WorldWideScience

Sample records for fabrication method thereof

  1. Toughened and corrosion- and wear-resistant composite structures and fabrication methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Ripley, Edward B.; Hallman, Russell L.

    2017-06-20

    Composite structures having a reinforced material interjoined with a substrate, wherein the reinforced material comprises a compound selected from the group consisting of titanium monoboride, titanium diboride, and combinations thereof.

  2. Micro-fabricated integrated coil and magnetic circuit and method of manufacturing thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mihailovich, Robert E.; Papavasiliou, Alex P.; Mehrotra, Vivek; Stupar, Philip A.; Borwick, III, Robert L.; Ganguli, Rahul; DeNatale, Jeffrey F.

    2017-03-28

    A micro-fabricated electromagnetic device is provided for on-circuit integration. The electromagnetic device includes a core. The core has a plurality of electrically insulating layers positioned alternatingly between a plurality of magnetic layers to collectively form a continuous laminate having alternating magnetic and electrically insulating layers. The electromagnetic device includes a coil embedded in openings of the semiconductor substrate. An insulating material is positioned in the cavity and between the coil and an inner surface of the core. A method of manufacturing the electromagnetic device includes providing a semiconductor substrate having openings formed therein. Windings of a coil are electroplated and embedded in the openings. The insulating material is coated on or around an exposed surface of the coil. Alternating magnetic layers and electrically insulating layers may be micro-fabricated and electroplated as a single and substantially continuous segment on or around the insulating material.

  3. Three-dimensional stacked structured ASIC devices and methods of fabrication thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shinde, Subhash L.; Teifel, John; Flores, Richard S.; Jarecki Jr., Robert L.; Bauer, Todd

    2015-11-19

    A 3D stacked sASIC is provided that includes a plurality of 2D reconfigurable structured structured ASIC (sASIC) levels interconnected through hard-wired arrays of 3D vias. The 2D sASIC levels may contain logic, memory, analog functions, and device input/output pad circuitry. During fabrication, these 2D sASIC levels are stacked on top of each other and fused together with 3D metal vias. Such 3D vias may be fabricated as through-silicon vias (TSVs). They may connect to the back-side of the 2D sASIC level, or they may be connected to top metal pads on the front-side of the 2D sASIC level.

  4. Methods for tape fabrication of continuous filament composite parts and articles of manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weisberg, Andrew H

    2013-10-01

    A method for forming a composite structure according to one embodiment includes forming a first ply; and forming a second ply above the first ply. Forming each ply comprises: applying a bonding material to a tape, the tape comprising a fiber and a matrix, wherein the bonding material has a curing time of less than about 1 second; and adding the tape to a substrate for forming adjacent tape winds having about a constant distance therebetween. Additional systems, methods and articles of manufacture are also presented.

  5. Schottky barrier MOSFET systems and fabrication thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Welch, J.D.

    1997-09-02

    (MOS) device systems-utilizing Schottky barrier source and drain to channel region junctions are disclosed. Experimentally derived results which demonstrate operation of fabricated N-channel and P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices, and of fabricated single devices with operational characteristics similar to (CMOS) and to a non-latching (SRC) are reported. Use of essentially non-rectifying Schottky barriers in (MOS) structures involving highly doped and the like and intrinsic semiconductor to allow non-rectifying interconnection of, and electrical accessing of device regions is also disclosed. Insulator effected low leakage current device geometries and fabrication procedures therefore are taught. Selective electrical interconnection of drain to drain, source to drain, or source to source, of N-channel and/or P-channel Schottky barrier (MOSFET) devices formed on P-type, N-type and Intrinsic semiconductor allows realization of Schottky Barrier (CMOS), (MOSFET) with (MOSFET) load, balanced differential (MOSFET) device systems and inverting and non-inverting single devices with operating characteristics similar to (CMOS), which devices can be utilized in modulation, as well as in voltage controlled switching and effecting a direction of rectification. 89 figs.

  6. 16 CFR 303.24 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE TEXTILE FIBER PRODUCTS IDENTIFICATION ACT § 303.24 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products composed thereof may be...

  7. 16 CFR 300.26 - Pile fabrics and products composed thereof.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Pile fabrics and products composed thereof... CONGRESS RULES AND REGULATIONS UNDER THE WOOL PRODUCTS LABELING ACT OF 1939 Labeling § 300.26 Pile fabrics and products composed thereof. The fiber content of pile fabrics or products made thereof may be...

  8. Gyroidal mesoporous carbon materials and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiesner, Ulrich B.; Werner, Joerg G.

    2017-07-25

    The present invention relates to, inter alia, gyroidal mesoporous carbon materials and methods of use and manufacture thereof. In one embodiment, the present invention relates to a mesoporous carbon composition comprising a gyroidal mesoporous carbon having an ordered gyroidal structure and mesopores having a pore size of greater than 2 nanometers (nm) in diameter, and more particularly greater than 11 nm in diameter.

  9. Chemical microreactor and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Jankowski, Alan [Livermore, CA

    2011-08-09

    A method for forming a chemical microreactor includes forming at least one capillary microchannel in a substrate having at least one inlet and at least one outlet, integrating at least one heater into the chemical microreactor, interfacing the capillary microchannel with a liquid chemical reservoir at the inlet of the capillary microchannel, and interfacing the capillary microchannel with a porous membrane near the outlet of the capillary microchannel, the porous membrane being positioned beyond the outlet of the capillary microchannel, wherein the porous membrane has at least one catalyst material imbedded therein.

  10. Keto-isovalerate decarboxylase enzymes and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    McElvain, Jessica; O'Keefe, Daniel P.; Paul, Brian James; Payne, Mark S.; Rothman, Steven Cary; He, Hongxian

    2016-01-19

    Provided herein are polypeptides and polynucleotides encoding such polypeptides which have ketoisovalerate decarboxylase activity. Also provided are recombinant host cells comprising such polypeptides and polynucleotides and methods of use thereof.

  11. Iron aluminide knife and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sikka, Vinod K.

    1997-01-01

    Fabricating an article of manufacture having a Fe.sub.3 Al-based alloy cutting edge. The fabrication comprises the steps of casting an Fe.sub.3 Al-based alloy, extruding into rectangular cross section, rolling into a sheet at 800.degree. C. for a period of time followed by rolling at 650.degree. C., cutting the rolled sheet into an article having an edge, and grinding the edge of the article to form a cutting edge.

  12. Heat exchangers and methods of construction thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schluderberg, D.C.

    1988-01-01

    A heat exchanger is described comprising a shell having first inlet means and first outlet means for the flow of a first fluid therethrough, a plurality of tubes within the shell to provide a path for flow of a second fluid in heat exchange relation to the first fluid, second inlet means and second outlet means for flow of the second fluid to and from the tubes respectively, a tubular member concentric with at least a portion of the length of one of the tubes to define a space between the tube and the tubular member, at least one radially outwardly projecting portion on the tubular member, and a plurality of tube support means spaced apart and disposed generally perpendicular to the tube axes, wherein the tubular member is fixedly attached at one end to one of the tube support means and at the other end to an adjacent one of the tube support means, the space between the tube and the tubular member is closed to flow of both the first fluid and the second fluid, and the radially outwardly projecting portion on the tubular member extends longitudinally to allow flexing of the tubular member and expanding thereof radially outwardly during construction of the heat exchanger so as to allow insertion of the tube into the tubular member, the radially outwardly projecting portion defining a gap which contributes to the space between the tube and the tubular member. 6 figs

  13. Yeast strains and methods of use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Goddard, Matthew Robert; Gardner, Richard Clague; Anfang, Nicole

    2013-01-01

    The present invention relates to yeast strains and, in particular, to yeast stains for use in fermentation processes. The invention also relates to methods of fermentation using the yeast strains of the invention either alone or in combination with other yeast strains. The invention thither relates to methods for the selection of yeast strains suitable for fermentation cultures by screening for various metabolic products and the use of specific nutrient sources.

  14. Seal Apparatus and Methods to Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, James A. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    In some implementations, apparatus and methods are provided through which a dynamic cryogenic seal is manufactured. In some implementations, the seal includes a retainer and a spring-seal assembly, the assembly being comprised of a main spring housing and fluorine-containing polymer seals. In some implementations, either a radial seal, or an axial (or "piston seal") is provided. In some implementations, methods of manufacturing the dynamic cryogenic seal are also provided. In some implementations, the methods include assembling the components while either heated or cooled, taking advantage of thermal expansion and contraction, such that there is a strong interference fit between the components at room temperature. In some implementations, this process ensures that the weaker fluorine-containing polymer seal is forced to expand and contract with the stronger retainer and spring and is under constant preload. In some implementations, the fluorine-containing polymer is therefore fluidized and retained, and can not lift off.

  15. Quantitative method of determining beryllium or a compound thereof in a sample

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Ehler, Deborah S.; John, Kevin D.; Burrell, Anthony K.; Collis, Gavin E.; Minogue, Edel M.; Warner, Benjamin P.

    2010-08-24

    A method of determining beryllium or a beryllium compound thereof in a sample, includes providing a sample suspected of comprising beryllium or a compound thereof, extracting beryllium or a compound thereof from the sample by dissolving in a solution, adding a fluorescent indicator to the solution to thereby bind any beryllium or a compound thereof to the fluorescent indicator, and determining the presence or amount of any beryllium or a compound thereof in the sample by measuring fluorescence.

  16. Transparent ceramics and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollingsworth, Joel P.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Seeley, Zachary M.; Soules, Thomas F.

    2012-12-25

    A method for forming a transparent ceramic preform in one embodiment includes forming a suspension of oxide particles in a solvent, wherein the suspension includes a dispersant, with the proviso that the suspension does not include a gelling agent; and uniformly curing the suspension for forming a preform of gelled suspension. A method according to another embodiment includes creating a mixture of inorganic particles, a solvent and a dispersant, the inorganic particles having a mean diameter of less than about 2000 nm; agitating the mixture; adding the mixture to a mold; and curing the mixture in the mold for gelling the mixture, with the proviso that no gelling agent is added to the mixture.

  17. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie

    2017-01-19

    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  18. Bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Basset, Jean-Marie; Samantaray, Manoja K.; Dey, Raju; Abou-Hamad, Edy; Kavitake, Santosh

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein are bi-metallic catalysts, methods of making, and uses thereof. In some embodiments, the bi-metallic catalyst contains two different metal catalysts that can be used in hydrocarbon metathesis reactions, in some embodiments, the methods of making the bi-metallic catalysts can include two steps utilizing a surface organometallic chemistry approach in which the two different metal catalysts are sequentially grafted onto a support.

  19. Superconducting wires and methods of making thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Xingchen; Sumption, Michael D.; Peng, Xuan

    2018-03-13

    Disclosed herein are superconducting wires. The superconducting wires can comprise a metallic matrix and at least one continuous subelement embedded in the matrix. Each subelement can comprise a non-superconducting core, a superconducting layer coaxially disposed around the non-superconducting core, and a barrier layer coaxially disposed around the superconducting layer. The superconducting layer can comprise a plurality of Nb.sub.3Sn grains stabilized by metal oxide particulates disposed therein. The Nb.sub.3Sn grains can have an average grain size of from 5 nm to 90 nm (for example, from 15 nm to 30 nm). The superconducting wire can have a high-field critical current density (J.sub.c) of at least 5,000 A/mm.sup.2 at a temperature of 4.2 K in a magnetic field of 12 T. Also described are superconducting wire precursors that can be heat treated to prepare superconducting wires, as well as methods of making superconducting wires.

  20. Engineered enzymatically active bacteriophages and methods of uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, James J [Newton, MA; Kobayashi, Hideki [Yokohama, JP; Kearn, Mads [Ottawa, CA; Araki, Michihiro [Minatoku, JP; Friedland, Ari [Boston, MA; Lu, Timothy Kuan-Ta [Palo Alto, CA

    2012-05-22

    The present invention provides engineered bacteriophages that express at least one biofilm degrading enzyme on their surface and uses thereof for degrading bacterial biofilms. The invention also provides genetically engineered bacteriophages expressing the biofilm degrading enzymes and proteins necessary for the phage to replicate in different naturally occurring biofilm producing bacteria. The phages of the invention allow a method of biofilm degradation by the use of one or only a few administration of the phage because the system using these phages is self perpetuating, and capable of degrading biofilm even when the concentration of bacteria within the biofilm is low.

  1. Water oxidation catalysts and methods of use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hill, Craig L.; Gueletii, Yurii V.; Musaev, Djamaladdin G.; Yin, Qiushi; Botar, Bogdan

    2017-12-05

    Homogeneous water oxidation catalysts (WOCs) for the oxidation of water to produce hydrogen ions and oxygen, and methods of making and using thereof are described herein. In a preferred embodiment, the WOC is a polyoxometalate WOC which is hydrolytically stable, oxidatively stable, and thermally stable. The WOC oxidized waters in the presence of an oxidant. The oxidant can be generated photochemically, using light, such as sunlight, or electrochemically using a positively biased electrode. The hydrogen ions are subsequently reduced to form hydrogen gas, for example, using a hydrogen evolution catalyst (HEC). The hydrogen gas can be used as a fuel in combustion reactions and/or in hydrogen fuel cells. The catalysts described herein exhibit higher turn over numbers, faster turn over frequencies, and/or higher oxygen yields than prior art catalysts.

  2. Ceramic nanostructures and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ripley, Edward B [Knoxville, TN; Seals, Roland D [Oak Ridge, TN; Morrell, Jonathan S [Knoxville, TN

    2009-11-24

    Structures and methods for the fabrication of ceramic nanostructures. Structures include metal particles, preferably comprising copper, disposed on a ceramic substrate. The structures are heated, preferably in the presence of microwaves, to a temperature that softens the metal particles and preferably forms a pool of molten ceramic under the softened metal particle. A nano-generator is created wherein ceramic material diffuses through the molten particle and forms ceramic nanostructures on a polar site of the metal particle. The nanostructures may comprise silica, alumina, titania, or compounds or mixtures thereof.

  3. Neutron absorbing article and method for manufacture thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forsyth, P.F.; Mcmurtry, C.H.; Naum, R.G.

