WorldWideScience

Sample records for fabrics act regulations

  1. 16 CFR 1609.1 - Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953... FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS TEXT OF THE FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT OF 1953, AS AMENDED IN 1954, PRIOR TO 1967 AMENDMENT AND REVISION § 1609.1 Text of the Flammable Fabrics Act of 1953, as amended in 1954....

  2. 75 FR 63703 - Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-18

    ... CFR Part 261a Privacy Act of 1974; Privacy Act Regulation AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal...) is issuing a final rule to amend its regulation implementing the Privacy Act of 1974 (Privacy Act..., and applicants for Board employment, for access to their records under the Privacy Act; the amendment...

  3. 77 FR 75521 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-21

    ... CFR Part 228 FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 345 RIN 3064-AD90 Community... agencies) are amending their Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) regulations to adjust the asset-size..., 2013. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: OCC: Margaret Hesse, Special Counsel, Community and Consumer...

  4. 78 FR 79283 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-30

    ... 7100-AE07 FEDERAL DEPOSIT INSURANCE CORPORATION 12 CFR Part 345 RIN 3064-AD90 Community Reinvestment... Agencies) are amending their Community Reinvestment Act (CRA) regulations to adjust the asset-size..., 2014. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: OCC: Margaret Hesse, Senior Counsel, Community and Consumer...

  5. 76 FR 79529 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-22

    ... of the Joint Final Rule The agencies' CRA regulations establish CRA performance standards for small... the Administrative Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the.... Under 5 U.S.C. 553(d)(3) of the APA, the required publication or service of a substantive rule shall...

  6. 75 FR 82217 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-30

    ... Joint Final Rule The agencies' CRA regulations establish CRA performance standards for small and... between the standards used to evaluate savings associations and the standards used to evaluate banks. 72... Procedure Act (APA), an agency may, for good cause, find (and incorporate the finding and a brief...

  7. 76 FR 43585 - Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-21

    ... Regulations; Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses AGENCY: Treasury... Proposed Rulemaking, Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money Services Businesses, 74 FR 22129... to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-- Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to Money...

  8. 78 FR 32595 - Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-31

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT 24 CFR Part 15 RIN 2501-AD57 Revision of Freedom of Information Act Regulation AGENCY... regulations implementing the Freedom of Information Act (FOIA). HUD is proposing these amendments to update... Division at 202-708-3055 (this is not a toll-free number). Individuals with speech or hearing impairments...

  9. 13 CFR 107.30 - Amendments to Act and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    .... 107.30 Section 107.30 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION SMALL BUSINESS INVESTMENT COMPANIES Introduction to Part 107 § 107.30 Amendments to Act and regulations. A Licensee shall be subject to all existing and future provisions of the Act and parts 107 and 112 of title 13 of the Code...

  10. 75 FR 61035 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-04

    ... regulations as a loan to one or more individuals for household, family, or other personal expenditures..., supplies, miscellaneous personal expenses, room and board, and ] an allowance for any loan fee, origination... TILA to prohibit practices such as revenue sharing and co-branding between private educational...

  11. 48 CFR 52.222-13 - Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ...-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. 52.222-13 Section 52.222-13 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-13 Compliance with Davis-Bacon and Related Act Regulations. As prescribed in 22.407(a), insert the following clause: Compliance With Davis-Bacon and Related Act...

  12. 7 CFR 800.7 - Information about the Service, Act, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information about the Service, Act, and regulations... AGRICULTURE GENERAL REGULATIONS Administration § 800.7 Information about the Service, Act, and regulations. Information about the Grain Inspection, Packers and Stockyards Administration, Service, Act,...

  13. 77 FR 43081 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-23

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements..., Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate, by any of the following...

  14. 78 FR 17176 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Defense Base Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-20

    ... Act as extended by the Defense Base Act. II. Discussion and Analysis The Defense Base Act of 1941...-insurer; to submit a timely, written report to the Department of Labor (DOL) in the event of an employee's... (Defense Base Act), merely clarify the existing requirements set forth in the Defense Base Act of 1941...

  15. Composition and Properties of Thermo-regulated Non-woven Fabrics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    A series of non-woven fabrics were fabricated by blending 50 - 80wt% of thermoregulated fibres containing n-eicosane,n-nonadecane or n-octadecane with 0 - 40wt% PET fibres and 0- 20wt% PP fibres. The phase change properties,thermal conductivity, thermal resistance, heat flux and inner temperature difference between wool felt and thethermoregulated non-woven fabrics of the non-woven fabrics were measreed respectively. The thermo-regulated non-woven fabrics absorb heat at 25- 34℃ and release heat at 1025℃. The measured highest enthalpy of the non-woven is approximately 18J/g. During a heating process, heat flux of the non-woven fabrics is composed of three parts: heat absorbed by the cold textile touching the hot plate, heat transmitted from the hot plate to the cold plate, and the heat absorbed by PCM from the hot plate during the phase change process. The measured maximum inner temperature difference in a temperature rising process between the wool felt and the thermo-regulated non-woven fabric is approximately 8℃. The inner temperature difference (Tr-Ts>0) lasts 16 - 45 min. By contrary, the measured maximum inner temperature difference in the temperature decreasing process is approximately - 6. 5℃. The inner temperature difference (Tr-Ts<0) lasts 16 - 50 min. The temperatureregulation properties are obviously observed.

  16. 77 FR 29982 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-21

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual Method), by any of the following methods: Regulations.gov :...

  17. 78 FR 72057 - Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-02

    ... CFR Part 300 Rules and Regulations Under the Wool Products Labeling Act AGENCY: Federal Trade... proposed amendments to the Rules and Regulations under the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939 (``Wool Rules... Commission issued the Wool Rules to implement the Wool Products Labeling Act of 1939, 15 U.S.C. 68-68j....

  18. 7 CFR 868.10 - Information about the Service, Act, and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Information about the Service, Act, and regulations... § 868.10 Information about the Service, Act, and regulations. Information about the Service, Act... INSPECTION, PACKERS AND STOCKYARD ADMINISTRATION (FEDERAL GRAIN INSPECTION SERVICE), DEPARTMENT...

  19. Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.M.S. Azzam

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the nanoclay composites were fabricated using the synthesized poly 6-(3-aminophenoxy hexane-1-thiol, poly 8-(3-aminophenoxy octane-1-thiol and poly 10-(3-aminophenoxy decane-1-thiol surfactants with gold nanoparticles. The polymeric thiol surfactants were first assembled on gold nanoparticles and then impregnated into the clay matrix. Different spectroscopic and microscopic techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Transmission microscope (TEM were used to characterize the fabricated nanoclay composites. The results showed that the polymeric thiol surfactants assembled on gold nanoparticles are located in the interlayer space of the clay mineral and affected the clay structure.

  20. 75 FR 24862 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-06

    ... Wildlife Conservation Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: We... and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980. The Act authorized financial and technical assistance to States... through 86. The regulations at part 83 implement the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980 (16...

  1. 29 CFR 2530.200a-2 - Treasury regulations for purposes of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Treasury regulations for purposes of the Act. 2530.200a-2... BENEFIT PLANS Scope and General Provisions § 2530.200a-2 Treasury regulations for purposes of the Act. Regulations prescribed by the Secretary of the Treasury or his delegate under sections 410 and 411 of the...

  2. 7 CFR 27.95 - Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. 27.95 Section 27.95 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE... and Differences § 27.95 Spot markets to conform to Act and regulations. Every bona fide spot...

  3. 75 FR 58388 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--Quarterly... an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Quarterly Reporting for Prime Contractors. Public comments are...

  4. 75 FR 58387 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time- Reporting, Compensation...

  5. 78 FR 54250 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-03

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--Quarterly... Information Collection 9000- 0169, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Quarterly Reporting for Prime... Comment'' that corresponds with ``Information Collection 9000-0169, American Recovery and Reinvestment...

  6. 76 FR 18831 - Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-05

    ..., 516, 531, et al. Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act; Final Rule #0;#0... other issues through non-regulatory means. 7. Fair Labor Standards Act Amendments of 1974 A. Service... Standards Act AGENCY: Wage and Hour Division, Department of Labor. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: In this...

  7. 77 FR 13328 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act-Price Adjustment (Actual...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-06

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual Method) AGENCY: Department of... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Davis-Bacon Act price adjustment... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0154, Davis Bacon Act--Price Adjustment (Actual...

  8. 77 FR 74546 - Posting of Pamphlet Provided for in the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... of Pamphlet Provided for in the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act ACTION: Notice of posting of pamphlet provided for in section 833(a) of the International Marriage Broker Regulation Act, Title D of Public Law 109-162. SUMMARY: Section 833(a) of the International Marriage Broker...

  9. 77 FR 57199 - 2012 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) Mortgage Servicing Proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... September 17, 2012 Part II Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Part 1024 2012 Real Estate... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1024 RIN 3170-AA14 2012 Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X) Mortgage... Regulation X, which implements the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act of 1974 (RESPA) and the official...

  10. 75 FR 12377 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-Disposition of Culturally...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-15

    ... Interior 43 CFR Part 10 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations-- Disposition of... Part 10 RIN 1024-AD68 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations--Disposition... rule with request for comments. SUMMARY: This final rule implements the Native American...

  11. 5 CFR 293.202 - Records subject to Office or agency Privacy Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Privacy Act regulations. 293.202 Section 293.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT... Records subject to Office or agency Privacy Act regulations. When the Office of Personnel Management publishes in the Federal Register a notice of system of records for personnel records which are...

  12. 78 FR 41835 - Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-12

    ... 3150-AJ25 Inflation Adjustments to the Price-Anderson Act Financial Protection Regulations AGENCY... deferred premiums specified in the Price-Anderson Act for inflation at least once during each 5-year period... Federal Regulations is sold by the Superintendent of Documents. #0;Prices of new books are listed in the...

  13. 76 FR 78483 - S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act (Regulations G & H)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1007 and 1008 RIN 3170-AA06 S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act (Regulations G & H) AGENCY... final rule establishing a new Regulation G (S.A.F.E. Mortgage Licensing Act--Federal Registration of...: Monica Jackson, Office of the Executive Secretary, Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection, 1700 G...

  14. 76 FR 59071 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-23

    ... proposes to revise its FOIA regulations to more clearly reflect the current CIA organizational structure... proposes to revise its FOIA regulations to more clearly reflect the current CIA organizational structure...

  15. 76 FR 78977 - Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation X)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-20

    ... Office of the Comptroller of the Currency, the National Credit Union Administration, the Board of... business functions. Changed circumstances means: (1)(i) Acts of God, war, disaster, or other emergency; (ii...

  16. 76 FR 15841 - General Rules and Regulations, Securities Act of 1933

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-22

    ... COMMISSION 17 CFR Part 230 General Rules and Regulations, Securities Act of 1933 CFR Correction In Title 17 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 200 to 239, revised as of April 1, 2010, on page 686, in.... 230.501 Definitions and terms used in Regulation D. * * * * * (e) * * * NOTE: The issuer must...

  17. 77 FR 74347 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-14

    ... employment with CIGIE, or any agent or independent contractor acting on behalf of or performing work for... preservation as evidence of operations or activities of CIGIE, or due to the value of the information it... involving a personal privacy interest or documents protected by another confidentiality statute,...

  18. 76 FR 78121 - Fair Debt Collection Practices Act (Regulation F)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ... rulemaking authority over a motor vehicle dealer that is predominantly engaged in the sale and servicing of... necessary to reflect nomenclature and other technical amendments required by the Dodd-Frank Act. Notably..., replacing appropriate ] nomenclature to reflect the transfer of authority to the Bureau, and changing...

  19. 75 FR 41370 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ... maintenance of statistics requirements in the OPEN Government Act. 5 U.S.C. 552(e). III. Analysis of Comments... is not likely to result in (1) an annual effect on the economy of $100 million or more; (2) a major... follows: Sec. 2201.10 Maintenance of statistics. (a) * * * (3) A complete list of all statutes that the...

  20. 77 FR 31182 - Final Withdrawal of Regulations Pertaining to Imports of Cotton Woven Fabric and Short Supply...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-25

    ... Pertaining to Imports of Cotton Woven Fabric and Short Supply Procedures AGENCY: Import Administration... short supply procedures. Both sets of regulations are obsolete: The tariff quota on cotton woven fabric expired in 2009, and the short supply voluntary restraints have not affected U.S. trade for over 19...

  1. Brightening up: the effect of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act on existing regulation of pharmaceutical marketing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorlach, Igor; Pham-Kanter, Genevieve

    2013-01-01

    With the passage of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act as part of the federal health care reform law, pharmaceutical manufacturers are now required to disclose a wide range of payments made by manufacturers to physicians. We review current state regulation of pharmaceutical marketing and consider how the federal sunshine provision will affect existing marketing regulation. We analyze the legal and practical implications of the Physician Payment Sunshine Act.

  2. The Fair Labor Standards Act and the Child Care Industry--What Regulations Apply.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Elisa

    1996-01-01

    Discusses how the federal Fair Labor Standard Act (FLSA) affects the wages and work hours of child care employees and how FLSA interacts with analogous state laws. Examines how child care centers can determine whether FLSA regulations apply to them, existing exemptions to the current act, minimum wage and overtime, whether training time is working…

  3. 78 FR 54650 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0167, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting.... Instructions: Please submit comments only and cite Information Collection 9000-0167, American Recovery...

  4. 75 FR 58389 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time... and approve an extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One Time Reporting Requirements for...

  5. 78 FR 54648 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting Requirements--One-Time... identified by Information Collection 9000- 0168, American Recovery and Reinvestment Act--Reporting..., company name (if any), and ``Information Collection 9000-0168, American Recovery and Reinvestment...

  6. 76 FR 82117 - Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-30

    ... amendments to the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act (LHWCA) by the American Recovery and... of Workers' Compensation Programs 20 CFR Part 701 RIN 1240-AA02 Regulations Implementing the Longshore and Harbor Workers' Compensation Act: Recreational Vessels AGENCY: Office of Workers'...

  7. 78 FR 50351 - Freedom of Information Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-19

    ... regulations to create an organizational structure that permits easier use by members of the public. To achieve... Specialist identified on NCPC's Web site. (b) The following types of Records shall be available routinely... type that has value that will be lost if not disseminated quickly such as a breaking news story...

  8. 75 FR 22320 - Regulations Implementing the Freedom of Information Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-28

    ... within two general categories. First, OSHRC proposes modifying its existing FOIA regulations to reflect... considered to be news-media entities. For ``freelance'' journalists to be regarded as working for a news... requester should assume, unless otherwise notified by the Commission, that its request is in the first...

  9. 77 FR 38717 - Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Wage and Hour Division 29 CFR Parts 531 and 553 Updating Regulations Issued Under the Fair Labor Standards Act CFR Correction In Title 29 of the Code of Federal Regulations, Parts 500 to 899, revised as of July 1...

  10. 76 FR 10527 - Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-25

    ... Agricultural Marketing Service 7 CFR Part 205 Regulatory Flexibility Act: Section 610 Review of National Organic Program Regulations AGENCY: Agricultural Marketing Service, USDA. ACTION: Review and request for... regulations implementing the National Organic Program (NOP) were published December 21, 2000 (65 FR...

  11. 77 FR 234 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-04

    ...; ] FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION 16 CFR Part 303 Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products... section below. Write ``Textile Rules, 16 CFR Part 303, Project No. P948404'' on your comment, and file... Rules and Regulations under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act (``Textile Rules'').\\1\\...

  12. 40 CFR 261.8 - PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false PCB wastes regulated under Toxic... (CONTINUED) SOLID WASTES (CONTINUED) IDENTIFICATION AND LISTING OF HAZARDOUS WASTE General § 261.8 PCB wastes regulated under Toxic Substance Control Act. The disposal of PCB-containing dielectric fluid and...

  13. 75 FR 41788 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Definitions and Other Regulations Relating to...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... proposing to revise the Bank Secrecy Act (``BSA'') regulations applicable to Money Services Businesses with regard to stored value or prepaid access. More specifically, the proposed changes include the...

  14. Design and fabrication of miniaturized PEM fuel cell combined microreactor with self-regulated hydrogen mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balakrishnan, A.; Frei, M.; Kerzenmacher, S.; Reinecke, H.; Mueller, C.

    2015-12-01

    In this work we present the design and fabrication of the miniaturized PEM fuel cell combined microreactor system with hydrogen regulation mechanism and testing of prototype microreactor. The system consists of two components (i) fuel cell component and (ii) microreactor component. The fuel cell component represents the miniaturized PEM fuel cell system (combination of screen printed fuel cell assembly and an on-board hydrogen storage medium). Hydrogen production based on catalytic hydrolysis of chemical hydride takes place in the microreactor component. The self-regulated hydrogen mechanism based on the gaseous hydrogen produced from the catalytic hydrolysis of sodium borohydride (NaBH4) gets accumulated as bubbles at the vicinity of the hydrophobic coated hydrogen exhaust holes. When the built up hydrogen bubbles pressure exceeds the burst pressure at the hydrogen exhaust holes the bubble collapses. This collapse causes a surge of fresh NaBH4 solution onto the catalyst surface leading to the removal of the reaction by-products formed at the active sites of the catalyst. The catalyst used in the system is platinum deposited on a base substrate. Nickel foam, carbon porous medium (CPM) and ceramic plate were selected as candidates for base substrate for developing a robust catalyst surface. For the first time the platinum layer fabricated by pulsed electrodeposition and dealloying (EPDD) technique is used for hydrolysis of NaBH4. The major advantages of such platinum catalyst layers are its high surface area and their mechanical stability. Prototype microreactor system with self-regulated hydrogen mechanism is demonstrated.

  15. 78 FR 18344 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act-Free Trade Agreements...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-26

    ... Regulation; Submission for OMB Review; Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli Trade Act Certificate... previously approved information collection requirement concerning the Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements... comments identified by Information Collection 9000- 0130, Buy American Act--Free Trade Agreements--Israeli...

  16. 16 CFR 312.3 - Regulation of unfair or deceptive acts or practices in connection with the collection, use, and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... children on the Internet. 312.3 Section 312.3 Commercial Practices FEDERAL TRADE COMMISSION REGULATIONS UNDER SPECIFIC ACTS OF CONGRESS CHILDREN'S ONLINE PRIVACY PROTECTION RULE § 312.3 Regulation of unfair... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulation of unfair or deceptive acts...

  17. 16 CFR 1610.35 - Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... textile fabrics under the standard. 1610.35 Section 1610.35 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.35 Procedures for testing special types of textile fabrics under the standard. (a)...

  18. 78 FR 40940 - Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-09

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 7 CFR Part 357 RIN 0579-AD11 Lacey Act Implementation Plan; Definitions for Exempt and Regulated Articles AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION... and are threatened with extinction); and (iii) plants that are to remain planted or to be planted...

  19. 75 FR 58390 - Federal Acquisition Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... Regulation; Information Collection; American Recovery and Reinvestment Act-Reporting Requirements--One-Time... extension of a currently approved information collection requirement concerning the American Recovery and... particularly invited on: Whether this collection of information is necessary for the proper performance...

  20. 76 FR 20569 - Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service 9 CFR Part 11 Horse Protection Act; Petition for Amendments to... changes to our horse protection regulations and our current enforcement practices and related policies... are noting, however, that certain requests in the petition lack authority in the Horse Protection...

  1. 75 FR 40754 - Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-14

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION 45 CFR Part 614 RIN 3145-AA53 Government in the Sunshine Act Regulations of the National Science Board AGENCY: National Science Board (NSB), National Science Foundation (NSF). ACTION: Direct final...

  2. Rationing health protection: a proposal to exempt nuisance dust from US Clean Air Act regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Centner, Terence J; Colson, Gregory

    2013-03-15

    The US House of Representative has passed a bill called the "Farm Dust Regulation Prevention Act" (Dust Act) that would exempt most types of particulate matter (PM) in rural areas from the air quality controls of the US Clean Air Act. The Dust Act would markedly change the country's air quality standards. An examination of the proposed provisions shows that they would exempt non-combustion PM pollutants from mining, smelting, petroleum production, and power generation from existing air quality standards. Persons downwind from pollutants generated in rural areas could be exposed to concentrations of carcinogenic heavy metals, asbestos, and benzene known to adversely affect their health and ecological resources. Existing federal air quality standards based on science would be replaced by a flexible standard that rations health protection.

  3. 21 CFR 1271.10 - Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Are my HCT/P's regulated solely under section 361..., AND CELLULAR AND TISSUE-BASED PRODUCTS General Provisions § 1271.10 Are my HCT/P's regulated solely.../P is regulated solely under section 361 of the PHS Act and the regulations in this part if it...

  4. let-7 miRNAs Can Act through Notch to Regulate Human Gliogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Patterson

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available It is clear that neural differentiation from human pluripotent stem cells generates cells that are developmentally immature. Here, we show that the let-7 plays a functional role in the developmental decision making of human neural progenitors, controlling whether these cells make neurons or glia. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies on both tissue and pluripotent derived cells, our data show that let-7 specifically regulates decision making in this context by regulation of a key chromatin-associated protein, HMGA2. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the let-7/HMGA2 circuit acts on HES5, a NOTCH effector and well-established node that regulates fate decisions in the nervous system. These data link the let-7 circuit to NOTCH signaling and suggest that this interaction serves to regulate human developmental progression.

  5. Allosteric ACTion: the varied ACT domains regulating enzymes of amino-acid metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lang, Eric J M; Cross, Penelope J; Mittelstädt, Gerd; Jameson, Geoffrey B; Parker, Emily J

    2014-12-01

    Allosteric regulation of enzyme activity plays important metabolic roles. Here we review the allostery of enzymes of amino-acid metabolism conferred by a discrete domain known as the ACT domain. This domain of 60-70 residues has a βαββαβ topology leading to a four-stranded β4β1β3β2 antiparallel sheet with two antiparallel helices on one face. Extensive sequence variation requires a combined sequence/structure/function analysis for identification of the ACT domain. Common features include highly varied modes of self-association of ACT domains, ligand binding at domain interfaces, and transmittal of allosteric signals through conformational changes and/or the manipulation of quaternary equilibria. A recent example illustrates the relatively facile adoption of this versatile module of allostery by gene fusion.

  6. The Fit Between the UK Environmental Information Regulations and the Freedom of Information Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colin Pelton

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The Natural Environment Research Council (NERC is one of seven UK Research Councils. It delivers independent research, survey, training and knowledge transfer in the environmental sciences. All the UK Research Councils are public bodies falling under the Freedom of Information Act 2000 and the Environmental Information Regulations 2004. This open access legislation came into force on January 1, 2005 and since then the authors have built up substantial experience in managing NERC’s data and information under both the Act and the Regulations. This article aims to explain how to manage the, often blurred, boundary between these two pieces of legislation, and the overlap between data management and the legislation.

  7. The neuropeptide PDF acts directly on evening pacemaker neurons to regulate multiple features of circadian behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lear, Bridget C; Zhang, Luoying; Allada, Ravi

    2009-07-01

    Discrete clusters of circadian clock neurons temporally organize daily behaviors such as sleep and wake. In Drosophila, a network of just 150 neurons drives two peaks of timed activity in the morning and evening. A subset of these neurons expresses the neuropeptide pigment dispersing factor (PDF), which is important for promoting morning behavior as well as maintaining robust free-running rhythmicity in constant conditions. Yet, how PDF acts on downstream circuits to mediate rhythmic behavior is unknown. Using circuit-directed rescue of PDF receptor mutants, we show that PDF targeting of just approximately 30 non-PDF evening circadian neurons is sufficient to drive morning behavior. This function is not accompanied by large changes in core molecular oscillators in light-dark, indicating that PDF RECEPTOR likely regulates the output of these cells under these conditions. We find that PDF also acts on this focused set of non-PDF neurons to regulate both evening activity phase and period length, consistent with modest resetting effects on core oscillators. PDF likely acts on more distributed pacemaker neuron targets, including the PDF neurons themselves, to regulate rhythmic strength. Here we reveal defining features of the circuit-diagram for PDF peptide function in circadian behavior, revealing the direct neuronal targets of PDF as well as its behavioral functions at those sites. These studies define a key direct output circuit sufficient for multiple PDF dependent behaviors.

  8. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may...

  9. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may...

  10. Identification of trans-acting factors regulating SamDC expression in Oryza sativa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basu, Supratim, E-mail: supratim_genetics@yahoo.co.in [Department of Crop Soil and Environmental Sciences, University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR 72701 (United States); Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India); Roychoudhury, Aryadeep [Post Graduate Department of Biotechnology, St. Xavier' s College (Autonomous), 30, Mother Teresa Sarani, Kolkata - 700016, West Bengal (India); Sengupta, Dibyendu N. [Division of Plant Biology, Bose Institute, Kolkata (India)

    2014-03-07

    Highlights: • Identification of cis elements responsible for SamDC expression by in silico analysis. • qPCR analysis of SamDC expression to abiotic and biotic stress treatments. • Detection of SamDC regulators using identified cis-elements as probe by EMSA. • Southwestern Blot analysis to predict the size of the trans-acting factors. - Abstract: Abiotic stress affects the growth and productivity of crop plants; to cope with the adverse environmental conditions, plants have developed efficient defense machinery comprising of antioxidants like phenolics and flavonoids, and osmolytes like polyamines. SamDC is a key enzyme in the polyamine biosynthesis pathway in plants. In our present communication we have done in silico analysis of the promoter region of SamDC to look for the presence of different cis-regulatory elements contributing to its expression. Based on the presence of different cis-regulatory elements we completed comparative analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice lamina of IR-29 and Nonabokra by qPCR in response to the abiotic stress treatments of salinity, drought, cold and the biotic stress treatments of ABA and light. Additionally, to explore the role of the cis-regulatory elements in regulating the expression of SamDC gene in plants we comparatively analyzed the binding of rice nuclear proteins prepared from IR-29 and Nonabokra undergoing various stress treatments. The intensity of the complex formed was low and inducible in IR-29 in contrast to Nonabokra. Southwestern blot analysis helped in predicting the size of the trans-acting factors binding to these cis-elements. To our knowledge this is the first report on the comprehensive analysis of SamDC gene expression in rice and identification of the trans-acting factors regulating its expression.

  11. The European "clinical trial" regulation; relationship with the Jardé Act: a Giens workshop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemaire, François; Marchenay, Brigitte; Chassany, Olivier; Barthélémy, Philippe; Bouzzagou, Mohamed; Comet, Denis; Delval, Cécile; Dubray, Claude; Fouret, Cécile; Frija-Orvoen, Elisabeth; Gambotti, Laetitia; Lamarque, Véronique; d'Orsay, Geneviève; Plattner, Valérie; Sibenaler, Claire; Roux, Jacques; Thoby, Frédérique

    2015-01-01

    In May 2014, the European Union Parliament and Council published a new regulation on clinical trials on medicinal products for human use, which is designed to replace Directive 2001/20/EC. It will not come into effect until 2016. Nevertheless, it is essential to examine its relationship with national legislation, i.e. the Jardé Act, whose implementation has been delayed pending publication of the European regulation. The Giens workshop identified and examined the various issues that this relationship is bound to raise. In particular, it looked at trial methodology assessment procedures, the working relationship between the French National Agency of Drug Safety and Health Products (Agence Nationale de Sécurité du Médicament et des Produits de Santé, ANSM) and ethics committees during the authorization application evaluation phase, review of post-authorization/registration studies on medicinal products and medical devices, and data transparency.

  12. The cost of implementing consumer financial regulations: an analysis of experience with the Truth in Savings Act

    OpenAIRE

    Gregory E. Elliehausen; Barbara R. Lowrey

    1997-01-01

    The Truth in Savings Act mandates that financial institutions disclose certain information about the terms of consumer deposit accounts in specific forms and at specific times. Although many depository institutions provided disclosures of account terms before the act was passed in 1991, most did not satisfy completely all the requirements of the regulation (Regulation DD) adopted by the Federal Reserve Board to implement the law. Thus, the Truth in Savings law likely caused every depository i...

  13. 76 FR 72878 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Imposition of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-28

    ... laundering, Counter-terrorism, Foreign banking, Iran. Authority and Issuance For the reasons set forth in the... Obstruct Terrorism Act of 2001 (the ``USA PATRIOT Act''), Public Law 107-56. Title III of the USA PATRIOT..., detection, and prosecution of international money laundering and the financing of terrorism. Regulations...

  14. Knowledge of the Animal Welfare Act and Animal Welfare Regulations Influences Attitudes toward Animal Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants’ attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings. PMID:25651094

  15. Knowledge of the animal welfare act and animal welfare regulations influences attitudes toward animal research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Mitchell M

    2015-01-01

    Recent public-opinion polls indicate that Americans have shown a decline in support for animal experimentation, and several reports suggest a relationship between people's knowledge of animal welfare regulations and their attitudes toward animal research. Therefore, this study was designed to assess respondent's knowledge of several provisions in the Animal Welfare Act (AWA) and Animal Welfare Regulations (AWR), and determine whether exposure to elements of this legislation would influence an individual's attitudes toward the use of animals in research. A survey was used to assess knowledge of animal research regulations and attitudes toward animal research from a sample of individuals recruited through Amazon's Mechanical Turk crowdsourcing marketplace. Results from study 1 confirmed the hypothesis that respondents had little knowledge of various federal regulations that govern animal research activities. Data from study 2 revealed that exposure to elements of the AWA and AWR influenced participants' attitudes toward the use of animals in research. These results suggest that providing information to the general public about the AWA and AWR that protect laboratory animals from abuse and neglect may help alleviate concerns about using animals in research settings.

  16. Fat and expanded act in parallel to regulate growth through warts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yongqiang; Irvine, Kenneth D

    2007-12-18

    The conserved Drosophila tumor suppressors Fat and Expanded have both recently been implicated in regulating the activity of the Warts tumor suppressor. However, there has been disagreement as to the nature of the links among Fat, Expanded, and Warts and the significance of these links to growth control. We report here that mutations in either expanded or fat can be rescued to viability simply by overexpressing Warts, indicating that their essential function is their influence on Warts rather than reported effects on endocytosis or other pathways. These rescue experiments also separate the transcriptional from the planar cell polarity branches of Fat signaling and reveal that Expanded does not directly affect polarity. We also investigate the relationship between expanded and fat and show, contrary to prior reports, that they have additive effects on imaginal disk growth and development. Although mutation of fat can cause partial loss of Expanded protein from the membrane, mutation of fat promotes growth even when Expanded is overexpressed and accumulates at its normal subapical location. These observations argue against recent proposals that Fat acts simply as a receptor for the Hippo signaling pathway and instead support the proposal that Fat and Expanded can act in parallel to regulate Warts through distinct mechanisms.

  17. ATR acts stage specifically to regulate multiple aspects of mammalian meiotic silencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royo, Hélène; Prosser, Haydn; Ruzankina, Yaroslava; Mahadevaiah, Shantha K; Cloutier, Jeffrey M; Baumann, Marek; Fukuda, Tomoyuki; Höög, Christer; Tóth, Attila; de Rooij, Dirk G; Bradley, Allan; Brown, Eric J; Turner, James M A

    2013-07-01

    In mammals, homologs that fail to synapse during meiosis are transcriptionally inactivated. This process, meiotic silencing, drives inactivation of the heterologous XY bivalent in male germ cells (meiotic sex chromosome inactivation [MSCI]) and is thought to act as a meiotic surveillance mechanism. The checkpoint protein ATM and Rad3-related (ATR) localizes to unsynapsed chromosomes, but its role in the initiation and maintenance of meiotic silencing is unknown. Here we show that ATR has multiple roles in silencing. ATR first regulates HORMA (Hop1, Rev7, and Mad2) domain protein HORMAD1/2 phosphorylation and localization of breast cancer I (BRCA1) and ATR cofactors ATR-interacting peptide (ATRIP)/topoisomerase 2-binding protein 1 (TOPBP1) at unsynapsed axes. Later, it acts as an adaptor, transducing signaling at unsynapsed axes into surrounding chromatin in a manner that requires interdependence with mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (MDC1) and H2AFX. Finally, ATR catalyzes histone H2AFX phosphorylation, the epigenetic event leading to gene inactivation. Using a novel genetic strategy in which MSCI is used to silence a chosen gene in pachytene, we show that ATR depletion does not disrupt the maintenance of silencing and that silencing comprises two phases: The first is dynamic and reversible, and the second is stable and irreversible. Our work identifies a role for ATR in the epigenetic regulation of gene expression and presents a new technique for ablating gene function in the germline.

  18. 75 FR 51420 - Removing Regulations Implementing the Fish and Wildlife Conservation Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-20

    ... Wildlife Conservation Act AGENCY: Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We, the... Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980. The Act authorized financial and technical assistance to States to... Wildlife Conservation Act of 1980 (16 U.S.C. 2901-2911). This act authorized the Service to give...

  19. PKR is activated by cellular dsRNAs during mitosis and acts as a mitotic regulator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Yoosik; Lee, Jung Hyun; Park, Jong-Eun; Cho, Jun; Yi, Hyerim; Kim, V Narry

    2014-06-15

    dsRNA-dependent protein kinase R (PKR) is a ubiquitously expressed enzyme well known for its roles in immune response. Upon binding to viral dsRNA, PKR undergoes autophosphorylation, and the phosphorylated PKR (pPKR) regulates translation and multiple signaling pathways in infected cells. Here, we found that PKR is activated in uninfected cells, specifically during mitosis, by binding to dsRNAs formed by inverted Alu repeats (IRAlus). While PKR and IRAlu-containing RNAs are segregated in the cytosol and nucleus of interphase cells, respectively, they interact during mitosis when nuclear structure is disrupted. Once phosphorylated, PKR suppresses global translation by phosphorylating the α subunit of eukaryotic initiation factor 2 (eIF2α). In addition, pPKR acts as an upstream kinase for c-Jun N-terminal kinase and regulates the levels of multiple mitotic factors such as cyclins A and B and Polo-like kinase 1 and phosphorylation of histone H3. Disruption of PKR activation via RNAi or expression of a transdominant-negative mutant leads to misregulation of the mitotic factors, delay in mitotic progression, and defects in cytokinesis. Our study unveils a novel function of PKR and endogenous dsRNAs as signaling molecules during the mitosis of uninfected cells.

  20. Hypothalamic Neuropeptide 26RFa Acts as an Incretin to Regulate Glucose Homeostasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prévost, Gaëtan; Jeandel, Lydie; Arabo, Arnaud; Coëffier, Moïse; El Ouahli, Mariama; Picot, Marie; Alexandre, David; Gobet, Françoise; Leprince, Jérôme; Berrahmoune, Hind; Déchelotte, Pierre; Malagon, Maria; Bonner, Caroline; Kerr-Conte, Julie; Chigr, Fatiha; Lefebvre, Hervé; Anouar, Youssef; Chartrel, Nicolas

    2015-08-01

    26RFa is a hypothalamic neuropeptide that promotes food intake. 26RFa is upregulated in obese animal models, and its orexigenic activity is accentuated in rodents fed a high-fat diet, suggesting that this neuropeptide might play a role in the development and maintenance of the obese status. As obesity is frequently associated with type 2 diabetes, we investigated whether 26RFa may be involved in the regulation of glucose homeostasis. In the current study, we show a moderate positive correlation between plasma 26RFa levels and plasma insulin in patients with diabetes. Plasma 26RFa concentration also increases in response to an oral glucose tolerance test. In addition, we found that 26RFa and its receptor GPR103 are present in human pancreatic β-cells as well as in the gut. In mice, 26RFa attenuates the hyperglycemia induced by a glucose load, potentiates insulin sensitivity, and increases plasma insulin concentrations. Consistent with these data, 26RFa stimulates insulin production by MIN6 insulinoma cells. Finally, we show, using in vivo and in vitro approaches, that a glucose load induces a massive secretion of 26RFa by the small intestine. Altogether, the present data indicate that 26RFa acts as an incretin to regulate glucose homeostasis. © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.

  1. Allowance trading under the Clean Air Act: Who should regulate, and when?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lock, R. [LeBoeuf, Lamb, Leiby & MacRae, Washington, DC (United States)

    1993-07-01

    The goal of this paper is to explore how compliance with the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA), especially Title IV and emission trading under it, will affect the current relationship between state and federal regulation. It is difficult, with the limited experience we have had under Title IV, to be definitive about or to be a very strong advocate of too many policy positions. What may be most helpful at this point is to identify where the difficult issues in state/federal relations might arise; and then to explore ways in which tensions might be either avoided or resolved. One anticipated conclusion is that a traditional regulatory mindset could be very destructive if applied to this new area of oversight without due sensitivity to what Congress is trying to achieve in Title IV. That concern pervaded the early legislative debates; and it persists today. Title IV presents some unique challenges to state regulators and will require some creative solutions and fresh thinking if the goals of Congress are to be realized and the full benefits that allowance trading can offer are to be reaped by electricity consumers. In the ultimate analysis, Title IV amounts to a massive internalization of the external costs imposed on society by acid rain deposition. (This places in serious question the notion of additional externality {open_quotes}adders{close_quotes} for sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) and nitrous oxide (NO{sub x}) at the state level for utility supply planning purposes.) The whole point of Title IV is to give those directly charged with compliance, namely power producers, the maximum flexibility to pursue least-cost compliance solutions. Perhaps the biggest single factor in how well they do this will be how state regulators respond to their compliance and allowance trading initiatives.

  2. 76 FR 75799 - General Administrative Regulations; Mutual Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-05

    ... Consent Cancellation; Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits; and Ineligibility for... Crop Insurance Act. (1) Section 1764 of the Food Security Act of 1985 (Pub. L. 99-198); (2) 21 U.S.C...-- 3. Remove and Reserve subpart F, Food Security Act of 1985, Implementation; Denial of Benefits. 4...

  3. Fabrication of long-acting drug release property of hierarchical porous bioglasses/polylactic acid fibre scaffolds for bone tissue engineering.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Lin, Huiming; Jiang, Jingjie; Jin, Qumei; Li, Lei; Dong, Yan; Qu, Fengyu

    2015-04-01

    Hierarchical porous fibre scaffolds with mesoporous bioglasses (MBGs) and polylactic acid (PLA) were successfully fabricated by the electrospinning method. These compound scaffolds possess macropores with sizes of about 100 nm because of the solvent evaporation from the fibre and the mesoporous structure ( ∼4.0 nm) originated from MBGs. The biomineralisation ability was investigated in simulated body fluid. The fibre structure is beneficial for inducing the growth of hydroxyapatite. In addition, compared with pure MBGs, the materials (MP-1 and MP-2) exhibit a long-acting drug release process up to 140 h and the drug release process corresponds with the Fickian diffusion mechanism. With the special fibre morphology and the hierarchical porous structure, the MBGs/PLA fibre scaffolds are expected to have potential application for bone tissue repair and regeneration.

  4. 16 CFR 1611.36 - Application of act to particular types of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... or designation of such product. “If, because of construction, design, color, type of fabric, or any... products. 1611.36 Section 1611.36 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION FLAMMABLE FABRICS ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations §...

  5. Template-free fabrication and morphology regulation of Ag@carbon composite structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wenyan, E-mail: zhangwenyan8531@gmail.com [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China); Hao, Lingyun; Lin, Qin [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China); Lu, Chunhua; Xu, Zhongzi [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Technology University, Nanjing (China); Chen, Xiaoyu [College of Material Engineering, Jinling Institute of Technology, Nanjing (China)

    2014-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • A simple and low-cost method to prepare Ag@C composite material. • AgNO{sub 3} plays an important role in tuning size and functional groups of products. • HTC reaction time is also a key factor for regulating the Ag@C structure. - Abstract: Ag–carbon composite materials were prepared without any template by hydrothermal carbonization of solvable starch. The composite materials are composed of Ag cores and carbonaceous shell to form a core–shell (Ag@carbon) structure. During the hydrothermal carbonization process, the aromatization and carbonization of solvable starch endowed the Ag@carbon composite structure with abundant aromatic, hydroxyl and carbonyl groups. The AgNO{sub 3} concentration and HTC reaction time are two important factors for regulating the size, morphology and functional groups of the composite material. With the increasing of AgNO{sub 3} concentration, morphologies of the composite material turned from spheres to wires.

  6. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Gang; Chen, Guangming; Li, Huayi; Liu, Lichun; Zhuo, Qiqi; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Yan, Chao

    2017-03-01

    The world faces severe environmental, human and ecological problems when major oil spills and organic discharges are released into the environment. And so it is imperative to develop tools and high performance innovative materials that can efficiently absorb these organic discharges. Furthermore, green, facile methods to produce these advanced materials are also needed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel porous supersponge based on melamine coated with hBN. This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g·g-1) and extraordinary recyclability (less than 20% decline after 30 cycles of absorption/squeezing). The synthetic procedure required only ultrasonication and immersion of the sponge in aqueous hBN solution, being a green, cost-effective and scalable production methodology. By virtue of the straightforward and cost-effective fabrication method, along with the excellent absorption performance, hBN-decorated sponges have great promise for real world practical application in the field of oil spills and organic leakage cleanup.

  7. Superhydrophobic hBN-Regulated Sponges with Excellent Absorbency Fabricated Using a Green and Facile Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying; Wang, Yao; Liu, Tengfei; Xu, Gang; Chen, Guangming; Li, Huayi; Liu, Lichun; Zhuo, Qiqi; Zhang, Jiaoxia; Yan, Chao

    2017-01-01

    The world faces severe environmental, human and ecological problems when major oil spills and organic discharges are released into the environment. And so it is imperative to develop tools and high performance innovative materials that can efficiently absorb these organic discharges. Furthermore, green, facile methods to produce these advanced materials are also needed. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel porous supersponge based on melamine coated with hBN. This superhydrophobic sponge (with a contact angle >150°) exhibits excellent absorption performance for oils and organic solvents, including good selectivity, high capacity (up to 175 g·g−1) and extraordinary recyclability (less than 20% decline after 30 cycles of absorption/squeezing). The synthetic procedure required only ultrasonication and immersion of the sponge in aqueous hBN solution, being a green, cost-effective and scalable production methodology. By virtue of the straightforward and cost-effective fabrication method, along with the excellent absorption performance, hBN-decorated sponges have great promise for real world practical application in the field of oil spills and organic leakage cleanup. PMID:28332612

  8. Interleukin-19 acts as a negative autocrine regulator of activated microglia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Horiuchi

    Full Text Available Activated microglia can exert either neurotoxic or neuroprotective effects, and they play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis and progression of various neurological diseases. In this study, we used cDNA microarrays to show that interleukin-19 (IL-19, an IL-10 family cytokine, is markedly upregulated in activated microglia. Furthermore, we found that microglia are the only cells in the nervous system that express the IL-19 receptor, a heterodimer of the IL-20Rα and IL-20Rβ subunits. IL-19 deficiency increased the production of such pro-inflammatory cytokines as IL-6 and tumor necrosis factor-α in activated microglia, and IL-19 treatment suppressed this effect. Moreover, in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease, we observed upregulation of IL-19 in affected areas in association with disease progression. Our findings demonstrate that IL-19 is an anti-inflammatory cytokine, produced by activated microglia, that acts negatively on microglia in an autocrine manner. Thus, microglia may self-limit their inflammatory response by producing the negative regulator IL-19.

  9. Deficiencies of regulation of euthanasia in legal acts of foreign countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polaks R.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Today in most countries the practising of euthanasia is not permissible and as in any case of a criminal offence, which endangers the life of a person, criminal liability applies here. However, the analysis of legal norms in foreign criminal codes reveals several deficiencies, ranging from – the absence of legal regulation which leads to a paradoxical situation, when ignoring the motive and aim of the offence, euthanasia is qualified according to the article of the criminal code which provides for liability for murder with no mitigating circumstances, but assisted suicide liability does not apply at all, – to including special legal norms pertaining to this problematic issue, in the structure of criminal codes, in the disposition of which there is an absence of several mandatory constituent elements of these particular criminal offences, thus unduly extending the provision of these norms in practice also in the cases not related to “easy death”. The deficiencies of legal acts are observed also in those few countries which allow a definite form of euthanasia and its practising by means of special laws. And most importantly, foreign legislators ignore such forms of terminating the lives of incurably ill persons as active and passive non-voluntary euthanasia, which depending on the nature of the offence requires an appropriate legal framework, which so far has not been observed.

  10. 78 FR 63408 - Petition To Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-24

    ... Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears, and Nonhuman Primates... exceptions, from coming into direct or physical contact with big cats, bears, or nonhuman primates of any age... big cats, bears, and nonhuman primates and the separation of such animals from their dams before the...

  11. 78 FR 27308 - Loan Originator Compensation Requirements Under the Truth In Lending Act (Regulation Z...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-10

    ..., pursuant to the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). Public Law 111... pursuant to any Federal consumer financial law, including performing appropriate functions to promulgate... financial law. Dodd-Frank Act section 1002(14), 12 U.S.C. 5481(14) (defining ``Federal consumer...

  12. 77 FR 57317 - 2012 Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) Mortgage Servicing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-17

    ... borrowers. Under this business model, servicers act primarily as payment collectors and processors, and... Dodd- Frank Act adds a new section 128A to TILA. TILA section 128A states that, for hybrid ARMs with a... of the Dodd- Frank Act permits the Bureau to extend this requirement to ARMs that are not hybrid ARMs...

  13. Environmental impact assessment modern dressed? To the amendment of the EIA act and other acts and regulations; Umweltvertraeglichkeitspruefung im modernen Gewand? Zur Aenderung des UVP-Gesetzes und zahlreicher weiterer Gesetze und Verordnungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feldmann, Ulrike

    2017-03-15

    On 22 December 2016, the Federal Ministry for the Environment (BMUB) presented the ''Draft Act for the Modernization of the Act on the Environmental Impact Assessment'' within the framework of the association consultation, as well as the ''Draft first Ordinance Amending the Ordinance on the Approval Procedure - 9. BImSchV''. The EIA Modernization Act as well as the Atomic Act Procedure Regulation and the Federal Mining Act should be revised by terms of an omnibus act. The association consultation was held on 18 January 2017.

