantly more often. Importantly, however, there is no systematic

  16. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  17. Teaching Difficult Topics with Primary Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2011-01-01

    "Difficult" or "challenging" topics to teach include racism, violence, genocide, bullying, gangs, abuse (physical, emotional, and substance), slavery, suffering, hatred, terrorism, war, disease, loss, addiction, and more. But by confronting them with students, in the safety of a classroom through thoughtfully constructed lessons (ones that take…

  18. Qualitative analysis of unanticipated difficult airway management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rosenstock, C; Hansen, E G; Kristensen, M S;

    2006-01-01

    Unanticipated difficult airway management (DAM) is a major challenge for the anaesthesiologist and is associated with a risk of severe patient damage. We analysed 24 cases of unanticipated DAM for actual case management and anaesthesiologists knowledge, technical and non-technical skills. Anaesth...

  19. Engaging Men in Difficult Dialogues about Privilege

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loschiavo, Chris; Miller, David S.; Davies, Jon

    2007-01-01

    Male privilege is one aspect of social inequality that underlies much of the oppression and violence that occurs on college campuses. Mad Skills, a program addressing power and privilege with college men, is described along with general recommendations about how to engage men in difficult dialogues. The PIE Model is used to describe defensive…

  20. [Partnership around difficult teenagers in Brest].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-André, Stéphane; Botbol, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The issues surrounding difficult teenagers results in professionals formalising a partnership. Certain areas of focus are identified such as getting to know each other better in order to understand each other better, working in a "common language", understanding professional identities, or embracing long term partnership. Pressure to assess and rationalise spending, as well as political challenges, must be taken into consideration.

  1. Questions That Science Teachers Find Difficult (II).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan

    2003-01-01

    Presents some questions that science teachers find difficult. Focuses on three further questions relating to "simple" everyday situations that are normally explained in terms of the kinetic theory of matter. Identifies looking at the difference between chemical and physical changes as the most problematic question. (Author/YDS)

  2. What healthcare teams find ethically difficult.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoal, Dara; Kihlgren, Annica; James, Inger; Svantesson, Mia

    2016-12-01

    Ethically difficult situations are frequently encountered by healthcare professionals. Moral case deliberation is one form of clinical ethics support, which has the goal to support staff to manage ethical difficulties. However, little is known which difficult situations healthcare teams need to discuss. To explore which kinds of ethically difficult situations interprofessional healthcare teams raise during moral case deliberation. A series of 70 moral case deliberation sessions were audio-recorded in 10 Swedish workplaces. A descriptive, qualitative approach was applied, using thematic content analysis. Ethical considerations: An advisory statement specifying no objections to the study was provided from an Ethical Review Board, and consent to be recorded was assumed by virtue of participation in the moral case deliberation. Three themes emerged: powerlessness over managing difficult interactions with patients and next-of-kin, unease over unsafe and unequal care, and uncertainty over who should have power over care decisions. The powerlessness comprised feelings of insufficiency, difficulties to respond or manage patient's/next-of-kin's emotional needs or emotional outbursts and discouragement over motivating patients not taking responsibility for themselves. They could be uncertain over the patient's autonomy, who should have power over life and death, disclosing the truth or how much power next-of-kin should have. The findings suggest that the nature of the ethically difficult situations brought to moral case deliberations contained more relational-oriented ethics than principle-based ethics, were permeated by emotions and the uncertainties were pervaded by power aspects between stakeholders. MCD can be useful in understanding the connection between ethical issues and emotions from a team perspective.

  3. Aging impairs deliberation and behavioral flexibility in inter-temporal choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yannick-Andre eBreton

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Inter-temporal choice depends on multiple, interacting systems, some of which may be compromised with age. Some of these systems may be responsible for ongoing trial-by-trial choice strategies. Some may represent the consequences of action. Some may be necessary for the coupling between anticipated consequences and strategies currently in use, flexibly guiding behavior. When faced with a difficult decision, rats will orient back and forth, a behavior termed ``vicarious trial and error'' (VTE. Recent experiments have linked the occurrence of VTE to hippocampal search processes and behavioral flexibility. We tested 5 month (n=6, 9 month (n=8 and over-27 month-old (n=10 rats on a Spatial Adjusting Delay Discounting task to examine how aging impacted lap-by-lap strategies and VTE during inter-temporal choice. Rats chose between spatially separated food goals that provided a smaller-sooner or larger-later reward. On each lap, the delay to the larger-later reward was adjusted as a function of the rat's decisions, increasing by 1 second after delayed-side choices and decreasing by 1 second after non-delayed side choices. The strategies that aged rats used differed from those used in young and adult rats. Moreover, aged rats produced reliably more VTE behaviors, for protracted periods of time, uncoupled from behavioral flexibility.

  4. Manipulation detection and preference alterations in a choice blindness paradigm.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumihiko Taya

    Full Text Available It is commonly believed that individuals make choices based upon their preferences and have access to the reasons for their choices. Recent studies in several areas suggest that this is not always the case. In choice blindness paradigms, two-alternative forced-choice in which chosen-options are later replaced by the unselected option, individuals often fail to notice replacement of their chosen option, confabulate explanations for why they chose the unselected option, and even show increased preferences for the unselected-but-replaced options immediately after choice (seconds. Although choice blindness has been replicated across a variety of domains, there are numerous outstanding questions. Firstly, we sought to investigate how individual- or trial-factors modulated detection of the manipulations. Secondly, we examined the nature and temporal duration (minutes vs. days of the preference alterations induced by these manipulations.Participants performed a computerized choice blindness task, selecting the more attractive face between presented pairs of female faces, and providing a typewritten explanation for their choice on half of the trials. Chosen-face cue manipulations were produced on a subset of trials by presenting the unselected face during the choice explanation as if it had been selected. Following all choice trials, participants rated the attractiveness of each face individually, and rated the similarity of each face pair. After approximately two weeks, participants re-rated the attractiveness of each individual face online.Participants detected manipulations on only a small proportion of trials, with detections by fewer than half of participants. Detection rates increased with the number of prior detections, and detection rates subsequent to first detection were modulated by the choice certainty. We show clear short-term modulation of preferences in both manipulated and non-manipulated explanation trials compared to choice-only trials

  5. Edward’s syndrome: A rare cause of difficult intubation-utility of left molar approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teena Bansal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Edward’s syndrome (trisomy 18 is an autosomal abnormality with dysmorphic face, visceral deformities and delayed mental and motor development including congenital heart disease. Challenges may arise during mask ventilation, laryngoscopy and/or intubation of the trachea due to dysmorphic face. Difficult airway cart should be kept ready. Left molar approach using a standard Macintosh blade improves the laryngoscopic view in patients with difficult midline laryngoscopy. We hereby present a case report of a 2 year old male child with Edward’s syndrome posted for evacuation and drainage of brain abscess, intubated successfully using left molar approach.

  6. Famous face recognition, face matching, and extraversion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lander, Karen; Poyarekar, Siddhi

    2015-01-01

    It has been previously established that extraverts who are skilled at interpersonal interaction perform significantly better than introverts on a face-specific recognition memory task. In our experiment we further investigate the relationship between extraversion and face recognition, focusing on famous face recognition and face matching. Results indicate that more extraverted individuals perform significantly better on an upright famous face recognition task and show significantly larger face inversion effects. However, our results did not find an effect of extraversion on face matching or inverted famous face recognition.

  7. Face-to-face: Perceived personal relevance amplifies face processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bublatzky, Florian; Pittig, Andre; Schupp, Harald T; Alpers, Georg W

    2017-05-01

    The human face conveys emotional and social information, but it is not well understood how these two aspects influence face perception. In order to model a group situation, two faces displaying happy, neutral or angry expressions were presented. Importantly, faces were either facing the observer, or they were presented in profile view directed towards, or looking away from each other. In Experiment 1 (n = 64), face pairs were rated regarding perceived relevance, wish-to-interact, and displayed interactivity, as well as valence and arousal. All variables revealed main effects of facial expression (emotional > neutral), face orientation (facing observer > towards > away) and interactions showed that evaluation of emotional faces strongly varies with their orientation. Experiment 2 (n = 33) examined the temporal dynamics of perceptual-attentional processing of these face constellations with event-related potentials. Processing of emotional and neutral faces differed significantly in N170 amplitudes, early posterior negativity (EPN), and sustained positive potentials. Importantly, selective emotional face processing varied as a function of face orientation, indicating early emotion-specific (N170, EPN) and late threat-specific effects (LPP, sustained positivity). Taken together, perceived personal relevance to the observer-conveyed by facial expression and face direction-amplifies emotional face processing within triadic group situations. © The Author (2017). Published by Oxford University Press.

  8. Space Situational Awareness: Difficult, Expensive and Necessary

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-12-01

    Senior Leader Perspective November–December 2014 Air & Space Power Journal | 6 Space Situational Awareness Difficult, Expensive—and Necessary Dr...authors thank Gen William Shelton for his thoughtful and insightful comments. Disclaimer: The views and opinions expressed or implied in the Journal ...permission. If it is reproduced, the Air and Space Power Journal requests a courtesy line. Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188

  9. Difficult treatment decisions in autoimmune hepatitis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Albert; J; Czaja

    2010-01-01

    Treatment decisions in autoimmune hepatitis are complicated by the diversity of its clinical presentations,uncertainties about its natural history,evolving opinions regarding treatment end points,varied nature of refractory disease,and plethora of alternative immu-nosuppressive agents. The goals of this article are to review the difficult treatment decisions and to provide the bases for making sound therapeutic judgments. The English literature on the treatment problems in au-toimmune hepatitis were identif...

  10. "Making the Difficult Choice": Understanding Georgia's Test-Based Grade Retention Policy in Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huddleston, Andrew P.

    2015-01-01

    The author uses Bourdieu's concepts of field, capital, and habitus to analyze how students, parents, teachers, and administrators are responding to Georgia's test-based grade retention policy in reading at one Georgia elementary school. In this multiple case study, the author interviewed, observed, and collected documents regarding ten fifth…

  11. Difficult ("heartsink" patients and clinical communication difficulties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faustino R Pérez-López

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Faustino R Pérez-LópezDepartment of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Hospital Clínico de Zaragoza, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad de Zaragoza, Zaragoza, SpainAbstract: Managing the difficult patient requires a set of skills or strategies oriented at improving the physician–patient relationship and avoiding conflictive situations. There are different types of difficult patients who should be precisely identified for their management. These patients seek appropriate medical care which is not always provided. However, some may have unrecognized pathological illnesses, especially personality or psychiatry disorders. Clinical communications may be altered by professional and situational factors. In some circumstances, clinical symptoms are medically unexplainable or poorly defined as part of a disease or syndrome. Organic disease should be ruled out before patients are classified as having a somatoform disorder. Diagnosis may be delayed when symptoms are not properly evaluated therefore causing serious health consequences. Clinical competence, empathy, and high quality communication is required to succeed in difficult clinical encounters.Keywords: physician–patient communication, barriers to communication, expert patient

  12. Implications of the KONVERGENCE Model for Difficult Cleanup Decisions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piet, Steven James; Dakins, Maxine Ellen; Gibson, Patrick Lavern; Joe, Jeffrey Clark; Kerr, Thomas A; Nitschke, Robert Leon

    2002-08-04

    Abstract—Some cleanup decisions, such as cleanup of intractable contaminated sites or disposal of spent nuclear fuel, have proven difficult to make. Such decisions face high resistance to agreement from stakeholders possibly because they do not trust the decision makers, view the consequences of being wrong as too high, etc. Our project’s goal is to improve sciencebased cleanup decision-making. This includes diagnosing intractable situations, as a step to identifying a path toward sustainable solutions. Companion papers describe the underlying philosophy of the KONVERGENCE Model for Sustainable Decisions,1 and the overall framework and process steps.2 Where knowledge, values, and resources converge (the K, V, and R in KONVERGENCE), you will find a sustainable decision – a decision that works over time. For intractable cases, serious consideration of the adaptable class of alternatives is warranted – if properly implemented and packaged.

  13. Robust Face Image Matching under Illumination Variations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Chyuan-Huei Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Face image matching is an essential step for face recognition and face verification. It is difficult to achieve robust face matching under various image acquisition conditions. In this paper, a novel face image matching algorithm robust against illumination variations is proposed. The proposed image matching algorithm is motivated by the characteristics of high image gradient along the face contours. We define a new consistency measure as the inner product between two normalized gradient vectors at the corresponding locations in two images. The normalized gradient is obtained by dividing the computed gradient vector by the corresponding locally maximal gradient magnitude. Then we compute the average consistency measures for all pairs of the corresponding face contour pixels to be the robust matching measure between two face images. To alleviate the problem due to shadow and intensity saturation, we introduce an intensity weighting function for each individual consistency measure to form a weighted average of the consistency measure. This robust consistency measure is further extended to integrate multiple face images of the same person captured under different illumination conditions, thus making our robust face matching algorithm. Experimental results of applying the proposed face image matching algorithm on some well-known face datasets are given in comparison with some existing face recognition methods. The results show that the proposed algorithm consistently outperforms other methods and achieves higher than 93% recognition rate with three reference images for different datasets under different lighting conditions.

  14. Fledgling CPRI (Computer-Based Patient Record Institute) faces difficult challenges as legislative clock ticks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laughlin, M L

    1992-09-01

    A diverse group of users, vendors, employers, insurers and government officials met in Washington in July for the Computer-Based Patient Record Institute's First Annual Meeting. Deemed "the focal point" of legislation demanding automated patient records, their task was to overcome a myriad of differences and form a true coalition that can meet an ambitious, and some say unrealistic, deadline.

  15. Choice certainty in Discrete Choice Experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Uggeldahl, Kennet; Jacobsen, Catrine; Lundhede, Thomas Hedemark;

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we conduct a Discrete Choice Experiment (DCE) using eye tracking technology to investigate if eye movements during the completion of choice sets reveal information about respondents’ choice certainty. We hypothesise that the number of times that respondents shift their visual...... attention between the alternatives in a choice set reflects their stated choice certainty. Based on one of the largest samples of eye tracking data in a DCE to date, we find evidence in favor of our hypothesis. We also link eye tracking observations to model-based choice certainty through parameterization...... of the scale function in a random parameters logit model. We find that choices characterized by more frequent gaze shifting do indeed exhibit a higher degree of error variance, however, this effects is insignificant once response time is controlled for. Overall, findings suggest that eye tracking can provide...

  16. The long shadows of the difficult past?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolnik, Kevin; Busse, Britta; Tholen, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    This paper focuses on the question of how young people today evaluate the Second World War today and how this ‘difficult past’ determines their political attitudes. Furthermore, the channels through which the current young generation in Europe is informed about the events dating back to the first...... World War. The evidence highlights the different perceptions of history among youth and points to the absence of a common European understanding of what happened between 1939 and 1945. The empirical evidence comes from a research project (2011–2015) funded by the European Commission and covering 14...

  17. [Difficult teenagers: the challenges of interdisciplinarity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saint-Andrté, Stéphane; Botbola, Michel

    2013-01-01

    The adolescents in great distress, because of ruptures in the course of their lives and of their chaotic family environment, need educational and social actions. The consensual point of view is that responding to the needs of the so called "difficult adolescents" implies the involvement of educational, therapeutic and judicial services. Nevertheless, the usual tendency to categorize the users with the idea it will permit to guide them to the appropriate skill field and the transgressive characteristic of these adolescents' behaviours lead all these services to reject them and send them to the two other services.

  18. [Prisoners in units for difficult patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouchard, Jean-Pierre; Brulin-Solignac, Diane; Lodetti, Célia

    2016-01-01

    Prisoners, on remand or convicted, can be placed for a variable amount of time in a unit for difficult patients if their pathological mental state so requires. For the most part, their therapeutic care does not depend on their status as prisoner. The treatments provided are those indicated for their psychological pathologies and their potential or known dangerousness. However, some administrative measures make a distinction between their treatment and that of non-prisoner patients placed in these secure psychiatric units. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  19. Unexpected difficult intubation due to subglottic ring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulkadir Atım

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Airway damages encountered during endotracheal intubationor tracheostomy may cause some complicationssuch as severe dyspnea. Upper airway diagnostic endoscopywas planned to find the etiology of effort dyspnea ina 5 years old girl who had endotracheal intubation beenperformed during newborn period. Her ASA score was 1,and Mallampati score for preoperative airway evaluationwas 1. Physical examination revealed neither dyspneanor stridor while the patient was not exerting effort. Herchest radiograms were normal. She had no history of previoussurgical or anesthetical intervention. In this reportwe presented a difficult intubation during the endoscopicexamination of upper airway in a patient who had dyspneawhile exerting effort.

  20. Cushing's syndrome: why is diagnosis so difficult?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aron, David C

    2010-06-01

    Practicing and perfecting the art of medicine demands recognition that uncertainty permeates all clinical decisions. When delivering clinical care, clinicians face a multiplicity of potential diagnoses, limitations in diagnostic capacity, and "sub-clinical" disease identified by tests rather than by clinical manifestations. In addition, clinicians must recognize the rapid changes in scientific knowledge needed to guide decisions. Cushing's syndrome is one of several disorders in which there may be considerable difficulty and delay in diagnosis. This article describes a current model of clinical reasoning, some of its challenges, and the application of the principles of clinical epidemiology to meet some of those challenges.

  1. Mexican oil industry: Shifting to difficult oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bazan G., Gerardo; Gonzalez, Cristobal J.

    2010-09-15

    Mexico has stepped into an important transition of declining oil fields and new challenging oil projects. The aim of this paper is to show a new perspective of the oil resources that have been exploited throughout the Mexican territory, as well as the remaining resources yet to be exploited. We have developed a resources/production-costs chart that illustrates the historical and future development of the Mexican oil industry, showing the shift that the industry will face in the coming years; this chart was taken from a model already in use by the most prestige energy agencies in the world.

  2. Face Recognition Using Kernel Discriminant Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Linear Discrimiant Analysis (LDA) has demonstrated their success in face recognition. But LDA is difficult to handle the high nonlinear problems, such as changes of large viewpoint and illumination in face recognition. In order to overcome these problems, we investigate Kernel Discriminant Analysis (KDA) for face recognition. This approach adopts the kernel functions to replace the dot products of nonlinear mapping in the high dimensional feature space, and then the nonlinear problem can be solved in the input space conveniently without explicit mapping. Two face databases are used to test KDA approach. The results show that our approach outperforms the conventional PCA(Eigenface) and LDA(Fisherface) approaches.

  3. Biomarkers in the Management of Difficult Asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schleich, Florence; Demarche, Sophie; Louis, Renaud

    2016-01-01

    Difficult asthma is a heterogeneous disease of the airways including various types of bronchial inflammation and various degrees of airway remodeling. Therapeutic response of severe asthmatics can be predicted by the use of biomarkers of Type2-high or Type2-low inflammation. Based on sputum cell analysis, four inflammatory phenotypes have been described. As induced sputum is timeconsuming and expensive technique, surrogate biomarkers are useful in clinical practice. Eosinophilic phenotype is likely to reflect ongoing adaptive immunity in response to allergen. Several biomarkers of eosinophilic asthma are easily available in clinical practice (blood eosinophils, serum IgE, exhaled nitric oxyde, serum periostin). Neutrophilic asthma is thought to reflect innate immune system activation in response to pollutants or infectious agents while paucigranulocytic asthma is thought to be not inflammatory and characterized by smooth muscle dysfunction. We currently lack of user-friendly biomarkers of neutrophilic asthma and airway remodeling. In this review, we summarize the biomarkers available for the management of difficult asthma.

  4. Assessment of difficult airway predictors for predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubation

    OpenAIRE

    S, Srinivasa; Oza, Vrinda; Kumar, Vasantha; Parmar, Vandana; Chhaya, V. A.

    2014-01-01

    Title: Assessment of difficult airway predictors for predicting difficult laryngoscopy and intubationObjectives: The aims and objectives of this study was to study and compare the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value, odds ratio, relative risk, likelihood ratio and accuracy of the following parameters, modified Mallampati grading, interincisor gap, thyromental distance (TMD), ratio of height to thyromental distance (RHTMD), sternomental distance, neck...

  5. Reaction Workup Planning: A Structured Flowchart Approach, Exemplified in Difficult Aqueous Workup of Hydrophilic Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, George B.; Sweeney, Joseph B.

    2015-01-01

    Reaction workup can be a complex problem for those facing novel synthesis of difficult compounds for the first time. Workup problem solving by systematic thinking should be inculcated as mid-graduate-level is reached. A structured approach is proposed, building decision tree flowcharts to analyze challenges, and an exemplar flowchart is presented…

  6. Complementary Cohort Strategy for Multimodal Face Pair Matching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Yunlian; Nasrollahi, Kamal; Sun, Zhenan

    2016-01-01

    Face pair matching is the task of determining whether two face images represent the same person. Due to the limited expressive information embedded in the two face images as well as various sources of facial variations, it becomes a quite difficult problem. Towards the issue of few available imag...

  7. Faces in Context: Does Face Perception Depend on the Orientation of the Visual Scene?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taubert, Jessica; van Golde, Celine; Verstraten, Frans A J

    2016-10-01

    The mechanisms held responsible for familiar face recognition are thought to be orientation dependent; inverted faces are more difficult to recognize than their upright counterparts. Although this effect of inversion has been investigated extensively, researchers have typically sliced faces from photographs and presented them in isolation. As such, it is not known whether the perceived orientation of a face is inherited from the visual scene in which it appears. Here, we address this question by measuring performance in a simultaneous same-different task while manipulating both the orientation of the faces and the scene. We found that the face inversion effect survived scene inversion. Nonetheless, an improvement in performance when the scene was upside down suggests that sensitivity to identity increased when the faces were more easily segmented from the scene. Thus, while these data identify congruency with the visual environment as a contributing factor in recognition performance, they imply different mechanisms operate on upright and inverted faces.

  8. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  9. Choice Probability Generating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel L; Bierlaire, Michel

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  10. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2013-01-01

    This paper considers discrete choice, with choice probabilities coming from maximization of preferences from a random utility field perturbed by additive location shifters (ARUM). Any ARUM can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) whose gradient gives the choice...

  11. Rational Choice Theory and the Politics of Education: Promise and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Rational choice theory and its three branches (game theory, collective choice theory, and organizational economics) has altered the face of political science, sociology, and organizational theory. This chapter reviews rational choice theory, examines a small body of work that relies on the rational choice paradigm to study educational politics,…

  12. Rational Choice Theory and the Politics of Education: Promise and Limitations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, William Lowe; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Rational choice theory and its three branches (game theory, collective choice theory, and organizational economics) has altered the face of political science, sociology, and organizational theory. This chapter reviews rational choice theory, examines a small body of work that relies on the rational choice paradigm to study educational politics,…

  13. Difficult weaning in delayed onset diaphragmatic hernia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Syed

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Diaphragmatic injuries are relatively rare and result from either blunt or penetrating trauma. Regardless of the mechanism, diagnosis is often missed and high index of suspicion is vital. The clinical signs associated with a diaphragmatic hernia can range from no outward signs to immediately life-threatening respiratory compromise. Establishing the clinical diagnosis of diaphragmatic injuries (DI can be challenging as it is often clinically occult. Accurate diagnosis is critical since missed DI may result in grave sequelae due to herniation and strangulation of displaced intra-abdominal organs. We present a case of polytrauma with rib fracture and delayed appearance of diaphragmatic hernia manifesting as difficult weaning from ventilatory support.

  14. Effective Climate Communication with Difficult Audiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, S.

    2015-12-01

    Climate communication is often fraught with ideological baggage ("noise") that makes it very difficult to connect to audiences. In these cases, it is helpful to use "best practices" known from other fields of communication. Engaging audiences with authenticity, using plain language, respecting cultural and political differences, and a sprinkling of humor can go a long way toward establishing a connection. It's important to avoid common but polarizing tropes from popular media, and often quite helpful to frame climate issues in novel or unexpected ways that cut across entrenched political discourse. Emerging social science research Beyond ideology, climate change is Simple, Serious, and Solvable. Effective communication of these three key ideas can succeed when the science argument is carefully framed to avoid attack of the audience's ethical identity. Simple arguments from common sense and everyday experience are more successful than data. Serious consequences to values that resonate with the audience can be avoided by solutions that don't threaten those values.

  15. Foreign body aspiration masquerading as difficult asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rai S

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available It is important to assess patients of difficult/therapy resistant asthma carefully in order to identify whether there are any correctable factors that may contribute to their poor control. It is critical to make a diagnosis of asthma and to exclude other airway diseases. A 65-years-old lady presented with repeated acute episodes of dyspnoea and wheezing. She was on regular medication for bronchial asthma for 18 years. There was no history of foreign body aspiration or loss of consciousness. Her chest radiograph was normal. She showed poor response to corticosteroids and bronchodilators. Fibreoptic bronchoscopy (FOB showed intracordal cyst of the left vocal cord and 1cm size irregular piece of betel nut in right main bronchus, which was removed endoscopically with the help of dormia basket, following which her condition improved and asthma was controlled on inhaled bronchodilators.

  16. Crowd sourcing difficult problems in protein science().

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Nathan S; Palczewski, Krzysztof

    2017-08-01

    Dedicated computing resources are expensive to develop, maintain, and administrate. Frequently, research groups require bursts of computing power, during which progress is still limited by available computing resources. One way to alleviate this bottleneck would be to use additional computing resources. Today, many computing devices remain idle most of the time. Passive volunteer computing exploits this unemployed reserve of computing power by allowing device-owners to donate computing time on their own devices. Another complementary way to alleviate bottlenecks in computing resources is to use more efficient algorithms. Engaging volunteer computing employs human intuition to help solve challenging problems for which efficient algorithms are difficult to develop or unavailable. Designing engaging volunteer computing projects is challenging but can result in high-quality solutions. Here, we highlight four examples. © 2017 The Protein Society.

  17. Portfolio Optimization and Mortgage Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maj-Britt Nordfang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the optimal mortgage choice of an investor in a simple bond market with a stochastic interest rate and access to term life insurance. The study is based on advances in stochastic control theory, which provides analytical solutions to portfolio problems with a stochastic interest rate. We derive the optimal portfolio of a mortgagor in a simple framework and formulate stylized versions of mortgage products offered in the market today. This allows us to analyze the optimal investment strategy in terms of optimal mortgage choice. We conclude that certain extreme investors optimally choose either a traditional fixed rate mortgage or an adjustable rate mortgage, while investors with moderate risk aversion and income prefer a mix of the two. By matching specific investor characteristics to existing mortgage products, our study provides a better understanding of the complex and yet restricted mortgage choice faced by many household investors. In addition, the simple analytical framework enables a detailed analysis of how changes to market, income and preference parameters affect the optimal mortgage choice.

  18. Multiple Face Location Using Motion Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Face location is a difficult problem for face recognition and multiple face location is more challenging. In this paper, two new methods are presented for multiple face location via motion analysis techniques. The first method is based on motion segmentation. The authors introduce a new segmentation method by computing optical flow only on the Motion Zero-Crossing Boundary (MZCB) followed by a simple clustering method to segment each person. Then an intuitive but effective location algorithm is applied to locate each face. The second method is derived from the Hough Transform (HT). After modeling a head outline as a curve consisting of circle segments, a modified HT is used to find the center of each face. Finally, the two methods are compared and the future research directions are given.

  19. European cinema: face to face with Hollywood

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T. Elsaesser

    2005-01-01

    In the face of renewed competition from Hollywood since the early 1980s and the challenges posed to Europe's national cinemas by the fall of the Wall in 1989, independent filmmaking in Europe has begun to re-invent itself. European Cinema: Face to Face with Hollywood re-assesses the different debate

  20. Mapping Teacher-Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Greg; Cook, Ian

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses Deleuze and Guattari's concept of faciality to analyse the teacher's face. According to Deleuze and Guattari, the teacher-face is a special type of face because it is an "overcoded" face produced in specific landscapes. This paper suggests four limit-faces for teacher faciality that actualise different mixes of significance and…

  1. Social defaults : Observed choices become choice defaults

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huh, Young Eun; Vosgerau, J.; Morewedge, C.K.

    2014-01-01

    Defaults effects can be created by social contexts. The observed choices of others can become social defaults, increasing their choice share. Social default effects are a novel form of social influence not due to normative or informational influence: participants were more likely to mimic observed

  2. Difficult airway and difficult intubation in postintubation tracheal stenosis: a case report and literature review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarogoulidis P

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Paul Zarogoulidis,1 Theodoros Kontakiotis,1 Kosmas Tsakiridis,2 Michael Karanikas,3 Christos Simoglou,4 Konstantinos Porpodis,1 Alexandros Mitrakas,3 Agisilaos Esebidis, 3 Maria Konoglou,5 Nikolaos Katsikogiannis,6 Vasilis Zervas,1 Christina Aggelopoulou,7 Dimitrios Mikroulis,4 Konstantinos Zarogoulidis11Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 2Cardiothoracic Department, Saint Luke Private Hospital, Thessaloniki, Greece; 31st University Surgery Department, 4Cardiothoracic Department, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, Greece; 51st Pulmonary Department, "G Papanikolaou" General Hospital, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Thessaloniki, Greece; 6Surgery Department (NHS, 7Neurology Department (NHS, University General Hospital of Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Alexandroupolis, GreeceAbstract: Management of a "difficult airway" remains one of the most relevant and challenging tasks for anesthesiologists and pulmonary physicians. Several conditions, such as inflammation, trauma, tumor, and immunologic and metabolic diseases, are considered responsible for the difficult intubation of a critically ill patient. In this case report we present the case of a 46-year-old male with postintubation tracheal stenosis. We will focus on the method of intubation used, since the patient had a "difficult airway" and had to be intubated immediately because he was in a life-threatening situation. Although technology is of utter importance, clinical examination and history-taking remain invaluable for the appropriate evaluation of the critically ill patient in everyday medical life. Every physician who will be required to perform intubation has to be familiar with the evaluation of the difficult airway and, in the event of the unanticipated difficult airway, to be able to use a wide variety of tools and

  3. Difficult-to-treat asthma in childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adams, Alexandra; Saglani, Sejal

    2013-06-01

    Asthma continues to be one of the greatest burdens to healthcare resources throughout the developed world. In most cases, good symptom control can be achieved with low-dose inhaled corticosteroids, and can be cared for in the primary and secondary healthcare systems. However, there is a group in whom control is not achieved despite high-dose inhaled corticosteroids and maximal add-on therapies; these are children with problematic severe asthma that should be referred to a specialist team for further investigation and management. In this review we aimed to provide an evidence-based guide for pediatricians providing care for children with asthma in secondary healthcare settings. The review focuses on a proposed investigation and management strategy for children aged between 6 and 16 years with problematic severe asthma, and is supported as far as possible by evidence from the literature. We first address recent advances in nomenclature and then discuss our proposed course of investigation and management of these children. Distinction of children with true, severe, therapy-resistant asthma from those with asthma that is difficult to treat because of unaddressed underlying modifiable factors is critical and is discussed in detail.

  4. Why behavior change is difficult to sustain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Mark E

    2014-11-01

    Unhealthy behavior is responsible for much human disease, and a common goal of contemporary preventive medicine is therefore to encourage behavior change. However, while behavior change often seems easy in the short run, it can be difficult to sustain. This article provides a selective review of research from the basic learning and behavior laboratory that provides some insight into why. The research suggests that methods used to create behavior change (including extinction, counterconditioning, punishment, reinforcement of alternative behavior, and abstinence reinforcement) tend to inhibit, rather than erase, the original behavior. Importantly, the inhibition, and thus behavior change more generally, is often specific to the "context" in which it is learned. In support of this view, the article discusses a number of lapse and relapse phenomena that occur after behavior has been changed (renewal, spontaneous recovery, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition, and resurgence). The findings suggest that changing a behavior can be an inherently unstable and unsteady process; frequent lapses should be expected. In the long run, behavior-change therapies might benefit from paying attention to the context in which behavior change occurs.

  5. Definitions of Complexity are Notoriously Difficult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuster, Peter

    Definitions of complexity are notoriously difficult if not impossible at all. A good working hypothesis might be: Everything is complex that is not simple. This is precisely the way in which we define nonlinear behavior. Things appear complex for different reasons: i) Complexity may result from lack of insight, ii) complexity may result from lack of methods, and (iii) complexity may be inherent to the system. The best known example for i) is celestial mechanics: The highly complex Pythagorean epicycles become obsolete by the introduction of Newton's law of universal gravitation. To give an example for ii), pattern formation and deterministic chaos became not really understandable before extensive computer simulations became possible. Cellular metabolism may serve as an example for iii) and is caused by the enormous complexity of biochemical reaction networks with up to one hundred individual reaction fluxes. Nevertheless, only few fluxes are dominant in the sense that using Pareto optimal values for them provides near optimal values for all the others...

  6. Anger Superiority in Single-Face Judgements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Ashida

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available We investigated “anger superiority” in single-face judgements. Angry, or threatening, faces are easier to find than smiling ones (Hansen & Hansen, 1988 but it remains controversial whether this reflects emotional effects on the basis of the whole face or rather perceptual effects on the basis of parts. We sought this question differently from most previous studies that used the visual search paradigm. We presented a picture of angry, smiling, or neutral face (extracted from ATR DB99 database that has been confirmed for emotional strength either to the left or to the right of the fixation mark, which was followed by a mask, and the participants were asked to make a forced-choice judgement of anger or smile. The results showed that neutral faces were significantly biased towards anger with upright presentation but not with inverted presentation. Angry and smiling faces were judged equally well with upright presentation, while there was notable reduction of correct responses only for angry face with inverted presentation. Difference between hemifields was not clear. The results suggest that angry faces are judged on the basis of configural processing of the whole face, while smiling faces may be judged more locally on the basis of parts.

  7. Doing Autoethnography – Facing Challenges, Taking Choices, Accepting Responsibilities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Winkler, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    they should prefer hard data or soft impressions, to what extent autoethnography can be done collaboratively, if evocative autoethnography is better than the analytic one, whether we own the stories that we tell in our texts, and in what way autoethnographers are either self-indulged narcissists or self...

  8. Food choice: beyond the chemical content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franchi, Maura

    2012-03-01

    How are food choices formulated? Which are the factors that mostly affect food choice? These questions are crucially important both for efforts in food innovation and for institutions that face consequences and costs of diets that are harmful to human health and to the environment. On these matters, several reports have been developed following the angel of various disciplines, focusing on the analysis of the factors affecting food choices. Large-scale research on consumption behaviours has neither stopped the growing number of unsuccessful products entering the market, nor provided adequate support for institutions that are taking elaborate actions towards promoting health-orientated behaviours. These preliminary remarks highlight the need to think about the approaches and categories with which research programmes on food choices should be updated. This article discusses the reasons why food choices are determined by beliefs and identity, are conditioned by social images that influence preferences by indicating to individuals what foods are 'good' and 'right'; belong to the field of individual choice, and therefore, cannot be assimilated into medical prescriptions or merely reduced to a question of rules. Taste involves beliefs and identity as well as perceptions. This is why it has to be analyzed as a cultural and relational object. This paper aims to explore the complex mix of influences on food choice stressing that food choice is a matter of identity.