    1980-01-01

    A composite, neutron absorbing, coated article, suitable for installation in storage racks for spent nuclear fuel and for other neutron absorbing applications, includes a backing member, preferably of flexible material such as woven fiberglass cloth, a synthetic organic polymeric coating or a plurality of such coatings on the backing member, preferably of cured phenolic resin, such as phenol formaldehyde or trimethylolphenol formaldehyde and boron carbide particles held to the backing member by the cured coating or a plurality of such coatings. Also within the invention is a method for the manufacture of the neutron absorbing coated article and the use of such an article. In a preferred method the backing member is first coated on both sides thereof with a filling coating of thermosettable liquid phenolic resin, which is then partially cured to solid state, one side of the backing member is then coated with a mixture of thermosettable liquid resin and finely divided boron carbide particles and the resin is partially cured to solid state, the other side is coated with a similar mixture, larger boron carbide particles are applied to it and the resin is partially cured to solid state, such side of the article is coated with thermosettable liquid phenolic resin, the resin is partially cured to solid state and such resin, including previously applied partially cured resins, is cured to final cross-linked and permanently set form

  4. Vacuum vessel of thermonuclear device and manufacturing method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurita, Genichi; Nagashima, Keisuke; Uchida, Takaho; Shibui, Masanao; Ebisawa, Katsuyuki; Nakagawa, Satoshi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a vacuum vessel of a thermonuclear device using, as a material of a plasma vacuum vessel, a material to be less activated and having excellent strength as well as a manufacturing method thereof. Namely, the vacuum vessel is made of titanium or a titanium alloy. In addition, a liner layer comprising a manganese alloy, nickel alloy, nickel-chromium alloy or aluminum or aluminum alloy is formed. With such a constitution, the wall substrate made of titanium or a titanium alloy can be isolated by the liner from hydrogen or plasmas. As a result, occlusion of hydrogen to titanium or the titanium alloy can be prevented thereby enabling to prevent degradation of the material of the wall substrate of the vacuum vessel. In addition, since the liner layer has relatively high electric resistance, a torus circumferential resistance value required for plasma ignition can be ensured by using it together with the vessel wall made of titanium alloy. (I.S.)

  5. Nanoporous Insulating Oxide Deionization Device Having Asymmetric Electrodes and Method of Use Thereof

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — A nanoporous insulating oxide deionization device, method of manufacture and method of use thereof for deionizing a water supply (such as a hard water supply), for...

  6. Devices and methods of operation thereof for providing stable flow for centrifugal compressors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skoch, Gary J. (Inventor); Stevens, Mark A. (Inventor); Jett, Thomas A. (Inventor)

    2008-01-01

    Centrifugal compressor flow stabilizing devices and methods of operation thereof are disclosed that act upon the flow field discharging from the impeller of a centrifugal compressor and modify the flow field ahead of the diffuser vanes such that flow conditions contributing to rotating stall and surge are reduced or even eliminated. In some embodiments, shaped rods and methods of operation thereof are disclosed, whereas in other embodiments reverse-tangent air injection devices and methods are disclosed.

  7. Laser readable thermoluminescent radiation dosimeters and methods for producing thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braunlich, P.F.; Tetzlaff, W.

    1989-01-01

    Thin layer thermoluminescent radiation dosimeters for use in laser readable dosimetry systems, and methods of fabricating such thin layer dosimeters are disclosed. The thin layer thermoluminescent radiation dosimeters include a thin substrate made from glass or other inorganic materials capable of withstanding high temperatures and high heating rates. A thin layer of a thermoluminescent phosphor material is heat bonded to the substrate using an inorganic binder such as glass. The dosimeters can be mounted in frames and cases for ease in handling. Methods of the invention include mixing a suitable phosphor composition and binder, both being in particulate or granular form. The mixture is then deposited onto a substrate such as by using mask printing techniques. The dosimeters are thereafter heated to fuse and bond the binder and phosphor to the substrate. 34 figs

  8. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Wit, de, P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium fulvum, wherein said plant is not a tomato or tobacco plant. The invention also relates to methods for screening the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to at least one pathogen, wherein said path...

  9. Method for increasing the resistance of a plant or a part thereof to a pathogen, method for screening the resistance of a plant or part thereof to a pathogen, and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wit, de P.; Stergiopoulos, I.; Kema, G.H.J.

    2011-01-01

    (EN)The present invention relates to the field of plant biotechnology. More in particular, the present invention relates to methods for increasing the resistance of a plant or part thereof that is susceptible to infection with a pathogen comprising an ortholog of the Avr4 protein of Cladosporium

  10. Method for fabricating boron carbide articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ardary, Z.; Reynolds, C.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a method for fabricating an essentially uniformly dense boron carbide article of a length-to-diameter or width ratio greater than 2 to 1 comprising the steps of providing a plurality of article segments to be joined together to form the article with each of said article segments having a length-to-diameter or width ratio less than 1.5 to 1. Each segment is fabricated by hot pressing a composition consisting of boron carbide powder at a pressure and temperature effective to provide the article segment with a density greater than about 85% of theoretical density, providing each article segment with parallel planar end surfaces, placing a plurality of said article segments in a hot-pressing die in a line with the planar surfaces of adjacent article segments being disposed in intimate contact, and hot pressing the aligned article segments at a temperature and pressure effective to provide said article with a density over the length thereof in the range of about 94 to 98 percent theoretical density and greater than the density provided in the discrete hot pressing of each of the article segments and to provide a bond between adjacent article segments with said bond being at least equivalent in hardness, strength and density to a remainder of said article

  11. Methods for producing nanoparticles using palladium salt and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Siu-Wai; Liang, Hongying

    2015-12-01

    The disclosed subject matter is directed to a method for producing nanoparticles, as well as the nanoparticles produced by this method. In one embodiment, the nanoparticles produced by the disclosed method have a high defect density.

  12. Multifunctional Graphene-Silicone Elastomer Nanocomposite, Method of Making the Same, and Uses Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Shuyang (Inventor); Aksay, Ilhan A. (Inventor); Prud'Homme, Robert K. (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    A nanocomposite composition having a silicone elastomer matrix having therein a filler loading of greater than 0.05 wt %, based on total nanocomposite weight, wherein the filler is functional graphene sheets (FGS) having a surface area of from 300 sq m/g to 2630 sq m2/g; and a method for producing the nanocomposite and uses thereof.

  13. Alkaline resistant phosphate glasses and method of preparation and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brow, Richard K.; Reis, Signo T.; Velez, Mariano; Day, Delbert E.

    2010-01-26

    A substantially alkaline resistant calcium-iron-phosphate (CFP) glass and methods of making and using thereof. In one application, the CFP glass is drawn into a fiber and dispersed in cement to produce glass fiber reinforced concrete (GFRC) articles having the high compressive strength of concrete with the high impact, flexural and tensile strength associated with glass fibers.

  14. Self-assembling membranes and related methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capito, Ramille M; Azevedo, Helena S; Stupp, Samuel L

    2013-08-20

    The present invention relates to self-assembling membranes. In particular, the present invention provides self-assembling membranes configured for securing and/or delivering bioactive agents. In some embodiments, the self-assembling membranes are used in the treatment of diseases, and related methods (e.g., diagnostic methods, research methods, drug screening).

  15. Inorganic Metal Oxide/Organic Polymer Nanocomposites And Method Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gash, Alexander E.; Satcher, Joe H.; Simpson, Randy

    2004-11-16

    A synthetic method for preparation of hybrid inorganic/organic energetic nanocomposites is disclosed herein. The method employs the use of stable metal in organic salts and organic solvents as well as an organic polymer with good solubility in the solvent system to produce novel nanocomposite energetic materials. In addition, fuel metal powders (particularly those that are oxophilic) can be incorporated into composition. This material has been characterized by thermal methods, energy-filtered transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM), N.sub.2 adsoprtion/desorption methods, and Fourier-Transform (FT-IR) spectroscopy. According to these characterization methods the organic polymer phase fills the nanopores of the material, providing superb mixing of the component phases in the energetic nanocomposite.

  16. Plants with modified lignin content and methods for production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Qiao; Chen, Fang; Dixon, Richard A.

    2014-08-05

    The invention provides methods for decreasing lignin content and for increasing the level of fermentable carbohydrates in plants by down-regulation of the NST transcription factor. Nucleic acid constructs for down-regulation of NST are described. Transgenic plants are provided that comprise reduced lignin content. Plants described herein may be used, for example, as improved biofuel feedstock and as highly digestible forage crops. Methods for processing plant tissue and for producing ethanol by utilizing such plants are also provided.

  17. Micropores and methods of making and using thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perroud, Thomas D.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Meagher, Robert J.

    2016-08-02

    Disclosed herein are methods of making micropores of a desired height and/or width between two isotropic wet etched features in a substrate which comprises single-level isotropic wet etching the two features using an etchant and a mask distance that is less than 2.times. a set etch depth. Also disclosed herein are methods using the micropores and microfluidic devices comprising the micropores.

  18. In-liquid plasma devices and methods of use thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min Suk

    2017-08-10

    Devices and methods for generating a plasma in a liquid are provided. A low- dielectric material can be placed in contact with the liquid to form an interface a distance from an anode. A voltage can be applied across the anode and a cathode submerged in the liquid to produce the plasma. A variety of devices are provided, including for continuous operation. The devices and methods can be used to generate a plasma in a variety of liquids, for example for water treatment, hydrocarbon reformation, or synthesis of nanomaterial.

  19. In-liquid plasma devices and methods of use thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Cha, Min; Hamdan, Ahmad Bassam

    2017-01-01

    Devices and methods for generating a plasma in a liquid are provided. A low- dielectric material can be placed in contact with the liquid to form an interface a distance from an anode. A voltage can be applied across the anode and a cathode

  20. Non-cementitious compositions comprising vaterite and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devenney, Martin; Fernandez, Miguel; Morgan, Samuel O.

    2015-09-15

    Non-cementitious compositions and products are provided. The compositions of the invention include a carbonate additive comprising vaterite such as reactive vaterite. Additional aspects of the invention include methods of making and using the non-cementitious compositions and products.

  1. Nanoporous carbon actuator and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen [San Leandro, CA; Baumann, Theodore F [Discovery Bay, CA; Shao, Lihua [Karlsruhe, DE; Weissmueller, Joerg [Stutensee, DE

    2012-07-31

    An electrochemically driveable actuator according to one embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition capable of exhibiting charge-induced reversible strain when wetted by an electrolyte and a voltage is applied thereto. An electrochemically driven actuator according to another embodiment includes a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted by an electrolyte; and a mechanism for causing charge-induced reversible strain of the composition. A method for electrochemically actuating an object according to one embodiment includes causing charge-induced reversible strain of a nanoporous carbon aerogel composition wetted with an electrolyte to actuate the object by the strain.

  2. 14 CFR 23.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 23.605 Section 23.605... Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a... fabrication method must be substantiated by a test program. [Doc. No. 4080, 29 FR 17955, Dec. 18, 1964; 30 FR...

  3. Gaussian beam profile shaping apparatus, method therefore and evaluation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickey, F.M.; Holswade, S.C.; Romero, L.A.

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus maps a Gaussian beam into a beam with a uniform irradiance profile by exploiting the Fourier transform properties of lenses. A phase element imparts a design phase onto an input beam and the output optical field from a lens is then the Fourier transform of the input beam and the phase function from the phase element. The phase element is selected in accordance with a dimensionless parameter which is dependent upon the radius of the incoming beam, the desired spot shape, the focal length of the lens and the wavelength of the input beam. This dimensionless parameter can also be used to evaluate the quality of a system. In order to control the radius of the incoming beam, optics such as a telescope can be employed. The size of the target spot and the focal length can be altered by exchanging the transform lens, but the dimensionless parameter will remain the same. The quality of the system, and hence the value of the dimensionless parameter, can be altered by exchanging the phase element. The dimensionless parameter provides design guidance, system evaluation, and indication as to how to improve a given system. 27 figs

  4. Method for building a nuclear power plant and layout thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsuura, Tadashi; Ushiroda, Kouchi; Tajiri, Akinori; Yoshida, Naoto; Takeda, Masakado; Makita, Tasuo; Maezawa, Sumito; Yoshizaki, Masatoshi.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention relates to a technical field of building a nuclear power plant, and its technical issue is to reduce the scale of investment for cranes to be used in building a plurality of nuclear power plant units. In order to resolve the technical issue, in the present invention, a nuclear power plant building method is employed in building a plurality of nuclear plant units in which while an earlier building unit out of the plurality of units which is started to be built earlier is being built, a later building unit that is to be started to be built later than the earlier building unit is started to be built, and in which a common mobile crane is adapted to move between a crane operating area for the earlier building unit and a crane operating area for the later building unit so that the common mobile crane ban be used in building the plurality of units. The present invention is primarily intended for the construction of a nuclear power plant. (author) figs

  5. Mixed oxide fuel pellet and manufacturing method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuda, Ryoichi; Ito, Ken-ichi; Masuda, Hiroshi.

    1993-01-01

    In a method of manufacturing nuclear fuel pellets which comprises compression molding a mixed oxide powder containing UO 2 and PuO 2 followed by sintering, a sintering agent having a composition comprising about 40 to 80 wt% of SiO 2 and the balance of Al 2 O 3 is mixed to a mixed oxide at a ratio of about 40ppm to about 0.5 wt% based on the total amount of the mixed oxide and the sintering agent, to prepare a mixture. The mixture is molded into a compression product and then sintered at a weakly acidic atmosphere at a temperature of about 1500degC to 1800degC. With such procedures, the sintering agent forms an eutectic product of a single liquid phase, PuO 2 is dispersed over the entire region of the pellet by way of the liquid phase, formation of a solid solution phase is promoted to annihilate a free PuO 2 phase. Further, growth of crystal grains is promoted. Accordingly, since the MOX fuel pellets prepared according to the present invention have a uniform solid solution state, and no free PuO 2 phase remains, increase of FP gas emission due to local nuclear fission of Pu can be avoided. (T.M.)

  6. 14 CFR 29.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 29.605 Section 29.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 29.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process...

  7. 14 CFR 27.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 27.605 Section 27.605... STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Design and Construction General § 27.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce consistently sound structures. If a fabrication process (such as...

  8. 14 CFR 25.605 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 25.605 Section 25.605... STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Design and Construction General § 25.605 Fabrication methods. (a) The methods of fabrication used must produce a consistently sound structure. If a fabrication process...

  9. Method for fabrication of high temperature superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, Uthamalingam [Hinsdale, IL; Ma, Beihai [Naperville, IL; Miller, Dean [Darien, IL

    2009-07-14

    A layered article of manufacture and a method of manufacturing same is disclosed. A substrate has a biaxially textured MgO crystalline layer having the c-axes thereof inclined with respect to the plane of the substrate deposited thereon. A layer of one or more of YSZ or Y.sub.2O.sub.3 and then a layer of CeO.sub.2 is deposited on the MgO. A crystalline superconductor layer with the c-axes thereof normal to the plane of the substrate is deposited on the CeO.sub.2 layer. Deposition of the MgO layer on the substrate is by the inclined substrate deposition method developed at Argonne National Laboratory. Preferably, the MgO has the c-axes thereof inclined with respect to the normal to the substrate in the range of from about 10.degree. to about 40.degree. and YBCO superconductors are used.

  10. 14 CFR 31.35 - Fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fabrication methods. 31.35 Section 31.35 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL AVIATION ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: MANNED FREE BALLOONS Design Construction § 31.35 Fabrication methods. The methods of fabrication...