  14. Auxin Acts through MONOPTEROS to Regulate Plant Cell Polarity and Pattern Phyllotaxis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatia, Neha; Bozorg, Behruz; Larsson, André; Ohno, Carolyn; Jönsson, Henrik; Heisler, Marcus G

    2016-12-05

    The periodic formation of plant organs such as leaves and flowers gives rise to intricate patterns that have fascinated biologists and mathematicians alike for hundreds of years [1]. The plant hormone auxin plays a central role in establishing these patterns by promoting organ formation at sites where it accumulates due to its polar, cell-to-cell transport [2-6]. Although experimental evidence as well as modeling suggest that feedback from auxin to its transport direction may help specify phyllotactic patterns [7-12], the nature of this feedback remains unclear [13]. Here we reveal that polarization of the auxin efflux carrier PIN-FORMED 1 (PIN1) is regulated by the auxin response transcription factor MONOPTEROS (MP) [14]. We find that in the shoot, cell polarity patterns follow MP expression, which in turn follows auxin distribution patterns. By perturbing MP activity both globally and locally, we show that localized MP activity is necessary for the generation of polarity convergence patterns and that localized MP expression is sufficient to instruct PIN1 polarity directions non-cell autonomously, toward MP-expressing cells. By expressing MP in the epidermis of mp mutants, we further show that although MP activity in a single-cell layer is sufficient to promote polarity convergence patterns, MP in sub-epidermal tissues helps anchor these polarity patterns to the underlying cells. Overall, our findings reveal a patterning module in plants that determines organ position by orienting transport of the hormone auxin toward cells with high levels of MP-mediated auxin signaling. We propose that this feedback process acts broadly to generate periodic plant architectures.

  15. 28 CFR Appendix C to Subpart G of... - Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the Civil Rights Act of 1964 (28 CFR 42.106-42.110) Which Apply to This Subpart C Appendix C to... Activities-Implementation of Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973 Pt. 42, Subpt. G, App. C Appendix C to Subpart G of Part 42—Department Regulations Under Title VI of the Civil Rights Act of 1964...

  16. 25 CFR 309.1 - How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? 309.1 Section 309.1 Indians INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS BOARD, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PROTECTION OF INDIAN ARTS AND CRAFTS PRODUCTS § 309.1 How do the regulations in this part carry out the Indian Arts and Crafts Act of 1990? These regulations define the nature and Indian...

  17. 75 FR 65805 - Transfer and Reorganization of Bank Secrecy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-26

    ... association or corporation acting under the provisions of section 25(a) of the Act of Dec. 23, 1913, as added... identification number (e.g., social security or employer identification number) or, if none, alien identification... Currency; (3) The Board of Directors of the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation; (4) The Office of Thrift...

  18. 76 FR 68690 - Rules and Regulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-07

    ... applicable to written advertising, including Internet advertising; clarify or revise the list of exclusions... Textile Act also contains advertising and record-keeping provisions. Section 7(c) of the Textile Act... not be false, deceptive, or misleading.'' Commission staff have received reports that some labels...

  19. 75 FR 63382 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... funds within the general definition of ``financial institution'' in regulations implementing the Bank... Regulations; Defining Mutual Funds as Financial Institutions; Extension of Compliance Date AGENCY: Financial... final rule \\1\\ to include mutual funds within the general definition of ``financial institution''...

  20. 76 FR 78130 - Mortgage Acts and Practices-Advertising (Regulation N); Mortgage Assistance Relief Services...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-16

    ...); Mortgage Assistance Relief Services (Regulation O) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection. ACTION... Regulation O (Mortgage Assistance Relief Services), 12 CFR part 1015, implementing the Omnibus Appropriations... Services Rule as the Bureau's new Regulation O, 12 CFR part 1015, making only certain non-substantive...

  1. Arabidopsis RAV1 is down-regulated by brassinosteroid and may act as a negative regulator during plant development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu Xin HU; Yong Hong WANG; Xin Fang LIU; Jia Yang LI

    2004-01-01

    RAV1 is a novel DNA-binding protein with two distinct DNA-binding domains unique in higher plants,but its role in plant growth and development remains unknown. Using cDNA array,we found that transcription of RAV1 is downregulated by epibrassinolide (epiBL) in Arabidopsis suspension cells. RNA gel blot analysis revealed that epiBL-regulated RAV1 transcription involves neither protein phosphorylation/dephosphorylation nor newly synthesized protein,and does not require the functional BRI1,suggesting that this regulation might be through a new BR signaling pathway.Overexpressing RAV1 in Arabidopsis results in a retardation of lateral root and rosette leaf development,and the underexpression causes an earlier flowering phenotype,implying that RAV1 may function as a negative regulatory component of growth and development.

  2. Identification of cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in the regulation of BIM Pre-mRNA splicing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan, Wen Chun; Roca, Xavier; Ong, S Tiong

    2014-01-01

    Aberrant changes in the expression of the pro-apoptotic protein, BCL-2-like 11 (BIM), can result in either impaired or excessive apoptosis, which can contribute to tumorigenesis and degenerative disorders, respectively. Altering BIM pre-mRNA splicing is an attractive approach to modulate apoptosis because BIM activity is partly determined by the alternative splicing of exons 3 or 4, whereby exon 3-containing transcripts are not apoptotic. Here we identified several cis-acting elements and splicing factors involved in BIM alternative splicing, as a step to better understand the regulation of BIM expression. We analyzed a recently discovered 2,903-bp deletion polymorphism within BIM intron 2 that biased splicing towards exon 3, and which also impaired BIM-dependent apoptosis. We found that this region harbors multiple redundant cis-acting elements that repress exon 3 inclusion. Furthermore, we have isolated a 23-nt intronic splicing silencer at the 3' end of the deletion that is important for excluding exon 3. We also show that PTBP1 and hnRNP C repress exon 3 inclusion, and that downregulation of PTBP1 inhibited BIM-mediated apoptosis. Collectively, these findings start building our understanding of the cis-acting elements and splicing factors that regulate BIM alternative splicing, and also suggest potential approaches to alter BIM splicing for therapeutic purposes.

  3. 78 FR 29263 - Rules andRegulations Under the Textile Fiber Products Identification Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-20

    ... ``Made in , finished in USA.'' C. E-Commerce and Textile Guaranties The Rules already apply to and... to invoice or other document in each of these sections. 2. E-Commerce and Separate Guaranties The Act... Rules'' or ``Rules'') to: Incorporate the updated ISO standard 2076:2010(E); allow certain...

  4. 77 FR 23196 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-18

    ... Office of the Secretary 43 CFR Part 10 RIN 1024-AD99 Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation... Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) is responsible for implementation of the Native American Graves... implementing the Native American ] Graves Protection and Repatriation Act for purposes of factual accuracy...

  5. 78 FR 34266 - Acquisition Regulations; Buy Indian Act; Procedures for Contracting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-07

    .... National Environmental Policy Act K. Effects on the Energy Supply (E.O. 13211) I. Background IA has... fulfill their usual responsibilities under the FAR, including examining contractors' past performance to... to drinking water sources, roads to natural resources identified for economic development; Roads that...

  6. Effect of trans-acting factor on rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene transcription regulation in tumor cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘东远; 廖名湘; 左瑾; 方福德

    2002-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of trans-acting factor(s) on rat glutathione S-transferase P1 gene (rGSTP1) transcription regulation in tumor cells. Methods The binding of trans-acting factor(s) to two enhancers of the rGSTP1 gene, glutathione S-transferase P enhancer Ⅰ (GPEI) and glutathione S-transferase P enhancer Ⅱ-1 (GPEⅡ-1), was identified by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA). The molecular weight of trans-acting factor was measured in a UV cross-linking experiment. Results Trans-acting factor interacting with the core sequence of GPEI (cGPEI) were found in human cervical adenocarcinoma cell line (HeLa) and rat hepatoma cell line (CBRH7919). These proteins were not expressed in normal rat liver. Although specific binding proteins that bound to GPEⅡ-1 were detected in all three cell types, a 64 kDa binding protein that exists in HeLa and CBRH7919 cells was absent in normal rat liver. Conclusion cGPEI, GPEII specific binding proteins expressed in HeLa and CBRH7919 cells may play an important role in the high transcriptional level of the rGSTP1 gene in tumor cells.

  7. Fnr (EtrA acts as a fine-tuning regulator of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gralnick Jeffrey A

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background EtrA in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, a model organism for study of adaptation to varied redox niches, shares 73.6% and 50.8% amino acid sequence identity with the oxygen-sensing regulators Fnr in E. coli and Anr in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively; however, its regulatory role of anaerobic metabolism in Shewanella spp. is complex and not well understood. Results The expression of the nap genes, nrfA, cymA and hcp was significantly reduced in etrA deletion mutant EtrA7-1; however, limited anaerobic growth and nitrate reduction occurred, suggesting that multiple regulators control nitrate reduction in this strain. Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO and fumarate reductase gene expression was down-regulated at least 2-fold in the mutant, which, showed lower or no reduction of these electron acceptors when compared to the wild type, suggesting both respiratory pathways are under EtrA control. Transcript analysis further suggested a role of EtrA in prophage activation and down-regulation of genes implicated in aerobic metabolism. Conclusion In contrast to previous studies that attributed a minor regulatory role to EtrA in Shewanella spp., this study demonstrates that EtrA acts as a global transcriptional regulator and, in conjunction with other regulators, fine-tunes the expression of genes involved in anaerobic metabolism in S. oneidensis strain MR-1. Transcriptomic and sequence analyses of the genes differentially expressed showed that those mostly affected by the mutation belonged to the "Energy metabolism" category, while stress-related genes were indirectly regulated in the mutant possibly as a result of a secondary perturbation (e.g. oxidative stress, starvation. We also conclude based on sequence, physiological and expression analyses that this regulator is more appropriately termed Fnr and recommend this descriptor be used in future publications.

  8. Market effects of environmental regulation: coal, railroads, and the 1990 Clean Air Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busse, M.R.; Keohane, N.O. [University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Many environmental regulations encourage the use of 'clean' inputs. When the suppliers of such an input have market power, environmental regulation will affect not only the quantity of the input used but also its price. We investigate the effect of the Title IV emissions trading program for sulfur dioxide on the market for low-sulfur coal. We find that the two railroads transporting coal were able to price discriminate on the basis of environmental regulation and geographic location. Delivered prices rose for plants in the trading program relative to other plants, and by more at plants near a low-sulfur coal source.

  9. Deficiencies of regulation of euthanasia in legal acts of foreign countries

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polaks, R

    2014-01-01

    ... from – the absence of legal regulation which leads to a paradoxical situation, when ignoring the motive and aim of the offence, euthanasia is qualified according to the article of the criminal code which...

  10. Functional analysis of cis-acting sequences regulating root-specific expression in transgenic tobacco

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two different length fragments, RSF1 and RSF2 which contained the cis-acting sequences of root-spe- cific gene TobRB7, were isolated from tobacco genome. The abilities of these fragments to direct root-specific expression were studied by fusing them to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) report gene with different directions. After the recombined vectors were transformed into tobacco, the expression pattern was performed by histochemical staining and the quantitative analysis of GUS activity. The data suggested that the cis-acting element of TobRB7 gene direct GUS expression not only as root-specific but also as bidirectional. In our studies, the short fragment, RSF2, performed stronger activity than RSF1 with any direction. The stronger activity of GUS expression was determined by reverse inserting of RSF1 or RSF2 than positive inserting.

  11. cis- and trans-acting regulation of gene expression of equine infectious anemia virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Dorn, P L; Derse, D

    1988-01-01

    Deletion analysis of the equine infectious anemia virus long terminal repeat revealed that sequences responsive to virus-specific transactivation are located within the region spanning the transcriptional start site (-31 to +22). In addition, an active exon of a trans-acting factor (tat) was identified downstream of pol and overlapping env (nucleotides 5264 to 5461). Activation by tat is accompanied by an increase in the steady-state levels of mRNA directed by the equine infectious anemia vir...

  12. GP supervisors' experience in supporting self-regulated learning: a balancing act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagasser, Margaretha H; Kramer, Anneke W M; van Weel, Chris; van der Vleuten, Cees P M

    2015-08-01

    Self-regulated learning is essential for professional development and lifelong learning. As self-regulated learning has many inaccuracies, the need to support self-regulated learning has been recommended. Supervisors can provide such support. In a prior study trainees reported on the variation in received supervisor support. This study aims at exploring supervisors' perspectives. The aim is to explore how supervisors experience self-regulated learning of postgraduate general practitioners (GP) trainees and their role in this, and what helps and hinders them in supervising. In a qualitative study using a phenomenological approach, we interviewed 20 supervisors of first- and third-year postgraduate GP trainees. Supervisors recognised trainee activity in self-regulated learning and adapted their coaching style to trainee needs, occasionally causing conflicting emotions. Supervisors' beliefs regarding their role, trainees' role and the usefulness of educational interventions influenced their support. Supervisors experienced a relation between patient safety, self-regulated learning and trainee capability to learn. Supervisor training was helpful to exchange experience and obtain advice. Supervisors found colleagues helpful in sharing supervision tasks or in calibrating judgments of trainees. Busy practice occasionally hindered the supervisory process. In conclusion, supervisors adapt their coaching to trainees' self-regulated learning, sometimes causing conflicting emotions. Patient safety and entrustment are key aspects of the supervisory process. Supervisors' beliefs about their role and trainees' role influence their support. Supervisor training is important to increase awareness of these beliefs and the influence on their behaviour, and to improve the use of educational instruments. The results align with findings from other (medical) education, thereby illustrating its relevance.

  13. SL相变调温纤维混纺织物调温性能研究%Study on Thermo-regulation Performance of SL Phase Change Blended Fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘晓霞; 赵刚; 何文元

    2013-01-01

    研究国产SL相变调温纤维混纺针织物的调温性能.采用差示扫描量热法、平板织物保温测试仪法和温度曲线法对混纺织物的调温性能进行了测试与分析.结果表明,SL相变调温纤维混纺织物在高于熔融相变温度环境中具有吸热现象,表现为升温速度较慢;而在低于结晶相变温度环境中具有放热现象,表现为降温速度较慢.指出:SL相变调温纤维混纺织物在一定温度下具有较明显的调温性能.%Thermo-regulation performance of domestic SL phase change blended knitting fabric was studied. Differential scanning calorimetry, flat fabric insulation tester method and temperature curve method were adopted to test and analyzed blended fabric thermo-regulation performance. The result shows that endothermic phenomenon of SL phase change blended fabric is provided in the above melt phase change temperature environment,which expressed as temperature increases slowly. While in the below crystallization phase change temperature environment, exothermic phenomenon is provided,which expressed as temperature reduced slowly. It is pointed out that better thermo-regulation performance is provided by SL phase change blended fabric in certain temperature.

  14. Symbiotic gut commensal bacteria act as host cathepsin S activity regulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steimle, Alex; Gronbach, Kerstin; Beifuss, Brigitte; Schäfer, Andrea; Harmening, Robin; Bender, Annika; Maerz, Jan Kevin; Lange, Anna; Michaelis, Lena; Maurer, Andreas; Menz, Sarah; McCoy, Kathy; Autenrieth, Ingo B; Kalbacher, Hubert; Frick, Julia-Stefanie

    2016-12-01

    Cathepsin S (CTSS) is a lysosomal protease whose activity regulation is important for MHC-II signaling and subsequent activation of CD4(+) T cell mediated immune responses. Dysregulation of its enzymatic activity or enhanced secretion into extracellular environments is associated with the induction or progression of several autoimmune diseases. Here we demonstrate that commensal intestinal bacteria influence secretion rates and intracellular activity of host CTSS and that symbiotic bacteria, i.e. Bacteroides vulgatus mpk, may actively regulate this process and help to maintain physiological levels of CTSS activities in order to prevent from induction of pathological inflammation. The symbiont-controlled regulation of CTSS activity is mediated by anticipating reactive oxygen species induction in dendritic cells which, in turn, maintains cystatin C (CysC) monomer binding to CTSS. CysC monomers are potent endogenous CTSS inhibitors. This Bacteroides vulgatus caused and CysC dependent CTSS activity regulation is involved in the generation of tolerant intestinal dendritic cells contributing to prevention of T-cell mediated induction of colonic inflammation. Taken together, we demonstrate that symbionts of the intestinal microbiota regulate host CTSS activity and secretion and might therefore be an attractive approach to deal with CTSS associated autoimmune diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Nitric oxide acts as a positive regulator to induce metamorphosis of the ascidian Herdmania momus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobuo Ueda

    Full Text Available Marine invertebrates commonly have a biphasic life cycle in which the metamorphic transition from a pelagic larva to a benthic post-larva is mediated by the nitric oxide signalling pathway. Nitric oxide (NO is synthesised by nitric oxide synthase (NOS, which is a client protein of the molecular chaperon heat shock protein 90 (HSP90. It is notable, then, that both NO and HSP90 have been implicated in regulating metamorphosis in marine invertebrates as diverse as urochordates, echinoderms, molluscs, annelids, and crustaceans. Specifically, the suppression of NOS activity by the application of either NOS- or HSP90-inhibiting pharmacological agents has been shown consistently to induce the initiation of metamorphosis, leading to the hypothesis that a negative regulatory role of NO is widely conserved in biphasic life cycles. Further, the induction of metamorphosis by heat-shock has been demonstrated for multiple species. Here, we investigate the regulatory role of NO in induction of metamorphosis of the solitary tropical ascidian, Herdmania momus. By coupling pharmacological treatments with analysis of HmNOS and HmHSP90 gene expression, we present compelling evidence of a positive regulatory role for NO in metamorphosis of this species, in contrast to all existing ascidian data that supports the hypothesis of NO as a conserved negative regulator of metamorphosis. The exposure of competent H. momus larvae to a NOS inhibitor or an NO donor results in an up-regulation of NOS and HSP90 genes. Heat shock of competent larvae induces metamorphosis in a temperature dependent manner, up to a thermal tolerance that approaches 35°C. Both larval/post-larval survival and the appearance of abnormal morphologies in H. momus post-larvae reflect the magnitude of up-regulation of the HSP90 gene in response to heat-shock. The demonstrated role of NO as a positive metamorphic regulator in H. momus suggests the existence of inter-specific adaptations of NO regulation

  16. 75 FR 19241 - Financial Crimes Enforcement Network; Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations; Defining...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-14

    ... Service lacks the authority to examine for compliance with the BSA. The definition of ``mutual fund'' at... funds within the general definition of ``financial institution'' in regulations implementing the Bank... information for transmittals of funds. Additionally, the final rule amends the definition of mutual fund...

  17. 78 FR 27078 - Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-09

    ... Government Relations with Native American Tribal Governments'' (59 FR 22951, April 29, 1994); Executive Order... Office of the Secretary of the Interior 43 CFR Part 10 RIN 1024-AD99 Native American Graves Protection.... SUMMARY: This final rule revises regulations implementing the Native American Graves Protection...

  18. 77 FR 19455 - Regulations Implementing the Byrd Amendments to the Black Lung Benefits Act: Determining Coal...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-30

    .... USI Film Prod., 511 U.S. 244, 266-270 (1994). Because the ACA expressly requires retroactive... they merely provide historical information and are not relevant to the adjudication of any current... editorial changes made to update the regulation and eliminate information only of historical interest....

  19. The multi zinc-finger protein Trps1 acts as a regulator of histone deacetylation during mitosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wuelling, Manuela; Pasdziernik, Markus; Moll, Carina N; Thiesen, Andrea M; Schneider, Sabine; Johannes, Christian; Vortkamp, Andrea

    2013-07-15

    TRPS1, the gene mutated in human "Tricho-Rhino-Phalangeal syndrome," encodes a multi zinc-finger nuclear regulator of chondrocyte proliferation and differentiation. Here, we have identified a new function of Trps1 in controlling mitotic progression in chondrocytes. Loss of Trps1 in mice leads to an increased proportion of cells arrested in mitosis and, subsequently, to chromosome segregation defects. Searching for the molecular basis of the defect, we found that Trps1 acts as regulator of histone deacetylation. Trps1 interacts with two histone deacetylases, Hdac1 and Hdac4, thereby increasing their activity. Loss of Trps1 results in histone H3 hyperacetylation, which is maintained during mitosis. Consequently, chromatin condensation and binding of HP1 is impaired, and Trps1-deficient chondrocytes accumulate in prometaphase. Overexpression of Hdac4 rescues the mitotic defect of Trps1-deficient chondrocytes, identifying Trps1 as an important regulator of chromatin deacetylation during mitosis in chondrocytes. Our data provide the first evidence that the control of mitosis can be linked to the regulation of chondrocyte differentiation by epigenetic consequences of altered Hdac activity.

  20. An Arabidopsis F-box protein acts as a transcriptional co-factor to regulate floral development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chae, Eunyoung; Tan, Queenie K-G; Hill, Theresa A; Irish, Vivian F

    2008-04-01

    Plants flower in response to both environmental and endogenous signals. The Arabidopsis LEAFY (LFY) transcription factor is crucial in integrating these signals, and acts in part by activating the expression of multiple floral homeotic genes. LFY-dependent activation of the homeotic APETALA3 (AP3) gene requires the activity of UNUSUAL FLORAL ORGANS (UFO), an F-box component of an SCF ubiquitin ligase, yet how this regulation is effected has remained unclear. Here, we show that UFO physically interacts with LFY both in vitro and in vivo, and this interaction is necessary to recruit UFO to the AP3 promoter. Furthermore, a transcriptional repressor domain fused to UFO reduces endogenous LFY activity in plants, supporting the idea that UFO acts as part of a transcriptional complex at the AP3 promoter. Moreover, chemical or genetic disruption of proteasome activity compromises LFY-dependent AP3 activation, indicating that protein degradation is required to promote LFY activity. These results define an unexpected role for an F-box protein in functioning as a DNA-associated transcriptional co-factor in regulating floral homeotic gene expression. These results suggest a novel mechanism for promoting flower development via protein degradation and concomitant activation of the LFY transcription factor. This mechanism may be widely conserved, as homologs of UFO and LFY have been identified in a wide array of plant species.

  1. Negative and positive mRNA splicing elements act competitively to regulate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 vif gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exline, C M; Feng, Z; Stoltzfus, C M

    2008-04-01

    Over 40 different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNAs are produced by alternative splicing of the primary HIV-1 RNA transcripts. In addition, approximately half of the viral RNA remains unspliced and is used as genomic RNA and as mRNA for the Gag and Pol gene products. Regulation of splicing at the HIV-1 3' splice sites (3'ss) requires suboptimal polypyrimidine tracts, and positive or negative regulation occurs through the binding of cellular factors to cis-acting splicing regulatory elements. We have previously shown that splicing at HIV-1 3'ss A1, which produces single-spliced vif mRNA and promotes the inclusion of HIV exon 2 into both completely and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs, is increased by optimizing the 5' splice site (5'ss) downstream of exon 2 (5'ss D2). Here we show that the mutations within 5'ss D2 that are predicted to lower or increase the affinity of the 5'ss for U1 snRNP result in reduced or increased Vif expression, respectively. Splicing at 5'ss D2 was not necessary for the effect of 5'ss D2 on Vif expression. In addition, we have found that mutations of the GGGG motif proximal to the 5'ss D2 increase exon 2 inclusion and Vif expression. Finally, we report the presence of a novel exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) element within the 5'-proximal region of exon 2 that facilitates both exon inclusion and Vif expression. This ESE binds specifically to the cellular SR protein SRp75. Our results suggest that the 5'ss D2, the proximal GGGG silencer, and the ESE act competitively to determine the level of vif mRNA splicing and Vif expression. We propose that these positive and negative splicing elements act together to allow the accumulation of vif mRNA and unspliced HIV-1 mRNA, compatible with optimal virus replication.

  2. Thyroid hormone may regulate mRNA abundance in liver by acting on microRNAs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongyan Dong

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs (miRNAs are extensively involved in diverse biological processes. However, very little is known about the role of miRNAs in mediating the action of thyroid hormones (TH. Appropriate TH levels are known to be critically important for development, differentiation and maintenance of metabolic balance in mammals. We induced transient hypothyroidism in juvenile mice by short-term exposure to methimazole and perchlorate from post natal day (PND 12 to 15. The expression of miRNAs in the liver was analyzed using Taqman Low Density Arrays (containing up to 600 rodent miRNAs. We found the expression of 40 miRNAs was significantly altered in the livers of hypothyroid mice compared to euthyroid controls. Among the miRNAs, miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b exhibited a massive increase in expression (50- to 500-fold. The regulation of TH on the expression of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b was confirmed in various mouse models including: chronic hypothyroid, short-term hyperthyroid and short-term hypothyroid followed by TH supplementation. TH regulation of these miRNAs was also confirmed in mouse hepatocyte AML 12 cells. The expression of precursors of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b were examined in AML 12 cells and shown to decrease after TH treatment, only pre-mir-206 and pre-mir-133b reached statistical significance. To identify the targets of these miRNAs, DNA microarrays were used to examine hepatic mRNA levels in the short-term hypothyroid mouse model relative to controls. We found transcripts from 92 known genes were significantly altered in these hypothyroid mice. Web-based target predication software (TargetScan and Microcosm identified 14 of these transcripts as targets of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b. The vast majority of these mRNA targets were significantly down-regulated in hypothyroid mice, corresponding with the up-regulation of miRs-1, 206, 133a and 133b in hypothyroid mouse liver. To further investigate target genes, miR-206 was over-expressed in

  3. Sclerostin is a locally acting regulator of late-osteoblast/preosteocyte differentiation and regulates mineralization through a MEPE-ASARM-dependent mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atkins, Gerald J; Rowe, Peter S; Lim, Hui P; Welldon, Katie J; Ormsby, Renee; Wijenayaka, Asiri R; Zelenchuk, Lesya; Evdokiou, Andreas; Findlay, David M

    2011-07-01

    The identity of the cell type responsive to sclerostin, a negative regulator of bone mass, is unknown. Since sclerostin is expressed in vivo by mineral-embedded osteocytes, we tested the hypothesis that sclerostin would regulate the behavior of cells actively involved in mineralization in adult bone, the preosteocyte. Differentiating cultures of human primary osteoblasts exposed to recombinant human sclerostin (rhSCL) for 35 days displayed dose- and time-dependent inhibition of in vitro mineralization, with late cultures being most responsive in terms of mineralization and gene expression. Treatment of advanced (day 35) cultures with rhSCL markedly increased the expression of the preosteocyte marker E11 and decreased the expression of mature markers DMP1 and SOST. Concomitantly, matrix extracellular phosphoglycoprotein (MEPE) expression was increased by rhSCL at both the mRNA and protein levels, whereas PHEX was decreased, implying regulation through the MEPE-ASARM axis. We confirmed that mineralization by human osteoblasts is exquisitely sensitive to the triphosphorylated ASARM-PO4 peptide. Immunostaining revealed that rhSCL increased the endogenous levels of MEPE-ASARM. Importantly, antibody-mediated neutralization of endogenous MEPE-ASARM antagonized the effect of rhSCL on mineralization, as did the PHEX synthetic peptide SPR4. Finally, we found elevated Sost mRNA expression in the long bones of HYP mice, suggesting that sclerostin may drive the increased MEPE-ASARM levels and mineralization defect in this genotype. Our results suggest that sclerostin acts through regulation of the PHEX/MEPE axis at the preosteocyte stage and serves as a master regulator of physiologic bone mineralization, consistent with its localization in vivo and its established role in the inhibition of bone formation.

  4. Anaplastic Lymphoma Kinase Acts in the Drosophila Mushroom Body to Negatively Regulate Sleep.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Bai

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Though evidence is mounting that a major function of sleep is to maintain brain plasticity and consolidate memory, little is known about the molecular pathways by which learning and sleep processes intercept. Anaplastic lymphoma kinase (Alk, the gene encoding a tyrosine receptor kinase whose inadvertent activation is the cause of many cancers, is implicated in synapse formation and cognitive functions. In particular, Alk genetically interacts with Neurofibromatosis 1 (Nf1 to regulate growth and associative learning in flies. We show that Alk mutants have increased sleep. Using a targeted RNAi screen we localized the negative effects of Alk on sleep to the mushroom body, a structure important for both sleep and memory. We also report that mutations in Nf1 produce a sexually dimorphic short sleep phenotype, and suppress the long sleep phenotype of Alk. Thus Alk and Nf1 interact in both learning and sleep regulation, highlighting a common pathway in these two processes.

  5. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Jennifer C; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  6. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer C Chang

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3 have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG, and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp and a metalloprotease (eep, supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1. These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide

  7. Centriolar SAS-7 acts upstream of SPD-2 to regulate centriole assembly and pericentriolar material formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugioka, Kenji; Hamill, Danielle R; Lowry, Joshua B; McNeely, Marie E; Enrick, Molly; Richter, Alyssa C; Kiebler, Lauren E; Priess, James R; Bowerman, Bruce

    2017-01-16

    The centriole/basal body is a eukaryotic organelle that plays essential roles in cell division and signaling. Among five known core centriole proteins, SPD-2/Cep192 is the first recruited to the site of daughter centriole formation and regulates the centriolar localization of the other components in C. elegans and in humans. However, the molecular basis for SPD-2 centriolar localization remains unknown. Here we describe a new centriole component, the coiled-coil protein SAS-7, as a regulator of centriole duplication, assembly and elongation. We also show that SAS-7 binds SPD-2 and regulates SPD-2 centriolar recruitment, while SAS-7 centriolar localization is SPD-2-independent. Furthermore, pericentriolar material (PCM) formation is abnormal in sas-7 mutants, and the PCM-dependent induction of cell polarity that defines the anterior-posterior body axis frequently fails. We conclude that SAS-7 functions at the earliest step in centriole duplication yet identified and plays important roles in the orchestration of centriole and PCM assembly.

  8. ZBRK1 acts as a metastatic suppressor by directly regulating MMP9 in cervical cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Li-Fang; Chuang, Chih-Hung; Li, Chien-Feng; Liao, Ching-Chun; Cheng, Chun-Pei; Cheng, Tian-Lu; Shen, Meng-Ru; Tseng, Joseph T; Chang, Wen-Chang; Lee, Wen-Hwa; Wang, Ju-Ming

    2010-01-01

    The BRCA1-interacted transcriptional repressor ZBRK1 has been associated with antiangiogenesis, but direct evidence of a tumor suppressor role has been lacking. In this study, we provide evidence of such a role in cervical carcinoma. ZBRK1 levels in cervical tumor cells were significantly lower than in normal cervical epithelial cells. In HeLa cervical cancer cells, enforced expression inhibited malignant growth, invasion, and metastasis in a variety of in vitro and in vivo assays. Expression of the metalloproteinase MMP9, which is known to be an important driver of invasion and metastasis, was found to be inversely correlated with ZBRK1 in tumor tissues and a target for repression in tumor cells. Our findings suggest that ZBRK1 acts to inhibit metastasis of cervical carcinoma, perhaps by modulating MMP9 expression.

  9. The Texas space flight liability act and efficient regulation for the private commercial space flight era

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Christopher D.

    2013-12-01

    In the spring of 2011, the American state of Texas passed into law an act limiting the liability of commercial space flight entities. Under it, those companies would not be liable for space flight participant injuries, except in cases of intentional injury or injury proximately caused by the company's gross negligence. An analysis within the framework of international and national space law, but especially informed by the academic discipline of law and economics, discusses the incentives of all relevant parties and attempts to understand whether the law is economically "efficient" (allocating resources so as to yield maximum utility), and suited to further the development of the fledgling commercial suborbital tourism industry. Insights into the Texas law are applicable to other states hoping to foster commercial space tourism and considering space tourism related legislation.

  10. Cyclic AMP Receptor Protein Acts as a Transcription Regulator in Response to Stresses in Deinococcus radiodurans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su Yang

    Full Text Available The cyclic AMP receptor protein family of transcription factors regulates various metabolic pathways in bacteria, and also play roles in response to environmental changes. Here, we identify four homologs of the CRP family in Deinococcus radiodurans, one of which tolerates extremely high levels of oxidative stress and DNA-damaging reagents. Transcriptional levels of CRP were increased under hydrogen peroxide (H2O2 treatment during the stationary growth phase, indicating that CRPs function in response to oxidative stress. By constructing all CRP single knockout mutants, we found that the dr0997 mutant showed the lowest tolerance toward H2O2, ultraviolet radiation, ionizing radiation, and mitomycin C, while the phenotypes of the dr2362, dr0834, and dr1646 mutants showed slight or no significant differences from those of the wild-type strain. Taking advantage of the conservation of the CRP-binding site in many bacteria, we found that transcription of 18 genes, including genes encoding chromosome-partitioning protein (dr0998, Lon proteases (dr0349 and dr1974, NADH-quinone oxidoreductase (dr1506, thiosulfate sulfurtransferase (dr2531, the DNA repair protein UvsE (dr1819, PprA (dra0346, and RecN (dr1447, are directly regulated by DR0997. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR analyses showed that certain genes involved in anti-oxidative responses, DNA repair, and various cellular pathways are transcriptionally attenuated in the dr0997 mutant. Interestingly, DR0997 also regulate the transcriptional levels of all CRP genes in this bacterium. These data suggest that DR0997 contributes to the extreme stress resistance of D. radiodurans via its regulatory role in multiple cellular pathways, such as anti-oxidation and DNA repair pathways.

  11. Neurotransmitters act as paracrine signals to regulate insulin secretion from the human pancreatic islet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez-Diaz, Rayner; Menegaz, Danusa; Caicedo, Alejandro

    2014-08-15

    In this symposium review we discuss the role of neurotransmitters as paracrine signals that regulate pancreatic islet function. A large number of neurotransmitters and their receptors has been identified in the islet, but relatively little is known about their involvement in islet biology. Interestingly, neurotransmitters initially thought to be present in autonomic axons innervating the islet are also present in endocrine cells of the human islet. These neurotransmitters can thus be released as paracrine signals to help control hormone release. Here we propose that the role of neurotransmitters may extend beyond controlling endocrine cell function to work as signals modulating vascular flow and immune responses within the islet.

  12. AGO1 and AGO2 act redundantly in miR408-mediated plantacyanin regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Nicolas Maunoury; Hervé Vaucheret

    2011-01-01

    Background : In Arabidopsis, AGO1 and AGO2 associate with small RNAs that exhibit a Uridine and an Adenosine at their 5′ end, respectively. Because most plant miRNAs have a 5′U, AGO1 plays many essential roles in miRNA-mediated regulation of development and stress responses. In contrast, AGO2 has only been implicated in antibacterial defense in association with miR393*, which has a 5′A. AGO2 also participates in antiviral defense in association with viral siRNAs. Principal Findings : This ...

  13. A novel branched chain amino acids responsive transcriptional regulator, BCARR, negatively acts on the proteolytic system in Lactobacillus helveticus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taketo Wakai

    Full Text Available Transcriptional negative regulation of the proteolytic system of Lactobacillus helveticus CM4 in response to amino acids seems to be very important for the control of antihypertensive peptide production; however, it remains poorly understood. A 26-kDa protein with N-terminal cystathionine β-synthase domains (CBS domain protein, which seems to be involved in the regulatory system, was purified by using a DNA-sepharose bound 300-bp DNA fragment corresponding to the upstream regions of the six proteolytic genes that are down-regulated by amino acids. The CBS domain protein bound to a DNA fragment corresponding to the region upstream of the pepV gene in response to branched chain amino acids (BCAAs. The expression of the pepV gene in Escherichia coli grown in BCAA-enriched medium was repressed when the CBS domain protein was co-expressed. These results reveal that the CBS domain protein acts as a novel type of BCAA-responsive transcriptional regulator (BCARR in L. helveticus. From comparative analysis of the promoter regions of the six proteolysis genes, a palindromic AT-rich motif, 5'-AAAAANNCTWTTATT-3', was predicted as the consensus DNA motif for the BCARR protein binding. Footprint analysis using the pepV promotor region and gel shift analyses with the corresponding short DNA fragments strongly suggested that the BCARR protein binds adjacent to the pepV promoter region and affects the transcription level of the pepV gene in the presence of BCAAs. Homology search analysis of the C-terminal region of the BCARR protein suggested the existence of a unique βαββαβ fold structure that has been reported in a variety of ACT (aspartate kinase-chorismate mutase-tyrA domain proteins for sensing amino acids. These results also suggest that the sensing of BCAAs by the ACT domain might promote the binding of the BCARR to DNA sequences upstream of proteolysis genes, which affects the gene expression of the proteolytic system in L. helveticus.

  14. Autonomous regulation of the insect gut by circadian genes acting downstream of juvenile hormone signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajgar, Adam; Jindra, Marek; Dolezel, David

    2013-03-12

    In temperate regions, the shortening day length informs many insect species to prepare for winter by inducing diapause. The adult diapause of the linden bug, Pyrrhocoris apterus, involves a reproductive arrest accompanied by energy storage, reduction of metabolic needs, and preparation to withstand low temperatures. By contrast, nondiapause animals direct nutrient energy to muscle activity and reproduction. The photoperiod-dependent switch from diapause to reproduction is systemically transmitted throughout the organism by juvenile hormone (JH). Here, we show that, at the organ-autonomous level of the insect gut, the decision between reproduction and diapause relies on an interaction between JH signaling and circadian clock genes acting independently of the daily cycle. The JH receptor Methoprene-tolerant and the circadian proteins Clock and Cycle are all required in the gut to activate the Par domain protein 1 gene during reproduction and to simultaneously suppress a mammalian-type cryptochrome 2 gene that promotes the diapause program. A nonperiodic, organ-autonomous feedback between Par domain protein 1 and Cryptochrome 2 then orchestrates expression of downstream genes that mark the diapause vs. reproductive states of the gut. These results show that hormonal signaling through Methoprene-tolerant and circadian proteins controls gut-specific gene activity that is independent of circadian oscillations but differs between reproductive and diapausing animals.

  15. Sox2 transcription network acts as a molecular switch to regulate properties of neural stem cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koji; Shimozaki

    2014-01-01

    Neural stem cells(NSCs) contribute to ontogeny by producing neurons at the appropriate time and location. Neurogenesis from NSCs is also involved in various biological functions in adults. Thus, NSCs continue to exert their effects throughout the lifespan of the organism. The mechanism regulating the core functional properties of NSCs is governed by intra- and extracellular signals. Among the transcription factors that serve as molecular switches, Sox2 is considered a key factor in NSCs. Sox2 forms a core network with partner factors, thereby functioning as a molecular switch. This review discusses how the network of Sox2 partner and target genes illustrates the molecular characteristics of the mechanism underlying the self-renewal and multipotency of NSCs.

  16. cis- and trans-acting elements of the estrogen-regulated vitellogenin gene B1 of Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wahli, W; Martinez, E; Corthésy, B; Cardinaux, J R

    1989-01-01

    Vitellogenin genes are expressed under strict estrogen control in the liver of female oviparous vertebrates. Gene transfer experiments using estrogen-responsive cells have shown that the 13 bp perfect palindromic element GGTCACTGTGACC found upstream of the Xenopus laevis vitellogenin gene A2 promoter mediates hormonal stimulation and thus, was called the estrogen-responsive element (ERE). In the Xenopus vitellogenin genes B1 and B2 there are two closely adjacent EREs with one or more base substitutions when compared to the consensus ERE GGTCANNNTGACC. On their own, these degenerated elements have only a low or no regulatory capacity at all but act together synergistically to form an estrogen-responsive unit (ERU) with the same strength as the perfect palindromic 13 bp element. Analysis of estrogen receptor binding to the gene B1 ERU revealed a cooperative interaction of receptor dimers to the two adjacent imperfect EREs which most likely explains the synergistic stimulation observed in vivo. Furthermore, a promoter activator element located between positions --113 and --42 of the gene B1 and functional in the human MCF-7 and the Xenopus B3.2 cells has been identified and shown to be involved in the high level of induced transcription activity when the ERE is placed at a distance from the promoter. Finally, a hormone-controlled in vitro transcription system derived from Xenopus liver nuclear extracts was exploited to characterize two additional novel cis-acting elements within the vitellogenin gene B1 promoter. One of them, a negative regulatory element (NRE), is responsible for repression of promoter activity in the absence of hormone. The second is related to the NF-I binding site and is required, together with the ERE, to mediate hormonal induction. Moreover, we detected three trans-acting activities in Xenopus liver nuclear extracts that interact with these regions and demonstrated that they participate in the regulation of the expression of the vitellogenin

  17. Immunomodulatory drugs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases and induce PU.1 up-regulation in myeloma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Endo, Shinya; Amano, Masayuki; Nishimura, Nao; Ueno, Niina; Ueno, Shikiko; Yuki, Hiromichi; Fujiwara, Shiho; Wada, Naoko; Hirata, Shinya; Hata, Hiroyuki; Mitsuya, Hiroaki; Okuno, Yutaka

    2016-01-08

    Immunomodulatory drugs (IMiDs) such as thalidomide, lenalidomide, and pomalidomide are efficacious in the treatment of multiple myeloma and significantly prolong their survival. However, the mechanisms of such effects of IMiDs have not been fully elucidated. Recently, cereblon has been identified as a target binding protein of thalidomide. Lenalidomide-resistant myeloma cell lines often lose the expression of cereblon, suggesting that IMiDs act as an anti-myeloma agent through interacting with cereblon. Cereblon binds to damaged DNA-binding protein and functions as a ubiquitin ligase, inducing degradation of IKZF1 and IKZF3 that are essential transcription factors for B and T cell development. Degradation of both IKZF1 and IKZF3 reportedly suppresses myeloma cell growth. Here, we found that IMiDs act as inhibitors of DNA methyltransferases (DMNTs). We previously reported that PU.1, which is an ETS family transcription factor and essential for myeloid and lymphoid development, functions as a tumor suppressor in myeloma cells. PU.1 induces growth arrest and apoptosis of myeloma cell lines. In this study, we found that low-dose lenalidomide and pomalidomide up-regulate PU.1 expression through inducing demethylation of the PU.1 promoter. In addition, IMiDs inhibited DNMT1, DNMT3a, and DNMT3b activities in vitro. Furthermore, lenalidomide and pomalidomide decreased the methylation status of the whole genome in myeloma cells. Collectively, IMiDs exert demethylation activity through inhibiting DNMT1, 3a, and 3b, and up-regulating PU.1 expression, which may be one of the mechanisms of the anti-myeloma activity of IMiDs.

  18. The expression and regulation of bone-acting cytokines in human peripheral adipose tissue in organ culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harsløf, T; Husted, L B; Carstens, M; Stenkjaer, L; Sørensen, L; Pedersen, S B; Langdahl, B L

    2011-06-01

    The humoral cross-talk between bone and fat is an area of increasing interest. We investigated the expression and regulation of the bone-acting cytokines; bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), connective tissue growth factor (CTGF), osteoprotegerin (OPG), and transforming growth factor beta (TGFB1). Subcutaneous adipose tissue was aspirated from lean, healthy women. Tissue samples were incubated with interleukin 1-β (IL1-β), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cortisol, troglitazone, IL1-β + troglitazone, or vehicle. Gene expression in the adipose tissue was analyzed using qPCR and protein levels in the incubation media were analyzed using ELISA. OPG expression and secretion was diminished by 40.8% and 43.1% respectively, by cortisol, and OPG expression was diminished by 67.5% by troglitazone (peffects on bone. We suggest that this could be mediated via altered cytokine production in adipose tissue. Moreover, obese individuals have a low-grade inflammation in their adipose tissue and have higher bone mineral density than lean individuals. We suggest that this inflammation may increase the expression and secretion of OPG and CTGF and thereby increase BMD. In conclusion, bone acting cytokines are produced in the adipose tissue and may affect bone through endocrine mechanisms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  19. Four tomato FLOWERING LOCUS T-like proteins act antagonistically to regulate floral initiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai eCao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The transition from vegetative growth to floral meristems in higher plants is regulated through the integration of internal cues and environmental signals. We were interested to examine the molecular mechanism of flowering in the day-neutral plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. and the effect of environmental conditions on tomato flowering. Analysis of the tomato genome uncovered 13 PEBP (phosphatidylethanolamine-binding protein genes, and found six of them were FT-like genes which named as SlSP3D, SlSP6A, SlSP5G, SlSP5G1, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3. 6 FT-like genes were analyzed to clarify their functional roles in flowering using transgenic and expression analyses. We found that SlSP5G, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 proteins were floral inhibitors whereas only SlSP3D/SFT (SINGLE FLOWER TRUSS was a floral inducer. SlSP5G was expressed at higher levels in long day (LD conditions compared to short day (SD conditions while SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 showed the opposite expression patterns. The silencing of SlSP5G by VIGS (Virus induced gene silencing resulted in tomato plants that flowered early under LD conditions and the silencing of SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 led to early flowering under SD conditions. The higher expression levels of SlSP5G under LD conditions were not seen in phyB1 mutants, and the expression levels of SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 were increased in phyB1 mutants under both SD and LD conditions compared to wild type plants. These data suggest that SlSP5G, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 are controlled by photoperiod, and the different expression patterns of FT-like genes under different photoperiod may contribute to tomato being a day neutral plant. In addition, PHYB1 mediate the expression of SlSP5G, SlSP5G2 and SlSP5G3 to regulate flowering in tomato.

  20. Two small GTPases act in concert with the bactofilin cytoskeleton to regulate dynamic bacterial cell polarity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bulyha, Iryna; Lindow, Steffi; Lin, Lin; Bolte, Kathrin; Wuichet, Kristin; Kahnt, Jörg; van der Does, Chris; Thanbichler, Martin; Søgaard-Andersen, Lotte

    2013-04-29

    Cell polarity is essential for many bacterial activities, but the mechanisms responsible for its establishment are poorly understood. In Myxococcus xanthus, the type IV pili (T4P) motor ATPases PilB and PilT localize to opposite cell poles and switch poles during cellular reversals. We demonstrate that polar localization of PilB and PilT depends on the small GTPase SofG and BacP, a bactofilin cytoskeletal protein. Polymeric BacP localizes in both subpolar regions. SofG interacts directly with polymeric BacP and associates with one of these patches, forming a cluster that shuttles to the pole to establish localization of PilB and PilT at the same pole. Next, the small GTPase MglA sorts PilB and PilT to opposite poles to establish their correct polarity. During reversals, the Frz chemosensory system induces the inversion of PilB and PilT polarity. Thus, three hierarchically organized systems function in a cascade to regulate dynamic bacterial cell polarity.

  1. Weak neurotoxin from Naja kaouthia cobra venom affects haemodynamic regulation by acting on acetylcholine receptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogay, Alexey Ya; Rzhevsky, Dmitry I; Murashev, Arkady N; Tsetlin, Victor I; Utkin, Yuri N

    2005-01-01

    Recent in vitro studies of weak neurotoxins from snake venoms have demonstrated their ability to interact with both muscle-type and neuronal alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChR). However, the biological activity in vivo of weak neurotoxins remains largely unknown. We have studied the influence of weak neurotoxin (WTX) from the venom of cobra Naja kaouthia on arterial blood pressure (BP) and heart rate (HR) in rats and mice. It was found that intravenous injection of WTX induced a dose-dependent decrease in BP and an increase in HR in both species, the rats being more sensitive to WTX. Application of WTX following blockade of nAChRs or muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChR) by hexamethonium or atropine, respectively, showed that both nAChRs and mAChRs are involved in the haemodynamic effects of WTX. Blockade of either nAChRs or mAChRs affected WTX action differently in rats and mice, thus reflecting interspecies differences in haemodynamic regulation.