  9. Interpersonal similarity between body movements in face-to-face communication in daily life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higo, Naoki; Ogawa, Ken-ichiro; Minemura, Juichi; Xu, Bujie; Nozawa, Takayuki; Ogata, Taiki; Ara, Koji; Yano, Kazuo; Miyake, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    Individuals are embedded in social networks in which they communicate with others in their daily lives. Because smooth face-to-face communication is the key to maintaining these networks, measuring the smoothness of such communication is an important issue. One indicator of smoothness is the similarity of the body movements of the two individuals concerned. A typical example noted in experimental environments is the interpersonal synchronization of body movements such as nods and gestures during smooth face-to-face communication. It should therefore be possible to estimate quantitatively the smoothness of face-to-face communication in social networks through measurement of the synchronization of body movements. However, this is difficult because social networks, which differ from disciplined experimental environments, are open environments for the face-to-face communication between two individuals. In such open environments, their body movements become complicated by various external factors and may follow unstable and nonuniform patterns. Nevertheless, we consider there to be some interaction during face-to-face communication that leads to the interpersonal synchronization of body movements, which can be seen through the interpersonal similarity of body movements. The present study aims to clarify such interaction in terms of body movements during daily face-to-face communication in real organizations of more than 100 people. We analyzed data on the frequency of body movement for each individual during face-to-face communication, as measured by a wearable sensor, and evaluated the degree of interpersonal similarity of body movements between two individuals as their frequency difference. Furthermore, we generated uncorrelated data by resampling the data gathered and compared these two data sets statistically to distinguish the effects of actual face-to-face communication from those of the activities accompanying the communication. Our results confirm an

  10. Combined precut in difficult biliary cannulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús Espinel-Díez

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: precut sphincterotomy refers to a variety of endoscopic techniques that are used in order to access the bile duct when conventional methods of cannulation have failed. There are not significant data (such as efficacy, safety about the use of different techniques of precutting at the same session. We have described our experience with combined precut sphincterotomy (CPS and we have compared our results to the use of an isolated precut. Patients and methods: we have performed 247 precuts of a total of 2.390 ERCPs. Patients were distributed according to the type of precut practiced: Needle-knife, transpancreatic and combined precut sphincterotomies. "Combined precut" consisted in performing first a transpancreatic sphincterotomy and, if the access was not achieved, then performing a needle-knife sphincterotomy in the same session. The data about safety and efficacy were prospectively collected. The complications were defined according to the consensus criteria. Results: we performed precutting techniques in 247 patients. Needle-knife, transpancreatic, and combined precuts were performed in 125 (6.9%, 74 (4.1% and 48 (2.6% patients, respectively. Bile duct cannulation was successful in 48 patients (100% in the group of combined precut, 121 patients (96.8% in the transpancreatic group, and 67 patients (90.5% in the needle-knife group (p = 0.03. There were not differences in complications rates between the three groups. There was no pancreatitis in the combined precut group. The complications were successfully managed with conservative treatment. Conclusions: combined precut sphincterotomy seems to be a safe and successful technique in those cases of difficult bile duct cannulation.

  11. Pen Torch Transillumination: Difficult Venepuncture Made Easy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Elijah Zhengyang; Sankaran, Kalarani; Tan, Monica; Chan, Yiong Huak; Lim, Thiam Chye

    2017-09-01

    Our novel technique of pen torch transillumination (PTI) uses a cheap and easily available instrument (Penlite-LP212(®), Energizer(®), Missouri, USA) to visualize superficial veins invisible to the naked eye. We evaluate the efficacy of PTI in improving venepuncture success rate (SR) for patients with poor venous access. This prospective randomized controlled trial looked at adult patients (n = 69) aged 21-90 with difficult venous access (history of ≥3 consecutive attempts required for successful cannulation during the current admission) requiring non-emergent venepuncture. Patients underwent venepuncture over the upper-limb using one of the following: conventional venepuncture (control); Veinlite(®) EMS (TransLite(®), Texas, USA), a commercial transillumination device; PTI. Outcome measures were: successful cannulation within 2 attempts and total duration of venepuncture. Fisher's exact and Kruskal-Wallis tests were performed. A significantly larger number of patients had successful venepuncture within 2 attempts using PTI (22/23, 95.7%) and Veinlite (23/23, 100%), compared to the controls (7/23, 30.4%) (p < 0.05). The total duration required for successful venepuncture was significantly shorter for Veinlite (mean 3.7 min, 1.0-5.3 min) and PTI (mean 8.5 min, range 1.08-27 min) compared to the controls (mean 23.2 min, range 1.88-46.5 min) (p < 0.05). PTI allows users to visualize veins invisible to the naked eye. Thrombosed/tortuous veins, branch points and valves, are easily identified and avoided. It has comparable efficacy to Veinlite(®) and is cheaper (Veinlite(®)-USD 227 vs. Penlite-LP212(®)-USD 7.00) and more easily available. PTI improves patient care, especially in developing regions where costs are a concern.

  12. Probing the Feature Map for Faces in Visual Search

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Yang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Controversy surrounds the mechanisms underlying the pop-out effect for faces in visual search. Is there a feature map for faces? If so, does it rely on the categorical distinction between faces and nonfaces, or on image-level face semblance? To probe the feature map, we compared search efficiency for faces, and nonface stimuli with high, low, and no face semblance. First, subjects performed a visual search task with objects as distractors. Only faces popped-out. Moreover, search efficiency for nonfaces correlated with image-level face semblance of the target. In a second experiment, faces were used as distractors but nonfaces did not pop-out. Interestingly, search efficiency for nonfaces was not modulated by face semblance, although searching for a face among faces was particularly difficult, reflecting a categorical boundary between nonfaces and faces. Finally, inversion and contrast negation significantly interacted with the effect of face semblance, ruling out the possibility that search efficiency solely depends on low-level features. Our study supports a parallel search for faces that is perhaps preattentive. Like other features (color, orientation etc., there appears to be a continuous face feature map for visual search. Our results also suggest that this map may include both image-level face semblance and face categoricity.

  13. Dynamic Choice Behavior in a Natural Experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Steffen; Harrison, Glenn W.; Lau, Morten

    We examine dynamic choice behavior in a natural experiment with large stakes and a demographically divers sample. The television game show Deal Or No Deal offers a rich paradigm to examine the latent decision processes that people use to make choices under uncertainty when they face future options...... evidence of some probability weighting, but no loss aversion. We also find evidence that contestants make decisions as if using more than one latent criteria, mixing traditional utility evaluations, probability weighting, and aspiration levels. Fourth, we design and implement laboratory experiments...... patterned after the natural experiment, to gauge how qualitatively reliable the lab inferences are in the same type of dynamic choice task. We find that choices in the lab are dramatically different in one respect – subjects in those tasks do segregate the income from their prizes from their extra...

  14. Behavioral modification in choice process of Drosophila

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Shunpeng; (王顺鹏); TANG; Shiming; (唐世明); LI; Yan; (李; 岩); GUO; Aike; (郭爱克)

    2003-01-01

    In visual operant conditioning of Drosophila at the flight simulator, only motor output of flies--yaw torque--is recorded, which is involved in the conditioning process. The current study used a newly-designed data analysis method to study the torque distribution of Drosophila. Modification of torque distribution represents the effects of operant conditioning on flies' behavioral mode. Earlier works[10] showed that, when facing contradictory visual cues, flies could make choices based upon the relative weightiness of different cues, and it was demonstrated that mushroom bodies might play an important role in such choice behavior. The new "torque-position map" method was used to explore the CS-US associative learning and choice behavior in Drosophila from the aspect of its behavioral mode. Finally, this work also discussed various possible neural bases involved in visual associative learning, choice processing and modification processing of the behavioral mode in the visual operant conditioning of Drosophila.

  15. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel D. WIEGMANN, Lisa M. ANGELONI, Steven M. SEUBERT, J. Gordon WADE

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available For more than two decades rudimentary versions of the fixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers. The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period. In this paper, we review and extend results derived from these models, with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior. The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers—and, for applied purposes, researchers—assess prospective mates based on their quality, the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions. Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful, reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters. For some organisms, it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se. But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically, regardless of how the models are formulated. Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished. In addition, we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model. More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed [Current Zoology 59 (2: 184–199, 2013].

  16. Mate choice decisions by searchers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel D.WIEGMANN; Lisa M.ANGELONI; Steven M.SEUBERT; J.Gordon WADE

    2013-01-01

    For more than two decades rudimentary versions of thefixed sample and sequential search strategies have provided the primary theoretical foundation for the study of mate choice decisions by searchers.The theory that surrounds these models has expanded markedly over this time period.In this paper,we review and extend results derived from these models,with a focus on the empirical analysis of searcher behavior.The basic models are impractical for empirical purposes because they rely on the assumption that searchers-and,for applied purposes,researchers-assess prospective mates based on their quality,the fitness consequences of mate choice decisions.Here we expound versions of the models that are more empirically useful,reformulated to reflect decisions based on male phenotypic characters.For some organisms,it may be possible to use preference functions to derive predictions from the reformulated models and thereby avoid difficulties associated with the measurement of male quality per se.But predictions derived from the two models are difficult to differentiate empirically,regardless of how the models are formulated.Here we develop ideas that illustrate how this goal might be accomplished.In addition,we clarify how the variability of male quality should be evaluated and we extend what is known about how this variability influences searcher behavior under each model.More general difficulties associated with the empirical study of mate choice decisions by searchers are also discussed.

  17. Difficult Airway Management in Field Conditions: Somalia Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özkan, Ahmet Selim; Nasır, Serdar Nazif

    2015-10-01

    Difficult airway is defined as having the patient's mask ventilation or difficult tracheal intubation of an experienced anaesthesiologist. A number of reasons, such as congenital or acquired anatomical anomalies, can cause difficult intubation and difficult ventilation. Keeping all equipment ready for airway management of patients will reduce mortality and complications. In this case, it is intended that the submission of difficult airway management who encountered in mandibular reconstruction for mandible bone defect repairing with reconstruction plates before at the field conditions in Somalia.

  18. Making difficult decisions how to be decisive and get the business done

    CERN Document Server

    Shaw, Peter J A

    2010-01-01

    You are faced with so many difficult decisions. Often your decision making seems random. It can be swayed by different situations and emotions. You need to be more rigorous in the way you make decisions and yet you have very little time to do so. Experience from others who have made tough decisions and a framework to help you do so would be invaluable. The courage to make decisions is sometimes a bit elusive. It is difficult to find the calmness to be able to make and live with those decisions. There is so much that can be learned from the experience of others. After working through this boo

  19. Face-Lift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tests and Procedures Face-lift By Mayo Clinic Staff A face-lift (rhytidectomy) is a cosmetic surgical procedure to improve the look of your face and neck. During a face-lift, facial soft tissues are lifted, excess skin is ...

  20. Faces on Her and His Mind: Female and Likable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A; Mayer, Annika; Hösl, Franziska; Sokolov, Alexander N

    2016-01-01

    Faces are a valuable source of non-verbal information for daily life social interaction. Mounting evidence points to gender specificity in face perception. Here we search for the factors that can potentially trigger gender differences in tuning to faces. By using a set of Face-n-Food images slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style, we examine: (i) whether face resemblance is linked to gender specific face impression, and, if so, whether this association is perceiver gender specific; and (ii) whether images most resembling a face are also most likable for female and male perceivers. First, in a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of Face-n-Food images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Then in a two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) task, participants judged whether each face appeared for them (i) either female or male (Exp. 1); or (ii) either likable or unlikable (Exp. 2). Remarkably, face resemblance is closely connected to gender specific impressions: images more resembling a face elicit also more female-face responses. This link is not perceiver gender specific as it occurs for both females and males. Moreover, face resemblance is positively linked to face likability, but this holds true only for female perceivers. The findings shed light on gender specificity in tuning to faces, and help to clarify abnormalities of the social brain in neurodevelopmental, psychiatric and psychosomatic disorders.

  1. Dying with Dignity: Difficult Times, Difficult Choices. A Report Presented by the Chairman of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, First Session.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging.

    This report from the Select Committee on Aging examines financial, medical, and social issues surrounding terminally ill patients with special emphasis on the elderly terminally ill. The first section discusses topics related to the medical treatment of the terminally ill. Two basic issues are important: the right to have medical treatment and the…

  2. Solving the Border Control Problem: Evidence of Enhanced Face Matching in Individuals with Extraordinary Face Recognition Skills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bobak, Anna Katarzyna; Dowsett, Andrew James; Bate, Sarah

    2016-01-01

    Photographic identity documents (IDs) are commonly used despite clear evidence that unfamiliar face matching is a difficult and error-prone task. The current study set out to examine the performance of seven individuals with extraordinary face recognition memory, so called "super recognisers" (SRs), on two face matching tasks resembling border control identity checks. In Experiment 1, the SRs as a group outperformed control participants on the "Glasgow Face Matching Test", and some case-by-case comparisons also reached significance. In Experiment 2, a perceptually difficult face matching task was used: the "Models Face Matching Test". Once again, SRs outperformed controls both on group and mostly in case-by-case analyses. These findings suggest that SRs are considerably better at face matching than typical perceivers, and would make proficient personnel for border control agencies.

  3. Contextual modulation of biases in face recognition.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatima Maria Felisberti

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The ability to recognize the faces of potential cooperators and cheaters is fundamental to social exchanges, given that cooperation for mutual benefit is expected. Studies addressing biases in face recognition have so far proved inconclusive, with reports of biases towards faces of cheaters, biases towards faces of cooperators, or no biases at all. This study attempts to uncover possible causes underlying such discrepancies. METHODOLOGY AND FINDINGS: Four experiments were designed to investigate biases in face recognition during social exchanges when behavioral descriptors (prosocial, antisocial or neutral embedded in different scenarios were tagged to faces during memorization. Face recognition, measured as accuracy and response latency, was tested with modified yes-no, forced-choice and recall tasks (N = 174. An enhanced recognition of faces tagged with prosocial descriptors was observed when the encoding scenario involved financial transactions and the rules of the social contract were not explicit (experiments 1 and 2. Such bias was eliminated or attenuated by making participants explicitly aware of "cooperative", "cheating" and "neutral/indifferent" behaviors via a pre-test questionnaire and then adding such tags to behavioral descriptors (experiment 3. Further, in a social judgment scenario with descriptors of salient moral behaviors, recognition of antisocial and prosocial faces was similar, but significantly better than neutral faces (experiment 4. CONCLUSION: The results highlight the relevance of descriptors and scenarios of social exchange in face recognition, when the frequency of prosocial and antisocial individuals in a group is similar. Recognition biases towards prosocial faces emerged when descriptors did not state the rules of a social contract or the moral status of a behavior, and they point to the existence of broad and flexible cognitive abilities finely tuned to minor changes in social context.

  4. Speakers' choice of frame in binary choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc van Buiten

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available A distinction is proposed between extit{recommending for} preferred choice options and extit{recommending against} non-preferred choice options. In binary choice, both recommendation modes are logically, though not psychologically, equivalent. We report empirical evidence showing that speakers recommending for preferred options predominantly select positive frames, which are less common when speakers recommend against non-preferred options. In addition, option attractiveness is shown to affect speakers' choice of frame, and adoption of recommendation mode. The results are interpreted in terms of three compatibility effects, (i extit{recommendation mode---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is enhanced under extit{recommending for} and diminished under extit{recommending against} instructions, (ii extit{option attractiveness---valence framing compatibility}: speakers' preference for positive framing is more pronounced for attractive than for unattractive options, and (iii extit{recommendation mode---option attractiveness compatibility}: speakers are more likely to adopt a extit{recommending for} approach for attractive than for unattractive binary choice pairs.

  5. Utah Public Education Funding: The Fiscal Impact of School Choice. School Choice Issues in the State

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aud, Susan

    2007-01-01

    This study examines Utah's funding system for public education and provides an analysis of the fiscal impact of allowing parents to use a portion of their child's state education funding to attend a school of their choice, public or private. Like many states, Utah is facing pressure to improve its system of public education funding. The state's…

  6. Association between Individual Differences in Self-Reported Emotional Resilience and the Affective Perception of Neutral Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arce, Estibaliz; Simmons, Alan N.; Stein, Murray B.; Winkielman, Piotr; Hitchcock, Carla; Paulus, Martin P.

    2009-01-01

    Background Resilience, i.e., the ability to cope with stress and adversity, relies heavily on judging adaptively complex situations. Judging facial emotions is a complex process of daily living that is important for evaluating the affective context of uncertain situations, which could be related to the individual's level of resilience. We used a novel experimental paradigm to test the hypothesis that highly resilient individuals show a judgment bias towards positive emotions. Methods 65 non-treatment seeking subjects completed a forced emotional choice task when presented with neutral faces and faces morphed to display a range of emotional intensities across sadness, fear, and happiness. Results Overall, neutral faces were judged more often to be sad or fearful than happy. Furthermore, high compared to low resilient individuals showed a bias towards happiness, particularly when judging neutral faces. Limitations This is a cross-sectional study with a non-clinical sample. Conclusions These results support the hypothesis that resilient individuals show a bias towards positive emotions when faced with uncertain emotional expressions. This capacity may contribute to their ability to better cope with certain types of difficult situations, perhaps especially those that are interpersonal in nature. PMID:18957273

  7. [Difficult patient in dentistry. Construction of a model of personal attributes for identification].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñaranda Hernández, P M

    1989-01-01

    The communication between the dentist and the patient, or what we have called dentist-patient relationship constitute itself a clue to solve primary problems derived of the professional practice. In this relationship with patients, the dentist may face what we have called difficult patient. This difficult patient have several behavioral characteristics which can alter the dentist emotional equilibrium, the capacity of making proper diagnosis and finally a successful treatment may not be obtain as an end result. The difficult patient behavior may be explained by a variety of factors such as: the type of pathology, the office environment, the community and/or institution to which the patient belongs, the dentist emotional circumstance and at last the patient life style. In this research work, we interview 50 professionals from the metropolitan area with an average of 18 years in practiCe, each dentist explained situations in which the patient behavior could be typified as difficult. A number of 202 difficult patient cases were obtained and they were classified into 14 categories. 5 categories presented a higher frequency: a) Schedule and/or appointment timing. b) Patients not following instructions and/or altering treatment. c) Anxious patients. d) Patients unhappy with their treatment. e) Authoritarian patients or patients without good manners. This 5 categories were present in the 60% of the situations and can be taken as a model with specific behavioral characteristics as to identify the difficult patient. This is valuable in order to manage this type of patients and be successful.

  8. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  9. Informed food choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian Eyde

    2014-01-01

    Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...... of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate....

  10. Informed Food Choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coff, Christian

    2014-01-01

    of informed food choice. An informed food choice is an enlightened food choice made by the individual based on the information made available. Food choices are made when shopping for food or when eating/drinking, and information is believed to give clarity to the options by increasing market transparency......, supporting rationality (the best choice), consumers’ self-governance (autonomy) and life coherence (integrity). On a practical level, informed food choice remains an ideal to strive for, as information on food often is inadequate.......Food production and consumption influence health, the environment, social structures, etc. For this reason consumers are increasingly interested in information about these effects. Disclosure of information about the consequences of food production and consumption is essential for the idea...

  11. Promoting educated consumer choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Edinger, Wieke Willemijn Huizing

    2016-01-01

    Contemporary EU food information legislation combines and balances two main consumer interests, i.e., a consumer right to information and the freedom of choice, into one single protective standard: informed choice. Although the recent legislative measures quite openly establish a link between...... informed choice and the rather abstract societal norm of “what is good for the consumer,” this does not justify the conclusion that food information legislation has become overly meddlesome in relation to EU consumers and their choice of food. Rather, there has been a gradual maturing of the EU legislator......’s perception of its task from the mere provision of food information to ensuring educated consumer choices. This development is a logical and necessary consequence of the growing complexity of food choices....

  12. Review on Matching Infrared Face Images to Optical Face Images using LBP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamakhaya Argulewar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In biometric research and many security areas, it is very difficult task to match the images which is captured by different devices. Large gap exist between them because they relates with different classes. Matching optical face images to infrared face images is one of the difficult task in face biometric. Large difference exists between infrared and optical face images because they belong to multiple classes. Converting the samples of multimodality into common feature space is the main objective of this project. Different class of images is relating by coordinating separate feature for classes .It is mainly used in heterogeneous face recognition. The new method has been developing for identification of heterogeneous face identification. Training set contains the images from different modalities. Initially the infrared image is preprocessed by applying Gaussian filter, difference of Gaussian and CSDN filters are apply on infrared face image. After preprocessing next step to extracting the feature by using LBP(local binary pattern feature extraction then relevance machine classifier is used to identify the best matching optical image from the corresponding infrared images from the optical images dataset. By processing this technique our system efficiently match the infrared and optical face images.

  13. A MODIFIED TECHNIQUE OF RETROGRADE INTUBATION IN A DIFFICULT INTUBATION CASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murthy

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Anaesthesiologists will be facing difficult intubating conditions, anticipated or unanticipated, quite frequently, whenever they anaesthetize patients with facio- maxillary injuries, temporo mandibular joint ankylosis, obesity, pregnancy, congenital air-way abnormalities, etc. A large number of aids are available now for intubating in such difficult situations and a lot of techniques have been described in literature for giving anaesthesia for such patients. (1 Use of Bullard laryngoscope in difficult air-way situation was described by Dullenkopf et al 2003, (2 Lighted Wand by Agro et al 2004, (3 Shikani flexible seeing stylet by Agro et al 2005(4 Blind nasal intubation, L M A, Fiber optic laryngoscope by Levitan et al1999. (5 Glydoscope by Lim et al 2005(6 . In this case report, we have given one more alternate solution for this problem

  14. Choice Neighborhood Grantees

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Housing and Urban Development — Choice Neighborhoods grants transform distressed neighborhoods, public and assisted projects into viable and sustainable mixed-income neighborhoods by linking...

  15. Emotional expressions of old faces are perceived as more positive and less negative than young faces in young adults

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young an...

  16. Emotional Expressions of Old Faces Are Perceived as More Positive and Less Negative than Young Faces in Young Adults

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young an...

  17. Public health in Kosovo after five difficult years of independence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naim Jerliu

    2015-12-01

    administration. Regarding the health status, five years after independence, compared with other European countries, post-war transitional Kosovo is still characterized by higher mortality rates including traditional public health problems pertinent to infant mortality and maternal deaths. In parallel, however, Kosovo is undergoing a rapid process of epidemiological transition characterized by an aging trend which is inevitably coupled with high cardiovascular and cancer mortality and morbidity along with an excess mortality in external causes of death and injuries among the adult population. Adoption of the new Health Law in December 2012 by the Kosovo Assembly aims the transition from centralized health care system established under emergency conditions of the post-war period towards a contemporary modern health care system with a clear purchaser-provider split based on a high transparency and accountability of the health care providers and their contractors. The health care reform, leading eventually to significant changes within the health sector in Kosovo, consists of two main pillars: (i structural and functional reorganization of the health care system through establishment of Kosovo Health Service (an autonomous and non-for-profit public enterprise at central level of the health care sector, and; (ii establishment for the first time of the public health insurance system with a Health Insurance Fund as its main body. Nevertheless, five years after declaration of independence, Kosovo, the newest state in Europe consisting of the youngest population, is currently facing a particularly difficult socioeconomic and political transition and is additionally struggling and mainstreaming all energies and efforts in order to get full international recognition.

  18. Comparing parameter choice methods for the regularization in the SONAH algorithm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gomes, Jesper Skovhus

    2006-01-01

    is needed. A parameter choice method based on a priori information about the signal-to-noise-ratio (SNR) in the measurement setup is often chosen. However, this parameter choice method may be undesirable since SNR is difficult to determine in practice. In this paper, data based parameter choice methods...

  19. Three Case Studies in Making Fair Choices on the Path to Universal Health Coverage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voorhoeve, Alex; Edejer, Tessa T T; Kapiriri, Lydia; Norheim, Ole F; Snowden, James; Basenya, Olivier; Bayarsaikhan, Dorjsuren; Chentaf, Ikram; Eyal, Nir; Folsom, Amanda; Tun Hussein, Rozita Halina; Morales, Cristian; Ostmann, Florian; Ottersen, Trygve; Prakongsai, Phusit; Saenz, Carla; Saleh, Karima; Sommanustweechai, Angkana; Wikler, Daniel; Zakariah, Afisah

    2016-12-01

    The goal of achieving Universal Health Coverage (UHC) can generally be realized only in stages. Moreover, resource, capacity, and political constraints mean governments often face difficult trade-offs on the path to UHC. In a 2014 report, Making fair choices on the path to UHC, the WHO Consultative Group on Equity and Universal Health Coverage articulated principles for making such trade-offs in an equitable manner. We present three case studies which illustrate how these principles can guide practical decision-making. These case studies show how progressive realization of the right to health can be effectively guided by priority-setting principles, including generating the greatest total health gain, priority for those who are worse off in a number of dimensions (including health, access to health services, and social and economic status), and financial risk protection. They also demonstrate the value of a fair and accountable process of priority setting.

  20. A singular choice for multiple choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, Gudmund Skovbjerg; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2006-01-01

    How should multiple choice tests be scored and graded, in particular when students are allowed to check several boxes to convey partial knowledge? Many strategies may seem reasonable, but we demonstrate that five self-evident axioms are sufficient to determine completely the correct strategy. We ...

  1. About (above) a face - a face

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  2. About (above a face - a face

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Cervelin

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available This text intents to unfold some considerations regardind the perception of the image of the Lóri’s face, from the book Uma aprendizagem ou o livro dos prazeres, published by Clarice Lispector in 1969. For that, will be studied the politicians devices who involve the apprehension of the face as a qualifying of the subject and, at the same time, its relation with the lenguage.

  3. Machining strategy choice: performance VIEWER

    CERN Document Server

    Tapie, Laurent; Anselmetti, Bernard

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays high speed machining (HSM) machine tool combines productivity and part quality. So mould and die maker invested in HSM. Die and mould features are more and more complex shaped. Thus, it is difficult to choose the best machining strategy according to part shape. Geometrical analysis of machining features is not sufficient to make an optimal choice. Some research show that security, technical, functional and economical constrains must be taken into account to elaborate a machining strategy. During complex shape machining, production system limits induce feed rate decreases, thus loss of productivity, in some part areas. In this paper we propose to analyse these areas by estimating tool path quality. First we perform experiments on HSM machine tool to determine trajectory impact on machine tool behaviour. Then, we extract critical criteria and establish models of performance loss. Our work is focused on machine tool kinematical performance and numerical controller unit calculation capacity. We implement...

  4. Design choices for electricity markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Vries, Laurens

    2007-07-01

    Ten years after the first European Electricity Directive, the goal of creating a single European electricity market has not been reached, despite concerted efforts by the EU and certain member states to continue with the reforms. The policy of subsidiarity for many aspects of market design has as a consequence that member countries are implementing a variety of different market designs and are implementing the reforms at varying speeds. The Florence regulatory process, which was intended to provide a bottom-up approach for coordination and harmonization, has effectively stalled and been replaced by a series of 'mini fora' in which smaller groups of countries work on integrating their markets. At the same time, the European electricity supply industry is facing some significant challenges. This paper investigates the different choices that can be made in the design of electricity markets, how they relate to each other and how they relate to the policy goals. (auth)

  5. Consumer choice behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Flemming; Percy, Larry; Hallum Hansen, Morten

    2004-01-01

    The paper is concerned with the measurement of emotions and the study of the role ofemotions in consumer choice. Contemporary neurological findings suggest that emotionsmay play a role in its own right, quite different from the way in which they have beenconsidered in traditional consumer choice...

  6. Making Smart Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... turn JavaScript on. Feature: Healthy Aging Making Smart Food Choices Past Issues / Winter 2015 Table of Contents Everyday ... NIH www.nia.nih.gov/Go4Life Making Smart Food Choices To maintain a healthy weight, balance the calories ...

  7. School Choice Marches forward

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butcher, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    One year ago, the "Wall Street Journal" dubbed 2011 "the year of school choice," opining that "this year is shaping up as the best for reformers in a very long time." School-choice laws took great strides in 2011, both in the number of programs that succeeded across states and also in the size and scope of the adopted…

  8. Empirical social choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kurrild-Klitgaard, Peter

    2014-01-01

    applications. Special attention is given to three phenomena and their possible empirical manifestations: The instability of social choice in the form of (1) the possibility of majority cycles, (2) the non-robustness of social choices given alternative voting methods, and (3) the possibility of various forms...

  9. Crime Location Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bernasco, Wim; Ruiter, Stijn

    2014-01-01

    Most behavior of interest to social scientists is choice behavior: actions people commit while they could also have done something else. In geographical and environmental criminology, a new framework has emerged for analyzing individual crime location choice. It is based on the principle of random u

  10. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  11. Tough and easy choices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Søren Bøye; Lundhede, Thomas; Jacobsen, Jette Bredahl

    2011-01-01

    Respondents in Stated Preference studies may be uncertain about their preferences for the good presented to them. Inspired by Wang (J Environ Econ Manag 32:219–232, 1997) we hypothesize that respondents’ stated certainty in choice increases with the utility difference between the alternative chosen...... and the best alternative to that. We test this hypothesis using data from two independent Choice Experiments both focusing on nature values. In modelling respondents’ self-reported certainty in choice, we find evidence that the stated level of certainty increases significantly as utility difference in choice...... sets increases. In addition, stated certainty increases with income. Furthermore, there is some evidence that male respondents are inherently more certain in their choices than females, and a learning effect may increase stated certainty. We find evidence of this in the first study where the good...

  12. Human Wagering Behavior Depends on Opponents' Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlicht, Erik J.; Shimojo, Shinsuke; Camerer, Colin F.; Battaglia, Peter; Nakayama, Ken

    2010-01-01

    Research in competitive games has exclusively focused on how opponent models are developed through previous outcomes and how peoples' decisions relate to normative predictions. Little is known about how rapid impressions of opponents operate and influence behavior in competitive economic situations, although such subjective impressions have been shown to influence cooperative decision-making. This study investigates whether an opponent's face influences players' wagering decisions in a zero-sum game with hidden information. Participants made risky choices in a simplified poker task while being presented opponents whose faces differentially correlated with subjective impressions of trust. Surprisingly, we find that threatening face information has little influence on wagering behavior, but faces relaying positive emotional characteristics impact peoples' decisions. Thus, people took significantly longer and made more mistakes against emotionally positive opponents. Differences in reaction times and percent correct were greatest around the optimal decision boundary, indicating that face information is predominantly used when making decisions during medium-value gambles. Mistakes against emotionally positive opponents resulted from increased folding rates, suggesting that participants may have believed that these opponents were betting with hands of greater value than other opponents. According to these results, the best “poker face” for bluffing may not be a neutral face, but rather a face that contains emotional correlates of trustworthiness. Moreover, it suggests that rapid impressions of an opponent play an important role in competitive games, especially when people have little or no experience with an opponent. PMID:20657772

  13. Social determinants of food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shepherd, R

    1999-11-01

    Food choice is influenced by a large number of factors, including social and cultural factors. One method for trying to understand the impact of these factors is through the study of attitudes. Research is described which utilizes social psychological attitude models of attitude-behaviour relationships, in particular the Theory of Planned Behaviour. This approach has shown good prediction of behaviour, but there are a number of possible extensions to this basic model which might improve its utility. One such extension is the inclusion of measures of moral concern, which have been found to be important both for the choice of genetically-modified foods and also for foods to be eaten by others. It has been found to be difficult to effect dietary change, and there are a number of insights from social psychology which might address this difficulty. One is the phenomenon of optimistic bias, where individuals believe themselves to be at less risk from various hazards than the average person. This effect has been demonstrated for nutritional risks, and this might lead individuals to take less note of health education messages. Another concern is that individuals do not always have clear-cut attitudes, but rather can be ambivalent about food and about healthy eating. It is important, therefore, to have measures for this ambivalence, and an understanding of how it might impact on behaviour.

  14. Efficiency of Choice Set Generation Methods for Bicycle Routes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halldórsdóttir, Katrín; Rieser-Schüssler, Nadine; W. Axhausen, Kay

    behaviour, observed choices and alternatives composing the choice set of each cyclist are necessary. However, generating the alternative choice sets can prove challenging. This paper analyses the efficiency of various choice set generation methods for bicycle routes in order to contribute to our...... understanding of choice generation for highly detailed networks. There is a substantial amount of literature that studies cyclists’ route choices. Most studies have been based on stated preference (SP) data (see, e.g., [1,2]). Although SP data have a lot of benefits there are some disadvantages, e.......g. the challenge to, without bias, predefine what cyclists consider when choosing a route. There have been few revealed preference (RP) studies reported in the literature (see, e.g., [1,2]). One disadvantage with RP data is that generating alternative routes can prove difficult. The benefit of collecting...

  15. Choices, choices: the application of multi-criteria decision analysis to a food safety decision-making problem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazil, A; Rajic, A; Sanchez, J; McEwen, S

    2008-11-01

    In the food safety arena, the decision-making process can be especially difficult. Decision makers are often faced with social and fiscal pressures when attempting to identify an appropriate balance among several choices. Concurrently, policy and decision makers in microbial food safety are under increasing pressure to demonstrate that their policies and decisions are made using transparent and accountable processes. In this article, we present a multi-criteria decision analysis approach that can be used to address the problem of trying to select a food safety intervention while balancing various criteria. Criteria that are important when selecting an intervention were determined, as a result of an expert consultation, to include effectiveness, cost, weight of evidence, and practicality associated with the interventions. The multi-criteria decision analysis approach we present is able to consider these criteria and arrive at a ranking of interventions. It can also provide a clear justification for the ranking as well as demonstrate to stakeholders, through a scenario analysis approach, how to potentially converge toward common ground. While this article focuses on the problem of selecting food safety interventions, the range of applications in the food safety arena is truly diverse and can be a significant tool in assisting decisions that need to be coherent, transparent, and justifiable. Most importantly, it is a significant contributor when there is a need to strike a fine balance between various potentially competing alternatives and/or stakeholder groups.

  16. Managers facing the climatic risks; Les elus face aux risques climatiques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2003-07-01

    This colloquium aimed to analyze the relations between the climatic changes and extreme meteorological events and on the associated risks. It provides information and knowledge on the state of the art concerning the today scientific knowledge, the prevention measures and the adaptation facing the risks and the difficult estimation of the climatic damages costs. (A.L.B.)

  17. Choice probability generating functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fosgerau, Mogens; McFadden, Daniel; Bierlaire, Michel

    2010-01-01

    This paper establishes that every random utility discrete choice model (RUM) has a representation that can be characterized by a choice-probability generating function (CPGF) with specific properties, and that every function with these specific properties is consistent with a RUM. The choice...... probabilities from the RUM are obtained from the gradient of the CPGF. Mixtures of RUM are characterized by logarithmic mixtures of their associated CPGF. The paper relates CPGF to multivariate extreme value distributions, and reviews and extends methods for constructing generating functions for applications...

  18. The axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Jech, Thomas J

    2008-01-01

    Comprehensive in its selection of topics and results, this self-contained text examines the relative strengths and consequences of the axiom of choice. Each chapter contains several problems, graded according to difficulty, and concludes with some historical remarks.An introduction to the use of the axiom of choice is followed by explorations of consistency, permutation models, and independence. Subsequent chapters examine embedding theorems, models with finite supports, weaker versions of the axiom, and nontransferable statements. The final sections consider mathematics without choice, cardin

  19. Effect of face familiarity on age decision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruyer, Raymond; Mejias, Sandrine; Doublet, Sophie

    2007-02-01

    The present experiment was planned to check whether the extraction of apparent age is affected by face identity (familiarity) or not. According to the traditional view, age estimation should be carried out independently of face identity, because it is one of the visually derived semantic codes (like gender and ethnicity). However, little is known about its underlying mechanisms. Moreover, some recent studies have cast doubt on the parallel thesis regarding facial expression, facial speech, ethnicity, and gender. Given the promising results of a pilot experiment (n=24), 16 Caucasian participants were enrolled in an "age decision" task on morphed faces derived from one old and one young source-face, in the proportion 70:30. The respondents had previously been familiarised with half the source faces by a learning procedure (associating the face, surname, occupation and city of residence of the person displayed), while the remaining half were unfamiliar. The results showed that age decision was affected by face familiarity, at least when the task was perceptually difficult enough. This adds support to the thesis that the identification of identity and the extraction of visually derived semantic codes are not made independently from each other. The status of age, within the visually derived semantic codes, is also discussed.

  20. Application of face-gear drives in helicopter transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-05-01

    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  1. Application of Face-Gear Drives in Helicopter Transmissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, F. L.; Wang, J.-C.; Bossler, R. B., Jr.; Chen, Y.-J. D.; Heath, G.; Lewicki, D. G.

    1992-01-01

    The use of face gears in helicopter transmissions was explored. A light-weight, split torque transmission design utilizing face gears was described. Face-gear design and geometry were investigated. Topics included tooth generation, limiting inner and outer radii, tooth contact analysis, contact ratio, gear eccentricity, and structural stiffness. Design charts were developed to determine minimum and maximum face-gear inner and outer radii. Analytical study of transmission error showed face-gear drives were relatively insensitive to gear misalignment, but tooth contact was affected by misalignment. A method of localizing bearing contact to compensate for misalignment was explored. The proper choice of shaft support stiffness enabled good load sharing in the split torque transmission design. Face-gear experimental studies were also included and the feasibility of face gears in high-speed, high-load applications such as helicopter transmissions was demonstrated.