  11. Bulk superhard B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yusheng; He, Duanwei

    2004-07-06

    Bulk, superhard, B-C-N nanocomposite compact and method for preparing thereof. The bulk, superhard, nanocomposite compact is a well-sintered compact and includes nanocrystalline grains of at least one high-pressure phase of B-C-N surrounded by amorphous diamond-like carbon grain boundaries. The bulk compact has a Vicker's hardness of about 41-68 GPa. It is prepared by ball milling a mixture of graphite and hexagonal boron nitride, encapsulating the ball-milled mixture, and sintering the encapsulated ball-milled mixture at a pressure of about 5-25 GPa and at a temperature of about 1000-2500 K.

  12. Method of improving the green strength of nuclear fuel pellets, and products thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Larson, R.I.; Brassfield, H.C.

    1984-01-01

    This invention provides a method of preparing an admixture comprising a particulate material and a fugitive binder for producing green pellets free of flaws and having improved strength, comprising the steps of: a) fluidizing and agitating a mass of particulate material with a fluidized bed system; b) adding a fugitive binder to the fluidizing and agitating mass of particulate material and blending the binder with the particulate material, said fugitive binder being comprised of ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, ammonium bicarbonate, and mixtures thereof; c) aging the blended binder and particulate material for a period of greater than 48 hours; and d) forming the resulting aged blend by pressing into a green body

  13. Fabrication of superhydrophobic cotton fabrics using crosslinking polymerization method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Bin; Chen, Zhenxing; Sun, Yongli; Yang, Huawei; Zhang, Hongjie; Dou, Haozhen; Zhang, Luhong

    2018-05-01

    With the aim of removing and recycling oil and organic solvent from water, a facile and low-cost crosslinking polymerization method was first applied on surface modification of cotton fabrics for water/oil separation. Micro-nano hierarchical rough structure was constructed by triethylenetetramine (TETA) and trimesoyl chloride (TMC) that formed a polymeric layer on the surface of the fabric and anchored Al2O3 nanoparticles firmly between the fabric surface and the polymer layer. Superhydrophobic property was further obtained through self-assembly grafting of hydrophobic groups on the rough surface. The as-prepared cotton fabric exhibited superoleophilicity in atmosphere and superhydrophobicity both in atmosphere and under oil with the water contact angle of 153° and 152° respectively. Water/oil separation test showed that the as-prepared cotton fabric can handle with various oil-water mixtures with a high separation efficiency over 99%. More importantly, the separation efficiency remained above 98% over 20 cycles of reusing without losing its superhydrophobicity which demonstrated excellent reusability in oil/water separation process. Moreover, the as-prepared cotton fabric possessed good contamination resistance ability and self-cleaning property. Simulation washing process test showed the superhydrophobic cotton fabric maintained high value of water contact angle above 150° after 100 times washing, indicating great stability and durability. In summary, this work provides a brand-new way to surface modification of cotton fabric and makes it a promising candidate material for oil/water separation.

  14. Methods for controlling pore morphology in aerogels using electric fields and products thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.; Olson, Tammy Y.; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Rose, Klint A.

    2017-12-16

    In one embodiment, an aerogel or xerogel includes column structures of a material having minor pores therein and major pores devoid of the material positioned between the column structures, where longitudinal axes of the major pores are substantially parallel to one another. In another embodiment, a method includes heating a sol including aerogel or xerogel precursor materials to cause gelation thereof to form an aerogel or xerogel and exposing the heated sol to an electric field, wherein the electric field causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation, which is retained by the aerogel or xerogel. In one approach, an aerogel has elongated pores extending between a material arranged in column structures having structural characteristics of being formed from a sol exposed to an electric field that causes orientation of a microstructure of the sol during gelation which is retained by the elongated pores of the aerogel.

  15. Nanocrystal thin film fabrication methods and apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kagan, Cherie R.; Kim, David K.; Choi, Ji-Hyuk; Lai, Yuming

    2018-01-09

    Nanocrystal thin film devices and methods for fabricating nanocrystal thin film devices are disclosed. The nanocrystal thin films are diffused with a dopant such as Indium, Potassium, Tin, etc. to reduce surface states. The thin film devices may be exposed to air during a portion of the fabrication. This enables fabrication of nanocrystal-based devices using a wider range of techniques such as photolithography and photolithographic patterning in an air environment.

  16. A facile method to fabricate superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Ming; Wang, Shuliang; Wang, Chengyu; Li, Jian

    2012-11-01

    A facile and novel method for fabricating superhydrophobic cotton fabrics is described in the present work. The superhydrophobic surface has been prepared by utilizing cationic poly (dimethyldiallylammonium chloride) and silica particles together with subsequent modification of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) trimethoxysilane. The size distribution of silica particles was measured by Particle Size Analyzer. The cotton textiles before and after treatment were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The wetting behavior of cotton samples was investigated by water contact angle measurement. Moreover, the superhydrophobic durability of coated cotton textiles has been evaluated by exposure, immersion and washing tests. The results show that the treated cotton fabrics exhibited excellent chemical stability and outstanding non-wettability with the WCA of 155 ± 2°, which offers an opportunity to accelerate the large-scale production of superhydrophobic textiles materials for new industrial applications.

  17. MEMS-based fuel cells with integrated catalytic fuel processor and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F [Livermore, CA; Morse, Jeffrey D [Martinez, CA; Upadhye, Ravindra S [Pleasanton, CA; Havstad, Mark A [Davis, CA

    2011-08-09

    Described herein is a means to incorporate catalytic materials into the fuel flow field structures of MEMS-based fuel cells, which enable catalytic reforming of a hydrocarbon based fuel, such as methane, methanol, or butane. Methods of fabrication are also disclosed.

  18. Laser target fabrication, structure and method for its fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farnum, Eugene H.; Fries, R. Jay

    1985-01-01

    The disclosure is directed to a laser target structure and its method of fabrication. The target structure comprises a target plate containing an orifice across which a pair of crosshairs are affixed. A microsphere is affixed to the crosshairs and enclosed by at least one hollow shell comprising two hemispheres attached together and to the crosshairs so that the microsphere is juxtapositioned at the center of the shell.

  19. Method of fabricating composite superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koike, Y.; Shiraki, H.; Suzuki, E.; Yoshida, M.

    1977-01-01

    A method of making stabilized superconductors of a composition such as Nb 3 Sn is disclosed. The method includes forming a stock product comprising a tin base alloy as a core with a copper jacket and having a niobium tube clad thereon. The stock product is then embedded in a good thermally and electrically conducting matrix which is then coreduced until the desired size is obtained. This cold worked product is then submitted to a heat treatment to form superconductors of Nb 3 Sn

  20. Superconducting magnet and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israelsson, Ulf E. (Inventor); Strayer, Donald M. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A method of trapping a field in a block of superconductor material, includes providing (i) a block of material defining a bore, (ii) a high permeability core within the bore that defines a low reluctance path through the bore, (iii) a high permeability external structure on the exterior of the block of material that defines a low reluctance path between opposite ends of the core, and (iv) an electromagnet configured to apply a magnetic field around the high permeability core. The method proceeds by energizing the electromagnet to produce an applied magnetic field around the high permeability core, cooling the block of material sufficiently to render the block of material superconducting, de-energizing the electromagnet to result in a trapped magnetic field, and at least partially removing the low reluctance path defined by the core and the external structure in order to increase the magnetic flux density of the trapped magnetic field.

  1. Hollow fiber structures, methods of use thereof, methods of making, and pressure-retarded processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Lieu Ngoc; Bettahalli, Narasimha Murthy Srivatsa; Nunes, Suzana Pereira; Chung, Neal Tai-Shung

    2016-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for composite materials, methods of making composite materials, methods of using composite materials, and the like. In particular, the present application relates to hollow fibers and to pressure-retarded osmosis systems comprising said fibers. The hollow fibers have an inside layer and an outside layer, wherein the outside layer covers an outside surface of the inside layer, wherein the inside layer forms a boundary around the lumen, wherein the inside layer includes a bi-layer structure, wherein the bi-layer structure includes a sponge-like layer and a finger-like layer, wherein the sponge-like layer is disposed closer to the lumen of the hollow fiber and the finger-like layer is disposed on the sponge-like layer on the side opposite the lumen, wherein the outside layer includes a polyamide layer.

  2. Hollow fiber structures, methods of use thereof, methods of making, and pressure-retarded processes

    KAUST Repository

    Le, Lieu Ngoc

    2016-12-08

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for composite materials, methods of making composite materials, methods of using composite materials, and the like. In particular, the present application relates to hollow fibers and to pressure-retarded osmosis systems comprising said fibers. The hollow fibers have an inside layer and an outside layer, wherein the outside layer covers an outside surface of the inside layer, wherein the inside layer forms a boundary around the lumen, wherein the inside layer includes a bi-layer structure, wherein the bi-layer structure includes a sponge-like layer and a finger-like layer, wherein the sponge-like layer is disposed closer to the lumen of the hollow fiber and the finger-like layer is disposed on the sponge-like layer on the side opposite the lumen, wherein the outside layer includes a polyamide layer.

  3. Polymorphous computing fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolinski, Christophe Czeslaw [Los Alamos, NM; Gokhale, Maya B [Los Alamos, NM; McCabe, Kevin Peter [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-01-18

    Fabric-based computing systems and methods are disclosed. A fabric-based computing system can include a polymorphous computing fabric that can be customized on a per application basis and a host processor in communication with said polymorphous computing fabric. The polymorphous computing fabric includes a cellular architecture that can be highly parameterized to enable a customized synthesis of fabric instances for a variety of enhanced application performances thereof. A global memory concept can also be included that provides the host processor random access to all variables and instructions associated with the polymorphous computing fabric.

  4. Method to fabricate hollow microneedle arrays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kravitz, Stanley H [Placitas, NM; Ingersoll, David [Albuquerque, NM; Schmidt, Carrie [Los Lunas, NM; Flemming, Jeb [Albuquerque, NM

    2006-11-07

    An inexpensive and rapid method for fabricating arrays of hollow microneedles uses a photoetchable glass. Furthermore, the glass hollow microneedle array can be used to form a negative mold for replicating microneedles in biocompatible polymers or metals. These microneedle arrays can be used to extract fluids from plants or animals. Glucose transport through these hollow microneedles arrays has been found to be orders of magnitude more rapid than natural diffusion.

  5. Fabric circuits and method of manufacturing fabric circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Andrew W. (Inventor); Dobbins, Justin A. (Inventor); Scully, Robert C. (Inventor); Trevino, Robert C. (Inventor); Lin, Greg Y. (Inventor); Fink, Patrick W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    A flexible, fabric-based circuit comprises a non-conductive flexible layer of fabric and a conductive flexible layer of fabric adjacent thereto. A non-conductive thread, an adhesive, and/or other means may be used for attaching the conductive layer to the non-conductive layer. In some embodiments, the layers are attached by a computer-driven embroidery machine at pre-determined portions or locations in accordance with a pre-determined attachment layout before automated cutting. In some other embodiments, an automated milling machine or a computer-driven laser using a pre-designed circuit trace as a template cuts the conductive layer so as to separate an undesired portion of the conductive layer from a desired portion of the conductive layer. Additional layers of conductive fabric may be attached in some embodiments to form a multi-layer construct.

  6. Microelectromechanical resonator and method for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wittwer, Jonathan W [Albuquerque, NM; Olsson, Roy H [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-11-10

    A method is disclosed for the robust fabrication of a microelectromechanical (MEM) resonator. In this method, a pattern of holes is formed in the resonator mass with the position, size and number of holes in the pattern being optimized to minimize an uncertainty .DELTA.f in the resonant frequency f.sub.0 of the MEM resonator due to manufacturing process variations (e.g. edge bias). A number of different types of MEM resonators are disclosed which can be formed using this method, including capacitively transduced Lame, wineglass and extensional resonators, and piezoelectric length-extensional resonators.

  7. Methods for fabrication of flexible hybrid electronics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, Robert A.; Mei, Ping; Krusor, Brent; Ready, Steve E.; Zhang, Yong; Schwartz, David E.; Pierre, Adrien; Doris, Sean E.; Russo, Beverly; Kor, Siv; Veres, Janos

    2017-08-01

    Printed and flexible hybrid electronics is an emerging technology with potential applications in smart labels, wearable electronics, soft robotics, and prosthetics. Printed solution-based materials are compatible with plastic film substrates that are flexible, soft, and stretchable, thus enabling conformal integration with non-planar objects. In addition, manufacturing by printing is scalable to large areas and is amenable to low-cost sheet-fed and roll-to-roll processes. FHE includes display and sensory components to interface with users and environments. On the system level, devices also require electronic circuits for power, memory, signal conditioning, and communications. Those electronic components can be integrated onto a flexible substrate by either assembly or printing. PARC has developed systems and processes for realizing both approaches. This talk presents fabrication methods with an emphasis on techniques recently developed for the assembly of off-the-shelf chips. A few examples of systems fabricated with this approach are also described.

  8. Nanowires and nanostructures fabrication using template methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mátéfi-Tempfli, Stefan; Mátéfi-Tempfli, M.; Vlad, A.

    2009-01-01

    One of the great challenges of today is to find reliable techniques for the fabrication of nanomaterials and nanostructures. Methods based on template synthesis and on self organization are the most promising due to their easiness and low cost. This paper focuses on the electrochemical synthesis ...... of nanowires and nanostructures using nanoporous host materials such as supported anodic aluminum considering it as a key template for nanowires based devices. New ways are opened for applications by combining such template synthesis methods with nanolithographic techniques....

  9. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2008-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  10. Optical device comprising a cantilever and method of fabrication and use thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Iannuzzi, Davide; Deladi, S.; Elwenspoek, Michael Curt

    2011-01-01

    The present invention provides an optical device, comprising an optical fiber and a cantilever that is arranged on an end of the optical fiber; The cantilever may be an integral part of the optical fiber, and may have a length that is substantially equal to a diameter of the optical fiber.

  11. Method of fabricating zirconium metal for use in composite type fuel cans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imahashi, Hiromichi; Inagaki, Masatoshi; Akabori, Kimihiko; Tada, Naofumi; Yasuda, Tetsuro.

    1985-01-01

    Purpose: To mass produce zirconium metal for fuel cans with less radiation hardening. Method: Zirconium sponges as raw material are inserted in a hearth mold and a procedure of melting the zirconium sponges portionwise by using a melting furnace having electron beams as a heat source while moving the hearth is repeated at least for once. Then, the rod-like ingot after melting is melted again in a vacuum or inert gas atmosphere into an ingot of a low oxygen density capable of fabrication. A composite fuel can billet is formed by using the thus obtained zirconium ingot and a zircalloy, and a predetermined composite type fuel can is manufactured by way of hot extrusion and pipe drawing fabrication. The raw material usable herein is zirconium sponge with an oxygen density of 400 ppm or higher and the content of impurity other than oxygen is between 1000 - 5000 ppm in total, or the molten material thereof. (Kamimura, M.)