  2. Synemin acts as a regulator of signalling molecules during skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhenlin; Parlakian, Ara; Coletti, Dario; Alonso-Martin, Sonia; Hourdé, Christophe; Joanne, Pierre; Gao-Li, Jacqueline; Blanc, Jocelyne; Ferry, Arnaud; Paulin, Denise; Xue, Zhigang; Agbulut, Onnik

    2014-11-01

    Synemin, a type IV intermediate filament (IF) protein, forms a bridge between IFs and cellular membranes. As an A-kinase-anchoring protein, it also provides temporal and spatial targeting of protein kinase A (PKA). However, little is known about its functional roles in either process. To better understand its functions in muscle tissue, we generated synemin-deficient (Synm(-) (/-)) mice. Synm(-) (/-) mice displayed normal development and fertility but showed a mild degeneration and regeneration phenotype in myofibres and defects in sarcolemma membranes. Following mechanical overload, Synm(-) (/-) mice muscles showed a higher hypertrophic capacity with increased maximal force and fatigue resistance compared with control mice. At the molecular level, increased remodelling capacity was accompanied by decreased myostatin (also known as GDF8) and atrogin (also known as FBXO32) expression, and increased follistatin expression. Furthermore, the activity of muscle-mass control molecules (the PKA RIIα subunit, p70S6K and CREB1) was increased in mutant mice. Finally, analysis of muscle satellite cell behaviour suggested that the absence of synemin could affect the balance between self-renewal and differentiation of these cells. Taken together, our results show that synemin is necessary to maintain membrane integrity and regulates signalling molecules during muscle hypertrophy. © 2014. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  3. Negative and Positive mRNA Splicing Elements Act Competitively To Regulate Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 Vif Gene Expression▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Exline, C. M.; Feng, Z.; Stoltzfus, C. M.

    2008-01-01

    Over 40 different human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) mRNAs are produced by alternative splicing of the primary HIV-1 RNA transcripts. In addition, approximately half of the viral RNA remains unspliced and is used as genomic RNA and as mRNA for the Gag and Pol gene products. Regulation of splicing at the HIV-1 3′ splice sites (3′ss) requires suboptimal polypyrimidine tracts, and positive or negative regulation occurs through the binding of cellular factors to cis-acting splicing regulatory elements. We have previously shown that splicing at HIV-1 3′ss A1, which produces single-spliced vif mRNA and promotes the inclusion of HIV exon 2 into both completely and incompletely spliced viral mRNAs, is increased by optimizing the 5′ splice site (5′ss) downstream of exon 2 (5′ss D2). Here we show that the mutations within 5′ss D2 that are predicted to lower or increase the affinity of the 5′ss for U1 snRNP result in reduced or increased Vif expression, respectively. Splicing at 5′ss D2 was not necessary for the effect of 5′ss D2 on Vif expression. In addition, we have found that mutations of the GGGG motif proximal to the 5′ss D2 increase exon 2 inclusion and Vif expression. Finally, we report the presence of a novel exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) element within the 5′-proximal region of exon 2 that facilitates both exon inclusion and Vif expression. This ESE binds specifically to the cellular SR protein SRp75. Our results suggest that the 5′ss D2, the proximal GGGG silencer, and the ESE act competitively to determine the level of vif mRNA splicing and Vif expression. We propose that these positive and negative splicing elements act together to allow the accumulation of vif mRNA and unspliced HIV-1 mRNA, compatible with optimal virus replication. PMID:18272582

  4. The pif1 helicase, a negative regulator of telomerase, acts preferentially at long telomeres.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jane A Phillips

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Telomerase, the enzyme that maintains telomeres, preferentially lengthens short telomeres. The S. cerevisiae Pif1 DNA helicase inhibits both telomerase-mediated telomere lengthening and de novo telomere addition at double strand breaks (DSB. Here, we report that the association of the telomerase subunits Est2 and Est1 at a DSB was increased in the absence of Pif1, as it is at telomeres, suggesting that Pif1 suppresses de novo telomere addition by removing telomerase from the break. To determine how the absence of Pif1 results in telomere lengthening, we used the single telomere extension assay (STEX, which monitors lengthening of individual telomeres in a single cell cycle. In the absence of Pif1, telomerase added significantly more telomeric DNA, an average of 72 nucleotides per telomere compared to the 45 nucleotides in wild type cells, and the fraction of telomeres lengthened increased almost four-fold. Using an inducible short telomere assay, Est2 and Est1 no longer bound preferentially to a short telomere in pif1 mutant cells while binding of Yku80, a telomere structural protein, was unaffected by the status of the PIF1 locus. Two experiments demonstrate that Pif1 binding is affected by telomere length: Pif1 (but not Yku80 -associated telomeres were 70 bps longer than bulk telomeres, and in the inducible short telomere assay, Pif1 bound better to wild type length telomeres than to short telomeres. Thus, preferential lengthening of short yeast telomeres is achieved in part by targeting the negative regulator Pif1 to long telomeres.

  5. Short-chain fatty acids act as antiinflammatory mediators by regulating prostaglandin E_2 and cytokines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mary Ann Cox; James Jackson; Michaela Stanton; Alberto Rojas-Triana; Loretta Bober; Maureen Laverty; Xiaoxin Yang; Feng Zhu; Jianjun Liu; Suke Wang; Frederick Monsma; Galya Vassileva; Maureen Maguire; Eric Gustafson; Marvin Bayne; Chuan-Chu Chou; Daniel Lundell; Chung-Her Jenh

    2009-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect of short-chain fatty acids(SCFAs) on production of prostaglandin E_2 (PGE_2),cytokines and chemokines in human monocytes.METHODS: Human neutrophils and monocytes were isolated from human whole blood by using 1-Step Polymorph and RosetteSep Human Monocyte Enrichment Cocktail, respectively. Human GPR41 and GPR43 mRNA expression was examined by quantitative realtimepolymerase chain reaction. The calcium flux assay was used to examine the biological activities of SCFAs in human neutrophils and monocytes. The effect of SCFAs on human monocytes and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) was studied by measuring PGE_2, cytokines and chemokines in the supernatant.The effect of SCFAs in vivo was examined by intraplantar injection into rat paws.RESULTS: Human GPR43 is highly expressed in human neutrophils and monocytes. SCFAs induce robust calcium flux in human neutrophils, but not in human monocytes. In this study, we show that SCFAs can induce human monocyte release of PGE_2 and that this effect can be enhanced in the presence of lipopolysaccharide(LPS). In addition, we demonstrate that PGE_2 production induced by SCFA was inhibited by pertussis toxin, suggesting the involvement of a receptor-mediated mechanism. Furthermore, SCFAs can specifically inhibit constitutive monocyte chemotactic protein-1(MCP-1) production and LPS-induced interleukin-10(IL-10) production in human monocytes without affecting the secretion of other cytokines and chemokines examined. Similar activities were observed in human PBMC for the release of PGE_2, MCP-1 and IL-10 after SCFA treatment. In addition, SCFAs inhibit LPS-induced production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ in human PBMC. Finally, we show that SCFAs and LPS can induce PGE_2 production in vivo by intraplantar injectioninto rat paws ( P < 0.01).CONCLUSION: SCFAs can have distinct antiinflammatory activities due to their regulation of PGE_2, cytokine and chemokine release from human immune

  6. [Evaluation of outpatient treatment units according to the Crime Victims' Regulation Act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Kirsten; Schürmann, Ivonne; Nolting, Björn; Dieffenbach, Ina; Fischer, Gottfried; Zurek, Gisela; Bering, Robert; Heuft, Gereon

    2012-01-01

    Over the past years, 35 trauma outpatient units have been established in accordance with the Crime Victims' Compensation Act in the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia (Germany) for both children and adolescents as well as for adults. They are operated by the social welfare authorities and, since 2008, by the regional authorities of Westphalia-Lippe and Rhineland. They enable victims to receive qualified psychotraumatological help within the first few days after suffering violence. Since trauma units have now been set up across most parts of this federal state, the time has come to assess the effectiveness of their acute care provision to victims of violence. In 2007, on the order of the Ministry of Labour, Health and Social Affairs of the federal state of North Rhine-Westphalia, trauma outpatient units were subjected to scientific evaluation. In 17 trauma outpatient units, a data assessment protocol was officially implemented that included repeat measurements (immediately before the initial contact, after completion of intervention, at follow-up six months after intervention) of traumatized subjects aged 14 and older. Socio-demographic data were gathered, and the scores of the Impact of Event Scale - Revised (IES-R), the Symptom Checkliste-27 (SCL-27), the simplified Beck Depressions Inventory (BDI-V), the Global Assessment of Functioning Scale (GAF) as well as the Cologne Risk Index (CRI) (expert rating) were collected. Nearly three-fourths (65.9 %) of the traumatic experiences of the 211 patients investigated can be characterized as type-1 traumatisation. 31.8 % of patients were victims of crimes involving violations of the right to sexual self-determination (94.0 % of sexual offences being committed against girls and women). Crimes against physical integrity, which according to crime statistics are the most frequent of crimes against individuals (88.8 %, 34.8 % females), were suffered by 36.0 % of all patients of the trauma outpatient units (63.2 % being

  7. 78 FR 62993 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-23

    ... Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) Public Law 111-203, 124 Stat. 1376... Federal consumer financial laws, including the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), in the Bureau.\\8\\ At the same... title X, the ``Consumer Financial Protection Act,'' Public Law 111-203, secs. 1001-1100H, codified at...

  8. 16 CFR 1610.36 - Application of Act to particular types of products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... ACT REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.36... articles constitute textile fabrics as the term “textile fabric” is defined in § 1610.2(r). (3) If, because... clothing, garment, such product is not a handkerchief and constitutes an article of wearing apparel...

  9. Cis-acting RNA elements at the 5' end of Sindbis virus genome RNA regulate minus- and plus-strand RNA synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    Frolov, I; Hardy, R; Rice, C M

    2001-01-01

    Alphavirus genome replication is a multistep asymmetric process. Several lines of evidence suggest that the template preference of the RNA replicase is regulated by proteolytic cleavage of the viral nonstructural polyprotein. Cis-acting RNA elements in the viral genome also play crucial roles in regulating genome replication and subgenomic RNA transcription. In this report, a series of RNA templates were analyzed in vitro and in vivo to define functional elements in the 5' end of the genome. ...

  10. SMG-1 and mTORC1 act antagonistically to regulate response to injury and growth in planarians.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina González-Estévez

    Full Text Available Planarian flatworms are able to both regenerate their whole bodies and continuously adapt their size to nutrient status. Tight control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation during these processes is the key feature of planarian biology. Here we show that the planarian homolog of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK family member SMG-1 and mTOR complex 1 components are required for this tight control. Loss of smg-1 results in a hyper-responsiveness to injury and growth and the formation of regenerative blastemas that remain undifferentiated and that lead to lethal ectopic outgrowths. Invasive stem cell hyper-proliferation, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and differentiation defects are hallmarks of this uncontrolled growth. These data imply a previously unappreciated and novel physiological function for this PIKK family member. In contrast we found that planarian members of the mTOR complex 1, tor and raptor, are required for the initial response to injury and blastema formation. Double smg-1 RNAi experiments with tor or raptor show that abnormal growth requires mTOR signalling. We also found that the macrolide rapamycin, a natural compound inhibitor of mTORC1, is able to increase the survival rate of smg-1 RNAi animals by decreasing cell proliferation. Our findings support a model where Smg-1 acts as a novel regulator of both the response to injury and growth control mechanisms. Our data suggest the possibility that this may be by suppressing mTOR signalling. Characterisation of both the planarian mTORC1 signalling components and another PIKK family member as key regulators of regeneration and growth will influence future work on regeneration, growth control, and the development of anti-cancer therapies that target mTOR signalling.

  11. SMG-1 and mTORC1 act antagonistically to regulate response to injury and growth in planarians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Estévez, Cristina; Felix, Daniel A; Smith, Matthew D; Paps, Jordi; Morley, Simon J; James, Victoria; Sharp, Tyson V; Aboobaker, A Aziz

    2012-01-01

    Planarian flatworms are able to both regenerate their whole bodies and continuously adapt their size to nutrient status. Tight control of stem cell proliferation and differentiation during these processes is the key feature of planarian biology. Here we show that the planarian homolog of the phosphoinositide 3-kinase-related kinase (PIKK) family member SMG-1 and mTOR complex 1 components are required for this tight control. Loss of smg-1 results in a hyper-responsiveness to injury and growth and the formation of regenerative blastemas that remain undifferentiated and that lead to lethal ectopic outgrowths. Invasive stem cell hyper-proliferation, hyperplasia, hypertrophy, and differentiation defects are hallmarks of this uncontrolled growth. These data imply a previously unappreciated and novel physiological function for this PIKK family member. In contrast we found that planarian members of the mTOR complex 1, tor and raptor, are required for the initial response to injury and blastema formation. Double smg-1 RNAi experiments with tor or raptor show that abnormal growth requires mTOR signalling. We also found that the macrolide rapamycin, a natural compound inhibitor of mTORC1, is able to increase the survival rate of smg-1 RNAi animals by decreasing cell proliferation. Our findings support a model where Smg-1 acts as a novel regulator of both the response to injury and growth control mechanisms. Our data suggest the possibility that this may be by suppressing mTOR signalling. Characterisation of both the planarian mTORC1 signalling components and another PIKK family member as key regulators of regeneration and growth will influence future work on regeneration, growth control, and the development of anti-cancer therapies that target mTOR signalling.

  12. HRS1 acts as a negative regulator of abscisic acid signaling to promote timely germination of Arabidopsis seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Chongming; Feng, Juanjuan; Wang, Ran; Liu, Hong; Yang, Huixia; Rodriguez, Pedro L; Qin, Huanju; Liu, Xin; Wang, Daowen

    2012-01-01

    In this work, we conducted functional analysis of Arabidopsis HRS1 gene in order to provide new insights into the mechanisms governing seed germination. Compared with wild type (WT) control, HRS1 knockout mutant (hrs1-1) exhibited significant germination delays on either normal medium or those supplemented with abscisic acid (ABA) or sodium chloride (NaCl), with the magnitude of the delay being substantially larger on the latter media. The hypersensitivity of hrs1-1 germination to ABA and NaCl required ABI3, ABI4 and ABI5, and was aggravated in the double mutant hrs1-1abi1-2 and triple mutant hrs1-1hab1-1abi1-2, indicating that HRS1 acts as a negative regulator of ABA signaling during seed germination. Consistent with this notion, HRS1 expression was found in the embryo axis, and was regulated both temporally and spatially, during seed germination. Further analysis showed that the delay of hrs1-1 germination under normal conditions was associated with reduction in the elongation of the cells located in the lower hypocotyl (LH) and transition zone (TZ) of embryo axis. Interestingly, the germination rate of hrs1-1 was more severely reduced by the inhibitor of cell elongation, and more significantly decreased by the suppressors of plasmalemma H(+)-ATPase activity, than that of WT control. The plasmalemma H(+)-ATPase activity in the germinating seeds of hrs1-1 was substantially lower than that exhibited by WT control, and fusicoccin, an activator of this pump, corrected the transient germination delay of hrs1-1. Together, our data suggest that HRS1 may be needed for suppressing ABA signaling in germinating embryo axis, which promotes the timely germination of Arabidopsis seeds probably by facilitating the proper function of plasmalemma H(+)-ATPase and the efficient elongation of LH and TZ cells.

  13. POLITICS OF LANGUAGE IN THE ACT REGULATING MATTERS PERTAINING TO SPECIFIC AUTONOMY FOR PAPUA : Critical Discourse Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Warami

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This article aims to illustrate that the politics of language marked power relations framed by a form of power between the dominating and the dominated in the Act Regulating Matters Pertaining to Specific Autonomy for Papua (hereinafter called UU Otsus Papua. The politics of language involves a high degree of knowledge and power that is marked by the symbolic interactions in the ethnic diversity of the archipelago UU Otsus Papua is a form of political discourse and the medium of language diplomacy containing an authority and political competence of the central government over the people of Papua; including a number of authorities and policies, as well as to explore the power of language in the language politics networks through the system of government of the Republic of Indonesia. Politics of language in this article will be disclosed through the paradigm of Critical Discourse Analysis (CDA. This article will focus on the efforts of uncovering: “Language Politics in UU Otsus Papua”, by projecting the problems including: (i the form of the politics of language, and (ii the political function of language in the UU Otsus Papua.  

  14. Lateral suppressor and Goblet act in hierarchical order to regulate ectopic meristem formation at the base of tomato leaflets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossmann, Susanne; Kohlen, Wouter; Hasson, Alice; Theres, Klaus

    2015-03-01

    In seed plants, new axes of growth are established by the formation of meristems, groups of pluripotent cells that maintain themselves and initiate the formation of lateral organs. After embryonic development, secondary shoot meristems form in the boundary zones between the shoot apical meristem and leaf primordia, the leaf axils. In addition, many plant species develop ectopic meristems at different positions of the plant body. In the compound tomato leaf, ectopic meristems can initiate at the base of leaflets, which are delimited by two distinct boundary zones, referred to as the proximal (PLB) and distal (DLB) leaflet boundaries. We demonstrate that the two leaflet boundaries differ from each other and that ectopic meristem formation is strictly limited to the DLB. Our data suggest that the DLB harbours a group of pluripotent cells that seems to be the launching pad for meristem formation. Initiation of these meristems is dependent on the activities of the transcriptional regulators Goblet (Gob) and Lateral suppressor (Ls), specifically expressed in the DLB. Gob and Ls act in hierarchical order, because Ls transcript accumulation is dependent on Gob activity, but not vice versa. Ectopic meristem formation at the DLB is also observed in other seed plants, like Cardamine pratensis, indicating that it is part of a widespread developmental program. Ectopic meristem formation leads to an increase in the number of buds, enhances the capacity for survival and opens the route to vegetative propagation. © 2015 The Authors The Plant Journal © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Isolation and characterization of a novel cis-acting sequences regulating root-specific gene from Daucus carota L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Yan; GUO Chang-an; REN Haibo; CHEN Fan

    2004-01-01

    Aquaporins are ubiquitous channel proteins that facilitate the transport of water across cell membranes. Most of aquaporins are represent in more than one tissues, but some of them performed highest in roots. They are belived to participate in water transport. DcRB7, a member of the aquaporin family, was isolated from somatic embryos of carrot and identified as a homologous gene of TobRB7. Further studies showed that the expression of DcRB7 was particular in carrot root. To investigate the transcription regulation of DcRB7, a 650-bp upstream sequence of DcRB7 was isolated by inverse PCR, and was fused to the β-glucuronidase (GUS) report gene. After the recombined vectors were transformed into tobacco, the expression pattern was performed by histochemical staining and the quantitative analysis of GUS activity. The results indicated that the cis-acting element of DcRB7 gene directs GUS expression not only as root-specific but also as drought inducible.

  16. 77 FR 33638 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Exemption From the Requirement To Report...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Treasury's continuing effort to increase the efficiency and effectiveness of its anti-money laundering and... 180-01 (Sept. 26, 2002). \\5\\ 31 U.S.C. 5318(h)(2). The Money Laundering Suppression Act of 1994... section 402 of the Money Laundering Suppression Act of 1994 (the ``Money Laundering Suppression Act...

  17. Modification of carbon fabrics by radio-frequency capacitive discharge at low pressure to regulate mechanical properties of carbon fiber reinforced plastics based on it

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garifullin, A. R.; Krasina, I. V.; Skidchenko, E. A.; Shaekhov, M. F.; Tikhonova, N. V.

    2017-01-01

    To increase the values of mechanical properties of carbon fiber (CF) composite materials used in sports equipment production the method of radio-frequency capacitive (RFC) low-pressure plasma treatment in air was proposed. Previously it was found that this type of modification allows to effectively regulate the surface properties of fibers of different nature. This treatment method differs from the traditional ones by efficiency and environmental friendliness as it does not require the use of aggressive, environmentally hazardous chemicals. In this paper it was established that RFC low-pressure air plasma treatment of carbon fabrics enhances the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) of carbon fiber reinforced plastic (CFRP). As a result of experimental studies of CF by Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy method it was proved that after radio-frequency capacitive plasma treatment at low pressure in air the oxygen-containing functional groups is grafted on the surface. These groups improve adhesion at the interface “matrix-fiber”.

  18. Preparation, characterisation and thermal properties of calcium alginate/n-nonadecane microcapsules fabricated by electro-coextrusion for thermo-regulating textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamali Moghaddam, Meghdad; Mortazavi, Sayed Majid

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a new technique for producing a phase change material (PCM) loaded biopolymer capsule for thermo-regulating textiles. Electro-coextrusion process fabricated a series of microencapsulated phase change material (MEPCM) based on n-nonadecane core and alginate shell. The influence of the flow rate ratio of the shell/core on the formation, encapsulation efficiency and thermal behaviour of a microencapsulated PCM has been investigated. The MEPCM was characterised using optical microscopy and differential scanning calorimetry (DCS). The size and the encapsulation efficiency of a capsule decreased as the flow rate ratio of the shell/core increased. The PCM microcapsules contained 56-84% n-nonadecane and the size range from 200 to 400 µm, as evaluated by DSC and optical microscopy, respectively. The experimental results show that the electro-coextrusion method has a potential technology for the encapsulation of PCMs for thermal storage.

  19. Fabrication Facilities

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Fabrication Facilities are a direct result of years of testing support. Through years of experience, the three fabrication facilities (Fort Hood, Fort Lewis, and...

  20. 78 FR 25638 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedure Act (Regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-02

    ...-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act). Public Law 111-203, 124 Stat... Federal consumer financial laws, including TILA and RESPA, in the Bureau.\\3\\ At the same time, Congress...,'' Public Law 111-203, sections 1001-1100H, codified at 12 U.S.C. 5491, 5511. The Consumer...

  1. 76 FR 20870 - Protective Regulations for Killer Whales in the Northwest Region Under the Endangered Species Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-14

    ... Killer Whales in the Northwest Region Under the Endangered Species Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act... from approaching killer whales within 200 yards (182.9 m) and from parking in the path of whales when... of this final rule is to protect killer whales from interference and noise associated with...

  2. An Analysis of the Effectiveness and Impact of Mandatory Company Greenhouse Gas Emission Reporting Under The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013

    OpenAIRE

    Plaza, Celina

    2014-01-01

    The intent of this research is to examine the effectiveness and impact of the UK’s mandatory reporting of company greenhouse gas emissions, otherwise known as carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2e) emissions, in accordance to The Companies Act 2006 (Strategic Report and Directors’ Report) Regulations 2013, especially regarding the regulations’ influence on quality of a company’s CO2e emission reporting, setting of CO2e emission reduction targets, and the comparability to other companies...

  3. Antiviral signaling protein MITA acts as a tumor suppressor in breast cancer by regulating NF-κB induced cell death.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatelia, Khyati; Singh, Aru; Tomar, Dhanendra; Singh, Kritarth; Sripada, Lakshmi; Chagtoo, Megha; Prajapati, Paresh; Singh, Rochika; Godbole, Madan M; Singh, Rajesh

    2014-02-01

    Emerging evidences suggest that chronic inflammation is one of the major causes of tumorigenesis. The role of inflammation in regulation of breast cancer progression is not well established. Recently Mediator of IRF3 Activation (MITA) protein has been identified that regulates NF-κB and IFN pathways. Role of MITA in the context of inflammation and cancer progression has not been investigated. In the current report, we studied the role of MITA in the regulation of cross talk between cell death and inflammation in breast cancer cells. The expression of MITA was significantly lower on in estrogen receptor (ER) positive breast cancer cells than ER negative cells. Similarly, it was significantly down regulated in tumor tissue as compared to the normal tissue. The overexpression of MITA in MCF-7 and T47D decreases the cell proliferation and increases the cell death by activation of caspases. MITA positively regulates NF-κB transcription factor, which is essential for MITA induced cell death. The activation of NF-κB induces TNF-α production which further sensitizes MITA induced cell death by activation of death receptor pathway through capsase-8. MITA expression decreases the colony forming units and migration ability of MCF-7 cells. Thus, our finding suggests that MITA acts as a tumor suppressor which is down regulated during tumorigenesis providing survival advantage to tumor cell.

  4. Photogrammetry status in the act geodetic and cartographic law and connected regulations. (Polish Title: Status fotogrametrii w ustawie prawo geodezyjne i kartograficzne i przepisach powiazanych)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyka, K.; Myszka, P.

    2015-12-01

    The topic of the article is the analysis of regulations referring to photogrammetry, which have been in effect since the latest amendments in the Act Geodetic and Cartographic Law were introduced. Among many new rules, the four most important for regulations for photogrammetry were selected for the analysis. The largest part of analyses deals with so-called technical standards. This regulation introduces the term: geodetic photogrammetric measurement and places identical accuracy requirements as for field measurement. However, photogrammetric measurement, in this law is treated less thoroughly than other techniques. Often in this interpretation of the regulations there are different opinions between the ones who order the measurements and those who carry them out. The article shows which regulations are not satisfactorily clear and can be interpreted in different ways. Moreover, the article refers to unsatisfactory consistency between the analysed enactments. Finally, it was stated that the regulations, despite the indicated drawbacks, allow the application of photogrammetry in surveying and there is a prospect of granting photogrammetry the rank of the operation method, especially in large projects, e.g. the update of cadastral maps and land survey maps.

  5. Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levesque, Stephen [EWI, Columbus, OH (United States)

    2013-04-05

    This report summarizes the activities undertaken by EWI while under contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) for the management and operation of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium (NFC). The NFC was established by EWI to independently develop, evaluate, and deploy fabrication approaches and data that support the re-establishment of the U.S. nuclear industry: ensuring that the supply chain will be competitive on a global stage, enabling more cost-effective and reliable nuclear power in a carbon constrained environment. The NFC provided a forum for member original equipment manufactures (OEM), fabricators, manufacturers, and materials suppliers to effectively engage with each other and rebuild the capacity of this supply chain by : Identifying and removing impediments to the implementation of new construction and fabrication techniques and approaches for nuclear equipment, including system components and nuclear plants. Providing and facilitating detailed scientific-based studies on new approaches and technologies that will have positive impacts on the cost of building of nuclear plants. Analyzing and disseminating information about future nuclear fabrication technologies and how they could impact the North American and the International Nuclear Marketplace. Facilitating dialog and initiate alignment among fabricators, owners, trade associations, and government agencies. Supporting industry in helping to create a larger qualified nuclear supplier network. Acting as an unbiased technology resource to evaluate, develop, and demonstrate new manufacturing technologies. Creating welder and inspector training programs to help enable the necessary workforce for the upcoming construction work. Serving as a focal point for technology, policy, and politically interested parties to share ideas and concepts associated with fabrication across the nuclear industry. The report the objectives and summaries of the Nuclear Fabrication Consortium

  6. HPV16 E2 could act as down-regulator in cellular genes implicated in apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valencia-Hernández Armando

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human Papillomavirus (HPV E2 plays several important roles in the viral cycle, including the transcriptional regulation of the oncogenes E6 and E7, the regulation of the viral genome replication by its association with E1 helicase and participates in the viral genome segregation during mitosis by its association with the cellular protein Brd4. It has been shown that E2 protein can regulate negative or positively the activity of several cellular promoters, although the precise mechanism of this regulation is uncertain. In this work we constructed a recombinant adenoviral vector to overexpress HPV16 E2 and evaluated the global pattern of biological processes regulated by E2 using microarrays expression analysis. Results The gene expression profile was strongly modified in cells expressing HPV16 E2, finding 1048 down-regulated genes, and 581 up-regulated. The main cellular pathway modified was WNT since we found 28 genes down-regulated and 15 up-regulated. Interestingly, this pathway is a convergence point for regulating the expression of genes involved in several cellular processes, including apoptosis, proliferation and cell differentiation; MYCN, JAG1 and MAPK13 genes were selected to validate by RT-qPCR the microarray data as these genes in an altered level of expression, modify very important cellular processes. Additionally, we found that a large number of genes from pathways such as PDGF, angiogenesis and cytokines and chemokines mediated inflammation, were also modified in their expression. Conclusions Our results demonstrate that HPV16 E2 has regulatory effects on cellular gene expression in HPV negative cells, independent of the other HPV proteins, and the gene profile observed indicates that these effects could be mediated by interactions with cellular proteins. The cellular processes affected suggest that E2 expression leads to the cells in to a convenient environment for a replicative cycle of the virus.

  7. 29 CFR 102.119 - Privacy Act Regulations: notification as to whether a system of records contains records...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) and (d), and from 29 CFR 102.119(a), (b), (c), (d), (e), and (f), insofar as the system contains... Regional Office Files (NLRB-25), Regional Advice and Injunction Litigation System (RAILS) and Associated Headquarters Files (NLRB-28), and Appeals Case Tracking System (ACTS) and Associated Headquarters Files...

  8. 75 FR 35338 - Implementation of Regulations Required Under Title XI of the Food, Conservation and Energy Act of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-22

    ... county Cattle Co., 49 Agric. Dec. 336, 365 (1990); 1 John H. Davidson et al., Agricultural Law section 3... competitive injury.\\23\\ \\22\\ When the P&S Act was enacted, Webster's New International Dictionary defined... ``immoderate; exorbitant.'' Webster's New International Dictionary 578, 2237, 2238, 2245, 2248 (1st ed....

  9. WOX4 and WOX14 act downstream of the PXY receptor kinase to regulate plant vascular proliferation independently of any role in vascular organisation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Etchells, J Peter; Provost, Claire M; Mishra, Laxmi; Turner, Simon R

    2013-05-01

    In plants, the cambium and procambium are meristems from which vascular tissue is derived. In contrast to most plant cells, stem cells within these tissues are thin and extremely long. They are particularly unusual as they divide down their long axis in a highly ordered manner, parallel to the tangential axis of the stem. CLAVATA3-LIKE/ESR-RELATED 41 (CLE41) and PHLOEM INTERCALATED WITH XYLEM (PXY) are a multifunctional ligand-receptor pair that regulate vascular cell division, vascular organisation and xylem differentiation in vascular tissue. A transcription factor gene, WUSCHEL HOMEOBOX RELATED 4 (WOX4) has been shown to act downstream of PXY. Here we show that WOX4 acts redundantly with WOX14 in the regulation of vascular cell division, but that these genes have no function in regulating vascular organisation. Furthermore, we identify an interaction between PXY and the receptor kinase ERECTA (ER) that affects the organisation of the vascular tissue but not the rate of cell division, suggesting that cell division and vascular organisation are genetically separable. Our observations also support a model whereby tissue organisation and cell division are integrated via PXY and ER signalling, which together coordinate development of different cell types that are essential for normal stem formation.

  10. 78 FR 30739 - Amendments to the 2013 Escrows Final Rule under the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-05-23

    ... certain other Federal agencies, including the Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System (Board... Business Administration regulations and reference to the North American Industry Classification System... expenses. Similar mortgage-related expenses include homeowners' association dues and condominium...

  11. Clean Water Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Clean Water Act (CWA) establishes the basic structure for regulating discharges of pollutants into U.S. waters and regulating quality standards for surface...

  12. Digital fabrication

    CERN Document Server

    2012-01-01

    The Winter 2012 (vol. 14 no. 3) issue of the Nexus Network Journal features seven original papers dedicated to the theme “Digital Fabrication”. Digital fabrication is changing architecture in fundamental ways in every phase, from concept to artifact. Projects growing out of research in digital fabrication are dependent on software that is entirely surface-oriented in its underlying mathematics. Decisions made during design, prototyping, fabrication and assembly rely on codes, scripts, parameters, operating systems and software, creating the need for teams with multidisciplinary expertise and different skills, from IT to architecture, design, material engineering, and mathematics, among others The papers grew out of a Lisbon symposium hosted by the ISCTE-Instituto Universitario de Lisboa entitled “Digital Fabrication – A State of the Art”. The issue is completed with four other research papers which address different mathematical instruments applied to architecture, including geometric tracing system...

  13. 相变微胶囊及其在蓄热调温织物上应用的研究进展%Research process of microencapsulated phase change materials and its application in thermo-regulated fabric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庞方丽; 王瑞; 刘星; 徐磊; 李孟轩

    2014-01-01

    Phase change materials, microencapsulated phase change and its preparation methods of are reviewed. Moreover, the preparation methods of microencapsulated phase change and the finishing methods of thermo-regulated fabric are introduced at home and abroad. The main problem, related solutions, the development trends and application prospect of microencapsulated phase change application in the field of thermo-regulated fabric are pointed out.%介绍了相变材料、相变微胶囊及其制备方法,重点分析目前国内外相变微胶囊的制备方法和在织物上整理方法的研究进展,并指出相变微胶囊应用在蓄热调温织物上存在的主要问题、解决途径、发展趋势及应用前景。

  14. Photovoltaic fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-22

    during wire fabrication. Weaving was demonstrated for both military-type nylon -cotton blend (NYCO) warp fibers and cotton-polyester warp fibers. A...Lowell, MA 01852 14. ABSTRACT This report describes a project to improve photovoltaic fabrics. It had four objectives: 1) Efficiency – make PV wires on...a continuous basis that exhibit 7% efficiency; 2) Automated Welding – demonstrate an automated means of interconnecting the electrodes of one wire

  15. BRAHMA ATPase of the SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complex acts as a positive regulator of gibberellin-mediated responses in arabidopsis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafal Archacki

    Full Text Available SWI/SNF chromatin remodeling complexes perform a pivotal function in the regulation of eukaryotic gene expression. Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana mutants in major SWI/SNF subunits display embryo-lethal or dwarf phenotypes, indicating their critical role in molecular pathways controlling development and growth. As gibberellins (GA are major positive regulators of plant growth, we wanted to establish whether there is a link between SWI/SNF and GA signaling in Arabidopsis. This study revealed that in brm-1 plants, depleted in SWI/SNF BRAHMA (BRM ATPase, a number of GA-related phenotypic traits are GA-sensitive and that the loss of BRM results in markedly decreased level of endogenous bioactive GA. Transcriptional profiling of brm-1 and the GA biosynthesis mutant ga1-3, as well as the ga1-3/brm-1 double mutant demonstrated that BRM affects the expression of a large set of GA-responsive genes including genes responsible for GA biosynthesis and signaling. Furthermore, we found that BRM acts as an activator and directly associates with promoters of GA3ox1, a GA biosynthetic gene, and SCL3, implicated in positive regulation of the GA pathway. Many GA-responsive gene expression alterations in the brm-1 mutant are likely due to depleted levels of active GAs. However, the analysis of genetic interactions between BRM and the DELLA GA pathway repressors, revealed that BRM also acts on GA-responsive genes independently of its effect on GA level. Given the central position occupied by SWI/SNF complexes within regulatory networks controlling fundamental biological processes, the identification of diverse functional intersections of BRM with GA-dependent processes in this study suggests a role for SWI/SNF in facilitating crosstalk between GA-mediated regulation and other cellular pathways.

  16. Regulating Dental Assistants: Revisions of the Michigan Dental Practice Act. Health Manpower Policy Discussion Paper Series No.: C2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldstein, Paul J.; And Others

    This document investigates the regulation of dental assistants in Michigan. Emphasis is placed on increased dental productivity from increased use of auxiliaries, utilization of dental auxiliaries, and educational and training requirements for certification and licensure. Results of the investigation indicate: (1) support should be given for the…

  17. Myostatin acts as an autocrine/paracrine negative regulator in myoblast differentiation from human induced pluripotent stem cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Fei; Kishida, Tsunao; Ejima, Akika [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Gojo, Satoshi [Department of Cardiac Support, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan); Mazda, Osam, E-mail: mazda@koto.kpu-m.ac.jp [Department of Immunology, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Kyoto (Japan)

    2013-02-08

    Highlights: ► iPS-derived cells express myostatin and its receptor upon myoblast differentiation. ► Myostatin inhibits myoblast differentiation by inhibiting MyoD and Myo5a induction. ► Silencing of myostatin promotes differentiation of human iPS cells into myoblasts. -- Abstract: Myostatin, also known as growth differentiation factor (GDF-8), regulates proliferation of muscle satellite cells, and suppresses differentiation of myoblasts into myotubes via down-regulation of key myogenic differentiation factors including MyoD. Recent advances in stem cell biology have enabled generation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells, but it remains to be clarified whether myostatin is also involved in regulation of artificial differentiation of myoblasts from pluripotent stem cells. Here we show that the human induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cell-derived cells that were induced to differentiate into myoblasts expressed myostatin and its receptor during the differentiation. An addition of recombinant human myostatin (rhMyostatin) suppressed induction of MyoD and Myo5a, resulting in significant suppression of myoblast differentiation. The rhMyostatin treatment also inhibited proliferation of the cells at a later phase of differentiation. RNAi-mediated silencing of myostatin promoted differentiation of human iPS-derived embryoid body (EB) cells into myoblasts. These results strongly suggest that myostatin plays an important role in regulation of myoblast differentiation from iPS cells of human origin. The present findings also have significant implications for potential regenerative medicine for muscular diseases.

  18. 76 FR 37000 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-24

    ... Administrative practice and procedure, Banks, Banking, Brokers, Currency, Foreign banking, Foreign currencies... Regulations--Reports of Foreign Financial Accounts; Correction AGENCY: Financial Crimes Enforcement Network.... 0 2. In Sec. 1010.350, paragraph (d) is revised to read as follows: Sec. 1010.350 Reports of...

  19. 78 FR 44685 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act (Regulation...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-24

    ... income, including creditor analysis of consumer trust income; and (7) creditor analysis of rental income... July 24, 2013 Part III Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Parts 1024 and 1026 Amendments to..., July 24, 2013 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Parts...

  20. 78 FR 47215 - Petition to Amend Animal Welfare Act Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-05

    ... Regulations To Prohibit Public Contact With Big Cats, Bears, and Nonhuman Primates AGENCY: Animal and Plant... certain exceptions, from coming into direct or physical contact with big cats, bears, or nonhuman primates... or immature big cats, bears, and nonhuman primates and the separation of such animals from their dams...

  1. MicroRNA-326 acts as a molecular switch in the regulation of midbrain urocortin 1 expression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aschrafi, A.; Verheijen, J.M.; Gordebeke, P.M.; Olde Loohuis, N.F.M.; Menting, K.; Jager, A.; Palkovits, M.; Geenen, B.; Kos, A.; Martens, G.J.M.; Glennon, J.C.; Kaplan, B.B.; Gaszner, B.; Kozicz, T.

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Altered levels of urocortin 1 (Ucn1) in the centrally projecting Edinger-Westphal nucleus (EWcp) of depressed suicide attempters or completers mediate the brain's response to stress, while the mechanism regulating Ucn1 expression is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that microRNAs (miRNA

  2. 77 FR 33635 - Amendment to the Bank Secrecy Act Regulations-Requirement That Clerks of Court Report Certain...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-07

    ... Revenue Code of 1986'' file reports with FinCEN in the time and manner prescribed by regulation. Section... because of the applicable restrictions on disclosure in the U.S. tax code. During calendar year 2010... statement under section 202. List of Subjects in 31 CFR Part 1010 Administrative practice and procedure...

  3. 78 FR 39901 - Amendments to the 2013 Mortgage Rules Under the Equal Credit Opportunity Act (Regulation B), Real...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-02

    ... purposes under the mortgage regulations, application of the loan originator compensation rules to bank... disclosures or communications about the risks, costs, and benefits of consumer financial products or services... July 2, 2013 Part IV Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection 12 CFR Parts 1002, 1024, and 1026...

  4. Review of NESREA Act 2007 and Regulations 2009-2011: A New Dawn in Environmental Compliance and Enforcement in Nigeria - Country Legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammed Tawfiq Ladan

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nigeria’s formal environmental regime has developed significantly from humble beginnings. Having been initiated in the colonial period during which environmental issues were generally couched within public health regulation, and having developed in a rather ad hoc manner in the early days of independence during which heavy reliance was placed on the law of nuisance, Nigeria now has a relatively comprehensive environmental regime. This regime is administered by an array of institutions. This paper reveals that Nigeria now has relatively comprehensive environmental legal and institutional regimes adequately empowered to ensure effective compliance, monitoring and enforcement of all relevant treaties, legislation and regulations for sustainable development and conservation of natural resources in Nigeria. The NESREA Act 2007 and Regulations 2009-11 were instruments of necessity having learnt lessons from the drawbacks of its predecessor agency between 1991-2007. This review aims at providing an overview of a comprehensive environmental legislation in most recent times for effective protection of the environment, management of biodiversity and promotion of sustainable development in Nigeria. It further seeks to provide an overview of the unprecedented development in Nigeria’s environmental law by the coming into force of twenty-four environmental regulations made by the Federal Minister of Environment.

  5. AtDsPTP1 acts as a negative regulator in osmotic stress signalling during Arabidopsis seed germination and seedling establishment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Rui; Liu, Yinggao; Ye, Nenghui; Zhu, Guohui; Chen, Moxian; Jia, Liguo; Xia, Yiji; Shi, Lu; Jia, Wensuo; Zhang, Jianhua

    2015-03-01

    Dual-specificity protein phosphatases (DsPTPs) target both tyrosine and serine/threonine residues and play roles in plant growth and development. We have characterized an Arabidopsis mutant, dsptp1, which shows a higher seed germination rate and better root elongation under osmotic stress than the wild type. By contrast, its overexpression line, DsPTP1-OE, shows inhibited seed germination and root elongation; and its complemented line, DsPTP1-Com, resembles the wild type and rescues DsPTP1-OE under osmotic stress. Expression of AtDsPTP1 is enhanced by osmotic stress in seed coats, bases of rosette leaves, and roots. Compared with the wild type, the dsptp1 mutant shows increased proline accumulation, reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) content and ion leakage, and enhanced antioxidant enzyme activity in response to osmotic stress. AtDsPTP1 regulates the transcript levels of various dehydration-responsive genes under osmotic stress. Abscisic acid (ABA) accumulation in dsptp1 under osmotic stress is reduced with reduced expression of the ABA-biosynthesis gene NCED3 and increased expression of the ABA-catabolism gene CYP707A4. AtDsPTP1 also regulates the expression of key components in the ABA-signalling pathway. In conclusion, AtDsPTP1 regulates ABA accumulation, and acts as a negative regulator in osmotic stress signalling during Arabidospsis seed germination and seedling establishment.

  6. The 14-3-3 protein GF14c acts as a negative regulator of flowering in rice by interacting with the florigen Hd3a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purwestri, Yekti Asih; Ogaki, Yuka; Tamaki, Shojiro; Tsuji, Hiroyuki; Shimamoto, Ko

    2009-03-01

    Hd3a and FT proteins have recently been proposed to act as florigens in rice and Arabidopsis, respectively; however, the molecular mechanisms of their function remain to be determined. In this study, we identified GF14c (a 14-3-3 protein) as an Hd3a-interacting protein in a yeast two-hybrid screen. In vitro and in vivo experiments, using a combination of pull-down assays and bimolecular fluorescence complementation, confirmed the interaction between Hd3a and GF14c. Functional analysis using either GF14c overexpression or knockout transgenic rice plants indicated that this interaction plays a role in the regulation of flowering. GF14c-overexpressing plants exhibited a delay in flowering and the knockout mutants displayed early flowering relative to the wild-type plants under short-day conditions. These results suggest that GF14c acts as a negative regulator of flowering by interacting with Hd3a. Since the 14-3-3 protein has been shown to interact with FT protein in tomato and Arabidopsis, our results in rice provide important findings about FT signaling in plants.

  7. Conference on natural gas use state regulation and market dynamics in the Post 636/Energy Policy Act Era: Proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    Reports in this Record of Proceedings explore a wide variety of issues related to the regulation of natural gas and its future role as one of the critical fuels that powers the economy of the United States. The focus is mainly on problems, obstacles, barriers, and the incredibly complex system created to bring a fuel from wellhead to burner tip. Individual papers have been cataloged separately.

  8. The Hrs/Stam complex acts as a positive and negative regulator of RTK signaling during Drosophila development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hélène Chanut-Delalande

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Endocytosis is a key regulatory step of diverse signalling pathways, including receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK signalling. Hrs and Stam constitute the ESCRT-0 complex that controls the initial selection of ubiquitinated proteins, which will subsequently be degraded in lysosomes. It has been well established ex vivo and during Drosophila embryogenesis that Hrs promotes EGFR down regulation. We have recently isolated the first mutations of stam in flies and shown that Stam is required for air sac morphogenesis, a larval respiratory structure whose formation critically depends on finely tuned levels of FGFR activity. This suggest that Stam, putatively within the ESCRT-0 complex, modulates FGF signalling, a possibility that has not been examined in Drosophila yet. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we assessed the role of the Hrs/Stam complex in the regulation of signalling activity during Drosophila development. We show that stam and hrs are required for efficient FGFR signalling in the tracheal system, both during cell migration in the air sac primordium and during the formation of fine cytoplasmic extensions in terminal cells. We find that stam and hrs mutant cells display altered FGFR/Btl localisation, likely contributing to impaired signalling levels. Electron microscopy analyses indicate that endosome maturation is impaired at distinct steps by hrs and stam mutations. These somewhat unexpected results prompted us to further explore the function of stam and hrs in EGFR signalling. We show that while stam and hrs together downregulate EGFR signalling in the embryo, they are required for full activation of EGFR signalling during wing development. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our study shows that the ESCRT-0 complex differentially regulates RTK signalling, either positively or negatively depending on tissues and developmental stages, further highlighting the importance of endocytosis in modulating signalling pathways during development.