  2. The MUSE project face to face with reality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caillier, P.; Accardo, M.; Adjali, L.; Anwand, H.; Bacon, Roland; Boudon, D.; Brotons, L.; Capoani, L.; Daguisé, E.; Dupieux, M.; Dupuy, C.; François, M.; Glindemann, A.; Gojak, D.; Hansali, G.; Hahn, T.; Jarno, A.; Kelz, A.; Koehler, C.; Kosmalski, J.; Laurent, F.; Le Floch, M.; Lizon, J.-L.; Loupias, M.; Manescau, A.; Migniau, J. E.; Monstein, C.; Nicklas, H.; Parès, L.; Pécontal-Rousset, A.; Piqueras, L.; Reiss, R.; Remillieux, A.; Renault, E.; Rupprecht, G.; Streicher, O.; Stuik, R.; Valentin, H.; Vernet, J.; Weilbacher, P.; Zins, G.

    2012-09-01

    MUSE (Multi Unit Spectroscopic Explorer) is a second generation instrument built for ESO (European Southern Observatory) to be installed in Chile on the VLT (Very Large Telescope). The MUSE project is supported by a European consortium of 7 institutes. After the critical turning point of shifting from the design to the manufacturing phase, the MUSE project has now completed the realization of its different sub-systems and should finalize its global integration and test in Europe. To arrive to this point many challenges had to be overcome, many technical difficulties, non compliances or procurements delays which seemed at the time overwhelming. Now is the time to face the results of our organization, of our strategy, of our choices. Now is the time to face the reality of the MUSE instrument. During the design phase a plan was provided by the project management in order to achieve the realization of the MUSE instrument in specification, time and cost. This critical moment in the project life when the instrument takes shape and reality is the opportunity to look not only at the outcome but also to see how well we followed the original plan, what had to be changed or adapted and what should have been.

  3. Non-adherence in difficult asthma and advances in detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindsay, John T; Heaney, Liam G

    2013-12-01

    Non-adherence to anti-inflammatory therapies is common in patients referred for specialist assessment at difficult-to-treat asthma services. In the difficult asthma setting, non-adherence to treatment is associated with poor baseline asthma control, increased frequency of exacerbations and asthma-related hospitalizations, as well as increased risk of death. Here, we present a review of the current literature surrounding the prevalence and risks of non-adherence in difficult asthma and we report on current methods of measuring treatment adherence and advances in the detection of non-adherence. We will also explore methods by which non-adherence in difficult asthma can be addressed.

  4. Incidence and predictors of difficult mask ventilation and intubation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prerana N Shah

    2012-01-01

    Conclusions: The predictive score may lead to a better anticipation of difficult airway management, potentially deceasing the morbidity and mortality resulting from hypoxia or anoxia with failed ventilation.

  5. A survey of the decision-making needs of Canadians faced with complex health decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Annette M; Drake, Elizabeth R; Wells, George A; Tugwell, Peter; Laupacis, Andreas; Elmslie, Tom

    2003-06-01

    To describe the decision-making needs of Canadians when faced with 'complex' health decisions characterized by balancing advantages against disadvantages. Although a national report emphasized that public confidence in the health-care system depends on support for personal knowledge and decision-making, there has been no systematic investigation of the Canadian population's decision-making needs. Cross-sectional telephone survey using random digit dialling. National sample of 635 adults over 18 years of age, living in Canada. Forty-two percentage of eligible contacts participated. Sixty-five percent of contacts reported making 'complex' health decisions, commonly about medical or surgical treatments or birth control, and more commonly by women and by married/separated individuals. Most respondents took an active role in their decisions, often sharing the process with their partner or family. Being younger was associated with a more independent role. Physicians were more often involved in the decisions of respondents with less education. Fifty-nine percent of respondents experienced decisional conflict; more conflict was seen with those who were female and feeling uninformed about options, pressured to select one particular option, and unready or unskilled in decision-making. Less decisional conflict was seen in those who reported birth control decisions and in those who were 70 years and older. Participants used several strategies when deliberating about choices including: information gathering, clarifying their values, and seeking support and information from others. Personal counselling and printed information materials were commonly preferred methods of learning about options. 'Essential' criteria for judging satisfactory decision-making included: having sufficient knowledge about the options, outcomes, and probabilities; being clear about values; selecting and implementing a choice that agrees with personal values; and expressing satisfaction with the choice

  6. Make Better Food Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    10 tips Nutrition Education Series make better food choices 10 tips for women’s health Fruits Grains Dairy Vegetables Protein Make yourself a priority and take time to care for yourself. ChooseMyPlate. gov ...

  7. Veterans Choice Program

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Veterans Affairs — If you are already enrolled in VA health care, the Choice Program allows you to receive health care within your community. Using this program does NOT impact your...

  8. Partner choice creates fairness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debove, Stéphane; André, Jean-Baptiste; Baumard, Nicolas

    2015-06-07

    Many studies demonstrate that partner choice has played an important role in the evolution of human cooperation, but little work has tested its impact on the evolution of human fairness. In experiments involving divisions of money, people become either over-generous or over-selfish when they are in competition to be chosen as cooperative partners. Hence, it is difficult to see how partner choice could result in the evolution of fair, equal divisions. Here, we show that this puzzle can be solved if we consider the outside options on which partner choice operates. We conduct a behavioural experiment, run agent-based simulations and analyse a game-theoretic model to understand how outside options affect partner choice and fairness. All support the conclusion that partner choice leads to fairness only when individuals have equal outside options. We discuss how this condition has been met in our evolutionary history, and the implications of these findings for our understanding of other aspects of fairness less specific than preferences for equal divisions of resources. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and conceptual validation of a questionnaire to help contraceptive choice: CHLOE (Contraception: HeLping for wOmen's choicE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamin, Christian Georges; Häusler, Gunther; Lobo Abascal, Paloma; Fiala, Christian; Lete Lasa, Luis Ignacio; Nappi, Rossella Elena; Micheletti, Marie-Christine; Fernández-Dorado, Ana; Pintiaux, Axelle; Chabbert-Buffet, Natalie

    2017-09-07

    The aim of this research was to develop a questionnaire to facilitate choice of the most appropriate contraceptive method for individual women. A literature review was conducted to identify key aspects influencing contraceptive choice and inform development of a questionnaire for online completion. Questionnaire development was overseen by a steering committee consisting of eight gynaecologists from across Europe. The initial draft underwent conceptual validation through cognitive debriefing interviews with six native English-speaking women. A qualitative content analysis was conducted to accurately identify potential issues and areas for questionnaire improvement. A revised version of the questionnaire then underwent face-to-face and online evaluation by 115 international gynaecologists/obstetricians with expertise in contraception, prior to development of a final version. The final conceptually validated Contraception: HeLping for wOmen's choicE (CHLOE) questionnaire takes ≤10 min to complete and includes three sections to elicit general information about the individual, the health conditions that might influence contraceptive choice, and the woman's needs and preferences that might influence contraceptive choice. The questionnaire captures the core aspects of personalisation, efficacy and safety, identified as key attributes influencing contraceptive choice, and consists of 24 closed-ended questions for online completion prior to a health care provider (HCP) consultation. The HCP receives a summary of the responses. The CHLOE questionnaire has been developed to help women choose the contraception that best suits their needs and situation while optimising the HCP's time.

  10. Oracle ADF Faces cookbook

    CERN Document Server

    Gawish, Amr

    2014-01-01

    This is a cookbook that covers more than 80 different recipes to teach you about different aspects of Oracle ADF Faces. It follows a practical approach and covers how to build your components for reuse in different applications. This book will also help you in tuning the performance of your ADF Faces application. If you are an ADF developer who wants to harness the power of Oracle ADF Faces to create exceptional user interfaces and reactive applications, this book will provide you with the recipes needed to do just that. You will not need to be familiar with Oracle ADF Faces, but you should be

  11. LARYNGEAL CHONDROSARCOMA: SUCCESSFUL USE OF VIDEO LARYNGOSCOPE IN ANTICIPATED DIFFICULT AIRWAY MANAGEMENT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolinaj, Vladimir; Milošev, Sanja; Janjević, Dušanka

    2016-03-01

    Laryngeal chondrosarcoma is a rare mesenchymal tumor, most frequently affecting cricoid cartilage. The objective of this report is to present successful video laryngoscope usage in a patient with anticipated difficult airway who refused awake fiberoptic endotracheal intubation (AFOI). A 59-year-old male patient was admitted in our hospital due to difficulty breathing and swallowing. On clinical examination performed by ENT surgeon, preoperative endoscopic airway examination (PEAE) could not be performed properly due to the patient's uncooperativeness. Computed tomography revealed a spherical tumor that obstructed the subglottic area almost entirely. Due to the narrowed airway, the first choice for the anticipated difficult airway management was AFOI, which the patient refused. Consequently, we decided to perform endotracheal intubation with indirect laryngoscope using a C-MAC video laryngoscope (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany). Reinforced endotracheal tube (6.0 mm internal diameter) was placed gently between the tumor mass and the posterior wall of the trachea in the first attempt. Confirmation of endotracheal intubation was done by capnography. In a patient with subglottic area chondrosarcoma refusing PEAE and AFOI, video laryngoscope is a particularly helpful device for difficult airway management when difficult airway is anticipated.

  12. [Face rejuvenation with tensor threads].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornette de Saint Cyr, B; Benouaiche, L

    2017-08-25

    The last decades has seen new priorities in treatment of a flabby, ageing face towards minimally invasive aesthetic surgery, to be accompanied and followed by the requirements to perform such interventions with the maximally reduced health hazards, with inconsiderable injury, without cuts and, respectively, to be followed by no resulting scars, as well as a short postoperative period. We propose a new reviewing presentation of the tensor threads. After having explained the technology of the threads, we will discuss the good patient indication, the criteria which determine the choice of the threads and methods for each type of patient. There are many techniques, which we will present. Then, we will discuss the results, unsatisfactory outcomes obtained and complications encountered, as well as how to improve the cosmetic outcomes to be obtained. To conclude, we will propose a strategy for the long-term treatment of the neck and the face, preventing surgical management of the aging process. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Management of difficult airway patients and the use of a difficult airway registry at a tertiary care pediatric hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheeran, Paul W; Walsh, Brian K; Finley, Andre M; Martin, Aleta K; Brenski, Amy C

    2014-08-01

    Appropriate recognition and management of the pediatric difficult airway is essential. Two patient deaths in a 2-year period involving children with a known difficult airway led to the formation of the institution's multidisciplinary Difficult Airway Committee. Patients with a suspected difficult airway or a known difficult airway are entered into a registry of difficult airway patients. A note describing the airway and any experiences at airway manipulation is entered as part of a difficult airway note in the patient's electronic medical record as soon as the patient is recognized as having a difficult airway. A call system has been developed to mobilize expert emergency airway assistance for these patients. Multiple additional methods are employed to ensure that all hospital personnel are aware that these patients are difficult to intubate. Since inception almost 6 years ago, 164 patients (mean age 9.2 years) have been enrolled in the difficult airway registry. Eighty-seven patients (53%) had one of 28 identified syndromes or diagnoses. The most common reasons for airway obstruction were mandibular hypoplasia/micrognathia, decreased neck extension, and limited temporomandibular joint mobility. One hundred sixty-one patients (98%) in the registry were predicted by history or physical to have a difficult airway. The mortality of registry patients was 9.8% (n = 16) and was most commonly due to co-existing diseases. During the time period reviewed, there was one in-hospital death of a known difficult airway patient, in which expert airway assistance was not obtained in a timely fashion. The institution's difficult airway registry identifies patients with a suspected or known difficult airway. The presence of a difficult airway in children can usually be predicted based on history and physical examination by anesthesiologists and otolaryngologists. Providers without advanced airway skills, however, may not appreciate that an airway is difficult to intubate until

  14. Clinical Judgments of Easy vs. Difficult Clients by Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allen; Morrison, Thomas L.

    1984-01-01

    Investigated responses of counselor trainees (N=31) to easy versus difficult clients in terms of clinical judgments. Results indicated that clients with a difficult interpersonal style were not regarded as more psychologically disturbed, but were rated as having less potential for change and less ego strength. (LLL)

  15. Can difficult intubation be easily and rapidly predicted?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritscherova, Sarka; Adamus, Milan; Dostalova, Katerina; Koutna, Jirina; Hrabalek, Lumir; Zapletalova, Jana; Uvizl, Radovan; Janout, Vladimir

    2011-06-01

    Failed endotracheal intubation and inadequate ventilation with subsequent insufficient oxygenation can result in serious complications potentially leading to permanent health damage. Difficult intubation may occur not only in patients with apparent pathologies in the orofacial region but also, unexpectedly, in those without abnormalities. This study aimed at finding anthropometric parameters that are easy to examine and that would aid in predicting difficult intubation. A case-control study was undertaken. Based on defined criteria, 15 parameters were examined in patients with unanticipated difficult intubation. The parameters included a previous history of difficult intubation, pathologies associated with difficult intubation, clinical symptoms of airway pathology, the Mallampati score, upper lip bite test, receding mandible, and cervical spine and temporomandibular joint movement. Thyromental, hyomental and sternomental distances and inter-incisor gap were measured. The methods were precisely defined and the measurements were carried out by a trained anesthesiologist. Statistical analysis was performed on data from 74 patients with difficult intubation and 74 control patients with easy intubation. Significant predictors of difficult intubation were inter-incisor gap (IIG), thyromental distance (TMD) and class 3 limited movement of the temporomandibular joint. The IIG and TMD cut-offs were set at 42 mm and 93 mm, respectively. The results will be used to confirm these predictors in an anesthesiology clinic along with the aid of the laryngoscopic findings to improve the prediction of unanticipated difficult intubation.

  16. Validated Questionnaires heighten detection of Difficult Asthma Comorbidities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radhakrishna, Naghmeh; Tay, Tunn Ren; Hore-Lacy, Fiona; Stirling, Robert; Hoy, R; Dabscheck, Eli; Hew, Mark

    2016-10-07

    Objective Multiple extra-pulmonary comorbidities contribute to difficult asthma, but their diagnosis can be challenging and time consuming. Previous data on comorbidity detection have focused on clinical assessment, which may miss certain conditions. We aimed to locate relevant validated screening questionnaires to identify extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma, and evaluate their performance during a difficult asthma evaluation. Methods MEDLINE was searched to identify key extra-pulmonary comorbidities that contribute to difficult asthma. Screening questionnaires were chosen based on ease of use, presence of a cut off score, and adequate validation to help systematically identify comorbidities. In a consecutive series of 86 patients referred for systematic evaluation of difficult asthma, questionnaires were administered prior to clinical consultation. Results Six difficult asthma comorbidities and corresponding screening questionnaires were found: sinonasal disease (allergic rhinitis and chronic rhinosinusitis), vocal cord dysfunction, dysfunctional breathing, obstructive sleep apnea, anxiety and depression, and gastro-oesophageal reflux disease. When the questionnaires were added to the referring clinician's impression, the detection of all six comorbidities was significantly enhanced. The average time for questionnaire administration was approximately 40 minutes. Conclusions The use of validated screening questionnaires heightens detection of comorbidities in difficult asthma. The availability of data from a battery of questionnaires prior to consultation can save time and allow clinicians to systematically assess difficult asthma patients and to focus on areas of particular concern. Such an approach would ensure that all contributing comorbidities have been addressed before significant treatment escalation is considered.

  17. Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Obese Gastric Bypass patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dohrn, Niclas; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Bisgaard, J.

    2016-01-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly perceived to be more difficult in obese patients than in lean patients. Primarily, we investigated the association between difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) and obesity, and secondarily, the association between DTI and validated scoring systems used to assess...

  18. Mode choice model parameters estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Strnad, Irena

    2010-01-01

    The present work focuses on parameter estimation of two mode choice models: multinomial logit and EVA 2 model, where four different modes and five different trip purposes are taken into account. Mode choice model discusses the behavioral aspect of mode choice making and enables its application to a traffic model. Mode choice model includes mode choice affecting trip factors by using each mode and their relative importance to choice made. When trip factor values are known, it...

  19. NASH EQUILIBRIA WITHOUT CONTINUITY OF THE CHOICE RULES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    José C.R.Alcantud

    2011-01-01

    The proposal in Alcantud and Alós-Ferrer[1],where players that express their tastes according to choice rules facing a competitive situation,is further exploited here.We prove that,under lack of continuity of the choice rules it is also possible to ensure the existence of equilibrium.We shall appeal to general situations that are fulfilled by well-established models,where players have non-transitive preferences of various types.

  20. Generalization of affective learning about faces to perceptually similar faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verosky, Sara C; Todorov, Alexander

    2010-06-01

    Different individuals have different (and different-looking) significant others, friends, and foes. The objective of this study was to investigate whether these social face environments can shape individual face preferences. First, participants learned to associate faces with positive, neutral, or negative behaviors. Then, they evaluated morphs combining novel faces with the learned faces. The morphs (65% and 80% novel faces) were within the categorical boundary of the novel faces: They were perceived as those faces in a preliminary study. Moreover, a second preliminary study showed that following the learning, the morphs' categorization as similar to the learned faces was indistinguishable from the categorization of actual novel faces. Nevertheless, in the main experiment, participants evaluated morphs of "positive" faces more positively than morphs of "negative" faces. This learning generalization effect increased as a function of the similarity of the novel faces to the learned faces. The findings suggest that general learning mechanisms based on similarity can account for idiosyncratic face preferences.

  1. REAL TIME FACE RECOGNITION USING ADABOOST IMPROVED FAST PCA ALGORITHM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Susheel Kumar

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automated system for human face recognition in a real time background world fora large homemade dataset of persons face. The task is very difficult as the real time backgroundsubtraction in an image is still a challenge. Addition to this there is a huge variation in human face imagein terms of size, pose and expression. The system proposed collapses most of this variance. To detect realtime human face AdaBoost with Haar cascade is used and a simple fast PCA and LDA is used torecognize the faces detected. The matched face is then used to mark attendance in the laboratory, in ourcase. This biometric system is a real time attendance system based on the human face recognition with asimple and fast algorithms and gaining a high accuracy rate..

  2. The Simplified Predictive Intubation Difficulty Score: a new weighted score for difficult airway assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    L'Hermite, Joël; Nouvellon, Emmanuel; Cuvillon, Philippe; Fabbro-Peray, Pascale; Langeron, Olivier; Ripart, Jacques

    2009-12-01

    Using the Intubation Difficulty Scale (IDS) more than 5 as a standardized definition of difficult intubation, we propose a new score to predict difficult intubation: the Simplified Predictive Intubation Difficulty Score (SPIDS). We prospectively studied 1024 patients scheduled for elective surgery under general anaesthesia. Using bivariate and multivariable analysis, we established risk factors of difficult intubation. Then, we assigned point values to each of the adjusted risk factors, their sum composing the SPIDS. We assessed its predictive accuracy using sensitivity, specificity, positive (PPV) and negative predictive values (NPV), and the area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC), and compared it with the corresponding nonweighted score. The optimal predictive level of the SPIDS was determined using ROC curve analysis. We found five adjusted risk factors for IDS more than 5: pathological conditions associated with difficult intubation (malformation of the face, acromegaly, cervical rheumatism, tumours of the airway, and diabetes mellitus), mouth opening less than 3.5 cm, a ratio of patient's height to thyromental distance 25 at least, head and neck movement less than 80 degrees , and Mallampati 2 at least. Sensitivity, specificity, PPV and NPV of the SPIDS were 65, 76, 14 and 97%, respectively. AUC of the SPIDS and the nonweighted score (obtained previously using a stepwise logistic regression) were respectively 0.78 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.72-0.84] and 0.69 (95% CI 0.64-0.73). The threshold for an optimal predictive level of the SPIDS was above 10 of 55. The SPIDS seems easy to perform, and by weighting risk factors of difficult intubation, it could help anaesthesiologists to plan a difficult airway management strategy. A value of SPIDS strictly above 10 could encourage the anaesthesiologists to plan for the beginning of the anaesthetic induction with 'alternative' airway devices ready in the operating theatre.

  3. Social judgments from faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Todorov, Alexander; Mende-Siedlecki, Peter; Dotsch, Ron

    2013-06-01

    People make rapid and consequential social judgments from minimal (non-emotional) facial cues. There has been rapid progress in identifying the perceptual basis of these judgments using data-driven, computational models. In contrast, our understanding of the neural underpinnings of these judgments is rather limited. Meta-analyses of neuroimaging studies find a wide range of seemingly inconsistent responses in the amygdala that co-vary with social judgments from faces. Guided by computational models of social judgments, these responses can be accounted by positing that the amygdala (and posterior face selective regions) tracks face typicality. Atypical faces, whether positively or negatively evaluated, elicit stronger responses in the amygdala. We conclude with the promise of data-driven methods for modeling neural responses to social judgments from faces.

  4. Sensitivity to Measurement Errors in Studies on Prosocial Choice using a Two-Choice Paradigm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sikorska Julia

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Research on prosocial behaviors in primates often relies on the two-choice paradigm. Motoric lateralization is a surprisingly big problem in this field of research research, as it may influence which lever will ultimately be chosen by the actor. The results of lateralization studies on primates do not form a clear picture of that phenomenon, which makes it difficult to address the problem during research. The authors discuss possible ways of managing this confounding variable.

  5. Sexual Orientation and Choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayala Saray

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Is there a choice in sexual orientation? [Wilkerson, William S. (2009: “Is It a Choice? Sexual Orientation as Interpretation”. In: Journal of Social Philosophy 40. No. 1, p. 97–116] argues that sexual desires require interpretation in order to be fully constituted, and therefore sexual orientation is at least partially constituted by choice. [Díaz-León, Esa (2017: “Sexual Orientation as Interpretation? Sexual Desires, Concepts, and Choice”; In: Journal of Social Ontology] critically assesses Wilkerson’s argument, concluding that we still lack a good argument for the claim that choice plays a role in sexual orientation. Here I examine Díaz-León’s response to Wilkerson. I introduce what I call the conceptual act theory of sexual orientation, and argue that even if interpretation were not necessary to constitute sexual desires, it is a necessary element to constitute what we call sexual orientation. However, I conclude that even if we agree that interpretation is involved in sexual orientation, it does not follow that there is a choice involved.

  6. Predicting affective choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2013-08-01

    Affect is increasingly recognized as central to decision making. However, it is not clear whether affect can be used to predict choice. To address this issue, we conducted 4 studies designed to create and test a model that could predict choice from affect. In Study 1, we used an image rating task to develop a model that predicted approach-avoidance motivations. This model quantified the role of two basic dimensions of affect--valence and arousal--in determining choice. We then tested the predictive power of this model for two types of decisions involving images: preference based selections (Study 2) and risk-reward trade-offs (Study 3). In both cases, the model derived in Study 1 predicted choice and outperformed competing models drawn from well-established theoretical views. Finally, we showed that this model has ecological validity: It predicted choices between news articles on the basis of headlines (Study 4). These findings have implications for diverse fields, including neuroeconomics and judgment and decision making. PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2013 APA, all rights reserved.

  7. Choice of initial therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Battegay

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Current international and national treatment guidelines such as EACS, BHIVA, DHHS or IAS update regularly recommendations on the choice of initial combination antiretroviral treatment (cART regimens. Preferred cART regimens include a backbone with two nucleoside (nucleotide reverse transcriptase inhibitors combined either with one non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor or one ritonavir boosted protease inhibitor or more recently one integrase inhibitor. Response rates according to viral load measurements increased in recent years, in particular due to better tolerability. The choice of initial therapy is flexible and influenced by several factors such as height of viral load, genotypic resistance testing, CD4 cell count, co-morbidities, interactions, potential adverse events, (potential for pregnancy, convenience, adherence, costs as well as physician's and patient's preferences. Diverse highly potent initial cART regimens exist. Following the many possibilities, the choice of a regimen is based on a mixture of evidence-informed data and individualized concepts, some of the latter only partly supported by strong evidence. For example, different perceptions and personal experiences exist about boosted protease inhibitors compared to non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors or integrase inhibitors and vice versa which may influence the initial choice. This lecture will discuss choices of initial cART in view of international guidelines and the evidence for individualization of initial HIV therapy.

  8. Habitat Choice and Speciation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie E. Webster

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The role of habitat choice in reproductive isolation and ecological speciation has often been overlooked, despite acknowledgement of its ability to facilitate local adaptation. It can form part of the speciation process through various evolutionary mechanisms, yet where habitat choice has been included in models of ecological speciation little thought has been given to these underlying mechanisms. Here, we propose and describe three independent criteria underlying ten different evolutionary scenarios in which habitat choice may promote or maintain local adaptation. The scenarios are the result of all possible combinations of the independent criteria, providing a conceptual framework in which to discuss examples which illustrate each scenario. These examples show that the different roles of habitat choice in ecological speciation have rarely been effectively distinguished. Making such distinctions is an important challenge for the future, allowing better experimental design, stronger inferences and more meaningful comparisons among systems. We show some of the practical difficulties involved by reviewing the current evidence for the role of habitat choice in local adaptation and reproductive isolation in the intertidal gastropod Littorina saxatilis, a model system for the study of ecological speciation, assessing whether any of the proposed scenarios can be reliably distinguished, given current research.

  9. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.

    2012-01-01

    Context effects in choice settings have received recent attention but little is known about the impact of context on choice consistency and the extent to which consumers apply choice heuristics. The sequence of alternatives in a choice set is examined here as one specific context effect. We compa...

  10. Russian consumers' motives for food choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honkanen, Pirjo; Frewer, Lynn

    2009-04-01

    Knowledge about food choice motives which have potential to influence consumer consumption decisions is important when designing food and health policies, as well as marketing strategies. Russian consumers' food choice motives were studied in a survey (1081 respondents across four cities), with the purpose of identifying consumer segments based on these motives. These segments were then profiled using consumption, attitudinal and demographic variables. Face-to-face interviews were used to sample the data, which were analysed with two-step cluster analysis (SPSS). Three clusters emerged, representing 21.5%, 45.8% and 32.7% of the sample. The clusters were similar in terms of the order of motivations, but differed in motivational level. Sensory factors and availability were the most important motives for food choice in all three clusters, followed by price. This may reflect the turbulence which Russia has recently experienced politically and economically. Cluster profiles differed in relation to socio-demographic factors, consumption patterns and attitudes towards health and healthy food.

  11. Prevalence of face recognition deficits in middle childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetts, Rachel J; Murray, Ebony; Boyce, Tian; Bate, Sarah

    2017-02-01

    Approximately 2-2.5% of the adult population is believed to show severe difficulties with face recognition, in the absence of any neurological injury-a condition known as developmental prosopagnosia (DP). However, to date no research has attempted to estimate the prevalence of face recognition deficits in children, possibly because there are very few child-friendly, well-validated tests of face recognition. In the current study, we examined face and object recognition in a group of primary school children (aged 5-11 years), to establish whether our tests were suitable for children and to provide an estimate of face recognition difficulties in children. In Experiment 1 (n = 184), children completed a pre-existing test of child face memory, the Cambridge Face Memory Test-Kids (CFMT-K), and a bicycle test with the same format. In Experiment 2 (n = 413), children completed three-alternative forced-choice matching tasks with faces and bicycles. All tests showed good psychometric properties. The face and bicycle tests were well matched for difficulty and showed a similar developmental trajectory. Neither the memory nor the matching tests were suitable to detect impairments in the youngest groups of children, but both tests appear suitable to screen for face recognition problems in middle childhood. In the current sample, 1.2-5.2% of children showed difficulties with face recognition; 1.2-4% showed face-specific difficulties-that is, poor face recognition with typical object recognition abilities. This is somewhat higher than previous adult estimates: It is possible that face matching tests overestimate the prevalence of face recognition difficulties in children; alternatively, some children may "outgrow" face recognition difficulties.

  12. Choosing health, constrained choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee Khoon Chan

    2009-12-01

    In parallel with the neo-liberal retrenchment of the welfarist state, an increasing emphasis on the responsibility of individuals in managing their own affairs and their well-being has been evident. In the health arena for instance, this was a major theme permeating the UK government's White Paper Choosing Health: Making Healthy Choices Easier (2004), which appealed to an ethos of autonomy and self-actualization through activity and consumption which merited esteem. As a counterpoint to this growing trend of informed responsibilization, constrained choices (constrained agency) provides a useful framework for a judicious balance and sense of proportion between an individual behavioural focus and a focus on societal, systemic, and structural determinants of health and well-being. Constrained choices is also a conceptual bridge between responsibilization and population health which could be further developed within an integrative biosocial perspective one might refer to as the social ecology of health and disease.

  13. Face Tracking with Low-level and High-level Information

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUDong; LIStan; LIUZhengkai

    2005-01-01

    Face Tracking is an important and difficult vision task. In this paper, the high-level frontal face detector information and the low-level color information are fused iteratively. With the multi-step fusion schemes, better face tracking performance is achieved, as demonstrated by the exhaustive experiments.

  14. Face learning and the emergence of view-independent face recognition: an event-related brain potential study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimmermann, Friederike G S; Eimer, Martin

    2013-06-01

    Recognizing unfamiliar faces is more difficult than familiar face recognition, and this has been attributed to qualitative differences in the processing of familiar and unfamiliar faces. Familiar faces are assumed to be represented by view-independent codes, whereas unfamiliar face recognition depends mainly on view-dependent low-level pictorial representations. We employed an electrophysiological marker of visual face recognition processes in order to track the emergence of view-independence during the learning of previously unfamiliar faces. Two face images showing either the same or two different individuals in the same or two different views were presented in rapid succession, and participants had to perform an identity-matching task. On trials where both faces showed the same view, repeating the face of the same individual triggered an N250r component at occipito-temporal electrodes, reflecting the rapid activation of visual face memory. A reliable N250r component was also observed on view-change trials. Crucially, this view-independence emerged as a result of face learning. In the first half of the experiment, N250r components were present only on view-repetition trials but were absent on view-change trials, demonstrating that matching unfamiliar faces was initially based on strictly view-dependent codes. In the second half, the N250r was triggered not only on view-repetition trials but also on view-change trials, indicating that face recognition had now become more view-independent. This transition may be due to the acquisition of abstract structural codes of individual faces during face learning, but could also reflect the formation of associative links between sets of view-specific pictorial representations of individual faces.

  15. Exchange rate regime choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beker Emilija

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The choice of an adequate exchange rate regime proves to be a highly sensitive field within which the economic authorities present and confirm themselves. The advantages and disadvantages of fixed and flexible exchange rate regimes, which have been quite relativized from the conventional point of view, together with simultaneous, but not synchronized effects of structural and external factors, remain permanently questioned throughout a complex process of exchange rate regime decision making. The paper reflects the attempt of critical identification of the key exchange rate performances with emphasis on continuous non-uniformity and (uncertainty of shelf life of a relevant choice.

  16. Handbook of Face Recognition

    CERN Document Server

    Li, Stan Z

    2011-01-01

    This highly anticipated new edition provides a comprehensive account of face recognition research and technology, spanning the full range of topics needed for designing operational face recognition systems. After a thorough introductory chapter, each of the following chapters focus on a specific topic, reviewing background information, up-to-date techniques, and recent results, as well as offering challenges and future directions. Features: fully updated, revised and expanded, covering the entire spectrum of concepts, methods, and algorithms for automated face detection and recognition systems

  17. Current situation of endoscopic biliary cannulation and salvage techniques for difficult cases: Current strategies in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Ichiro; Isayama, Hiroyuki; Bhatia, Vikram

    2016-04-01

    In the pancreatobiliary session at Endoscopic Forum Japan (EFJ) 2015, current trends of routine biliary cannulation techniques and salvage techniques for difficult biliary cannulation cases were discussed. Endoscopists from nine Japanese high-volume centers along with two overseas centers participated in the questionnaires and discussion. It was concluded that, currently, in Western countries, the wire-guided cannulation (WGC) technique is favored during initial cannulation attempts. However, the conventional technique using an endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography catheter with contrast medium injection is still used as first choice at most Japanese high-volume centers. The WGC technique is used as the second choice at some institutions only. After failed biliary cannulation attempts, the initial salvage option preferred in most centers includes pancreatic guidewire placement, followed by precut techniques as the second salvage choice. Among several precut techniques, the free-hand needle knife sphincterotomy with cutting upwards from the pancreatic duct is most popular. Endoscopic ultrasonography-guided rendezvous technique is also carried out as a final salvage option at select institutions.

  18. [Retrovesical pseudocyst : difficult diagnosis of one case and literature review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarf, I; Dahami, Z; Dakir, M; Joual, A; Bennani, S; Elmrini, M; Benjelloun, S

    2002-03-01

    Retrovesical localization of a cystic mass is rare. The authors report one observation of hematic retrovesical pseudocystic formation having a difficult diagnosis. In the light of this observation, different diagnostic patterns of cystic and pseudocystic retrovesical formation are discussed.

  19. PREDICTORS OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION: STUDY IN KASHMIRI POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A K

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Airway assessment is the most important aspect of Anaesthesia practice as a difficult intubation may be unanticipated. A prospective study was done to compare the efficacy of airway parameters to predict difficult intubation viz; degree of head extension, thyromental distance, inter incisor gap, grading ofprognathism, obesity and modified mallampati test. Six hundred patients with ASA I& ASA II grade were enrolled in study. All patients were preoperatively assessed for airway parameters. Intra-operatively all patients were classified according to Cormack and Lehane laryngoscopic view. Clinical data of each test was collected, tabulated and analyzed to obtain the sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value & negative predictive value. Results obtained showed incidence of difficult intubation in 3.3%. Head&neck movements had the highest sensitivity (86.36%; high arched palate had highest specificity (99.38%.Head & neck movements had highest sensitivity; high arched palate had highest specificity, however, head & neck movements strongly correlated for patients with difficult intubation.

  20. Control and Effort Costs Influence the Motivational Consequences of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sullivan-Toole, Holly; Richey, John A.; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The act of making a choice, apart from any outcomes the choice may yield, has, paradoxically, been linked to both the enhancement and the detriment of intrinsic motivation. Research has implicated two factors in potentially mediating these contradictory effects: the personal control conferred by a choice and the costs associated with a choice. Across four experiments, utilizing a physical effort task disguised as a simple video game, we systematically varied costs across two levels of physical effort requirements (Low-Requirement, High-Requirement) and control over effort costs across three levels of choice (Free-Choice, Restricted-Choice, and No-Choice) to disambiguate how these factors affect the motivational consequences of choosing within an effortful task. Together, our results indicated that, in the face of effort requirements, illusory control alone may not sufficiently enhance perceptions of personal control to boost intrinsic motivation; rather, the experience of actual control may be necessary to overcome effort costs and elevate performance. Additionally, we demonstrated that conditions of illusory control, while otherwise unmotivating, can through association with the experience of free-choice, be transformed to have a positive effect on motivation. PMID:28515705

  1. Psychological aspects of individualized choice and reproductive autonomy in prenatal screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hewison, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Probably the main purpose of reproductive technologies is to enable people who choose to do so to avoid the birth of a baby with a disabling condition. However the conditions women want information about and the 'price' they are willing to pay for obtaining that information vary enormously. Individual women have to arrive at their own prenatal testing choices by 'trading off' means and ends in order to resolve the dilemmas facing them. We know very little about how individuals make these trade-offs, so it is difficult to predict how new technologies will affect their choices and preferences. Uptake decisions can be expected to change, especially in the group of women who now are put off by some aspect of the current screening approach, where the avoidance of miscarriage risk may have provided a kind of 'psychological shelter', protecting a lot of people from having to make other decisions. Technologies such as Pre-implantation Genetic Diagnosis may remove a second 'psychological shelter' because they offer the means of avoiding the birth of an affected child without terminating a pregnancy. Even if new technologies will make some decisions easier in terms of their cognitive demands, they will also create new dilemmas and decision making will not necessarily become less stressful in emotional terms. Key challenges concern information and decision-making.