  12. Method of fabricating a cooled electronic system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chainer, Timothy J; Gaynes, Michael A; Graybill, David P; Iyengar, Madhusudan K; Kamath, Vinod; Kochuparambil, Bejoy J; Schmidt, Roger R; Schultz, Mark D; Simco, Daniel P; Steinke, Mark E

    2014-02-11

    A method of fabricating a liquid-cooled electronic system is provided which includes an electronic assembly having an electronics card and a socket with a latch at one end. The latch facilitates securing of the card within the socket. The method includes providing a liquid-cooled cold rail at the one end of the socket, and a thermal spreader to couple the electronics card to the cold rail. The thermal spreader includes first and second thermal transfer plates coupled to first and second surfaces on opposite sides of the card, and thermally conductive extensions extending from end edges of the plates, which couple the respective transfer plates to the liquid-cooled cold rail. The extensions are disposed to the sides of the latch, and the card is securable within or removable from the socket using the latch without removing the cold rail or the thermal spreader.

  13. Sacrificial template method of fabricating a nanotube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Peidong [Berkeley, CA; He, Rongrui [Berkeley, CA; Goldberger, Joshua [Berkeley, CA; Fan, Rong [El Cerrito, CA; Wu, Yi-Ying [Albany, CA; Li, Deyu [Albany, CA; Majumdar, Arun [Orinda, CA

    2007-05-01

    Methods of fabricating uniform nanotubes are described in which nanotubes were synthesized as sheaths over nanowire templates, such as using a chemical vapor deposition process. For example, single-crystalline zinc oxide (ZnO) nanowires are utilized as templates over which gallium nitride (GaN) is epitaxially grown. The ZnO templates are then removed, such as by thermal reduction and evaporation. The completed single-crystalline GaN nanotubes preferably have inner diameters ranging from 30 nm to 200 nm, and wall thicknesses between 5 and 50 nm. Transmission electron microscopy studies show that the resultant nanotubes are single-crystalline with a wurtzite structure, and are oriented along the direction. The present invention exemplifies single-crystalline nanotubes of materials with a non-layered crystal structure. Similar "epitaxial-casting" approaches could be used to produce arrays and single-crystalline nanotubes of other solid materials and semiconductors. Furthermore, the fabrication of multi-sheath nanotubes are described as well as nanotubes having multiple longitudinal segments.

  14. Process for fabrication of cermets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, Richard L [Livermore, CA

    2011-02-01

    Cermet comprising ceramic and metal components and a molten metal infiltration method and process for fabrication thereof. The light weight cermets having improved porosity, strength, durability, toughness, elasticity fabricated from presintered ceramic powder infiltrated with a molten metal or metal alloy. Alumina titanium cermets biocompatible with the human body suitable for bone and joint replacements.

  15. Method of fabricating a catalytic structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rollins, Harry W [Idaho Falls, ID; Petkovic, Lucia M [Idaho Falls, ID; Ginosar, Daniel M [Idaho Falls, ID

    2009-09-22

    A precursor to a catalytic structure comprising zinc oxide and copper oxide. The zinc oxide has a sheet-like morphology or a spherical morphology and the copper oxide comprises particles of copper oxide. The copper oxide is reduced to copper, producing the catalytic structure. The catalytic structure is fabricated by a hydrothermal process. A reaction mixture comprising a zinc salt, a copper salt, a hydroxyl ion source, and a structure-directing agent is formed. The reaction mixture is heated under confined volume conditions to produce the precursor. The copper oxide in the precursor is reduced to copper. A method of hydrogenating a carbon oxide using the catalytic structure is also disclosed, as is a system that includes the catalytic structure.

  16. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, R.F.

    1994-05-10

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05--0.1 C, 8--12 Cr, 1--5 Co, 0.5--2.0 Ni, 0.41--1.0 Mo, 0.1--0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels. 2 figures.

  17. Creep resistant, precipitation-dispersion-strengthened, martensitic stainless steel and method thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buck, Robert F.

    1994-01-01

    An iron-based, corrosion-resistant, precipitation strengthened, martensitic steel essentially free of delta ferrite for use at high temperatures has a nominal composition of 0.05-0.1 C, 8-12 Cr, 1-5 Co, 0.5-2.0 Ni, 0.41-1.0 Mo, 0.1-0.5 Ti, and the balance iron. This steel is different from other corrosion-resistant martensitic steels because its microstructure consists of a uniform dispersion of fine particles, which are very closely spaced, and which do not coarsen at high temperatures. Thus at high temperatures this steel combines the excellent creep strength of dispersion-strengthened steels, with the ease of fabricability afforded by precipitation hardenable steels.

  18. Proposed design method for large-stone asphalt and the implementation thereof in the rehabilitation of an airport pavement.

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Grobler, JE

    1992-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper addresses the development of a design procedure for large-stone asphalt, the implementation thereof in two sets of trial sections, the correlation of engineering properties obtained in the laboratory with field properties...

  19. Troger's base-based monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua; Pinnau, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide compounds derived by Troger's amine as shown below, microporous structures, membranes, methods of making said compounds, structures, and membranes, methods of use for gas separation, and the like (Formula A1).

  20. Method of Making Reaction Induced Phase Separation Membranes and Uses Thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor; Aburabie, Jamaliah Hani; Villalobos, Luis Francisco

    2017-01-01

    Provided herein are methods of making asymmetric membranes comprising a first layer and a second layer. The methods include preparing a polymeric solution comprising one or more polymers, casting the polymeric solution to form a polymeric film

  1. Troger's base-based monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ma, Xiaohua

    2017-12-28

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide compounds derived by Troger\\'s amine as shown below, microporous structures, membranes, methods of making said compounds, structures, and membranes, methods of use for gas separation, and the like (Formula A1).

  2. Method of fabricating multifilament intermetallic superconductor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marancik, W.G.; Hong, S.O.

    1987-01-01

    A method is described for the fabrication of a multifilament superconducting wire of the type A/sub 3/B where A is selected from the group consisting of Nb and V, and B is selected from the group consisting of Sn and Ga which comprises the steps of: (a) filling the center of one or more copper tubes with B or with a predominantly B-copper alloy and drawing the tubes to form copper -B wires, the ratio of B to Cu in the wire being between 10-50 weight % B; (b) cabling a plurality of the copper -B wires around a core predominantly A wire; (c) bundling a plurality of the cables of step (b) with an enveloping layer of copper; (d) drawing the assembly of step (c) to reduce its diameter to a desired size; and (e) heat treating the product of step (d) to cause B to diffuse and form A/sub 3/B at the surface of the A filaments

  3. Polyimide, dianhydride monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Pinnau, Ingo; Ghanem, Bader Saleh; Abdulhamid, Mahmoud Atef

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include, a dianhydride monomer, a polyimide, a method of making a dianhydride, a method of making a polyimide, and the like. Embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in membrane-based gas separation applications.

  4. Ceramic residue for producing cements, method for the production thereof, and cements containing same

    OpenAIRE

    Sánchez de Rojas, María Isabel; Frías, Moisés; Asensio, Eloy; Medina Martínez, César

    2014-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a ceramic residue produced from construction and demolition residues, as a puzzolanic component of cements. The invention also relates to a method for producing said ceramic residues and to another method of producing cements using said residues. This type of residue is collected in recycling plants, where it is managed. This invention facilitates a potential commercial launch.

  5. Engineered high expansion glass-ceramics having near linear thermal strain and methods thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Steve Xunhu; Rodriguez, Mark A.; Lyon, Nathanael L.

    2018-01-30

    The present invention relates to glass-ceramic compositions, as well as methods for forming such composition. In particular, the compositions include various polymorphs of silica that provide beneficial thermal expansion characteristics (e.g., a near linear thermal strain). Also described are methods of forming such compositions, as well as connectors including hermetic seals containing such compositions.

  6. Polyimide, dianhydride monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Pinnau, Ingo

    2017-11-16

    Embodiments of the present disclosure include, a dianhydride monomer, a polyimide, a method of making a dianhydride, a method of making a polyimide, and the like. Embodiments of the present disclosure can be used in membrane-based gas separation applications.

  7. Foam-based adsorbents having high adsorption capacities for recovering dissolved metals and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janke, Christopher J.; Dai, Sheng; Oyola, Yatsandra

    2015-06-02

    Foam-based adsorbents and a related method of manufacture are provided. The foam-based adsorbents include polymer foam with grafted side chains and an increased surface area per unit weight to increase the adsorption of dissolved metals, for example uranium, from aqueous solutions. A method for forming the foam-based adsorbents includes irradiating polymer foam, grafting with polymerizable reactive monomers, reacting with hydroxylamine, and conditioning with an alkaline solution. Foam-based adsorbents formed according to the present method demonstrated a significantly improved uranium adsorption capacity per unit weight over existing adsorbents.

  8. Web-based emergency response exercise management systems and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goforth, John W.; Mercer, Michael B.; Heath, Zach; Yang, Lynn I.

    2014-09-09

    According to one embodiment, a method for simulating portions of an emergency response exercise includes generating situational awareness outputs associated with a simulated emergency and sending the situational awareness outputs to a plurality of output devices. Also, the method includes outputting to a user device a plurality of decisions associated with the situational awareness outputs at a decision point, receiving a selection of one of the decisions from the user device, generating new situational awareness outputs based on the selected decision, and repeating the sending, outputting and receiving steps based on the new situational awareness outputs. Other methods, systems, and computer program products are included according to other embodiments of the invention.

  9. Synthetic antigens, radiolabelled derivatives thereof, and methods of analysis using such derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eisenhardt, W.A. Jr.; Hedaya, E.; Theodoropulos, S.

    1981-01-01

    This patent claim on behalf of Union Carbide Corporation, relates to a method of carrying out a competitive binding radioassay of a compound of interest in a clinical sample, using isocyanates labelled with radioiodine as synthetic antigens. (U.K.)

  10. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Peng, Wei; Wang, Lingfei

    2017-01-01

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making

  11. Ortho-substituted triptycene-based diamines, monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader Saleh

    2017-04-13

    Described herein are ortho-dimethyl-substituted and tetramethyi-substituted triptycene-containing diamine monomers and microporous triptycene-based poiyimides and poiyamides, and methods of making the monomers and polymers.

  12. Ortho-substituted triptycene-based diamines, monomers, and polymers, methods of making and uses thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ghanem, Bader Saleh; Pinnau, Ingo

    2017-01-01

    Described herein are ortho-dimethyl-substituted and tetramethyi-substituted triptycene-containing diamine monomers and microporous triptycene-based poiyimides and poiyamides, and methods of making the monomers and polymers.

  13. Organometallic halide perovskite single crystals having low deffect density and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2016-02-18

    The present disclosure presents a method of making a single crystal organometallic halide perovskites, with the formula: AMX3, wherein A is an organic cation, M is selected from the group consisting of: Pb, Sn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Pd, Cd, Ge, and Eu, and X is a halide. The method comprises the use of two reservoirs containing different precursors and allowing the vapor diffusion from one reservoir to the other one. A solar cell comprising said crystal is also disclosed.

  14. Superconducting transition edge sensors and methods for design and manufacture thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadleir, John E. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Methods for forming sensors using transition edge sensors (TES) and sensors therefrom are described. The method includes forming a plurality of sensor arrays includes at least one TES device. The TES device includes a TES device body, a first superconducting lead contacting a first portion of the TES device body, and a second superconducting lead contacting of a second portion of the TES device body, where the first and second superconducting leads separated on the TES device body by a lead spacing. The lead spacing can be selected to be different for at least two of the plurality of sensor arrays. The method also includes determining a transition temperature for each of the plurality of sensor arrays and generating a signal responsive to detecting a change in the electrical characteristics of one of the plurality of sensor arrays meeting a transition temperature criterion.

  15. Method of Making Reaction Induced Phase Separation Membranes and Uses Thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Peinemann, Klaus-Viktor

    2017-08-10

    Provided herein are methods of making asymmetric membranes comprising a first layer and a second layer. The methods include preparing a polymeric solution comprising one or more polymers, casting the polymeric solution to form a polymeric film, contacting the polymeric film with a solvent comprising a crosslinker under conditions to form a first layer on the top of the film, wherein the first layer is dense and solvent resistant, and contacting the polymeric film having the dense, solvent-resistant first layer with a non-solvent solution under conditions that form a porous second layer on the bottom of the film.

  16. Organometallic halide perovskite single crystals having low deffect density and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman; Shi, Dong

    2016-01-01

    The present disclosure presents a method of making a single crystal organometallic halide perovskites, with the formula: AMX3, wherein A is an organic cation, M is selected from the group consisting of: Pb, Sn, Cu, Ni, Co, Fe, Mn, Pd, Cd, Ge, and Eu

  17. Method for forming nuclear fuel containers of a composite construction and the product thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, B.-C.; Rosenbaum, H.S.; Armijo, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    An improved method of producing a composite nuclear fuel container is described which comprises a casing or fuel sheath of zirconium or its alloy with a lining cladding of deposited copper superimposed over the inside surface of the zirconium or alloy and a layer of oxide of the zirconium or alloy formed on the inside surface of the casing or sheath. (U.K.)

  18. Microfluidic platform for multiplexed detection in single cells and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Meiye; Singh, Anup K.

    2018-05-01

    The present invention relates to a microfluidic device and platform configured to conduct multiplexed analysis within the device. In particular, the device allows multiple targets to be detected on a single-cell level. Also provided are methods of performing multiplexed analyses to detect one or more target nucleic acids, proteins, and post-translational modifications.

  19. Solar cells, structures including organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline films, and methods of preparation thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Bakr, Osman M.

    2017-03-02

    Embodiments of the present disclosure provide for solar cells including an organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film (see fig. 1.1B), other devices including the organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, methods of making organometallic halide perovskite monocrystalline film, and the like.

  20. Imaging agents for monitoring changes of dopamine receptors and methods of using thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; Chandy, George; Milne, Norah; Wang, Ping H.; Easwaramoorthy, Balu; Mantil, Joseph; Garcia, Adriana

    2017-05-30

    The present invention is related generally to a method for screening subjects to determine those subjects more likely to develop diabetes by quantization of insulin producing cells. The present invention is also related to the diagnosis of diabetes and related to monitor disease progression or treatment efficacy of candidate drugs.

  1. Neutron interrogation systems using pyroelectric crystals and methods of preparation thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Vincent; Meyer, Glenn A.; Falabella, Steven; Guethlein, Gary; Rusnak, Brian; Sampayan, Stephen; Spadaccini, Christopher M.; Wang, Li-Fang; Harris, John; Morse, Jeff

    2017-08-01

    According to one embodiment, an apparatus includes a pyroelectric crystal, a deuterated or tritiated target, an ion source, and a common support coupled to the pyroelectric crystal, the deuterated or tritiated target, and the ion source. In another embodiment, a method includes producing a voltage of negative polarity on a surface of a deuterated or tritiated target in response to a temperature change of a pyroelectric crystal, pulsing a deuterium ion source to produce a deuterium ion beam, accelerating the deuterium ion beam to the deuterated or tritiated target to produce a neutron beam, and directing the ion beam onto the deuterated or tritiated target to make neutrons using a voltage of the pyroelectric crystal and/or an HGI surrounding the pyroelectric crystal. The directionality of the neutron beam is controlled by changing the accelerating voltage of the system. Other apparatuses and methods are presented as well.