  9. Sonic hedgehog acts as a negative regulator of {beta}-catenin signaling in the adult tongue epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Fabian T; Schänzer, Anne; Czupalla, Cathrin J; Thom, Sonja; Engels, Knut; Schmidt, Mirko H H; Plate, Karl H; Liebner, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    Wnt/beta-catenin signaling has been implicated in taste papilla development; however, its role in epithelial maintenance and tumor progression in the adult tongue remains elusive. We show Wnt/beta-catenin pathway activation in reporter mice and by nuclear beta-catenin staining in the epithelium and taste papilla of adult mouse and human tongues. beta-Catenin activation in APC(min/+) mice, which carry a mutation in adenomatous poliposis coli (APC), up-regulates Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Jagged-2 (JAG2) in the tongue epithelium without formation of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). We demonstrate that Shh suppresses beta-catenin transcriptional activity in a signaling-dependent manner in vitro and in vivo. A similar regulation and function was observed for JAG2, suggesting that both pathways negatively regulate beta-catenin, thereby preventing SCC formation in the tongue. This was supported by reduced nuclear beta-catenin in the tongue epithelium of Patched(+/-) mice, exhibiting dominant active Shh signaling. At the invasive front of human tongue cancer, nuclear beta-catenin and Shh were increased, suggesting their participation in tumor progression. Interestingly, Shh but not JAG2 was able to reduce beta-catenin signaling in SCC cells, arguing for a partial loss of negative feedback on beta-catenin transcription in tongue cancer. We show for the first time that the putative Wnt/beta-catenin targets Shh and JAG2 control beta-catenin signaling in the adult tongue epithelium, a function that is partially lost in lingual SCC.

  10. Saikosaponin D acts against corticosterone-induced apoptosis via regulation of mitochondrial GR translocation and a GR-dependent pathway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zong-Yang; Jiang, Yu-Mao; Liu, Ya-Min; Guo, Zhi; Shen, Sheng-Nan; Liu, Xin-Min; Pan, Rui-Le

    2014-08-04

    Saikosaponin D is an agonist of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR), and our preliminary study showed that it possesses neuroprotective effects in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. However, further proof is required, and the molecular mechanisms of this neuroprotection remain unclear. This study sought to further examine the cytoprotective efficiency and potential mechanisms of action of Saikosaponin D in corticosterone-treated PC12 cells. The cells were treated with 250 μM corticosterone in the absence or presence of Saikosaponin D for 24 h; cell viability was then determined, and Hoechst 33342/propidium iodide (PI) and annexin/PI double staining, and TUNEL staining were performed. Next, mPTP, MMP, [Ca(2+)]i, translocation of the GR to the nucleus and Western blot analyses for caspase-3, caspase-9, cytochrome C, GR, GILZ, SGK-1, NF-Κb (P65), IκB-α, Bad, Akt, Hsp90 and HDAC-6 were investigated. The neuroprotective effects of Saikosaponin D were further confirmed by Hoechst 33342/PI, annexin/PI and TUNEL staining assays. These additional data suggested that Saikosaponin D partially reversed the physiological changes induced by corticosterone by inhibiting the translocation of the GR to the mitochondria, restoring mitochondrial function, down-regulating the expression of pro-apoptotic-related signalling events and up-regulating anti-apoptotic-related signalling events. These findings suggest that SSD exhibited its anti-apoptotic effects via differential regulation of mitochondrial and nuclear GR translocation, partial reversal of mitochondrial dysfunction, inhibition of the mitochondrial apoptotic pathway, and selective activation of the GR-dependent survival pathway.

  11. miR-21 may acts as an oncomir by targeting RECK, a matrix metalloproteinase regulator, in prostate cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa) is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA) mir-21 has been shown to regulate invasiveness in cancer through translational repression of the Metaloproteinase (MMP) inhibitor RECK. Our aim is to investigate the levels of expression of RECK and miR-21 in PCa comparing with classical prognostic factors and disease outcome and also test if RECK is a target of miR-21 in in vitro study using PCa cell line. Materials and methods To determine if RECK is a target of miR-21 in prostate cancer we performed an in vitro assay with PCa cell line DU-145 transfected with pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21. To determine miR-21 and RECK expression levels in PCa samples we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR). Results The in vitro assays showed a decrease in expression levels of RECK after transfection with pre-miR-21, and an increase of MMP9 that is regulated by RECK compared to PCa cells treated with anti-miR-21. We defined three profiles to compare the prognostic factors. The first was characterized by miR-21 and RECK underexpression (N = 25) the second was characterized by miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression (N = 12), and the third was characterized by miR-21 underexpression and RECK overexpression (N = 16). From men who presented the second profile (miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression) 91.7% were staged pT3. For the other two groups 48.0%, and 46.7% of patients were staged pT3 (p = 0.025). Conclusions Our results demonstrate RECK as a target of miR-21. We believe that miR-21 may be important in PCa progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion. PMID:22642976

  12. Sonic Hedgehog Acts as a Negative Regulator of β-Catenin Signaling in the Adult Tongue Epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Schneider, Fabian T; Schänzer, Anne; Czupalla, Cathrin J.; Thom, Sonja; Engels, Knut; Schmidt, Mirko H. H.; Plate, Karl H; Liebner, Stefan

    2010-01-01

    Wnt/β-catenin signaling has been implicated in taste papilla development; however, its role in epithelial maintenance and tumor progression in the adult tongue remains elusive. We show Wnt/β-catenin pathway activation in reporter mice and by nuclear β-catenin staining in the epithelium and taste papilla of adult mouse and human tongues. β-Catenin activation in APCmin/+ mice, which carry a mutation in adenomatous poliposis coli (APC), up-regulates Sonic hedgehog (Shh) and Jagged-2 (JAG2) in th...

  13. miR-21 may acts as an oncomir by targeting RECK, a matrix metalloproteinase regulator, in prostate cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reis Sabrina

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Prognosis of prostate cancer (PCa is based mainly in histological aspects together with PSA serum levels that not always reflect the real aggressive potential of the neoplasia. The micro RNA (miRNA mir-21 has been shown to regulate invasiveness in cancer through translational repression of the Metaloproteinase (MMP inhibitor RECK. Our aim is to investigate the levels of expression of RECK and miR-21 in PCa comparing with classical prognostic factors and disease outcome and also test if RECK is a target of miR-21 in in vitro study using PCa cell line. Materials and methods To determine if RECK is a target of miR-21 in prostate cancer we performed an in vitro assay with PCa cell line DU-145 transfected with pre-miR-21 and anti-miR-21. To determine miR-21 and RECK expression levels in PCa samples we performed quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR. Results The in vitro assays showed a decrease in expression levels of RECK after transfection with pre-miR-21, and an increase of MMP9 that is regulated by RECK compared to PCa cells treated with anti-miR-21. We defined three profiles to compare the prognostic factors. The first was characterized by miR-21 and RECK underexpression (N = 25 the second was characterized by miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression (N = 12, and the third was characterized by miR-21 underexpression and RECK overexpression (N = 16. From men who presented the second profile (miR-21 overexpression and RECK underexpression 91.7% were staged pT3. For the other two groups 48.0%, and 46.7% of patients were staged pT3 (p = 0.025. Conclusions Our results demonstrate RECK as a target of miR-21. We believe that miR-21 may be important in PCa progression through its regulation of RECK, a known regulator of tumor cell invasion.

  14. Implications of Spatiotemporal Regulation of Shigella flexneri Type Three Secretion Activity on Effector Functions: Think Globally, Act Locally

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell-Valois, F.-X.; Pontier, Stéphanie M.

    2016-01-01

    Shigella spp. are Gram-negative bacterial pathogens that infect human colonic epithelia and cause bacterial dysentery. These bacteria express multiple copies of a syringe-like protein complex, the Type Three Secretion apparatus (T3SA), which is instrumental in the etiology of the disease. The T3SA triggers the plasma membrane (PM) engulfment of the bacteria by host cells during the initial entry process. It then enables bacteria to escape the resulting phagocytic-like vacuole. Freed bacteria form actin comets to move in the cytoplasm, which provokes bacterial collision with the inner leaflet of the PM. This phenomenon culminates in T3SA-dependent secondary uptake and vacuolar rupture in neighboring cells in a process akin to what is observed during entry and named cell-to-cell spread. The activity of the T3SA of Shigella flexneri was recently demonstrated to display an on/off regulation during the infection. While the T3SA is active when bacteria are in contact with PM-derived compartments, it switches to an inactive state when bacteria are released within the cytosol. These observations indicate that effector proteins transiting through the T3SA are therefore translocated in a highly time and space constrained fashion, likely impacting on their cellular distribution. Herein, we present what is currently known about the composition, the assembly and the regulation of the T3SA activity and discuss the consequences of the on/off regulation of T3SA on Shigella effector properties and functions during the infection. Specific examples that will be developed include the role of effectors IcsB and VirA in the escape from LC3/ATG8-positive vacuoles formed during cell-to-cell spread and of IpaJ protease activity against N-miristoylated proteins. The conservation of a similar regulation of T3SA activity in other pathogens such as Salmonella or Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli will also be briefly discussed. PMID:27014638

  15. Melatonin in Arabidopsis thaliana acts as plant growth regulator at low concentrations and preserves seed viability at high concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, Ismaél Gatica; Gomez, Federico José Vicente; Cerutti, Soledad; Arana, María Verónica; Silva, María Fernanda

    2015-09-01

    Since the discovery of melatonin in plants, several roles have been described for different species, organs, and developmental stages. Arabidopsis thaliana, being a model plant species, is adequate to contribute to the elucidation of the role of melatonin in plants. In this work, melatonin was monitored daily by UHPLC-MS/MS in leaves, in order to study its diurnal accumulation as well as the effects of natural and artificial light treatments on its concentration. Furthermore, the effects of exogenous application of melatonin to assess its role in seed viability after heat stress and as a regulator of growth and development of vegetative tissues were evaluated. Our results indicate that melatonin contents in Arabidopsis were higher in plants growing under natural radiation when compared to those growing under artificial conditions, and its levels were not diurnally-regulated. Exogenous melatonin applications prolonged seed viability after heat stress conditions. In addition, melatonin applications retarded leaf senescence. Its effects as growth promoter were dose and tissue-dependent; stimulating root growth at low concentrations and decreasing leaf area at high doses.

  16. The proapoptotic and antimitogenic protein p66SHC acts as a negative regulator of lymphocyte activation and autoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finetti, Francesca; Pellegrini, Michela; Ulivieri, Cristina; Savino, Maria Teresa; Paccagnini, Eugenio; Ginanneschi, Chiara; Lanfrancone, Luisa; Pelicci, Pier Giuseppe; Baldari, Cosima T

    2008-05-15

    The ShcA locus encodes 3 protein isoforms that differ in tissue specificity, subcellular localization, and function. Among these, p66Shc inhibits TCR coupling to the Ras/MAPK pathway and primes T cells to undergo apoptotic death. We have investigated the outcome of p66Shc deficiency on lymphocyte development and homeostasis. We show that p66Shc(-/-) mice develop an age-related lupus-like autoimmune disease characterized by spontaneous peripheral T- and B-cell activation and proliferation, autoantibody production, and immune complex deposition in kidney and skin, resulting in autoimmune glomerulonephritis and alopecia. p66Shc(-/-) lymphocytes display enhanced proliferation in response to antigen receptor engagement in vitro and more robust immune responses both to vaccination and to allergen sensitization in vivo. The data identify p66Shc as a negative regulator of lymphocyte activation and show that loss of this protein results in breaking of immunologic tolerance and development of systemic autoimmunity.

  17. The snf1 gene of Ustilago maydis acts as a dual regulator of cell wall degrading enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadal, Marina; Garcia-Pedrajas, Maria D; Gold, Scott E

    2010-12-01

    Many fungal plant pathogens are known to produce extracellular enzymes that degrade cell wall elements required for host penetration and infection. Due to gene redundancy, single gene deletions generally do not address the importance of these enzymes in pathogenicity. Cell wall degrading enzymes (CWDEs) in fungi are often subject to carbon catabolite repression at the transcriptional level such that, when glucose is available, CWDE-encoding genes, along with many other genes, are repressed. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, one of the main players controlling this process is SNF1, which encodes a protein kinase. In this yeast, Snf1p is required to release glucose repression when this sugar is depleted from the growth medium. We have employed a reverse genetic approach to explore the role of the SNF1 ortholog as a potential regulator of CWDE gene expression in Ustilago maydis. We identified U. maydis snf1 and deleted it from the fungal genome. Consistent with our hypothesis, the relative expression of an endoglucanase and a pectinase was higher in the wild type than in the Δsnf1 mutant strain when glucose was depleted from the growth medium. However, when cells were grown in derepressive conditions, the relative expression of two xylanase genes was unexpectedly higher in the Δsnf1 strain than in the wild type, indicating that, in this case, snf1 negatively regulated the expression of these genes. Additionally, we found that, contrary to several other fungal species, U. maydis Snf1 was not required for utilization of alternative carbon sources. Also, unlike in ascomycete plant pathogens, deletion of snf1 did not profoundly affect virulence in U. maydis.

  18. Ethylene Response Factor6 acts as a central regulator of leaf growth under water-limiting conditions in Arabidopsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubois, Marieke; Skirycz, Aleksandra; Claeys, Hannes; Maleux, Katrien; Dhondt, Stijn; De Bodt, Stefanie; Vanden Bossche, Robin; De Milde, Liesbeth; Yoshizumi, Takeshi; Matsui, Minami; Inzé, Dirk

    2013-05-01

    Leaf growth is a complex developmental process that is continuously fine-tuned by the environment. Various abiotic stresses, including mild drought stress, have been shown to inhibit leaf growth in Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana), but the underlying mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we identify the redundant Arabidopsis transcription factors ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR5 (ERF5) and ERF6 as master regulators that adapt leaf growth to environmental changes. ERF5 and ERF6 gene expression is induced very rapidly and specifically in actively growing leaves after sudden exposure to osmotic stress that mimics mild drought. Subsequently, enhanced ERF6 expression inhibits cell proliferation and leaf growth by a process involving gibberellin and DELLA signaling. Using an ERF6-inducible overexpression line, we demonstrate that the gibberellin-degrading enzyme GIBBERELLIN 2-OXIDASE6 is transcriptionally induced by ERF6 and that, consequently, DELLA proteins are stabilized. As a result, ERF6 gain-of-function lines are dwarfed and hypersensitive to osmotic stress, while the growth of erf5erf6 loss-of-function mutants is less affected by stress. Besides its role in plant growth under stress, ERF6 also activates the expression of a plethora of osmotic stress-responsive genes, including the well-known stress tolerance genes STZ, MYB51, and WRKY33. Interestingly, activation of the stress tolerance genes by ERF6 occurs independently from the ERF6-mediated growth inhibition. Together, these data fit into a leaf growth regulatory model in which ERF5 and ERF6 form a missing link between the previously observed stress-induced 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid accumulation and DELLA-mediated cell cycle exit and execute a dual role by regulating both stress tolerance and growth inhibition.

  19. A tomato MADS-box transcription factor, SlMADS1, acts as a negative regulator of fruit ripening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Tingting; Hu, Zongli; Deng, Lei; Wang, Yi; Zhu, Mingku; Zhang, Jianling; Chen, Guoping

    2013-10-01

    MADS-box genes encode a highly conserved gene family of transcriptional factors that regulate numerous developmental processes in plants. In this study, a tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) MADS-box gene, SlMADS1, was cloned and its tissue-specific expression profile was analyzed. The real-time polymerase chain reaction results showed that SlMADS1 was highly expressed in sepals and fruits; its expression level was increased with the development of sepals, while the transcript of SlMADS1 decreased significantly in accordance with fruit ripening. To further explore the function of SlMADS1, an RNA interference (RNAi) expression vector targeting SlMADS1 was constructed and transformed into tomato plants. Shorter ripening time of fruit was observed in SlMADS1-silenced tomatoes. The accumulation of carotenoid and the expression of PHYTOENE SYNTHETASE1 were enhanced in RNAi fruits. Besides, ethylene biosynthetic genes, including 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE1A, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE SYNTHASE6, 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE1, and 1-AMINOCYCLOPROPANE-1-CARBOXYLATE OXIDASE3, and the ethylene-responsive genes E4 and E8, which were involved in fruit ripening, were also up-regulated in silenced plants. SlMADS1 RNAi fruits showed approximately 2- to 4-fold increases in ethylene production compared with the wild type. Furthermore, SlMADS1-silenced seedlings displayed shorter hypocotyls and were more sensitive to 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate than the wild type. Additionally, a yeast two-hybrid assay revealed a clear interaction between SlMADS1 and SlMADS-RIN. These results suggest that SlMADS1 plays an important role in fruit ripening as a repressive modulator.

  20. Both cyclic-AMP and cyclic-GMP can act as regulators of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietrowska-Borek, Małgorzata; Nuc, Katarzyna

    2013-09-01

    Cyclic nucleotides (cAMP and cGMP) are important signaling molecules that control a range of cellular functions and modulate different reactions. It is known that under abiotic or biotic stress plant cells synthesize these nucleotides and that they also enhance the activity of the phenylpropanoid pathway. Wondering what is the relation between these two facts, we investigated how the exogenously applied membrane-permeable derivatives, 8-Br-cAMP or 8-Br-cGMP, which are believed to act as the original cyclic nucleotides, affect the expression of the genes for and the specific activity of three enzymes of the phenylpropanoid pathway in Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. We found that the expression of the genes of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL2), 4-coumarate:coenzyme A ligase (4CL1) and chalcone synthase (CHS), and the specific activities of PAL (EC 4.3.1.5), 4CL (EC 6.2.1.12) and CHS (EC 2.3.1.74) were induced in the same way by either of these cyclic nucleotides used at 5 μM concentration. None of the possible cAMP and cGMP degradation products (AMP, GMP, adenosine or guanosine) evoked such effects. Expression of PAL1, 4CL2 and 4CL3 were practically not affected. Although the investigated nucleotides induced rapid expression of the aforementioned enzymes, they did not affect the level of anthocyanins within the same period. We discuss the effects exerted by the exogenously administered cyclic nucleotides, their relation with stress and the role which the phenylpropanoid pathways the cyclic nucleotides may play in plants.

  1. A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The above article from European Journal of Neuroscience, published online on 5 March 2013 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/ejn.12162/full), has been retracted by agreement between the Editors-in-Chief, Paul Bolam and John Foxe, the authors and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed as Dr Phillip Barber has informed the publisher that he had seen neither the original data nor any version of the manuscript, and had not been involved in the work reported. A subsequent Institutional investigation found evidence of misconduct on the part of the submitting author. Reference Wang, L.-M., Wang, Y.-J., Cui, M., Luo, W.-J., Wang, X.-J., Barber, P.A. & Chen, Z.-Y. (2013) A dietary polyphenol resveratrol acts to provide neuroprotection in recurrent stroke models by regulating AMPK and SIRT1 signaling, thereby reducing energy requirements during ischemia.

  2. Neverland regulates embryonic moltings through the regulation of ecdysteroid synthesis in the water flea Daphnia magna, and may thus act as a target for chemical disruption of molting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumiya, Eri; Ogino, Yukiko; Toyota, Kenji; Miyakawa, Hitoshi; Miyagawa, Shinichi; Iguchi, Taisen

    2016-11-01

    Embryo development in arthropods is accompanied by a series of moltings. A cladoceran crustacean Daphnia magna molts three times before reaching first instar neonate during embryogenesis. Previous studies argued ecdysteroids might regulate D. magna embryogenesis. However, no direct evidence between innate ecdysteroids fluctuation and functions has been forthcoming. Recently, we identified genes involved in ecdysteroid synthesis called, neverland (neverland1 and neverland 2) and shade and in the ecdysteroid degradation (Cyp18a1). To understand the physiological roles of ecdysteroids in D. magna embryos, we performed expression and functional analyzes of those genes. Examining innate ecdysteroids titer during embryogenesis showed two surges of ecdysteroids titer at 41 and 61 h after oviposition. The first and second embryonic moltings occurred at each ecdysteroid surge. Expression of neverland1 and shade began to increase before the first peak in ecdysteroid. Knockdown of neverland1 or shade by RNAi technique caused defects in embryonic moltings and subsequent development. The ecdysteroids titer seemingly decreased in nvd1-knowckdown embryos. Knockdown of Cyp18a1 resulted in early embryonic lethality before the first molting. Our in situ hybridization analysis revealed that nvd1 was prominently expressed in embryonic gut epithelium suggesting the site for an initial step of ecdysteroidgenesis, a conversion of cholesterol to 7-dehydrocholesterol and possibly for ecdysone production. Taken together, de novo ecdysteroid synthesis by nvd1 in the gut epithelial cells stimulates molting, which is indispensable for D. magna embryo development. These findings identify neverland as a possible target for chemicals, including various pesticides that are known to disrupt molting, development and reproduction. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. The identification of trans-acting factors that regulate the expression of GDF5 via the osteoarthritis susceptibility SNP rs143383.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catherine M Syddall

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available rs143383 is a C to T transition SNP located in the 5'untranslated region (5'UTR of the growth differentiation factor 5 gene GDF5. The T allele of the SNP is associated with increased risk of osteoarthritis (OA in Europeans and in Asians. This susceptibility is mediated by the T allele producing less GDF5 transcript relative to the C allele, a phenomenon known as differential allelic expression (DAE. The aim of this study was to identify trans-acting factors that bind to rs143383 and which regulate this GDF5 DAE. Protein binding to the gene was investigated by two experimental approaches: 1 competition and supershift electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs and 2 an oligonucleotide pull down assay followed by quantitative mass spectrometry. Binding was then confirmed in vivo by chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP, and the functional effects of candidate proteins investigated by RNA interference (RNAi and over expression. Using these approaches the trans-acting factors Sp1, Sp3, P15, and DEAF-1 were identified as interacting with the GDF5 5'UTR. Knockdown and over expression of the factors demonstrated that Sp1, Sp3, and DEAF-1 are repressors of GDF5 expression. Depletion of DEAF-1 modulated the DAE of GDF5 and this differential allelic effect was confirmed following over expression, with the rs143383 T allele being repressed to a significantly greater extent than the rs143383 C allele. In combination, Sp1 and DEAF-1 had the greatest repressive activity. In conclusion, we have identified four trans-acting factors that are binding to GDF5, three of which are modulating GDF5 expression via the OA susceptibility locus rs143383.

  4. The DeoR-type transcriptional regulator SugR acts as a repressor for genes encoding the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS in Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Michelle

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The major uptake system responsible for the transport of fructose, glucose, and sucrose in Corynebacterium glutamicum ATCC 13032 is the phosphoenolpyruvate:sugar phosphotransferase system (PTS. The genes encoding PTS components, namely ptsI, ptsH, and ptsF belong to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, whereas ptsG and ptsS are located in two separate regions of the C. glutamicum genome. Due to the localization within and adjacent to the fructose-PTS gene cluster, two genes coding for DeoR-type transcriptional regulators, cg2118 and sugR, are putative candidates involved in the transcriptional regulation of the fructose-PTS cluster genes. Results Four transcripts of the extended fructose-PTS gene cluster that comprise the genes sugR-cg2116, ptsI, cg2118-fruK-ptsF, and ptsH, respectively, were characterized. In addition, it was shown that transcription of the fructose-PTS gene cluster is enhanced during growth on glucose or fructose when compared to acetate. Subsequently, the two genes sugR and cg2118 encoding for DeoR-type regulators were mutated and PTS gene transcription was found to be strongly enhanced in the presence of acetate only in the sugR deletion mutant. The SugR regulon was further characterized by microarray hybridizations using the sugR mutant and its parental strain, revealing that also the PTS genes ptsG and ptsS belong to this regulon. Binding of purified SugR repressor protein to a 21 bp sequence identified the SugR binding site as an AC-rich motif. The two experimentally identified SugR binding sites in the fructose-PTS gene cluster are located within or downstream of the mapped promoters, typical for transcriptional repressors. Effector studies using electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA revealed the fructose PTS-specific metabolite fructose-1-phosphate (F-1-P as a highly efficient, negative effector of the SugR repressor, acting in the micromolar range. Beside F-1-P, other sugar-phosphates like fructose

  5. α-Spectrin and integrins act together to regulate actomyosin and columnarization, and to maintain a monolayered follicular epithelium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Bing Fu; Selvaraj, Gokul Kannan; Santa-Cruz Mateos, Carmen; Grosheva, Inna; Alvarez-Garcia, Ines; Martín-Bermudo, María Dolores; Palacios, Isabel M

    2016-04-15

    The spectrin cytoskeleton crosslinks actin to the membrane, and although it has been greatly studied in erythrocytes, much is unknown about its function in epithelia. We have studied the role of spectrins during epithelia morphogenesis using the Drosophila follicular epithelium (FE). As previously described, we show that α-Spectrin and β-Spectrin are essential to maintain a monolayered FE, but, contrary to previous work, spectrins are not required to control proliferation. Furthermore, spectrin mutant cells show differentiation and polarity defects only in the ectopic layers of stratified epithelia, similar to integrin mutants. Our results identify α-Spectrin and integrins as novel regulators of apical constriction-independent cell elongation, as α-Spectrin and integrin mutant cells fail to columnarize. Finally, we show that increasing and reducing the activity of the Rho1-Myosin II pathway enhances and decreases multilayering of α-Spectrin cells, respectively. Similarly, higher Myosin II activity enhances the integrin multilayering phenotype. This work identifies a primary role for α-Spectrin in controlling cell shape, perhaps by modulating actomyosin. In summary, we suggest that a functional spectrin-integrin complex is essential to balance adequate forces, in order to maintain a monolayered epithelium.

  6. Amyloid-β acts as a regulator of neurotransmitter release disrupting the interaction between synaptophysin and VAMP2.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire L Russell

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: It is becoming increasingly evident that deficits in the cortex and hippocampus at early stages of dementia in Alzheimer's disease (AD are associated with synaptic damage caused by oligomers of the toxic amyloid-β peptide (Aβ42. However, the underlying molecular and cellular mechanisms behind these deficits are not fully understood. Here we provide evidence of a mechanism by which Aβ42 affects synaptic transmission regulating neurotransmitter release. METHODOLOGY/FINDINGS: We first showed that application of 50 nM Aβ42 in cultured neurones is followed by its internalisation and translocation to synaptic contacts. Interestingly, our results demonstrate that with time, Aβ42 can be detected at the presynaptic terminals where it interacts with Synaptophysin. Furthermore, data from dissociated hippocampal neurons as well as biochemical data provide evidence that Aβ42 disrupts the complex formed between Synaptophysin and VAMP2 increasing the amount of primed vesicles and exocytosis. Finally, electrophysiology recordings in brain slices confirmed that Aβ42 affects baseline transmission. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Our observations provide a necessary and timely insight into cellular mechanisms that underlie the initial pathological events that lead to synaptic dysfunction in Alzheimer's disease. Our results demonstrate a new mechanism by which Aβ42 affects synaptic activity.

  7. miR-600 Acts as a Bimodal Switch that Regulates Breast Cancer Stem Cell Fate through WNT Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Helou, Rita; Pinna, Guillaume; Cabaud, Olivier; Wicinski, Julien; Bhajun, Ricky; Guyon, Laurent; Rioualen, Claire; Finetti, Pascal; Gros, Abigaelle; Mari, Bernard; Barbry, Pascal; Bertucci, Francois; Bidaut, Ghislain; Harel-Bellan, Annick; Birnbaum, Daniel; Charafe-Jauffret, Emmanuelle; Ginestier, Christophe

    2017-02-28

    Breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs) have been implicated in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance; however, the molecular mechanisms that define this state are unclear. We have performed two microRNA (miRNA) gain- and loss-of-function screens to identify miRNAs that regulate the choice between bCSC self-renewal and differentiation. We find that micro-RNA (miR)-600 silencing results in bCSC expansion, while its overexpression reduces bCSC self-renewal, leading to decreased in vivo tumorigenicity. miR-600 targets stearoyl desaturase 1 (SCD1), an enzyme required to produce active, lipid-modified WNT proteins. In the absence of miR-600, WNT signaling is active and promotes self-renewal, whereas overexpression of miR-600 inhibits the production of active WNT and promotes bCSC differentiation. In a series of 120 breast tumors, we found that a low level of miR-600 is correlated with active WNT signaling and a poor prognosis. These findings highlight a miR-600-centered signaling network that governs bCSC-fate decisions and influences tumor progression.

  8. miR-600 Acts as a Bimodal Switch that Regulates Breast Cancer Stem Cell Fate through WNT Signaling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita El Helou

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Breast cancer stem cells (bCSCs have been implicated in tumor progression and therapeutic resistance; however, the molecular mechanisms that define this state are unclear. We have performed two microRNA (miRNA gain- and loss-of-function screens to identify miRNAs that regulate the choice between bCSC self-renewal and differentiation. We find that micro-RNA (miR-600 silencing results in bCSC expansion, while its overexpression reduces bCSC self-renewal, leading to decreased in vivo tumorigenicity. miR-600 targets stearoyl desaturase 1 (SCD1, an enzyme required to produce active, lipid-modified WNT proteins. In the absence of miR-600, WNT signaling is active and promotes self-renewal, whereas overexpression of miR-600 inhibits the production of active WNT and promotes bCSC differentiation. In a series of 120 breast tumors, we found that a low level of miR-600 is correlated with active WNT signaling and a poor prognosis. These findings highlight a miR-600-centered signaling network that governs bCSC-fate decisions and influences tumor progression.

  9. Canonical Transient Receptor Potential (TRPC) 1 Acts as a Negative Regulator for Vanilloid TRPV6-mediated Ca2+ Influx*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindl, Rainer; Fritsch, Reinhard; Jardin, Isaac; Frischauf, Irene; Kahr, Heike; Muik, Martin; Riedl, Maria Christine; Groschner, Klaus; Romanin, Christoph

    2012-01-01

    TRP proteins mostly assemble to homomeric channels but can also heteromerize, preferentially within their subfamilies. The TRPC1 protein is the most versatile member and forms various TRPC channel combinations but also unique channels with the distantly related TRPP2 and TRPV4. We show here a novel cross-family interaction between TRPC1 and TRPV6, a Ca2+ selective member of the vanilloid TRP subfamily. TRPV6 exhibited substantial co-localization and in vivo interaction with TRPC1 in HEK293 cells, however, no interaction was observed with TRPC3, TRPC4, or TRPC5. Ca2+ and Na+ currents of TRPV6-overexpressing HEK293 cells are significantly reduced by co-expression of TRPC1, correlating with a dramatically suppressed plasma membrane targeting of TRPV6. In line with their intracellular retention, remaining currents of TRPC1 and TRPV6 co-expression resemble in current-voltage relationship that of TRPV6. Studying the N-terminal ankyrin like repeat domain, structurally similar in the two proteins, we have found that these cytosolic segments were sufficient to mediate a direct heteromeric interaction. Moreover, the inhibitory role of TRPC1 on TRPV6 influx was also maintained by expression of only its N-terminal ankyrin-like repeat domain. Our experiments provide evidence for a functional interaction of TRPC1 with TRPV6 that negatively regulates Ca2+ influx in HEK293 cells. PMID:22932896

  10. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  11. Fabrication Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blaedel, K.L.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Fabrication Technology thrust area is to have an adequate base of manufacturing technology, not necessarily resident at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), to conduct the future business of LLNL. The specific goals continue to be to (1) develop an understanding of fundamental fabrication processes; (2) construct general purpose process models that will have wide applicability; (3) document findings and models in journals; (4) transfer technology to LLNL programs, industry, and colleagues; and (5) develop continuing relationships with the industrial and academic communities to advance the collective understanding of fabrication processes. The strategy to ensure success is changing. For technologies in which they are expert and which will continue to be of future importance to LLNL, they can often attract outside resources both to maintain their expertise by applying it to a specific problem and to help fund further development. A popular vehicle to fund such work is the Cooperative Research and Development Agreement with industry. For technologies needing development because of their future critical importance and in which they are not expert, they use internal funding sources. These latter are the topics of the thrust area. Three FY-92 funded projects are discussed in this section. Each project clearly moves the Fabrication Technology thrust area towards the goals outlined above. They have also continued their membership in the North Carolina State University Precision Engineering Center, a multidisciplinary research and graduate program established to provide the new technologies needed by high-technology institutions in the US. As members, they have access to and use of the results of their research projects, many of which parallel the precision engineering efforts at LLNL.

  12. Auxin and ABA act as central regulators of developmental networks associated with paradormancy in Canada thistle (Cirsium arvense)

    KAUST Repository

    Anderson, James V.

    2012-05-13

    Abstract Dormancy in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle, an herbaceous perennial weed, allows escape from current control methods and contributes to its invasive nature. In this study, ∼65 % of root sections obtained from greenhouse propagated Canada thistle produced new vegetative shoots by 14 days post-sectioning. RNA samples obtained from sectioned roots incubated 0, 24, 48, and 72 h at 25°C under 16:8 h light-dark conditions were used to construct four MID-tagged cDNA libraries. Analysis of in silico data obtained using Roche 454 GS-FLX pyrosequencing technologies identified molecular networks associated with paradormancy release in underground vegetative buds of Canada thistle. Sequencing of two replicate plates produced ∼2.5 million ESTs with an average read length of 362 bases. These ESTs assembled into 67358 unique sequences (21777 contigs and 45581 singlets) and annotation against the Arabidopsis database identified 15232 unigenes. Among the 15232 unigenes, we identified processes enriched with transcripts involved in plant hormone signaling networks. To follow-up on these results, we examined hormone profiles in roots, which identified changes in abscisic acid (ABA) and ABA metabolites, auxins, and cytokinins post-sectioning. Transcriptome and hormone profiling data suggest that interaction between auxin- and ABA-signaling regulate paradormancy maintenance and release in underground adventitious buds of Canada thistle. Our proposed model shows that sectioning-induced changes in polar auxin transport alters ABA metabolism and signaling, which further impacts gibberellic acid signaling involving interactions between ABA and FUSCA3. Here we report that reduced auxin and ABA-signaling, in conjunction with increased cytokinin biosynthesis post-sectioning supports a model where interactions among hormones drives molecular networks leading to cell division, differentiation, and vegetative outgrowth. ©Springer-Verlag (outside the USA) 2012.

  13. The ankyrin repeats and DHHC S-acyl transferase domain of AKR1 act independently to regulate switching from vegetative to mating states in yeast.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piers A Hemsley

    Full Text Available Signal transduction from G-protein coupled receptors to MAPK cascades through heterotrimeric G-proteins has been described for many eukaryotic systems. One of the best-characterised examples is the yeast pheromone response pathway, which is negatively regulated by AKR1. AKR1-like proteins are present in all eukaryotes and contain a DHHC domain and six ankyrin repeats. Whilst the DHHC domain dependant S-acyl transferase (palmitoyl transferase function of AKR1 is well documented it is not known whether the ankyrin repeats are also required for this activity. Here we show that the ankyrin repeats of AKR1 are required for full suppression of the yeast pheromone response pathway, by sequestration of the Gβγ dimer, and act independently of AKR1 S-acylation function. Importantly, the functions provided by the AKR1 ankyrin repeats and DHHC domain are not required on the same molecule to fully restore WT phenotypes and function. We also show that AKR1 molecules are S-acylated at locations other than the DHHC cysteine, increasing the abundance of AKR1 in the cell. Our results have important consequences for studies of AKR1 function, including recent attempts to characterise S-acylation enzymology and kinetics. Proteins similar to AKR1 are found in all eukaryotes and our results have broad implications for future work on these proteins and the control of switching between Gβγ regulated pathways.

  14. Tamm-Horsfall protein regulates circulating and renal cytokines by affecting glomerular filtration rate and acting as a urinary cytokine trap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yan; El-Achkar, Tarek M; Wu, Xue-Ru

    2012-05-11

    Although few organ systems play a more important role than the kidneys in cytokine catabolism, the mechanism(s) regulating this pivotal physiological function and how its deficiency affects systemic cytokine homeostasis remain unclear. Here we show that elimination of Tamm-Horsfall protein (THP) expression from mouse kidneys caused a marked elevation of circulating IFN-γ, IL1α, TNF-α, IL6, CXCL1, and IL13. Accompanying this were enlarged spleens with prominent white-pulp macrophage infiltration. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exacerbated the increase of serum cytokines without a corresponding increase in their urinary excretion in THP knock-out (KO) mice. This, along with the rise of serum cystatin C and the reduced inulin and creatinine clearance from the circulation, suggested that diminished glomerular filtration may contribute to reduced cytokine clearance in THP KO mice both at the baseline and under stress. Unlike wild-type mice where renal and urinary cytokines formed specific in vivo complexes with THP, this "trapping" effect was absent in THP KO mice, thus explaining why cytokine signaling pathways were activated in renal epithelial cells in such mice. Our study provides new evidence implicating an important role of THP in influencing cytokine clearance and acting as a decoy receptor for urinary cytokines. Based on these and other data, we present a unifying model that underscores the role of THP as a major regulator of renal and systemic immunity.

  15. Amino acids and insulin act additively to regulate components of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway in C2C12 myotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lomax Michael A

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The ubiquitin-proteasome system is the predominant pathway for myofibrillar proteolysis but a previous study in C2C12 myotubes only observed alterations in lysosome-dependent proteolysis in response to complete starvation of amino acids or leucine from the media. Here, we determined the interaction between insulin and amino acids in the regulation of myotube proteolysis Results Incubation of C2C12 myotubes with 0.2 × physiological amino acids concentration (0.2 × PC AA, relative to 1.0 × PC AA, significantly increased total proteolysis and the expression of 14-kDa E2 ubiquitin conjugating enzyme (p Conclusion In a C2C12 myotube model of myofibrillar protein turnover, amino acid limitation increases proteolysis in a ubiquitin-proteasome-dependent manner. Increasing amino acids or leucine alone, act additively with insulin to down regulate proteolysis and expression of components of ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. The effects of amino acids on proteolysis but not insulin and leucine, are blocked by inhibition of the mTOR signalling pathway.

  16. A cis-acting sequence homologous to the yeast filamentation and invasion response element regulates expression of a pectinase gene from the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, Corentin; Jacquet, Christophe; Borel, Charlotte; Esquerre-Tugaye, Marie-Therese; Dumas, Bernard

    2002-08-09

    Phytopathogenic fungi secrete hydrolytic enzymes that degrade plant cell walls, notably pectinases. The signaling pathway(s) that control pectinase gene expression are currently unknown in filamentous fungi. Recently, the green fluorescent protein coding sequence was used as a reporter gene to study the expression of CLPG2, a gene encoding an endopolygalacturonase of the bean pathogen Colletotrichum lindemuthianum. CLPG2 is transcriptionally induced by pectin in the axenic culture of the fungus and during formation of the appressorium, an infection structure specialized in plant tissue penetration. In the present study, promoter deletion and mutagenesis, as well as gel shift mobility assays, allowed for the first time identification of cis-acting elements that bind protein factors and are essential for the regulation of a pectinase gene. We found that two different adjacent DNA motifs are combined to form an active element that shows a strong sequence homology with the yeast filamentation and invasion response element. The same element is required for the transcriptional activation of CLPG2 by pectin and during appressorium development. This study strongly suggests that the control of virulence genes of fungal plant pathogens, such as pectinases, involves the formation of a complex of transcriptional activators similar to those regulating the invasive growth in yeast.

  17. On the Regulation of Discretionary Administrative Act by the Principle of Proportionality%论比例原则对裁量行政行为的规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鑫

    2014-01-01

    行政的精髓在于裁量,但裁量同样会产生诸多问题,如何规制裁量行政行为,在自由裁量与依法行政之间保持平衡,是现代行政法的重要课题。行政裁量因其远司法的特性,使得法律的直接调整变得困难,但通过以合理性为直接追求的比例原则对裁量行政行为进行规制,则可以间接地将自由裁量引入行政法治的轨道。%The essence of administration is discretion, which will also produce many problems. How to regulate discretionary administrative act in order to maintain a balance between discretion and ad-ministration according to law is an important issue of modern administrative law.Because of its far-judicial feature the administrative discretion is difficult to be directly adjusted by the law.Through the principles of proportion focusing on rationality, administrative discretion behaviors can be regulated, and indirectly guided to the track of law.

  18. Special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 acts as a negative regulator of stemness in colorectal cancer cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ying; Liu, Yu-Hong; Hu, Yu-Ying; Chen, Lin; Li, Jian-Ming

    2016-01-01

    AIM To find the mechanisms by which special AT-rich sequence-binding protein 2 (SATB2) influences colorectal cancer (CRC) metastasis. METHODS Cell growth assay, colony-forming assay, cell adhesion assay and cell migration assay were used to evaluate the biological characteristics of CRC cells with gain or loss of SATB2. Sphere formation assay was used to detect the self-renewal ability of CRC cells. The mRNA expression of stem cell markers in CRC cells with upregulated or downregulated SATB2 expression was detected by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) was used to verify the binding loci of SATB2 on genomic sequences of stem cell markers. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database and our clinical samples were analyzed to find the correlation between SATB2 and some key stem cell markers. RESULTS Downregulation of SATB2 led to an aggressive phenotype in SW480 and DLD-1 cells, which was characterized by increased migration and invasion abilities. Overexpression of SATB2 suppressed the migration and invasion abilities in SW480 and SW620 cells. Using sequential sphere formation assay to detect the self-renewal abilities of CRC cells, we found more secondary sphere formation but not primary sphere formation in SW480 and DLD-1 cells after SATB2 expression was knocked down. Moreover, most markers for stem cells such as CD133, CD44, AXIN2, MEIS2 and NANOG were increased in cells with SATB2 knockdown and decreased in cells with SATB2 overexpression. ChIP assay showed that SATB2 bound to regulatory elements of CD133, CD44, MEIS2 and AXIN2 genes. Using TCGA database and our clinical samples, we found that SATB2 was correlated with some key stem cell markers including CD44 and CD24 in clinical tissues of CRC patients. CONCLUSION SATB2 can directly bind to the regulatory elements in the genetic loci of several stem cell markers and consequently inhibit the progression of CRC by negatively regulating stemness of CRC cells.

  19. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Andrea D; Knecht, Wolfgang; Lazarov, Ina; Dixit, Surjit B; Jean, François

    2012-01-01

    HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs). One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1)--or site-1 protease (S1P). SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs), which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP)/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow development of

  20. Human subtilase SKI-1/S1P is a master regulator of the HCV Lifecycle and a potential host cell target for developing indirect-acting antiviral agents.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea D Olmstead

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available HCV infection is a major risk factor for liver cancer and liver transplantation worldwide. Overstimulation of host lipid metabolism in the liver by HCV-encoded proteins during viral infection creates a favorable environment for virus propagation and pathogenesis. In this study, we hypothesize that targeting cellular enzymes acting as master regulators of lipid homeostasis could represent a powerful approach to developing a novel class of broad-spectrum antivirals against infection associated with human Flaviviridae viruses such as hepatitis C virus (HCV, whose assembly and pathogenesis depend on interaction with lipid droplets (LDs. One such master regulator of cholesterol metabolic pathways is the host subtilisin/kexin-isozyme-1 (SKI-1--or site-1 protease (S1P. SKI-1/S1P plays a critical role in the proteolytic activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs, which control expression of the key enzymes of cholesterol and fatty-acid biosynthesis. Here we report the development of a SKI-1/S1P-specific protein-based inhibitor and its application to blocking the SREBP signaling cascade. We demonstrate that SKI-1/S1P inhibition effectively blocks HCV from establishing infection in hepatoma cells. The inhibitory mechanism is associated with a dramatic reduction in the abundance of neutral lipids, LDs, and the LD marker: adipose differentiation-related protein (ADRP/perilipin 2. Reduction of LD formation inhibits virus assembly from infected cells. Importantly, we confirm that SKI-1/S1P is a key host factor for HCV infection by using a specific active, site-directed, small-molecule inhibitor of SKI-1/S1P: PF-429242. Our studies identify SKI-1/S1P as both a novel regulator of the HCV lifecycle and as a potential host-directed therapeutic target against HCV infection and liver steatosis. With identification of an increasing number of human viruses that use host LDs for infection, our results suggest that SKI-1/S1P inhibitors may allow

  1. WNT4 acts downstream of BMP2 to mediate the regulation of ATRA signaling on RUNX1 expression: Implications for terminal differentiation of antler chondrocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hong-Liang; Yang, Zhan-Qing; Duan, Cui-Cui; Geng, Shuang; Wang, Kai; Yu, Hai-Fan; Yue, Zhan-Peng; Guo, Bin

    2017-04-24

    Although ATRA is involved in regulating the proliferation and differentiation of chondrocytes, its underlying mechanism remains unknown. Here we showed that ATRA could stimulate the proliferation of antler chondrocytes and expression of COL X and MMP13 which were two well-known markers for hypertrophic chondrocytes. Silencing of CRABP2 prevented the induction of ATRA on chondrocyte terminal differentiation, while overexpression of CRABP2 exhibited the opposite effects. CYP26A1 and CYP26B1 weakened the sensitivity of antler chondrocytes to ATRA. Further analysis evidenced that ATRA might induce chondrocyte terminal differentiation and modulate the expression of BMP2, WNT4, and RUNX1 through RARα/RXRα. Knockdown of BMP2 enhanced the induction of ATRA on the expression of COL X and MMP13, whereas overexpression of BMP2 abrogated this effectiveness. WNT4 might mediate the effects of ATRA and BMP2 on chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Dysregulation of BMP2 impaired the regulation of ATRA on WNT4 expression. Administration of ATRA to antler chondrocytes transfected with RUNX1 siRNA failed to induce the differentiation. Conversely, rRUNX1 strengthened the stimulation of ATRA on the expression of COL X and MMP13. Simultaneously, RUNX1 was a downstream effector of BMP2 and WNT4 in chondrocyte terminal differentiation. Moreover, WNT4 might play an important role in the crosstalk between BMP2 and RUNX1. Attenuation of BMP2 or WNT4 enhanced the interaction between ATRA and RUNX1, while constitutive expression of BMP2 or WNT4 reversed the regulation of ATRA on RUNX1. Collectively, WNT4 may act downstream of BMP2 to mediate the effects of ATRA on the terminal differentiation of antler chondrocytes through targeting RUNX1. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. The role of integrated resource planning, environmental externalities, and anticipation of future regulation in compliance planning under the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernow, S.; Biewald, B.; Wulfsberg, K. [Tellus Institute, Boston, MA (United States)

    1993-07-01

    Utilities are developing sulfur dioxide (SO{sub 2}) emission compliance plans to meet limitations of the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 (CAAA). Compliance plans will have long-term effects on resource selection, fuel choice, and system dispatch. Use of integrated resource planning (IRP) is necessary to ensure compliance plans are consistent with the overall societal goals. In particular, environmental externalities must be integrated with the compliance planning process. The focus of the CAAA is on air pollution reduction, specifically acid gases and toxics, and attainment of National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for criteria pollutants. Title IV specifically focuses on sulfur dioxide with a national allowance trading system, while further regulation of toxics and nitrogen oxides is slated for additional study. Yet, compliance planning based narrowly upon today`s environmental regulations could fail to meet the broad goals of IRP if a larger array of environmental externalities is excluded from the analysis. Compliance planning must consider a broad range of environmental effects from energy production and use to (1) protect society`s long-term stake in environmental quality, and (2) ensure that today`s plans are rich enough to accommodate potential changes in regulation and national environmental goals. The explicit recognition of environmental effects, such as those associated with CO{sub 2} release, will result in prudent compliance plans that take advantage of current opportunities for pollution avoidance and have long-term viability in the face of regulatory change. By including such considerations, the mix of resources acquired and operated (supply and demand, existing and new, conventional and renewable, fuel type and fuel quality, pollution control, and dispatch protocols) will be robust and truly least-cost.