  2. Clinicians' strategies for managing their emotions during difficult healthcare conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luff, Donna; Martin, Elliott B; Mills, Kelsey; Mazzola, Natalia M; Bell, Sigall K; Meyer, Elaine C

    2016-09-01

    To examine strategies employed by clinicians from different disciplines to manage their emotions during difficult healthcare conversations. Self-report questionnaires were collected prior to simulation-based Program to Enhance Relational and Communication Skills (PERCS) workshops for professionals representing a range of experience and specialties at a tertiary pediatric hospital. In response to an open-ended prompt, clinicians qualitatively described their own strategies for managing their emotions during difficult healthcare conversations. 126 respondents reported emotion management strategies. Respondents included physicians (42%), nurses (29%), medical interpreters (16%), psychosocial professionals (9%), and other (4%). Respondents identified 1-4 strategies. Five strategy categories were identified: Self-Care (51%), Preparatory and Relational Skills, (29%), Empathic Presence (28%), Team Approach (26%), and Professional Identity (20%). Across disciplines and experience levels, clinicians have developed strategies to manage their emotions when holding difficult healthcare conversations. These strategies support clinicians before, during and after difficult conversations. Understanding what strategies clinicians already employ to manage their emotions when holding difficult conversations has implications for educational planning and implementation. This study has potential to inform the development of education to support clinicians' awareness of their emotions and to enhance the range and effectiveness of emotion management during difficult healthcare conversations. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Online supervision at the university - A comparative study of supervision on student assignments face-to-face and online

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Søren Smedegaard Bengtsen

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Through an empirical study of supervision on student assignments at the university across face-to-face and online settings, we show firstly the limiting implications of traditional dichotomies between face-to-face and online supervision. Secondly we show that more attention must be given to the way different digital tools influence the supervisory dialogue. These findings illustrate a form of ‘torn pedagogy’; that online tools and platforms destabilize and tear traditional understandings of supervision pedagogy apart. Also we forge a new concept of “format supervision” that enables supervisors to understand and reflect their supervision practice as a deliberate choice between face-to-face and online formats.

  4. Supreme Court rejects challenge to FACE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-10-25

    On October 7, the US Supreme Court declined to hear Skott vs. US, a case challenging the Freedom of Access to Clinic Entrances Act (FACE). The 1994 law makes it a federal crime to use or attempt to use force, threat of force, or physical obstruction to injure, intimidate, or interfere with reproductive health care providers and their patients. The case came to the High Court after the US Court of Appeals for the Seventh Circuit overturned an earlier district court ruling and upheld the constitutionality of the federal statute in December 1995. Six Wisconsin anti-choice protestors, who had been arrested in September 1994 after participating in a blockade of a Milwaukee women's health facility, had successfully petitioned the US District Court for the Eastern District of Wisconsin to dismiss criminal charges based on FACE. While the district court held that Congress had no authority under the Commerce Clause or under the Fourteenth Amendment of the US Constitution to enact FACE, the appellate panel found that the lower court had not given sufficient consideration to congressional findings that the activities restricted by FACE substantially affect interstate commerce and are subject to the regulatory power of Congress. FACE has been upheld by the US Courts of Appeal for the Fourth, Eighth, and Eleventh Circuits and eleven federal district courts. Two district courts have found the law invalid. This marks the third time the High Court has refused to hear a challenge to the law.

  5. Emotional Expressions of Old Faces Are Perceived as More Positive and Less Negative than Young Faces in Young Adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Norah C Hass

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories - neutral vs. happy and neutral vs. angry. The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  6. Emotional expressions of old faces are perceived as more positive and less negative than young faces in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hass, Norah C; Schneider, Erik J S; Lim, Seung-Lark

    2015-01-01

    Interpreting the emotions of others through their facial expressions can provide important social information, yet the way in which we judge an emotion is subject to psychosocial factors. We hypothesized that the age of a face would bias how the emotional expressions are judged, with older faces generally more likely to be viewed as having more positive and less negative expressions than younger faces. Using two-alternative forced-choice perceptual decision tasks, participants sorted young and old faces of which emotional expressions were gradually morphed into one of two categories-"neutral vs. happy" and "neutral vs. angry." The results indicated that old faces were more frequently perceived as having a happy expression at the lower emotional intensity levels, and less frequently perceived as having an angry expression at the higher emotional intensity levels than younger faces in young adults. Critically, the perceptual decision threshold at which old faces were judged as happy was lower than for young faces, and higher for angry old faces compared to young faces. These findings suggest that the age of the face influences how its emotional expression is interpreted in social interactions.

  7. Choices, Not Circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Div. of Instruction and Professional Development.

    Following a brief account of the circumstances of migrant workers and the status of migrant education in the United States, this pamphlet describes how the National Education Association (NEA) has impacted and will continue to impact the process of providing educational choices for migrant students. The NEA has consistently testified before…

  8. Households' portfolio choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hochgürtel, S.

    1998-01-01

    This thesis presents four topics on households' portfolio choices. Empirically, households do not hold well-diversified wealth portfolios. In particular, they refrain from putting their savings into risky assets. We explore several ways that might help explaining this observation. Using Dutch

  9. Career choice, influence

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Information Impact | Journal of Information and Knowledge Management

    Keywords: Career choice, influence, students, academic performance. Introduction ... Sharma (2012) also included that grade, attendance, standard test and .... outgoing. A student's personality must be a self-motivated type”. ..... Mercy Arodovwe Igere is a lecturer at the Department of Library and Information. Science.

  10. Single-basined choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bossert, W.; Peters, H.J.M.

    2013-01-01

    Single-basined preferences generalize single-dipped preferences by allowing for multiple worst elements. These preferences have played an important role in areas such as voting, strategy-proofness and matching problems. We examine the notion of single-basinedness in a choice-theoretic setting. In co

  11. Deterministic Walks with Choice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beeler, Katy E.; Berenhaut, Kenneth S.; Cooper, Joshua N.; Hunter, Meagan N.; Barr, Peter S.

    2014-01-10

    This paper studies deterministic movement over toroidal grids, integrating local information, bounded memory and choice at individual nodes. The research is motivated by recent work on deterministic random walks, and applications in multi-agent systems. Several results regarding passing tokens through toroidal grids are discussed, as well as some open questions.

  12. A Matter of Choice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vriend, John

    1973-01-01

    Since the goal of helping the client make wise decisions is at the core of counseling, it is suggested that existentialism as a state of mind may give the contemporary counselor an outlook most conducive to achieving that goal. The entire role of choice must be dealt with by the counselor in light of the reality of current events. (Author)

  13. Angelina′s choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishu Singh Goel

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This is an opinion piece on how a celebrity′s personal choice to undergo prophylactic mastectomy on discovery of an aberrant gene, when publicly promoted, carries in itself the power to influence and impact healthcare trends and decisions. When celebrities advocate causes that are universally and uniformly acceptable and indisputable as the best in the realm of healthcare and cure (e.g. no smoking, it creates well-being and awareness in society at large. But those which are personal choices made out of a repertoire of other available and effective options may, because of celebrity preference, don the mantle of a norm. They thus run the danger of being blindly replicated by others without proper awareness and knowledge of the true potential of disease, risk factors, and other existing remedial or risk-reducing measures. Society should thus be encouraged to question, debate, and understand the validity, authenticity, and reason of the choices, especially those with a medical basis. This tempering of information with intelligence and rationale and making informed choices based on facts will serve humanity as a whole.

  14. The Choice for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, Scott

    2006-01-01

    We are building conventional library space without making the paradigm shift our digital environment requires. The chief obstacles to change lie in our conception of readers as information consumers, in our allegiance to library operations as the drivers of library design, and in the choice made between foundational and non-foundational views of…

  15. The influence of (toll-related) travel costs in residential location decisions of households : A stated choice approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, T.; van Wee, B.; Ettema, D.

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we investigate the impact of travel costs, in particular toll costs, on the residential location choice of households, using a stated choice survey. Within the stated choice experiment, car drivers that frequently face traffic congestion, traded-off several trip-related (including

  16. Social Networks and Choice Set Formation in Discrete Choice Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Wichmann

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The discrete choice literature has evolved from the analysis of a choice of a single item from a fixed choice set to the incorporation of a vast array of more complex representations of preferences and choice set formation processes into choice models. Modern discrete choice models include rich specifications of heterogeneity, multi-stage processing for choice set determination, dynamics, and other elements. However, discrete choice models still largely represent socially isolated choice processes —individuals are not affected by the preferences of choices of other individuals. There is a developing literature on the impact of social networks on preferences or the utility function in a random utility model but little examination of such processes for choice set formation. There is also emerging evidence in the marketplace of the influence of friends on choice sets and choices. In this paper we develop discrete choice models that incorporate formal social network structures into the choice set formation process in a two-stage random utility framework. We assess models where peers may affect not only the alternatives that individuals consider or include in their choice sets, but also consumption choices. We explore the properties of our models and evaluate the extent of “errors” in assessment of preferences, economic welfare measures and market shares if network effects are present, but are not accounted for in the econometric model. Our results shed light on the importance of the evaluation of peer or network effects on inclusion/exclusion of alternatives in a random utility choice framework.

  17. Entrepreneurs Facing Risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zichella, Giulio; Reichstein, Toke

    are tested using data collected in laboratory-based real money games experiments. We find support for our hypotheses, indicating that entrepreneurs’ bias towards risk is circumstantial. These results have fundamental implications for our understanding of factors guiding entrepreneurial choices under risk......Theory conjectures that entrepreneurs are more likely than others to make risky choices. However, the empirical evidence is mixed. This paper offers new insights into entrepreneurs’ tendencies to make risky choices, by investigating the circumstances in which entrepreneurs are more/less likely...... to choose risk vis-à-vis certainty. Drawing on prospect theory, we formulate hypotheses about the greater likelihood that entrepreneurs (compared to others) will choose risk immediately after a positive gain, but will shy away from risk compared to others as the degree of risk increases. The hypotheses...

  18. Reducing status quo bias in choice experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bonnichsen, Ole; Ladenburg, Jacob

    In stated preference literature, the tendency to choose the alternative representing the status quo situation seems to exceed real life status quo effects. Accordingly, status quo bias can be a problem. In Choice Experiments, status quo bias is found to be strongly correlated with protest attitudes...... toward the cost attribute. If economic values are to be elicited, this problem is difficult to remedy. In a split sample framework we test a novel ex-ante entreaty aimed specifically at the cost attribute and find that it effectively reduces status quo bias and improves the internal validity...

  19. Comparison of face Recognition Algorithms on Dummy Faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aruni Singh

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the age of rising crime face recognition is enormously important in the contexts of computer vision, psychology, surveillance, fraud detection, pattern recognition, neural network, content based video processing, etc. Face is a non intrusive strong biometrics for identification and hence criminals always try to hide their facial organs by different artificial means such as plastic surgery, disguise and dummy. The availability of a comprehensive face database is crucial to test the performance of these face recognition algorithms. However, while existing publicly-available face databases contain face images with a wide variety of poses, illumination, gestures and face occlusions but there is no dummy face database is available in public domain. The contributions of this research paper are: i Preparation of dummy face database of 110 subjects ii Comparison of some texture based, feature based and holistic face recognition algorithms on that dummy face database, iii Critical analysis of these types of algorithms on dummy face database.

  20. Is Face Distinctiveness Gender Based?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baudouin, Jean-Yves; Gallay, Mathieu

    2006-01-01

    Two experiments were carried out to study the role of gender category in evaluations of face distinctiveness. In Experiment 1, participants had to evaluate the distinctiveness and the femininity-masculinity of real or artificial composite faces. The composite faces were created by blending either faces of the same gender (sexed composite faces,…

  1. Transgender Reproductive Choice and Fertility Preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitu, Khadija

    2016-11-01

    Increasing numbers of young transgender people are now using medical technologies to achieve a physical gender transition. However, the procedures of physical gender transition might cause temporary or permanent sterility. Thus many transgender people are now using fertility preservation technologies. Nonetheless, they can experience dilemmas in making reproductive and family-building decisions and face challenges in gaining access to and utilizing fertility preservation services. Based on qualitative research conducted with transgender men and women who used reproductive technologies for preserving their fertility before or during their physical transition, this paper contributes to the discourse of reproductive choice by the inclusion of transgender people's experience.

  2. Choices and decisions: Locating the poor in urban land markets

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wanjiku Kihato, C

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Places: Accessing land in African cities Chapter 5 Choices and decisions: Locating the poor in urban land markets Caroline Wanjiku Kihato and Mark Napier MNapier@csir.co.za Abstract World cities face a bleak future. Global capital, state failure...

  3. Frankenstein: Learning Deep Face Representations using Small Data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Guosheng; Peng, Xiaojiang; Yang, Yongxin; Hospedales, Timothy M; Verbeek, Jakob

    2017-09-25

    Deep convolutional neural networks have recently proven extremely effective for difficult face recognition problems in uncontrolled settings. To train such networks, very large training sets are needed with millions of labeled images. For some applications, such as near-infrared (NIR) face recognition, such large training datasets are not publicly available and difficult to collect. In this work, we propose a method to generate very large training datasets of synthetic images by compositing real face images in a given dataset. We show that this method enables to learn models from as few as 10,000 training images, which perform on par with models trained from 500,000 images. Using our approach we also obtain state-of-the-art results on the CASIA NIR-VIS2.0 heterogeneous face recognition dataset.

  4. The Clinton plan: what happened to the tough choices?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauly, M V

    1994-01-01

    This paper points out four difficult choices embedded in the Clinton plan. First, universal coverage is achieved, but with regressive head-tax financing on many workers-since the cost of the employer mandate ultimately will fall on workers' wages. Perhaps such an approach can be made politically acceptable. Second, cost containment is entrusted to global spending limits, which will limit the rate of improvement in quality. Third, the offering of choice among a variety of health plans of different costs and quality, although desirable in itself, may lead to inequity. Finally, the plan's financing will make it difficult for voters to tell what trade-offs they are making, because employer mandates and budget cuts disguise choices.

  5. Difficult airway equipment: a survey of standards across metropolitan Perth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alakeson, N; Flett, T; Hunt, V; Ramgolam, A; Reynolds, W; Hartley, K; Hegarty, M; von Ungern-Sternberg, B S

    2014-09-01

    The importance of appropriate equipment to manage the difficult airway has been highlighted by the publication of the Australian and New Zealand College of Anaesthetists (ANZCA) guidelines in 2012. We set out to audit compliance with these guidelines in all public and private sites providing general anaesthesia in metropolitan Perth. Public and private health care websites identified 39 sites of which 37 were studied. Institutional and ethics approval was obtained. A tick-box design audit tool, based on the ANZCA guidelines, was used to collect information regarding the dedicated difficult airway container (DDAC) at each site. As recommended in the guidelines, only equipment within the DDAC was considered. Further data about each site, including the number of theatre suites, satellite anaesthetic areas, use of capnography and categories of patients treated (adult, obstetric and paediatric) were collected. An adult DDAC was found at 92% of all sites, but none of the sites had all the essential equipment listed in the ANZCA guidelines. There was limited provision of adult difficult airway equipment within private sites compared to public, and less provision of paediatric difficult airway equipment across all sites treating paediatric patients in metropolitan Perth. Capnography was available in 76% of post anaesthesia care units and used regularly in 27%. Adherence to the ANZCA guidelines regarding the DDAC could be improved. Standardised equipment across a metropolitan region would be of value in the management of the difficult airway.

  6. Associative ERP effects with memories of artificial faces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, E; Bobes, M A; Aubert, E; Valdes-Sosa, M

    1994-07-01

    A previous study (Valdes-Sosa and Bobes, 1990) described a negative ERP component evoked by mis-matches in a face-feature matching task, using photographs of real faces. This component could be N400 (or an analogue), elicited by associative priming within a non-linguistic domain: that of face structure. To confirm this it is necessary to demonstrate that semantic/linguistic recoding was not a necessary condition in triggering the negativity. This means falsifying what we call the 'priming by proxy' hypothesis, and locating the triggering mis-match within face structure. In this paper subjects studied artificial schematic faces over several sessions, and 1 week later were presented with a face-feature matching task with simultaneous ERP recording. Since no semantic information or verbal labels were available, eliciting a mis-match negativity with these faces contradicts the 'priming by proxy' hypothesis. In a first experiment, in which the subjects learning was controlled through a face familiarity decision task, no significant mis-match negativity was found. However, in a second experiment in which learning was controlled through a forced-choice face-feature match, a significant mis-match negativity was found in the subsequent recording session. This result supports the idea that a component similar to N400 can be elicited by an associative mis-match restricted to the face-structural domain.

  7. Probing short-term face memory in developmental prosopagnosia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Punit; Gaule, Anne; Gaigg, Sebastian B; Bird, Geoffrey; Cook, Richard

    2015-03-01

    It has recently been proposed that the face recognition deficits seen in neurodevelopmental disorders may reflect impaired short-term face memory (STFM). For example, introducing a brief delay between the presentation of target and test faces seems to disproportionately impair matching or recognition performance in individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorders. The present study sought to determine whether deficits of STFM contribute to impaired face recognition seen in Developmental Prosopagnosia. To determine whether developmental prosopagnosics exhibit impaired STFM, the present study used a six-alternative-forced-choice match-to-sample procedure. Memory demand was manipulated by employing a short or long delay between the presentation of the target face, and the six test faces. Crucially, the perceptual demands were identical in both conditions, thereby allowing the independent contribution of STFM to be assessed. Prosopagnosics showed clear evidence of a category-specific impairment for face-matching in both conditions; they were both slower and less accurate than matched controls. Crucially, however, the prosopagnosics showed no evidence of disproportionate face recognition impairment in the long-interval condition. While individuals with DP may have problems with the perceptual encoding of faces, it appears that their representations are stable over short durations. These results suggest that the face recognition difficulties seen in DP and autism may be qualitatively different, attributable to deficits of perceptual encoding and perceptual maintenance, respectively.

  8. Germany's ECEC Workforce: A Difficult Path to Professionalisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauschenbach, Thomas; Riedel, Birgit

    2016-01-01

    In a European comparison, the childcare profession in Germany has taken a distinct path of development which is closely interwoven with the history of early childhood education and care (ECEC) in general. Institutional choices critical to this path are the assignment of childcare as part of social welfare, the pursuit of a maternalist tradition in…

  9. Face-to-face and electronic communications in maintaining social networks : the influence of geographical and relational distance and of information content

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tillema, Taede; Dijst, Martin; Schwanen, Tim

    2010-01-01

    Using data collected among 742 respondents, this article aims at gaining greater insight into (i) the interaction between face-to-face (F2F) and electronic contacts, (ii) the influence of information content and relational distance on the communication mode/service choice and (iii) the influence of

  10. A novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kaynar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To propose a novel cannulation technique for difficult urethral catheterization procedures. Technique: The sheath tip of an intravenous catheter is cut off, replaced to the needle tip and pushed through the distal drainage side hole to Foley catheter tip, and finally withdrawn for cannulation. In situations making urethral catheterization difficult, a guide wire is placed under direct vision. The modified Foley catheter is slid successfully over the guide wire from its distal end throughout the urethral passage into the bladder. Results: The modified Foley catheter was used successfully in our clinic in cases requiring difficult urethral catheterization. Conclusions: This easy and rapid modification of a Foley catheter may minimize the potential complications of blind catheter placement in standard catheterization.

  11. Medical Students' Personal Determinants of Overcoming Strategies in Difficult Situations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veretelnikova Yu.Ya.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Goal of the research was to study conditionality of overcoming strategies in difficult situations of social interaction by personal representations of attitude to others among medical students. Material and methods. 134 first-year students of Saratov State Medical University n.a. V. I. Razumovsky took part in the comparative diagnostic study. Results. Comparison of average indices of various strategies evidence in coping behaviour allowed revealing statistically significant dependence of coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction upon types of personal representations of attitude toward others and gender features of forming effective strategies of coping behaviour among medical students. Conclusion. Correlation between coping behaviour modi in difficult situations of social interaction and typology of personal representations of attitudes toward others among medical students was marked.

  12. The difficult primary total knee arthroplasty: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldini, A; Castellani, L; Traverso, F; Balatri, A; Balato, G; Franceschini, V

    2015-10-01

    Primary total knee arthroplasty (TKA) is a reliable procedure with reproducible long-term results. Nevertheless, there are conditions related to the type of patient or local conditions of the knee that can make it a difficult procedure. The most common scenarios that make it difficult are discussed in this review. These include patients with many previous operations and incisions, and those with severe coronal deformities, genu recurvatum, a stiff knee, extra-articular deformities and those who have previously undergone osteotomy around the knee and those with chronic dislocation of the patella. Each condition is analysed according to the characteristics of the patient, the pre-operative planning and the reported outcomes. When approaching the difficult primary TKA surgeons should use a systematic approach, which begins with the review of the existing literature for each specific clinical situation.

  13. Incidence and predictors of difficult nasotracheal intubation with airway scope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Koyu; Goto, Tomoko; Nakai, Daishi; Ueki, Shuhei; Takenaka, Seiichiro; Moriya, Tomomi

    2014-10-01

    The airway scope (AWS) improves views of the larynx during orotracheal intubation. However, the role of the AWS in routine nasotracheal intubation has not been studied adequately. One hundred and three patients undergoing dental and maxillofacial surgery that required general anesthesia and nasotracheal intubation were enrolled. The study was approved by our Institution Review Board, and written informed consent was obtained from all patients. We evaluated the success rate of AWS intubation and the incidence of difficult nasotracheal intubation using a modified intubation difficulty scale (IDS) to examine preoperative characteristics and intubation profiles. Categories were difficult intubation (IDS ≥5), mildly difficult (IDS = 1-4), and intubation without difficulty (IDS = 0). We also assessed the incidence of the use of Magill forceps or cuff inflation (the cuff of endotracheal tube is inflated with 10-15 ml air) to guide the endotracheal tube into the glottis. AWS nasotracheal intubation was 100% successful. The cuff inflation technique was used in 37 patients. Neither Magill forceps nor other devices were needed for any patient during AWS use. The incidence of difficult nasotracheal intubation was 10% (n = 10). Of the patients, 61% (n = 63) had mildly difficult intubation and 29% (n = 30) had no difficulty. Patients with difficult intubation were more likely to be male and to have a larger tongue and a higher Cormack grade than in the other two groups. Complications, involving minor soft tissue injury, were observed in only 1 patient (1%). The AWS achieves a high success rate for nasotracheal intubation with cuff inflation in patients undergoing dental and maxillofacial surgery.

  14. Difficult asthma in adults: recognition and approaches to management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harrison, B D W

    2005-09-01

    Difficult asthma must be distinguished from severe asthma. It is then important in patients with suspected difficult asthma to ensure that the diagnosis is correct, and that if the patient has asthma that the attributed symptoms are indeed all genuinely due to the asthma and not to coexisting physical or psychogenic respiratory conditions. It is also important to be alert when there is discordance between symptoms and objective lung function in order to recognize both poor perceivers and over-reactors. Difficult asthma can occur in patients with objectively mild, moderate or severe disease, but the consequences are most dramatic in patients with severe asthma. Asthma may be difficult for the patient, for the clinician or both because of disease factors, doctor or nurse therapist factors, and/or patient factors. Investigation requires access to the full range of respiratory, imaging and allergy tests. It also requires a multidisciplinary approach involving ear, nose and throat specialists and speech therapists, and access to psychiatric and psychological assessment and therapies. Poor compliance is associated with significantly poorer asthma and asthma-related health outcomes. Poor compliance can be recognized in two-thirds of such patients by their not attending scheduled appointments. Poor compliance is significantly associated with anxiety, social deprivation and adverse family circumstances, and these characteristics and adversities probably contribute to the poorly compliant behaviour. In difficult asthma it is important to identify and manage the condition causing the symptoms rather than prescribing more and more asthma therapy. Recognizing psychosocial adversity is essential. A structured approach is essential. There remains a small number of patients with genuine steroid-resistant asthma, some with predominately neutrophilic rather than eosinophilic airway inflammation, and others for whom the secondary gain of continuing symptoms is overwhelming. There is

  15. Failure to predict difficult tracheal intubation for emergency caesarean section.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basaranoglu, Gokcen; Columb, Malachy; Lyons, Gordon

    2010-11-01

    Difficult tracheal intubation following induction of general anaesthesia for caesarean section is a cause of morbidity and mortality. Our aim was to evaluate five bedside predictors that might identify women with potential intubation difficulty immediately prior to emergency caesarean section. Women requiring emergency caesarean section with general anaesthesia and tracheal intubation who had been assessed by the same experienced anaesthesiologist preoperatively were included in this study. Mallampati score, sternomental distance, thyromental distance, interincisor gap and atlantooccipital extension were all measured. The same anaesthesiologist performed laryngoscopy and graded the laryngeal view according to Cormack and Lehane. Exact logistic regression was used to identify significant independent predictors for difficult intubation (Cormack and Lehane grades ≥ 3) with two-sided P value less than 0.05 considered as significant. In 3 years, 239 women were recruited. Cormack and Lehane grades of 2 or less (easy) were found in 225 and grade of at least 3 (difficult) in 14 women. Patients' characteristics (age, height, weight, BMI or weight gain) were not significantly associated with difficulty of intubation. The incidence of difficult intubation was 1/17 women [95% confidence interval (CI) from 1/31 to 1/10]. A positive result from any of the five predictors combined had a sensitivity of 0.21 (95%CI 0.05-0.51), a specificity of 0.92 (95%CI 0.88-0.96), a positive predictive value of 0.15 (95%CI 0.032-0.38) and a negative predictive value of 0.95 (95%CI 0.91-0.97) for a Cormack and Lehane grade of at least 3 at laryngoscopy. Airway assessment using these tests cannot be relied upon to predict a difficult intubation at emergency caesarean section as the low sensitivity means that 79% (95%CI 49-95) of difficult intubations will be missed.

  16. Fuzzy social choice theory

    CERN Document Server

    B Gibilisco, Michael; E Albert, Karen; N Mordeson, John; J Wierman, Mark; D Clark, Terry

    2014-01-01

    This book offers a comprehensive analysis of the social choice literature and shows, by applying fuzzy sets, how the use of fuzzy preferences, rather than that of strict ones, may affect the social choice theorems. To do this, the book explores the presupposition of rationality within the fuzzy framework and shows that the two conditions for rationality, completeness and transitivity, do exist with fuzzy preferences. Specifically, this book examines: the conditions under which a maximal set exists; the Arrow’s theorem;  the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem; and the median voter theorem.  After showing that a non-empty maximal set does exists for fuzzy preference relations, this book goes on to demonstrating the existence of a fuzzy aggregation rule satisfying all five Arrowian conditions, including non-dictatorship. While the Gibbard-Satterthwaite theorem only considers individual fuzzy preferences, this work shows that both individuals and groups can choose alternatives to various degrees, resulting in a so...

  17. Mate choice on leks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balmford, A

    1991-03-01

    In lek-breeding animals, males defend tiny territories clustered into arenas, where females come to mate. Typically, most lek males secure relatively few copulations while a small number are highly successful. Recent studies suggest that the skewed distribution of matings seen at leks may be the result of females using a variety of criteria to select particular mating partners. Nevertheless, the possible benefits to females of mate choice at leks, where males offer neither resources nor paternal care, remain obscure.

  18. How Happiness Affects Choice

    OpenAIRE

    Cassie Mogilner; Jennifer Aaker; Sepandar D. Kamvar

    2012-01-01

    Consumers want to be happy, and marketers are increasingly trying to appeal to consumers' pursuit of happiness. However, the results of six studies reveal that what happiness means varies, and consumers' choices reflect those differences. In some cases, happiness is defined as feeling excited, and in other cases, happiness is defined as feeling calm. The type of happiness pursued is determined by one's temporal focus, such that individuals tend to choose more exciting options when focused on ...

  19. Food choices during Ramadan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thamina Rashid

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Few studies have assessed the dietary Practices of people with diabetes during Ramadan (1. A sub study of Ramadan prospective diabetes study (2 which was conducted at the outpatient department of Baqai Institute of Diabetology and endocrinology, Karachi Pakistan in 2009 analyzed the food choices of patients with diabetes during Ramadan. Several irregularities regarding dietary intake and food choices were noted among the study participants. Although, the patients were counseled regarding diet before Ramadan, many did not follow the dietary advice. All patients had taken food at Iftar but majority of them preferred fried items like samosas, pakoras (fried snack, chicken rolls etc. these deeply fried items can lead to post Iftar hyperglycemia. Patients were also opted for fruit chat, dahibara and chanachaat at Iftar, higher load of these items can also worsen glycemic control. The striking finding was almost absence of meat (protein intake at Iftar but study from India showed increment of all three macronutrients during Ramadan (3. This may result in higher intake of items from carbohydrate and fat groups resulting in hyperglycemia after iftar. Intake of vegetables at Iftar was also negligible and hence the diet was not well balanced. The food choices at sahoor included roti, paratha (fried bread, slices, khajla, pheni, meat, egg and milk. Though it is advisable to take complex carbohydrates, protein and fat at sahoor as these are slowly digestible and can prevent hypoglycemia during fasting but khajla pheni are extremely rich in fat and carbohydrate content and should be avoided (4. However, paratha in 2 teaspoon of oil can be taken at sahoor.Patients with diabetes who fast during the month of Ramadan should have pre Ramadan dietary guidance and counseling session in order to modify their food preferences and choices during the holy month of Ramadan (4.

  20. Non-attendance at a difficult-asthma clinic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonough, Beverley; Mault, Susan

    Increasing demand for our weekly difficult-asthma clinic means routine appointments are at a premium. This led us to explore the reasons why patients failed to attend for appointments and whether contacting them by telephone within a week of their missed scheduled appointment increased attendance. Memory lapses were the most common reason for non-attendance. Telephoning non-attenders led to a two-fold increase in attendance at subsequent clinics. Non-attendance may be a reflection of poor concordance, which, in itself, may contribute to a patient's difficult asthma.

  1. Transmyometrial embryo transfer after difficult immediate mock transcervical transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, K; Afnan, M; Lenton, W; Bilalis, D; Hunjan, M; Khalaf, Y

    1996-05-01

    To evaluate the place of ultrasound-directed transvaginal transmyometrial ET in a protocol using both the transcervical and transmyometrial routes in a step-wise fashion. A prospective descriptive clinical study. A university-based assisted conception unit. Thirteen patients who had difficult or impossible mock transcervical ET immediately before the real transfer. Ultrasound-directed transvaginal transmyometrial ET. Pregnancy and clinical pregnancy. Four patients became pregnant, including three with clinical pregnancies. In cases in which transcervical ET isd difficult or impossible, transvaginal transmyometrial ET is a viable option. The use of mock transcervical ET immediately before the real transfer would identify patients needing transmyometrial ET.

  2. Management of the difficult airway in children. A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magaly Álvarez Bárzaga

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The anesthesiologist plays a unique role in the health care of all patients who will undergo a surgical procedure. In this sense, he is a key factor in the appropriate and timely management of the airway. There are special situations that condition a difficult airway and can have a profound impact on anesthetic morbidity and mortality. These risks increases in the case of children, that is why the case of a pediatric patient with a difficult airway caused by limitation of mouth opening, scheduled for elective surgery in order to treat this condition in the Pediatric University Hospital ¨Paquito González Cueto " in Cienfuegos, is presented.

  3. Topological social choice

    CERN Document Server

    1997-01-01

    The origins of this volume can be traced back to a conference on "Ethics, Economic and Business" organized by Columbia Busi­ ness School in March of 1993, and held in the splendid facilities of Columbia's Casa Italiana. Preliminary versions of several of the papers were presented at that meeting. In July 1994 the Fields Institute of Mathematical Sciences sponsored a workshop on "Geometry, Topology and Markets": additional papers and more refined versions of the original papers were presented there. They were published in their present versions in Social Choice and Wel­ fare, volume 14, number 2, 1997. The common aim of these workshops and this volume is to crystallize research in an area which has emerged rapidly in the last fifteen years, the area of topological approaches to social choice and the theory of games. The area is attracting increasing interest from social choice theorists, game theorists, mathematical econ­ omists and mathematicians, yet there is no authoritative collection of papers in the a...

  4. The choice that disappeared

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gjerris, Mickey; Saxe, Henrik

    2013-01-01

    This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion and regula......This article criticise the notion that ethical consumerism can solve the ethical issues related to sustainability and food production through an analysis of the complexity of the concept of sustainability as related to food choices. The current trend of leaving the political discussion...... and regulation of the food area to the political consumer is shown to be problematic as shopping for sustainability might be much harder than initially believed due to the conflicting considerations entailed in the concept. Thus political consumerism may give way to fatalism as the complexity of choices become...... apparent and acts of citizenship increasingly are reduced to ethical consumerism supposed to be performed while shopping. The suggested solution is to let food policies be decided to a much higher degree through the political process engaging humans as citizens rather than consumers in the process....

  5. Facing Aggression: Cues Differ for Female versus Male Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geniole, Shawn N.; Keyes, Amanda E.; Mondloch, Catherine J.; Carré, Justin M.; McCormick, Cheryl M.

    2012-01-01

    The facial width-to-height ratio (face ratio), is a sexually dimorphic metric associated with actual aggression in men and with observers' judgements of aggression in male faces. Here, we sought to determine if observers' judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio in female faces. In three studies, participants rated photographs of female and male faces on aggression, femininity, masculinity, attractiveness, and nurturing. In Studies 1 and 2, for female and male faces, judgements of aggression were associated with the face ratio even when other cues in the face related to masculinity were controlled statistically. Nevertheless, correlations between the face ratio and judgements of aggression were smaller for female than for male faces (F1,36 = 7.43, p = 0.01). In Study 1, there was no significant relationship between judgements of femininity and of aggression in female faces. In Study 2, the association between judgements of masculinity and aggression was weaker in female faces than for male faces in Study 1. The weaker association in female faces may be because aggression and masculinity are stereotypically male traits. Thus, in Study 3, observers rated faces on nurturing (a stereotypically female trait) and on femininity. Judgements of nurturing were associated with femininity (positively) and masculinity (negatively) ratings in both female and male faces. In summary, the perception of aggression differs in female versus male faces. The sex difference was not simply because aggression is a gendered construct; the relationships between masculinity/femininity and nurturing were similar for male and female faces even though nurturing is also a gendered construct. Masculinity and femininity ratings are not associated with aggression ratings nor with the face ratio for female faces. In contrast, all four variables are highly inter-correlated in male faces, likely because these cues in male faces serve as “honest signals”. PMID:22276184

  6. Using a Classroom Response System to Improve Multiple-Choice Performance in AP[R] Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertrand, Peggy

    2009-01-01

    Participation in rigorous high school courses such as Advanced Placement (AP[R]) Physics increases the likelihood of college success, especially for students who are traditionally underserved. Tackling difficult multiple-choice exams should be part of any AP program because well-constructed multiple-choice questions, such as those on AP exams and…

  7. Facing Sound - Voicing Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønstrup, Ansa

    2013-01-01

    This article is based on examples of contemporary audiovisual art, with a special focus on the Tony Oursler exhibition Face to Face at Aarhus Art Museum ARoS in Denmark in March-July 2012. My investigation involves a combination of qualitative interviews with visitors, observations of the audienc......´s interactions with the exhibition and the artwork in the museum space and short analyses of individual works of art based on reception aesthetics and phenomenology and inspired by newer writings on sound, voice and listening....

  8. Why Is Leading School Improvement Such a Difficult Process?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindahl, Ronald A.

    2007-01-01

    Leading meaningful school improvement and reform has proven to be a difficult process. This article looks at some of the interactive, contextual variables that lend to the complexity of this challenge. These include complexities inherent in schools, in change processes and in the leadership role itself.

  9. Caregiver Beliefs and Dysphoric Affect Directed to Difficult Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bugental, Daphne Blunt; And Others

    1990-01-01

    When sibling pairs interacted with unrelated mothers, facial and vocal affect directed to the difficult child in the pair was more dysphoric than that directed to the other. This was particularly the case among women who attributed relatively high control to children and low control to adults. A similar relation between affect and attributions was…

  10. Optimising the management of patients with difficult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Evelyn; Higgins, Bernard

    2015-11-01

    Asthma affects 5.4 million people in the UK, around 1 in 12 of the population. Between 5 and 10% of asthma (depending on the definition used) is categorised as difficult asthma, a term which generally refers to patients who continue to experience symptoms and frequent exacerbations despite the prescription of high-dose asthma therapy. Difficult asthma is an indication for specialist review by an appropriate respiratory physician, but close liaison between primary, secondary and tertiary care is critical and it is therefore important that primary care health professionals should be aware of the principles of management. One of the most important questions to ask is whether the individual with difficult asthma is taking their treatment Identifying this, however, is not easy. GPs could assess prescription uptake, looking for low use of preventers and excess use of short-acting bronchodilators. Newer means of assessing adherence have been developed. Inhaler devices that can monitor completion and timing of actuations have been produced. Meters that measure FeNO are available. A recent UK study found that 12 out of 100 patients referred for difficult asthma did not have reversible airflow obstruction or a history suggestive of asthma. Diagnoses included COPD, cystic fibrosis, cardiomyopathy, respiratory muscle dysfunction and severe anxiety with vocal cord dysfunction.