  2. High Density Faraday Cup Array or Other Open Trench Structures and Method of Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gilchrist, Kristin Hedgepath (Inventor); Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The detector array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charged particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from the collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. In the detector array, adjacent ones of the plurality of trenches are disposed in a staggered configuration relative to one another. The method forms in a substrate a plurality of trenches across a surface of the substrate such that adjacent ones of the trenches are in a staggered sequence relative to one another, forms in the plurality of trenches a plurality of collectors, and connects a plurality of electrodes respectively to the collectors.

  3. Improvements in or relating to superconducting members and methods of manufacture thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madson, P.E.; Charlesworth, J.P.; Armstrong, D.

    1975-01-01

    Reference is made to superconducting materials having comparatively high critical temperatures and critical magnetic fields. Such materials include compounds of A15 crystal structure having the general formula A 3 B, where A is Nb or V and B is one or more of the elements Al, Ga, In, Si, Ge and Sn. A method for manufacturing such materials is described in BP 1 333 554. The present specification is concerned with 'stabilisation' of materials manufactured by the method described in the earlier specification. By 'stabilization' is here meant prrevention or reduction of the undesirable effects of sudden movement of magnetic flux, known as 'flux jumps'. Two methods of stabilization are combined in the same material, known respectively as 'filamentary stabilization', in which the superconducting material is present in the form of fine filaments in a normally conducting matrix, and 'dynamic stabilization', in which a proportion of the normally conducting matrix material takes the form of a material of high electrical conductivity, such as pure Cu. (G.B.)

  4. Adaptive Motor Resistance Video Game Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using computer configured exercise equipment and an electric motor provided physical resistance in conjunction with a game system, such as a video game system, where the exercise system provides real physical resistance to a user interface. Results of user interaction with the user interface are integrated into a video game, such as running on a game console. The resistance system comprises: a subject interface, software control, a controller, an electric servo assist/resist motor, an actuator, and/or a subject sensor. The system provides actual physical interaction with a resistance device as input to the game console and game run thereon.

  5. Methods of three-dimensional electrophoretic deposition for ceramic and cermet applications and systems thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Klint Aaron; Kuntz, Joshua D.; Worsley, Marcus

    2016-09-27

    A ceramic, metal, or cermet according to one embodiment includes a first layer having a gradient in composition, microstructure and/or density in an x-y plane oriented parallel to a plane of deposition of the first layer. A ceramic according to another embodiment includes a plurality of layers comprising particles of a non-cubic material, wherein each layer is characterized by the particles of the non-cubic material being aligned in a common direction. Additional products and methods are also disclosed.

  6. Chimeric OspA genes, proteins and methods of use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Brian A.; Livey, Ian; O'Rourke, Maria; Schwendinger, Michael; Dunn, John J.; Luft, Benjamin J.

    2018-02-20

    The invention relates to the development of chimeric OspA molecules for use in a new Lyme vaccine. More specifically, the chimeric OspA molecules comprise the proximal portion from one OspA serotype, together with the distal portion from another OspA serotype, while retaining antigenic properties of both of the parent polypeptides. The chimeric OspA molecules are delivered alone or in combination to provide protection against a variety of Borrelia genospecies. The invention also provides methods for administering the chimeric OspA molecules to a subject in the prevention and treatment of Lyme disease or borreliosis.

  7. Ion-barrier for memristors/ReRAM and methods thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haase, Gad S.

    2017-11-28

    The present invention relates to memristive devices including a resistance-switching element and a barrier element. In particular examples, the barrier element is a monolayer of a transition metal chalcogenide that sufficiently inhibits diffusion of oxygen atoms or ions out of the switching element. As the location of these atoms and ions determine the state of the device, inhibiting diffusion would provide enhanced state retention and device reliability. Other types of barrier elements, as well as methods for forming such elements, are described herein.

  8. Faraday Cup Array Integrated with a Readout IC and Method for Manufacture Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Dorota (Inventor); Bower, Christopher A. (Inventor); Hedgepath Gilchrist, Kristin (Inventor); Stoner, Brian R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A detector array and method for making the detector array. The array includes a substrate including a plurality of trenches formed therein, and includes a plurality of collectors electrically isolated from each other, formed on the walls of the trenches, and configured to collect charge particles incident on respective ones of the collectors and to output from said collectors signals indicative of charged particle collection. The array includes a plurality of readout circuits disposed on a side of the substrate opposite openings to the collectors. The readout circuits are configured to read charge collection signals from respective ones of the plurality of collectors.

  9. Remote Adaptive Motor Resistance Training Exercise Apparatus and Method of Use Thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, Alton (Inventor); Shaw, James (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    The invention comprises a method and/or an apparatus using a computer configured exercise system equipped with an electric motor to provide physical resistance to user motion in conjunction with means for sharing exercise system related data and/or user performance data with a secondary user, such as a medical professional, a physical therapist, a trainer, a computer generated competitor, and/or a human competitor. For example, the exercise system is used with a remote trainer to enhance exercise performance, with a remote medical professional for rehabilitation, and/or with a competitor in a competition, such as in a power/weightlifting competition or in a video game. The exercise system is optionally configured with an intelligent software assistant and knowledge navigator functioning as a personal assistant application.

  10. Nanoporous carbon tunable resistor/transistor and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biener, Juergen; Baumann, Theodore F; Dasgupta, Subho; Hahn, Horst

    2014-04-22

    In one embodiment, a tunable resistor/transistor includes a porous material that is electrically coupled between a source electrode and a drain electrode, wherein the porous material acts as an active channel, an electrolyte solution saturating the active channel, the electrolyte solution being adapted for altering an electrical resistance of the active channel based on an applied electrochemical potential, wherein the active channel comprises nanoporous carbon arranged in a three-dimensional structure. In another embodiment, a method for forming the tunable resistor/transistor includes forming a source electrode, forming a drain electrode, and forming a monolithic nanoporous carbon material that acts as an active channel and selectively couples the source electrode to the drain electrode electrically. In any embodiment, the electrolyte solution saturating the nanoporous carbon active channel is adapted for altering an electrical resistance of the nanoporous carbon active channel based on an applied electrochemical potential.

  11. Alkali resistant optical coatings for alkali lasers and methods of production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Thomas F; Beach, Raymond J; Mitchell, Scott C

    2014-11-18

    In one embodiment, a multilayer dielectric coating for use in an alkali laser includes two or more alternating layers of high and low refractive index materials, wherein an innermost layer includes a thicker, >500 nm, and dense, >97% of theoretical, layer of at least one of: alumina, zirconia, and hafnia for protecting subsequent layers of the two or more alternating layers of high and low index dielectric materials from alkali attack. In another embodiment, a method for forming an alkali resistant coating includes forming a first oxide material above a substrate and forming a second oxide material above the first oxide material to form a multilayer dielectric coating, wherein the second oxide material is on a side of the multilayer dielectric coating for contacting an alkali.

  12. Methods of fabricating cermet materials and methods of utilizing same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Peter C.

    2006-04-04

    Methods of fabricating cermet materials and methods of utilizing the same such as in filtering particulate and gaseous pollutants from internal combustion engines having intermetallic and ceramic phases. The cermet material may be made from a transition metal aluminide phase and an aluminia phase. The mixture may be pressed to form a green compact body and then heated in a nitrogen-containing atmosphere so as to melt aluminum particles and form the cermet. Filler materials may be added to increase the porosity or tailor the catalytic properties of the cermet material. Additionally, the cermet material may be reinforced with fibers or screens. The cermet material may also be formed so as to pass an electrical current therethrough to heat the material during use.

  13. Mesh joinery: a method for building fabricable structures

    OpenAIRE

    Cignoni, Paolo; Pietroni, Nico; Malomo, Luigi; Scopigno, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Mesh joinery is an innovative method to produce illustrative shape approximations suitable for fabrication. Mesh joinery is capable of producing complex fabricable structures in an efficient and visually pleasing manner. We represent an input geometry as a set of planar pieces arranged to compose a rigid structure by exploiting an efficient slit mechanism. Since slices are planar, a standard 2D cutting system is sufficient to fabricate them.

  14. Fabrication methods for mesoscopic flying vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yih-Lin

    2001-10-01

    Small-scale flying vehicles are attractive tools for atmospheric science research. A centimeter-size mesoscopic electric helicopter, the mesicopter, has been developed at Stanford University for these applications. The mesoscopic scale implies a design with critical features between tens of microns and several millimeters. Three major parts in the mesicopter are challenging to manufacture. Rotors require smooth 3D surfaces and a blade thickness of less than 100 mum. Components in the DC micro-motor must be made of engineering materials, which is difficult on the mesoscopic scale. Airframe fabrication has to integrate complex 3D geometry into one single structure at this scale. In this research, material selection and manufacturing approaches have been investigated and implemented. In rotor fabrication, high-strength polymers manufactured by the Shape Deposition Manufacturing (SDM) technique were the top choice. Aluminum alloys were only considered as the second choice because the fabrication process is more involved. Lift tests showed that the 4-blade polymer and aluminum rotors could deliver about 90% of the expected lift (4g). To explain the rotor performance, structural analyses of spinning rotors were performed and the fabricated geometry was investigated. The bending deflections and the torsional twists were found to be too small to degrade aerodynamic performance. The rotor geometry was verified by laser scanning and by cross-section observations. Commercially available motors are used in the prototypes but a smaller DC micro-motor was designed for future use. Components of the DC micro-motors were fabricated by the Mesoscopic Additive/Subtractive Material Processing technique, which is capable of shaping engineering materials on the mesoscopic scale. The approaches are described in this thesis. The airframe was manufactured using the SDM process, which is capable of building complex parts without assembly. Castable polymers were chosen and mixed with glass

  15. [A new method of fabricating photoelastic model by rapid prototyping].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Li; Huang, Qing-feng; Zhang, Fu-qiang; Xia, Yin-pei

    2011-10-01

    To explore a novel method of fabricating the photoelastic model using rapid prototyping technique. A mandible model was made by rapid prototyping with computerized three-dimensional reconstruction, then the photoelastic model with teeth was fabricated by traditional impression duplicating and mould casting. The photoelastic model of mandible with teeth, which was fabricated indirectly by rapid prototyping, was very similar to the prototype in geometry and physical parameters. The model was of high optical sensibility and met the experimental requirements. Photoelastic model of mandible with teeth indirectly fabricated by rapid prototyping meets the photoelastic experimental requirements well.

  16. An automated method for the layup of fiberglass fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Siqi

    This dissertation presents an automated composite fabric layup solution based on a new method to deform fiberglass fabric referred to as shifting. A layup system was designed and implemented using a large robotic gantry and custom end-effector for shifting. Layup tests proved that the system can deposit fabric onto two-dimensional and three-dimensional tooling surfaces accurately and repeatedly while avoiding out-of-plane deformation. A process planning method was developed to generate tool paths for the layup system based on a geometric model of the tooling surface. The approach is analogous to Computer Numerical Controlled (CNC) machining, where Numerical Control (NC) code from a Computer-Aided Design (CAD) model is generated to drive the milling machine. Layup experiments utilizing the proposed method were conducted to validate the performance. The results show that the process planning software requires minimal time or human intervention and can generate tool paths leading to accurate composite fabric layups. Fiberglass fabric samples processed with shifting deformation were observed for meso-scale deformation. Tow thinning, bending and spacing was observed and measured. Overall, shifting did not create flaws in amounts that would disqualify the method from use in industry. This suggests that shifting is a viable method for use in automated manufacturing. The work of this dissertation provides a new method for the automated layup of broad width composite fabric that is not possible with any available composite automation systems to date.

  17. Methods and devices for fabricating three-dimensional nanoscale structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, John A.; Jeon, Seokwoo; Park, Jangung

    2010-04-27

    The present invention provides methods and devices for fabricating 3D structures and patterns of 3D structures on substrate surfaces, including symmetrical and asymmetrical patterns of 3D structures. Methods of the present invention provide a means of fabricating 3D structures having accurately selected physical dimensions, including lateral and vertical dimensions ranging from 10s of nanometers to 1000s of nanometers. In one aspect, methods are provided using a mask element comprising a conformable, elastomeric phase mask capable of establishing conformal contact with a radiation sensitive material undergoing photoprocessing. In another aspect, the temporal and/or spatial coherence of electromagnetic radiation using for photoprocessing is selected to fabricate complex structures having nanoscale features that do not extend entirely through the thickness of the structure fabricated.

  18. Method for fabricating apatite crystals and ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soules, Thomas F.; Schaffers, Kathleen I.; Tassano, Jr., John B.; Hollingsworth, Joel P.

    2013-09-10

    The present invention provides a method of crystallizing Yb:C-FAP [Yb.sup.3+:Ca.sub.5(PO.sub.4).sub.3F], by dissolving the Yb:C-FAP in an acidic solution, following by neutralizing the solution. The present invention also provides a method of forming crystalline Yb:C-FAP by dissolving the component ingredients in an acidic solution, followed by forming a supersaturated solution.

  19. Gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics fabricated by freeze casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zuo Kaihui; Zhang Yuan; Jiang Dongliang; Zeng Yuping

    2011-01-01

    By controlling the cooling rates and the composition of slurries, the gradient porous hydroxyapatite ceramics are fabricated by the freeze casting method. According to the different cooling rate, the pores of HAP ceramics fabricated by gradient freeze casting are divided into three parts: one is lamellar pores, another is column pore and the last one is fine round pores. The laminated freeze casting is in favour of obtaining the gradient porous ceramics composed of different materials and the ceramics have unclear interfaces.

  20. Nanofiber membrane-electrode-assembly and method of fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pintauro, Peter N.; Ballengee, Jason; Brodt, Matthew

    2018-01-23

    In one aspect of the present invention, a method of fabricating a fuel cell membrane-electrode-assembly (MEA) having an anode electrode, a cathode electrode, and a membrane disposed between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, includes fabricating each of the anode electrode, the cathode electrode, and the membrane separately by electrospinning; and placing the membrane between the anode electrode and the cathode electrode, and pressing then together to form the fuel cell MEA.

  1. Aerosol fabrication methods for monodisperse nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Xingmao; Brinker, C Jeffrey

    2014-10-21

    Exemplary embodiments provide materials and methods for forming monodisperse particles. In one embodiment, the monodisperse particles can be formed by first spraying a nanoparticle-containing dispersion into aerosol droplets and then heating the aerosol droplets in the presence of a shell precursor to form core-shell particles. By removing either the shell layer or the nanoparticle core of the core-shell particles, monodisperse nanoparticles can be formed.