  3. SAUR39, a small auxin-up RNA gene, acts as a negative regulator of auxin synthesis and transport in rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kant, Surya; Bi, Yong-Mei; Zhu, Tong; Rothstein, Steven J

    2009-10-01

    The phytohormone auxin plays a critical role for plant growth by regulating the expression of a set of genes. One large auxin-responsive gene family of this type is the small auxin-up RNA (SAUR) genes, although their function is largely unknown. The expression of the rice (Oryza sativa) SAUR39 gene showed rapid induction by transient change in different environmental factors, including auxin, nitrogen, salinity, cytokinin, and anoxia. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing the SAUR39 gene resulted in lower shoot and root growth, altered shoot morphology, smaller vascular tissue, and lower yield compared with wild-type plants. The SAUR39 gene was expressed at higher levels in older leaves, unlike auxin biosynthesis, which occurs largely in the meristematic region. The transgenic plants had a lower auxin level and a reduced polar auxin transport as well as the down-regulation of some putative auxin biosynthesis and transporter genes. Biochemical analysis also revealed that transgenic plants had lower chlorophyll content, higher levels of anthocyanin, abscisic acid, sugar, and starch, and faster leaf senescence compared with wild-type plants at the vegetative stage. Most of these phenomena have been shown to be negatively correlated with auxin level and transport. Transcript profiling revealed that metabolic perturbations in overexpresser plants were largely due to transcriptional changes of genes involved in photosynthesis, senescence, chlorophyll production, anthocyanin accumulation, sugar synthesis, and transport. The lower growth and yield of overexpresser plants was largely recovered by exogenous auxin application. Taken together, the results suggest that SAUR39 acts as a negative regulator for auxin synthesis and transport.

  4. Preparation of paraffin phase change microencapsules and properties of thermo-regulating fabric%石蜡相变微胶囊及其调温织物的性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮; 汪嫒; 纪俊玲

    2013-01-01

    Paraffin phase change microencapsules were prepared using 30# paraffin as core material and melamine-formaldehyde and isocyanate as the wall materials through the in-situ polymerization method. The surface morphology and heat storage capacity were investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Thermo-regulating polyester fabric was prepared by coating technology and the properties were tested. It was found that the surface of microencapsules were smooth with 97.68 J/g of phase change enthalpy. The thermal enthalpy of the finished polyester fabric was about 8.49 J/g. The temperature changing rate of the treated fabric distinctly slowed down, which demonstrated excellent thermo-regulation function. However, the air permeability of finished fabric reduced by 26%. The treated fabric had certain wash-ability, the tearing strength and breaking strength increased.%以30石蜡为芯材,三聚氰胺-甲醛树脂和异氰酸酯为壁材,采用原位聚合法制备了石蜡相变微胶囊,借助扫描电子显微镜(SEM)和差示扫描量热仪(DSC)研究微胶囊的表面形貌和储热性能.采用涂层工艺制备涤纶调温织物,并对其进行性能测试.研究结果表明,微胶囊表面光滑,相变焓为97.68 J/g.整理织物的热焓约为8.49 J/g,升温或降温速率明显减缓,具有智能调温功能,但透气率下降了26%调温织物具有一定的耐洗性,撕裂强度和断裂强度有所提高.

  5. The DtxR protein acting as dual transcriptional regulator directs a global regulatory network involved in iron metabolism of Corynebacterium glutamicum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hüser Andrea T

    2006-02-01

    expression of genes involved in iron metabolism and exerts a dual regulatory function as repressor of genes participating in iron uptake and utilization and as activator of genes responsible for iron storage and DNA protection. The data suggest that the DtxR protein acts as global regulator by controlling the expression of other regulatory proteins that might take care of an iron-dependent regulation of a broader transcriptional network of C. glutamicum genes.

  6. MAML1 acts cooperatively with EGR1 to activate EGR1-regulated promoters: implications for nephrogenesis and the development of renal cancer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magnus L Hansson

    Full Text Available Mastermind-like 1 (MAML1 is a transcriptional coregulator of activators in various signaling pathways, such as Notch, p53, myocyte enhancer factor 2C (MEF2C and beta-catenin. In earlier studies, we demonstrated that MAML1 enhanced p300 acetyltransferase activity, which increased the acetylation of Notch by p300. In this study, we show that MAML1 strongly induced acetylation of the transcription factor early growth response-1 (EGR1 by p300, and increased EGR1 protein expression in embryonic kidney cells. EGR1 mRNA transcripts were also upregulated in the presence of MAML1. We show that MAML1 physically interacted with, and acted cooperatively with EGR1 to increase transcriptional activity of the EGR1 and p300 promoters, which both contain EGR1 binding sites. Bioinformatics assessment revealed a correlation between p300, EGR1 and MAML1 copy number and mRNA alterations in renal clear cell carcinoma and p300, EGR1 and MAML1 gene alterations were associated with increased overall survival. Our findings suggest MAML1 may be a component of the transcriptional networks which regulate EGR1 target genes during nephrogenesis and could also have implications for the development of renal cell carcinoma.

  7. TGFβ and FGF promote tendon progenitor fate and act downstream of muscle contraction to regulate tendon differentiation during chick limb development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havis, Emmanuelle; Bonnin, Marie-Ange; Esteves de Lima, Joana; Charvet, Benjamin; Milet, Cécile; Duprez, Delphine

    2016-10-15

    The molecular programme underlying tendon development has not been fully identified. Interactions with components of the musculoskeletal system are important for limb tendon formation. Limb tendons initiate their development independently of muscles; however, muscles are required for further tendon differentiation. We show that both FGF/ERK MAPK and TGFβ/SMAD2/3 signalling pathways are required and sufficient for SCX expression in chick undifferentiated limb cells, whereas the FGF/ERK MAPK pathway inhibits Scx expression in mouse undifferentiated limb mesodermal cells. During differentiation, muscle contraction is required to maintain SCX, TNMD and THBS2 expression in chick limbs. The activities of FGF/ERK MAPK and TGFβ/SMAD2/3 signalling pathways are decreased in tendons under immobilisation conditions. Application of FGF4 or TGFβ2 ligands prevents SCX downregulation in immobilised limbs. TGFβ2 but not FGF4 prevent TNMD and THBS2 downregulation under immobilisation conditions. We did not identify any intracellular crosstalk between both signalling pathways in their positive effect on SCX expression. Independently of each other, both FGF and TGFβ promote tendon commitment of limb mesodermal cells and act downstream of mechanical forces to regulate tendon differentiation during chick limb development. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  8. Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Learn about the Privacy Act of 1974, the Electronic Government Act of 2002, the Federal Information Security Management Act, and other information about the Environmental Protection Agency maintains its records.

  9. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  10. An Ethology of Urban Fabric(s)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fritsch, Jonas; Thomsen, Bodil Marie Stavning

    2014-01-01

    The article explores a non-metaphorical understanding of urban fabric(s), shifting the attention from a bird’s eye perspective to the actual, textural manifestations of a variety of urban fabric(s) to be studied in their real, processual, ecological and ethological complexity within urban life. We...... effectuate this move by bringing into resonance a range of intersecting fields that all deal with urban fabric(s) in complementary ways (interaction design and urban design activism, fashion, cultural theory, philosophy, urban computing)....

  11. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer...

  12. Nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 regulate alpha- and beta-cell formation in zebrafish by acting on pancreatic endocrine progenitor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Binot, A-C; Manfroid, I; Flasse, L; Winandy, M; Motte, P; Martial, J A; Peers, B; Voz, M L

    2010-04-15

    In mice, the Nkx6 genes are crucial to alpha- and beta-cell differentiation, but the molecular mechanisms by which they regulate pancreatic subtype specification remain elusive. Here it is shown that in zebrafish, nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 are co-expressed at early stages in the first pancreatic endocrine progenitors, but that their expression domains gradually segregate into different layers, nkx6.1 being expressed ventrally with respect to the forming islet while nkx6.2 is expressed mainly in beta-cells. Knockdown of nkx6.2 or nkx6.1 expression leads to nearly complete loss of alpha-cells but has no effect on beta-, delta-, or epsilon-cells. In contrast, nkx6.1/nkx6.2 double knockdown leads additionally to a drastic reduction of beta-cells. Synergy between the effects of nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 knockdown on both beta- and alpha-cell differentiation suggests that nkx6.1 and nkx6.2 have the same biological activity, the required total nkx6 threshold being higher for alpha-cell than for beta-cell differentiation. Finally, we demonstrate that the nkx6 act on the establishment of the pancreatic endocrine progenitor pool whose size is correlated with the total nkx6 expression level. On the basis of our data, we propose a model in which nkx6.1 and nkx6.2, by allowing the establishment of the endocrine progenitor pool, control alpha- and beta-cell differentiation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. HNF-4α regulates expression of human ornithin carbamoyltransferase through interaction with two positive cis-acting regulatory elements located in the proximal promoter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lukšan, O; Dvořáková, L; Jirsa, M

    2014-01-01

    OTC encodes ornithine carbamoyltransferase, mitochondrial matrix enzyme involved in the synthesis of urea. The tissue-specific expression of OTC in the liver and intestine is dependent on the interaction of OTC promoter with an upstream enhancer. HNF-4 and C/EBPβ are crucial for this interaction in the rat and mouse. In the present study we focused on characterization of elements involved in the regulation of OTC transcription in human. Using a set of 5'-deleted promoter mutants in a reporter assay we identified two positive cis-acting regulatory elements located at c.-105 and c.-136 within the human OTC promoter. Both are essential for the transcriptional activity of the promoter itself and for the interaction with the enhancer. Protein binding at the corresponding sites was confirmed by DNase I footprinting. Electromobility shift assay with a specific competitor and anti-HNF-4α antibody identified the DNA-protein binding sites as HNF-4α recognition motifs. A third HNF-4α binding site has been found at the position c.-187. All three HNF-4α binding sites are located within 35 bp upstream of the transcription start sites at positions c.-95, c.-119 (major) and c.-169 (minor). A series of C/EBPβ recognition motifs was identified within the enhancer. Involvement of C/EBPβ and HNF-4α in the promoter-enhancer interaction is further supported by a massive DNAprotein interaction observed in the footprinting and EMSA assays. Since the OTC promoter lacks general core promoter elements such as TATA-box or initiators in standard positions, HNF-4α most likely plays an essential role in the initiation of OTC transcription in human.

  14. 7 CFR 33.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 33.1 Section 33.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices... AUTHORITY OF THE EXPORT APPLE ACT Definitions § 33.1 Act. Act and Export Apple Act are synonymous and...

  15. Fabrication and Prototyping Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Purpose: The Fabrication and Prototyping Lab for composite structures provides a wide variety of fabrication capabilities critical to enabling hands-on research and...

  16. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  17. ACTS 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Co-curator of ACTS 2014 together with Rasmus Holmboe, Judith Schwarzbart and Sanne Kofoed. ACTS is the Museum of Contemporary Art’s international bi-annual festival. ACTS was established in 2011 and, while the primary focus is on sound and performance art, it also looks toward socially oriented art...... various possibilities and public spaces as a stage. ACTS takes place in and around the museum and diverse locations in Roskilde city. ACTS is partly curated by the museum staff and partly by guest curators. ACTS 2014 is supported by Nordea-fonden and is a part of the project The Museum goes downtown....

  18. Canada's Assisted Human Reproductive Act: is it scientific censorship, or a reasoned approach to the regulation of rapidly emerging reproductive technologies?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Colin

    2004-01-01

    After more than a decade of study, discussion and debate, the Canadian House of Commons and Senate have approved the Assisted Human Reproduction Act. Building on the earlier Bill C-47, which died on the order paper in 1997, the Act bans human cloning for reproductive or therapeutic purposes, payment for surrogacy arrangements, and trading in human reproductive materials or their use without informed consent. In addition, the Act significantly restricts research using human reproductive materials. This article compares the Act to legislative regimes in other nations with advanced human reproductive science. It concludes that while the Act has many laudable goals, it is flawed in that it tries to cover too much legislative ground. As a result it unreasonable impairs the ability of Canadian scientists to compete in areas such as stem cell research, and area that is expected to yield significant new approaches to treating human disease.

  19. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-01-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  20. The ACTS multibeam antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regier, Frank A.

    1992-06-01

    The Advanced Communications Technology Satellite (ACTS) to be launched in 1993 is briefly introduced. Its multibeam antenna, consisting of electrically similar 30 GHz receive and 20 GHz transmit offset Cassegrain systems, both utilizing orthogonal polarizations, is described. Dual polarization is achieved by using one feed assembly for each polarization in conjunction with nested front and back subreflectors, the gridded front subreflector acting as a window for one polarization and a reflector for the other. The antennas produce spot beams with approximately 0.3 degree beamwidth and gains of approximately 50 dbi. High surface accuracy and high edge taper produce low sidelobe levels and high cross-polarization isolation. A brief description is given of several Ka-band components fabricated for ACTS. These include multiflare antenna feedhorns, beam-forming networks utilizing latching ferrite waveguide switches, a 30 GHz HEMT low-noise amplifier and a 20 GHz TWT power amplifier.

  1. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw; Gokhale, Maya B.; McCabe, Kevin Peter

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  2. A novel cis-acting element from the 3′UTR of DNA damage-binding protein 2 mRNA links transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Brian D.; Cabrita, Miguel A.; Bose, Reetesh; Hamill, Jeffrey D.; Pan, Elysia; Brochu, Christian; Marcellus, Kristen A.; Zhao, Tong T.; Holcik, Martin; McKay, Bruce C.

    2013-01-01

    The DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) is an adapter protein that can direct a modular Cul4-DDB1-RING E3 Ligase complex to sites of ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage to ubiquitinate substrates during nucleotide excision repair. The DDB2 transcript is ultraviolet-inducible; therefore, its regulation is likely important for its function. Curiously, the DDB2 mRNA is reportedly short-lived, but the transcript does not contain any previously characterized cis-acting determinants of mRNA stability in its 3′ untranslated region (3′UTR). Here, we used a tetracycline regulated d2EGFP reporter construct containing specific 3′UTR sequences from DDB2 to identify novel cis-acting elements that regulate mRNA stability. Synthetic 3′UTRs corresponding to sequences as short as 25 nucleotides from the central region of the 3′UTR of DDB2 were sufficient to accelerate decay of the heterologous reporter mRNA. Conversely, these same 3′UTRs led to more rapid induction of the reporter mRNA, export of the message to the cytoplasm and the subsequent accumulation of the encoded reporter protein, indicating that this newly identified cis-acting element affects transcriptional and post-transciptional processes. These results provide clear evidence that nuclear and cytoplasmic processing of the DDB2 mRNA is inextricably linked. PMID:23605047

  3. A novel cis-acting element from the 3'UTR of DNA damage-binding protein 2 mRNA links transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melanson, Brian D; Cabrita, Miguel A; Bose, Reetesh; Hamill, Jeffrey D; Pan, Elysia; Brochu, Christian; Marcellus, Kristen A; Zhao, Tong T; Holcik, Martin; McKay, Bruce C

    2013-06-01

    The DNA damage-binding protein 2 (DDB2) is an adapter protein that can direct a modular Cul4-DDB1-RING E3 Ligase complex to sites of ultraviolet light-induced DNA damage to ubiquitinate substrates during nucleotide excision repair. The DDB2 transcript is ultraviolet-inducible; therefore, its regulation is likely important for its function. Curiously, the DDB2 mRNA is reportedly short-lived, but the transcript does not contain any previously characterized cis-acting determinants of mRNA stability in its 3' untranslated region (3'UTR). Here, we used a tetracycline regulated d2EGFP reporter construct containing specific 3'UTR sequences from DDB2 to identify novel cis-acting elements that regulate mRNA stability. Synthetic 3'UTRs corresponding to sequences as short as 25 nucleotides from the central region of the 3'UTR of DDB2 were sufficient to accelerate decay of the heterologous reporter mRNA. Conversely, these same 3'UTRs led to more rapid induction of the reporter mRNA, export of the message to the cytoplasm and the subsequent accumulation of the encoded reporter protein, indicating that this newly identified cis-acting element affects transcriptional and post-transciptional processes. These results provide clear evidence that nuclear and cytoplasmic processing of the DDB2 mRNA is inextricably linked.

  4. Fabrication of a PMN-PT Single Crystal-Based Transcranial Doppler Transducer and the Power Regulation of Its Detection System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingwen Yue

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Doppler sonographic measurement of flow velocity in the basal cerebral arteries through the intact skull was developed using a pulsed Doppler technique and 2 MHz emitting frequency. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT were chosen to be the piezoelectric transducer material due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients, high electromechanical coupling coefficients and low dielectric loss. The pulse-echo response of the transducer was measured using the conventional pulse-echo method in a water bath at room temperature. The −6 dB bandwidth of the transducer is 68.4% and the sensitivity is −17.4 dB. In order to get a good match between transducer and detection system, different transmission powers have been regulated by changing the impedance of the transmitting electric circuit. In the middle cerebral artery (MCA measurement photograph results, as the transmission power is increasing, the detection results become clearer and clearer. A comparison at the same transmission power for different transducers shows that the detection photograph obtained by the crystal transducer was clearer than that obtained with a commercial transducer, which should make it easier for doctors to find the cerebral arteries.

  5. Fabrication of a PMN-PT single crystal-based transcranial Doppler transducer and the power regulation of its detection system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Qingwen; Liu, Dongxu; Wang, Wei; Di, Wenning; Lin, Di; Wang, Xi'an; Luo, Haosu

    2014-12-19

    Doppler sonographic measurement of flow velocity in the basal cerebral arteries through the intact skull was developed using a pulsed Doppler technique and 2 MHz emitting frequency. Relaxor-based ferroelectric single crystals Pb(Mg1/3Nb2/3)O3-PbTiO3 (PMN-PT) were chosen to be the piezoelectric transducer material due to their ultrahigh piezoelectric coefficients, high electromechanical coupling coefficients and low dielectric loss. The pulse-echo response of the transducer was measured using the conventional pulse-echo method in a water bath at room temperature. The -6 dB bandwidth of the transducer is 68.4% and the sensitivity is -17.4 dB. In order to get a good match between transducer and detection system, different transmission powers have been regulated by changing the impedance of the transmitting electric circuit. In the middle cerebral artery (MCA) measurement photograph results, as the transmission power is increasing, the detection results become clearer and clearer. A comparison at the same transmission power for different transducers shows that the detection photograph obtained by the crystal transducer was clearer than that obtained with a commercial transducer, which should make it easier for doctors to find the cerebral arteries.

  6. 7 CFR 29.13 - The act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The act. 29.13 Section 29.13 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.13 The act. The Tobacco Inspection Act, approved August 23, 1935. (7...

  7. FABRIC QUALITY CONTROL SYSTEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özlem KISAOĞLU

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Woven fabric quality depends on yarn properties at first, then weaving preparation and weaving processes. Defect control of grey and finished fabric is done manually on the lighted tables or automatically. Fabrics can be controlled by the help of the image analysis method. In image system the image of fabrics can be digitized by video camera and after storing controlled by the various processing. Recently neural networks, fuzzy logic, best wavelet packet model on automatic fabric inspection are developed. In this study the advantages and disadvantages of manual and automatic, on-line fabric inspection systems are given comparatively.

  8. 76 FR 25665 - No Fear Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-05

    ... COMMISSION No Fear Act AGENCY: American Battle Monuments Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The American... FEAR Act), as implemented by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) regulations at 5 CFR part 724... Retaliation Act of 2002,'' which is now known as the No FEAR Act. See Public Law 107-174, codified at 5 U.S.C...

  9. 34 CFR 300.4 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION ASSISTANCE TO STATES FOR THE EDUCATION OF CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES General Definitions Used in This Part § 300.4 Act. Act means the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, as... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 300.4 Section 300.4 Education Regulations of...

  10. 7 CFR 35.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMODITY STANDARDS AND STANDARD CONTAINER REGULATIONS EXPORT GRAPES AND PLUMS Definitions § 35.1 Act. Act or Export Grape and Plum Act means “An Act to promote the foreign trade of...

  11. 17 CFR 239.500 - Form D, notice of sales of securities under Regulation D and section 4(6) of the Securities Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... amount since the previously filed notice of sales on Form D, does not result in an increase of more than... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Form D, notice of sales of... ACT OF 1933 Forms Pertaining to Exemptions § 239.500 Form D, notice of sales of securities under...

  12. 7 CFR 1207.302 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE POTATO RESEARCH AND PROMOTION PLAN Potato Research and Promotion Plan Definitions § 1207.302 Act. Act means the Potato Research...

  13. 14-3-3 proteins act as scaffolds for GmMYB62 and GmMYB176 and regulate their intracellular localization in soybean

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Isoflavonoids are plant natural compounds predominantly found in leguminous plant. They play important functions in both nitrogen fixation and stress resistance. Many clinical studies have linked dietary intake of isoflavonoids to human health benefits. Binding of 14-3-3 proteins to GmMYB176, an isoflavonoid regulator, modulates expression of key isoflavonoids gene expression and its biosynthesis. We have recently demonstrated that the interaction of 14-3-3 proteins with GmMYB176 regulates nu...

  14. 78 FR 73466 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... CORPORATION 22 CFR Part 707 Privacy Act AGENCY: Overseas Private Investment Corporation. ACTION: Notice of... (``OPIC'') Privacy Act (``PA'') regulations by making substantive and administrative changes. These... procedure, Privacy. For the reasons stated in the preamble the Overseas Private Investment Corporation...

  15. MicroRNA-139-5p acts as a tumor suppressor by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle in glioblastoma multiforme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Shouping [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Wang, Xianjun [Department of Neurology, Linyi People' s Hospital, Linyi, Shandong 276000 (China); Li, Xiao [Department of Pathology, First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing (China); Cao, Yuandong, E-mail: yuandongcao@sina.com [Department of Radiotherapy, The First Affiliated Hospital of Nanjing Medical University, Nanjing, Jiangsu Province (China)

    2015-11-13

    MicroRNA-139-5p was identified to be significantly down-regulated in glioblastoma multiform (GBM) by miRNA array. In this report we aimed to clarify its biological function, molecular mechanisms and direct target gene in GBM. Twelve patients with GBM were analyzed for the expression of miR-139-5p by quantitative RT-PCR. miR-139-5p overexpression was established by transfecting miR-139-5p-mimic into U87MG and T98G cells, and its effects on cell proliferation were studied using MTT assay and colony formation assays. We concluded that ectopic expression of miR-139-5p in GBM cell lines significantly suppressed cell proliferation and inducing apoptosis. Bioinformatics coupled with luciferase and western blot assays also revealed that miR-139-5p suppresses glioma cell proliferation by targeting ELTD1 and regulating cell cycle. - Highlights: • miR-139-5p is downregulated in GBM. • miR-139-5p regulates cell proliferation through inducing apoptosis. • miR-139-5p regulates glioblastoma tumorigenesis by targeting 3′UTR of ELTD1. • miR-139-5p is involved in cell cycle regulation.

  16. Balancing Acts

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Issues Special Section: Focus on Communication Balancing Acts Past Issues / Fall 2008 Table of Contents For ... scientific research on hearing, balance, smell, taste, voice, speech, and language—common elements in how we perceive ...

  17. Regulation of streptokinase expression by CovR/S in Streptococcus pyogenes: CovR acts through a single high-affinity binding site.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Churchward, Gordon; Bates, Christopher; Gusa, Asiya A; Stringer, Virginia; Scott, June R

    2009-02-01

    The important human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes (the group A streptococcus or GAS) produces many virulence factors that are regulated by the two-component signal transduction system CovRS (CsrRS). Dissemination of GAS infection originating at the skin has been shown to require production of streptokinase, whose transcription is repressed by CovR. In this work we have studied the interaction of CovR and phosphorylated CovR (CovR-P) with the promoter for streptokinase, Pska. We found that, in contrast to the other CovR-repressed promoters, Pska regulation by CovR occurs through binding at a single ATTARA consensus binding sequence (CB) that overlaps the -10 region of the promoter. Binding of CovR to other nearby consensus sequences occurs upon phosphorylation of the protein, but these other CBs do not contribute to the regulation of Pska by CovR. Thus, binding at a specific site does not necessarily indicate that the site is involved in regulation by CovR. In addition, at Pska, CovR binding to the different sites does not appear to involve cooperative interactions, which simplifies the analysis of CovR binding and gives us insight into the modes of interaction that occur between CovR and its specific DNA-binding sites. Finally, the observation that regulation of transcription from Pska occurs at a very low concentration of phosphorylated CovR may have important implications for the regulation of virulence gene expression during GAS infection.

  18. 16 CFR 1610.33 - Test procedures for textile fabrics and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Test procedures for textile fabrics and film... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.33 Test procedures for textile fabrics and film. (a)(1) All textile fabrics (except those with a nitro-cellulose...

  19. 16 CFR 1611.35 - Testing certain classes of fabric and film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Testing certain classes of fabric and film... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF VINYL PLASTIC FILM Rules and Regulations § 1611.35 Testing certain classes of fabric and film. (a) Fabric not customarily washed or dry cleaned. (1) Except...

  20. Pseudomonas aeruginosa LysR PA4203 regulator NmoR acts as a repressor of the PA4202 nmoA> gene, encoding a nitronate monooxygenase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vercammen, Ken; Wei, Qing; Charlier, Daniel;

    2015-01-01

    The PA4203 gene encodes a LysR regulator and lies between the ppgL gene (PA4204), which encodes a periplasmic gluconolactonase, and, in the opposite orientation, the PA4202 (nmoA) gene, coding for a nitronate monooxygenase, and ddlA (PA4201), encoding a d-alanine alanine ligase. The intergenic re...

  1. Ubiquitin ligase Cbl-b acts as a negative regulator in discoidin domain receptor 2 signaling via modulation of its stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jiangtian; Zhao, Hu; Zhang, Yan; Liu, Yun-Cai; Yao, Libo; Li, Xia; Su, Jin

    2014-05-02

    Discoidin domain receptor 2 (DDR2), a collagen receptor tyrosine kinase, initiates signal transduction upon collagen binding, but little is known as to how DDR2 signaling is negatively regulated. Herein we demonstrate that Cbl family member Cbl-b predominantly promotes the ubiquitination of DDR2 upon collagen II stimulation. Cbl-b-mediated ubiquitination accelerates the degradation of activated DDR2. Finally, the production of MMP-13, a downstream target of DDR2, is enhanced in Cbl-b-knocked down MC3T3-E1 cells and Cbl-b-deficient mouse primary synovial fibroblasts. Thus, Cbl-b, by promoting the ubiquitination and degradation of DDR2, functions as a negative regulator in the DDR2 signaling pathway.

  2. Def-6, a novel regulator of small GTPases in podocytes, acts downstream of atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) λ/ι.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worthmann, Kirstin; Leitges, Michael; Teng, Beina; Sestu, Marcello; Tossidou, Irini; Samson, Thomas; Haller, Hermann; Huber, Tobias B; Schiffer, Mario

    2013-12-01

    The atypical protein kinase C (aPKC) isotypes PKCλ/ι and PKCζ are both expressed in podocytes; however, little is known about differences in their function. Previous studies in mice have demonstrated that podocyte-specific loss of PKCλ/ι leads to a severe glomerular phenotype, whereas mice deficient in PKCζ develop no renal phenotype. We analyzed various effects caused by PKCλ/ι and PKCζ deficiency in cultured murine podocytes. In contrast to PKCζ-deficient podocytes, PKCλ/ι-deficient podocytes exhibited a severe actin cytoskeletal phenotype, reduced cell size, decreased number of focal adhesions, and increased activation of small GTPases. Comparative microarray analysis revealed that the guanine nucleotide exchange factor Def-6 was specifically up-regulated in PKCλ/ι-deficient podocytes. In vivo Def-6 expression is significantly increased in podocytes of PKCλ/ι-deficient mice. Cultured PKCλ/ι-deficient podocytes exhibited an enhanced membrane association of Def-6, indicating enhanced activation. Overexpression of aPKCλ/ι in PKCλ/ι-deficient podocytes could reduce the membrane-associated expression of Def-6 and rescue the actin phenotype. In the present study, PKCλ/ι was identified as an important factor for actin cytoskeletal regulation in podocytes and Def-6 as a specific downstream target of PKCλ/ι that regulates the activity of small GTPases and subsequently the actin cytoskeleton of podocytes.

  3. Rho kinase acts as a downstream molecule to participate in protein kinase Cε regulation of vascular reactivity after hemorrhagic shock in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Zhu, Yu; Zang, Jia-tao; Peng, Xiao-yong; Lan, Dan; Yang, Guang-ming; Xu, Jing; Liu, Liang-ming

    2014-09-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Rho kinase and protein kinase C (PKC) played important parts in the regulation of vascular reactivity after shock. Using superior mesenteric arteries (SMAs) from hemorrhagic shock rats and hypoxia-treated vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs), relationship of PKCε regulation of vascular reactivity to Rho kinase, as well as the signal transduction after shock, was investigated. The results showed that inhibition of Rho kinase with the Rho kinase-specific inhibitor Y-27632 antagonized the PKCε-specific agonist carbachol and highly expressed PKCε-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs, whereas inhibition of PKCε with its specific inhibitory peptide did not antagonize the Rho kinase agonist (U-46619)-induced increase of vascular reactivity in SMAs and VSMCs. Activation of PKCε or highly expressed PKCε upregulated the activity of Rho kinase and the phosphorylation of PKC-dependent phosphatase inhibitor 17 (CPI-17), zipper interacting protein kinase (ZIPK), and integrin-linked kinase (ILK), whereas activation of Rho kinase increased only CPI-17 phosphorylation. The specific neutralization antibodies of ZIPK and ILK antagonized PKCε-induced increases in the activity of Rho kinase, but CPI-17 neutralization antibody did not antagonize this effect. These results suggested that Rho kinase takes part in the regulation of PKCε on vascular reactivity after shock. Rho kinase is downstream of PKCε. Protein kinase Cε activates Rho kinase via ZIPK and ILK; CPI-17 is downstream of Rho kinase.

  4. 45 CFR 503.2 - General policies-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false General policies-Privacy Act. 503.2 Section 503.2... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.2 General policies—Privacy Act. The Commission will protect the...

  5. 45 CFR 503.1 - Definitions-Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Definitions-Privacy Act. 503.1 Section 503.1... THE UNITED STATES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE RULES OF PRACTICE PRIVACY ACT AND GOVERNMENT IN THE SUNSHINE REGULATIONS Privacy Act Regulations § 503.1 Definitions—Privacy Act. For the purpose of this part: Agency...

  6. Toxic Substances Control Act

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-05-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Toxic Substances Control Act and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  7. 48 CFR 22.403-1 - Davis-Bacon Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act. 22.403-1 Section 22.403-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION SOCIOECONOMIC... Construction 22.403-1 Davis-Bacon Act. The Davis-Bacon Act (40 U.S.C. 3141 et seq.) provides that contracts...

  8. Adjustment of Energy requirements in TEK; TEK= Technical Regulations under the Norwegian Planning and Building Act; Justering av energikrav i TEK

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thyholt, Marit; Dokka, Tor Helge; Schild, Peter; Grini, Catherine; Mysen, Mads; Sartori, Igor

    2008-07-01

    The National Office of Building Technology and Administration (BE) desired to review the consequences of different levels of ambition for requirements for heat gaining from vent air, as well as a possible requirement for energy efficient design of building fronts. In addition the energy scope in the regulation (TEK2007) should be adjusted according to the final establishment of a new calculation standard (Norwegian Standard - NS 3031:2007). A statement on these subjects has been carried out at SINTEF Byggforsk, and is described in this report. Adjustments of framework regulations.There are only minor differences between adjusted calculations according to NS 3031 and the original energy framework calculations, i.e. the difference for net energy need amounts to the size of 0 to 6 percent. Heat gain.The report shows that it is possible - both from techical and financial considerations - to increase the requirement level for heat gain from vent air for most categories of buildings. This implies a sharpening of the annual median temperature efficiency from 70 % to 80 %, for all building categories, except from hospitals, institutions and light industry/workshops. A possible sharpening of regulations for heat gain in houses has not been evaluated. Depending on building category a sharpening of regulations for heat gain from vent air will imply that net energy need will be reduced on a scale of 20 to 30 kWh/m2 per annum. The report demonstrates that despite a possible sharpening of the requirements on energy efficiency for heat recovery devices does not prevent the use of large areas of windows and window panes. Vulnerability analyses show that deviations from the prerequisites in the basis for the energy framework concerning air quantities and air temperatures give the possibility of weakening the building's heating characteristics. Building fronts. Different methods for added requirements for building fronts have been examined. The aim has been to find methods and

  9. WNT4 acts downstream of BMP2 and functions via β-catenin signaling pathway to regulate human endometrial stromal cell differentiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Quanxi; Kannan, Athilakshmi; Das, Amrita; Demayo, Franco J; Hornsby, Peter J; Young, Steven L; Taylor, Robert N; Bagchi, Milan K; Bagchi, Indrani C

    2013-01-01

    Differentiation of endometrial stromal cells into decidual cells is a prerequisite for successful embryo implantation. Our previous studies in the mouse have shown that bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2), a morphogen belonging to the TGFβ superfamily, is essential for this differentiation process. BMP2 is markedly induced in human primary endometrial stromal cells (HESCs) as they undergo differentiation in response to steroid hormones and cAMP. The present study was undertaken to identify the BMP2-mediated molecular pathways in primary cultures of HESCs during decidualization. Using gene expression profiling, we identified wingless-related murine mammary tumor virus integration site 4 (WNT4) as a target of BMP2 regulation during decidualization. Attenuation of WNT4 expression in HESCs by small interfering RNA administration greatly reduced BMP2-induced stromal differentiation. Additionally, adenovirus-mediated overexpression of WNT4 in HESCs markedly advanced the differentiation program, indicating that it is a key regulator of decidualization. The stimulatory effect of WNT4 was accompanied by the accumulation of active β-catenin in the nuclei of decidualizing stromal cells, indicating the involvement of the canonical WNT signaling pathway. Functional inhibition of WNT4/β-catenin pathway by Dickkopf-1, an inhibitor of the canonical WNT signaling, or small interfering RNA-mediated silencing of β-catenin expression, greatly reduced the BMP2- and WNT4-induced decidualization. Gene expression profiling revealed that Forkhead box protein O1, a forkhead family transcription factor and previously reported regulator of HESC differentiation, is a common downstream mediator of both BMP2 and WNT4 signaling. Taken together, these studies uncovered a linear pathway involving BMP2, WNT4/β-catenin, and Forkhead box protein O1 that operates in human endometrium to critically control decidualization.

  10. AMP-activated protein kinase acts as a negative regulator of high glucose-induced RANKL expression in human periodontal ligament cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FENG Yuan; LIU Jia-qiang; LIU Hong-chen

    2012-01-01

    Background It is well known that the function of periodontal ligament cells may be affected by high glucose levels.This study investigated the direct effect of high glucose on the expression of receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) in human PDL (hPDL) cells.In addition,we examined whether this effect was mediated via AMPK activation.Methods We examined the expression of osteoprotegerin in hPDL cells cultured at different concentrations of glucose using real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR),and Western blotting analysis.AMPK phosphorylation in hPDL cells was studied using immunoprecipitate kinase assay and Western blotting.The effect of AMPK activation on RANKL expression in hPDL cells was investigated by real-time PCR and Western blotting.Results High glucose levels caused an increase in RANKL mRNA and protein expression in hPDL cells.Moreover,the amount of p-AMPK and AMPK activity was lower in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose levels than in cells exposed to normal glucose levels.Suppression of AMPK by Compound C augmented RANKL expression,and AMPK activation by metformin significantly decreased RANKL expression in hPDL cells.Additionally,metformin down-regulated RANKL expression in hPDL cells exposed to high glucose via AMPK activation.Conclusion High glucose-induced up-regulation of RANKL could be due to decreased AMPK activity,and AMPK activation may be involved in regulating of RANKL expression in hPDL cells.

  11. THE INTERPRETATION OF THE AMENDED RAF ACT 56 OF 1996 AND THE REGULATIONS THERETO BY THE COURTS WITH REGARD TO “SERIOUS INJURY” CLAIMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loma Steynberg

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The RAF Amendment Act 19 of 2005 came into effect on 1 August 2008 and sections 17(1 and 17(1A introduced the concept of “serious injury”. This entails that a third-party claimant who wishes to claim compensation for non-patrimonial loss suffered after a motor-vehicle accident has to prove that his or her injury is “serious”. If the claimant’s injury is not considered “serious” no compensation will be awarded for the non-patrimonial loss suffered and, furthermore, the claimant will also not be entitled to claim any compensation from the wrongdoer in terms of common law (s 21 of the RAF Act. In a sequence of unreported cases the courts have provided guidelines on the procedure to be followed in serious-injury claims. Firstly, a claimant must submit himself or herself to an assessment by a medical practitioner registered under the Health Professions Act. Secondly, the medical practitioner must assess if the injuries sustained by the claimant fall within the list of “non-serious injuries”, and if so, compensation for non-patrimonial loss will not be awarded. If the injury is not on the list of non-serious injuries, the medical practitioner may assess the injuries and if they result in 30 per cent or more of whole-person impairment (“WPI” compensation for non-patrimonial loss may be awarded. If the evaluation is that the 30 per cent of WPI cannot be reached, non-patrimonial loss may still be claimed if the injuries fall within the “narrative test”, namely (a resulting in a serious long-term impairment or loss of a body function; (b constituting permanent serious disfigurement; (c resulting in severe long-term mental or severe long-term behavioural disturbance or disorder; or (d resulting in the loss of a foetus. A plaintiff may use either of the two tests to establish serious injury and in such a manner qualify for compensation for non-patrimonial loss. A medical practitioner must complete and submit a serious

  12. Ubiquitin specific protease 2 acts as a key modulator for the regulation of cell cycle by adiponectin and leptin in cancer cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepal, Saroj; Shrestha, Anup; Park, Pil-Hoon

    2015-09-05

    Adiponectin and leptin, both produced from adipose tissue, cause cell cycle arrest and progression, respectively in cancer cells. Ubiquitin specific protease-2 (USP-2), a deubiquitinating enzyme, is known to impair proteasome-induced degradation of cyclin D1, a critical cell cycle regulator. Herein, we investigated the effects of these adipokines on USP-2 expression and its potential role in the modulation of cell cycle. Treatment with globular adiponectin (gAcrp) decreased, whereas leptin increased USP-2 expression both in human hepatoma and breast cancer cells. In addition, overexpression or gene silencing of USP-2 affected cyclin D1 expression and cell cycle progression/arrest by adipokines. Adiponectin and leptin also modulated in vitro proteasomal activity, which was partially dependent on USP-2 expression. Taken together, our results reveal that modulation of USP-2 expression plays a crucial role in cell cycle regulation by adipokines. Thus, USP-2 would be a promising therapeutic target for the modulation of cancer cell growth by adipokines.

  13. Casein kinase II is required for proper cell division and acts as a negative regulator of centrosome duplication in Caenorhabditis elegans embryos

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, Jeffrey C.; Kabara, Megan M.; Stubenvoll, Michael D.; DeMeyer, Lauren E.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Centrosomes are the primary microtubule-organizing centers that orchestrate microtubule dynamics during the cell cycle. The correct number of centrosomes is pivotal for establishing bipolar mitotic spindles that ensure accurate segregation of chromosomes. Thus, centrioles must duplicate once per cell cycle, one daughter per mother centriole, the process of which requires highly coordinated actions among core factors and modulators. Protein phosphorylation is shown to regulate the stability, localization and activity of centrosome proteins. Here, we report the function of Casein kinase II (CK2) in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos. The catalytic subunit (KIN-3/CK2α) of CK2 localizes to nuclei, centrosomes and midbodies. Inactivating CK2 leads to cell division defects, including chromosome missegregation, cytokinesis failure and aberrant centrosome behavior. Furthermore, depletion or inhibiting kinase activity of CK2 results in elevated ZYG-1 levels at centrosomes, restoring centrosome duplication and embryonic viability to zyg-1 mutants. Our data suggest that CK2 functions in cell division and negatively regulates centrosome duplication in a kinase-dependent manner. PMID:27881437

  14. Arabidopsis WRKY6 Transcription Factor Acts as a Positive Regulator of Abscisic Acid Signaling during Seed Germination and Early Seedling Development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yun; Feng, Cui-Zhu; Ye, Qing; Wu, Wei-Hua; Chen, Yi-Fang

    2016-02-01

    The phytohormone abscisic acid (ABA) plays important roles during seed germination and early seedling development. Here, we characterized the function of the Arabidopsis WRKY6 transcription factor in ABA signaling. The transcript of WRKY6 was repressed during seed germination and early seedling development, and induced by exogenous ABA. The wrky6-1 and wrky6-2 mutants were ABA insensitive, whereas WRKY6-overexpressing lines showed ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes during seed germination and early seedling development. The expression of RAV1 was suppressed in the WRKY6-overexpressing lines and elevated in the wrky6 mutants, and the expression of ABI3, ABI4, and ABI5, which was directly down-regulated by RAV1, was enhanced in the WRKY6-overexpressing lines and repressed in the wrky6 mutants. Electrophoretic mobility shift and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays showed that WRKY6 could bind to the RAV1 promoter in vitro and in vivo. Overexpression of RAV1 in WRKY6-overexpressing lines abolished their ABA-hypersensitive phenotypes, and the rav1 wrky6-2 double mutant showed an ABA-hypersensitive phenotype, similar to rav1 mutant. Together, the results demonstrated that the Arabidopsis WRKY6 transcription factor played important roles in ABA signaling by directly down-regulating RAV1 expression.

  15. Fabricating architectural volume

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Feringa, Jelle; Søndergaard, Asbjørn

    2015-01-01

    The 2011 edition of Fabricate inspired a number of collaborations, this article seeks to highlight three of these. There is a common thread amongst the projects presented: sharing the ambition to close the rift between design and fabrication while incorporating structural design aspects early on...

  16. Control: Why, when and how? Some general principles of state control presented on the example of disqualification from performing commercial activities pursuant to § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pürner Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with issues relating to state control and state reaction to breaches of the rules discovered, using the example of Section 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (§ 35 Gewerbeordnung, GewO. This provision is the central norm in German law, on the basis of which entrepreneurial activities can be prohibited. In the introduction, the author provides an overview of different forms of control and discusses the role of the courts in general, but also in the context of reviewing the control measures taken by the state. The author agrees that jurisprudence (case law is not a source of law in the countries of the European-Continental legal system. However, this should not lead to the wrong conclusion that the courts are neither qualified nor obliged to develop the law. After the introductory remarks, the author discusses the provisions contained in § 35 of the German Trade, Commerce and Industry Regulation Act (Gewerbeordnung. This example is of particular interest as it demonstrates various general principles of state control over private activities. While the provision originally contained a casuistic enumeration of individual cases, it nowadays uses a blanket clause. Accordingly, the concept of Unzuverlässigkeit ('unreliability ', which is not defined in more detail is the definitional element for a disqualification from the practice of commercial activities. Hence, the courts' task in dealing with the respective cases has significantly changed, as the control process involves consideration of both public and private interests, as well as striking a fair balance between the opposing public and private interests. The author points out that this is also justified as the legislator can hardly foresee all cases to which the provision might appear in practice. In particular, the author points out that the German legislator, unlike the legislators in some transformation states, has opted for having as few

  17. The papain-like protease of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus negatively regulates type I interferon pathway by acting as a viral deubiquitinase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Yaling; Chen, Jianfei; Tu, Jian; Zhang, Bailing; Chen, Xiaojuan; Shi, Hongyan; Baker, Susan C; Feng, Li; Chen, Zhongbin

    2013-07-01

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is the cause of an economically important swine disease. Previous studies suggested that PEDV does not elicit a robust IFN response, but the mechanism(s) used to evade or block this innate immune response was not known. In this study, we found that PEDV infection blocked synthetic dsRNA-induced IFN-β production by interfering with the activation of interferon regulatory factor 3 (IRF3). We identified PEDV replicase encoded papain-like protease 2 (PLP2) as an IFN antagonist that depends on catalytic activity for its function. We show that levels of ubiquitinated proteins are reduced during PEDV infection and that PEDV PLP2 has deubiquitinase (DUB) activity that recognizes and processes both K-48 and K-63 linked polyubiquitin chains. Furthermore, we found that PEDV PLP2 strongly inhibits RIG-I- and STING-activated IFN expression and that PEDV PLP2 can be co-immunoprecipitated with and deubiquitinates RIG-I and STING, the key components of the signalling pathway for IFN expression. These results show that PEDV infection suppresses production of IFN-β and provides evidence indicating that the PEDV papain-like protease 2 acts as a viral DUB to interfere with the RIG-I- and STING-mediated signalling pathway.

  18. 75 FR 57330 - Community Reinvestment Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-20

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Community Reinvestment Act AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision (OTS... collection. Title of Proposal: Community Reinvestment Act. OMB Number: 1550-0012. Form Number: N/A. Description: The Community Reinvestment Act regulation requires the OTS, as well as the Office of...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.10 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 1205.10 Section 1205.10 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (MARKETING AGREEMENTS AND... for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.10 Act. The term Act means the Cotton Research...

  20. 75 FR 41908 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-19

    ... and rule and form amendments under the Investment Company Act of 1940, the Securities Act of 1933, and the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, to reform the regulation of distribution fees paid by registered open-end management investment companies (``funds''). The recommended proposal would provide a...