  11. Why Reference to the Past Is Difficult for Agrammatic Speakers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bastiaanse, Roelien

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have shown that verb inflections are difficult to produce for agrammatic aphasic speakers: they are frequently omitted and substituted. The present article gives an overview of our search to understanding why this is the case. The hypothesis is that grammatical morphology referring to the past is selectively impaired in agrammatic…

  12. Complement Constructions in English: Fairly Difficult for EFL Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fazeli, Fatemeh; Shokrpour, Nasrin

    2012-01-01

    Complement constructions vary significantly in English and Persian. There are more complementation structures in English than in Persian and a complement structure in Persian might have more than one equivalent in English. Producing complement structures (CSs) in English is very difficult for native speakers of Persian, especially in an EFL…

  13. Wagging the Dog: Managing Museum Priorities in a Difficult Economy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradburne, James M.

    2010-01-01

    In these difficult financial times, it is more important than ever to manage money carefully. Educators who don't do so are vulnerable, for despite a thirty-year history of increasing authority and status within and without the museum, education departments are still more expendable than curatorial or collections departments in some museums. This…

  14. Developing Difficult Dialogues: An Evaluation of Classroom Implementation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Placier, Peggy; Kroner, Crystal; Burgoyne, Suzanne; Worthington, Roger

    2012-01-01

    The University of Missouri (MU) participated in the Ford Foundation's Difficult Dialogues Initiative (DDI) supporting faculty development projects at over 40 institutions of higher education from 2006-2010. This paper reports findings from an evaluation conducted with instructors who not only engaged in faculty development workshops but also…

  15. A practical clinical approach to management of the difficult airway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eindhoven, GB; Dercksen, B; Regtien, JG; Borg, PAJ; Wierda, JMKH

    2001-01-01

    Difficult airway management represents a challenge in anaesthesia. In the last decades airway difficulty awareness has improved as a result of better anticipation and decision-making. Airway algorithms and protocols have a more prominent role in training and in clinical anaesthesia practice. In

  16. Disaffection and Inclusion: Merton's Mainstream Approach to Difficult Behaviour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrow, Giles

    This booklet describes an inclusive approach to disaffection in Merton Education Authority, a school district southwest of London (England). Instead of concentrating on providing for students with emotional and behavior difficulties in an off-site behavior support center, Merton switched its main efforts to preventing difficult behavior through…

  17. Why is Danish so difficult to understand for fellow Scandinavians?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schüppert, Anja; Hilton, Nanna; Gooskens, Charlotte

    2016-01-01

    It has consistently been shown that among the three mainland Scandinavian languages, Danish is most difficult to understand for fellow Scandinavians. Recent research suggests that Danish is spoken significantly faster than Norwegian and Swedish. This finding might partly explain the asymmetric intel

  18. Task Analyses for Difficult-to-Assess Collective Tasks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-02-01

    Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Analysis and Production (34-4-1305) • Conduct Counterintelligence and Human Intelligence Analysis (34-4...Research Product 2014-05 Task Analyses for Difficult-to-Assess Collective Tasks Jonathan J. Bryson Rachel D. Barney...Christina K. Curnow Trevor M. Conrad Arnold L. Leonard Heidi Keller-Glaze ICF International Jennifer S. Tucker Christopher L. Vowels

  19. Literature Review of the Reasons of Chinese Master Students ’Language Choices in UK Universities

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Qian

    2016-01-01

    As one of the challenges that international students face during their study in a foreign country, language has been more and more of concern. The aim of this literature review is to know the reasons of Chinese master students’language choices in UK universities. In this paper the reasons of language choices, and the gaps between previous and present research are discussed.

  20. Occupational Choice and Student Values

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, R. V.

    1973-01-01

    Article attempts to set out a way of measuring determination, the element capable of making students' occupational choice' a reality not just an ideal, by exploration of the part played by the value system in relation to occupational choice. (Author)

  1. Derivation and Validation of The Prehospital Difficult Airway IdentificationTool (PreDAIT): A Predictive Model for Difficult Intubation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlson, Jestin N; Hostler, David; Guyette, Francis X; Pinchalk, Mark; Martin-Gill, Christian

    2017-06-01

    Endotracheal intubation (ETI) in the prehospital setting poses unique challenges where multiple ETI attempts are associated with adverse patient outcomes. Early identification of difficult ETI cases will allow providers to tailor airway-management efforts to minimize complications associated with ETI. We sought to derive and validate a prehospital difficult airway identification tool based on predictors of difficult ETI in other settings. We prospectively collected patient and airway data on all airway attempts from 16 Advanced Life Support (ALS) ground emergency medical services (EMS) agencies from January 2011 to October 2014. Cases that required more than two ETI attempts and cases where an alternative airway strategy (e.g. supraglottic airway) was employed after one unsuccessful ETI attempt were categorized as "difficult." We used a random allocation sequence to split the data into derivation and validation subsets. Using backward elimination, factors with a p3 (2.15, 1.19-3.88), limited neck movement (2.24, 1.28-3.93), trismus/jaw clenched (2.24, 1.09-4.6), inability to palpate the landmarks of the neck (5.92, 2.77-12.66), and fluid in the airway such as blood or emesis (2.25, 1.51-3.36). This was the most parsimonious model and exhibited good fit (Hosmer-Lemeshow test p = 0.167) with an AUC of 0.68 (95% CI [0.64-0.73]). When applied to the validation set, the model had an AUC of 0.63 (0.58-0.68) with high specificity for identifying difficult ETI if ≥2 factors were present (87.7% (95% CI [84.1-90.8])). We have developed a simple tool using five factors that may aid prehospital providers in the identification of difficult ETI.

  2. Conjunction Faces Alter Confidence-Accuracy Relations for Old Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Mark Tippens; Loftus, Geoffrey R.

    2017-01-01

    The authors used a state-trace methodology to investigate the informational dimensions used to recognize old and conjunction faces (made by combining parts of separately studied faces). Participants in 3 experiments saw faces presented for 1 s each. They then received a recognition test; faces were presented for varying brief durations and…

  3. Pedagogical Characteristics of Online and Face-to-Face Classes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuensch, Karl; Aziz, Shahnaz; Ozan, Erol; Kishore, Masao; Tabrizi, M. H. Nassehzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Currently, many students have had experience with both face-to-face and online classes. We asked such students at 46 different universities in the United States to evaluate the pedagogical characteristics of their most recently completed face-to-face class and their most recently completed online class. The results show that students rate online…

  4. Bayesian Face Recognition and Perceptual Narrowing in Face-Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balas, Benjamin

    2012-01-01

    During the first year of life, infants' face recognition abilities are subject to "perceptual narrowing", the end result of which is that observers lose the ability to distinguish previously discriminable faces (e.g. other-race faces) from one another. Perceptual narrowing has been reported for faces of different species and different races, in…

  5. Classroom Management Strategies for Difficult Students: Promoting Change through Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaty-O'Ferrall, Mary Ellen; Green, Alan; Hanna, Fred

    2010-01-01

    Teachers in middle level schools face overwhelming demands and challenges in their classrooms. They are expected to know content and pedagogy, develop engaging lessons that meet the needs of diverse learners, and use a variety of instructional strategies that will boost student achievement while they simultaneously develop positive relationships…

  6. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  7. Abortion-Related Services: Value Clarification through "Difficult Dialogues" Strategies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mpeli, Moliehi Rosemary; Botma, Yvonne

    2015-01-01

    Midwives play a pivotal role in women's health in the face of increased deaths related to backyard abortions. Since the commencement in South Africa of the Name of the Act No. 92 of 1996 that allows abortion services, there has been a moral divide among healthcare workers in South Africa. This article reflects the opinions of preregistration…

  8. Channel Choice: A Literature Review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Østergaard Madsen, Christian; Kræmmergaard, Pernille

    2015-01-01

    The channel choice branch of e-government studies citizens’ and businesses’ choice of channels for interacting with government, and how government organizations can integrate channels and migrate users towards the most cost-efficient channels. In spite of the valuable contributions offered no sys...... no systematic overview exist of channel choice. We present a literature review of channel choice studies in government to citizen context identifying authors, countries, methods, concepts, units of analysis, and theories, and offer suggestionsfor future studies....

  9. A comprehensive predictive scoring method for difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittalgodu Anantha Krishna Murthy Vivek

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy (LC is the gold standard cholecystectomy. LC is the most common difficult laparoscopic surgery performed by surgeons today. The factors leading to difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy can be predicted. Aims: To develop a scoring method that predicts difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Settings and Design: Bidirectional prospective study in a medical college setup. Materials and Methods: Following approval from the institutional ethical committee, cases from the three associated hospitals in a medical college setup, were collected using a detailed proforma stating the parameters of difficulty in laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Study period was between May 10 and June 12. Preoperative, sonographic and intraoperative criteria were considered. Statistical Analysis Used: Chi Square test and Receiver Operater Curve (ROC analysis. Results: Total 323 patients were included. On analysis, elderly patients, males, recurrent cholecystitis, obese patients, previous surgery, patients who needed preoperative Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP, abnormal serum hepatic and pancreatic enzyme profiles, distended or contracted gall bladder, intra-peritoneal adhesions, structural anomalies or distortions and the presence of a cirrhotic liver on ultrasonography (USG were identified as predictors of difficult LC. A scoring system tested against the same sample proved to be effective. A ROC analysis was done with area under receiver operator curve of 0.956. A score above 9 was considered difficult with sensitivity of 85% and specificity of 97.8%. Conclusions: This study demonstrates that a scoring system predicting the difficulty in LC is feasible. There is scope for further refinement to make the same less cumbersome and easier to handle. Further studies are warranted in this direction.

  10. Fantastic Fauve Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nessom, Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    The wonderful book, "How Are You Peeling? Foods with Moods" by Saxton Freymann and Joost Elffers inspired a lesson on feelings and expressions for this author's second-grade students. Many students at her school have difficult lives and lots of emotional baggage, resulting in behavioral problems at school. Using the example of Fauvist portraits by…

  11. What factors make science test items especially difficult for students from minority groups?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Are Turmo

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Substantial gaps in science performance between majority and minority students are often found instandardized tests used in primary school. But at the item level, the gaps may vary significantly. Theaims of this study are: (1 to identify features of the test items in science (grade 5 and grade 8 students that can potentially explain group differences; and (2 to analyze what factors make test itemsespecially difficult for minority students. Explanatory variables such as reading load, item difficulty,item writing load, and use of the multiple-choice format are found to be major factors. The analysis reveals no empirical relationships between performance gap and either item subject domain, item test location, or the number of illustrations used in the item. Subtle issues regarding the design ofitems may influence the size of the performance gap at item level over and above the main explanatory variables. The gap can be reduced significantly by choosing “minority friendly” items.

  12. Successful management of a difficult cancer pain patient by appropriate adjuvant and morphine titration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiv PS Rana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Morphine has been used for many years to relieve cancer pain. Oral morphine (in either immediate release or modified release form remains the analgesic of choice for moderate or severe cancer pain. The dose of oral morphine is titrated up to achieve adequate relief from pain with minimal side effects. Antidepressant and anticonvulsant drugs, when used in addition to conventional analgesics, give excellent relief from cancer pain. Most cancer pain responds to pharmacological measures with oral morphine but some pain like neuropathic and bony pain, pain in children and elderly age group, and advanced malignancy pain are very difficult to treat. Here, we report the management of a similar patient of severe cancer pain and the difficulty that we came across during dose titration of oral morphine and adjuvant analgesic.

  13. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  14. Is beauty in the face of the beholder?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Laeng

    Full Text Available Opposing forces influence assortative mating so that one seeks a similar mate while at the same time avoiding inbreeding with close relatives. Thus, mate choice may be a balancing of phenotypic similarity and dissimilarity between partners. In the present study, we assessed the role of resemblance to Self's facial traits in judgments of physical attractiveness. Participants chose the most attractive face image of their romantic partner among several variants, where the faces were morphed so as to include only 22% of another face. Participants distinctly preferred a "Self-based morph" (i.e., their partner's face with a small amount of Self's face blended into it to other morphed images. The Self-based morph was also preferred to the morph of their partner's face blended with the partner's same-sex "prototype", although the latter face was ("objectively" judged more attractive by other individuals. When ranking morphs differing in level of amalgamation (i.e., 11% vs. 22% vs. 33% of another face, the 22% was chosen consistently as the preferred morph and, in particular, when Self was blended in the partner's face. A forced-choice signal-detection paradigm showed that the effect of self-resemblance operated at an unconscious level, since the same participants were unable to detect the presence of their own faces in the above morphs. We concluded that individuals, if given the opportunity, seek to promote "positive assortment" for Self's phenotype, especially when the level of similarity approaches an optimal point that is similar to Self without causing a conscious acknowledgment of the similarity.

  15. The Choices of Childhood

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JENNIFER LIM

    1996-01-01

    Young employees at Zhangjiagang City’s Knitwear Import and Export Corporation treat middle-aged Director Wu Jing as their mother. They not only admire her capabilities, but also place faith in her ability to help them with the vicissitudes of life. Many of the corporation’s young employees are college graduates from various parts of the country. When faced with personal problems, such as failed or failing love affairs, marriage disputes or gaining kindergarten admittance for their children, they seek the help of Wu Jing, who exhibits great concern and offers motherly advice. Wu was faced with the responsibilities of motherhood at the tender age of 13. Wu Jing tells her stow below.

  16. Face recognition system and method using face pattern words and face pattern bytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2014-12-23

    The present invention provides a novel system and method for identifying individuals and for face recognition utilizing facial features for face identification. The system and method of the invention comprise creating facial features or face patterns called face pattern words and face pattern bytes for face identification. The invention also provides for pattern recognitions for identification other than face recognition. The invention further provides a means for identifying individuals based on visible and/or thermal images of those individuals by utilizing computer software implemented by instructions on a computer or computer system and a computer readable medium containing instructions on a computer system for face recognition and identification.

  17. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Qian

    2008-01-01

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  18. Multibiometrics for face recognition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Veldhuis, Raymond N.J.; Deravi, Farzin; Tao, Q.

    Fusion is a popular practice to combine multiple sources of biometric information to achieve systems with greater performance and flexibility. In this paper various approaches to fusion within a multibiometrics context are considered and an application to the fusion of 2D and 3D face information is

  19. Two Faces of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beasley, Conger, Jr.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the inconsistency between Japanese exploitation of world natural resources and gestures to provide leadership in ecologically innovative technology. Explores Japanese culture, power structure, population trends, environmental ethics, industrialism, and international business practices as they relate to the philosophical face of…

  20. Bayesian Face Sketch Synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Nannan; Gao, Xinbo; Sun, Leiyu; Li, Jie

    2017-03-01

    Exemplar-based face sketch synthesis has been widely applied to both digital entertainment and law enforcement. In this paper, we propose a Bayesian framework for face sketch synthesis, which provides a systematic interpretation for understanding the common properties and intrinsic difference in different methods from the perspective of probabilistic graphical models. The proposed Bayesian framework consists of two parts: the neighbor selection model and the weight computation model. Within the proposed framework, we further propose a Bayesian face sketch synthesis method. The essential rationale behind the proposed Bayesian method is that we take the spatial neighboring constraint between adjacent image patches into consideration for both aforementioned models, while the state-of-the-art methods neglect the constraint either in the neighbor selection model or in the weight computation model. Extensive experiments on the Chinese University of Hong Kong face sketch database demonstrate that the proposed Bayesian method could achieve superior performance compared with the state-of-the-art methods in terms of both subjective perceptions and objective evaluations.

  1. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  2. Autonomous Face Segmentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-09-01

    and Rhea Diamond. "From Piecemeal to Configurational Repre- sentation of Faces," Science, 195:312-314 (Jan 1977). 3. Damasio , Antonio R...34Prosopagnosia," Trends in Neuroscience, 8:132-135 (1985). 4. Damasio , Antonio R. and others. "Prosopagnosia: Anatomic Basis and Behav- ioral Mechanisms

  3. PrimeFaces blueprints

    CERN Document Server

    Jonna, Sudheer

    2014-01-01

    If you are a Java developer with experience of frontend UI development, and want to take the plunge to develop stunning UI applications with the most popular JSF framework, PrimeFaces, then this book is for you. For those with entrepreneurial aspirations, this book will provide valuable insights into how to utilize successful business models.

  4. Facing Up to Death

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Elizabeth Kubler

    1972-01-01

    Doctor urges that Americans accept death as a part of life and suggests ways of helping dying patients and their families face reality calmly, with peace. Dying children and their siblings, as well as children's feelings about relatives' deaths, are also discussed. (PD)

  5. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, Jelle R.; Gutjar, Swetlana; ter Horst, Gert J.; de Graaf, Kees; Renken, Remco J.; Jager, Gerry

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments.

  6. Ethics and Challenge by Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nussbaum, Gary

    1996-01-01

    An experiential practitioner discusses the foundations of his ethical perspective on challenge by choice--participant choice within adventure activities. These foundations include existential and experiential philosophy, leisure theory, and the adventure-based counseling model. The ethics of choice and informed consent is discussed in relation to…

  7. Evoked Emotions Predict Food Choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dalenberg, J.R.; Gutjar, S.; Horst, ter G.J.; Graaf, de C.; Renken, R.; Jager, G.

    2014-01-01

    In the current study we show that non-verbal food-evoked emotion scores significantly improve food choice prediction over merely liking scores. Previous research has shown that liking measures correlate with choice. However, liking is no strong predictor for food choice in real life environments. Th

  8. Efficient Facial Expression and Face Recognition using Ranking Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murali Krishna kanala

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Expression detection is useful as a non-invasive method of lie detection and behaviour prediction. However, these facial expressions may be difficult to detect to the untrained eye. In this paper we implements facial expression recognition techniques using Ranking Method. The human face plays an important role in our social interaction, conveying people's identity. Using human face as a key to security, the biometrics face recognition technology has received significant attention in the past several years. Experiments are performed using standard database like surprise, sad and happiness. The universally accepted three principal emotions to be recognized are: surprise, sad and happiness along with neutral.

  9. Two Faces of Search

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Thorbjørn; Levinthal, Daniel A.

    2007-01-01

    At its core, a behavioral theory of choice has two fundamental attributes that distinguish it from traditional economic models of decision making. One attribute is that choice sets are not available ex ante to actors, but must be constructed. This notion is well established in our models...... and adaptation. We develop a structure with which to capture the imperfect evaluation of alternatives at the individual level and then explore the implications of alternative organizational structures, comprising such individual actors, on organizational decision making....... of learning and adaptation. The second fundamental postulate is that the evaluation of alternatives is likely to be imperfect. Despite the enshrinement of the notion of bounded rationality in the organizations literature, this second postulate has been largely ignored in our formal models of learning...

  10. Age-Dependent Face Detection and Face Categorization Performance

    OpenAIRE

    Claus-Christian Carbon; Martina Grüter; Thomas Grüter

    2013-01-01

    Empirical studies on the development of face processing skills with age show inconsistent patterns concerning qualitative vs. quantitative changes over time or the age range for peak cognitive performance. In the present study, we tested the proficiency in face detection and face categorization with a large sample of participants (N = 312; age range: 2-88 yrs). As test objects, we used so-called Mooney faces, two-tone (black and white) images of faces lacking critical information of a local, ...

  11. Social choice for one: On the rationality of intertemporal decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paglieri, Fabio

    2016-06-01

    When faced with an intertemporal choice between a smaller short-term reward and a larger long-term prize, is opting for the latter always indicative of delay tolerance? And is delay tolerance always to be regarded as a manifestation of self-control, and thus as a rational solution to intertemporal dilemmas? I argue in favor of a negative answer to both questions, based on evidence collected in the delay discounting literature. This highlights the need for a nuanced understanding of rationality in intertemporal choice, to capture also situations in which waiting is not the optimal strategy. This paper suggests that such an understanding is fostered by adopting social choice theory as a promising framework to model intertemporal decision making. Some preliminary results of this approach are discussed, and its potential is compared with a much more studied formal model for intertemporal choice, i.e. game theory. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. The effects of visual degradation on face discrimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCulloch, Daphne L; Loffler, Gunter; Colquhoun, Kirsty; Bruce, Natalie; Dutton, Gordon N; Bach, Michael

    2011-05-01

    People with reduced visual acuity (VA) and/or contrast sensitivity have difficulty recognizing faces and facial expressions. We have quantified these difficulties, using a synthetic face discrimination task employing both normal and artificially degraded vision. VA and contrast thresholds were measured using an optimised staircase procedure [Freiburg acuity Test (FrACT)] in 25 young adults (aged 18-24 years) with corrected visual acuity of 0.0 logMAR or better and with four levels of vision degraded with Bangerter occlusion foils. For face discrimination, male face images were synthesised from 37 cardinal points (position of eyes, width of nose, head shape etc) derived from frontal face photographs and manipulated by altering the points as a fraction of the mean head radius. Face discrimination thresholds (% difference) were measured from a simultaneous four-alternative forced choice of 'odd one out' from three identical faces and one that differed. Psychometric functions were measured for four participants with normal and degraded vision. Subsequently, the difference between faces was fixed at twice the discrimination thresholds and the size of the faces manipulated using the FrACT threshold procedure in 25 participants. Data were converted to equivalent face discrimination distances for realistic face dimensions. With normal vision, face discrimination thresholds ranged from 2.7% to 5.6%; these increased systematically and were more variable with visual degradation. When manipulating face size, face discrimination distance was highly correlated with both acuity and contrast sensitivity (r(2) = 0.77 and 0.80 respectively, p discrimination distance was reduced to 3.9 m (3.7-4.1, ±S.E.M.). Poor face discrimination has a profound impact on real-life social communication. Here we report that artificial visual degradation also adversely impacts a synthetic face recognition task. As a rule of thumb, reduction in VA of 0.3 logMAR (halving the decimal VA) reduces the

  13. Face aftereffects predict individual differences in face recognition ability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dennett, Hugh W; McKone, Elinor; Edwards, Mark; Susilo, Tirta

    2012-01-01

    Face aftereffects are widely studied on the assumption that they provide a useful tool for investigating face-space coding of identity. However, a long-standing issue concerns the extent to which face aftereffects originate in face-level processes as opposed to earlier stages of visual processing. For example, some recent studies failed to find atypical face aftereffects in individuals with clinically poor face recognition. We show that in individuals within the normal range of face recognition abilities, there is an association between face memory ability and a figural face aftereffect that is argued to reflect the steepness of broadband-opponent neural response functions in underlying face-space. We further show that this correlation arises from face-level processing, by reporting results of tests of nonface memory and nonface aftereffects. We conclude that face aftereffects can tap high-level face-space, and that face-space coding differs in quality between individuals and contributes to face recognition ability.

  14. Overconfidence and Career Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, Jonathan F; Thöni, Christian

    2016-01-01

    People self-assess their relative ability when making career choices. Thus, confidence in their own abilities is likely an important factor for selection into various career paths. In a sample of 711 first-year students we examine whether there are systematic differences in confidence levels across fields of study. We find that our experimental confidence measures significantly vary between fields of study: While students in business related academic disciplines (Political Science, Law, Economics, and Business Administration) exhibit the highest confidence levels, students of Humanities range at the other end of the scale. This may have important implications for subsequent earnings and professions students select themselves in.

  15. Passport officers' errors in face matching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David White

    Full Text Available Photo-ID is widely used in security settings, despite research showing that viewers find it very difficult to match unfamiliar faces. Here we test participants with specialist experience and training in the task: passport-issuing officers. First, we ask officers to compare photos to live ID-card bearers, and observe high error rates, including 14% false acceptance of 'fraudulent' photos. Second, we compare passport officers with a set of student participants, and find equally poor levels of accuracy in both groups. Finally, we observe that passport officers show no performance advantage over the general population on a standardised face-matching task. Across all tasks, we observe very large individual differences: while average performance of passport staff was poor, some officers performed very accurately--though this was not related to length of experience or training. We propose that improvements in security could be made by emphasising personnel selection.

  16. Human faces are slower than chimpanzee faces.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M Burrows

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: While humans (like other primates communicate with facial expressions, the evolution of speech added a new function to the facial muscles (facial expression muscles. The evolution of speech required the development of a coordinated action between visual (movement of the lips and auditory signals in a rhythmic fashion to produce "visemes" (visual movements of the lips that correspond to specific sounds. Visemes depend upon facial muscles to regulate shape of the lips, which themselves act as speech articulators. This movement necessitates a more controlled, sustained muscle contraction than that produced during spontaneous facial expressions which occur rapidly and last only a short period of time. Recently, it was found that human tongue musculature contains a higher proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers than in rhesus macaques, which is related to the slower, more controlled movements of the human tongue in the production of speech. Are there similar unique, evolutionary physiologic biases found in human facial musculature related to the evolution of speech? METHODOLOGY/PRINICIPAL FINDINGS: Using myosin immunohistochemistry, we tested the hypothesis that human facial musculature has a higher percentage of slow-twitch myosin fibers relative to chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta. We sampled the orbicularis oris and zygomaticus major muscles from three cadavers of each species and compared proportions of fiber-types. Results confirmed our hypothesis: humans had the highest proportion of slow-twitch myosin fibers while chimpanzees had the highest proportion of fast-twitch fibers. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These findings demonstrate that the human face is slower than that of rhesus macaques and our closest living relative, the chimpanzee. They also support the assertion that human facial musculature and speech co-evolved. Further, these results suggest a unique set of evolutionary selective pressures on

  17. Course Modality Choice and Student Performance in Business Statistics Courses in Post Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radners, Richard Harry, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the role of course modality choice (face-to-face [FTF] or online [OL]) on course grades. At the study site, an independent college, the research problem was the lack of research on the proportions of undergraduate students who completed a statistics course as part of their academic program, in either OL or…

  18. Course Modality Choice and Student Performance in Business Statistics Courses in Post Secondary Institutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radners, Richard Harry, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Limited research has been conducted on the role of course modality choice (face-to-face [FTF] or online [OL]) on course grades. At the study site, an independent college, the research problem was the lack of research on the proportions of undergraduate students who completed a statistics course as part of their academic program, in either OL or…

  19. "Home" or Away? The Higher Education Choices of Expatriate Children in the United Arab Emirates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilkins, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research upon which this article is based was to identify the factors that influence the higher education choices of expatriate children. The study involved a self-completed written questionnaire and structured face-to-face interviews with nineteen students at four international schools in the United Arab Emirates (UAE). The…

  20. Jumping through Hoops: College Choice Experiences of African American Male Community College Club Basketball Players

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ellis, Kimberly Carlotta

    2011-01-01

    This study aimed to learn what factors influenced the college choice decision-making process of African American male club basketball players in the community college. To understand how the participants determined their educational path, face-to-face interviews were conducted with 21 African American male students who were enrolled in at least six…

  1. The effect of texture on face identification and configural information processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tzschaschel Eva Alica

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Shape and texture are an integral part of face identity. In the present study, the importance of face texture for face identification and detection of configural manipulation (i.e., spatial relation among facial features was examined by comparing grayscale face photographs (i.e., real faces and line drawings of the same faces. Whereas real faces provide information about texture and shape of faces, line drawings are lacking texture cues. A change-detection task and a forced-choice identification task were used with both stimuli categories. Within the change detection task, participants had to decide whether the size of the eyes of two sequentially presented faces had changed or not. After having made this decision, three faces were shown to the subjects and they had to identify the previously shown face among them. Furthermore, context (full vs. cropped faces and orientation (upright vs. inverted were manipulated. The results obtained in the change detection task suggest that configural information was used in processing real faces, while part-based and featural information was used in processing line-drawings. Additionally, real faces were identified more accurately than line drawings, and identification was less context but more orientation sensitive than identification of line drawings. Taken together, the results of the present study provide new evidence stressing the importance of face texture for identity encoding and configural face processing.

  2. [Adolescence and choice of contraceptive].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, L

    1986-11-01

    The majority of books, studies, and publications on adolescence are written by adults, whose frequent focus on unbridled adolescent sexuality, adolescents in crisis, or immature adolescents does not seem to correspond to the self-image of adolescents. All authors agree that adolescence is the period between childhood and adulthood beginning at puberty, but opinions differ as to the termination of adolescence and entrance into adulthood. The most significant consensus about adolescence is its tendency to become prolonged. The majority of authors regard adolescence as a preparation for adult life and hence as a natural phase necessary and indispensable to human existence. Ethnographic studies of societies that do not acknowledge adolescence demonstrate, however, that it is not a natural phase. It is also evident that comparatively few roles in modern society require lengthy periods of preparation such as adolescence. It is therefore difficult to regard adolescence as a time of preparation for adult life. From a historic perspective, adolescence emerged with the socioeconomic transformations of industrialization. Mechanization and automation excluded numerous types of workers, especially young workers, from the labor force. Adolescence represents marginalization of young people in response to socioeconomic exigencies rather than a period of preparation for a better adult life. The marginalization is internalized in the consciousness of adults and youth alike and in their hierarchical relations. The marginalization of young people is expressed in the domain of sexuality by the fact that, although physiologically mature, adolescents are not viewed as psychologically mature enough to have children. Adolescents have sexual relations at increasingly young ages, but unlike adults they are not permitted by society the choice of having a child. Contraception, an option for adults, becomes obligatory for sexually active adolescents. The refusal of contraception or failure to

  3. The evolution of holistic processing of faces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren eBurke

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we examine the holistic processing of faces from an evolutionary perspective, clarifying what such an approach entails, and evaluating the extent to which the evidence currently available permits any strong conclusions. While it seems clear that the holistic processing of faces depends on mechanisms evolved to perform that task, our review of the comparative literature reveals that there is currently insufficient evidence (or sometimes insufficiently compelling evidence to decide when in our evolutionary past such processing may have arisen. It is also difficult to assess what kinds of selection pressures may have led to evolution of such a mechanism, or even what kinds of information holistic processing may have originally evolved to extract, given that many sources of socially relevant face-based information other than identity depend on integrating information across different regions of the face – judgements of expression, behavioural intent, attractiveness, sex, age, etc. We suggest some directions for future research that would help to answer these important questions.

  4. [The clinical usefulness of predicting difficult endotracheal intubation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suyama, H; Tsuno, S; Takeyoshi, S

    1999-01-01

    We conducted several tests for predicting the difficult intubation airway in 476 patients excluding those with neck disease and anatomical abnormalities. The evaluation was performed using four methods. 1. The size of the tongue in relation to the oral cavity (Mallampani test: M-T). 2. The hyomental distance (H-D). 3. The thyromental distance (T-D). 4. The atranto-occipital joint extension (AOJE). Of these four methods, M-T was the best predictor of a difficult airway. However, all of these four methods may be good predictors, employing modified criteria which include M-T = class 2, 3, 4, H-D = less than 3.0 cm, T-D = less than 6.0 cm, and AOJE = less than 35 degrees.

  5. Difficult airway management from Emergency Department till Intensive Care Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Debasis; Bhattacharyya, Prithwis

    2015-09-01

    We report a case of "can ventilate but can't intubate" situation which was successfully managed in the Emergency Department and Intensive Care Unit by the use of ProSeal laryngeal mask airway and Frova Intubating Introducer as bridging rescue devices. Use of appropriate technique while strictly following the difficult airway algorithm is the mainstay of airway management in unanticipated difficult airway situations. Although the multiple airway devices were used but each step took not more than 2 min and "don't struggle, skip to the next step principle" was followed. With the availability of many advanced airway management tools, the intensivists should have a training and experience along with preparedness in order to perform such lifesaving airway managements.

  6. Management of difficult airway during laryngectomy and thyroidectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukhminder Jit Singh Bajwa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Laryngectomy is always a challenging surgery both from surgical and anaesthesiologist′s perspective. The situation can get worse when such patients present with advanced laryngeal cancerrequire a definite surgical intervention along with thyroid gland removal. Apart from anesthetic difficulties in managing the deranged anatomy and pathophysiology, management of difficult airway during peri-operative period can be a huge challenging task. We are reporting a case of laryngeal carcinoma that was posted for laryngectomy and thyroidectomy as the thyroid gland was also invaded to a small extent. A difficult airway situation was anticipated as during indirect laryngoscopy it was observed that the glottic covering was occluded to a large extent by a soft tissue growth.

  7. An unanticipated difficult airway in Lesch–Nyhan syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, Rashmi; Sharma, Chhavi; Tyagi, Asha; Kumar, Surendra; Sethi, AK; Bhatt, Shuchi

    2012-01-01

    An 11-year-old boy with Lesch–Nyhan syndrome presented to the emergency for fixation of a fractured femur. During induction of general anesthesia, unexpected difficult intubation was encountered with a 6.5-mm ID endotracheal tube and successively smaller tubes, also failing to pass 1 cm beyond the vocal cords. Intubation was finally achieved with a 4.5-mm ID tube. The surgery was completed uneventfully. A tracheal diverticulum was found in the computerized tomography (CT) scan performed postoperatively to account for this unexpected difficult intubation. This case highlights the anesthetic concerns in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and also reports the rare occurrence of a tracheal diverticulum associated with it. PMID:22557752

  8. An unanticipated difficult airway in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salhotra, Rashmi; Sharma, Chhavi; Tyagi, Asha; Kumar, Surendra; Sethi, Ak; Bhatt, Shuchi

    2012-04-01

    An 11-year-old boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome presented to the emergency for fixation of a fractured femur. During induction of general anesthesia, unexpected difficult intubation was encountered with a 6.5-mm ID endotracheal tube and successively smaller tubes, also failing to pass 1 cm beyond the vocal cords. Intubation was finally achieved with a 4.5-mm ID tube. The surgery was completed uneventfully. A tracheal diverticulum was found in the computerized tomography (CT) scan performed postoperatively to account for this unexpected difficult intubation. This case highlights the anesthetic concerns in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and also reports the rare occurrence of a tracheal diverticulum associated with it.

  9. An unanticipated difficult airway in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Salhotra

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An 11-year-old boy with Lesch-Nyhan syndrome presented to the emergency for fixation of a fractured femur. During induction of general anesthesia, unexpected difficult intubation was encountered with a 6.5-mm ID endotracheal tube and successively smaller tubes, also failing to pass 1 cm beyond the vocal cords. Intubation was finally achieved with a 4.5-mm ID tube. The surgery was completed uneventfully. A tracheal diverticulum was found in the computerized tomography (CT scan performed postoperatively to account for this unexpected difficult intubation. This case highlights the anesthetic concerns in Lesch-Nyhan syndrome and also reports the rare occurrence of a tracheal diverticulum associated with it.

  10. [Bipolar disorder in children and adolescents: a difficult diagnosis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geoffroy, Pierre Alexis; Jardri, Renaud; Etain, Bruno; Thomas, Pierre; Rolland, Benjamin

    2014-09-01

    Bipolar disorder (BD) is a severe mental condition with neurodevelopmental features that clinically results in pathological fluctuations of mood. Whereas it was classically or traditionally considered as an adult-onset disorder, recent findings suggest that BD may occur very early in the life course, thus, determining what is now called Juvenile bipolar disorder (JBD). One of the reasons for which JBD has been so difficult to identify is that JBD primary symptoms vary much from the typical adulthood BD clinical expression. Euphoric mood is rare in JBD, while irritability mood, aggressive temper, mixed manic state onset, rapid cycling, anger outbursts and chronic course of symptoms are much more frequent. This specific clinical presentation makes JBD difficult to differentiate from other diagnoses related to pathological externalizing behaviours, including conduct disorder, oppositional provocative disorder, and attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michaelsen, Jette Joost

    2012-01-01

    patient, the avoidance strategy did not necessarily represent the terminal stage, since a nurse could revert to the compromise strategy. Some of the nurses experienced painful emotions regarding these interactions. Conclusions: The avoidance strategy (emotional distance) resulted in important social......Scand J Caring Sci; 2011 Emotional distance to so-called difficult patients Purpose: To explore nurses' relationships with patients they regard as being difficult. How do nurses feel about such patients and relate to them, and what are the consequences for nurse and patient? Design and methods....... Patients' case records were studied and four meetings with the staff were arranged to discuss the findings. Data collection lasted 18 months in all. Findings: Three strategies were identified: persuasion, avoidance (emotional distance), and compromise. Interestingly, in the relationship with a particular...