  2. Method for the production of fabricated hollow microspheroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickramanayake, Shan; Luebke, David R.

    2015-06-09

    The method relates to the fabrication of a polymer microspheres comprised of an asymmetric layer surrounding a hollow interior. The fabricated hollow microsphere is generated from a nascent hollow microsphere comprised of an inner core of core fluid surrounded by a dope layer of polymer dope, where the thickness of the dope layer is at least 10% and less than 50% of the diameter of the inner core. The nascent hollow microsphere is exposed to a gaseous environment, generating a vitrified hollow microsphere, which is subsequently immersed in a coagulation bath. Solvent exchange produces a fabricated hollow microsphere comprised of a densified outer skin surrounding a macroporous inner layer, which surrounds a hollow interior. In an embodiment, the polymer is a polyimide or a polyamide-imide, and the non-solvent in the core fluid and the coagulation bath is water. The fabricated hollow microspheres are particularly suited as solvent supports for gas separation processes.

  3. Nano-material and method of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A; Seals, Roland D; Howe, Jane Y; Wang, Wei

    2015-02-03

    A fluffy nano-material and method of manufacture are described. At 2000.times. magnification the fluffy nanomaterial has the appearance of raw, uncarded wool, with individual fiber lengths ranging from approximately four microns to twenty microns. Powder-based nanocatalysts are dispersed in the fluffy nanomaterial. The production of fluffy nanomaterial typically involves flowing about 125 cc/min of organic vapor at a pressure of about 400 torr over powder-based nano-catalysts for a period of time that may range from approximately thirty minutes to twenty-four hours.

  4. Method of fabricating patterned crystal structures

    KAUST Repository

    Yu, Liyang

    2016-12-15

    A method of manufacturing a patterned crystal structure for includes depositing an amorphous material. The amorphous material is modified such that a first portion of the amorphous thin-film layer has a first height/volume and a second portion of the amorphous thin-film layer has a second height/volume greater than the first portion. The amorphous material is annealed to induce crystallization, wherein crystallization is induced in the second portion first due to the greater height/volume of the second portion relative to the first portion to form patterned crystal structures.

  5. Benchtop fabrication of PDMS microstructures by an unconventional photolithographic method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Chang Mo; Sim, Woo Young; Lee, Seung Hwan; Foudeh, Amir M; Bae, Hojae; Khademhosseini, Ali; Lee, Sang-Hoon

    2010-01-01

    Poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) microstructures have been widely used in bio-microelectromechanical systems (bio-MEMS) for various types of analytical, diagnostic and therapeutic applications. However, PDMS-based soft lithographic techniques still use conventional microfabrication processes to generate a master mold, which requires access to clean room facilities and costly equipment. With the increasing use of these systems in various fields, the development of benchtop systems for fabricating microdevices is emerging as an important challenge in their widespread use. Here we demonstrate a simple, low-cost and rapid method to fabricate PDMS microstructures by using micropatterned poly(ethylene glycol) diacrylate (PEGDA) master molds. In this method, PEGDA microstructures were patterned on a glass substrate by photolithography under ambient conditions and by using simple tools. The resulting PEGDA structures were subsequently used to generate PDMS microstructures by standard molding in a reproducible and repeatable manner. The thickness of the PEGDA microstructures was controllable from 15 to 300 μm by using commonly available spacer materials. We also demonstrate the use of this method to fabricate microfluidic channels capable of generating concentration gradients. In addition, we fabricated PEGDA microstructures by photolithography from the light generated from commonly available laminar cell culture hood. These data suggest that this approach could be beneficial for fabricating low-cost PDMS-based microdevices in resource limited settings.

  6. Method to fabricate high performance tubular solid oxide fuel cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Fanglin; Yang, Chenghao; Jin, Chao

    2013-06-18

    In accordance with the present disclosure, a method for fabricating a solid oxide fuel cell is described. The method includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The method further includes forming an asymmetric porous ceramic layer on a surface of the asymmetric porous ceramic tube by using a phase inversion process. The tube is co-sintered to form a structure having a first porous layer, a second porous layer, and a dense layer positioned therebetween.

  7. Semiconductor apparatus and method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2010-01-01

    The invention relates to a semiconductor apparatus (1) and a method of fabrication for a semiconductor apparatus (1), wherein the semiconductor apparatus (1) comprises a semiconductor layer (2) and a passivation layer (3), arranged on a surface of the semiconductor layer (2), for passivating the

  8. Method to fabricate block fuel elements for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1977-01-01

    The fabrication of block fuel elements for gas-cooled high temperature reactors can be improved upon by adding 0.2 to 2 wt.% of a hydrocarbon compound to the lubricating mixture prior to pressing. Hexanol or octanol are named as substances. The dimensional accuracy of the block is thus improved. 2 examples illustrate the method. (RW) [de

  9. Thin film solar cell configuration and fabrication method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menezes, Shalini

    2009-07-14

    A new photovoltaic device configuration based on an n-copper indium selenide absorber and a p-type window is disclosed. A fabrication method to produce this device on flexible or rigid substrates is described that reduces the number of cell components, avoids hazardous materials, simplifies the process steps and hence the costs for high volume solar cell manufacturing.

  10. Method to fabricate block fuel elements for high temperature reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hrovat, M.; Rachor, L.

    1978-01-01

    The fabrication of block fuel elements for gas-cooled high temperature reactors can be improved upon by adding 0.2 to 2 wt.% of a hydrocarbon compound to the lubricating mixture prior to pressing. Hexanol or octanol are named as substances. The dimensional accuracy of the block is thus improved. 2 examples illustrate the method. (orig./PW)

  11. Method for producing bonded nonwoven fabrics using ionizing radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drelich, A.H.; Oney, D.G.

    1979-01-01

    A method is described for producing a resin-bonded nonwoven fabric. The preparation involves forming a fibrous web annealing it and compressing it to provide fiber to fiber contact. A polymerizable binder is applied to the fibrous web which is then treated by ionizing radiation to produce the material. 9 figures, 3 drawing

  12. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    1975-01-01

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 hours of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 hours of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use

  13. Fabrication of sacrificial anode cathodic protection through casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Sharif Sattar; Muhamad Daud; Siti Radiah Mohd Kamarudin; Azali Muhamad; Zaiton Selamat; Rusni Rejab

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum is one of the few metals that can be cast by all of the processes used in casting metals. These processes consist of die casting, permanent mold casting, sand casting (green sand and dry sand), plaster casting, investment casting, and continuous casting. Other processes such as lost foam, squeeze casting, and hot isostatic pressing are also used. Permanent mold casting method was selected in which used for fabricating of sacrificial anode cathodic protection. This product was ground for surface finished and fabricated in the cylindrical form and reinforced with carbon steel at a center of the anode. (Author)

  14. The new fabrication method of standard surface sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Yasushi E-mail: yss.sato@aist.go.jp; Hino, Yoshio; Yamada, Takahiro; Matsumoto, Mikio

    2004-04-01

    We developed a new fabrication method for standard surface sources by using an inkjet printer with inks in which a radioactive material is mixed to print on a sheet of paper. Three printed test patterns have been prepared: (1) 100 mmx100 mm uniformity-test patterns, (2) positional-resolution test patterns with different widths and intervals of straight lines, and (3) logarithmic intensity test patterns with different radioactive intensities. The results revealed that the fabricated standard surface sources had high uniformity, high positional resolution, arbitrary shapes and a broad intensity range.

  15. Simple method to generate and fabricate stochastic porous scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Nan, E-mail: y79nzw@163.com; Gao, Lilan; Zhou, Kuntao

    2015-11-01

    Considerable effort has been made to generate regular porous structures (RPSs) using function-based methods, although little effort has been made for constructing stochastic porous structures (SPSs) using the same methods. In this short communication, we propose a straightforward method for SPS construction that is simple in terms of methodology and the operations used. Using our method, we can obtain a SPS with functionally graded, heterogeneous and interconnected pores, target pore size and porosity distributions, which are useful for applications in tissue engineering. The resulting SPS models can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing (AM) techniques. - Highlights: • Random porous structures are constructed based on their regular counterparts. • Functionally graded random pores can be constructed easily. • The scaffolds can be directly fabricated using additive manufacturing techniques.

  16. Fabrication of Microfluidic Valves Using a Hydrogel Molding Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugiura, Yusuke; Hirama, Hirotada; Torii, Toru

    2015-08-24

    In this paper, a method for fabricating a microfluidic valve made of polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) using a rapid prototyping method for microchannels through hydrogel cast molding is discussed. Currently, the valves in microchannels play an important role in various microfluidic devices. The technology to prototype microfluidic valves rapidly is actively being developed. For the rapid prototyping of PDMS microchannels, a method that uses a hydrogel as the casting mold has been recently developed. This technique can be used to prepare a three-dimensional structure through simple and uncomplicated methods. In this study, we were able to fabricate microfluidic valves easily using this rapid prototyping method that utilizes hydrogel cast molding. In addition, we confirmed that the valve displacement could be predicted within a range of constant pressures. Moreover, because microfluidic valves fabricated using this method can be directly observed from a cross-sectional direction, we anticipate that this technology will significantly contribute to clarifying fluid behavior and other phenomena in microchannels and microfluidic valves with complex structures.

  17. Composites comprising silicon carbide fibers dispersed in magnesia-aluminate matrix and fabrication thereof and of other composites by sinter forging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panda, Prakash C.; Seydel, Edgar R.; Raj, Rishi

    1989-10-03

    A novel ceramic-ceramic composite of a uniform dispersion of silicon carbide fibers in a matrix of MgO.multidot.nAl.sub.2 O.sub.3 wherein n ranges from about 1 to about 4.5, said composite comprising by volume from 1 to 50% silicon carbide fibers and from 99 to 50% MgO.multidot.nAl.sub.2 O.sub.3. The composite is readily fabricated by forming a powder comprising a uniform dispersion of silicon carbide fibers in poorly crystalline phase comprising MgO and Al.sub.2 O.sub.3 in a mole ratio of n and either (a) hot pressing or preferably (b) cold pressing to form a preform and then forging utilizing a temperature in the range of 1100.degree. C. to 1900.degree. C. and a strain rate ranging from about 10.sup.-5 seconds .sup.-1 to about 1 seconds .sup.-1 so that surfaces cracks do not appear to obtain a shear deformation greater than 30%.

  18. Modular nuclear reactor for a land-based power plant and method for the fabrication installation and operation thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Craig, E. R.; Blumberg, B. Jr.

    1985-01-01

    A self-contained modular nuclear reactor which can be prefabricated at a factory location, nuclear-certified at the factory, transported to a field location for final assembly and connection to a large-scale electric-power generating facility. The modular reactor includes a prefabricated nuclear heat supply module and a plurality of shell segments which can be assembled about the heat supply module and which provide a form for the pouring and curing of a cementatious biological shield about the heat supply module. The modular reactor includes passive shutdown heat removal systems sufficient to render the reactor safe in an emergency. A large-scale power plant arrangement is disclosed which incorporates a plurality of the modular reactors

  19. Method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, John D.; Sweatt, William C.

    2010-10-26

    A method to fabricate a tilted logpile photonic crystal requires only two lithographic exposures and does not require mask repositioning between exposures. The mask and photoresist-coated substrate are spaced a fixed and constant distance apart using a spacer and the stack is clamped together. The stack is then tilted at a crystallographic symmetry angle (e.g., 45 degrees) relative to the X-ray beam and rotated about the surface normal until the mask is aligned with the X-ray beam. The stack is then rotated in plane by a small stitching angle and exposed to the X-ray beam to pattern the first half of the structure. The stack is then rotated by 180.degree. about the normal and a second exposure patterns the remaining half of the structure. The method can use commercially available DXRL scanner technology and LIGA processes to fabricate large-area, high-quality tilted logpile photonic crystals.

  20. Neural Interfaces for Intracortical Recording: Requirements, Fabrication Methods, and Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szostak, Katarzyna M; Grand, Laszlo; Constandinou, Timothy G

    2017-01-01

    Implantable neural interfaces for central nervous system research have been designed with wire, polymer, or micromachining technologies over the past 70 years. Research on biocompatible materials, ideal probe shapes, and insertion methods has resulted in building more and more capable neural interfaces. Although the trend is promising, the long-term reliability of such devices has not yet met the required criteria for chronic human application. The performance of neural interfaces in chronic settings often degrades due to foreign body response to the implant that is initiated by the surgical procedure, and related to the probe structure, and material properties used in fabricating the neural interface. In this review, we identify the key requirements for neural interfaces for intracortical recording, describe the three different types of probes-microwire, micromachined, and polymer-based probes; their materials, fabrication methods, and discuss their characteristics and related challenges.

  1. Neural Interfaces for Intracortical Recording: Requirements, Fabrication Methods, and Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna M. Szostak

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Implantable neural interfaces for central nervous system research have been designed with wire, polymer, or micromachining technologies over the past 70 years. Research on biocompatible materials, ideal probe shapes, and insertion methods has resulted in building more and more capable neural interfaces. Although the trend is promising, the long-term reliability of such devices has not yet met the required criteria for chronic human application. The performance of neural interfaces in chronic settings often degrades due to foreign body response to the implant that is initiated by the surgical procedure, and related to the probe structure, and material properties used in fabricating the neural interface. In this review, we identify the key requirements for neural interfaces for intracortical recording, describe the three different types of probes—microwire, micromachined, and polymer-based probes; their materials, fabrication methods, and discuss their characteristics and related challenges.

  2. Characterization of Fabricated Photonic Crystal Fibers Using Effective Index Method

    OpenAIRE

    Faramarz E. Seraji

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, the characteristics of photonic crystal fibers (PCFs), which have been experimentally determined in the last few years in Iran's Telecom Research Center are analyzed and compared theoretically using an effective index method. The PCFs under investigation are fabricated with a high speed drawing process that has not yet been reported elsewhere. It was shown that at higher wavelengths in PCFs; the light field is confined in the core where in shorter wavelengths the field spread...