  1. Granulosa Cell-Expressed BMPR1A and BMPR1B Have Unique Functions in Regulating Fertility but Act Redundantly to Suppress Ovarian Tumor Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edson, Mark A.; Nalam, Roopa L.; Clementi, Caterina; Franco, Heather L.; DeMayo, Francesco J.; Lyons, Karen M.; Pangas, Stephanie A.; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2010-01-01

    Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) have diverse roles in development and reproduction. Although several BMPs are produced by oocytes, thecal cells, and granulosa cells of developing follicles, the in vivo functions of most of these ligands are unknown. BMP signals are transduced by multiple type I and type II TGFβ family receptors, and of the type I receptors, BMP receptor 1A (BMPR1A) and BMP receptor 1B (BMPR1B) are known to be expressed in rodent granulosa cells. Female mice homozygous null for Bmpr1b are sterile due to compromised cumulus expansion, but the function of BMPR1A in the ovary is unknown. To further decipher a role for BMP signaling in mouse granulosa cells, we deleted Bmpr1a in the granulosa cells of the ovary and found Bmpr1a conditional knockout females to be subfertile with reduced spontaneous ovulation. To explore the redundant functions of BMP receptor signaling in the ovary, we generated Bmpr1a Bmpr1b double-mutant mice, which developed granulosa cell tumors that have evidence of increased TGFβ and hedgehog signaling. Thus, similar to SMAD1 and SMAD5, which have redundant roles in suppressing granulosa cell tumor development in mice, two type I BMP receptors, BMPR1A and BMPR1B, function together to prevent ovarian tumorigenesis. These studies support a role for a functional BMP signaling axis as a tumor suppressor pathway in the ovary, with BMPR1A and BMPR1B acting downstream of BMP ligands and upstream of BMP receptor SMADs. PMID:20363875

  2. Does lower dose of long-acting triptorelin maintain pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rate in long down-regulation protocol for in-vitro fertilization?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xin; Feng, Shu-xian; Guo, Ping-ping; He, Yu-xia; Liu, Yu-dong; Ye, De-sheng; Chen, Shi-ling

    2016-04-01

    The effects of pituitary suppression with one-third depot of long-acting gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist in GnRH agonist long protocol for in vitro fertilization (IVF)/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) were investigated. A retrospective cohort study was performed on 3186 cycles undergoing IVF/ICSI with GnRH agonist long protocol in a university-affiliated infertility center. The pituitary was suppressed with depot triptorelin of 1.25 mg or 1.875 mg. There was no significant difference in live birth rate between 1.25 mg triptorelin group and 1.875 mg triptorelin group (41.2% vs. 43.7%). The mean luteinizing hormone (LH) level on follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) starting day was significantly higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. The mean LH level on the day of human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) administration was slightly but statistically higher in 1.25 mg triptorelin group. There was no significant difference in the total FSH dose between the two groups. The number of retrieved oocytes was slightly but statistically less in 1.25 mg triptorelin group than in 1.875 mg triptorelin group (12.90±5.82 vs. 13.52±6.97). There was no significant difference in clinical pregnancy rate between the two groups (50.5% vs. 54.5%). It was suggested that one-third depot triptorelin can achieve satisfactory pituitary suppression and produce good live birth rates in a long protocol for IVF/ICSI.

  3. Regulation effects of the German renewable energy act on the ecological upgrade of hydro-power plants. Results of a survey; Lenkungswirkung der Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetze (EEG 2004 und 2009) fuer die oekologische Modernisierung von Wasserkraftanlagen. Ergebnisse einer Umfrage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderer, Pia [Ingenieurbuero Floecksmuehle GmbH, Aachen (Germany); Naumann, Stephan [Umweltbundesamt, Dessau (Germany)

    2013-06-01

    Germany lacks a unified register containing data on the equipment of hydropower stations with environmental facilities or of those subject to requirements for reducing the environmental impact on the status of waters. Thanks to the cooperation of the hydro-power plant operators, our survey allowed us for the first time to gain insight into the regulation effects of the German Renewable Energy Act (Erneuerbare-Energien-Gesetz; EEG) as well as into the ecological upgrade potential of German hydro-power plants. EEG 2004 and 2009 funded measures implemented at hydro-power stations are focused on ensuring a minimum flow as well as on longitudinal connectivity. This priority is consistent with the water management requirement of achieving the goals of the Water Framework Directive in this area. (orig.)

  4. New electricity act brings in private sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anon.

    1995-02-01

    Opening up the State`s electricity industry, previously the domain of the former Queensland Electricity Commission (QEC), is part of an overall restructuring of the industry under the new Queensland Electricity Act. Under this Act, the QEC was split into generating and transmission and supply corporations. The Act provides for the regulation of the electricity industry and the regulation of the use of electricity and safety in relation to the supply and use of electricity.(Author). 6 photos.

  5. New polymorphous computing fabric.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolinski, C. (Christophe); Gokhale, M. (Maya); McCabe, K. P. (Kevin P.)

    2002-01-01

    This paper introduces a new polymorphous computing Fabric well suited to DSP and Image Processing and describes its implementation on a Configurable System on a Chip (CSOC). The architecture is highly parameterized and enables customization of the synthesized Fabric to achieve high performance for a specific class of application. For this reason it can be considered to be a generic model for hardware accelerator synthesis from a high level specification. Another important innovation is the Fabric uses a global memory concept, which gives the host processor random access to all the variables and instructions on the Fabric. The Fabric supports different computing models including MIMD, SPMD and systolic flow and permits dynamic reconfiguration. We present a specific implementation of a bank of FIR filters on a Fabric composed of 52 cells on the Altera Excalibur ARM running at 33 MHz. The theoretical performance of this Fabric is 1.8 GMACh. For the FIR application we obtain 1.6 GMAC/s real performance. Some automatic tools have been developed like the tool to provide a host access utility and assembler.

  6. USP22 acts as an oncogene by regulating the stability of cyclooxygenase-2 in non-small cell lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiao, Haibo [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Tian, Yue [Institute of Orthopaedics, Chinese PLA General Hospital, Beijing 100853 (China); Yang, Yang; Hu, Fengqing; Xie, Xiao; Mei, Ju [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Ding, Fangbao, E-mail: drnail@sina.com [Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Xinhua Hospital, School of Medicine, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200092 (China)

    2015-05-08

    The histone ubiquitin hydrolase ubiquitin-specific protease 22 (USP22) is an epigenetic modifier and an oncogene that is upregulated in many types of cancer. In non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), aberrant expression of USP22 is a predictor of poor survival, as is high expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2). Despite its oncogenic role, few substrates of USP22 have been identified and its mechanism of action in cancer remains unclear. Here, we identified COX-2 as a direct substrate of USP22 and showed that its levels are modulated by USP22 mediated deubiquitination. Silencing of USP22 downregulated COX-2, decreased its half-life, and inhibited lung carcinoma cell proliferation by directly interacting with and modulating the stability and activity of COX-2 through the regulation of its ubiquitination status. The findings of the present study suggest a potential mechanism underlying the oncogenic role of USP22 mediated by the modulation of the stability and activity of COX-2. - Highlights: • USP22 interacts with COX-2. • USP22 deubiquitinates and stabilizes COX-2. • USP22 is required for COX-2-mediated upregulation of prostaglandin E2.

  7. Syndecan-1 Acts as an Important Regulator of CXCL1 Expression and Cellular Interaction of Human Endometrial Stromal and Trophoblast Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunja Maria Baston-Buest

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful implantation of the embryo into the human receptive endometrium is substantial for the establishment of a healthy pregnancy. This study focusses on the role of Syndecan-1 at the embryo-maternal interface, the multitasking coreceptor influencing ligand concentration, release and receptor presentation, and cellular morphology. CXC motif ligand 1, being involved in chemotaxis and angiogenesis during implantation, is of special interest as a ligand of Syndecan-1. Human endometrial stromal cells with and without Syndecan-1 knock-down were decidualized and treated with specific inhibitors to evaluate signaling pathways regulating CXC ligand 1 expression. Western blot analyses of MAPK and Wnt members were performed, followed by analysis of spheroid interactions between human endometrial cells and extravillous trophoblast cells. By mimicking embryo contact using IL-1β, we showed less ERK and c-Jun activation by depletion of Syndecan-1 and less Frizzled 4 production as part of the canonical Wnt pathway. Additionally, more beta-catenin was phosphorylated and therefore degraded after depletion of Syndecan-1. Secretion of CXC motif ligand 1 depends on MEK-1 with respect to Syndecan-1. Regarding the interaction of endometrial and trophoblast cells, the spheroid center-to-center distances were smaller after depletion of Syndecan-1. Therefore, Syndecan-1 seems to affect signaling processes relevant to signaling and intercellular interaction at the trophoblast-decidual interface.

  8. Legal Regulation on Network Piracy Acts of Television Dramas%论影视剧作品网络盗播行为的法律规制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂洪涛; 雎华阳

    2015-01-01

    网络社会背景下 ,影视剧作品网络盗播侵权现象时有发生 ,欧美发达国家均通过健全的法律制度对影视剧作品网络盗播侵权行为予以有效规制.借鉴国外的先进经验 ,完善我国现行法律制度 ,严格执法 ,公正司法 ,提高公民的版权意识 ,有效预防并制止影视剧作品网络盗播侵权行为的发生 ,成为我国影视产业健康发展的当务之急.%In network social background ,network television dramas have occurred piracy violations .American and European countries have passed a sound legal system on network television dramas piracy infringement to be effective regulation .Learning from the advanced experience from foreign countries to improve the current legal system from strict law enforcement ,judicial justice ,and improving citizens' awareness of copyright ,effective preventing and suppressing the network piracy on television dramas infringement occurred .

  9. Objective Evaluation of Fabric Drape

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; YAO Mu

    2002-01-01

    On the basis of our previous research work, an expressing index was proposed for the lively degree of dynamic fabric drape. Meanwhile, the main factoranalysis for parameters of fabric drape was applied and the 5 main factors, comprehensive indexes of expressing aesthetics of fabric drape, were obtained. Through the scored diagrams of main factors of fabric drape aesthetics, 100 kinds of fabric samples could be identified and catalogued. A new method was found out for the objective evaluation of aesthetics of fabric drape.

  10. Identification of the SLAM Adapter Molecule EAT-2 as a Lupus-Susceptibility Gene That Acts through Impaired Negative Regulation of Dendritic Cell Signaling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talaei, Nafiseh; Yu, Tao; Manion, Kieran; Bremner, Rod; Wither, Joan E

    2015-11-15

    We showed previously that C57BL/6 congenic mice with an introgressed homozygous 70 cM (125.6 Mb) to 100 cM (179.8 Mb) interval on c1 from the lupus-prone New Zealand Black (NZB) mouse develop high titers of antinuclear Abs and severe glomerulonephritis. Using subcongenic mice, we found that a genetic locus in the 88-96 cM region was associated with altered dendritic cell (DC) function and synergized with T cell functional defects to promote expansion of pathogenic proinflammatory T cell subsets. In this article, we show that the promoter region of the NZB gene encoding the SLAM signaling pathway adapter molecule EWS-activated transcript 2 (EAT-2) is polymorphic, which results in an ∼ 70% reduction in EAT-2 in DC. Silencing of the EAT-2 gene in DC that lacked this polymorphism led to increased production of IL-12 and enhanced differentiation of T cells to a Th1 phenotype in T cell-DC cocultures, reproducing the phenotype observed for DC from congenic mice with the NZB c1 70-100 cM interval. SLAM signaling was shown to inhibit production of IL-12 by CD40L-activated DCs. Consistent with a role for EAT-2 in this inhibition, knockdown of EAT-2 resulted in increased production of IL-12 by CD40-stimulated DC. Assessment of downstream signaling following CD40 cross-linking in the presence or absence of SLAM cross-linking revealed that SLAM coengagement blocked activation of p38 MAPK and JNK signaling pathways in DC, which was reversed in DC with the NZB EAT-2 allele. We conclude that EAT-2 negatively regulates cytokine production in DC downstream of SLAM engagement and that a genetic polymorphism that disturbs this process promotes the development of lupus.

  11. Alloy Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — At NETL’s Alloy Fabrication Facility in Albany, OR, researchers conduct DOE research projects to produce new alloys suited to a variety of applications, from gas...

  12. Experimental Fabrication Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Provides aviation fabrication support to special operations aircraft residing at Fort Eustis and other bases in the United States. Support is also provided to AATD...

  13. Fabric Structures Team Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 6th Bi-Annual DOD JOCOTAS Meeting with Rigid & Soft Wall Shelter Industry & Indoor & Outdoor Exhibition, 2-4 Nov 2009, Panama City...Maintenance Shelter Demonstrated in July 09 • Designed and fabricated by Hunter Defense Technologies/Vertigo Shelters (prime), Johnson Outdoors ...Congressionally directed program with Nemo , Inc., Nashua, NH f• Designs include novel in latable airbeam technology and tensioned fabric/pole

  14. Fabrics with tunable oleophobicity

    OpenAIRE

    McKinley, Gareth H.; Choi, Wonjae; Cohen, Robert E.; Tuteja, Anish; Chhatre, Shreerang S.; Mabry, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    A simple “dip-coating” process that imbues oleophobicity to various surfaces that inherently possess re-entrant texture, such as commercially available fabrics, is reported. These dip-coated fabric surfaces exhibit reversible, deformation-dependent, tunable wettability, including the capacity to switch their surface wetting properties (between super-repellent and super-wetting) against a wide range of polar and nonpolar liquids.

  15. Fabrication of a Knitted Biodegradable Stents for Tracheal Regeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李毅; 张佩华; 冯勋伟

    2004-01-01

    Endoluminal stents for reinforcement and regeneration of human trachea have been developed by weft-knitting method on a small-diameter circular knitting machine. The constituent materials of the stent are Polyglactin, Polypropylene and Chitosan with Polyglactin and Polypropylene plate-stitched fabric acting as backbone while chitosan as matrix, respectively. The fabrication procedures including knitting and coating are described in this paper. Mechanical and animal tests have been carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the stents.

  16. National Energy Act statutes and solar energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Howard, J.

    1980-02-01

    The National Energy Act of 1978 contains many provisions that will significantly affect solar technology commercialization and solar energy users. Four of the five statutes that comprise the National Energy Act deserve close attention. The National Energy Conservation Policy Act will promote residential solar installations. The Energy Tax Act will accelerate both residential and commercial solar system applications. The Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act promotes efficient use of utility resources as well as decentralized power production. And, the Power Plan and Industrial Fuel Use Act places severe restrictions on future burning of petroleum and natural gas, which should lead some operators to build or convert to solar energy systems. Each of the preceding acts are considered in separate sections of this report. Federal regulations issued pursuant to the various provisions are also identified and discussed, and some of the problems with the provisions and regulations are noted.

  17. 45 CFR 2543.86 - Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution Control Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Clean Air Act and the Federal Water Pollution... Water Pollution Control Act. Contracts and subgrants of amounts in excess of $100,000 shall contain a... regulations issued pursuant to the Clean Air Act (42 U.S.C. 7401 et seq.) and the Federal Water...

  18. “非行政许可”内涵的界定及其规范%Connotation and Regulation of Act that does'nt Need Administrative Permission

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王云斌

    2011-01-01

    《中华人民共和国行政许可法》未予提及“非行政许可”,在理论界也鲜有论述。由于设定、实施没有统一的规范,非行政许可审批项目在各部门、各地方存在设定主体混乱、认定标准不一、数目相差悬殊、名称使用不规范、缺乏必要监管等问题,破坏了行政法制的统一,影响了行政审批的正确实施,削弱了行政许可法律制度的实施效果。为了进一步推进行政审批制度改革,切实转变政府职能,调整、规范部门权力,从源头上预防和治理腐败,创新社会管理方式,对“非行政许可”内涵的界定及其规范是十分必要的。%Administrative License Law does'nt mention the act that does'nt need administrative permission, moreover, there is few discussion in theory. In order to further promote the reformation of the system of administrative examination and approval and further transform government functions, it is of vital importance to make the connotation and regulation of the act that doesint need administrative permission definite.

  19. Fabrication of PDMS architecture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adam, Tijjani; Hashim, U.

    2017-03-01

    The study report novel, yet simple and flexible fabrication method for micro channel patterning PDMS thin mold on glass surfaces, the method allows microstructures with critical dimensions to be formed using PDMS. Micro channel production is a two-step process. First, soft photolithography methods are implemented to fabricate a reusable mold. The mold is then used to create the micro channel, which consists of SU8, PDMS and glass. The micro channel design was performed using AutoCAD and the fabrication begins by creating a replicable mold. The mold is created on a glass slide. by spin-coating speed between 500 to 1250rpm with an acceleration of 100 rpm/s for 100 and 15 second ramp up and down speed respectively. Channel flow rate based on concentration were measured by analyzing the recorded flow profiles which was collected from the high powered microscope at. 80µ, 70µm, 50µm for inlet channel 1, 2, 3 respectively the channel flow were compared for flow efficiency at different concentrations and Re. Thus, the simplicity of device structure and fabrication makes it feasible to miniaturize it for the development of point-of-care kits, facilitating its use in both clinical and non-clinical environments. With its simple geometric structure and potential for mass commercial fabrication, the device can be developed to become a portable photo detection sensor that can be use for both environmental and diagnostic application.

  20. 7 CFR 1940.328 - State Environmental Policy Acts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true State Environmental Policy Acts. 1940.328 Section 1940... (CONTINUED) PROGRAM REGULATIONS (CONTINUED) GENERAL Environmental Program § 1940.328 State Environmental Policy Acts. (a) Numerous States have enacted environmental policy acts or regulations similar to...

  1. 31 CFR 547.901 - Paperwork Reduction Act notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Paperwork Reduction Act notice. 547.901 Section 547.901 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued... REGULATIONS Paperwork Reduction Act § 547.901 Paperwork Reduction Act notice. For approval by the Office of...

  2. Understanding core conductor fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swenson, D E, E-mail: deswenson@affinity-esd.com [Affinity Static Control Consulting, LLC 2609 Quanah Drive, Round Rock, Texas, 78681 (United States)

    2011-06-23

    ESD Association standard test method ANSI/ESD STM2.1 - Garments (STM2.1), provides electrical resistance test procedures that are applicable for materials and garments that have surface conductive or surface dissipative properties. As has been reported in other papers over the past several years{sup 1} fabrics are now used in many industries for electrostatic control purposes that do not have surface conductive properties and therefore cannot be evaluated using the procedures in STM2.1{sup 2}. A study was conducted to compare surface conductive fabrics with samples of core conductor fibre based fabrics in order to determine differences and similarities with regards to various electrostatic properties. This work will be used to establish a new work item proposal within WG-2, Garments, in the ESD Association Standards Committee in the USA.

  3. Tudor Staphylococcal Nuclease (Tudor-SN), a Novel Regulator Facilitating G1/S Phase Transition, Acting as a Co-activator of E2F-1 in Cell Cycle Regulation*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Chao; Zhang, Chunyan; Tecle, Adiam; Fu, Xue; He, Jinyan; Song, Juan; Zhang, Wei; Sun, Xiaoming; Ren, Yuanyuan; Silvennoinen, Olli; Yao, Zhi; Yang, Xi; Wei, Minxin; Yang, Jie

    2015-01-01

    Tudor staphylococcal nuclease (Tudor-SN) is a multifunctional protein implicated in a variety of cellular processes. In the present study, we identified Tudor-SN as a novel regulator in cell cycle. Tudor-SN was abundant in proliferating cells whereas barely expressed in terminally differentiated cells. Functional analysis indicated that ectopic overexpression of Tudor-SN promoted the G1/S transition, whereas knockdown of Tudor-SN caused G1 arrest. Moreover, the live-cell time-lapse experiment demonstrated that the cell cycle of MEF−/− (knock-out of Tudor-SN in mouse embryonic fibroblasts) was prolonged compared with wild-type MEF+/+. We noticed that Tudor-SN was constantly expressed in every cell cycle phase, but was highly phosphorylated in the G1/S border. Further study revealed that Tudor-SN was a potential substrate of Cdk2/4/6, supportively, we found the physical interaction of endogenous Tudor-SN with Cdk4/6 in G1 and the G1/S border, and with Cdk2 in the G1/S border and S phase. In addition, roscovitine (Cdk1/2/5 inhibitor) or CINK4 (Cdk4/6 inhibitor) could inhibit the phosphorylation of Tudor-SN, whereas ectopic overexpression of Cdk2/4/6 increased the Tudor-SN phosphorylation. The underlying molecular mechanisms indicated that Tudor-SN could physically interact with E2F-1 in vivo, and could enhance the physical association of E2F-1 with GCN5 (a cofactor of E2F-1, which possesses histone acetyltransferase activity), and promote the binding ability of E2F-1 to the promoter region of its target genes CYCLIN A and E2F-1, and as a result, facilitate the gene transcriptional activation. Taken together, Tudor-SN is identified as a novel co-activator of E2F-1, which could facilitate E2F-1-mediated gene transcriptional activation of target genes, which play essential roles in G1/S transition. PMID:25627688

  4. 78 FR 70193 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-25

    ... CFR Part 213 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M...' regulations that implement the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). The Dodd- Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer... Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) increased the threshold in the Consumer Leasing Act...

  5. 77 FR 69735 - Consumer Leasing (Regulation M)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-21

    ...-AD94 BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1013 Consumer Leasing (Regulation M) AGENCY...' regulations that implement the Consumer Leasing Act (CLA). Effective July 21, 2011, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street... Consumer Protection Act of 2010 (Dodd-Frank Act) increased the threshold in the Consumer Leasing Act...

  6. 78 FR 46256 - Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-31

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL ELECTION COMMISSION 11 CFR Part 1 Privacy Act CFR Correction In Title 11 of the Code of Federal Regulations, revised as of January 1, 2012, on page 5, in Sec. 1.2, the words ``95 and 96 of the Internal Revenue Code of...

  7. 78 FR 46555 - Privacy Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-01

    .... The application of this section could disclose investigative techniques and procedures and cause sources to refrain from giving such information because of fear of reprisal, or fear of breach of promise... more. (b) Would not cause a major increase in costs or prices for consumers, individual industries...

  8. 75 FR 36016 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-24

    ...'' to include loans, investments, and services by financial institutions that support, enable, or.... The proposed rule would provide favorable CRA consideration to such activities that, pursuant to the... designated target areas. Such consideration would include covered activities within an institution's...

  9. 75 FR 78932 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-17

    ..., Siberian--Agropyron fragile (Roth) Candargy subsp. sibiricum (Willd.) Meld.'', ``Wheatgrass, slender..., Siberian--Agropyron fragile (Roth) P. Candargy'', ``Wheatgrass, slender--Elymus trachycaulus...

  10. 76 FR 31790 - Federal Seed Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-02

    ..., Siberian--Agropyron fragile (Roth) Candargy subsp. sibiricum (Willd.) Meld.'', ``Wheatgrass, slender..., Siberian--Agropyron fragile (Roth) P. Candargy'', ``Wheatgrass, slender--Elymus trachycaulus...

  11. 75 FR 79278 - Community Reinvestment Act Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-20

    ... banks and a financial institution stated that they anticipate additional administrative costs for loan... financial institution trade association suggested that community banks receive favorable CRA consideration... of additional administrative costs, including capturing loan data, and training. These commenters...

  12. Fabrication activity for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malureanu, Radu; Chung, Il-Sug; Carletti, Luca

    We present the fabrication and characterization of new structures and materials to be used in nanophotonics. The first structure presented is a fractal metallic metasurface designed to be used as a high-sensitivity sensor for 810nm wavelength. A second structure is a high index contrast grating...

  13. Crimp-Imbalanced Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-03-30

    tows (non-twisted yarns) of alternative cross-sections. Many ballistic fabrics employ non-circular cross-section yarns such as rectangular...coating. The temporary coatings can be wax (paraffin), latex (vinyl acetate , butadiene 27 and acrylic monomers), plastic (poly vinyl chloride

  14. Text-Fabric

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roorda, Dirk

    2016-01-01

    Text-Fabric is a Python3 package for Text plus Annotations. It provides a data model, a text file format, and a binary format for (ancient) text plus (linguistic) annotations. The emphasis of this all is on: data processing; sharing data; and contributing modules. A defining characteristic is that T

  15. 19 CFR 147.23 - Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. 147.23 Section 147.23 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION... Laws § 147.23 Compliance with Plant Quarantine Act and Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. (a) Plant... the plant quarantine regulations. (b) Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The entry of food...

  16. Dyeing fabrics with metals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalivas, Georgia

    2002-06-01

    Traditionally, in textile dyeing, metals have been used as mordants or to improve the color produced by a natural or synthetic dye. In biomedical research and clinical diagnostics gold colloids are used as sensitive signals to detect the presence of pathogens. It has been observed that when metals are finely divided, a distinct color may result that is different from the color of the metal in bulk. For example, when gold is finely divided it may appear black, ruby or purple. This can be seen in biomedical research when gold colloids are reduced to micro-particles. Bright color signals are produced by few nanometer-sized particles. Dr. William Todd, a researcher in the Department of Veterinary Science at the Louisiana State University, developed a method of dyeing fabrics with metals. By using a reagent to bond the metal particles deep into the textile fibers and actually making the metal a part of the chemistry of the fiber. The chemicals of the fabric influence the resulting color. The combination of the element itself, the size of the particle, the chemical nature of the particle and the interaction of the metal with the chemistry of the fabric determine the actual hue. By using different elements, reagents, textiles and solvents a broad range of reproducible colors and tones can be created. Metals can also be combined into alloys, which will produce a variety of colors. The students of the ISCC chapter at the Fashion Institute of Technology dyed fabric using Dr. Todd's method and created a presentation of the results. They also did a demonstration of dyeing fabrics with metals.

  17. Status report, canister fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersson, Claes-Goeran; Eriksson, Peter; Westman, Marika [Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co., Stockholm (Sweden); Emilsson, Goeran [CSM Materialteknik AB, Linkoeping (Sweden)

    2004-06-01

    The report gives an account of the development of material and fabrication technology for copper canisters with cast inserts during the period from 2000 until the start of 2004. The engineering design of the canister and the choice of materials in the constituent components described in previous status reports have not been significantly changed. In the reference canister, the thickness of the copper shell is 50 mm. Fabrication of individual components with a thinner copper thickness is done for the purpose of gaining experience and evaluating fabrication and inspection methods for such canisters. As a part of the development of cast inserts, computer simulations of the casting processes and techniques used at the foundries have been performed for the purpose of optimizing the material properties. These properties have been evaluated by extensive tensile testing and metallographic inspection of test material taken from discs cut at different points along the length of the inserts. The testing results exhibit a relatively large spread. Low elongation values in certain tensile test specimens are due to the presence of poorly formed graphite, porosities, slag or other casting defects. It is concluded in the report that it will not be possible to avoid some presence of observed defects in castings of this size. In the deep repository, the inserts will be exposed to compressive loading and the observed defects are not critical for strength. An analysis of the strength of the inserts and formulation of relevant material requirements must be based on a statistical approach with probabilistic calculations. This work has been initiated and will be concluded during 2004. An initial verifying compression test of a canister in an isostatic press has indicated considerable overstrength in the structure. Seamless copper tubes are fabricated by means of three methods: extrusion, pierce and draw processing, and forging. It can be concluded that extrusion tests have revealed a

  18. 34 CFR 303.6 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION EARLY INTERVENTION PROGRAM FOR INFANTS AND TODDLERS WITH DISABILITIES General Purpose... Disabilities Education Act. (Authority: 20 U.S.C. 1400) ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Act. 303.6 Section 303.6 Education Regulations of...

  19. Neuronal representation of fabric texture for thermal microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yuqing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Fabric, our second skin with moisture and thermal capacity for skin temperature regulation, can arouse feelings of pleasant and discomfort. To examine the neurocognitive ability and emotion of fabric tactile perception under different local temperatures, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging with the same denim fabric stimuli and forearm contact area, and found a functional dissociation: the affective regions was more involved during warm condition, the discriminative regions were more involved during neutral condition and the basis regions were significance during cool condition. The higher local skin temperature environment can result in the improvement of sensitivity and discriminability by dorsal pathway (spatial and ventral pathway (frequency for fabric perception. Our results help to explain how the brain uses internal models to interpret external fabric tactile stimuli with micro environmental changing.

  20. Plastron Respiration Using Commercial Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Atherton

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A variety of insect and arachnid species are able to remain submerged in water indefinitely using plastron respiration. A plastron is a surface-retained film of air produced by surface morphology that acts as an oxygen-carbon dioxide exchange surface. Many highly water repellent and hydrophobic surfaces when placed in water exhibit a silvery sheen which is characteristic of a plastron. In this article, the hydrophobicity of a range of commercially available water repellent fabrics and polymer membranes is investigated, and how the surface of the materials mimics this mechanism of underwater respiration is demonstrated allowing direct extraction of oxygen from oxygenated water. The coverage of the surface with the plastron air layer was measured using confocal microscopy. A zinc/oxygen cell is used to consume oxygen within containers constructed from the different membranes, and the oxygen consumed by the cell is compared to the change in oxygen concentration as measured by an oxygen probe. By comparing the membranes to an air-tight reference sample, it was found that the membranes facilitated oxygen transfer from the water into the container, with the most successful membrane showing a 1.90:1 ratio between the cell oxygen consumption and the change in concentration within the container.

  1. Fabrication of diamond shells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamza, Alex V.; Biener, Juergen; Wild, Christoph; Woerner, Eckhard

    2016-11-01

    A novel method for fabricating diamond shells is introduced. The fabrication of such shells is a multi-step process, which involves diamond chemical vapor deposition on predetermined mandrels followed by polishing, microfabrication of holes, and removal of the mandrel by an etch process. The resultant shells of the present invention can be configured with a surface roughness at the nanometer level (e.g., on the order of down to about 10 nm RMS) on a mm length scale, and exhibit excellent hardness/strength, and good transparency in the both the infra-red and visible. Specifically, a novel process is disclosed herein, which allows coating of spherical substrates with optical-quality diamond films or nanocrystalline diamond films.

  2. Atomically Traceable Nanostructure Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballard, Josh B; Dick, Don D; McDonnell, Stephen J; Bischof, Maia; Fu, Joseph; Owen, James H G; Owen, William R; Alexander, Justin D; Jaeger, David L; Namboodiri, Pradeep; Fuchs, Ehud; Chabal, Yves J; Wallace, Robert M; Reidy, Richard; Silver, Richard M; Randall, John N; Von Ehr, James

    2015-07-17

    Reducing the scale of etched nanostructures below the 10 nm range eventually will require an atomic scale understanding of the entire fabrication process being used in order to maintain exquisite control over both feature size and feature density. Here, we demonstrate a method for tracking atomically resolved and controlled structures from initial template definition through final nanostructure metrology, opening up a pathway for top-down atomic control over nanofabrication. Hydrogen depassivation lithography is the first step of the nanoscale fabrication process followed by selective atomic layer deposition of up to 2.8 nm of titania to make a nanoscale etch mask. Contrast with the background is shown, indicating different mechanisms for growth on the desired patterns and on the H passivated background. The patterns are then transferred into the bulk using reactive ion etching to form 20 nm tall nanostructures with linewidths down to ~6 nm. To illustrate the limitations of this process, arrays of holes and lines are fabricated. The various nanofabrication process steps are performed at disparate locations, so process integration is discussed. Related issues are discussed including using fiducial marks for finding nanostructures on a macroscopic sample and protecting the chemically reactive patterned Si(100)-H surface against degradation due to atmospheric exposure.

  3. The Polish Budget Act for 2016: Legal Issues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrzej Borodo

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the legal content and system of the 2016 Budget Act and the legal significance of its regulations. The Budget Act for 2016 contains three parts: the state budget (general budget, complementary budgets, other legal provisions. The state revenues, expenditure, expenses, salaries, rates of some state levies are determined in the Budget Act. The regulations of the Budget Act relate to the financial activity of government and other parts of the state. The complex Budget Act contains provisions resulting from the many legal acts.

  4. Erianthus arundinaceus HSP70 (EaHSP70) Acts as a Key Regulator in the Formation of Anisotropic Interdigitation in Sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid) in Response to Drought Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Augustine, Sruthy Maria; Cherian, Anoop V; Syamaladevi, Divya P; Subramonian, N

    2015-12-01

    Plant growth during abiotic stress is a long sought-after trait especially in crop plants in the context of global warming and climate change. Previous studies on leaf epidermal cells have revealed that during normal growth and development, adjacent cells interdigitate anisotropically to form cell morphological patterns known as interlocking marginal lobes (IMLs), involving the cell wall-cell membrane-cortical actin continuum. IMLs are growth-associated cell morphological changes in which auxin-binding protein (ABP), Rho GTPases and actin are known to play important roles. In the present study, we investigated the formation of IMLs under drought stress and found that Erianthus arundinaceus, a drought-tolerant wild relative of sugarcane, develops such growth-related cell morphological patterns under drought stress. Using confocal microscopy, we showed an increasing trend in cortical F-actin intensity in drought-tolerant plants with increasing soil moisture stress. In order to check the role of drought tolerance-related genes in IML formation under soil moisture stress, we adopted a structural data mining strategy and identified indirect connections between the ABPs and heat shock proteins (HSPs). Initial experimental evidence for this connection comes from the high transcript levels of HSP70 observed in drought-stressed Erianthus, which developed anisotropic interdigitation, i.e. IMLs. Subsequently, by overexpressing the E. arundinaceus HSP70 gene (EaHSP70) in sugarcane (Saccharum spp. hybrid), we confirm the role of HSP70 in the formation of anisotropic interdigitation under drought stress. Taken together, our results suggest that EaHSP70 acts as a key regulator in the formation of anisotropic interdigitation in drought-tolerant plants (Erianthus and HSP70 transgenic sugarcane) under moisture stress in an actin-mediated pathway. The possible biological significance of the formation of drought-associated interlocking marginal lobes (DaIMLs) in sugarcane plants upon

  5. Fabrication of High T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apperley, Miles Hyam

    1992-01-01

    Metal-clad high-T_{rm c} superconductor wires have been fabricated by conventional hot extrusion and wire drawing techniques. The fabrication processes which were used influenced the microstructure which, in turn, governed the superconducting properties of metal-clad Y-Ba-Cu-O (YBCO) and Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) superconductors. The ability to form these materials into long thin wires and the electrical properties of the wires were assessed. Extruded metal-clad wire was fabricated by coextruding a Cu billet containing a Ag-clad superconductor core at 920^circC and 800 ^circC for YBCO and BPSCCO materials, respectively. The deformation behaviour of the composite billets was investigated by extruding through dies with semicone angle alpha = 30 ^circ and using a range of core diameters and reduction ratios. For combinations of initial core diameter and reduction ratio, domains of deformation behaviour were established including sound flow, nonuniform flow, core fracture and sleeve fracture. Hot extruded YBCO and BPSCCO superconductor had densities estimated to be between 95% and 98% of the theoretical values. The material contained transverse cracks except for a sample of YBCO which had an addition of 10 wt% Ag. The microstructure of the YBCO material consisted of YBa _2Cu_3O{_{7-x}}, while the BPSCCO material contained an intimate mixture of the high-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_2Cu _3O{_ {10-x}} (110 K) and low-T _{rm c} (Bi,Pb)_2 Sr_2Ca_1Cu _2O{_ {8-x}} (80 K) phases with Ca _2CuO_3 and Sr-Ca -Cu-O impurity particles. X-ray polefigure goniometry of extruded BPSCCO superconductor revealed that the material was relatively untextured. As-extruded YBCO and BPSCCO were semiconducting. Oxygen treated YBCO had a lower normal-state resistivity than the as-extruded material, and a superconducting transition above 77 K was not achieved. Heat treatment of extruded BPSCCO regenerated superconductivity above 77 K, with the transition behaviour dependent on the proportion of high

  6. Engineering fabrics in transportation construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herman, S. C.

    1983-11-01

    The following areas are discussed: treatments for reduction of reflective cracking of asphalt overlays on jointed-concrete pavements in Georgia; laboratory testing of fabric interlayers for asphalt concrete paving: interim report; reflection cracking models: review and laboratory evaluation of engineering fabrics; optimum-depth method for design of fabric-reinforced unsurfaced roads; dynamic test to predict field behavior of filter fabrics used in pavement subdrains; mechanism of geotextile performance in soil-fabric systems for drainage and erosion control; permeability tests of selected filter fabrics for use with a loess-derived alluvium; geotextile filter criteria; use of fabrics for improving the placement of till on peat foundation; geotextile earth-reinforced retaining wall tests: Glenwood Canyon, Colorado; New York State Department of Transportation's experience and guidelines for use of geotextiles; evaluation of two geotextile installations in excess of a decade old; and, long-term in situ properties of geotextiles.

  7. Regulation Development for Drinking Water Contaminants

    Science.gov (United States)

    To explain what process and information underlies regulations including how the Safe Drinking Water Act applies to regulation development i.e. how does the drinking water law translate into regulations.

  8. Fabrication of metal nanoshells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jae-Woo (Inventor); Choi, Sang H. (Inventor); Lillehei, Peter T. (Inventor); Chu, Sang-Hyon (Inventor); Park, Yeonjoon (Inventor); King, Glen C. (Inventor); Elliott, Jr., James R. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Metal nanoshells are fabricated by admixing an aqueous solution of metal ions with an aqueous solution of apoferritin protein molecules, followed by admixing an aqueous solution containing an excess of an oxidizing agent for the metal ions. The apoferritin molecules serve as bio-templates for the formation of metal nanoshells, which form on and are bonded to the inside walls of the hollow cores of the individual apoferritin molecules. Control of the number of metal atoms which enter the hollow core of each individual apoferritin molecule provides a hollow metal nonparticle, or nanoshell, instead of a solid spherical metal nanoparticle.

  9. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, M.A.; Foreman, L.R.

    1997-07-08

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made from clear Teflon{trademark}, Mylar{trademark}, or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube. 13 figs.

  10. Intraocular lens fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, Mike A. (Albuquerque, NM); Foreman, Larry R. (Los Alamos, NM)

    1997-01-01

    This invention describes a method for fabricating an intraocular lens made rom clear Teflon.TM., Mylar.TM., or other thermoplastic material having a thickness of about 0.025 millimeters. These plastic materials are thermoformable and biocompatable with the human eye. The two shaped lenses are bonded together with a variety of procedures which may include thermosetting and solvent based adhesives, laser and impulse welding, and ultrasonic bonding. The fill tube, which is used to inject a refractive filling material is formed with the lens so as not to damage the lens shape. A hypodermic tube may be included inside the fill tube.

  11. Fabrics in Function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang, Anne Louise

    2007-01-01

    In recent years the challenges for the textile industry has changed because of technological development and outsourcing. The consequence is an increased focus on innovation in the textile trade. This paper describes the objectives in a three year research project. In order to contribute...... to the establishment of an initial framework for the project it has a focus on how to explore costumers and users emotional experiences with fabrics. The three year research project is based on experimental design research and the textile designer's competences and knowledge. During the research project exploring...

  12. Clean Air Act. Revision 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Air Act, as amended, and those regulations that implement the statute and appear to be most relevant to DOE activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. This Reference Book has been completely revised and is current through February 15, 1994.

  13. 77 FR 49089 - High-Cost Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-15

    ... Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and... Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and Homeownership Counseling... Consumer Protection Act (Dodd-Frank Act) amends the Truth in Lending Act by expanding the types of mortgage...

  14. 78 FR 6855 - High-Cost Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-31

    ... Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and... Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and Homeownership Counseling... Protection Act's amendments to the Truth in Lending Act and the Real Estate Settlement Procedures Act....

  15. NCSX Vacuum Vessel Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viola, M. E.; Brown, T.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Malinowski, F.; Reiersen, W.; Sutton, L.; Goranson, P.; Nelson, B.; Cole, M.; Manuel, M.; McCorkle, D.

    2005-10-07

    The National Compact Stellarator Experiment (NCSX) is being constructed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in conjunction with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The goal of this experiment is to develop a device which has the steady state properties of a traditional stellarator along with the high performance characteristics of a tokamak. A key element of this device is its highly shaped Inconel 625 vacuum vessel. This paper describes the manufacturing of the vessel. The vessel is being fabricated by Major Tool and Machine, Inc. (MTM) in three identical 120º vessel segments, corresponding to the three NCSX field periods, in order to accommodate assembly of the device. The port extensions are welded on, leak checked, cut off within 1" of the vessel surface at MTM and then reattached at PPPL, to accommodate assembly of the close-fitting modular coils that surround the vessel. The 120º vessel segments are formed by welding two 60º segments together. Each 60º segment is fabricated by welding ten press-formed panels together over a collapsible welding fixture which is needed to precisely position the panels. The vessel is joined at assembly by welding via custom machined 8" (20.3 cm) wide spacer "spool pieces." The vessel must have a total leak rate less than 5 X 10-6 t-l/s, magnetic permeability less than 1.02μ, and its contours must be within 0.188" (4.76 mm). It is scheduled for completion in January 2006.

  16. Fabrics for atopic dermatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Rupert

    2008-01-01

    The type of fabric worn by sufferers from atopic dermatitis should not exacerbate the condition but, if possible, help to control it. Synthetic fabrics and wool tend to produce itching and irritate the skin. Cotton is traditionally recommended but its structure contains short fibres which expand and contract, causing a rubbing movement that can irritate delicate skin. Dyes used in cotton garments can increase the potential of a sensitivity reaction. Cotton is also prone to bacterial and fungal attack. Silk garments are often closely woven which impedes the flow of air, and some people are allergic to the sericin protein in silk. Published studies suggest that a specially treated silk material (DermaSilk), which is loosely knitted, has had the sericin removed and has a microbial agent (AEM 5772/5) permanently bonded to it, is well tolerated and has beneficial effects on the skin of children and adults with atopic dermatitis. Atopic dermatitis often becomes infected, commonly with Staphylococcus aureus. Some studies have investigated the use of clothing materials impregnated with substances such as silver, which has antimicrobial properties. However, these are still unproven and there are concerns about bacterial resistance and the local and environmental effects of silver. The use of the antimicrobial AEM 5772/5, which does not transfer to the skin of the patient, is a new development in the control of atopic dermatitis. Further studies are needed to determine whether an antimicrobial shield bonded to clothing material will reduce the colonisation of atopic skin by S. aureus.

  17. Key Technology of Flame-retardant and Thermo-regulation Fabric Knitted with Anti-frayon R and Energy Storage Blended Yarn%安芙丽与储能纤维阻燃调温针织面料关键技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方国平; 刘福荣

    2015-01-01

    介绍安芙丽阻燃黏胶纤维及相变储能黏胶纤维的功能和特性,安芙丽纤维具备理想的阻燃和保温性能. 采用赛络紧密纺工艺制备18.0 dtex的安芙丽阻燃黏胶纤维、相变储能黏胶纤维、棉纤维、麻赛尔纤维(30:25:20:20)混纺纱,织造棉毛布和汗布两种针织面料. 重点分析纤维配比、混纺纱设计、面料设计要求、面料性能,阐述创新技术手段与针织关键技术突破过程. 结果表明,18.0 dtex的安芙丽、相变储能、棉、麻赛尔混纺棉毛布阻燃、吸湿发热、保温性达到理想状态,该阻燃调温、防火、吸湿发热、保暖新型针织面料的开发,为纤维素纤维系列中不同功能科学组合尤其是阻燃调温的组合提供成功范例.%Based on the function and characteristics of Anti-frayon R flame-retardant fiber and energy storage fiber, the paper points out that Anti-frayon R fiber is perfect flame-retardant and thermal insulated material. It de-velops two kinds of knitted fabrics including interlock fabric and single jersey by using 18.0 dtex Anti-frayon R fiber/ energy storage fiber/cotton/jutecell fiber blended yarns (blending ratio is 30/25/20/20) by using siro compact spinning technology. The fiber arrangement, blended yarn design, the design requirements of fabrics and technolog-ical breakthrough of knitting process are introduced. The results show that the interlock knitted fabric possesses ex-cellent thermal functions, such as flame-retardant properties, moisture absorption and heat-generating and heat re-tention properties, which can provide successful model for scientific combination of cellulosic fiber with different functions, especially flame-retardant and thermo-regulation functions.

  18. Fabrication of zein nanostructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luecha, Jarupat

    The concerns on the increase of polluting plastic wastes as well as the U.S. dependence on imported petrochemical products have driven an attention towards alternative biodegradable polymers from renewable resources. Zein protein, a co-product from ethanol production from corn, is a good candidate. This research project aims to increase zein value by adopting nanotechnology for fabricating advanced zein packaging films and zein microfluidic devices. Two nanotechnology approaches were focused: the polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique where the nanocomposite structures were created in the zein matrix, and the soft lithography and the microfluidic devices where the micro and nanopatterns were created on the zein film surfaces. The polymer nanoclay nanocomposite technique was adopted in the commonly used zein film fabrication processes which were solvent casting and extrusion blowing methods. The two methods resulted in partially exfoliated nanocomposite structures. The impact of nanoclays on the physical properties of zein films strongly depended on the film preparation techniques. The impact of nanoclay concentration was more pronounced in the films made by extrusion blowing technique than by the solvent casting technique. As the processability limitation for the extrusion blowing technique of the zein sample containing hight nanoclay content, the effect of the nanoclay content on the rheological properties of zein hybrid resins at linear and nonlinear viscoelastic regions were further investigated. A pristine zein resin exhibited soft solid like behavior. On the other hand, the zein hybrid with nanoclay content greater than 5 wt.% showed more liquid like behavior, suggesting that the nanoclays interrupted the entangled zein network. There was good correspondence between the experimental data and the predictions of the Wagner model for the pristine zein resins. However, the model failed to predict the steady shear properties of the zein nanoclay nanocomposite

  19. Heat shock protein 90 acts as a molecular chaperone in late-phase acti-vation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 stimulated by oxida-tive stress in vascular smooth muscle cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dai-hua LIU; Hao-yu YUAN; Chun-ya CAO; Zhi-ping GAO; Bing-yang ZHU; Hong-lin HUANG; Duan-fang LIAO

    2007-01-01

    Aim: To investigate whether cytosolic heat shock protein 90 (HSP90) acts as a molecular chaperone on the activated extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1/2 (ERK1/2) and cell proliferation stimulated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) in rat vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Methods: VSMC were exposed to 1 μmol/L LY83583 (6-anilinoquinoline-5,8-quinolinedione, producer of ROS) for 120 min in the presence or absence of 5 μmol/L geldanamycin, a specific inhibitor of HSP90. Then the total, soluble, and insoluble proteins of the ceils were collected. HSP90, ERK1/2, and phosphor-ERK 1/2 in the cell lysate were measured by Western blotting. The interaction of HSP90 and phosphor-ERK1/2 was analyzed by immunoprecipi- tation assay, and the nuclear phosphor-ERK1/2 was measured by Western blot- ting and immunofluorescence. Cell proliferation was tested by cell counting and 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-3,5-di-phenyltetrazoliumbromide (MTT). Results: The cytosolic HSP90 of VSMC was upregulated by LY83583 in a time-dependent man- ner with the peak at 120 min, which is consistent with the late peak of phosphor- ERK1/2. Immunoprecipitation and Western blotting analyses showed that LY83583 increased the interaction of HSP90 with phosphor-ERK1/2, the phosphor-ERK1/2 level, and the soluble phosphor-ERK1/2 level by 1.8-, 2.5-, and 2.9-fold, respectively. In contrast, the insoluble phosphor-ERK1/2 of VSMC was decreased. Interestingly, LY83583 treatment promoted the nuclear phosphor-ERK1/2 by 7.6-fold as con- finned by Western blotting and immunofluorescence assays. Furthermore, cell counting and the MTT assay showed that LY83583 stimulated VSMC prolifera- tion with the increased expression of HSP90 and levels of soluble and nuclear phosphor-ERK1/2. Pretreatment of geldanamycin antagonized the effect of LY83583. Conclusion: HSP90 could mediate the oxidative stress-stimulated, late- phase activation of ERK1/2 and VSMC proliferation by promoting the ERK1/2 phosphorylation, the

  20. Methods of PCM microcapsules application and the thermal properties of modified knitted fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejman, Alicja, E-mail: anejman@iw.lodz.pl [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Cieślak, Małgorzata [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Gajdzicki, Bogumił [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Textile Chemistry and Products Modification, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna; Karaszewska, Agnieszka [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • We applied microcapsules containing n-octadecane for the modification of knitted fabric. • We used printing, coating and padding techniques for the application of microcapsules. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the thermal properties of textiles. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the air permeability properties of textiles. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of application methods of microcapsules containing n-octadecane as phase change materials (M-PCM) on the thermal properties and air permeability of modified textile fabric. Polyester knitted fabric, printing, coating and padding methods and polymer pastes with 20 wt.% of M-PCM were used. For the assessment of modification effects the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. DSC analysis showed that the highest enthalpy of phase transitions has printed fabric and the lowest padded fabric. The widest range of phase transitions temperatures was observed for printed fabric, slightly narrower for coated fabric and the narrowest for padded fabric. SEM analysis showed differences in the morphology of modified fabrics depending on incorporation techniques, which are compatible with differences in air permeability results. M-PCM application techniques allow to regulate the thermal and air permeability properties of fabric.