  12. The road to the synthesis of "difficult peptides".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paradís-Bas, Marta; Tulla-Puche, Judit; Albericio, Fernando

    2016-02-07

    The last decade has witnessed a renaissance of peptides as drugs. This progress, together with advances in the structural behavior of peptides, has attracted the interest of the pharmaceutical industry in these molecules as potential APIs. In the past, major peptide-based drugs were inspired by sequences extracted from natural structures of low molecular weight. In contrast, nowadays, the peptides being studied by academic and industrial groups comprise more sophisticated sequences. For instance, they consist of long amino acid chains and show a high tendency to form aggregates. Some researchers have claimed that preparing medium-sized proteins is now feasible with chemical ligation techniques, in contrast to medium-sized peptide syntheses. The complexity associated with the synthesis of certain peptides is exemplified by the so-called "difficult peptides", a concept introduced in the 80's. This refers to sequences that show inter- or intra-molecular β-sheet interactions significant enough to form aggregates during peptide synthesis. These structural associations are stabilized and mediated by non-covalent hydrogen bonds that arise on the backbone of the peptide and-depending on the sequence-are favored. The tendency of peptide chains to aggregate is translated into a list of common behavioral features attributed to "difficult peptides" which hinder their synthesis. In this regard, this manuscript summarizes the strategies used to overcome the inherent difficulties associated with the synthesis of known "difficult peptides". Here we evaluate several external factors, as well as methods to incorporate chemical modifications into sequences, in order to describe the strategies that are effective for the synthesis of "difficult peptides". These approaches have been classified and ordered to provide an extensive guide for achieving the synthesis of peptides with the aforementioned features.

  13. An improved method to spot-weld difficult junctions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrenz, Elizabeth E.; Amare, Andinet; Arumainayagam, Christopher R.

    2001-12-01

    Recent advances in spot-welding technology such as high frequency direct current inverter welders provide an improved and reproducible method to spot-weld difficult junctions. The importance of removing the oxide layers on metal surfaces, accurately delivering the weld pulse profile, and controlling the force applied to the materials during the welding process are discussed in the context of resistance spot-welding a molybdenum crystal to a tantalum loop and attaching a tungsten-rhenium thermocouple to the crystal.

  14. Families: from difficult to exceptional--one team's journey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Marilyn Kay; Miers, Anne; Sulla, Stephanie; Vines, Heilia

    2007-01-01

    Families of patients need support when the hospital stay becomes more difficult than anticipated. Healthcare providers also need assistance when caring for them. A continuous improvement team, Caring for Exceptional Families, was initiated to develop a system with tools and interventions for a proactive multidisciplinary approach to identifying families at risk for negative behavior during the hospital experience. The process and outcomes of this team are described.

  15. Acute urinary retention and the difficult catheterization: current emergency management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sliwinski, Ania; D'Arcy, Frank T; Sultana, Ron; Lawrentschuk, Nathan

    2016-04-01

    Acute urinary retention (AUR) is a common presentation to emergency departments. This article updates the reader on the appropriate management, investigations and guidelines for AUR. It looks at the mechanism of normal micturition and describes the theories of AUR. It outlines urethral catheterization techniques for difficult cases, reviews suprapubic catheterization procedures and describes the management of AUR in polytrauma. Although emergency management is by bladder drainage, key points in the history and examination may expose significant, latent pathologies.

  16. Difficult factors in Management of Impacted Dental Prosthesis in Esophagus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efiaty A. Soepardi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available A dental prosthesis which ingested and impacted in esophagus, is an emergency case and life threatening, so require immediate esophagoscopy intervention for removing. The objective of this study is to assess some factors can caused dtfficulties in diagnosing and treating the ingested and impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus and their complications. This retrospective study analyzed patient’s chart whose underwent esophagoscopy for removing the impacted dental prosthesis in Dr. Cipto Mangunkusumo General Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia during a period between January 1997 and December 2003. Neck-chest X-ray and esophagoscopy were performed in all patients to identify the existence of the dental prosthesis as a diagnostic and treatment procedure. The length of time for removing the dental prosthesis was recorded and stated as a less difficult esophagoscopy when it takes time less than 60 minutes and as a difficult  esophagoscopy takes 60 minutes or longer. Some risk difficulties factors were statistically analyzed. There were 53 patients of ingested dental prosthesis in esophagus. Only 51 cases were analyzed According to the length of time for removing the dental prosthesis by esophagoscopy, 22 patients were recorded as less difficult cases and 29 patients as difficult cases. Two cases among the cases needed cervicotomy after unsuccessful esophagoscopy removal. The difficulties to diagnose an impacted dental prosthesis in the esophagus caused by unreliable clinical history, unclear signs and symptoms, unable to be detected by X-ray and was not found during esophagoscopy. The difficulties in treating due to mucosal laceration, edema, bleeding, failure of the first extraction and conformity with the size and shape, the wire outside the dental prosthesis and the length of time stayed in the esophagus. (Med J Indones 2005; 14: 33-6Keywords: ingested dental prosthesis, radioluscent foreign body, length of time of esophagoscopy

  17. THE PREDICTION OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION WITH BEDSIDE SCORING SYSTEMS

    OpenAIRE

    Gerçek, Arzu; Lim, Sema; İşler, Banu; Eti, Zeynep; Göğüs, Yılmaz

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation of sex, age, bedside scoring systems and body mass index with laryngoscopic view in patients with clinically difficult intubation.Methods: Five hundred patients, aged 20-70 years, were included in the study. The age, sex, weight and height of the patients were recorded preoperatively and body mass index was calculated. The patients were examined for Mallampati classification, thyromental distance, mouth opening, neck mobility an...

  18. Difficultly Extractable Fixed Ammonium in Some Soils of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENBIYUN; CHENGLILI; 等

    1999-01-01

    Ninety-three soil samples and 19 sedimentary rock samples collected from 21 provinces of China were analyzed for their contents of fixed ammonium and total N by Kjeldahl-HF method.Results showed that amount of difficultly extractable fixed ammonium(the fixed ammonium that is not determinable by Kjeldahl procedures commonly used for soils) in soils ranged from 0 to 202 mg kg-1,It was generally more than 50 mg kg-1 in soils in Changji and Turpan districts,Xinjiang,accounting for 3.2%-36.8% with an average of 13.9% of the total N.For some Orthents derived from purple shale and purple sandstone in Sichuan and Hunan provinces and Chao soils derived from secondary loess in Henan Province and Ningxia Autonomous Region it was generally around 30 mg kg-1,accounting for 4%-7% of the total soil N,and for most of the rest of soils studied,with the exception of some subsoils,no or trace difficultly extractable fixed ammonium could be detected.It was sugested that the difficultly extractable fixed ammonium was originated from parent rock,and for slightly weathered soils derived from parent materials rich in this form of N the Kjeldahl method might give underestimation of total soil N.

  19. Rigid fibrescope Bonfils: use in simulated difficult airway by novices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piepho Tim

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The Bonfils intubation fibrescope is a promising alternative device for securing the airway. We examined the success rate of intubation and the ease of use in standardized simulated difficult airway scenarios by physicians. We compared the Bonfils to a classical laryngoscope with Macintosh blade. Methods 30 physicians untrained in the use of rigid fibrescopes but experienced in airway management performed endotracheal intubation in an airway manikin (SimMan, Laerdal, Kent, UK with three different airway conditions. We evaluated the success rate using the Bonfils (Karl Storz, Tuttlingen, Germany or the Macintosh laryngoscope, the time needed for securing the airway, and subjective rating of both techniques. Results In normal airway all intubations were successful using laryngoscope (100% vs. 82% using the Bonfils (p Conclusion The Bonfils can be successfully used by physicians unfamiliar with this technique in an airway manikin. The airway could be secured with at least the same success rate as using a Macintosh laryngoscope in difficult airway scenarios. Use of the Bonfils did not delay intubation in the presence of a difficult airway. These results indicate that intensive special training is advised to use the Bonfils effectively in airway management.

  20. Current Trends in the Management of Difficult Urinary Catheterizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paul A Willette

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Routine urinary catheter placement may cause trauma and poses a risk of infection. Male catheterization, in particular, can be difficult, especially in patients with enlarged prostate glands or other potentially obstructive conditions in the lower urinary tract. Solutions to problematic urinary catheterization are not well known and when difficult catheterization occurs, the risk of failed catheterization and concomitant complications increase. Repeated and unsuccessful attempts at urinary catheterization induce stress and pain for the patient, injury to the urethra, potential urethral stricture requiring surgical reconstruction, and problematic subsequent catheterization. Improper insertion of catheters also can significantly increase healthcare costs due to added days of hospitalization, increased interventions, and increased complexity of follow-up evaluations. Improved techniques for catheter placement are essential for all healthcare personnel involved in the management of the patient with acute urinary retention, including attending emergency physicians who often are the first physicians to encounter such patients. Best practice methods for blind catheter placement are summarized in this review. In addition, for progressive clinical practice, an algorithm for the management of difficult urinary catheterizations that incorporates technology enabling direct visualization of the urethra during catheter insertion is presented. This algorithm will aid healthcare personnel in decision making and has the potential to improve quality of care of patients.

  1. Hydro-dissection - A simple Solution in Difficult Laparoscopic Cholecystectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lubna, H; Masoom, M R

    2015-07-01

    This Quasi-experimental study was done to assess the effectiveness of hydro-dissection in difficult laparoscopic cholecystectomies in Hamdard University Hospital, Karachi, Pakistan, from April 2012 to March 2014. All consecutive patients who presented with cholelithiasis and planned for laparoscopic cholecystectomy were enrolled in this study. Per-operatively the degree of difficulty of the operation was assessed by Cuschieri's scale after grading; Grade II, III and IV cholecystectomies were included in this study. Hydro dissection with saline jet through 5mm simple irrigation and suction probe was used, Operative findings and the total number of patients, in whom anatomy of calot's triangle was clearly displayed with hydro-dissection, was recorded. A total 55 patients were included in the study after assessing the degree of difficulty per operatively by Cuschieri Scale. Thirty one (31) patients were in Group II, 22 in Group III and 02 were included in group IV of Cuschieri scale in which hydro-dissection was used. This method cleared the obscure anatomy in all patients in Group II but in 3 patients of Group III, dense adhesions required sharp dissection to clear the operative field. Two patients, in whom conversion was required, were grouped in Cuschieri's scale IV. Methods of dissection in difficult cholecystectomies are of paramount importance to avoid iatrogenic injuries. Hydro-dissection using suction irrigation probe is a safe and effective technique to clear the difficult anatomy.

  2. Robust Point Set Matching for Partial Face Recognition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Renliang; Lu, Jiwen; Tan, Yap-Peng

    2016-03-01

    Over the past three decades, a number of face recognition methods have been proposed in computer vision, and most of them use holistic face images for person identification. In many real-world scenarios especially some unconstrained environments, human faces might be occluded by other objects, and it is difficult to obtain fully holistic face images for recognition. To address this, we propose a new partial face recognition approach to recognize persons of interest from their partial faces. Given a pair of gallery image and probe face patch, we first detect keypoints and extract their local textural features. Then, we propose a robust point set matching method to discriminatively match these two extracted local feature sets, where both the textural information and geometrical information of local features are explicitly used for matching simultaneously. Finally, the similarity of two faces is converted as the distance between these two aligned feature sets. Experimental results on four public face data sets show the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  3. Face symmetry assessment abilities: Clinical implications for diagnosing asymmetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Tate H.; Mitroff, Stephen R.; Clark, Kait; Proffit, William R.; Lee, Jessica Y.; Nguyen, Tung T.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction An accurate assessment of face symmetry is necessary for the development of a dentofacial diagnosis in orthodontics, and an understanding of individual differences in perception of face symmetry between patients and providers is needed to facilitate successful treatment. Methods Orthodontists, general dentists, and control participants completed a series of tasks to assess symmetry. Judgments were made on pairs of upright faces (similar to the longitudinal assessment of photographic patient records), inverted faces, and dot patterns. Participants completed questionnaires regarding clinical practice, education level, and self-confidence ratings for symmetry assessment abilities. Results Orthodontists showed expertise compared with controls (P <0.001), whereas dentists showed no advantage over controls. Orthodontists performed better than dentists, however, in only the most difficult face symmetry judgments (P = 0.006). For both orthodontists and dentists, accuracy increased significantly when assessing symmetry in upright vs inverted faces (t = 3.7, P = 0.001; t = 2.7, P = 0.02, respectively). Conclusions Orthodontists showed expertise in assessing face symmetry compared with both laypersons and general dentists, and they were more accurate when judging upright than inverted faces. When using accurate longitudinal photographic records to assess changing face symmetry, orthodontists are likely to be incorrect in less than 15% of cases, suggesting that assistance from some additional technology is infrequently needed for diagnosis. PMID:24182582

  4. Automated Face Recognition System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-12-01

    atestfOl.feature-vectjJ -averageljJ); for(j=l; <num-coefsj++) for(i= 5 num-train-faces;i++) sdlQjI -(btrainhil.feaure..vecU1- veagU (btraintil.feature- vecU ... vecU ])* (atest(O1.feature-vecUJ - btrain[iI.feature- vecU ]) + temp; btrain(ii.distance = sqrt ( (double) temp); I**** Store the k-nearest neighbors rank

  5. Auto Industry Faces Change

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    A number of indicators show that China's auto industry is facing a new round of large-scale restructuring. When the global auto industry was undergoing reorganization 10 years ago, China's auto industry was in its early stages, acting in a relatively closed market, and thus it missed out on that important event. However, the situation is different today. In the past decade, China's auto industry has grown at a rapid pace. While the world's major transnational companies are

  6. Non-adherence in difficult asthma: time to take it seriously.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaney, Liam G; Horne, Rob

    2012-03-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated a high prevalence of non-adherence with anti-inflammatory medication in patients referred for specialist assessment with difficult-to-control asthma. As well as poor asthma outcome and increased healthcare cost, failure to detect non-adherence makes identification of true treatment-resistant/refractory asthma challenging. This is because guideline definitions of refractory asthma are all predicated on failure to respond to high-dose anti-inflammatory therapy but do not state how adherence with this therapy should be assessed. With the advent of novel expensive biological therapies, the systematic identification of non-adherence becomes more essential to avoid targeting therapies at an inappropriate patient group. Novel biomarkers of steroid exposure, in combination with more traditional surrogate measures such as prescription filling assessment, may allow more objective assessments of non-adherence to be developed in the future. When identified, non-adherence can potentially be targeted and improved, but the key challenge is to empower patients to make informed choices about medicines rather than decisions influenced by misplaced beliefs about benefit and harm. There is an urgent need for the systematic development of individualised interventions which allow non-adherence to be effectively managed. Thus, non-adherence must become a priority in the clinical assessment of difficult-to-control asthma because addressing non-adherence is likely to deliver greater benefits in this group than any novel treatment. It is essential that future research examines strategies and interventions to address non-adherence in subjects with difficult-to-control asthma.

  7. Decoding of faces and face components in face-sensitive human visual cortex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David F Nichols

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A great challenge to the field of visual neuroscience is to understand how faces are encoded and represented within the human brain. Here we show evidence from functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI for spatially distributed processing of the whole face and its components in face-sensitive human visual cortex. We used multi-class linear pattern classifiers constructed with a leave-one-scan-out verification procedure to discriminate brain activation patterns elicited by whole faces, the internal features alone, and the external head outline alone. Furthermore, our results suggest that whole faces are represented disproportionately in the fusiform cortex (FFA whereas the building blocks of faces are represented disproportionately in occipitotemporal cortex (OFA. Faces and face components may therefore be organized with functional clustering within both the FFA and OFA, but with specialization for face components in the OFA and the whole face in the FFA.

  8. Tectonique globale. Quelques difficultés Global Tectonics. a Few Problems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vitart M. J.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available On constate que malgré la brillante démonstration apportée par les forages dans le fond des océans, les praticiens de la géologie observent une certaine réserve face aux concepts de la Tectonique globale. C'est que d'une part, certaines hypothèses de base sont difficiles à comprendre et que d'autre part, la théorie aide assez peu à la résolution des problèmes qui se présentent au géologue praticien. Nous prendrons comme exemple - la difficulté de l'interprétation des anomalies magnétiques des océans; - le problème des « structures reliques » en milieu océanique; - le problème du changement de plaque et de l'inversion du mouvement; - les bassins intraplaques transverses aux ouvertures. Despite the brilliant demonstration of drilling into ocean beds, geologists seems ta be maintaining a certain reserve when confronted with concepts of global tectonics. On one hand, some basic assumptions are difficult ta understand, and on the other the theory is of relatively little help in solving the problems faced by practicing geologists. A few examples of such problems are - the difficulty in interpreting magnetic anomalies in oceans; - the problem of « relic structures » in on oceanic environment; - the problem of plate changes and inversion of movements; - intraplate basins bridging openings.

  9. Face-space: A unifying concept in face recognition research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentine, Tim; Lewis, Michael B; Hills, Peter J

    2016-10-01

    The concept of a multidimensional psychological space, in which faces can be represented according to their perceived properties, is fundamental to the modern theorist in face processing. Yet the idea was not clearly expressed until 1991. The background that led to the development of face-space is explained, and its continuing influence on theories of face processing is discussed. Research that has explored the properties of the face-space and sought to understand caricature, including facial adaptation paradigms, is reviewed. Face-space as a theoretical framework for understanding the effect of ethnicity and the development of face recognition is evaluated. Finally, two applications of face-space in the forensic setting are discussed. From initially being presented as a model to explain distinctiveness, inversion, and the effect of ethnicity, face-space has become a central pillar in many aspects of face processing. It is currently being developed to help us understand adaptation effects with faces. While being in principle a simple concept, face-space has shaped, and continues to shape, our understanding of face perception.

  10. Attention and choice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orquin, Jacob Lund; Mueller Loose, Simone

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on eye movements in decision making, and compares their observations to theoretical predictions concerning the role of attention in decision making. Four decision theories are examined: rational models, bounded rationality, evidence accumulation, and parallel constraint...... satisfaction models. Although most theories were confirmed with regard to certain predictions, none of the theories adequately accounted for the role of attention during decision making. Several observations emerged concerning the drivers and down-stream effects of attention on choice, suggesting...... that attention processes plays an active role in constructing decisions. So far, decision theories have largely ignored the constructive role of attention by assuming that it is entirely determined by heuristics, or that it consists of stochastic information sampling. The empirical observations reveal...

  11. Axiom of choice

    CERN Document Server

    Herrlich, Horst

    2006-01-01

    AC, the axiom of choice, because of its non-constructive character, is the most controversial mathematical axiom, shunned by some, used indiscriminately by others. This treatise shows paradigmatically that: Disasters happen without AC: Many fundamental mathematical results fail (being equivalent in ZF to AC or to some weak form of AC). Disasters happen with AC: Many undesirable mathematical monsters are being created (e.g., non measurable sets and undeterminate games). Some beautiful mathematical theorems hold only if AC is replaced by some alternative axiom, contradicting AC (e.g., by AD, the axiom of determinateness). Illuminating examples are drawn from diverse areas of mathematics, particularly from general topology, but also from algebra, order theory, elementary analysis, measure theory, game theory, and graph theory.

  12. The impact of choice context on consumers' choice heuristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mueller Loose, Simone; Scholderer, Joachim; Corsi, Armando M.

    2012-01-01

    how a change from a typical price order to a sensory order in wine menus affects consumer choice. We use pre-specified latent heuristic classes to analyse the existence of different choice processes, which begins to untangle the ‘black box’ of how consumers choose. Our findings indicate...... that in the absence of price order, consumers are less price-sensitive, pay more attention to visually salient cues, are less consistent in their choices and employ other simple choice heuristics more frequently than price. Implications for consumer research, marketing and consumer policy are discussed....

  13. Life-history strategy, food choice, and caloric consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laran, Juliano; Salerno, Anthony

    2013-02-01

    Do people's perceptions that they live in a harsh environment influence their food choices? Drawing on life-history theory, we propose that cues indicating that the current environment is harsh (e.g., news about an economic crisis, the sight of people facing adversity in life) lead people to perceive that resources in the world are scarce. As a consequence, people seek and consume more filling and high-calorie foods, which they believe will sustain them for longer periods of time. Although perceptions of harshness can promote unhealthy eating, we show how this effect can be attenuated and redirected to promote healthier food choices.

  14. Self-politeness and Choice of Request Strategies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUE Feng-min

    2015-01-01

    Requests are face-threatening acts. When making requests, it is generally believed that people choose different request strategies for the sake of politeness to others. In this paper, with Cheng’s(2001) self-politeness model as the point of departure, it is argued that people’s choice of request strategies is not only affected by the consideration of politeness to others but also by self-politeness. Factors that can influence people’s choice of self-politeness strategies in making requests are also discussed.

  15. Difficult Tracheal Intubation in Obese Gastric Bypass patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dohrn, Niclas; Sommer, Thorbjørn; Bisgaard, Jannie; Rønholm, Ebbe; Larsen, Jens Fromholt

    2016-11-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly perceived to be more difficult in obese patients than in lean patients. Primarily, we investigated the association between difficult tracheal intubation (DTI) and obesity, and secondarily, the association between DTI and validated scoring systems used to assess the airways, the association between DTI and quantities of anesthetics used to induce general anesthesia, and the association between DTI and difficulties with venous and arterial cannulation. This is a monocentric prospective observational clinical study of a consecutive series of 539 obese patients undergoing gastric bypass. Tracheal intubation was done preoperatively together with scoring of Intubation Score (IS), Mallampati (MLP), and Cormack-Lehane classification (CLC) and registration of the quantities of anesthetics and total attempts on cannulation. The overall proportion of patients with DTI was 3.5 % and the patients with DTI were more frequently males, had higher CLC, higher American Society of Anesthesiologists physical status classification (ASA), and noticeably, a lower BMI compared to the patients with easy tracheal intubation. After adjustment with multivariable analyses body mass index (BMI) 2, ASA scores >2, and male gender were risk factors of DTI. Males generally had higher CLC, MLP, and ASA scores compared to females, but no difference in BMI. There was no difference in quantities of anesthetics used between the two groups with or without DTI. Intra-venous and intra-arterial cannulation was succeeded in first attempt in 85 and 86 % of the patients, respectively, and there were no association between BMI and difficult vascular access. We found no association between increasing BMI and DTI.

  16. Case Report: Modified Laparoscopic Subtotal Cholecystectomy: An Alternative Approach to the “Difficult Gallbladder”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segal, Michael S.; Huynh, Richard H.; Wright, George O.

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 56 Final Diagnosis: Acute cholecystitis Symptoms: Abdominal pain Medication:— Clinical Procedure: Laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy Specialty: Surgery Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Laparoscopic cholecystectomy is a commonly performed surgical procedure. In certain situations visualization of the Callot triangle can become difficult due to inflammation, adhesions, and sclerosing of the anatomy. Without being able to obtain the “critical view of safety” (CVS), there is increased risk of damage to vital structures. An alternative approach to the conventional conversion to an open cholecystectomy (OC) would be a laparoscopic subtotal cholecystectomy (LSC). Case Report: We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with acute cholecystitis with a “difficult gallbladder” managed with LSC. Due to poor visualization of the Callot triangle due to adhesions, safe dissection was not feasible. In an effort to avoid injury to the common bile duct (CBD), dissection began at the dome of the gallbladder allowing an alternative view while ensuring safety of critical structures. Conclusions: We discuss the potential benefits and risks of LSC versus conversion to OC. Our discussion incorporates the pathophysiology that allows LSC in this particular circumstance to be successful, and the considerations a surgeon faces in making a decision in management. PMID:28220035

  17. Contentious Conversations: Using Mediation Techniques in Difficult Clinical Ethics Consultations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiester, Autumn

    2015-01-01

    Mediators utilize a wide range of skills in the process of facilitating dialogue and resolving conflicts. Among the most useful techniques for clinical ethics consultants (CECs)-and surely the least discussed-are those employed in acrimonious, hostile conversations between stakeholders. In the context of clinical ethics disputes or other bedside conflicts, good mediation skills can reverse the negative interactions that have prevented the creation of workable treatment plans or ethical consensus. This essay lays out the central framework mediators use in distinguishing positions from interests and describes a set of strategies for managing contentious ethics consultations or working with "difficult" patients, families, or patient-careprovider interactions.

  18. Cystic hygroma: A difficult airway and its anaesthetic implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurulingappa

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A 2-month-old child presented with gross and huge swelling on the left side of the neck with difficulty in feeding. It was diagnosed to be cystic hygroma and a decision was made to excise the swelling to enable the child thrive better. Difficult intubation was anticipated and the child was intubated with inhalation induction. The intra-operative period was smooth and the tumour was excised completely. Post-operatively, it was decided to ventilate the child because of airway difficulties.

  19. Predictors of Difficult Intubation with the Bonfils Rigid Fiberscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nowakowski, Michal; Williams, Stephan; Gallant, Jason; Ruel, Monique; Robitaille, Arnaud

    2016-06-01

    Endotracheal intubation is commonly performed via direct laryngoscopy (DL). However, in certain patients, DL may be difficult or impossible. The Bonfils Rigid Fiberscope® (BRF) is an alternative intubation device, the design of which raises the question of whether factors that predict difficult DL also predict difficult BRF. We undertook this study to determine which demographic, morphologic, and morphometric factors predict difficult intubation with the BRF. Four hundred adult patients scheduled for elective surgery were recruited. Patients were excluded if awake intubation, rapid sequence induction, or induction without neuromuscular blocking agents was planned. Data were recorded, including age, sex, weight, height, American Society of Anesthesiologist classification, history of snoring and sleep apnea, Mallampati class, upper lip bite test score, interincisor, thyromental and sternothyroid distances, manubriomental distances in flexion and extension, neck circumference, maximal neck flexion and extension, neck skinfold thickness at the cricoid cartilage, and Cormack and Lehane grade obtained via DL after paralysis was confirmed. Quality of glottic visualization (good or poor), as well as the number of intubation attempts and time to successful intubation with the BRF, was noted. Univariate analyses were performed to evaluate the association between patient characteristics and time required for intubation. Variables that exhibited a significant correlation were included in a multivariate analysis using a standard least squares model. A P 1 attempt; 4 patients could not be intubated by using the BRF alone. These 4 patients were intubated by using a combination of DL and BRF (2 patients), DL and a Frova bougie (1 patient), and DL and an endotracheal tube shaped with a semirigid stylet (1 patient). Mean time for successful intubation was 26 ± 13 seconds. Multivariate analysis showed that decreased mouth opening (P = 0.008), increased body mass index (P = 0

  20. A comparative study of face processing using scrambled faces

    OpenAIRE

    Taubert, Jessica; Aagten-Murphy, David; Parr, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    It is a widespread assumption that all primate species process faces in the same way because the species are closely related and they engage in similar social interactions. However, this approach ignores potentially interesting and informative differences that may exist between species. This paper describes a comparative study of holistic face processing. Twelve subjects (six chimpanzees Pan troglodytes and six rhesus monkeys Macaca mulatta) were trained to discriminate whole faces (faces wit...

  1. Performing a Choice-Narrative

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holmegaard, Henriette Tolstrup

    2015-01-01

    are performed and to uncover the patterns of students’ construction of their choice-narratives. The paper is based on a qualitative study among 38 Danish upper secondary school students. The theoretical framework is narrative psychology combined with post-structural thinking. The study shows that constructing......Students’ science choices have long attracted attention in both public and research. Recently there has been a call for qualitative studies to explore how choices create a sense of fit for individual students. Therefore, this paper aims to study how science students’ choices of higher education...... a choice-narrative is complicated identity-work. First, the students felt encouraged to identify their interests, not only the ones related to the subject matter, but also various interests that were equally negotiated in relation to each other. Second, the choice-narratives were personalised; on the one...

  2. The Role of Marketing Mix Components in Destination Choices of Visitors and the Case of Dalyan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür ÖZER

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the impact of the eight components of the marketing mix, as being product, price, distribution, promotion, person, partnership, program and package, upon choice of a destination.For this research purpose, data was collected by face-to-face interviews and survey from 260 foreign tourists visiting the region of Dalyan. First, the marketing mix components were classified according to their importance determined by the arithmetic averages. Then, multiple regression analysis was performed to determine whether the marketing mix components had an effect on the destination choice. The analysis found that the variables of ‘product’ and ‘person’ had an effect on the Dalyan destination choice. This result shows that the ’product’ is an influencial factor, as expected, on the choice of the Dalyan destination, within the scope of ecotourism, visited by the tourists. In addition, ‘person’ is also important factor on the destination choice for the Dalyan region.

  3. Face-to-Face Interference in Typical and Atypical Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riby, Deborah M.; Doherty-Sneddon, Gwyneth; Whittle, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Visual communication cues facilitate interpersonal communication. It is important that we look at faces to retrieve and subsequently process such cues. It is also important that we sometimes look away from faces as they increase cognitive load that may interfere with online processing. Indeed, when typically developing individuals hold face gaze…

  4. Holistic face processing can inhibit recognition of forensic facial composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Alex H; Hancock, Peter J B; Frowd, Charlie D; Langton, Stephen R H

    2016-04-01

    Facial composite systems help eyewitnesses to show the appearance of criminals. However, likenesses created by unfamiliar witnesses will not be completely accurate, and people familiar with the target can find them difficult to identify. Faces are processed holistically; we explore whether this impairs identification of inaccurate composite images and whether recognition can be improved. In Experiment 1 (n = 64) an imaging technique was used to make composites of celebrity faces more accurate and identification was contrasted with the original composite images. Corrected composites were better recognized, confirming that errors in production of the likenesses impair identification. The influence of holistic face processing was explored by misaligning the top and bottom parts of the composites (cf. Young, Hellawell, & Hay, 1987). Misalignment impaired recognition of corrected composites but identification of the original, inaccurate composites significantly improved. This effect was replicated with facial composites of noncelebrities in Experiment 2 (n = 57). We conclude that, like real faces, facial composites are processed holistically: recognition is impaired because unlike real faces, composites contain inaccuracies and holistic face processing makes it difficult to perceive identifiable features. This effect was consistent across composites of celebrities and composites of people who are personally familiar. Our findings suggest that identification of forensic facial composites can be enhanced by presenting composites in a misaligned format.

  5. Challenges facing production grids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pordes, Ruth; /Fermilab

    2007-06-01

    Today's global communities of users expect quality of service from distributed Grid systems equivalent to that their local data centers. This must be coupled to ubiquitous access to the ensemble of processing and storage resources across multiple Grid infrastructures. We are still facing significant challenges in meeting these expectations, especially in the underlying security, a sustainable and successful economic model, and smoothing the boundaries between administrative and technical domains. Using the Open Science Grid as an example, I examine the status and challenges of Grids operating in production today.

  6. Many Faces of Migrations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milica Antić Gaber

    2013-12-01

    The title “Many faces of migration”, connecting contributions in this special issue, is borrowed from the already mentioned Gallup Institute’s report on global migration (Esipova, 2011. The guiding principle in the selection of the contributions has been their diversity, reflected also in the list of disciplines represented by the authors: sociology, geography, ethnology and cultural anthropology, history, art history, modern Mediterranean studies, gender studies and media studies. Such an approach necessarily leads not only to a diverse, but at least seemingly also incompatib

  7. Faced with a dilemma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Anne Vinggaard; Christiansen, Anne Hjøllund; Petersson, Birgit

    2013-01-01

    's legal right to choose TOP and considerations about the foetus' right to live were suppressed. Midwives experienced a dilemma when faced with aborted foetuses that looked like newborns and when aborted foetuses showed signs of life after a termination. Furthermore, they were critical of how physicians...... counsel women/couples after prenatal diagnosis. CONCLUSIONS: The midwives' practice in relation to late TOP was characterised by an acknowledgement of the growing ethical status of the foetus and the emotional reactions of the women/couples going through late TOP. Other professions as well as structural...

  8. Maxillofacial trauma patient: coping with the difficult airway

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barak Michal

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Establishing a secure airway in a trauma patient is one of the primary essentials of treatment. Any flaw in airway management may lead to grave morbidity and mortality. Maxillofacial trauma presents a complex problem with regard to the patient's airway. By definition, the injury compromises the patient's airway and it is, therefore, must be protected. In most cases, the patient undergoes surgery for maxillofacial trauma or for other, more severe, life-threatening injuries, and securing the airway is the first step in the introduction of general anaesthesia. In such patients, we anticipate difficult endotracheal intubation and, often, also difficult mask ventilation. In addition, the patient is usually regarded as having a "full stomach" and has not been cleared of a C-spine injury, which may complicate airway management furthermore. The time available to accomplish the task is short and the patient's condition may deteriorate rapidly. Both decision-making and performance are impaired in such circumstances. In this review, we discuss the complexity of the situation and present a treatment approach.

  9. High Metal Removal Rate Process for Machining Difficult Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bates, Robert; McConnell, Elizabeth

    2016-06-29

    Machining methods across many industries generally require multiple operations to machine and process advanced materials, features with micron precision, and complex shapes. The resulting multiple machining platforms can significantly affect manufacturing cycle time and the precision of the final parts, with a resultant increase in cost and energy consumption. Ultrafast lasers represent a transformative and disruptive technology that removes material with micron precision and in a single step manufacturing process. Such precision results from athermal ablation without modification or damage to the remaining material which is the key differentiator between ultrafast laser technologies and traditional laser technologies or mechanical processes. Athermal ablation without modification or damage to the material eliminates post-processing or multiple manufacturing steps. Combined with the appropriate technology to control the motion of the work piece, ultrafast lasers are excellent candidates to provide breakthrough machining capability for difficult-to-machine materials. At the project onset in early 2012, the project team recognized that substantial effort was necessary to improve the application of ultrafast laser and precise motion control technologies (for micromachining difficult-to-machine materials) to further the aggregate throughput and yield improvements over conventional machining methods. The project described in this report advanced these leading-edge technologies thru the development and verification of two platforms: a hybrid enhanced laser chassis and a multi-application testbed.

  10. Difficult mask ventilation in obese patients: analysis of predictive factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leoni, A; Arlati, S; Ghisi, D; Verwej, M; Lugani, D; Ghisi, P; Cappelleri, G; Cedrati, V; El Tantawi Ali Alsheraei, A; Pocar, M; Ceriani, V; Aldegheri, G

    2014-02-01

    This study aimed to determine the accuracy of commonly used preoperative difficult airway indices as predictors of difficult mask ventilation (DMV) in obese patients (BMI >30 kg/m2). In 309 consecutive obese patients undergoing general surgery, the modified Mallampati test, patient's Height/Thyromental distance ratio, Inter-Incisor Distance, Protruding Mandible (PM), history of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Neck Circumference (NC) were recorded preoperatively. DMV was defined as Grade 3 mask ventilation (MV) by the Han's scale (MV inadequate, unstable or requiring two practitioners). Data are shown as means±SD or number and proportions. Independent DMV predictors were identified by multivariate analysis. The discriminating capacity of the model (ROC curve area) and adjusted weights for the risk factors (odds ratios) were also determined. BMI averaged 42.5±8.3 kg/m2. DMV was reported in 27 out of 309 patients (8.8%; 95%CI 5.6-11.9%). The multivariate analysis retained NC (OR 1.17; P2 associated factors as the best discriminating point for DMV. Obese patients show increased incidence of DMV with respect to the undifferentiated surgical population. Limited PM, Mallampati test and NC are important DMV predictors.

  11. Motherhood: From rights to choices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Salecl

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Motherhood has been perceived as choice in the developed world after the liberalisation of abortion. However, this choice can be extremely anxiety provoking for women, especially in times when the ideology of choice dominates our lives in all possible ways. The paper shows how psychotherapy and psychoanalysis look at this anxiety, it reflects on how family relations are often the traumatic kernel behind this choice, and how the changes that women experience in today's times contribute to the increase of anxiety related to reproduction.