  3. Superhydrophobic transparent films from silica powder: Comparison of fabrication methods

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Li-Der; Lin, Chao-Sung; Tikekar, Mukul; Chen, Ping-Hei

    2011-01-01

    The lotus leaf is known for its self-clean, superhydrophobic surface, which displays a hierarchical structure covered with a thin wax-like material. In this study, three fabrication techniques, using silicon dioxide particles to create surface roughness followed by a surface modification with a film of polydimethylsiloxane, were applied on a transparent glass substrate. The fabrication techniques differed mainly on the deposition of silicon dioxide particles, which included organic, inorganic, and physical methods. Each technique was used to coat three samples of varying particle load. The surface of each sample was evaluated with contact angle goniometer and optical spectrometer. Results confirmed the inverse relationships between contact angle and optical transmissivity independent of fabrication techniques. Microstructural morphologies also suggested the advantage of physical deposition over chemical methods. In summary, the direct sintering method proved outstanding for its contact angle vs transmissivity efficiency, and capable of generating a contact angle as high as 174°. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Superhydrophobic transparent films from silica powder: Comparison of fabrication methods

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Li-Der

    2011-07-01

    The lotus leaf is known for its self-clean, superhydrophobic surface, which displays a hierarchical structure covered with a thin wax-like material. In this study, three fabrication techniques, using silicon dioxide particles to create surface roughness followed by a surface modification with a film of polydimethylsiloxane, were applied on a transparent glass substrate. The fabrication techniques differed mainly on the deposition of silicon dioxide particles, which included organic, inorganic, and physical methods. Each technique was used to coat three samples of varying particle load. The surface of each sample was evaluated with contact angle goniometer and optical spectrometer. Results confirmed the inverse relationships between contact angle and optical transmissivity independent of fabrication techniques. Microstructural morphologies also suggested the advantage of physical deposition over chemical methods. In summary, the direct sintering method proved outstanding for its contact angle vs transmissivity efficiency, and capable of generating a contact angle as high as 174°. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. A modified microemulsion method for fabrication of hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghayempour, Soraya; Montazer, Majid

    2018-04-09

    Tragacanth is a nontoxic, biodegradable and biocompatible polymer applied as a nanostructure form in various fields such as biomedicine and food industry. Here, hydrogel Tragacanth nanofibers were fabricated using a modified microemulsion method. The effective parameters on the fabrication of nanofibers such as emulsifier type, stirrer type, processing time and concentrations of emulsifier, Tragacanth and aluminum chloride were studied and the conditions were optimized for high quality nanofibers. SEM images indicated Tragacanth nanofiberswere successfully synthesized with average diameter of 50 nm and uniformdistribution. Appear a peak at 1110 cm -1 related to Al-C bonds and reduce intensity ofthe peaks at 1742 and 1629 cm -1 and in FT-IR spectrum of nanofibersprove the successfully synthesis. Further, the hydrogel properties of the synthesized nanofibers can be proved by the swelling of 142% and drying time of 3 h. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Investigation of defects on PAMS microspheres fabricated with microencapsulation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Sufen; Li Bo; Liu Yiyang; Zhang Zhanwen; Qi Xiaobo

    2012-01-01

    Poly-(α-methylstyrene) (PAMS) microspheres were fabricated with W1/O/W2 double emulsion microencapsulation method, and the effects of polyvinylalcohol (PVA) and CaCl 2 weight concentrations and the O/W2 phase ratio on the percentages of defected PAMS microspheres were studied. The weight concentrations of PVA and CaCl 2 and the O/W2 phase ratio in the fabrication process of PAMS microspheres were optimized. The results show that, for the three parameters being 1.0%, 1.5%, and 0.01, respectively, the percentage of the defect-free PAMS microspheres without vacuoles in the shell wall can be up to 60%. (authors)

  7. Method of fabricating a poision tube for reactor control rods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mori, Yasuhiko; Yoshida, Toshimi; Masaoka, Isao; Naruse, Akisuke

    1983-04-28

    A method to unify the neutron absorbing performance, enhance the workability in the insertion of neutron absorber tube and further decrease the stresses acting on the neutron absorber coating tube is described. The neutron absorber coated rod comprising neutron absorbing substance and a metal pipe is fabricated by compressing a metal pipe filled with the neutron absorber. Specifically, neutron absorbing substance such as boron carbide powder or the like is filled in a metal pipe such as made of stainless steel tube by way of vibration packing or the like. Then, after heating the metal pipe, it is applied with compression working such as swaging into a fine tube to increase the packing density of the absorbing substance filled in the pipe to greater than 60% of the theoretical density and completely contacted closely to the inner wall of the pipe. The neutron absorber coated rod thus fabricated can be inserted to an external coating tube with ease at a predetermined gap.

  8. Review of training methods employed in nuclear fuel fabrication plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Box, W.D.; Browder, F.N.

    A search of the literature through the Nuclear Safety Information Center revealed that approximately 86 percent of the incidents that have occurred in fuel fabrication plants can be traced directly or indirectly to insufficient operator training. In view of these findings, a review was made of the training programs now employed by the nuclear fuel fabrication industry. Most companies give the new employee approximately 20 h of orientation courses, followed by 60 to 80 h of on-the-job training. It was concluded that these training programs should be expanded in both scope and depth. A proposed program is outlined to offer guidance in improving the basic methods currently in use. (U.S.)

  9. Method of fabricating porous silicon carbide (SiC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shor, Joseph S. (Inventor); Kurtz, Anthony D. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    Porous silicon carbide is fabricated according to techniques which result in a significant portion of nanocrystallites within the material in a sub 10 nanometer regime. There is described techniques for passivating porous silicon carbide which result in the fabrication of optoelectronic devices which exhibit brighter blue luminescence and exhibit improved qualities. Based on certain of the techniques described porous silicon carbide is used as a sacrificial layer for the patterning of silicon carbide. Porous silicon carbide is then removed from the bulk substrate by oxidation and other methods. The techniques described employ a two-step process which is used to pattern bulk silicon carbide where selected areas of the wafer are then made porous and then the porous layer is subsequently removed. The process to form porous silicon carbide exhibits dopant selectivity and a two-step etching procedure is implemented for silicon carbide multilayers.

  10. Method of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooch, Jackie G [Seymour, TN; DeMint, Amy L [Kingston, TN

    2012-04-24

    Methods of fabricating a uranium-bearing foil are described. The foil may be substantially pure uranium, or may be a uranium alloy such as a uranium-molybdenum alloy. The method typically includes a series of hot rolling operations on a cast plate material to form a thin sheet. These hot rolling operations are typically performed using a process where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant percentage. The sheet is typically then annealed and then cooled. The process typically concludes with a series of cold rolling passes where each pass reduces the thickness of the plate by a substantially constant thickness amount to form the foil.

  11. Selective laser etching or ablation for fabrication of devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2017-01-12

    Methods of fabricating devices vial selective laser etching are provided. The methods can include selective laser etching of a portion of a metal layer, e.g. using a laser light source having a wavelength of 1,000 nm to 1,500 nm. The methods can be used to fabricate a variety of features, including an electrode, an interconnect, a channel, a reservoir, a contact hole, a trench, a pad, or a combination thereof. A variety of devices fabricated according to the methods are also provided. In some aspects, capacitive humidity sensors are provided that can be fabricated according to the provided methods. The capacitive humidity sensors can be fabricated with intricate electrodes, e.g. having a fractal pattern such as a Peano curve, a Hilbert curve, a Moore curve, or a combination thereof.

  12. Methods for batch fabrication of cold cathode vacuum switch tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Charles A [Albuquerque, NM; Trowbridge, Frank R [Albuquerque, NM

    2011-05-10

    Methods are disclosed for batch fabrication of vacuum switch tubes that reduce manufacturing costs and improve tube to tube uniformity. The disclosed methods comprise creating a stacked assembly of layers containing a plurality of adjacently spaced switch tube sub-assemblies aligned and registered through common layers. The layers include trigger electrode layer, cathode layer including a metallic support/contact with graphite cathode inserts, trigger probe sub-assembly layer, ceramic (e.g. tube body) insulator layer, and metallic anode sub-assembly layer. Braze alloy layers are incorporated into the stacked assembly of layers, and can include active metal braze alloys or direct braze alloys, to eliminate costs associated with traditional metallization of the ceramic insulator layers. The entire stacked assembly is then heated to braze/join/bond the stack-up into a cohesive body, after which individual switch tubes are singulated by methods such as sawing. The inventive methods provide for simultaneously fabricating a plurality of devices as opposed to traditional methods that rely on skilled craftsman to essentially hand build individual devices.

  13. Facile Method for Fabricating Superhydrophobic Surface on Magnesium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, Mun Hee; Park, Yeon Hwa; Hyun, June Won; Ahn, Yong Hyun [Dankook Univ., Yongin (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    In conclusion, we have developed a simple and inexpensive method for fabricating a superhydrophobic surface of magnesium by metal deposition and stearic acid coating. We fabricated a superhydrophobic surface on magnesium by nickel deposition and surface coating of stearic acid. The fabricated surfaces were stable against acidic and basic solutions. In recent times, technologies based on the imitation of nature have attracted considerable attention. Lotus leaves are known for their self-cleaning effect. The micrometer-scale papillae structure and the epicuticular wax on the lotus leaf contribute to this effect. In a manner similar to the self-cleaning property of lotus leaves, the wettability of solid surfaces is of great interest in daily life and industry.1-4 Wettability is controlled by both the geometrical structure of a surface and a low surface energy material coating. A superhydrophobic surface is satisfied with a water contact angle of more than 150 .deg. and a sliding angle of less than 10 .deg. On such a surface, a water drop has a perfectly spherical shape and it easily rolls off and removes deposited contaminants. A superhydrophobic surface thus protects a material from contamination, fogging, and snow deposition.

  14. Radon generator and the method of radium carrier fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Czerski, B.

    1992-01-01

    The radon generator construction and the method of radium carrier fabrication has been the subject of the patent. The generator is a cylindrical vessel with gas valves system and two filters inside. Between them the radium carrier has been located. As a carrier polyurethane foam has been used. The carrier is obtained in a generator vessel from polyester resin in the presence of activated mixture of engine oil, zinc-organic catalyst and toluene. To the obtained mixture the radium chloride in the solution of hydrochloric acid is added. The carrier foam is produced by mechanical stirring of substrates inside the vessel and drying in 50 C in a heater. 1 fig

  15. Method of fabricating self-powered nuclear radiation detector assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Playfoot, K.; Bauer, R.F.; Sekella, Y.M.

    1982-01-01

    In a method of fabricating a self-powered nuclear radiation detector assembly an emitter electrode wire and signal cable center wire are connected and disposed within the collector electrode tubular sheath with compressible insulating means disposed between the wires and the tubular sheath. The above assembly is reduced in diameter while elongating the tubular sheath and the emitter wire and signal cable wire. The emitter wire is reduced to a predetermined desired diameter, and is trimmed to a predetermined length. An end cap is hermetically sealed to the tubular sheath at the extending end of the emitter with insulating means between the emitter end and the end cap. (author)

  16. Advanced methods for fabrication of PHWR and LMFBR fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ganguly, C.

    1988-01-01

    For self-reliance in nuclear power, the Department of Atomic Energy (DAE), India is pursuing two specific reactor systems, namely the pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWR) and the liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR). The reference fuel for PHWR is zircaloy-4 clad high density (≤ 96 per cent T.D.) natural UO 2 pellet-pins. The advanced PHWR fuels are UO 2 -PuO 2 (≤ 2 per cent), ThO 2 -PuO 2 (≤ 4 per cent) and ThO 2 -U 233 O 2 (≤ 2 per cent). Similarly, low density (≤ 85 per cent T.D.) (UPu)O 2 pellets clad in SS 316 or D9 is the reference fuel for the first generation of prototype and commercial LMFBRs all over the world. However, (UPu)C and (UPu)N are considered as advanced fuels for LMFBRs mainly because of their shorter doubling time. The conventional method of fabrication of both high and low density oxide, carbide and nitride fuel pellets starting from UO 2 , PuO 2 and ThO 2 powders is 'powder metallurgy (P/M)'. The P/M route has, however, the disadvantage of generation and handling of fine powder particles of the fuel and the associated problem of 'radiotoxic dust hazard'. The present paper summarises the state-of-the-art of advanced methods of fabrication of oxide, carbide and nitride fuels and highlights the author's experience on sol-gel-microsphere-pelletisation (SGMP) route for preparation of these materials. The SGMP process uses sol gel derived, dust-free and free-flowing microspheres of oxides, carbide or nitride for direct pelletisation and sintering. Fuel pellets of both low and high density, excellent microhomogeneity and controlled 'open' or 'closed' porosity could be fabricated via the SGMP route. (author). 5 tables, 14 figs., 15 refs

  17. Low auto-fluorescence fabrication methods for plastic nanoslits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Zhifu; Qi, Liping; Zou, Helin; Sun, Lei; Xu, Shenbo

    2016-04-01

    Plastic nanofluidic devices are becoming increasingly important for biological and chemical applications. However, they suffer from high auto-fluorescence when used for on-chip optical detection. In this study, the auto-fluorescence problem of plastic nanofluidic devices was remedied by newly developed fabrication methods that minimise their auto-fluorescence: one by depositing a gold (Au) layer on them, the other by making them ultra-thin. In the first method, the Au layer [minimum thickness is 40 nm on 150 μm SU-8, 50 nm on 1 mm polyethylene terephthalate (PET), and 40 on 2 nm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)] blocks the auto-fluorescence of the polymer; in the second method, auto-fluorescence is minimised by making the chips ultra-thin, selected operating thickness of SU-8 is 20 μm, for PET it is 150 μm, and for PMMA it is 0.8 mm.

  18. Generator-absorber-heat exchange heat transfer apparatus and method and use thereof in a heat pump

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, B.A.; Zawacki, T.S.

    1998-07-21

    Numerous embodiments and related methods for generator-absorber heat exchange (GAX) are disclosed, particularly for absorption heat pump systems. Such embodiments and related methods use, as the heat transfer medium, the working fluid of the absorption system taken from the generator at a location where the working fluid has a rich liquor concentration. 5 figs.

  19. Method of producing catalytic material for fabricating nanostructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seals, Roland D.; Menchhofer, Paul A.; Howe, Jane Y.; Wang, Wei

    2018-01-30

    Methods of fabricating nano-catalysts are described. In some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a powder-based substrate material and is some embodiments the nano-catalyst is formed from a solid-based substrate material. In some embodiments the substrate material may include metal, ceramic, or silicon or another metalloid. The nano-catalysts typically have metal nanoparticles disposed adjacent the surface of the substrate material. The methods typically include functionalizing the surface of the substrate material with a chelating agent, such as a chemical having dissociated carboxyl functional groups (--COO), that provides an enhanced affinity for metal ions. The functionalized substrate surface may then be exposed to a chemical solution that contains metal ions. The metal ions are then bound to the substrate material and may then be reduced, such as by a stream of gas that includes hydrogen, to form metal nanoparticles adjacent the surface of the substrate.

  20. Fabrication of Hybrid Organic Photovoltaic Devices Using Electrostatic Spray Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe-Wei Chiu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid organic photovoltaic devices (OPVDs are fabricated using the electrostatic spray (e-spray method and their optical and electrical properties are investigated. E-spray is used to deposit a hybrid film (P3HT: PCBM/nanodiamond with morphology and optical characteristics onto OPVDs. The root-mean-square roughness and optical absorption increase with increasing nanodiamond content. The performance of e-spray is comparable to that of the spin-coating method under uniform conditions. The device takes advantage of the high current density, power conversion efficiency, and low cost. Nanodiamond improves the short-circuit current density and power conversion efficiency. The best performance was obtained with 1.5 wt% nanodiamond content, with a current density of 7.28 mA/cm2 and a power conversion efficiency of 2.25%.