  1. Project Plan Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bell, Gary L [ORNL; Taylor, Robin D [ORNL

    2009-08-01

    authorization for the work was received in July 2009 under the Remote Target Fabrication Refurbishment Task of the Enhanced Utilization of Isotope Facilities project (Project Identification Code 2005230) funded by the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009. The goal of this project is to recover the capability to produce 4-5 curium targets for the irradiation period starting with HFIR cycle 427, currently scheduled to begin 2/17/10. Assuming success, the equipment would then be used to fabricate 6-7 additional targets to hold for the next irradiation campaign specified by the program. Specific objectives are the return to functionality of the Cubicle 3 Pellet Fabrication Line; Cubicle 2 Target Assembly equipment; and Cubicle 1 Target Inspection and Final Assembly system.

  2. Toughened carbon fibre fabric-reinforced thermoplastic composites

    OpenAIRE

    Abt, Tobias Martin; Sánchez Soto, Miguel; Maspoch Rulduà, Mª Lluïsa; Velasco Perero, José Ignacio

    2014-01-01

    Toughened carbon fibre fabric-reinforced composites were obtained by compression moulding of powder prepregs, using a modified cyclic butylene terephthalate (pCBT) matrix and a bi-directional [0°/90°] carbon fibre fabric. Modification of the pCBT matrix was done by adding small amounts of epoxy resin or isocyanates, acting as toughening agents. Homogeneous CBT/epoxy and CBT/isocyanate blends were obtained by melt blending in a lab-scale batch mixer by applying low temperatures and short proce...

  3. AFIP-4 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Moore

    2010-02-01

    The AFIP-4 (ATR Full –size-plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Twelve qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-4 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts; including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  4. AFIP-6 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn A. Moore; M. Craig Marshall

    2011-09-01

    The AFIP-6 (ATR Full-size plate In center flux trap Position) experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP-6 experiment; to be irradiated in the INL Advanced Test Reactor (ATR). This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  5. AFIP-2 Fabrication Summary Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenn Moore

    2010-02-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) Full-size Plate In Center Flux Trap Position (AFIP)-2 experiment was designed to evaluate the performance of monolithic fuels at a scale prototypic of research reactor fuel plates. Two qualified fueled plates were fabricated for the AFIP 2 experiment to be irradiated in the Idaho National Laboratory ATR. This report provides details of the fuel fabrication efforts, including material selection, fabrication processes, and fuel plate qualification.

  6. Ultraviolet Protection by Fabric Engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mukesh Kumar Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. The increasing emission of greenhouse gases has evoked the human being to save the ozone layer and minimize the risk of ultraviolet radiation (UVR. Various fabric structures have been explored to achieve desired ultraviolet protection factor (UPF in various situations. Objective. In this study, the effect of various filament configurations like twisted, flat, intermingled, and textured in multifilament yarns on fabric in different combinations is assessed in order to engineer a fabric of better ultraviolet protection factor (UPF. Methods. In order to engineer a fabric having optimum UV protection with sufficient comfort level in multifilament woven fabrics, four different yarn configurations, intermingled, textured, twisted, and flat, were used to develop twelve different fabric samples. The most UV absorbing and most demanding fibre polyethylene terephthalate (PET was considered in different filament configuration. Results. The combinations of intermingled warp with flat, intermingled, and textured weft provided excellent UVR protection comparatively at about 22.5 mg/cm2 fabric areal density. The presence of twisted yarn reduced the UV protection due to enhanced openness in fabric structure. Conclusion. The appropriate combination of warp and weft threads of different configuration should be selected judiciously in order to extract maximum UV protection and wear comfort attributes in multifilament woven PET fabrics.

  7. Nozzle fabrication technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wells, Dennis L. (Inventor)

    1988-01-01

    This invention relates to techniques for fabricating hour glass throat or convergent divergent nozzle shapes, and more particularly to new and improved techniques for forming rocket nozzles from electrically conductive material and forming cooling channels in the wall thereof. The concept of positioning a block of electrically conductive material so that its axis is set at a predetermined skew angle with relation to a travelling electron discharge machine electrode and thereafter revolving the body about its own axis to generate a hyperbolic surface of revolution, either internal or external is novel. The method will generate a rocket nozzle which may be provided with cooling channels using the same control and positioning system. The configuration of the cooling channels so produced are unique and novel. Also the method is adaptable to nonmetallic material using analogous cutting tools, such as, water jet, laser, abrasive wire and hot wire.

  8. 48 CFR 52.224-2 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 52.224-2... AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.224-2 Privacy... agency function: Privacy Act (APR 1984) (a) The Contractor agrees to— (1) Comply with the Privacy Act of...

  9. 48 CFR 352.224-70 - Privacy Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Privacy Act. 352.224-70... SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and Clauses 352.224-70 Privacy Act. As prescribed in 324.103(b)(2), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Privacy Act (January...

  10. 17 CFR 229.801 - Securities Act industry guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Securities Act industry guides. 229.801 Section 229.801 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.801 Securities Act industry...

  11. 48 CFR 352.237-70 - Pro-Children Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Pro-Children Act. 352.237...-Children Act. As prescribed in 337.103-70(a), the Contracting Officer shall insert the following clause: Pro-Children Act (January 2006) (a) Public Law 103-227, Title X, Part C, also known as the Pro...

  12. 48 CFR 3427.471 - Paperwork Reduction Act clause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Paperwork Reduction Act... Copyrights 3427.471 Paperwork Reduction Act clause. The contracting officer shall insert the clause in 3452.227-71, Paperwork Reduction Act, in all solicitations and contracts....

  13. 17 CFR 229.802 - Exchange Act industry guides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 17 Commodity and Securities Exchanges 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Exchange Act industry guides. 229.802 Section 229.802 Commodity and Securities Exchanges SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION STANDARD... AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K List of Industry Guides § 229.802 Exchange Act industry...

  14. Micro/nano-fabrication technologies for cell biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Tongcheng; Wang, Yingxiao

    2010-10-01

    Micro/nano-fabrication techniques, such as soft lithography and electrospinning, have been well-developed and widely applied in many research fields in the past decade. Due to the low costs and simple procedures, these techniques have become important and popular for biological studies. In this review, we focus on the studies integrating micro/nano-fabrication work to elucidate the molecular mechanism of signaling transduction in cell biology. We first describe different micro/nano-fabrication technologies, including techniques generating three-dimensional scaffolds for tissue engineering. We then introduce the application of these technologies in manipulating the physical or chemical micro/nano-environment to regulate the cellular behavior and response, such as cell life and death, differentiation, proliferation, and cell migration. Recent advancement in integrating the micro/nano-technologies and live cell imaging are also discussed. Finally, potential schemes in cell biology involving micro/nano-fabrication technologies are proposed to provide perspectives on the future research activities.

  15. 48 CFR 52.222-44 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair Labor Standards Act... CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 52.222-44 Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act—Price Adjustment. As prescribed in 22.1006(c)(2), insert the following clause: Fair Labor Standards Act and Service...

  16. 5 CFR Appendix C to Part 2634 - Privacy Act and Paperwork Reduction Act Notices for Appendixes A and B

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Appendixes A and B Privacy Act Statement Section 102(f) of the Ethics in Government Act of 1978 as amended (the “Ethics Act”) (5 U.S.C. App.) and subpart D of 5 CFR part 2634 of the regulations of the Office of... under the Ethics Act. The primary use of the information on this certificate is for review by...

  17. Fabrication of nanoscale electrostatic lenses

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinno, I.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Kang, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsson, E.; Enoksson, P.; Svensson, K.

    2010-01-01

    The fabrication of cylindrical multi-element electrostatic lenses at the nanoscale presents a challenge; they are high-aspect-ratio structures that should be rotationally symmetric, well aligned and freestanding, with smooth edges and flat, clean surfaces. In this paper, we present the fabrication r

  18. 16 CFR 1610.39 - Shipments under section 11(c) of the Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... REGULATIONS STANDARD FOR THE FLAMMABILITY OF CLOTHING TEXTILES Rules and Regulations § 1610.39 Shipments under... in commerce of articles of wearing apparel or textile fabrics for the purpose of finishing or... a statement disclosing such purpose. (b) An article of wearing apparel or textile fabric shall...

  19. Chemically enabled nanostructure fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Fengwei

    The first part of the dissertation explored ways of chemically synthesizing new nanoparticles and biologically guided assembly of nanoparticle building blocks. Chapter two focuses on synthesizing three-layer composite magnetic nanoparticles with a gold shell which can be easily functionalized with other biomolecules. The three-layer magnetic nanoparticles, when functionalized with oligonucleotides, exhibit the surface chemistry, optical properties, and cooperative DNA binding properties of gold nanoparticle probes, while maintaining the magnetic properties of the Fe3O4 inner shell. Chapter three describes a new method for synthesizing nanoparticles asymmetrically functionalized with oligonucleotides and the use of these novel building blocks to create satellite structures. This synthetic capability allows one to introduce valency into such structures and then use that valency to direct particle assembly events. The second part of the thesis explored approaches of nanostructure fabrication on substrates. Chapter four focuses on the development of a new scanning probe contact printing method, polymer pen lithography (PPL), which combines the advantages of muCp and DPN to achieve high-throughput, flexible molecular printing. PPL uses a soft elastomeric tip array, rather than tips mounted on individual cantilevers, to deliver inks to a surface in a "direct write" manner. Arrays with as many as ˜11 million pyramid-shaped pens can be brought into contact with substrates and readily leveled optically in order to insure uniform pattern development. Chapter five describes gel pen lithography, which uses a gel to fabricate pen array. Gel pen lithography is a low-cost, high-throughput nanolithography method especially useful for biomaterials patterning and aqueous solution patterning which makes it a supplement to DPN and PPL. Chapter 6 shows a novel form of optical nanolithography, Beam Pen Lithography (BPL), which uses an array of NSOM pens to do nanoscale optical

  20. Laser modification of polyamide fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahtiyari, M. İ.

    2011-02-01

    A new method for the modification of the properties of polyamide fabric, based on exposure to the output from a CO 2 laser, has been investigated. It was found that, after laser modification of polyamide fabric, the dyeability of fabric was increased significantly, while the bursting strength was decreased. The reasons for this drastic increase in dyeability of polyamide fabrics have been analyzed with the help of FTIR and iodine sorption methods, revealing a relationship with a decrease in the crystallinity of the polyamide. It was observed that, as the laser modification of the fabric was carried out with low intensity, the concentration of free amino groups, which are necessary during dyeing with acid and reactive dyes, increased.

  1. A Multi Resolution Method for Detecting Defects in Fabric Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyun Ni

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a novel technique for detecting defects in fabric image based on the features extracted using a new multi resolution analysis tool called Digital Curvelet Transform. The direction features of curvelet coefficients and texture features based on GLCM of curvelet coefficients act as the feature-sets for a k-nearest neighbor classifier. The validation tests on the developed algorithms were performed with images from TILDA’s Textile Texture Database. A comparative study between the GLCM-based, wavelet-based and the curvelet-based techniques has also been included. The high accuracy achieved by the proposed method suggests an efficient solution for fabric defect. Furthermore, the algorithm has good robustness to white noise. Note that, this study is the first documented attempt to explore the possibilities of a new multi resolution analysis tool called digital Curvelet Transform to address the problem of fabric defect.

  2. Fabrication of Nonperiodic Metasurfaces by Microlens Projection Lithography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonidec, Mathieu; Hamedi, Mahiar M; Nemiroski, Alex; Rubio, Luis M; Torres, Cesar; Whitesides, George M

    2016-07-13

    This paper describes a strategy that uses template-directed self-assembly of micrometer-scale microspheres to fabricate arrays of microlenses for projection photolithography of periodic, quasiperiodic, and aperiodic infrared metasurfaces. This method of "template-encoded microlens projection lithography" (TEMPL) enables rapid prototyping of planar, multiscale patterns of similarly shaped structures with critical dimensions down to ∼400 nm. Each of these structures is defined by local projection lithography with a single microsphere acting as a lens. This paper explores the use of TEMPL for the fabrication of a broad range of two-dimensional lattices with varying types of nonperiodic spatial distribution. The matching optical spectra of the fabricated and simulated metasurfaces confirm that TEMPL can produce structures that conform to expected optical behavior.

  3. 78 FR 76033 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-16

    ... PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The Bureau is required to calculate annually... Accountability Responsibility and Disclosure Act of 2009 (CARD Act), which amended the Truth in Lending Act (TILA...

  4. Techniques of Electrode Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Liang; Li, Xinyong; Chen, Guohua

    Electrochemical applications using many kinds of electrode materials as an advanced oxidation/reduction technique have been a focus of research by a number of groups during the last two decades. The electrochemical approach has been adopted successfully to develop various environmental applications, mainly including water and wastewater treatment, aqueous system monitoring, and solid surface analysis. In this chapter, a number of methods for the fabrication of film-structured electrode materials were selectively reviewed. Firstly, the thermal decomposition method is briefly described, followed by introducing chemical vapor deposition (CVD) strategy. Especially, much attention was focused on introducing the methods to produce diamond novel film electrode owing to its unique physical and chemical properties. The principle and influence factors of hot filament CVD and plasma enhanced CVD preparation were interpreted by refereeing recent reports. Finally, recent developments that address electro-oxidation/reduction issues and novel electrodes such as nano-electrode and boron-doped diamond electrode (BDD) are presented in the overview.

  5. Fabrication and Characterization of Suspended Carbon Nanotube Devices in Liquid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Artyukhin, A; Stadermann, M; Stroeve, P; Bakajin, O; Noy, A

    2006-10-30

    Suspended carbon nanotube devices are a promising platform for future bio-electronic applications. Suspended carbon nanotube transistors have been previously fabricated in air; however all previous attempts to bring them into liquid failed. We analyze forces acting on the suspended nanotube devices during immersion into liquids and during device operation and show that surface tension forces acting on the suspended nanotubes during transfer into the liquid phase are responsible for the nanotube damage. We have developed a new strategy that circumvents these limitations by coating suspended nanotubes with a rigid inorganic shell in the gas phase. The coating reinforces the nanotubes and allows them to survive transfer through the interface. Subsequent removal of the coating in the solution phase restores pristine suspended nanotubes. We demonstrate that devices fabricated using this technique preserve their original electrical characteristics.

  6. Autism: Why Act Early?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... What's this? Submit Button Past Emails CDC Features Autism: Why Act Early? Language: English Español (Spanish) Recommend ... helped the world make sense." Florida teenager with Autism Spectrum Disorder "Because my parents acted early, I ...

  7. 7 CFR 29.29 - Regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Regulations. 29.29 Section 29.29 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing... INSPECTION Regulations Definitions § 29.29 Regulations. Rules and regulations of the Secretary under the Act....

  8. The dermatology acting internship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, John B; Raimer, Sharon S; Wagner, Richard F

    2011-07-15

    Acting internships are an important component of modern day medical school curriculum. Several specialties outside of internal medicine now offer acting internship experiences to fourth year medical students. We have found that a dermatology acting internship is a valuable experience for fourth year medical students who are interested in pursuing a residency in dermatology. Our experience with the dermatology acting internship over the 2010-2011 academic year is described.

  9. A Multi Resolution Method for Detecting Defects in Fabric Images

    OpenAIRE

    Jianyun Ni; Jing Luo; Zaiping Chen; Enzeng Dong

    2013-01-01

    This study proposes a novel technique for detecting defects in fabric image based on the features extracted using a new multi resolution analysis tool called Digital Curvelet Transform. The direction features of curvelet coefficients and texture features based on GLCM of curvelet coefficients act as the feature-sets for a k-nearest neighbor classifier. The validation tests on the developed algorithms were performed with images from TILDA’s Textile Texture Database. A comparative study between...

  10. 48 CFR 52.222-43 - Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act-Price Adjustment (Multiple Year and Option...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Fair Labor Standards Act... in 22.1006(c)(1), insert the following clause: Fair Labor Standards Act and Service Contract Act... Federal minimum wage as established by section 6(a)(1) of the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938, as amended...

  11. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  12. Fabrication of nanoscale electrostatic lenses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinno, I.; Sanz-Velasco, A.; Kang, S.; Jansen, H.; Olsson, E.; Enoksson, P.; Svensson, K.

    2010-09-01

    The fabrication of cylindrical multi-element electrostatic lenses at the nanoscale presents a challenge; they are high-aspect-ratio structures that should be rotationally symmetric, well aligned and freestanding, with smooth edges and flat, clean surfaces. In this paper, we present the fabrication results of a non-conventional process, which uses a combination of focused gallium ion-beam milling and hydrofluoric acid vapor etching. This process makes it possible to fabricate nanoscale electrostatic lenses down to 140 nm in aperture diameter and 4.2 µm in column length, with a superior control of the geometry as compared to conventional lithography-based techniques.

  13. Fabricating Copper Nanotubes by Electrodeposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, E. H.; Ramsey, Christopher; Bae, Youngsam; Choi, Daniel

    2009-01-01

    Copper tubes having diameters between about 100 and about 200 nm have been fabricated by electrodeposition of copper into the pores of alumina nanopore membranes. Copper nanotubes are under consideration as alternatives to copper nanorods and nanowires for applications involving thermal and/or electrical contacts, wherein the greater specific areas of nanotubes could afford lower effective thermal and/or electrical resistivities. Heretofore, copper nanorods and nanowires have been fabricated by a combination of electrodeposition and a conventional expensive lithographic process. The present electrodeposition-based process for fabricating copper nanotubes costs less and enables production of copper nanotubes at greater rate.

  14. Fabrication of integrated metallic MEMS devices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yalcinkaya, Arda Deniz; Ravnkilde, Jan Tue; Hansen, Ole

    2002-01-01

    A simple and complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) compatible fabrication technique for microelectromechanical (MEMS) devices is presented. The fabrication technology makes use of electroplated metal layers. Among the fabricated devices, high quality factor microresonators...

  15. Indirect Speech Acts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李威

    2001-01-01

    Indirect speech acts are frequently used in verbal communication, the interpretation of them is of great importance in order to meet the demands of the development of students' communicative competence. This paper, therefore, intends to present Searle' s indirect speech acts and explore the way how indirect speech acts are interpreted in accordance with two influential theories. It consists of four parts. Part one gives a general introduction to the notion of speech acts theory. Part two makes an elaboration upon the conception of indirect speech act theory proposed by Searle and his supplement and development of illocutionary acts. Part three deals with the interpretation of indirect speech acts. Part four draws implication from the previous study and also serves as the conclusion of the dissertation.

  16. Nuclear respiratory factor 2 regulates the expression of the same NMDA receptor subunit genes as NRF-1: both factors act by a concurrent and parallel mechanism to couple energy metabolism and synaptic transmission.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Priya, Anusha; Johar, Kaid; Wong-Riley, Margaret T T

    2013-01-01

    Neuronal activity and energy metabolism are tightly coupled processes. Previously, we found that nuclear respiratory factor 1 (NRF-1) transcriptionally co-regulates energy metabolism and neuronal activity by regulating all 13 subunits of the critical energy generating enzyme, cytochrome c oxidase (COX), as well as N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) receptor subunits 1 and 2B, GluN1 (Grin1) and GluN2B (Grin2b). We also found that another transcription factor, nuclear respiratory factor 2 (NRF-2 or GA-binding protein) regulates all subunits of COX as well. The goal of the present study was to test our hypothesis that NRF-2 also regulates specific subunits of NMDA receptors, and that it functions with NRF-1 via one of three mechanisms: complementary, concurrent and parallel, or a combination of complementary and concurrent/parallel. By means of multiple approaches, including in silico analysis, electrophoretic mobility shift and supershift assays, in vivo chromatin immunoprecipitation of mouse neuroblastoma cells and rat visual cortical tissue, promoter mutations, real-time quantitative PCR, and western blot analysis, NRF-2 was found to functionally regulate Grin1 and Grin2b genes, but not any other NMDA subunit genes. Grin1 and Grin2b transcripts were up-regulated by depolarizing KCl, but silencing of NRF-2 prevented this up-regulation. On the other hand, over-expression of NRF-2 rescued the down-regulation of these subunits by the impulse blocker TTX. NRF-2 binding sites on Grin1 and Grin2b are conserved among species. Our data indicate that NRF-2 and NRF-1 operate in a concurrent and parallel manner in mediating the tight coupling between energy metabolism and neuronal activity at the molecular level. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Piraux, L.

    2009-01-01

    We report on different approaches that we have adopted and developed for the fabrication of nanowires and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization seem to be the most promising for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures due to their easiness and low...... cost. The development of a supported nanoporous alumina template and the possibility of using this template to combine electrochemical synthesis with lithographic methods open new ways for the fabrication of complex nanostructures. The numerous advantages of the supported template and its compatibility...... with microelectronic processes make it an ideal candidate for further integration into large-scale fabrication of various nanowire-based devices. © 2009 Springer-Verlag....

  18. Geoacoustic Physical Model Fabrication Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — FUNCTION: Fabricates three-dimensional rough surfaces (e.g., fractals, ripples) out of materials such as PVC or wax to simulate the roughness properties associated...

  19. Plasmonic components fabrication via nanoimprint

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra

    2009-01-01

    A review report on nanoimprinted plasmonic components is given. The fabrication of different metal–dielectric geometries and nanostructured surfaces that support either propagating or localized surface plasmon modes is discussed. The main characteristics and advantages of the nanoimprint technolo...

  20. Fabricating plasmonic components for nanophotonics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boltasseva, Alexandra; Nielsen, Rasmus Bundgaard; Jeppesen, Claus

    2009-01-01

    We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed.......We report on experimental realization of different metal-dielectric structures that are used as surface plasmon polariton waveguides and as plasmonic metamaterials. Fabrication approaches based on different lithographic and deposition techniques are discussed....

  1. Micro fuel cell fabrication technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Scotti, Gianmario

    2014-01-01

    Fuel cells are established devices for high efficiency conversion of chemical into electrical energy. Microfabricated fuel cells (MFC) promise higher energy density compared to rechargeable batteries currently used in portable applications (mobile phones, tablets, laptops etc.). In this work new fabrication technologies have been developed to make MFCs more viable alternatives to batteries. Like other microfluidic devices, MFCs can be fabricated using a number of different techniques, each...

  2. Wire electric-discharge machining and other fabrication techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, W. H.

    1983-01-01

    Wire electric discharge machining and extrude honing were used to fabricate a two dimensional wing for cryogenic wind tunnel testing. Electric-discharge cutting is done with a moving wire electrode. The cut track is controlled by means of a punched-tape program and the cutting feed is regulated according to the progress of the work. Electric-discharge machining involves no contact with the work piece, and no mechanical force is exerted. Extrude hone is a process for honing finish-machined surfaces by the extrusion of an abrasive material (silly putty), which is forced through a restrictive fixture. The fabrication steps are described and production times are given.

  3. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act and Marine Mammal Protection Act. Revision 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-31

    Two laws governing activities in the marine environment are considered in this Reference Book. The Marine Protection, Research, and Sanctuaries Act (MPRSA, P.L. 92-532) regulates ocean dumping of waste, provides for a research program on ocean dumping, and provides for the designation and regulation of marine sanctuaries. The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA, P.L. 92-522) establishes a federal program to protect and manage marine mammals. The Fishery Conservation and Management Act (FCMA, P.L. 94-265) establishes a program to regulate marine fisheries resources and commercial marine fishermen. Because the Department of Energy (DOE) is not engaged in any activities that could be classified as fishing under FCMA, this Act and its regulations have no implications for the DOE; therefore, no further consideration of this Act is given within this Reference Book. The requirements of the MPRSA and the MMPA are discussed in terms of their implications for the DOE.

  4. The European Model Company Act

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cleff, Evelyne Beatrix

    2011-01-01

    European Company Law regulation is currently undergoing a reform. These reforms raise a number of regulatory questions, such as what should be the aims of companies' legislation, and how these aims should best be met by regulation. Many of the reforms and discussions (both on EU and national level......) on the organisation of company laws reflect an interesting paradigm shift. Whereas, previously company law was primarily focused on preventing abuse, there is now a trend towards legislation that promote commerce and satisfy the needs of business. This means that the goal of economic efficiency is having...... an increasing influence on the framing of company legislation, such as the choice between mandatory or default rules. This article introduces the project 'European Company Law and the choice of Regulatory Method' which is carried out in collaboration with the 'European Model Company Act Group'. The project aims...

  5. Effect of Workwear Fabric Characteristics on the Changes in Tensile Properties of Sewing Threads after Sewing

    OpenAIRE

    Vinay Kumar Midha, Ph.D.; A. Mukhopadhyay, Ph.D.; V. K. Kothari, Ph.D.; R. Chattopadhyay, Ph.D.

    2010-01-01

    During sewing at high speed, the needle thread issubjected to repeated tensile stresses, heat, bending,pressure, torsion and wearing. These stresses act onthe thread repeatedly and the thread passes 50-80times through the fabric, the needle eye and thebobbin case mechanism, before getting incorporatedinto the seam. As a result both the sewing thread andthe yarns in the fabric get abraded/ severed during theseaming process. A number of researchers observedthat there could be 30% to 40% strengt...

  6. ITER Central Solenoid Module Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, John [General Atomics, San Diego, CA (United States)

    2016-09-23

    The fabrication of the modules for the ITER Central Solenoid (CS) has started in a dedicated production facility located in Poway, California, USA. The necessary tools have been designed, built, installed, and tested in the facility to enable the start of production. The current schedule has first module fabrication completed in 2017, followed by testing and subsequent shipment to ITER. The Central Solenoid is a key component of the ITER tokamak providing the inductive voltage to initiate and sustain the plasma current and to position and shape the plasma. The design of the CS has been a collaborative effort between the US ITER Project Office (US ITER), the international ITER Organization (IO) and General Atomics (GA). GA’s responsibility includes: completing the fabrication design, developing and qualifying the fabrication processes and tools, and then completing the fabrication of the seven 110 tonne CS modules. The modules will be shipped separately to the ITER site, and then stacked and aligned in the Assembly Hall prior to insertion in the core of the ITER tokamak. A dedicated facility in Poway, California, USA has been established by GA to complete the fabrication of the seven modules. Infrastructure improvements included thick reinforced concrete floors, a diesel generator for backup power, along with, cranes for moving the tooling within the facility. The fabrication process for a single module requires approximately 22 months followed by five months of testing, which includes preliminary electrical testing followed by high current (48.5 kA) tests at 4.7K. The production of the seven modules is completed in a parallel fashion through ten process stations. The process stations have been designed and built with most stations having completed testing and qualification for carrying out the required fabrication processes. The final qualification step for each process station is achieved by the successful production of a prototype coil. Fabrication of the first

  7. [Euthanasia and medical act].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-01

    Right to life -as the prohibition of intentionally and arbitrarily taking life, even with authorization of the concerned one- is an internationally recognized right. In many countries, debate regarding euthanasia is more centered in its convenience, social acceptability and how it is regulated, than in its substantial legitimacy. Some argue that euthanasia should be included as part of clinical practice of health professionals, grounded on individual's autonomy claims-everyone having the liberty to choose how to live and how to die. Against this, others sustain that life has a higher value than autonomy, exercising autonomy without respecting the right to life would become a serious moral and social problem. Likewise, euthanasia supporters some-times claim a 'right to live with dignity', which must be understood as a personal obligation, referred more to the ethical than to the strictly legal sphere. In countries where it is already legalized, euthanasia practice has extended to cases where it is not the patient who requests this but the family or some healthcare professional, or even the legal system-when they think that the patient is living in a condition which is not worthy to live. Generalization of euthanasia possibly will end in affecting those who need more care, such as elder, chronically ill or dying people, damaging severely personal basic rights. Nature, purpose and tradition of medicine rule out the practice of euthanasia, which ought not be considered a medical act or legitimately compulsory for physicians. Today's medicine counts with effective treatments for pain and suffering, such as palliative care, including sedative therapy, which best preserves persons dignity and keeps safe the ethos of the medical profession.

  8. ACT Verbal Prep Course

    CERN Document Server

    Standridge, Nathan

    2012-01-01

    Comprehensive Prep for ACT Verbal. Every year, students pay 1,000 and more to test prep companies to prepare for the verbal sections of the ACT. Now you can get the same preparation in a book. The verbal sections are not easy. There is no quick fix that will allow you to "beat" the ACT, but it is very learnable. If you study hard and master the techniques in this book, your score will improve-significantly. The ACT cannot be "beaten." But it can be mastered-through hard work, analytical thought, and by training yourself to think like a test writer. Many of the exercises in this book are design

  9. Quantum measurement act as a "speech act"

    CERN Document Server

    Schneider, J

    2005-01-01

    I show that the quantum measurement problem can be understood if the measurement is seen as a ``speech act'' in the sense of modern language theory. The reduction of the state vector is in this perspective an intersubjectice -- or better a-subjective -- symbolic process. I then give some perspectives on applications to the ``Mind-Body problem''.

  10. 77 FR 59014 - Sunshine Act Meeting; Notice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-25

    ... business 7. Consider and act on adjournment of meeting October 1, 2012 Promotion & Provision for the... meeting of the Operations & Regulations Committee. On Monday, October 1, the meeting of the Promotion.... Promotion & Provision for the 3 p.m. Delivery of Legal Services Committee. 2. Board of Directors...

  11. 7 CFR 930.1 - Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 8 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Act. 930.1 Section 930.1 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Marketing Agreements and Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE TART CHERRIES GROWN IN THE STATES...

  12. 77 FR 51073 - Sunshine Act Meeting

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-08-23

    ... solicitation and general advertising in securities offerings conducted pursuant to Rule 506 of Regulation D... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE... Sunshine Act, Public Law 94-409, that the Securities and Exchange Commission will hold an Open Meeting...

  13. Indian Child Welfare Act Proceedings. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-14

    This final rule adds a new subpart to the Department of the Interior's (Department) regulations implementing the Indian Child Welfare Act (ICWA), to improve ICWA implementation. The final rule addresses requirements for State courts in ensuring implementation of ICWA in Indian child-welfare proceedings and requirements for States to maintain records under ICWA.

  14. 75 FR 70160 - Affordable Care Act; Federal External Review Process; Request for Information

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... Administration 29 CFR Part 2590 Affordable Care Act; Federal External Review Process; Request for Information... Act, as amended by the Affordable Care Act, and its implementing regulations. DATES: Submit written or... and external review processes under the Affordable Care Act; those comments are being collected...

  15. 78 FR 69753 - Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-21

    ... Part 16 Exemption of Records Systems Under the Privacy Act AGENCY: Executive Office for Organized Crime... Department of Justice (the Department or DOJ) amends its Privacy Act regulations for two Privacy Act systems... Criminal Division, these systems were exempted from certain provisions of the Privacy Act of 1974...

  16. 14 CFR 29.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 29.605 Section 29.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication...

  17. 14 CFR 27.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 27.605 Section 27.605... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process (such...

  18. 14 CFR 23.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 23.605 Section 23.605... Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a... fabrication method must be substantiated by a test program....

  19. 14 CFR 25.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 25.605 Section 25.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce a consistently sound structure. If a fabrication...

  20. Fabrication of frequency selective surface for band stop IR-filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Akshita, E-mail: akshitamishra27@gmail.com [Department of Electrical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, New Delhi-110016 (India); Sudheer,; Tiwari, P.; Mondal, P.; Rai, V. N.; Srivastava, A. K. [Indus Synchrotrons Utilization Division, Raja Ramanna Centre for Advanced Technology, Indore-452013 (India); Bhatt, H. [High Pressure and Synchrotrons Radiation Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Fabrication and characterization of frequency selective surfaces (FSS) on silicon dioxide/ silicon is reported. Electron beam lithography based techniques are used for the fabrication of periodic slot structure in tungsten layer on silicon dioxide/silicon. The fabrication process consists of growth of SiO{sub 2} on silicon, tungsten deposition, electron beam lithography, and wet etching of tungsten. The optical characterization of the structural pattern was carried out using fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The reflectance spectra clearly show a resonance peak at 9.09 µm in the mid infrared region. This indicates that the patterned surface acts as band stop filter in the mid-infrared region.

  1. The Apocryphal Acts Of Andrew

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bremmer, Jan N.

    2000-01-01

    Following the first three volumes of the new series on the Acts of John (1995), the Acts of Paul and Thecla (1996) and the Acts of Peter (1998), this new volume is devoted to the Acts of Andrew. After a study of the relationship between the Acts of Andrew and the Acts of Andrew and Matthias, the maj

  2. Metallic Reactor Fuel Fabrication for SFR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Hoon; Kim, Jong-Hwan; Ko, Young-Mo; Woo, Yoon-Myung; Kim, Ki-Hwan; Lee, Chan-Bock [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    The metal fuel for an SFR has such advantages such as simple fabrication procedures, good neutron economy, high thermal conductivity, excellent compatibility with a Na coolant, and inherent passive safety 1. U-Zr metal fuel for SFR is now being developed by KAERI as a national R and D program of Korea. The fabrication technology of metal fuel for SFR has been under development in Korea as a national nuclear R and D program since 2007. The fabrication process for SFR fuel is composed of (1) fuel slug casting, (2) loading and fabrication of the fuel rods, and (3) fabrication of the final fuel assemblies. Fuel slug casting is the dominant source of fuel losses and recycled streams in this fabrication process. Fabrication on the rod type metallic fuel was carried out for the purpose of establishing a practical fabrication method. Rod-type fuel slugs were fabricated by injection casting. Metallic fuel slugs fabricated showed a general appearance was smooth.

  3. Macro fluid analysis of laminated fabric permeability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A porous jump model is put forward to predict the breathability of laminated fabrics by utilizing fluent software. To simplify the parameter setting process, the methods of determining the parameters of jump porous model by means of fabric layers are studied. Also, effects of single/multi-layer fabrics and thickness on breathability are analyzed, indicating that fabric breathability reduces with the increase of layers. Multi-layer fabric is simplified into a single layer, and the fabric permeability is calculated by proportion. Moreover, the change curve of fabric layer and face permeability, as well as the equation between the fabric layer and the face permeability are obtained. Then, face permeability and pressure-jump coefficient parameters setting of porous jump model could be integrated into single parameter (i. e. fabric layers, which simplifies the fluent operation process and realizes the prediction of laminated fabric permeability.

  4. 78 FR 5775 - Notice of Allocation of Tariff Rate Quotas (TRQ) on the Import of Certain Worsted Wool Fabrics...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-28

    ... certain worsted wool fabrics under tariff rate quotas established by Title V of the Trade and Development... INFORMATION: Background: Title V of the Trade and Development Act of 2000, as amended by the Trade Act of 2002...--New York, NY Saint Laurie Ltd.--New York, NY Tom James Co.--Franklin, TN Warren Sewell Clothing Co...

  5. Marine Mammal Protection Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Mammal Protection Act (MMPA or Act) prohibits, with certain exceptions, the "take" of marine mammals in U.S. waters and by U.S. citizens on the high seas,...

  6. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-09-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  7. SRF Cavity Fabrication and Materials

    CERN Document Server

    Singer, W

    2014-07-17

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for highgradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10μg/g. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2μg/g to prevent degradation of the Q-value under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Defects may be detected by quality control methods such as eddy current scanning and identified by a number of special methods. Conventional and alternative cavity fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and Electron-Beam Welding (EBW). The welding of half-cells is a delicate...

  8. Nanoimprint lithography for nanodevice fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barcelo, Steven; Li, Zhiyong

    2016-01-01

    Nanoimprint lithography (NIL) is a compelling technique for low cost nanoscale device fabrication. The precise and repeatable replication of nanoscale patterns from a single high resolution patterning step makes the NIL technique much more versatile than other expensive techniques such as e-beam or even helium ion beam lithography. Furthermore, the use of mechanical deformation during the NIL process enables grayscale lithography with only a single patterning step, not achievable with any other conventional lithography techniques. These strengths enable the fabrication of unique nanoscale devices by NIL for a variety of applications including optics, plasmonics and even biotechnology. Recent advances in throughput and yield in NIL processes demonstrate the potential of being adopted for mainstream semiconductor device fabrication as well.

  9. Federal Gasoline Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    The Clean Air Act requires EPA to regulate fuels and fuel additives for use in mobile sources if such fuel, fuel additive or any emission products causes or contributes to air or water pollution that may endanger the public health or welfare.

  10. 48 CFR 22.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 22.404 Section 22.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Involving Construction 22.404 Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. The Department of Labor is...

  11. 48 CFR 222.404 - Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations. 222.404 Section 222.404 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS... Labor Standards for Contracts Involving Construction 222.404 Davis-Bacon Act wage determinations....

  12. Stirling Microregenerators Fabricated and Tested

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moran, Matthew E.

    2004-01-01

    A mesoscale Stirling refrigerator patented by the NASA Glenn Research Center is currently under development. This refrigerator has a predicted efficiency of 30 percent of Carnot and potential uses in electronics, sensors, optical and radiofrequency systems, microarrays, and microsystems. The mesoscale Stirling refrigerator is most suited to volume-limited applications that require cooling below the ambient or sink temperature. Primary components of the planar device include two diaphragm actuators that replace the pistons found in traditional-scale Stirling machines and a microregenerator that stores and releases thermal energy to the working gas during the Stirling cycle. Diaphragms are used to eliminate frictional losses and bypass leakage concerns associated with pistons, while permitting reversal of the hot and cold sides of the device during operation to allow precise temperature control. Three candidate microregenerators were fabricated under NASA grants for initial evaluation: two constructed of porous ceramic, which were fabricated by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, and one made of multiple layers of nickel and photoresist, which was fabricated by Polar Thermal Technologies. The candidate regenerators are being tested by Johns Hopkins Applied Physics in a custom piezoelectric-actuated test apparatus designed to produce the Stirling refrigeration cycle. In parallel with the regenerator testing, Johns Hopkins is using deep reactive ion etching to fabricate electrostatically driven, comb-drive diaphragm actuators. These actuators will drive the Stirling cycle in the prototype device. The top photograph shows the porous ceramic microregenerators. Two microregenerators were fabricated with coarse pores and two with fine pores. The bottom photograph shows the test apparatus parts for evaluating the microregenerators, including the layered nickel-and-photoresist regenerator fabricated using LIGA techniques.

  13. 7 CFR 62.400 - OMB control number assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 AND THE EGG PRODUCTS INSPECTION ACT (CONTINUED) LIVESTOCK, MEAT, AND OTHER AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES (QUALITY SYSTEMS...

  14. 75 FR 75722 - Order Extending Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Order Extending Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and Regulations... Temporary Exemptions from Certain Provisions of the Government Securities Act and Treasury's...

  15. 75 FR 11627 - Order Granting Temporary Exemptions From Certain Government Securities Act Provisions and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... Provisions of the Government Securities Act and Treasury's Government Securities Act Regulations in... customer CDS transactions that reference government securities. Treasury is also granting a...

  16. 通訊傳播管理法草案的盲點:文化公民權/傳播權視野之批判 Blindspot of NCC’s Proposed Draft Communications Act and Regulation Revision to Communications Convergence: A Critique from the Cultural Citizenship/Communication Rights Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    羅世宏 Shih-Hung Lo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available 我國通訊傳播監理有朝單一機關化、單一法典化方向發展的趨勢,但屬於作用法性質的「通訊傳播管理法」仍處於「電信法」和「廣電三法」合併修法的草案制定階段,不僅涉及電信和廣電法規之間的整合,也涉及廣電三法合一的整併問題,到目前為止都還未得到解決。本文以2007 年9 月11 日公布的「通訊傳播管理法草案」為分析探討對象,首先耙梳我國制定此草案的背景,同時選擇性地比較國內外相關法規,從中論證我國通訊傳播政策思維的轉變。其次,本文援引文化公民權與傳播權之概念,並以之為參考架構 來檢驗「通傳法草案」之條文內容,探索此部法典之盲點,最後提出「通傳法草案」仍有所不足、應該往前再進一步之建議,期使這部法案最後能夠真正提升並落實文化公民權和傳播權在台灣之實現。 Against the backdrop of convergence and competition, communications regulation in Taiwan has been moving towards a single regulator overseeing both telecommunications and media sectors. To meet the regulatory challenge in the context of communications convergence, the newly established single communications regulator, the National Communications Commission (NCC, has proposed a draft Communications Act. However, the draft Communications Act has its own blindspot, for putting too much weight on the wants of consumers rather than needs of citizens. Taking the perspective of cultural citizenship and communication rights, this article offers a critique of the draft Communications Act and NCC’s proposed regulation revision to communications convergence.

  17. MQXFS1 Quadrupole Fabrication Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ambrosio, G.; et al.

    2017-07-16

    This report presents the fabrication and QC data of MQXFS1, the first short model of the low-beta quadrupoles (MQXF) for the LHC High Luminosity Upgrade. It describes the conductor, the coils, and the structure that make the MQXFS1 magnet. Qualification tests and non-conformities are also presented and discussed. The fabrication of MQXFS1 was started before the finalization of conductor and coil design for MQXF magnets. Two strand design were used (RRP 108/127 and RRP 132/169). Cable and coil cross-sections were “first generation”.

  18. Fabrication Aware Form-finding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Egholm Pedersen, Ole; Larsen, Niels Martin; Pigram, Dave

    2014-01-01

    parts. The first material system employs a novel rotated joint design to allow the structural tuning of quasi-reciprocal timber frame elements fabricated from multi-axis machined plywood sheet stock. The second em-loys discontinuous post-tensioning to assemble unique precast concrete components......This paper describes a design and construction method that combines two distinct material systems with fabrication aware form-finding and file-to-factory workflows. The method enables the fluent creation of complex materially efficient structures comprising high populations of geometrically unique...

  19. Regulation of Wire and Radio Communication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Federal Communications Commission, Washington, DC.

    This bulletin reviews early federal regulation of telegraphy, telephone, and radio communications, and the development of the Radio Acts of 1912 and 1927, the Communications Act of 1934, and the Communications Satellite Act of 1962. A large portion of the discussion focuses on the regulatory power and procedures of the Federal Communications…

  20. GmPHD5 acts as an important regulator for crosstalk between histone H3K4 di-methylation and H3K14 acetylation in response to salinity stress in soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Tao

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Accumulated evidence suggest that specific patterns of histone posttranslational modifications (PTMs and their crosstalks may determine transcriptional outcomes. However, the regulatory mechanisms of these "histone codes" in plants remain largely unknown. Results In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that a salinity stress inducible PHD (plant homeodomain finger domain containing protein GmPHD5 can read the "histone code" underlying the methylated H3K4. GmPHD5 interacts with other DNA binding proteins, including GmGNAT1 (an acetyl transferase, GmElongin A (a transcription elongation factor and GmISWI (a chromatin remodeling protein. Our results suggest that GmPHD5 can recognize specific histone methylated H3K4, with preference to di-methylated H3K4. Here, we illustrate that the interaction between GmPHD5 and GmGNAT1 is regulated by the self-acetylation of GmGNAT1, which can also acetylate histone H3. GmGNAT1 exhibits a preference toward acetylated histone H3K14. These results suggest a histone crosstalk between methylated H3K4 and acetylated H3K14. Consistent to its putative roles in gene regulation under salinity stress, we showed that GmPHD5 can bind to the promoters of some confirmed salinity inducible genes in soybean. Conclusion Here, we propose a model suggesting that the nuclear protein GmPHD5 is capable of regulating the crosstalk between histone methylation and histone acetylation of different lysine residues. Nevertheless, GmPHD5 could also recruit chromatin remodeling factors and transcription factors of salt stress inducible genes to regulate their expression in response to salinity stress.

  1. M Gwanyanya THE SOUTH AFRICAN COMPANIES ACT AND THE ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Manson

    used for the realisation of corporate human rights responsibilities, although ..... Regulation 43 also covers issues of equality, of the prevention of corruption, and ..... Muswaka L "Corporate Governance under the South African Companies Act: A.

  2. The Animal Welfare Act and the zoo: A positive approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olsen, G.H.

    1989-01-01

    Interpretations of the Animal Welfare Act and other regulations governing use of research animals in the United States are changing. Recent amendments to the Act have resulted in the inclusion of more species under the umbrella of regulation. The role of the zoo and wildlife veterinarian should be that of leading his or her institution into a positive endorsement of these regulations and their application. Recent additions to the Code of Federal Regulations spell out the roles of the veterinarian and the Animal Care and Use Committee at an institution.