  12. Career choices of lesbian women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehtonen, Jukka

    2008-01-01

    I focus on lesbian women's career choices and analyse how they explain their choices in relation to their sexuality. In addition to personal accounts and experiences, I use survey data that shows that several factors influence lesbian women's occupational circumstances. The Sexual Minority Survey included 726 respondents, of which 415 are women. The survey was conducted as part of the project Sexual and Gender Minorities at Work. Although many lesbian women claim that their sexuality did not influence their career choices, their career choice processes seem to be linked in many ways with sexuality, gender, and heteronormativity in society.

  13. Connecting cognition and consumer choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartels, Daniel M; Johnson, Eric J

    2015-02-01

    We describe what can be gained from connecting cognition and consumer choice by discussing two contexts ripe for interaction between the two fields. The first-context effects on choice-has already been addressed by cognitive science yielding insights about cognitive process but there is promise for more interaction. The second is learning and representation in choice where relevant theories in cognitive science could be informed by consumer choice, and in return, could pose and answer new questions. We conclude by discussing how these two fields of research stand to benefit from more interaction, citing examples of how interfaces of cognitive science with other fields have been illuminating for theories of cognition.

  14. Aging changes in the face

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/004004.htm Aging changes in the face To use the sharing ... face with age References Brodie SE, Francis JH. Aging and disorders of the eye. In: Fillit HM, ...

  15. Factors affecting food choices of older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups: a discrete choice experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamphuis, Carlijn B M; de Bekker-Grob, Esther W; van Lenthe, Frank J

    2015-04-01

    Healthiness, price, and convenience are typically indicated as important motives for food choices; however, it is largely unknown to what extent older adults from high and low socioeconomic groups differ in these underlying motives. A discrete choice experiment (DCE) is an innovative way to elicit implicit motives for food choices. The aim was to investigate differences in food motives between socioeconomic groups by means of a DCE. A DCE was carried out during a face-to-face interview among older adults as part of the Health and Living Conditions in Eindhoven and surrounding cities (GLOBE) cohort study, The Netherlands. Participants (n = 399; mean age: 63.3 y) were offered a series of choice sets about a usual dinner at home and were asked to choose in each choice set between 2 meals and an opt-out choice, with different combinations of attribute levels. We included 5 meal attributes (taste, healthiness, preparation time, travel time to shops, and price) and 3 or 4 levels for each attribute. Data were analyzed by multinomial logit models. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to the grocery store proved to significantly influence older adults' meal decisions; preparation time was not significant. Healthiness was the most important attribute for all of the participants. More highly educated participants rated a healthy and less expensive meal to be more important than did less educated participants. Those with a high income rated a meal that was healthy and very tasteful to be more important than did those with a lower income. Healthiness, taste, price, and travel time to grocery shops influenced older adults' meal decisions. Higher socioeconomic groups valued health more than did lower socioeconomic groups. DCEs represent a promising method to gain insight into the relative importance of motives for food choices. This trial was registered at www.isrctn.com as ISRCTN60293770. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  16. Face recognition using facial expression: a novel approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Deepak Kumar; Gupta, Priya; Tiwary, U. S.

    2008-04-01

    Facial expressions are undoubtedly the most effective nonverbal communication. The face has always been the equation of a person's identity. The face draws the demarcation line between identity and extinction. Each line on the face adds an attribute to the identity. These lines become prominent when we experience an emotion and these lines do not change completely with age. In this paper we have proposed a new technique for face recognition which focuses on the facial expressions of the subject to identify his face. This is a grey area on which not much light has been thrown earlier. According to earlier researches it is difficult to alter the natural expression. So our technique will be beneficial for identifying occluded or intentionally disguised faces. The test results of the experiments conducted prove that this technique will give a new direction in the field of face recognition. This technique will provide a strong base to the area of face recognition and will be used as the core method for critical defense security related issues.

  17. Choice-Based Conjoint Analysis: Classification vs. Discrete Choice Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giesen, Joachim; Mueller, Klaus; Taneva, Bilyana; Zolliker, Peter

    Conjoint analysis is a family of techniques that originated in psychology and later became popular in market research. The main objective of conjoint analysis is to measure an individual's or a population's preferences on a class of options that can be described by parameters and their levels. We consider preference data obtained in choice-based conjoint analysis studies, where one observes test persons' choices on small subsets of the options. There are many ways to analyze choice-based conjoint analysis data. Here we discuss the intuition behind a classification based approach, and compare this approach to one based on statistical assumptions (discrete choice models) and to a regression approach. Our comparison on real and synthetic data indicates that the classification approach outperforms the discrete choice models.

  18. FaceID: A face detection and recognition system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, M.B.; Rao, N.S.V.; Olman, V.; Uberbacher, E.C.; Mann, R.C.

    1996-12-31

    A face detection system that automatically locates faces in gray-level images is described. Also described is a system which matches a given face image with faces in a database. Face detection in an Image is performed by template matching using templates derived from a selected set of normalized faces. Instead of using original gray level images, vertical gradient images were calculated and used to make the system more robust against variations in lighting conditions and skin color. Faces of different sizes are detected by processing the image at several scales. Further, a coarse-to-fine strategy is used to speed up the processing, and a combination of whole face and face component templates are used to ensure low false detection rates. The input to the face recognition system is a normalized vertical gradient image of a face, which is compared against a database using a set of pretrained feedforward neural networks with a winner-take-all fuser. The training is performed by using an adaptation of the backpropagation algorithm. This system has been developed and tested using images from the FERET database and a set of images obtained from Rowley, et al and Sung and Poggio.

  19. A novel thermal face recognition approach using face pattern words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yufeng

    2010-04-01

    A reliable thermal face recognition system can enhance the national security applications such as prevention against terrorism, surveillance, monitoring and tracking, especially at nighttime. The system can be applied at airports, customs or high-alert facilities (e.g., nuclear power plant) for 24 hours a day. In this paper, we propose a novel face recognition approach utilizing thermal (long wave infrared) face images that can automatically identify a subject at both daytime and nighttime. With a properly acquired thermal image (as a query image) in monitoring zone, the following processes will be employed: normalization and denoising, face detection, face alignment, face masking, Gabor wavelet transform, face pattern words (FPWs) creation, face identification by similarity measure (Hamming distance). If eyeglasses are present on a subject's face, an eyeglasses mask will be automatically extracted from the querying face image, and then masked with all comparing FPWs (no more transforms). A high identification rate (97.44% with Top-1 match) has been achieved upon our preliminary face dataset (of 39 subjects) from the proposed approach regardless operating time and glasses-wearing condition.e

  20. Enabling dynamics in face analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dibeklioğlu, H.

    2014-01-01

    Most of the approaches in automatic face analysis rely solely on static appearance. However, temporal analysis of expressions reveals interesting patterns. For a better understanding of the human face, this thesis focuses on temporal changes in the face, and dynamic patterns of expressions. In addit

  1. Forensic Face Recognition: A Survey

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, Tauseef; Spreeuwers, Luuk; Veldhuis, Raymond; Quaglia, Adamo; Epifano, Calogera M.

    2012-01-01

    The improvements of automatic face recognition during the last 2 decades have disclosed new applications like border control and camera surveillance. A new application field is forensic face recognition. Traditionally, face recognition by human experts has been used in forensics, but now there is a

  2. Face Recognition in Children with a Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra, M.; Althaus, M.; de Sonneville, L. M. J.; Stant, A. D.; Jackson, A. E.; Minderaa, R. B.

    2003-01-01

    A study investigated the accuracy and speed of face recognition in 26 children (ages 7-10) with Pervasive Developmental Disorder Not Otherwise Specified. Subjects needed an amount of time to recognize the faces that almost equaled the time they needed to recognize abstract patterns that were difficult to distinguish. (Contains references.)…

  3. Addiction: Choice or compulsion?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edmund eHenden

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behaviour under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behaviour. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior.

  4. Addiction: Choice or Compulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henden, Edmund; Melberg, Hans Olav; Røgeberg, Ole Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    Normative thinking about addiction has traditionally been divided between, on the one hand, a medical model which sees addiction as a disease characterized by compulsive and relapsing drug use over which the addict has little or no control and, on the other, a moral model which sees addiction as a choice characterized by voluntary behavior under the control of the addict. Proponents of the former appeal to evidence showing that regular consumption of drugs causes persistent changes in the brain structures and functions known to be involved in the motivation of behavior. On this evidence, it is often concluded that becoming addicted involves a transition from voluntary, chosen drug use to non-voluntary compulsive drug use. Against this view, proponents of the moral model provide ample evidence that addictive drug use involves voluntary chosen behavior. In this article we argue that although they are right about something, both views are mistaken. We present a third model that neither rules out the view of addictive drug use as compulsive, nor that it involves voluntary chosen behavior. PMID:23966955

  5. Making strategic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Many decision factors enter into making the right strategic choices in today's healthcare environment. Physicians have their perspective. Hospital managers may have a different perspective. Having worked on both sides of the equation, this author suggests that the successful design of an integrated healthcare system will depend on the ability of each to understand the other's agenda. Physician needs aren't necessarily incompatible with those of an organization and vice versa. Cultural differences aren't necessarily cast in stone. If hospital managers can develop an understanding of the physicians' decision factors and tailor a program around the key issues, there will be a greater likelihood of success. At the same time, physicians who are considering an alignment with a health system will need to understand what it will take to make the organization successful. The personal futures of these physicians may be at stake once they are in an integrated relationship. Finally, integrated systems will have new decision criteria for formulating strategy. Both sides should look forward to addressing mutual interests in creative ways.

  6. Deafness, culture, and choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levy, N

    2002-10-01

    The recent controversy surrounding the choice, by a deaf lesbian couple, to have children who were themselves deaf, has focused attention on the ethics of choosing (apparent) disabilities for children. Deaf activists argue that deafness is not a disability, but instead the constitutive condition of access to a rich culture. Being deaf carries disadvantages with it, but these are a product of discrimination, not of the condition itself. It is, however, implausible to think that all the disadvantages which stem from deafness are social in origin. Moreover, though it may be true that being deaf carries with it the important compensation of access to a rich culture, no physical condition is required for such access. Cultures are simply the kind of things to which we are born, and therefore to which the children of deaf parents, hearing or deaf, normally belong. Thus these parents are making a mistake in choosing deafness for their children. Given their own experience of isolation as children, however, it is a mistake which is understandable, and our reaction to them ought to be compassion, not condemnation.

  7. Complex Strategic Choices Applying Systemic Planning for Strategic Decision Making

    CERN Document Server

    Leleur, Steen

    2012-01-01

    Effective decision making requires a clear methodology, particularly in a complex world of globalisation. Institutions and companies in all disciplines and sectors are faced with increasingly multi-faceted areas of uncertainty which cannot always be effectively handled by traditional strategies. Complex Strategic Choices provides clear principles and methods which can guide and support strategic decision making to face the many current challenges. By considering ways in which planning practices can be renewed and exploring the possibilities for acquiring awareness and tools to add value to strategic decision making, Complex Strategic Choices presents a methodology which is further illustrated by a number of case studies and example applications. Dr. Techn. Steen Leleur has adapted previously established research based on feedback and input from various conferences, journals and students resulting in new material stemming from and focusing on practical application of a systemic approach. The outcome is a coher...

  8. Gender Perception From Faces Using Boosted LBPH (Local Binary Patten Histograms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U. U. Tariq

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Automatic Gender classification from faces has several applications such as surveillance, human computer interaction, targeted advertisement etc. Humans can recognize gender from faces quite accurately but for computer vision it is a difficult task. Many studies have targeted this problem but most of these studies used images of faces taken under constrained conditions. Real-world applications however require to process images from real-world, that have significant variation in lighting and pose, which makes the gender classification task very difficult. We have examined the problem of automatic gender classification from faces on real-world images. Using a face detector faces from images are extracted aligned and represented using Local binary pattern histogram. Discriminative features are selected using Adaboost and the boosted LBP features are used to train a support vector machine that provides a recognition rate of 93.29%.

  9. Master slave en-face OCT/SLO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradu, Adrian; Kapinchev, Konstantin; Barnes, Frederick; Podoleanu, Adrian

    2015-01-01

    Master Slave optical coherence tomography (MS-OCT) is an OCT method that does not require resampling of data and can be used to deliver en-face images from several depths simultaneously. As the MS-OCT method requires important computational resources, the number of multiple depth en-face images that can be produced in real-time is limited. Here, we demonstrate progress in taking advantage of the parallel processing feature of the MS-OCT technology. Harnessing the capabilities of graphics processing units (GPU)s, information from 384 depth positions is acquired in one raster with real time display of up to 40 en-face OCT images. These exhibit comparable resolution and sensitivity to the images produced using the conventional Fourier domain based method. The GPU facilitates versatile real time selection of parameters, such as the depth positions of the 40 images out of the set of 384 depth locations, as well as their axial resolution. In each updated displayed frame, in parallel with the 40 en-face OCT images, a scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (SLO) lookalike image is presented together with two B-scan OCT images oriented along rectangular directions. The thickness of the SLO lookalike image is dynamically determined by the choice of number of en-face OCT images displayed in the frame and the choice of differential axial distance between them. PMID:26417531

  10. Children Can Learn New Facts Equally Well From Interactive Media Versus Face to Face Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwok, Kristine; Ghrear, Siba; Li, Vivian; Haddock, Taeh; Coleman, Patrick; Birch, Susan A J

    2016-01-01

    Today's children have more opportunities than ever before to learn from interactive technology, yet experimental research assessing the efficacy of children's learning from interactive media in comparison to traditional learning approaches is still quite scarce. Moreover, little work has examined the efficacy of using touch-screen devices for research purposes. The current study compared children's rate of learning factual information about animals during a face-to-face instruction from an adult female researcher versus an analogous instruction from an interactive device. Eighty-six children ages 4 through 8 years (64% male) completed the learning task in either the Face-to-Face condition (n = 43) or the Interactive Media condition (n = 43). In the Learning Phase of the experiment, which was presented as a game, children were taught novel facts about animals without being told that their memory of the facts would be tested. The facts were taught to the children either by an adult female researcher (Face-to-Face condition) or from a pre-recorded female voice represented by a cartoon Llama (Interactive Media condition). In the Testing Phase of the experiment that immediately followed, children's memory for the taught facts was tested using a 4-option forced-choice paradigm. Children's rate of learning was significantly above chance in both conditions and a comparison of the rates of learning across the two conditions revealed no significant differences. Learning significantly improved from age 4 to age 8, however, even the preschool-aged children performed significantly above chance, and their performance did not differ between conditions. These results suggest that, interactive media can be equally as effective as one-on-one instruction, at least under certain conditions. Moreover, these results offer support for the validity of using interactive technology to collect data for research purposes. We discuss the implications of these results for children's learning

  11. Teaching Surgery Residents the Skills to Communicate Difficult News to Patient and Family Members: A Literature Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamba, Sangeeta; Tyrie, Leslie S; Bryczkowski, Sarah; Nagurka, Roxanne

    2016-01-01

    Trainees and practicing physicians alike find breaking bad, sad, or difficult news to a patient or family member as one of the most challenging communication tasks they perform. Interpersonal and communication skills are a core competency for resident training. However, in disciplines where technical skills have a major emphasis, such as surgery, the teaching of communication skills may not be a priority. The objective of our study is to review literature in order to identify best practices and learning modalities used to teach surgery trainees the communication skills regarding delivery of difficult news to patients and family members. The criteria for inclusion in this literature review were that the study (1) addresses surgeons' training (nontechnical skills) in breaking difficult news to patient and/or families, (2) describes a teaching modality or intervention targeted to teach surgery residents how to deliver difficult news to patient/family, and (3) is published in English. Articles (n = 225) were screened for final eligibility. After discarding duplicates and noneligible studies, and after abstract/full-text review, 18 articles were included in the final analysis. Most studies are single site; address general surgery residents at varying training levels; and include case-specific, outpatient, and intensive care unit (ICU) settings. There is a paucity of studies in the trauma and unexpected death setting. There is a recent trend to use Objective Structured Clinical Examination (OSCE) both to teach and assess communication skills. Variable tools are used to assess this competency as described. Simulation and OSCE format have emerged as modalities of choice both to teach surgery residents how to deliver difficult news and to assess achievement of this competency. There is a gap in the literature regarding teaching and assessing surgery resident communication skills in delivering difficult news after unexpected events in the trauma and operating room

  12. An alternative method to achieve one-lung ventilation by surgical pneumothorax in difficult lung isolation patient: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Pin-Hung; Hsu, Po-Kai

    2016-04-01

    It is challenging to establish one-lung ventilation in difficult airway patients. Surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing to obtain well-collapsed lung is a feasible method for thoracic surgery. A 76-year-old man with right empyema was scheduled for decortication. The patient had limited mouth opening due to facial cellulitis extending from the left cheek to neck. Generally, lung isolation is achieved by double-lumen endotracheal tube or bronchial blocker. Double-lumen tube insertion is difficult for patients with limited mouth opening and right-side placement of bronchial blocker usually causes insufficient deflation. We introduce an alternative lung isolation technique by surgical pneumothorax under spontaneous breathing simply with an endotracheal tube placement. This technique has never been applied into the management of difficult one-lung ventilation. By this method, we provide an ideal surgical condition with safer, less time-consuming, and less skill-demanding anesthesia. It would be an alternative choice for management of one-lung ventilation in the difficult lung isolation patient.

  13. The Difficult Empowerment in Danish Hospital: Power to the nurses!?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Witt, Flemming; Nielsen, Jørn Flohr

    characteristics of public organizations, and the specific attitudes of physicians and politicians and their desire to control the hospital sector. At the same time, this paper also emphasizes that the empowerment concept is likely to appeal to hospital managers and nurses in the Danish public hospital sector......The employee empowerment literature promises better organizational performance as well as more motivated and satisfied employees. However, this literature often neglects the specific context of public services in general, or the health care sector, hospitals, and nursing in particular. Nurses...... in Danish public hospitals work in a unique situation that makes the uncritical transfer of empowerment interventions intended to redesign their work difficult or even unfeasible. Analysis from an institutional perspective of the ongoing power struggle between agens of change at several levels in the Danish...

  14. Management of difficult airway in intratracheal tumor surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agarwal Surendra K

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Tracheal malignancies are usual victim of delay in diagnosis by virtue of their symptoms resembling asthma. Sometimes delayed diagnosis may lead to almost total airway obstruction. For difficult airways, not leaving any possibility of manipulation into neck region or endoscopic intervention, femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass can be a promising approach. Case Presentation We are presenting a case of tracheal adenoid cystic carcinoma (cylindroma occupying about 90% of the tracheal lumen. It was successfully managed by surgical excision of mass by sternotomy and tracheotomy under femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB. Conclusion Any patient with recurrent respiratory symptoms should be evaluated by radiological and endoscopic means earlier to avoid delay in diagnosis of such conditions. Femorofemoral cardiopulmonary bypass is a relatively safe way of managing certain airway obstructions.

  15. Various applications of endoscopic scissors in difficult endoscopic interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kee, Won-Ju; Park, Chang-Hwan; Chung, Kyoung-Myeun; Park, Seon-Young; Jun, Chung-Hwan; Ki, Ho-seok; Kim, Hyun-Soo; Choi, Sung-Kyu; Rew, Jong-Sun

    2014-05-01

    Endoscopic scissors offer a benefit over other devices by avoiding potential complications related to thermal and mechanical injury of surrounding structures. We describe our experience with endoscopic scissors in three difficult endoscopic interventions. A fishbone embedded in the esophageal wall penetrated very close to the pulsating aorta and the bronchus. The fishbone was cut in half by endoscopic scissors and removed without injury to adjacent organs. A gastric submucosal tumor with an insulated core that could not be resected by electrosurgical devices was cut using endoscopic scissors following endoloop placement. Extravascular coil migration after transcatheter arterial embolization resulted in a duodenal ulcer. The metallic coil on the duodenal ulcer was cut by endoscopic scissors without mechanical or thermal injury.

  16. Laser-assisted machining of difficult-to-machine materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Incropera, F.P.; Rozzi, J.C.; Pfefferkorn, F.E.; Lei, S.; Shin, Y.C.

    1999-07-01

    Laser-assisted machining (LAM) is a hybrid process for which a difficult-to-machine material, such as a ceramic or super alloy, is irradiated by a laser source prior to material removal by a cutting tool. The process has the potential to significantly increase material removal rates, as well as to improve the geometry and properties of the finished work piece. Features and limitations of theoretical and experimental procedures for determining the transient thermal response of a work piece during LAM are described, and representative results are presented for laser-assisted turning of sintered silicon nitride. Significant physical trends are revealed by the calculations, as are guidelines for the selection of appropriate operating conditions.

  17. Paradoxical pop-ups: Why are they difficult to catch?

    Science.gov (United States)

    McBeath, Michael K.; Nathan, Alan M.; Bahill, A. Terry; Baldwin, David G.

    2008-08-01

    Professional baseball players occasionally find it difficult to gracefully approach seemingly routine pop-ups. We describe a set of towering pop-ups with trajectories that exhibit cusps and loops near the apex. For a normal fly ball the horizontal velocity continuously decreases due to drag caused by air resistance. For pop-ups the Magnus force is larger than the drag force. In these cases the horizontal velocity initially decreases like a normal fly ball, but after the apex, the Magnus force accelerates the horizontal motion. We refer to this class of pop-ups as paradoxical because they appear to misinform the typically robust optical control strategies used by fielders and lead to systematic vacillation in running paths, especially when a trajectory terminates near the fielder. Former major league infielders confirm that our model agrees with their experiences.

  18. Risk Factors for and Prediction of a Difficult Neuraxial Block

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stendell, Line; Lundstrøm, Lars H; Wetterslev, Jørn;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A difficult neuraxial block (DNB) may be associated with complications. The aims of this study were to estimate the prevalence of DNB, assess patient-related and organizational factors associated with DNB, and evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of an accumulated risk score for predicting...... DNB. METHODS: A consecutive cohort of 73,579 patients was retrieved. A predefined DNB score and information on patient-related and organizational factors were included in the analyses. Logistic regression analysis was performed. We evaluated the diagnostic accuracy of an accumulated weighted point...... score of the patient-related risk factors of DNB. RESULTS: The prevalence of DNB and abandoned neuraxial block was 3.9 (95% confidence interval [95% CI], 3.7-4.0) and 0.2 (95% CI, 0.16-0.22), respectively. Body mass index of 35 or higher and previous DNB were associated with DNB, with 3.23 (95% CI, 2...

  19. Penile Corporeal Reconstruction during Difficult Placement of a Penile Prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viet Q. Tran

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available For some patients with impotence and concomitant severe tunical/corporeal tissue fibrosis, insertion of a penile prosthesis is the only option to restore erectile function. Closing the tunica over an inflatable penile prosthesis in these patients can be challenging. We review our previous study which included 15 patients with severe corporeal or tunical fibrosis who underwent corporeal reconstruction with autologous rectus fascia to allow placement of an inflatable penile prosthesis. At a mean follow-up of 18 months (range 12 to 64, all patients had a prosthesis that was functioning properly without evidence of separation, herniation, or erosion of the graft. Sexual activity resumed at a mean time of 9 weeks (range 8 to 10. There were no adverse events related to the graft or its harvest. Use of rectus fascia graft for coverage of a tunical defect during a difficult penile prosthesis placement is surgically feasible, safe, and efficacious.

  20. Performance specifications: the nearly impossible versus the merely difficult

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopper, Darrel G.

    2000-08-01

    Affordability is the objective of acquisition reform. The institution of 'performance' specifications in lieu of 'design' specifications is a key strategy. Design of a cockpit display, for example, is left to the prime contractor based on a performance requirement stated by the government. The prime delegates to the integrator. The integrator develops the display and bill of materials provided by vendors. There is no feedback loop from the vendors to the ultimate customer, the government. As a result of this situation a communication gap exists: the government, primes, and integrators have concluded that they should pay commodity prices for custom displays. One step in the closing of this gap is the establishment of cross- cutting common reference performance specifications for aerospace and defense displays. The performance specification for cockpit displays is nearly impossible to achieve -- the last ounce of technology and more is required. Commodity markets, such as consumer notebook computers, are based on but a fraction of currently available technology -- companies 'bank' technology and roll it out across several 18-month product generations. Ruggedized consumer displays can be used in aerospace and defense applications other than the cockpit, such as mission crew stations. The performance specification for non-cockpit aerospace and defense applications is merely difficult. Acquisition reform has been defined by the Secretary of Defense to mean DoD should leverage the commercial market to the maximal extent possible. For the achievement of this end, an entirely different approach is wanted for cockpit displays versus large platform mission displays. That is, the nearly impossible requires a different design and business approach from the merely difficult.

  1. Patients who make terrible therapeutic choices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curzer, Howard J

    2014-01-01

    The traditional approaches to dental ethics include appeals to principles, duties (deontology), and consequences (utilitarianism). These approaches are often inadequate when faced with the case of a patient who refuses reasonable treatment and does not share the same ethical framework the dentist is using. An approach based on virtue ethics may be helpful in this and other cases. Virtue ethics is a tradition going back to Plato and Aristotle. It depends on forming a holistic character supporting general appropriate behavior. By correctly diagnosing the real issues at stake in a patient's inappropriate oral health choices and working to build effective habits, dentists can sometimes respond to ethical challenges that remain intractable given rule-based methods.

  2. Investment choice under uncertainty: A review essay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunović Dejan

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An investment opportunity whose return is perfectly predictable, hardly exists at all. Instead, investor makes his decisions under conditions of uncertainty. Theory of expected utility is the main analytical tool for description of choice under uncertainty. Critics of the theory contend that individuals have bounded rationality and that the theory of expected utility is not correct. When agents are faced with risky decisions they behave differently, conditional on their attitude towards risk. They can be risk loving, risk averse or risk neutral. In order to make an investment decision it is necessary to compare probability distribution functions of returns. Investment decision making is much simpler if one uses expected values and variances instead of probability distribution functions.

  3. Leadership Styles and the Moral Choice of Internal Auditors

    OpenAIRE

    Woodbine, Gordon F.; Liu, Joanne

    2010-01-01

    Internal auditors’ performance largely depends on their moral decisions when faced with ethical dilemmas. This study explores the impacts of different leadership styles on internal auditors’ moral choice using ERG theory and Path-goal theory. The findings of the survey demonstrated support for both theories. Regression analysis revealed that a sample of West Australian internal auditors were motivated by growth needs and the motivation was enhanced if the leader took a Standard-achievement-or...

  4. Designing multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Whei Ming; Osisek, Paul J; Montgomery, Cynthia; Pellar, Suzanne

    2009-01-01

    In the midst of a nursing faculty shortage, many academic institutions hire clinicians who are not formally prepared for an academic role. These novice faculty face an immediate need to develop teaching skills. One area in particular is test construction. To address this need, the authors describe how faculty from one course designed multiple-choice test items at higher cognitive levels and simultaneously achieved congruence with critical-thinking learning objectives defined by the course.

  5. Time series prediction by feedforward neural networks - is it difficult?

    CERN Document Server

    Rosen-Zvi, M; Kinzel, W

    2003-01-01

    The difficulties that a neural network faces when trying to learn from a quasi-periodic time series are studied analytically using a teacher-student scenario where the random input is divided into two macroscopic regions with different variances, 1 and 1/gamma sup 2 (gamma >> 1). The generalization error is found to decrease as epsilon sub g propor to exp(-alpha/gamma sup 2), where alpha is the number of examples per input dimension. In contradiction to this very slow vanishing generalization error, the next output prediction is found to be almost free of mistakes. This picture is consistent with learning quasi-periodic time series produced by feedforward neural networks, which is dominated by enhanced components of the Fourier spectrum of the input. Simulation results are in good agreement with the analytical results.

  6. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil: A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da, E-mail: aldara@dep.ufscar.b [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil); Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos - SP (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil.

  7. Biodiesel production from castor oil in Brazil. A difficult reality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva Cesar, Aldara da; Otavio Batalha, Mario [Federal University of Sao Carlos, Gepai - Grupo de Estudos e Pesquisas Agroindustriais, Departamento de Engenharia de Producao - UFSCar, Rodovia Washington Luis, km 235 - CEP 13565-905 - Sao Carlos (Brazil)

    2010-08-15

    The Brazilian National Program for Production and Use of Biodiesel (PNPB in Portuguese) has created a huge demand for biodiesel in Brazil. The PNPB is strongly based on social development through the inclusion of family farmers in projects integrated with biodiesel power plants. Among the various oilseeds, castor bean (Ricinus communis L.) was identified as the ideal one to promote social development in the semi-arid region. However, although promising, the mechanisms of the federal program are still insufficient to promote the effective participation of family farmers. This research shows that companies are facing huge problems in implementing contracts with family farmers. It describes and analyzes the functioning dynamics of this agro-production chain. This paper addresses the identification and the discussion of these obstacles, in order to increase the competitiveness of the biodiesel agribusiness chain, based on castor oil social projects in Brazil. (author)

  8. College Choice in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Christine Joy

    2009-01-01

    This descriptive and correlational study examined the applicability of major U.S. college choice factors to Philippine high school seniors. A sample of 226 students from a private school in Manila completed the College Choice Survey for High School Seniors. Cronbach's alpha for the survey composite index was 0.933. The purposes of this…

  9. Sex Education: Challenges and Choices

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacKenzie, Alison; Hedge, Nicki; Enslin, Penny

    2017-01-01

    Noting public concern about sexual exploitation, abuse and sexualisation, we argue that sex education in the UK needs revision. Choice is a feature of current sex education policy and, acknowledging that choice can be problematic, we defend its place in an approach to sex education premised on informed deliberation, relational autonomy, a…

  10. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the eco

  11. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against

  12. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, Jacob Dirk; Thomas, Tom; van Berkum, Eric C.; van Arem, Bart

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  13. Educational Choice. A Background Paper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quality Education for Minorities Network, Washington, DC.

    This paper addresses school choice, one proposal to address parental involvement concerns, focusing on historical background, definitions, rationale for advocating choice, implementation strategies, and implications for minorities and low-income families. In the past, transfer payment programs such as tuition tax credits and vouchers were…

  14. Optimal Portfolio Choice with Annuitization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koijen, R.S.J.; Nijman, T.E.; Werker, B.J.M.

    2006-01-01

    We study the optimal consumption and portfolio choice problem over an individual's life-cycle taking into account annuity risk at retirement. Optimally, the investor allocates wealth at retirement to nominal, inflation-linked, and variable annuities and conditions this choice on the state of the

  15. Perception bias in route choice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vreeswijk, J.D.; Thomas, T.; Berkum, van E.C.; Arem, van B.

    2014-01-01

    Travel time is probably one of the most studied attributes in route choice. Recently, perception of travel time received more attention as several studies have shown its importance in explaining route choice behavior. In particular, travel time estimates by travelers appear to be biased against non-

  16. Diabetes and diet: food choices.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  17. Diabetes and diet : food choices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Niewind, A.C.

    1989-01-01

    This thesis reports on the food choices of diabetic patients. Two studies were undertaken considering the barriers these patients experience with the diabetic diet. Furthermore, the changes in food choices during the first years after the diagnosis of insulin-dependent diabetes as well as patients,

  18. Face Recognition Using Local Quantized Patterns and Gabor Filters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khryashchev, V.; Priorov, A.; Stepanova, O.; Nikitin, A.

    2015-05-01

    The problem of face recognition in a natural or artificial environment has received a great deal of researchers' attention over the last few years. A lot of methods for accurate face recognition have been proposed. Nevertheless, these methods often fail to accurately recognize the person in difficult scenarios, e.g. low resolution, low contrast, pose variations, etc. We therefore propose an approach for accurate and robust face recognition by using local quantized patterns and Gabor filters. The estimation of the eye centers is used as a preprocessing stage. The evaluation of our algorithm on different samples from a standardized FERET database shows that our method is invariant to the general variations of lighting, expression, occlusion and aging. The proposed approach allows about 20% correct recognition accuracy increase compared with the known face recognition algorithms from the OpenCV library. The additional use of Gabor filters can significantly improve the robustness to changes in lighting conditions.

  19. Voluntary Sleep Choice and Its Effects on Bayesian Decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickinson, David L; Drummond, Sean P A; Dyche, Jeff

    2016-01-01

    This study examines whether voluntary sleep restriction at commonly experienced levels impacts decision making in a Bayesian choice task. Participants recruited were largely traditional age college students from a regional state university (n = 100) and a federal military academy (n = 99; n = 56 and 43, respectively, used in final analysis). Sleep was measured by actigraphy over a one-week period, followed by performance of a decision task. The task involved two sources of information, base rate odds and sample evidence, with subjects asked to make a probability judgment. Results found that subjects with nightly sleep sleep deprived = SD), relative to those with > 7 hr, placed less decision weight on new evidence, relative to base rate information, in making difficult choices. This result is strongest among female subjects. For easier choices, voluntary SD did not affect relative decision weights placed on the two sources of available information.

  20. The Reverse-Caricature Effect Revisited: Familiarization With Frontal Facial Caricatures Improves Veridical Face Recognition

    OpenAIRE

    RODRÍGUEZ, JOBANY; Bortfeld, Heather; RUDOMÍN, ISAAC; HERNÁNDEZ, BENJAMÍN; GUTIÉRREZ-OSUNA, RICARDO

    2009-01-01

    Prior research suggests that recognition of a person's face can be facilitated by exaggerating the distinctive features of the face during training. We tested if this ‘reverse-caricature effect’ would be robust to procedural variations that created more difficult learning environments. Specifically, we examined whether the effect would emerge with frontal rather than three-quarter views, after very brief exposure to caricatures during the learning phase and after modest rotations of faces dur...

  1. Response inhibition of face stimuli linked to inferior frontal gyrus microstructure in adolescents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Holm-Skjold, Jonathan; Baaré, William Frans Christiaan; Jernigan, Terry Lynne

    . Inhibition of negative faces has been shown to be more difficult than that of positive faces1,3. The brain network underlying response inhibition includes the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG), right presupplementary motor area (preSMA), and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) bilaterally 4–6. The white...... that better response inhibition (i.e. lower false alarm rate) of negative faces would be associated with higher FA in right IFG, right preSMA, and bilateral SLF in adolescents....

  2. Face Processing: Models For Recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, Matthew A.; Pentland, Alexander P.

    1990-03-01

    The human ability to process faces is remarkable. We can identify perhaps thousands of faces learned throughout our lifetime and read facial expression to understand such subtle qualities as emotion. These skills are quite robust, despite sometimes large changes in the visual stimulus due to expression, aging, and distractions such as glasses or changes in hairstyle or facial hair. Computers which model and recognize faces will be useful in a variety of applications, including criminal identification, human-computer interface, and animation. We discuss models for representing faces and their applicability to the task of recognition, and present techniques for identifying faces and detecting eye blinks.

  3. Finding faces, animals, and vehicles in far peripheral vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boucart, Muriel; Lenoble, Quentin; Quettelart, Justine; Szaffarczyk, Sebastien; Despretz, Pascal; Thorpe, Simon J

    2016-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that faces exhibit a central visual field bias, as compared to buildings and scenes. With a saccadic choice task, Crouzet, Kirchner, and Thorpe (2010) demonstrated a speed advantage for the detection of faces with stimuli located 8° from fixation. We used the same paradigm to examine whether the face advantage, relative to other categories (animals and vehicles), extends across the whole visual field (from 10° to 80° eccentricity) or whether it is limited to the central visual field. Pairs of photographs of natural scenes (a target and a distractor) were displayed simultaneously left and right of central fixation for 1s on a panoramic screen. Participants were asked to saccade to a target stimulus (faces, animals, or vehicles). The distractors were images corresponding to the two other categories. Eye movements were recorded with a head-mounted eye tracker. Only the first saccade was measured. Experiment 1 showed that (a) in terms of speed of categorization, faces maintain their advantage over animals and vehicles across the whole visual field, up to 80° and (b) even in crowded conditions (an object embedded in a scene), performance was above chance for the three categories of stimuli at 80° eccentricity. Experiment 2 showed that, when compared to another category with a high degree of within category structural similarity (cars), faces keep their advantage at all eccentricities. These results suggest that the bias for faces is not limited to the central visual field, at least in a categorization task.