  3. Branded prescription drug fee. Final regulations, temporary regulations, and removal of temporary regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-07-28

    This document contains final regulations that provide guidance on the annual fee imposed on covered entities engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing branded prescription drugs. This fee was enacted by section 9008 of the Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act, as amended by section 1404 of the Health Care and Education Reconciliation Act of 2010. This document also withdraws the Branded Prescription Drug Fee temporary regulations and contains new temporary regulations regarding the definition of controlled group that apply beginning on January 1, 2015. The final regulations and the new temporary regulations affect persons engaged in the business of manufacturing or importing certain branded prescription drugs. The text of the temporary regulations in this document also serves as the text of proposed regulations set forth in a notice of proposed rulemaking (REG-123286-14) on this subject in the Proposed Rules section in this issue of the Federal Register.

  4. SUMO: regulating the regulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bossis Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Post-translational modifiers of the SUMO (Small Ubiquitin-related Modifier family have emerged as key regulators of protein function and fate. While the past few years have seen an enormous increase in knowledge on SUMO enzymes, substrates, and consequences of modification, regulation of SUMO conjugation is far from being understood. This brief review will provide an overview on recent advances concerning (i the interplay between sumoylation and other post-translational modifications at the level of individual targets and (ii global regulation of SUMO conjugation and deconjugation.

  5. Are the Animal Welfare Acts achieving their full potential?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-07-30

    A decade has passed since the Animal Welfare Act 2006 and the Animal Health and Welfare (Scotland) Act 2006 became law. A session at this year's Animal Welfare Foundation Discussion Forum examined the successes and limitations of the Acts and whether they are working to their full potential. Further discussions centred on the keeping of non-traditional companion animals as pets and whether greater regulation of the pet trade is needed. Laura Honey reports.

  6. Rights to information access under the Data Protection Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimond, Bridgit

    A patient has a legal right to access personal information held by health professionals on the basis of statutory provisions, such as the Data Protection Act 1998 and the regulations made under that Act, the Access to Health Reports Act 1988 (which is considered in a later article), and also on the basis of the common law, i.e. judge made or case law. Neither legal rights, however, give the patient an absolute right, but are qualified.

  7. Fabrication of cell container arrays with overlaid surface topographies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truckenmüller, Roman; Giselbrecht, Stefan; Escalante-Marun, Maryana; Groenendijk, Max; Papenburg, Bernke; Rivron, Nicolas; Unadkat, Hemant; Saile, Volker; Subramaniam, Vinod; van den Berg, Albert; van Blitterswijk, Clemens; Wessling, Matthias; de Boer, Jan; Stamatialis, Dimitrios

    2012-02-01

    This paper presents cell culture substrates in the form of microcontainer arrays with overlaid surface topographies, and a technology for their fabrication. The new fabrication technology is based on microscale thermoforming of thin polymer films whose surfaces are topographically prepatterned on a micro- or nanoscale. For microthermoforming, we apply a new process on the basis of temporary back moulding of polymer films and use the novel concept of a perforated-sheet-like mould. Thermal micro- or nanoimprinting is applied for prepatterning. The novel cell container arrays are fabricated from polylactic acid (PLA) films. The thin-walled microcontainer structures have the shape of a spherical calotte merging into a hexagonal shape at their upper circumferential edges. In the arrays, the cell containers are arranged densely packed in honeycomb fashion. The inner surfaces of the highly curved container walls are provided with various topographical micro- and nanopatterns. For a first validation of the microcontainer arrays as in vitro cell culture substrates, C2C12 mouse premyoblasts are cultured in containers with microgrooved surfaces and shown to align along the grooves in the three-dimensional film substrates. In future stem-cell-biological and tissue engineering applications, microcontainers fabricated using the proposed technology may act as geometrically defined artificial microenvironments or niches.

  8. 3D Stretchable Arch Ribbon Array Fabricated via Grayscale Lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pang, Yu; Shu, Yi; Shavezipur, Mohammad; Wang, Xuefeng; Mohammad, Mohammad Ali; Yang, Yi; Zhao, Haiming; Deng, Ningqin; Maboudian, Roya; Ren, Tian-Ling

    2016-01-01

    Microstructures with flexible and stretchable properties display tremendous potential applications including integrated systems, wearable devices and bio-sensor electronics. Hence, it is essential to develop an effective method for fabricating curvilinear and flexural microstructures. Despite significant advances in 2D stretchable inorganic structures, large scale fabrication of unique 3D microstructures at a low cost remains challenging. Here, we demonstrate that the 3D microstructures can be achieved by grayscale lithography to produce a curved photoresist (PR) template, where the PR acts as sacrificial layer to form wavelike arched structures. Using plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) process at low temperature, the curved PR topography can be transferred to the silicon dioxide layer. Subsequently, plasma etching can be used to fabricate the arched stripe arrays. The wavelike silicon dioxide arch microstructure exhibits Young modulus and fracture strength of 52 GPa and 300 MPa, respectively. The model of stress distribution inside the microstructure was also established, which compares well with the experimental results. This approach of fabricating a wavelike arch structure may become a promising route to produce a variety of stretchable sensors, actuators and circuits, thus providing unique opportunities for emerging classes of robust 3D integrated systems. PMID:27345766

  9. National Environmental Policy Act compliance guide. Volume II (reference book)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1994-09-01

    This document (Volume II of the National Environmental Policy Act Compliance Guide) contains current copies of regulations and guidance from the Council on Environmental Quality, the Department of Energy, the Department of State, and the Environmental Protection Agency, related to compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA).

  10. 75 FR 37410 - Privacy Act of 1974; System of Records

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... Regulation (DoD 6025.18-R) issued pursuant to the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996... Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, applies to most such health information. DoD 6025.18-R may place.../software safeguard features and controls which meet administrative, physical, and technical...

  11. 76 FR 68396 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-04

    ... criminal law proceedings; (8) Appropriate agencies, entities, and persons, to the extent necessary to... criminal law, rule, regulation, order, policy or license; (10) An entity or person that is the subject of... Street Reform and Consumer Financial Protection Act (``Act''), Public Law 111-203, Title X,...

  12. 78 FR 34991 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-06-11

    ... relevant to a potential violation of civil or criminal law, rule, regulation, order, policy or license; (8... connection with criminal law proceedings; (9) An entity or person that is the subject of a judicial or... Protection Act (Act), Public Law 111-203, Title X, established the CFPB to administer and enforce...

  13. 76 FR 9981 - National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-23

    ... Part 1021 RIN 1990-AA34 National Environmental Policy Act Implementing Procedures AGENCY: Office of the... amendments to its regulations governing compliance with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA), made... Rulemaking Comments, Office of NEPA Policy and Compliance (GC-54), U.S. Department of Energy,...

  14. 75 FR 77673 - National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-13

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION National Environmental Policy Act: Scientific Balloon Program AGENCY: National... the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, as amended (42 U.S.C. 4321, et seq.); the Council on Environmental Quality Regulations for Implementing the Procedural Provisions of NEPA (40...

  15. The Danish fabricated metal industry:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Teis

    2010-01-01

    . This is less the case for low-tech industries, but their economic importance continues to be large, however. It is thus interesting to analyse how they manage to remain competitive. The analysis focuses on a case study of the fabricated metal industry by identifying the innovation strategies followed by firms...

  16. Fabricated Helicopter Transmission Housing Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    1975-01-01

    This program was conducted for the Military Operations Technology Division under the technical management of Hr. L. Thomas Mazza, Technology Applications...Data Xritred) Uncl ssified .UIJRITY -’.ASSIFICA ’.Wi OF THIS PAGE(Wen Date Entered) materials, analytical methods, and fabrication tecniques . The

  17. Air-Inflated Fabric Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-11-05

    inflatable boats, temporary bridging, and energy absorbers such as automotive air bags. However, the advent of today’s high performance fibers...were constructed using adhesively bonded, piece-cut manufacturing methods. These methods were limited to relatively low pressures because of fabric...environmental exposure to ultraviolet rays, moisture, fire, chemicals, etc. Coating such as urethane , PVC (polyvinyl chloride), neoprene, EPDM (ethylene

  18. Crimp-Imbalanced Protective Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-03-04

    line 12). [0009] The parameters of FIG. 3 are applicable for defining the geometric dependencies of crimp in fabrics constructed with tows (non...yarns with a suitably thickened temporary coating. The temporary coatings can be wax (paraffin), latex (vinyl acetate , butadiene and acrylic

  19. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wang, J.; Jin, M.L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den A.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized su

  20. Fabrication of green polymeric membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Dooli

    2017-06-16

    Provided herein are methods of fabricating membranes using polymers with functionalized groups such as sulfone (e.g., PSf and PES), ether (e.g., PES), acrylonitrile (e.g., PAN), fluoride(e.g., pvdf and other fluoropolymers), and imide (e.g., extem) and ionic liquids. Also provided are membranes made by the provided methods.

  1. Fabrication of elliptical SRF cavities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, W.

    2017-03-01

    The technological and metallurgical requirements of material for high-gradient superconducting cavities are described. High-purity niobium, as the preferred metal for the fabrication of superconducting accelerating cavities, should meet exact specifications. The content of interstitial impurities such as oxygen, nitrogen, and carbon must be below 10 μg g-1. The hydrogen content should be kept below 2 μg g-1 to prevent degradation of the quality factor (Q-value) under certain cool-down conditions. The material should be free of flaws (foreign material inclusions or cracks and laminations) that can initiate a thermal breakdown. Traditional and alternative cavity mechanical fabrication methods are reviewed. Conventionally, niobium cavities are fabricated from sheet niobium by the formation of half-cells by deep drawing, followed by trim machining and electron beam welding. The welding of half-cells is a delicate procedure, requiring intermediate cleaning steps and a careful choice of weld parameters to achieve full penetration of the joints. A challenge for a welded construction is the tight mechanical and electrical tolerances. These can be maintained by a combination of mechanical and radio-frequency measurements on half-cells and by careful tracking of weld shrinkage. The main aspects of quality assurance and quality management are mentioned. The experiences of 800 cavities produced for the European XFEL are presented. Another cavity fabrication approach is slicing discs from the ingot and producing cavities by deep drawing and electron beam welding. Accelerating gradients at the level of 35-45 MV m-1 can be achieved by applying electrochemical polishing treatment. The single-crystal option (grain boundary free) is discussed. It seems that in this case, high performance can be achieved by a simplified treatment procedure. Fabrication of the elliptical resonators from a seamless pipe as an alternative is briefly described. This technology has yielded good

  2. Synthesis and utilisation of graphene for fabrication of electrochemical sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawal, Abdulazeez T

    2015-01-01

    This review summarises the most recent contributions in the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical biosensors in recent years. It discusses the synthesis and application of graphene to the fabrication of graphene-based electrochemical sensors, its analytical performance and future prospects. An increasing number of reviews and publications involving graphene sensors have been reported ever since the first design of graphene electrochemical biosensor. The large surface area and good electrical conductivity of graphene allow it to act as an "electron wire" between the redox centres of an enzyme or protein and an electrode's surface, which make it a very excellent material for the design of electrochemical biosensors. Graphene promotes the different rapid electron transfers that facilitate accurate and selective detection of cytochrome-c, β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, haemoglobin, biomolecules such as glucose, cholesterol, ascorbic acid, uric acid, dopamine and hydrogen peroxide. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. National Environmental Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) was the first major environmental law in the United States and established national environmental policies for the...

  4. Acts of Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nelund, Sidsel

    with an awareness of larger political, economic, geographical and art-related aspects. The concept of ‘acts of research’ is suggested as a way to understand knowledge production as a creative act in which research carried out in relation to a specific material challenges and resists the protocols of conventional...... described as knowledge producers and exhibitions and art works as instances of knowledge production. Acts of Research: Knowledge Production in Contemporary Arts between Knowledge Economy and Critical Practices analyses this development. The academic discussion of knowledge production in the arts has taken...... place mostly in seminars and articles, in which knowledge is often discussed as an intrinsic quality of the artwork. Acts of Research, however, is devoted to studying the rise of knowledge production in contemporary art from the perspective of artistic, curatorial and educational research...

  5. Abandoned Shipwreck Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Abandoned Shipwreck Act of 1987 (ASA) affirms the authority of state governments to claim ownership to, protect, and manage abandoned shipwrecks on state...

  6. Marine Pollution Prevention Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Marine Pollution Prevention Act of 2008 implements the International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, including related Protocols (MARPOL)...

  7. Affordable Care Act (ACA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Social Security Administration — The Affordable Care Act (ACA) is a federal statute enacted with a goal of increasing the quality and affordability of health insurance. Through a web service, CMS...

  8. Endangered Species Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The purpose of the Endangered Species Act (ESA) is to protect and recover imperiled species and the ecosystems upon which they depend. The U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  9. ACT250 Districts

    Data.gov (United States)

    Vermont Center for Geographic Information — The ACT 250 Districts layer is part of a larger dataset that contains administrative boundaries for Vermont's Agency of Natural Resources. The dataset includes...

  10. Energy Policy Act

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Energy Policy Act (EPA) addresses energy production in the United States, including: (1) energy efficiency; (2) renewable energy; (3) oil and gas; (4) coal; (5)...

  11. 29 CFR 500.3 - Effective date of the Act; transition period; repeal of the Farm Labor Contractor Registration Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR REGULATIONS MIGRANT AND SEASONAL AGRICULTURAL WORKER... Contractor Registration Act. (a) The provisions of the Migrant and Seasonal Agricultural Worker Protection Act are effective on April 14, 1983, and are codified in 29 U.S.C. 1801 et seq. (b) The Migrant...

  12. Fleet average NOx emission performance of 2008 model year light-duty vehicles, light-duty trucks and medium-duty passenger vehicles[In relation to the On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act, 1999

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2010-12-15

    The On-Road Vehicle and Engine Emission Regulations came into effect under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act in 2004. The regulations introduced more stringent emissions standards for on-road vehicles and engines, and aligned Canada's emission standards for various vehicles with those of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This report summarized the fleet average nitrogen oxide (NO{sub x}) emissions performance of individual companies and the overall Canadian fleet for the 2008 model year for light duty vehicles (LDV), light duty trucks (LLDT), heavy light duty trucks (HLDT) and medium duty passenger vehicles (MDPV). The report evaluated the effectiveness of the Canadian fleet average NO{sub x} emission program in achieving its stated environmental performance objectives. The report demonstrated that approximately 99 percent of the LDV and LLDT fleet, and 71 percent of the HLDT and MDPV fleet were certified to a bin at, or below, the applicable fleet average NO{sub x} standard. Average NO{sub x} values continued to decrease, in accordance with the performance objectives of the regulations. 9 tabs., 5 figs.

  13. 29 CFR 552.1 - Terms used in regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO DOMESTIC SERVICE General Regulations § 552.1 Terms used in..., or the Administrator's authorized representative. (b) Act means the Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terms used in regulations. 552.1 Section 552.1 Labor...

  14. 77 FR 21875 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-04-12

    ...; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA21 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z... implements the Truth In Lending Act, and the official interpretation to the regulation, which interprets the... Card Act) was signed into law on May 22, 2009.\\1\\ The Credit Card Act primarily amended the Truth in...

  15. 78 FR 18795 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-28

    ... Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA21 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z) AGENCY: Bureau of Consumer Financial Protection... (Bureau) is amending Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act, and the Official.... Public Law 111-24, 123 Stat. 1734 (2009). The Credit Card Act primarily amended the Truth in Lending Act...

  16. 77 FR 66748 - Truth in Lending (Regulation Z)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    ...; ] BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION 12 CFR Part 1026 RIN 3170-AA28 Truth in Lending (Regulation Z... implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA), and the official interpretation to the regulation, which... Card Act primarily amended the Truth in Lending Act (TILA) and instituted new substantive...

  17. The Corporations Act 2001

    OpenAIRE

    Bostock, Tom

    2002-01-01

    The author outlines reforms made in Australia in the area of company law with an analysis of the Corporations Act 2001, which along with the Australian Securities and Investments Commission Act 2001 comprises Corporations legislation in Australia. Article by Tom Bostock (a partner in the law firm Mallesons Stephen Jaques, Melbourne, Australia). Published in Amicus Curiae - Journal of the Institute of Advanced Legal Studies and its Society for Advanced Legal Studies. The Journal is produced by...

  18. First fabrication of full 3D-detectors at SINTEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Thor-Erik; Kok, Angela; Hansen, Trond A.; Lietaer, Nicolas; Mielnik, Michal; Storås, Preben; Da'Via, Cinzia; Hasi, Jasmine; Kenney, Chris; Parker, Sherwood

    2009-03-01

    3D-detectors, with electrodes penetrating through the entire substrates have drawn great interests for high energy physics and medical imaging applications. Since its introduction by C. Kenney et al in 1995, many laboratories have begun research on different 3D-detector structures to simplify and industrialise the fabrication process. SINTEF MiNaLab joined the 3D collaboration in 2006 and started the first 3D fabrication run in 2007. This is the first step in an effort to fabricate affordable 3D-detectors in small to medium size production volumes. The first run was fully completed in February 2008 and preliminary results are promising. Good p-n junction characteristics have been shown on selected devices at the chip level with a leakage current of less than 0.5 nA per pixel. Thus SINTEF is the second laboratory in the world after the Stanford Nanofabrication Facility that has succeeded in demonstrating full 3D-detectors with active edge. A full 3D-stacked detector system were formed by bump-bonding the detectors to the ATLAS readout electronics, and successful particle hit maps using an Am-241 source were recorded. Most modules, however, showed largely increased leakage currents after assembly, which is due to the active edge and p-spray acting as part of the total chip pn-junction and not as a depletion stop. This paper describes the first fabrication and the encountered processing issues. The preliminary measurements on both the individual detector chips and the integrated 3D-stacked modules are discussed. A new lot has now been started on p-type wafers, which offers a more robust configuration with the active edge acting as depletion stop instead of part of the pn-junction.

  19. Femtosecond fabricated photomasks for fabrication of microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Day, Daniel; Gu, Min

    2006-10-30

    This paper describes the direct write laser fabrication of a photolithography mask for prototyping of microfluidic devices in polydimethylsiloxane. An amplified femtosecond pulse laser is used to selectively remove the aluminium metal layer from the poly(methyl methacrylate) photomask substrate. The use of a femtosecond pulse laser to selectively etch a metal layer has several advantages over other conventional methods for binary photomask fabrication, namely rapid prototyping of microfluidic devices using soft lightography. Control of the energy density and defocus position of the focusing objective lens results in the etching of features with widths ranging from 2 microm to 35 microm when using an objective lens with numerical aperture of 0.25.

  20. Atomic Energy Act and Related Legislation. Environmental Guidance Program Reference Book: Revision 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-09-01

    This report presents information related to the Atomic Energy Act and related legislation. Sections are presented pertaining to legislative history and statutes, implementing regulations, and updates.

  1. Combinatorial Gene Regulation Using Auto-Regulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermsen, Rutger; Ursem, Bas; ten Wolde, Pieter Rein

    2010-01-01

    As many as 59% of the transcription factors in Escherichia coli regulate the transcription rate of their own genes. This suggests that auto-regulation has one or more important functions. Here, one possible function is studied. Often the transcription rate of an auto-regulator is also controlled by additional transcription factors. In these cases, the way the expression of the auto-regulator responds to changes in the concentrations of the “input” regulators (the response function) is obviously affected by the auto-regulation. We suggest that, conversely, auto-regulation may be used to optimize this response function. To test this hypothesis, we use an evolutionary algorithm and a chemical–physical model of transcription regulation to design model cis-regulatory constructs with predefined response functions. In these simulations, auto-regulation can evolve if this provides a functional benefit. When selecting for a series of elementary response functions—Boolean logic gates and linear responses—the cis-regulatory regions resulting from the simulations indeed often exploit auto-regulation. Surprisingly, the resulting constructs use auto-activation rather than auto-repression. Several design principles show up repeatedly in the simulation results. They demonstrate how auto-activation can be used to generate sharp, switch-like activation and repression circuits and how linearly decreasing response functions can be obtained. Auto-repression, on the other hand, resulted only when a high response speed or a suppression of intrinsic noise was also selected for. The results suggest that, while auto-repression may primarily be valuable to improve the dynamical properties of regulatory circuits, auto-activation is likely to evolve even when selection acts on the shape of response function only. PMID:20548950

  2. Personal Information as Communicative Acts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mai, Jens-Erik

    2016-01-01

    as communicative acts. The paper suggests a reconceptualization of informational privacy from having its focus on controlling, limiting, and restricting access to material carriers of information to a focus on a regulation of the use, analysis, and interpretation of personal information.......The paper extends previous accounts of informational privacy as a contextual notion. Where previous accounts have focused on interpretations of the privacy context itself as being contextual and open for negotiation and interpretation, this paper extends those analyses and shows that personal...... information itself is in fact best understood as contextual and situational—and as such open for interpretation. The paper reviews the notion of information as it has been applied in informational privacy and philosophy of information, and suggests that personal information ought to be regarded...

  3. TNF alpha acts in synergy with GM-CSF to induce proliferation of acute myeloid leukemia cells by up-regulating the GM-CSF receptor and GM-CSF gene expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brailly, H; Pebusque, M J; Tabilio, A; Mannoni, P

    1993-10-01

    Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cells are dependent for their survival and proliferation on hematopoietic growth factors. As tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF alpha) can increase the proliferation of primary cultures of AML cells, we have investigated the effect of TNF alpha on the autocrine and/or paracrine growth control by one of the major AML growth factor, granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF). First, a panel of AML cells were analysed with respect to their proliferative response to TNF alpha. We provide experimental evidence that TNF alpha induces both GM-CSF gene expression and up-regulation of high-affinity GM-CSF membrane receptor in TNF alpha-responsive cells. This effect is not restricted to the malignant phenotype, although it could account for the selective growth advantage of the leukemic clone over the normal cells upon TNF alpha stimulation.

  4. TaNAC1 acts as a negative regulator of stripe rust resistance in wheat, enhances susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae, and promotes lateral root development in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fengtao; Lin, Ruiming; Feng, Jing; Chen, Wanquan; Qiu, Dewen; Xu, Shichang

    2015-01-01

    Plant-specific NAC transcription factors (TFs) constitute a large family and play important roles in regulating plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses, but only some of them have been investigated for effects on disease reaction in cereal crops. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) is an effective strategy for rapid functional analysis of genes in plant tissues. In this study, TaNAC1, encoding a new member of the NAC1 subgroup, was cloned from bread wheat and characterized. It is a TF localized in the cell nucleus, and contains an activation domain in its C-terminal. TaNAC1 was strongly expressed in wheat roots and was involved in responses to infection by the obligate pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and defense-related hormone treatments such as salicylic acid (SA), methyl jasmonate, and ethylene. Knockdown of TaNAC1 with barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS) enhanced stripe rust resistance. TaNAC1-overexpression in Arabidopsis thaliana plants gave enhanced susceptibility, attenuated systemic-acquired resistance to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, and promoted lateral root development. Jasmonic acid-signaling pathway genes PDF1.2 and ORA59 were constitutively expressed in transgenic plants. TaNAC1 overexpression suppressed the expression levels of resistance-related genes PR1 and PR2 involved in SA signaling and AtWRKY70, which functions as a connection node between the JA- and SA-signaling pathways. Collectively, TaNAC1 is a novel NAC member of the NAC1 subgroup, negatively regulates plant disease resistance, and may modulate plant JA- and SA-signaling defense cascades.

  5. TaNAC1 acts as a negative regulator of stripe rust resistance in wheat, enhances susceptibility to Pseudomonas syringae, and promotes lateral root development in transgenic Arabidopsis thaliana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fengtao eWang

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant-specific NAC transcription factors constitute a large family and play important roles in regulating plant developmental processes and responses to environmental stresses, but only some of them have been investigated for effects on disease reaction in cereal crops. Virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS is an effective strategy for rapid functional analysis of genes in plant tissues. In this study, TaNAC1, encoding a new member of the NAC1 subgroup, was cloned from bread wheat and characterized. It is a transcription factor localized in the cell nucleus, and contains an activation domain in its C-terminal. TaNAC1 was strongly expressed in wheat roots and was involved in responses to infection by the obligate pathogen Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici and defense-related hormone treatments such as salicylic acid, methyl jasmonate and ethylene. Knockdown of TaNAC1 with barley stripe mosaic virus-induced gene silencing (BSMV-VIGS enhanced stripe rust resistance. TaNAC1-overexpression in Arabidopsis plants gave enhanced susceptibility, attenuated systemic-acquired resistance to Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, and promoted lateral root development. Jasmonic acid-signaling pathway genes PDF1.2 and ORA59 were constitutively expressed in transgenic plants. TaNAC1 overexpression suppressed the expression levels of resistance-related genes PR1 and PR2 involved in SA signaling and AtWRKY70, which functions as a connection node between the JA- and SA-signaling pathways. Collectively, TaNAC1 is a novel NAC member of the NAC1 subgroup, negatively regulates plant disease resistance, and may modulate plant JA- and SA-signaling defense cascades.

  6. The stem cell zinc finger 1 (SZF1)/ZNF589 protein has a human-specific evolutionary nucleotide DNA change and acts as a regulator of cell viability in the hematopoietic system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, Letizia; Stadler, Michael; Manukjan, Georgi; Scherr, Michaela; Schlegelberger, Brigitte; Steinemann, Doris; Ganser, Arnold

    2016-04-01

    The stem cell zinc finger 1 (SZF1)/ZNF589 protein belongs to the large family of Krüppel-associated box domain-zinc finger (KRAB-ZNF) transcription factors, which are present only in higher vertebrates and epigenetically repress transcription by recruiting chromatin-modifying complexes to the promoter regions of their respective target genes. Although the distinct biological functions of most KRAB-ZNF proteins remain unknown, recent publications indicate their implication in fundamental processes, such as cell proliferation, apoptosis, differentiation, development, and tumorigenesis. SZF1/ZNF589 was first identified as a gene with SZF1-1 isoform specifically expressed in CD34(+) hematopoietic cells, strongly suggesting a role in epigenetic control of gene expression in hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSPCs). However, the function of SZF1/ZNF589 in hematopoiesis has not yet been elucidated. Our study reveals SZF1/ZNF589 as a gene with a human-specific nucleotide DNA-change, conferring potential species-specific functional properties. Through shRNA-mediated loss-of-function experiments, we found that changes in expression of fundamental apoptosis-controlling genes are induced on SZF1/ZNF589 knockdown, resulting in inhibited growth of hematopoietic cell lines and decreased progenitor potential of primary human bone marrow CD34(+) cells. Moreover, we found that the SZF1/ZNF589 gene is differentially regulated during hypoxia in CD34(+) HSPCs in a cytokine-dependent manner, implicating its possible involvement in the maintenance of the hypoxic physiologic status of hematopoietic stem cells. Our results establish the role of SZF1/ZNF589 as a new functional regulator of the hematopoietic system.

  7. Counteracting Fabricated Anti-Gay Public Pedagogy in Uganda with Strategic Lifelong Learning as Critical Action

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grace, André P.

    2016-01-01

    Political, cultural and social fallout following the introduction of the anti-homosexuality bill in Uganda in 2009 intensified fabrication of an anti-gay public pedagogy of negation and nemesis that fuelled the passage of the Anti-Homosexuality Act, 2014. The Government of Uganda, conventional Anglicanism and US evangelical Christianity were all…

  8. Uproar over Milk Substitutes Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-11-15

    Health policy activists lobbied 7 years for the Infant Milk Substitutes, Feeding Bottles and Infant Food Bill. Proponents of the bill say that it basically curtails unethical marketing practices, not the sales of baby foods, and argue that it was conceived to reduce the trend of mothers over-diluting commercial milk in order to reduce household expenses as well as stem the potential erosion of knowledge on locally available weaning foods. Even though the bill will become an Act only after its rules and regulations have been finalized, the government has already banned baby food advertisements on television and in other electronic media under its control. Women's groups now argue that the bill tends to focus almost exclusively upon the welfare of children and compromises the position of women who can not lactate adequately. Moreover, they hold that the bill may be used to compel wives to stay out of the formal workforce so that they may feed their babies. The intention of the bill may be meaningless without complementary legislation addressing the problems of working mothers. Specifically, amendments to the Maternity Benefits Act of 1961 would extend maternity leave to 4 months after delivery and lengthen the duration of nursing breaks. It is, however, feared that these changes may reduce employment prospects for women.

  9. Ballistic Response of Fabrics: Model and Experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orphal, Dennis L.; Walker Anderson, James D., Jr.

    2001-06-01

    Walker (1999)developed an analytical model for the dynamic response of fabrics to ballistic impact. From this model the force, F, applied to the projectile by the fabric is derived to be F = 8/9 (ET*)h^3/R^2, where E is the Young's modulus of the fabric, T* is the "effective thickness" of the fabric and equal to the ratio of the areal density of the fabric to the fiber density, h is the displacement of the fabric on the axis of impact and R is the radius of the fabric deformation or "bulge". Ballistic tests against Zylon^TM fabric have been performed to measure h and R as a function of time. The results of these experiments are presented and analyzed in the context of the Walker model. Walker (1999), Proceedings of the 18th International Symposium on Ballistics, pp. 1231.

  10. Fabric quality issues related to apparel merchandising

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Das, Sonali

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study are to develop an understanding of fabric quality related issues and research gaps relevant to apparel manufacturing and merchandising within the South African context. The specific focus is on fabric objective...

  11. CONSIDERATIONS UPON ASSIMILATED ADMINISTRATIVE ACTS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Although the classic administrative courts know as object the acts against classic administrative acts, it should not be lost sight of the assimilated administrative acts, which also may be subject to acts in this litigation. Taking in consideration this category of acts, this study will examine the documents falling into this category and the impact that such acts have on public authorities. Given the significant increase of administrative cases that have as object assimilated administrative...

  12. Advanced fabrication of hyperbolic metamaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shkondin, Evgeniy; Sukham, Johneph; Panah, Mohammad E. Aryaee; Takayama, Osamu; Malureanu, Radu; Jensen, Flemming; Lavrinenko, Andrei V.

    2017-09-01

    Hyperbolic metamaterials can provide unprecedented properties in accommodation of high-k (high wave vector) waves and enhancement of the optical density of states. To reach such performance the metamaterials have to be fabricated with as small imperfections as possible. Here we report on our advances in two approaches in fabrication of optical metamaterials. We deposit ultrathin ultrasmooth gold layers with the assistance of organic material (APTMS) adhesion layer. The technology supports the stacking of such layers in a multiperiod construction with alumina spacers between gold films, which is expected to exhibit hyperbolic properties in the visible range. As the second approach we apply the atomic layer deposition technique to arrange vertical alignment of layers or pillars of heavily doped ZnO or TiN, which enables us to produce hyperbolic metamaterials for the near- and mid-infrared ranges.

  13. EL ERROR INDUCIDO POR DOLO COMO CAUSAL DE NULIDAD DEL MATRIMONIO CIVIL EN LA LEY No. 19.947: ACEPTACIÓN Y CONSECUENCIAS DE SU REGULACIÓN Error induced by fraud as a ground for nullity of civil marriage under the chilean act 19.947: rationale and consequences of its regulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Mondaca Miranda

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available En esta investigación se estudia el error inducido por dolo como vicio de la voluntad en el matrimonio. Luego de analizar la disciplina del error durante la vigencia de la Ley de Matrimonio Civil de i884, se explica la no relevancia de una regulación expresa del error doloso, para finalmente referirnos a los requisitos y a las consecuencias del error producido por dolo como origen de la falta de un libre y espontáneo consentimiento matrimonial.This paper analyses the error induced by fraud of one party as a defect of the spouse's will in marriage. After a [broad] explanation of the error regime under the Civil Marriage Act of 1884, the author demonstrates the irrelevance of the [current] absence of regulation for error. Finally the investigation is focused on requirements and consequences of the misrepresentation causedby fraud as a ground of the lack of marital consent.

  14. Fabrics China Trends Released in Guangzhou

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    @@ During April 8th-14th, China Textiles Development center, along with China Textile Information Center, released their newly developed "Fabrics China Trends 10 S/S" in China Fabrics & Accessories Center in the city of Guangzhou, aiming to improve the fashion style of China Fabrics & Accessories Center, upgrade the integration of fabrics and fashion trend development, attract more buyers and talent designers, and enhance the quality competitiveness of the trade center significantly.

  15. FINISHING FABRICATED METAL PRODUCTS WITH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report provides a technical and economic evaluation of a polyester powder coating system applied to the exterior and interior surfaces of metal boxes fabricated for the telephone and cable industries. This evaluation summarized many of the requirements and benefits of a clean technology that effectively eliminates the use of hazardous solvents and prevents the generation of volatile organic emissions and hazardous solid waste. publish information

  16. Virtual Manufacturing (la Fabrication virtuelle)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998-05-01

    L’imbrication sera realisee en temps reel par un algorithme genetique en fonction des priorites de production. 4.3 gestion de revolution des...distribuee dynamiquement entre divers sites specialistes contrairement ä la fabrication reelle qui est geographique, - l’aptitude ä manipuler un...visually gen- erate assembly sequences. Because of the speed in which a FlyThru® model can be manipulated on screen, it is a great tool for Integrated

  17. Microfluidic fabrication of plasmonic microcapsules

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, J.; Jin, M. L.; Eijkel, J.C.T.; Berg, van den, A.E.; Zhou, G.F.; Shui, L.L.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the plasmonic microcapsules with well-ordered nanoparticles embedded in polymer network fabricated by using a microfluidic device. The well-ordered nanoparticle arrays on the microcapsule form high-density uniform “hot-spots” with a deposited metal film, on which the localized surface plasmon resonance effect is obtained. These plasmonic microcapsules can be engineered and modified by nanoparticle size and the metal film thickness. Repeatable Surfaced-Enhanced Raman Scatte...

  18. Fabric Structures Team Technology Update

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-01

    catalyst layer CBWAs destroyed through reaction with generated H2O2 in presence of oxidative catalyst • Rapidly disinfects surfaces exposed...Demonstrated reactive textile in developmental airlock Crosslink, Inc: •A reactive, electrochemical polymer coating system capable •of generating H2O2 to...singlet oxygen (1O2 ), a mild oxidant Counter electrode V or i Fabric shelter Working electrode: Quinone-modified H2O2 generating electrode Oxidative

  19. Monolithic Fuel Fabrication Process Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    C. R. Clark; N. P. Hallinan; J. F. Jue; D. D. Keiser; J. M. Wight

    2006-05-01

    The pursuit of a high uranium density research reactor fuel plate has led to monolithic fuel, which possesses the greatest possible uranium density in the fuel region. Process developments in fabrication development include friction stir welding tool geometry and cooling improvements and a reduction in the length of time required to complete the transient liquid phase bonding process. Annealing effects on the microstructures of the U-10Mo foil and friction stir welded aluminum 6061 cladding are also examined.

  20. 7 CFR 52.59 - OMB control numbers assigned pursuant to the Paperwork Reduction Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946 PROCESSED FRUITS AND VEGETABLES, PROCESSED PRODUCTS... sanitary rules and regulations of city, county, State, Federal, or other agencies having jurisdiction...

  1. Fabricating customized hydrogel contact lens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Childs, Andre; Li, Hao; Lewittes, Daniella M.; Dong, Biqin; Liu, Wenzhong; Shu, Xiao; Sun, Cheng; Zhang, Hao F.

    2016-10-01

    Contact lenses are increasingly used in laboratories for in vivo animal retinal imaging and pre-clinical studies. The lens shapes often need modification to optimally fit corneas of individual test subjects. However, the choices from commercially available contact lenses are rather limited. Here, we report a flexible method to fabricate customized hydrogel contact lenses. We showed that the fabricated hydrogel is highly transparent, with refractive indices ranging from 1.42 to 1.45 in the spectra range from 400 nm to 800 nm. The Young’s modulus (1.47 MPa) and hydrophobicity (with a sessile drop contact angle of 40.5°) have also been characterized experimentally. Retinal imaging using optical coherence tomography in rats wearing our customized contact lenses has the quality comparable to the control case without the contact lens. Our method could significantly reduce the cost and the lead time for fabricating soft contact lenses with customized shapes, and benefit the laboratorial-used contact lenses in pre-clinical studies.

  2. Micro Machining Enhances Precision Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    Advanced thermal systems developed for the Space Station Freedom project are now in use on the International Space Station. These thermal systems employ evaporative ammonia as their coolant, and though they employ the same series of chemical reactions as terrestrial refrigerators, the space-bound coolers are significantly smaller. Two Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) contracts between Creare Inc. of Hanover, NH and Johnson Space Center developed an ammonia evaporator for thermal management systems aboard Freedom. The principal investigator for Creare Inc., formed Mikros Technologies Inc. to commercialize the work. Mikros Technologies then developed an advanced form of micro-electrical discharge machining (micro-EDM) to make tiny holes in the ammonia evaporator. Mikros Technologies has had great success applying this method to the fabrication of micro-nozzle array systems for industrial ink jet printing systems. The company is currently the world leader in fabrication of stainless steel micro-nozzles for this market, and in 2001 the company was awarded two SBIR research contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center to advance micro-fabrication and high-performance thermal management technologies.

  3. Robust fabric substrates for photonic textile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Pieterson, L.; Bouten, P.C.P.; Kriege, J.C.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. The fabric's robustness, as a function of the electrical reliability of its conductive yarn connections, is shown to hold over large deformations.This fabric is then used to

  4. Robust fabric substrates for photonic textile applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Pieterson, L.; Bouten, P.C.P.; Kriege, J.C.; Bhattacharya, R.

    2010-01-01

    A fabric substrate is described for electronic textile with robust interwoven connections between the conductive yarns in it. The fabric's robustness, as a function of the electrical reliability of its conductive yarn connections, is shown to hold over large deformations.This fabric is then used to

  5. Fabrication technology for ODS Alloy MA957

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ML Hamilton; DS Gelles; RJ Lobsinger; MM Paxton; WF Brown

    2000-03-16

    A successful fabrication schedule has been developed at Carpenter Technology Corporation for the production of MA957 fuel and blanket cladding. Difficulties with gun drilling, plug drawing and recrystallization were overcome to produce a pilot lot of tubing. This report documents the fabrication efforts of two qualified vendors and the support studies performed at WHC to develop the fabrication-schedule.

  6. Shock wave fabricated ceramic-metal nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Keizers, H.L.J.; Verbeek, H.J.; Put, P.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Shock compaction was used in the fabrication of high temperature ceramic-based materials. The materials' development was geared towards the fabrication of nozzles for rocket engines using solid propellants, for which the following metal-ceramic (cermet) materials were fabricated and tested: B4C-Ti (

  7. Shock wave fabricated ceramic-metal nozzles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Carton, E.P.; Stuivinga, M.E.C.; Keizers, H.L.J.; Verbeek, H.J.; Put, P.J. van der

    1999-01-01

    Shock compaction was used in the fabrication of high temperature ceramic-based materials. The materials' development was geared towards the fabrication of nozzles for rocket engines using solid propellants, for which the following metal-ceramic (cermet) materials were fabricated and tested: B4C-Ti

  8. Innovative Fabric Show Every Month in Shanghai

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    It normally costs a long term for fabric manufacturers to develop a new product. The delay of marketing the innovative fabric not only affect the benefit of the textile mills, but also baffle the development of the industry. Shanghai Fabric Hall responses to this with a regular exhibition of

  9. Nullity And Inexistence Of Legal Acts In Ecuadorian Law

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Coronel Jones

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inexistence and nullity of juridical acts are basic institutions in Ecuadorian Law. These are two different categories that have in common the chasing of the invalidity of the juridical acts that didn’t form according to Law. Inexistent acts are deprived by the law of any legal effect, while null acts have legal effects but a judge can declare them null and erase their legal effects that have already taken place. This paper reviews the legal regulation of inexistent and nullity under Ecuadorian Law, as well as the rulings of the National Court of Justice regarding the issue.

  10. Nullity And Inexistence Of Legal Acts In Ecuadorian Law (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    César Coronel Jones

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Inexistence and nullity of juridical acts are basic institutionsin Ecuadorian Law. These are two different categories that have incommon the chasing of the invalidity of the juridical acts that didn’tform according to Law. Inexistent acts are deprived by the law of anylegal effect, while null acts have legal effects but a judge can declarethem null and erase their legal effects that have already taken place.This paper reviews the legal regulation of inexistent and nullity under Ecuadorian Law, as well as the rulings of the National Court of Justiceregarding the issue.

  11. 76 FR 45757 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... potentially relevant to a proceeding, or in connection with criminal law proceedings; (10) Appropriate... violation of civil or criminal law, rule, regulation, order, policy or license; and (12) An entity or person...'s Privacy Act regulations and 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(2). Federal criminal law enforcement...

  12. 76 FR 45765 - Privacy Act of 1974, as Amended

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    ... criminal law proceedings; (10) Appropriate agencies, entities, and persons, including but not limited to... relevant to a potential violation of civil or criminal law, rule, regulation, order, policy or license; and... disclosure under CFPB's Privacy Act regulations and 5 U.S.C. 552a(k)(2). Federal criminal law...

  13. 48 CFR 1552.239-70 - Rehabilitation act notice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Rehabilitation act notice. 1552.239-70 Section 1552.239-70 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... substantially to the language of this clause, including this paragraph, unless otherwise authorized by...

  14. 75 FR 58505 - Regulation Z; Truth in Lending

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-24

    ... 226 RIN No. AD 7100-AD54 Regulation Z; Truth in Lending AGENCY: Board of Governors of the Federal... comment a proposed rule to amend Regulation Z, which implements the Truth in Lending Act (TILA). The.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background A. TILA and Regulation Z Congress enacted the Truth in Lending Act...

  15. 2008 Küresel Krizinin Kökeninde Yatan Hatalar ve Dodd-Frank Kanunu Düzenlemeler(The Origin Mistakes of the 2008 Global Crisis and Dodd-Frank Act Regulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya KIRCI

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available There are various scientific publishing which explains the reasons that caused 2008 crisis to emerge, yet, it is observed that a detailed study has not been done to put forth breeding mistakes of the crisis. Whilst,any reason that effects the crisis to break out is a result of a previously done mistake(s. This study is prepared with the aims; considering to be important to prevent probable crisis to clarify the bonds between the mistakes and reasons , previously done mistakes before the crisis and reasons for crisis developed by those mistakes, contribute to satisfying the need in the literature, and to examine the precautions taken by the USA to put away the reasons for the crisis. It is obsreved that the reasons breeding the crisis are arised from a series of chain mistakes starting with liberal policies and ends in focusing on the strong regulations for the management of financial crisis policies instead of liberal policies in the post crisis period

  16. High-Thermal-Conductivity Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibante, L. P. Felipe

    2012-01-01

    Heat management with common textiles such as nylon and spandex is hindered by the poor thermal conductivity from the skin surface to cooling surfaces. This innovation showed marked improvement in thermal conductivity of the individual fibers and tubing, as well as components assembled from them. The problem is centered on improving the heat removal of the liquid-cooled ventilation garments (LCVGs) used by astronauts. The current design uses an extensive network of water-cooling tubes that introduces bulkiness and discomfort, and increases fatigue. Range of motion and ease of movement are affected as well. The current technology is the same as developed during the Apollo program of the 1960s. Tubing material is hand-threaded through a spandex/nylon mesh layer, in a series of loops throughout the torso and limbs such that there is close, form-fitting contact with the user. Usually, there is a nylon liner layer to improve comfort. Circulating water is chilled by an external heat exchanger (sublimator). The purpose of this innovation is to produce new LCVG components with improved thermal conductivity. This was addressed using nanocomposite engineering incorporating high-thermalconductivity nanoscale fillers in the fabric and tubing components. Specifically, carbon nanotubes were added using normal processing methods such as thermoplastic melt mixing (compounding twin screw extruder) and downstream processing (fiber spinning, tubing extrusion). Fibers were produced as yarns and woven into fabric cloths. The application of isotropic nanofillers can be modeled using a modified Nielsen Model for conductive fillers in a matrix based on Einstein s viscosity model. This is a drop-in technology with no additional equipment needed. The loading is limited by the ability to maintain adequate dispersion. Undispersed materials will plug filtering screens in processing equipment. Generally, the viscosity increases were acceptable, and allowed the filled polymers to still be

  17. Reference Alloy Waste Form Fabrication and Initiation of Reducing Atmosphere and Reductive Additives Study on Alloy Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.M. Frank; T.P. O' Holleran; P.A. Hahn

    2011-09-01

    This report describes the fabrication of two reference alloy waste forms, RAW-1(Re) and RAW-(Tc) using an optimized loading and heating method. The composition of the alloy materials was based on a generalized formulation to process various proposed feed streams resulting from the processing of used fuel. Waste elements are introduced into molten steel during alloy fabrication and, upon solidification, become incorporated into durable iron-based intermetallic phases of the alloy waste form. The first alloy ingot contained surrogate (non-radioactive), transition-metal fission products with rhenium acting as a surrogate for technetium. The second alloy ingot contained the same components as the first ingot, but included radioactive Tc-99 instead of rhenium. Understanding technetium behavior in the waste form is of particular importance due the longevity of Tc-99 and its mobility in the biosphere in the oxide form. RAW-1(Re) and RAW-1(Tc) are currently being used as test specimens in the comprehensive testing program investigating the corrosion and radionuclide release mechanisms of the representative alloy waste form. Also described in this report is the experimental plan to study the effects of reducing atmospheres and reducing additives to the alloy material during fabrication in an attempt to maximize the oxide content of waste streams that can be accommodated in the alloy waste form. Activities described in the experimental plan will be performed in FY12. The first aspect of the experimental plan is to study oxide formation on the alloy by introducing O2 impurities in the melt cover gas or from added oxide impurities in the feed materials. Reducing atmospheres will then be introduced to the melt cover gas in an attempt to minimize oxide formation during alloy fabrication. The second phase of the experimental plan is to investigate melting parameters associated with alloy fabrication to allow the separation of slag and alloy components of the melt.

  18. 77 FR 41728 - Plan for Periodic Review of Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    .... Atlantic Coastal Fisheries Cooperative Management Act Provisions; Fisheries of the Northeastern United... for Periodic Review of Regulations AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic...: The Regulatory Flexibility Act (RFA) requires that the National Marine Fisheries Service...

  19. Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-01-15

    This Reference Book contains a current copy of the Clean Water Act (excluding Section 404) and those regulations that implement the statutes and appear to be most relevant to US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The document is provided to DOE and contractor staff for informational purposes only and should not be interpreted as legal guidance. Updates that include important new requirements will be provided periodically. Questions concerning this Reference Book may be directed to Mark Petts, EH-231 (202/586-2609).

  20. 77 FR 54844 - High-Cost Mortgage and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Truth in Lending Act...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    ... Truth in Lending Act (Regulation Z) and Homeownership Counseling Amendments to the Real Estate... requesting comment on, among other things, proposed changes to Regulation Z (Truth in Lending) to implement amendments to the Truth in Lending Act made by the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act...