  4. Facing the Challenges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Kai

    2014-01-01

    China's rise signifies a gradual transformation of the international system from unipolarity to a non-unipolar world. ,4s an organization of small and middle powers, ASEAN faces strategic uncertainties brought about by the power transition in the system. Deepening economic interdependence between...... ASEAN and China has amplified the economic cost for the ASEAN states to use traditional military means to deal with China s rise. Applying institutional balancing theory, this paper examines how ASEAN has adopted various institutional instruments, such as the ASEAN Regional Forum (ARF), the East Asia...... Summit (EAS), the Regional Comprehensive Economic Partnership (RCEP), and the ASEAN Community, to constrain and shape China's behaviour in the region in the post-Cold War era. It argues that due to globalization and economic interdependence, the power transition in the 21st century is different from...

  5. Préface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marguerite Mendell

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available C’est avec grand plaisir que je contribue la préface de ce numéro d’Interventions économiques dédié à la pertinence de la pensée de Karl Polanyi au début du 21ème siècle. Je suis très reconnaissante aux éditeurs, Diane Gabrielle Tremblay, Jean-Marc Fontan et Jean Louis Laville d’avoir pris l’initiative de préparer ce numéro pour le 11ème colloque international de l’Institut Karl Polanyi, qui correspond aussi au 20ème anniversaire de l’Institut, établi à l’Université Concordia en 1988. Interve...

  6. AIRWAY ASSESSMENT FOR ANTICIPATION OF DIFFICULT INTUBATION: A DOUBLE BLIND COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ushakumary

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS In this era of high technology, we still face an ageless problem in anaesthesia – the difficult airway. In 1997, Smarajith Sur Roy of India introduced a new airway index to predict difficult intubation. Aim of the study is to compare the new airway index with modified Mallampati classification and also with Cormack and Lehane grading for predicting intubation difficulty. MATERIALS AND METHODS The study was conducted on 200 patients undergoing various surgeries at a Government Medical College Hospital. Patients between the age group of 15 to 50 years and belonging to American Society of Anaesthesiologist Grade 1 or 2 were selected. Patients were graded using Modified Mallampati classification. Then in hyperextended neck, the distance between the angle of mandible and the midpoint of Symphysis menti (Variable A and the distance between the symphysis menti and the thyroid notch (Variable B were taken in centimetres and A/B ratio calculated. This ratio is the New Airway Index. After premedication and induction of anaesthesia, laryngoscopy was done, Cormack and Lehane grade noted and intubation difficulty assessed. The predictive value of the new airway index was compared against modified Mallampati classification as well as Cormack and Lehane grading and statistical significance assessed. RESULTS The observations made on the calculation of the new airway index were, 1. When the airway index was 1, the intubation was very easy, irrespective of the findings of Mallampati classification and Cormack and Lehane Grade was 1; 2. When the index was 1 to 1.399, the intubation was easier and the laryngoscopic findings were of Cormack and Lehane Grade II; 3. When the index was 1.4 or more, the intubation was difficult and they belonged to Cormack and Lehane Grade III. The predictability was also statistically very significant when compared with modified Mallampati classification (p<0.001 – Chi square test - test for single proportion

  7. Resurgence as Choice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahan, Timothy A; Craig, Andrew R

    2016-10-26

    Resurgence is typically defined as an increase in a previously extinguished target behavior when a more recently reinforced alternative behavior is later extinguished. Some treatments of the phenomenon have suggested that it might also extend to circumstances where either the historic or more recently reinforced behavior is reduced by other non-extinction related means (e.g., punishment, decreases in reinforcement rate, satiation, etc.). Here we present a theory of resurgence suggesting that the phenomenon results from the same basic processes governing choice. In its most general form, the theory suggests that resurgence results from changes in the allocation of target behavior driven by changes in the values of the target and alternative options across time. Specifically, resurgence occurs when there is an increase in the relative value of an historically effective target option as a result of a subsequent devaluation of a more recently effective alternative option. We develop a more specific quantitative model of how extinction of the target and alternative responses in a typical resurgence paradigm might produce such changes in relative value across time using a temporal weighting rule. The example model does a good job in accounting for the effects of reinforcement rate and related manipulations on resurgence in simple schedules where Behavioral Momentum Theory has failed. We also discuss how the general theory might be extended to other parameters of reinforcement (e.g., magnitude, quality), other means to suppress target or alternative behavior (e.g., satiation, punishment, differential reinforcement of other behavior), and other factors (e.g., non- contingent versus contingent alternative reinforcement, serial alternative reinforcement, and multiple schedules).

  8. [Comparative studies of face recognition].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawai, Nobuyuki

    2012-07-01

    Every human being is proficient in face recognition. However, the reason for and the manner in which humans have attained such an ability remain unknown. These questions can be best answered-through comparative studies of face recognition in non-human animals. Studies in both primates and non-primates show that not only primates, but also non-primates possess the ability to extract information from their conspecifics and from human experimenters. Neural specialization for face recognition is shared with mammals in distant taxa, suggesting that face recognition evolved earlier than the emergence of mammals. A recent study indicated that a social insect, the golden paper wasp, can distinguish their conspecific faces, whereas a closely related species, which has a less complex social lifestyle with just one queen ruling a nest of underlings, did not show strong face recognition for their conspecifics. Social complexity and the need to differentiate between one another likely led humans to evolve their face recognition abilities.

  9. Commitment-based action: Rational choice theory and contrapreferential choice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radovanović Bojana

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper focuses on Sen’s concept of contrapreferential choice. Sen has developed this concept in order to overcome weaknesses of the rational choice theory. According to rational choice theory a decision-maker can be always seen as someone who maximises utility, and each choice he makes as the one that brings to him the highest level of personal wellbeing. Sen argues that in some situations we chose alternatives that bring us lower level of wellbeing than we could achieve if we had chosen some other alternative available to us. This happens when we base our decisions on moral principles, when we act out of duty. Sen calls such action a commitment-based action. When we act out of commitment we actually neglect our preferences and thus we make a contrapreferential choice, as Sen argues. This paper shows that, contrary to Sen, a commitment-based action can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory. However, when each choice we make can be explained within the framework of rational choice theory, when in everything we do maximisation principle can be loaded, then the variety of our motives and traits is lost, and the explanatory power of the rational choice theory is questionable. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 47009: Evropske integracije i društveno-ekonomske promene privrede Srbije na putu ka EU i br. 179015: Izazovi i perspektive strukturnih promena u Srbiji: Strateški pravci ekonomskog razvoja i usklađivanje sa zahtevima EU

  10. Conformational origin of a difficult coupling in a human growth hormone releasing factor analog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deber, C M; Lutek, M K; Heimer, E P; Felix, A M

    1989-01-01

    During the solid-phase synthesis of the human growth hormone releasing factor (GRF) analog [Ala15, Leu27, Asn28] -GRF(1-32)-OH, incorporation of Boc-Gln16 was determined to be incomplete. While aggregation of growing resin-bound peptide chains with concomitant beta-sheet formation and "precipitation" has been proposed to account in general for such "difficult coupling," no feature of sequence in the Gln16 region of this GRF analog provided an immediate rationale for this result. We now report 500 MHz 1H NMR spectra of a series of resin-bound GRF segments surrounding the Gln16 position (19-32 through 14-32), swelled in dimethylsulfoxide-d6 solutions [GRF(14-32) = Leu14-Ala-Gln-Leu-Ser(Bzl)-Ala-Arg(Tos)-Lys(CIZ)-Leu- Leu-Gln-Asp(OcHex)-Ile-Leu-Asn-Arg(Tos)-Gln-Gln-Gly32-PAM resin]. While relatively sharp spectra are observed for GRF(19-32), components with resonances broadened by an order-of-magnitude appear in spectra of the 18-32 and 17-32 peptide-resin, and the entire spectrum of 16-32 is ill-resolved and highly broadened. Subsequent spectra sharpen again (15-32, 14-32). These combined synthesis/spectroscopic experimental results, in conjunction with predictive analyses using standard Chou-Fasman 2 degrees structure parameters, suggest that the completeness of the Gln16 coupling is hindered by formation of a specific, folded beta-sheet/beta-turn structure in GRF(16-32) (with the turn located at 18-21, "upstream" of the difficult coupling site), and accompanying aggregation of peptide chains. This analysis suggests that awareness of such potential beta-sheet/beta-turn sequences can guide analog choices, and/or facilitate pre-programming of synthesis steps in anticipation of problem couplings.

  11. Choice processes and their post-decisional consequences in morally conflicting decisions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy R. Krosch

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Morally challenging decisions tend to be perceived as difficult by decision makers and often lead to post-decisional worry or regret. To test potential causes of these consequences, we employed realistic, morally challenging scenarios with two conflicting choice options. In addition to respondents' choices, we collected various ratings of choice options, decision-modes employed, as well as physiological arousal, assessed via skin conductance. Not surprisingly, option ratings predicted choice, such that the more positively rated option was chosen. However, respondents' self-reported decision modes also independently predicted choice. We further found that simultaneously engaging in decision modes that predict opposing choices increased decision difficulty and post-decision worry. In some cases this was related to increased arousal. Results suggest that at least a portion of the negative consequences associated with morally challenging decisions can be attributed to conflict in the decision modes one engages in.

  12. Activating social strategies: Face-to-face interaction in technology-mediated citizen science.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappa, Francesco; Laut, Jeffrey; Nov, Oded; Giustiniano, Luca; Porfiri, Maurizio

    2016-11-01

    The use of crowds in research activities by public and private organizations is growing under different forms. Citizen science is a popular means of engaging the general public in research activities led by professional scientists. By involving a large number of amateur scientists, citizen science enables distributed data collection and analysis on a scale that would be otherwise difficult and costly to achieve. While advancements in information technology in the past few decades have fostered the growth of citizen science through online participation, several projects continue to fail due to limited participation. Such web-based projects may isolate the citizen scientists from the researchers. By adopting the perspective of social strategy, we investigate within a measure-manipulate-measure experiment if motivations to participate in a citizen science project can be positively influenced by a face-to-face interaction with the scientists leading the project. Such an interaction provides the participants with the possibility of asking questions on the spot and obtaining a detailed explanation of the citizen science project, its scientific merit, and environmental relevance. Social and cultural factors that moderate the effect brought about by face-to-face interactions on the motivations are also dissected and analyzed. Our findings provide an exploratory insight into a means for motivating crowds to participate in online environmental monitoring projects, also offering possible selection criteria of target audience.

  13. Comparing Face Detection and Recognition Techniques

    OpenAIRE

    Korra, Jyothi

    2016-01-01

    This paper implements and compares different techniques for face detection and recognition. One is find where the face is located in the images that is face detection and second is face recognition that is identifying the person. We study three techniques in this paper: Face detection using self organizing map (SOM), Face recognition by projection and nearest neighbor and Face recognition using SVM.

  14. Elektronická komunikace vs. komunikace face to face

    OpenAIRE

    Pipková, Zuzana

    2009-01-01

    This thesis deals with new forms of communication particularly electronic ones. The main goal is to distinguish electronic communication from face to face communication in a way that differs from traditional media theories. By using examples of the most important medium in electronic communication, Internet, it is shown that nowadays we have such forms of electronic communication that surpass the traditional classification of oral/written communication, immediate/mediate communication, face t...

  15. Mate Choice Copying in Humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waynforth, D

    2007-09-01

    There is substantial evidence that in human mate choice, females directly select males based on male display of both physical and behavioral traits. In non-humans, there is additionally a growing literature on indirect mate choice, such as choice through observing and subsequently copying the mating preferences of conspecifics (mate choice copying). Given that humans are a social species with a high degree of sharing information, long-term pair bonds, and high parental care, it is likely that human females could avoid substantial costs associated with directly searching for information about potential males by mate choice copying. The present study was a test of whether women perceived men to be more attractive when men were presented with a female date or consort than when they were presented alone, and whether the physical attractiveness of the female consort affected women's copying decisions. The results suggested that women's mate choice decision rule is to copy only if a man's female consort is physically attractive. Further analyses implied that copying may be a conditional female mating tactic aimed at solving the problem of informational constraints on assessing male suitability for long-term sexual relationships, and that lack of mate choice experience, measured as reported lifetime number of sex partners, is also an important determinant of copying.

  16. [A review of face illusions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitaoka, Akiyoshi

    2012-07-01

    A variety of "face illusions," including the gaze illusion, face inversion effects, geometrical illusions, reversible figures, and other interesting phenomena related to face perception, are reviewed in the present report, with many sample images. The "gaze illusion" or the illusion of eye direction includes the Wollaston illusion, the luminance-induced gaze shift, the Bogart illusion, the eye-shadow-dependent gaze illusion, the Mona Lisa effect, etc. "Face inversion effects" refer to the Thatcher illusion, the fat face-thin illusion, underestimation of the upright face, the nose-shortening illusion of the inverted face, etc. "Geometrical illusions" include the Lee-Freire illusion, Yang's iris illusion, overestimation of the farther eye, the eye-shadow-dependent eye-size illusion, etc. "Reversible figures" contain the whole-part reversible figure, Rubin's vase-face illusion, or hybrid images. "Other interesting phenomena" include the flashed face distortion effect, the presidential illusion, predominance of the mouth or eyebrows over eye expression, the eye direction aftereffect, etc. It is suggested that some of these phenomena are highly specific to face perception.

  17. The effect of familiarity on face adaptation

    OpenAIRE

    Laurence, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Face adaptation techniques have been used extensively to investigate how faces are processed. It has even been suggested that face adaptation is functional in calibrating the visual system to the diet of faces to which an observer is exposed. Yet most adaptation studies to date have used unfamiliar faces: few have used faces with real world familiarity. Familiar faces have more abstractive representations than unfamiliar faces. The experiments in this thesis therefore examined face adaptation...

  18. Application of Kinesio Taping method for newborn swallowing difficultly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chien-Lin; Wu, Wei-Ting; Chang, Ke-Vin; Lin, Hong-Yi; Chou, Li-Wei

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Preterm infants are at an increased risk of sucking problems, swallowing difficulty, and poor nourishment. During the neonatal period, the neurobehavioral organization of a preterm baby is poor compared with that of appropriate gestational age infants. Kinesio Taping has been widely used for edema control, joint protection, and proprioception training. With the help of augmentation of the sensory input for muscle facilitation and inhibition through tapping, the coordination of the target muscle groups can be improved. Until now, no research is available on the use of Kinesio Taping for the swallowing difficulty of infant. Methods: We reported a preterm infant suffering from brain edema at birth and swallowing difficultly until 40 weeks. The swallowing reflex was delayed. Moreover, lip closure and rooting reflex combined with the dysfunction grade of jaw movement were poor. We performed KT methods on the baby under the theory of the direction of the tape for facilitate or inhibit the muscle. Result: After the Kinesio Taping treatment, the sucking function was improved with good lip closure.One week later, the baby was discharged without the use of an oral gastric tube. Conclusion: Kinesio Taping contributed significantly to the improvement of impaired sucking and swallowing and could be implemented as a regular rehabilitative approach for infants suffering from these difficulties. PMID:27495080

  19. Protection of mineral deposits - a way towards difficult compromises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radwanek-Bąk, Barbara; Nieć, Marek

    2014-05-01

    Mineral deposits are non-renewable natural resources. Their protection and reasonable exploitation are crucial requests resulting from sustainable development principles. Those are also fundamental issues in frame of the intergeneration justice and fairness concept. Protection of mineral resources should be based on interrelated activities: maintaining the possibility of economic use of the identified mineral resources, reduced consumption of mineral resources and ensuring satisfactory results of new prospecting and development of innovative technologies for the mineral resources base. The main problem with guarantee to the use of mineral resources is the accessibility to sites with documented deposits and prospective areas of their occurrence. Often, this contradicts with the interests of residents, planners and needs of the biotic environment protection, thus is often a source of conflicts. Legislative regulations are necessary to mitigate such arguable matters. SWOT analysis carried out with respect to introducing such legal regulations serves to identify the sources of conflicts and difficulties associated with their solution. Consensus reaching is a difficult task, so all decision makers are required to show their mutual understanding and willingness to achieve the goals taking into consideration all benefits for the population (including future generations). Foundations for finding the middle ground are: making the communities aware of their demands on minerals and of indispensable conditions for satisfying these demands; providing complete and accessible information; factual, non-emotional negotiations between decision makers and the public.

  20. Difficult issues in mentoring: recommendations on making the "undiscussable" discussable.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickel, Janet; Rosenthal, Susan L

    2011-10-01

    Many mentoring relationships do not reach fruition because the individuals fail to bridge a critical difference. When a difference prevents a learning partnership from achieving its potential, the loss is multidimensional for the individuals and the institution--wasting opportunities for the fostering of current and future talent. Insights into when such impasses are likely to arise may help both mentors and mentees address what feels "undiscussable." The authors offer numerous examples of how differences related to ethnicity, language, gender, and generation may interfere with the development of mentoring relationships. Next, the authors offer recommendations on preparing for and handling difficult conversations, including creating safety, noticing assumptions and emotions, and raising sensitive issues. Virtually all faculty can become more effective at communicating across differences and addressing difficulties that prevent mentoring relationships from achieving their potential. The pay-offs for these efforts are indisputable: increased effect in the limited time available for mentoring, an expanded legacy of positive influence, and enhanced communication and leadership skills. The honing of these relational skills enhances the colleagueship and teamwork on which virtually all research, clinical, and educational enterprises depend. Academic health centers that systematically support mentoring enhance institutional stability, talent development, and leadership capacity.

  1. The Difficult-to-Control Asthmatic: A Systematic Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Le Annie V

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract With the judicious use of inhaled corticosteroids, β2 agonists, and leukotriene modifiers, most patients with asthma are easily controlled and managed. However, approximately 5% of asthmatics do not respond to standard therapy and are classified as "difficult to control." 1 Typically, these are patients who complain of symptoms interfering with daily living despite long-term treatment with inhaled corticosteroids in doses up to 2,000 μg daily. Many factors can contribute to poor response to conventional therapy, and especially for these patients, a systematic approach is needed to identify the underlying causes. First, the diagnosis of asthma and adherence to the medication regimen should be confirmed. Next, potential persisting exacerbating triggers need to be identified and addressed. Concomitant disorders should be discovered and treated. Lastly, the impact and implications of socioeconomic and psychological factors on disease control can be significant and should be acknowledged and discussed with the individual patient. Less conventional and novel strategies for treating corticosteroid-resistant asthma do exist. However, their use is based on small studies that do not meet evidence-based criteria; therefore, it is essential to sort through and address the above issues before reverting to other therapy.

  2. Pet dander and difficult-to-control asthma: Therapeutic options.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Morris; Long, Aidan A

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of sensitization to cat and dog allergens is high in the general population and poses a challenge to the physician managing allergic asthma. Adequate allergen avoidance is difficult to achieve because of the physical characteristics of airborne animal allergens and patient noncompliance. Allergen-specific high-dose subcutaneous immunotherapy has shown benefit in cat-allergic patients with asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis, whereas the data for dog-allergic patients are not as convincing. Alternative immunotherapy approaches including the sublingual route or allergen-derived peptide-based immunotherapy remain experimental. Pharmacotherapy of pet-allergic asthmatic patients requires a stepwise approach following established asthma management guidelines. In addition to short-acting beta-agonists and inhaled corticosteroids, prophylactic antihistamines before anticipated pet exposure, the use of intranasal steroids, and the use of leukotriene antagonists may also be considered as adjunctive therapy in pet-allergic patients with asthma and/or allergic rhinitis. Omalizumab appears to have particular efficacy in pet allergen-induced asthma. Novel therapies such as Fcgamma-Fel d 1 chimeric proteins still have to be evaluated in the human setting.

  3. Bronchogenic cyst in a patient with difficult asthma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Razavi, Soheil; Bemanian, Mohammad Hassan; Taghipoor, Shokooh; Moghadam, Reza Nafisi; Behnamfar, Zahra

    2010-03-01

    Difficult to treat asthma is an asthma syndrome that brings in our mind other differentials. Mediastinal masses are not common findings, but are important variables. Bronchogenic cyst is a congenital anomaly of the foregut that is typically found in the mediastinum and diagnosed accidentally. We present a 4-year-old girl with allergic asthma that began at 8-months of age and finally a bronchogenic cyst was detected in this patient. The patient had history of asthma since she was eight months old. She had a history of several asthma attacks which had partly responded to asthma management. During the last episodes of asthma attacks, she was hospitalized in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Imaging studies showed a 4x3 cm mass in the posterior part of the thoracic cavity that had led to tracheal narrowing was found for which the patient underwent thoracotomy and in surgical exploration a cyst that had compressed the thoracic trachea. Pathological examination of the cyst revealed a bronchogenic cyst. Bronchogenic cyst is an uncommon developmental abnormality but in a patient with obstructive pattern of airways it should be considered in differential diagnosis of asthma, especially if the asthma management is not successful.

  4. [Difficult respiratory management in a patient with bilateral giant bullae].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Ayaka; Hashiba, Eiji; Takahira, Yoko; Kitayama, Masatou; Tubo, Toshihito; Hirota, Kazuyoshi

    2009-10-01

    We report a case of bilateral giant bullae in a patient with multiple traumas. He had his arm amputated at the shoulder because of a machine accident and admitted to our hospital. Chest X-ray showed right-sided pneumothorax with bilateral giant bullae. Trimming of the stump was performed immediately after the placement of a right chest tube. He gradually developed hypoxia and hypercapnia with acidemia during the operation because of atelectasis due to sputum. Postoperatively, enlargement of right giant bulla led to frequent respiratory failure and he received a bilateral bullectomy through a median sternotomy 3 weeks after the accident. It was difficult to ventilate him due to air leak from the bilateral bulla and SpO2 dropped to below 70% with 100% oxygen. We continued the operation with standby extracorporeal membrane oxygenator (ECMO). Although the operation was finished without ECMO finally, ECMO had better been kept ready during anethesia with giant bullae when life threatening complication may occur at any point.

  5. Improving oncology nurses' communication skills for difficult conversations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baer, Linda; Weinstein, Elizabeth

    2013-06-01

    When oncology nurses have strong communication skills, they play a pivotal role in influencing patient satisfaction, adherence to plans of care, and overall clinical outcomes. However, research studies indicate that nurses tend to keep communication with patients and families at a superficial, nontherapeutic level. Processes for teaching goals-of-care communication skills and for implementing skills into clinical practice are not clearly defined. Nurses at a large comprehensive cancer center recognized the need for help with this skill set and sought out communication experts to assist in providing the needed education. An educational project was developed to improve therapeutic communication skills in oncology nurses during goals-of-care discussions and giving bad news. The program was tailored to nurses and social workers providing care to patients in a busy, urban, academic, outpatient oncology setting. Program topics included exploring the patient's world, eliciting hopes and concerns, and dealing with conflict about goals. Sharing and discussing specific difficult questions and scenarios were encouraged throughout the program. The program was well attended and well received by oncology nurses and social workers. Participants expressed interest in the continuation of communication programs to further enhance skills.

  6. Management of difficult inflammatory bowel disease: where are we now?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    D.S. Rampton

    2000-01-01

    Management of inflammatory bowel disease includes not only drug, endoscopic and surgical therapy but alsopsychosocial support, dietary and specific nutritional measures: a multidisciplinary medical, surgical, nursingand dietetic approach is essential for all patients, particularly those with complex or refractory disease. Inthis paper, current treatment of acute severe ulcerative colitis and steroid-refractory or -dependent Crohn'sdisease is reviewed. Adjunctive intravenous cyclosporin is an alternative to urgent colectomy in steroid-refractory patients with acute severe ulcerative colitis, while the place of intravenous heparin for thisindication awaits clarification. Azathioprine or 6-mercaptopurine are useful options in chronically active,steroid-refractory or -dependent Crohn's disease, but may take up to 4 months to work. Methotrexate is amore recent immunomodulatory alternative. Of new therapies selectively aimed at specific pathophysiologicaltargets, the first to reach clinical application is anti-TNF-alpha antibody (infliximab) for refractory Crohn'sdisease: its benefits are promising, but experience with it is limited to date, its cost is high and there areuncertainties about long-term safety. In view of the increasing variety and complexity of management optionsin inflammatory bowel disease, whether apparently responsive or difficult to treat, patients must participatein decisions about which therapies they are to be given.

  7. Bronchogenic Cyst in a Patient with Difficult Asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soheil Ben Razavi

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Difficult to treat asthma is an asthma syndrome that brings in our mind other differentials. Mediastinal masses are not common findings, but are important variables. Bronchogenic cyst is a congenital anomaly of the foregut that is typically found in the mediastinum and diagnosed accidentally. We present a 4-year-old girl with allergic asthma that began at 8-months of age and finally a bronchogenic cyst was detected in this patient. The patient had history of asthma since she was eight months old. She had a history of several asthma attacks which had partly responded to asthma management. During the last episodes of asthma attacks, she was hospitalized in Pediatric Intensive Care Unit. Imaging studies showed a 4×3 cm mass in the posterior part of the thoracic cavity that had led to tracheal narrowing was found for which the patient underwent thoracotomy and in surgical exploration a cyst that had compressed the thoracic trachea. Pathological examination of the cyst revealed a bronchogenic cyst. Bronchogenic cyst is an uncommon developmental abnormality but in a patient with obstructive pattern of airways it should be considered in differential diagnosis of asthma, especially if the asthma management is not successful.

  8. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust, and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases, such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection, an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame, which allows us efficient estimation of nonuniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multiscene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored, and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed algorithm to outperform the state of the art across several measures and shadow categories. To complement our data set, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  9. Genetic evidence of multiple loci in dystocia - difficult labour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Westgren Magnus

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dystocia, difficult labour, is a common but also complex problem during childbirth. It can be attributed to either weak contractions of the uterus, a large infant, reduced capacity of the pelvis or combinations of these. Previous studies have indicated that there is a genetic component in the susceptibility of experiencing dystocia. The purpose of this study was to identify susceptibility genes in dystocia. Methods A total of 104 women in 47 families were included where at least two sisters had undergone caesarean section at a gestational length of 286 days or more at their first delivery. Study of medical records and a telephone interview was performed to identify subjects with dystocia. Whole-genome scanning using Affymetrix genotyping-arrays and non-parametric linkage (NPL analysis was made in 39 women exhibiting the phenotype of dystocia from 19 families. In 68 women re-sequencing was performed of candidate genes showing suggestive linkage: oxytocin (OXT on chromosome 20 and oxytocin-receptor (OXTR on chromosome 3. Results We found a trend towards linkage with suggestive NPL-score (3.15 on chromosome 12p12. Suggestive linkage peaks were observed on chromosomes 3, 4, 6, 10, 20. Re-sequencing of OXT and OXTR did not reveal any causal variants. Conclusions Dystocia is likely to have a genetic component with variations in multiple genes affecting the patient outcome. We found 6 loci that could be re-evaluated in larger patient cohorts.

  10. Difficult Diagnoses in Hyperkinetic Disorders – A Focused Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco eCardoso

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTHyperkinesias are heterogeneous conditions that share the feature of production of involuntary, abnormal, excessive movements. Tremor, dystonia, and chorea are amongst the most common of these phenomena. In this focused review there is a discussion of difficult issues in hyperkinesias. The first one is the differential diagnosis between essential tremor and Parkinson’s disease. They are readily distinguishable in the majority of patients but in a few subjects essential tremor coexist with parkinsonian features whose underlying mechanism remains to be determined. The second topic of the review is dystonic tremor. Although increasingly diagnosed and reported as accounting for the majority of SWEDDs, its diagnostic criteria are ill defined and differentiation from Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor can be challenging. In the last section, there is a discussion of the differential diagnosis of Sydenham’s chorea, the most common cause of chorea in children. In a few patients, vascular disease, systemic lupus erythematosus and primary antiphospholipid antibody syndrome can mimic Sydenham’s chorea.

  11. Interactive removal and ground truth for difficult shadow scenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Han; Cosker, Darren

    2016-09-01

    A user-centric method for fast, interactive, robust and high-quality shadow removal is presented. Our algorithm can perform detection and removal in a range of difficult cases: such as highly textured and colored shadows. To perform detection an on-the-fly learning approach is adopted guided by two rough user inputs for the pixels of the shadow and the lit area. After detection, shadow removal is performed by registering the penumbra to a normalized frame which allows us efficient estimation of non-uniform shadow illumination changes, resulting in accurate and robust removal. Another major contribution of this work is the first validated and multi-scene category ground truth for shadow removal algorithms. This data set containing 186 images eliminates inconsistencies between shadow and shadow-free images and provides a range of different shadow types such as soft, textured, colored and broken shadow. Using this data, the most thorough comparison of state-of-the-art shadow removal methods to date is performed, showing our proposed new algorithm to outperform the state-of-the-art across several measures and shadow category. To complement our dataset, an online shadow removal benchmark website is also presented to encourage future open comparisons in this challenging field of research.

  12. [Malnutrition and intensive care: discussion on a difficult case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Mette M; Revelly, Jean-Pierre; Cayeux, Marie-Christine; Gersbach, Philippe; Chioléro, René L

    2003-06-01

    Hospital malnutrition is an insidious problem which is responsible for many complications. Critically ill patients are frequently hypermetabolic with increased nutritional requirements, and are exposed to the risk of underfeeding. The case report presents the case of a patient which stayed 22 days in the intensive care unit (ICU), and whose nutritional support failed: he ultimately died of surgical and infectious complications. An optimal support includes a early metabolic support provided as glucose-insulin-potassium infusion and antioxidant micronutrients, with an enteral nutrition initiated on days 3 or 4. It is frequently difficult to reach energy targets with exclusive enteral nutrition: if the latter is not reached after 5-6 days of enteral feeding, combination with parenteral nutrition enables worsening of the energy deficit. Transition to oral feeding is another critical event which may expose the patient to underfeeding: prescription of oral supplements and/or maintenance of overnight enteral feeding providing 50-75% of energy requirements helps overcome this period. The case illustrates the importance of monitoring daily and cumulated energy balance.

  13. Face-n-Food: Gender Differences in Tuning to Faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pavlova, Marina A.; Scheffler, Klaus; Sokolov, Alexander N.

    2015-01-01

    Faces represent valuable signals for social cognition and non-verbal communication. A wealth of research indicates that women tend to excel in recognition of facial expressions. However, it remains unclear whether females are better tuned to faces. We presented healthy adult females and males with a set of newly created food-plate images resembling faces (slightly bordering on the Giuseppe Arcimboldo style). In a spontaneous recognition task, participants were shown a set of images in a predetermined order from the least to most resembling a face. Females not only more readily recognized the images as a face (they reported resembling a face on images, on which males still did not), but gave on overall more face responses. The findings are discussed in the light of gender differences in deficient face perception. As most neuropsychiatric, neurodevelopmental and psychosomatic disorders characterized by social brain abnormalities are sex specific, the task may serve as a valuable tool for uncovering impairments in visual face processing. PMID:26154177

  14. City Women Confront New Choices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1994-01-01

    THE Chinese economic reform has pushed society into a period of transformation. City women—especially career women—once again are confronted with new choices. Compared to Nora’s choice to leave or stay at home, as depicted in the Norwegian playwright Henrik Ibsen’s A Doll’s House, the Chinese career women’s choice is obviously more complicated. It involves social roles and the expectations society has about their gender. Several women doctoral students with the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences recently talked about this issue.

  15. Rock mass characterization for Copenhagen Metro using face logs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Sanne Louise; Galsgaard, Jens; Foged, Niels Nielsen

    2015-01-01

    of relevant rock mass properties for tunnelling in Danian limestone has previously been difficult, as core logging shows a high degree of induced fracturing and core loss due to drilling disturbance, with an underestimation of the RQD values, and other rock mass properties, compared to face logging. However......, describing rock mass characteristics using detailed face logging with geological description and recording of induration and fracturing, giving a field RQD value during excavation, combined with televiewer logs, when available, has shown to be a valuable tool for rock mass characterization compared...

  16. Faces of CMS: Photomosaic (September 2013, low-resolution)

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonelli, Jamie

    2013-01-01

    The "Faces of CMS" photomosaic project aims to show the human element of the CMS Experiment. Most of the images for public outreach show the experimental equipment of CMS or physics results and collision displays. With a collaboration of around 3,000 people scattered around the globe, it's difficult to present the members of CMS in any one image. We asked any interested CMS members to sign up for the project, and allow us to use their photographs. The resulting photo mosaic contains the faces of 1,271 CMS members.

  17. Multi-faceted tourist travel decisions : a constraint-based conceptual framework to describe tourists' sequential choices of travel components

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dellaert, Benedict; Ettema, D.F.; Lindh, Christer

    1998-01-01

    This paper introduces a first step towards analyzing tourist travel choice in situations where tourists may: (i) temporally separate their choice of different components of the travel package, e.g. tourists may choose travel destination before accommodation, and (ii) face a structure of constraints

  18. Learning to Discriminate Face Views

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Fang

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Although visual feature leaning has been well studied, we still know little about the mechanisms of perceptual learning of complex object. Here, human perceptual learning in discrimination of in-depth orientation of face view was studied using psychophysics, EEG and fMRI. We trained subjects to discriminate face orientations around a face view (i.e. 30° over eight daily sessions, which resulted in a significant improvement in sensitivity to the face view orientation. This improved sensitivity was highly specific to the trained orientation and persisted up to six months. Different from perceptual learning of simple visual features, this orientation-specific learning effect could completely transfer across changes in face size, visual field and face identity. A complete transfer also occurred between two partial face images that were mutually exclusive but constituted a complete face. However, the transfer of the learning effect between upright and inverted faces and between a face and a paperclip object was very weak. Before and after training, we measured EEG and fMRI BOLD signals responding to both the trained and the untrained face views. Analyses of ERPs and induced gamma activity showed that face view discrimination training led to a larger reduction of N170 latency at the left occipital-temporal area and a concurrent larger decrease of induced gamma activity at the left frontal area with the trained face view, compared with the untrained ones. BOLD signal amplitude and MVPA analyses showed that, in face-selective cortical areas, training did not lead to a significant amplitude change, but induced a more reliable spatial pattern of neural activity in the left FFA. These results suggest that the visual system had learned how to compute face orientation from face configural information more accurately and that a large amount of plastic changes took place at a level of higher visual processing where size-, location-, and identity

  19. Facing the Crises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moira Baker

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Timely, provocative, and theoretically sophisticated, the essays comprising In the Face of Crises: Anglophone Literature in the Postmodern World situate their work amid several critical global concerns: the devastation wreaked by global capitalism following the worldwide financial crash, the financial sector’s totalizing grip upon the world economy, the challenge to traditional definitions of “human nature” and identity posed by technologies of the body and of warfare, the quest of indigenous communities for healing from the continuing traumatic effects of colonization, and the increasing corporatization of the academy as an apparatus of the neo-liberal state – to specify only a few. Edited by Professors Ljubica Matek and Jasna Poljak Rehlicki, these essays deploy a broad range of contemporary theories, representing recent developments in cultural studies, the new economic criticism, postcolonial film studies, feminism and gender studies, and the new historicism. The eleven essays selected by Matek and Rehlicki offer convincing support for their claim that humanistic research delving into Anglophone literature, far from being a “non-profitable” pursuit in an increasingly technologized society, affords clarifying insights into contemporary “economic, cultural, and social processes in the globalizing and globalized culture of the West” (ix.

  20. Face au risque

    CERN Document Server

    Grosse, Christian; November, Valérie

    2007-01-01

    Ce volume collectif sur le risque inaugure la collection L'ÉQUINOXE. Ancré dans l'histoire pour mesurer les continuités et les ruptures, il illustre la manière dont les sciences humaines évaluent et mesurent les enjeux collectifs du risque sur les plans politiques, scientifiques, énergétiques, juridiques et éthiques. Puisse-t-il nourrir la réflexion sur la culture et la prévention du risque. Ses formes épidémiques, écologiques, sociales, terroristes et militaires nourrissent les peurs actuelles, structurent les projets sécuritaires et constituent - sans doute - les défis majeurs à notre modernité. Dans la foulée de la richesse scientifique d'Equinoxe, L'ÉQUINOXE hérite de son esprit en prenant à son tour le pari de contribuer - non sans risque - à enrichir en Suisse romande et ailleurs le champ éditorial des sciences humaines dont notre société a besoin pour forger ses repères. Après Face au risque suivra cet automne Du sens des Lumières. (MICHEL PORRET Professeur Ordinaire à la F...