  1. Method for identifyng a particular protein in a cell, using a marker peptide and spectroscopy techniques and uses thereof

    OpenAIRE

    Risco, Cristina; De Groot, Raoul Junior

    2011-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to a method that can be used to view and detect a particular protein in a cell, a cell organ or a virus, using a marker peptide bound to metal particles and using correlative, optical and electronic microscopy images, in which the microscopically obtained image is analysed together with at least one elementary image obtained using a spectroscopy technique. This method can be used to study the biological action of proteins of biomedical interest as well as to locate ...

  2. PZT Films Fabricated by Metal Organic Decomposition Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobolev, Vladimir; Ishchuk, Valeriy

    2014-03-01

    High quality lead zirconate titanate films have been fabricated on different substrates by metal organic decomposition method and their ferroelectric properties have been investigated. Main attention was paid to studies of the influence of the buffer layer with conditional composition Pb1.3(Zr0.5Ti0.5) O3 on the properties of Pb(Zr0.5Ti0.5) O3 films fabricated on the polycrystalline titanium and platinum substrates. It is found that in the films on the Pt substrate (with or without the buffer layer) the dependencies of the remanent polarization and the coercivity field on the number of switching cycles do not manifest fatigue up to 109 cycles. The remanent polarization dependencies for films on the Ti substrate with the buffer layer containing an excess of PbO demonstrate an fundamentally new feature that consists of a remanent polarization increase after 108 switching cycles. The increase of remanent polarization is about 50% when the number of cycles approaches 1010, while the increase of the coercivity field is small. A monotonic increase of dielectric losses has been observed in all cases.

  3. Methods for the enzymatic modification of steviol glycosides, modified steviol glycosides obtainable thereby, and the use thereof as sweeteners

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    te Poele, Evelien; Dijkhuizen, Lubbert; Gerwig, Gerrit; Kamerling, Johannis

    2016-01-01

    The present invention relates generally to the production of steviol glycosides. Provided is a method for enzymatically providing a modified steviol glycoside, comprising incubating a steviol glycoside substrate in the presence of sucrose and the glucansucrase GTF180 of Lactobacillus reuteri strain

  4. An apparatus comprising a waveguide-modulator and laser-diode and a method of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.; Shen, Chao; Ng, Tien Khee; Alyamani, Ahmed Y.; Eldesouki, Munir M.

    2017-01-01

    Example apparatuses are provided for simultaneous generation of high intensity light and modulated light signals at low modulation bias operating characteristics. An example apparatus includes a semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate, a reverse- biased waveguide modulator section, and a forward-biased gain section based on InGaN/GaN quantum-well active regions, wherein the forward-biased gain section is grown on the semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate. Methods of manufacturing the apparatuses described herein are also contemplated and described herein.

  5. An apparatus comprising a waveguide-modulator and laser-diode and a method of manufacture thereof

    KAUST Repository

    Ooi, Boon S.

    2017-04-13

    Example apparatuses are provided for simultaneous generation of high intensity light and modulated light signals at low modulation bias operating characteristics. An example apparatus includes a semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate, a reverse- biased waveguide modulator section, and a forward-biased gain section based on InGaN/GaN quantum-well active regions, wherein the forward-biased gain section is grown on the semipolar or nonpolar GaN-based substrate. Methods of manufacturing the apparatuses described herein are also contemplated and described herein.

  6. Electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxides as a switching element and methods for production and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tour, James M; Yao, Jun; Natelson, Douglas; Zhong, Lin; He, Tao

    2013-11-26

    In various embodiments, electronic devices containing switchably conductive silicon oxide as a switching element are described herein. The electronic devices are two-terminal devices containing a first electrical contact and a second electrical contact in which at least one of the first electrical contact or the second electrical contact is deposed on a substrate to define a gap region therebetween. A switching layer containing a switchably conductive silicon oxide resides in the the gap region between the first electical contact and the second electrical contact. The electronic devices exhibit hysteretic current versus voltage properties, enabling their use in switching and memory applications. Methods for configuring, operating and constructing the electronic devices are also presented herein.

  7. Container for waste, identification code reading device thereof, method and system for controlling waste by using them

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kikuchi, Takashi; Yoshida, Tomiji; Omote, Tatsuyuki.

    1991-01-01

    In the conventional method of controlling waste containers by labels attached thereto, the data relevant to wastes contained in the waste containers are limited. Further, if the label should be peeled off, there is a possibility that the wastes therein can no more be identified. Then, in the present invention, an identification plate is previously attached, to which mechanically readable codes or visually readable letters or numerical figures are written. Then, the identification codes can be read in a remote control manner at high speed and high reliability and the waste containers can be managed only by the identification codes of the containers. Further, the identification codes on the container are made so as to be free from aging degradation, thereby enabling to manage waste containers for long time storage. With such a constitution, since data can be inputted from an input terminal and a great amount of data such as concerning the source of wastes can be managed collectively on a software, the data can be managed easily. (T.M.)

  8. Fabrication of hydroxyapatite from fish bones waste using reflux method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahyanto, A.; Kosasih, E.; Aripin, D.; Hasratiningsih, Z.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the fabrication of hydroxyapatites, which were synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method. The fish bone wastes collected from the restaurant were brushed and boiled at 100°C for 10 minutes to remove debris and fat. After drying, the fish bones were crushed, and ball milled into a fine powder. The fish bone wastes were then processed by refluxing using KOH and H3PO4 solutions. The samples were calcined at 900°C and characterized by X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR). The XRD pattern of samples after treatment revealed that the peak of hydroxyapatite was observed and the bands of OH- and PO4 3- were observed by FT-IR. The scanning electron microscope evaluation of sample showed the entangled crystal and porous structure of hydroxyapatite. In conclusion, the hydroxyapatite was successfully synthesized from fish bone wastes using reflux method.

  9. Method for fabrication of ceramic dielectric films on copper foils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Beihai; Narayanan, Manoj; Dorris, Stephen E.; Balachandran, Uthamalingam

    2015-03-10

    The present invention provides a method for fabricating a ceramic film on a copper foil. The method comprises applying a layer of a sol-gel composition onto a copper foil. The sol-gel composition comprises a precursor of a ceramic material suspended in 2-methoxyethanol. The layer of sol-gel is then dried at a temperature up to about 250.degree. C. The dried layer is then pyrolyzed at a temperature in the range of about 300 to about 450.degree. C. to form a ceramic film from the ceramic precursor. The ceramic film is then crystallized at a temperature in the range of about 600 to about 750.degree. C. The drying, pyrolyzing and crystallizing are performed under a flowing stream of an inert gas. In some embodiments an additional layer of the sol-gel composition is applied onto the ceramic film and the drying, pyrolyzing and crystallizing steps are repeated for the additional layer to build up a thicker ceramic layer on the copper foil. The process can be repeated one or more times if desired.

  10. Nano-fabricated superconducting radio-frequency composites, method for producing nano-fabricated superconducting rf composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norem, James H.; Pellin, Michael J.

    2013-06-11

    Superconducting rf is limited by a wide range of failure mechanisms inherent in the typical manufacture methods. This invention provides a method for fabricating superconducting rf structures comprising coating the structures with single atomic-layer thick films of alternating chemical composition. Also provided is a cavity defining the invented laminate structure.

  11. PIPERIDINE OLIGOMERS AND COMBINATORIAL LIBRARIES THEREOF

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    1999-01-01

    The present invention relates to piperidine oligomers, methods for the preparation of piperidine oligomers and compound libraries thereof, and the use of piperidine oligomers as drug substances. The present invention also relates to the use of combinatorial libraries of piperidine oligomers...... in libraries (arrays) of compounds especially suitable for screening purposes....

  12. Advanced methods of quality control in nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onoufriev, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Under pressure of current economic and electricity market situation utilities implement more demanding fuel utilization schemes including higher burn ups and thermal rates, longer fuel cycles and usage of Mo fuel. Therefore, fuel vendors have recently initiated new R and D programmes aimed at improving fuel quality, design and materials to produce robust and reliable fuel. In the beginning of commercial fuel fabrication, emphasis was given to advancements in Quality Control/Quality Assurance related mainly to product itself. During recent years, emphasis was transferred to improvements in process control and to implementation of overall Total Quality Management (TQM) programmes. In the area of fuel quality control, statistical control methods are now widely implemented replacing 100% inspection. This evolution, some practical examples and IAEA activities are described in the paper. The paper presents major findings of the latest IAEA Technical Meetings (TMs) and training courses in the area with emphasis on information received at the TM and training course held in 1999 and other latest publications to provide an overview of new developments in process/quality control, their implementation and results obtained including new approaches to QC

  13. Developing a method of fabricating microchannels using plant root structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Shota; Tokumaru, Kazuki; Tsumori, Fujio

    2018-06-01

    Complicated three-dimensional (3D) microchannels are expected to be applied to a lab-on-a-chip, especially an organ-on-a-chip. There are fine microchannel networks such as blood vessels in a living organ. However, it is difficult to recreate the complicated 3D microchannels of real living structures. Plant roots have a similar structure to blood vessels. They spread radially and three-dimensionally, and become thinner as they branch. In this research, we propose a method of fabricating microchannels using a live plant root as a template to mimic a blood vessel structure. We grew a plant in ceramic slurry instead of soil. The slurry consists of ceramic powder, binder and water, so it plays a similar role to soil consisting of fine particles in water. After growing the plant, the roots inside the slurry were burned and a sintered ceramic body with channel structures was obtained by heating. We used two types of slurry with different composition ratios, and compared the internal channel structures before and after sintering.

  14. Determining Effective Thermal Conductivity of Fabrics by Using Fractal Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Fanglong; Li, Kejing

    2010-03-01

    In this article, a fractal effective thermal conductivity model for woven fabrics with multiple layers is developed. Structural models of yarn and plain woven fabric are derived based on the fractal characteristics of macro-pores (gap or channel) between the yarns and micro-pores inside the yarns. The fractal effective thermal conductivity model can be expressed as a function of the pore structure (fractal dimension) and architectural parameters of the woven fabric. Good agreement is found between the fractal model and the thermal conductivity measurements in the general porosity ranges. It is expected that the model will be helpful in the evaluation of thermal comfort for woven fabric in the whole range of porosity.

  15. Systems and methods for scalable perovskite device fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jinsong; Dong, Qingfeng; Sao, Yuchuan

    2017-02-28

    Continuous processes for fabricating a perovskite device are described that include using a doctor blade for continuously forming a perovskite layer and using a conductive tape lamination process to form an anode or a cathode layer on the perovskite device.

  16. Fracture toughness of fabrication welds investigated by metallographic methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Canonico, D.A.; Crouse, R.S.

    1978-01-01

    The intermediate scale test vessels (ITV) were fabricated to provide test specimens that have sufficient wall thickness and simulate light water reactor pressure vessels. They were fabricated from grades of steel that are similar to those used for nuclear pressure vessels, having a wall thickness of 150mm and the same welded construction. They are, however, considerably smaller in height and diameter than actual vessels. To date, ten vessels have been fabricated and eight have been tested. In preparation for testing the eighth vessel (ITV-8), an extensive investigation was conducted of the toughness properties of the fabrication weld. It was thoroughly characterized and the fracture specimens used in this metallographic investigation were taken from that weld metal

  17. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  18. A New Invention Method to Determine the Reduction Factor for Low Fabric Tension Properties for Head Garment Fabrication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aiman A.F

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a new method to determine the reduction factor for producing a head garment with specified targeted pressure output. Pressure garment fabric mostly supplied to the local hospitals with no information of the material properties and the fabrication method generally used a single reduction factor at various body segments. Reduction factor defined as the percentage of reducing the garment size from the original circumference of the body part which contributes to the compression. The objective of this study is to compare the fabrication method of head garment using reduction factor equation from previous research with the new proposed method. The equation to predict the reduction factor requires the parameter of the fabric tension which is obtained from tensile test and radius of curvature of the human body parts. In the new proposed method, a 3D scanning was used for data acquisition to obtain the geometry of the head area. The pressure outputs are measured by a pressure measurement system developed from Flexiforce sensor and Arduino circuit board. By using the equation, the result shows the calculated reduction factor produced an extremely tight head garment compared to the conducted experiments which manage to produce an adequate reduction factor with a targeted pressure output of 20mmHg. The result of the experiment indicates that the reduction factor ranging from 17% to 23% compared to the equation which produces 20% to 47% of reduction factor. As an additional, the proposed experimental method can be used for different type of pressure garment fabrics in order to obtain the relationship between the reduction factor and the circumference of the body parts.

  19. A Review on the Fabrication of Polymer-Based Thermoelectric Materials and Fabrication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamarudin, Muhammad Akmal; Sahamir, Shahrir Razey; Datta, Robi Shankar; Long, Bui Duc; Mohd Sabri, Mohd Faizul; Mohd Said, Suhana

    2013-01-01

    Thermoelectricity, by converting heat energy directly into useable electricity, offers a promising technology to convert heat from solar energy and to recover waste heat from industrial sectors and automobile exhausts. In recent years, most of the efforts have been done on improving the thermoelectric efficiency using different approaches, that is, nanostructuring, doping, molecular rattling, and nanocomposite formation. The applications of thermoelectric polymers at low temperatures, especially conducting polymers, have shown various advantages such as easy and low cost of fabrication, light weight, and flexibility. In this review, we will focus on exploring new types of polymers and the effects of different structures, concentrations, and molecular weight on thermoelectric properties. Various strategies to improve the performance of thermoelectric materials will be discussed. In addition, a discussion on the fabrication of thermoelectric devices, especially suited to polymers, will also be given. Finally, we provide the challenge and the future of thermoelectric polymers, especially thermoelectric hybrid model. PMID:24324378

  20. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich

    2016-08-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  1. Flash μ-fluidics: a rapid prototyping method for fabricating microfluidic devices

    KAUST Repository

    Buttner, Ulrich; Sivashankar, Shilpa; Agambayev, Sumeyra; Mashraei, Yousof; Salama, Khaled N.

    2016-01-01

    Microfluidics has advanced in terms of design and structures; however, fabrication methods are time-consuming or expensive relative to facility costs and equipment needed. This work demonstrates a fast and economically viable 2D/3D maskless digital light-projection method based on a stereolithography process. Unlike other fabrication methods, one exposure step is used to form the whole device. Flash microfluidics is achieved by incorporating bonding and channel fabrication of complex structures in just 2.5 s to 4 s and by fabricating channel heights between 25 μm and 150 μm with photopolymer resin. The features of this fabrication technique, such as time and cost saving and easy fabrication, are used to build devices that are mostly needed in microfluidic/lab-on-chip systems. Due to the fast production method and low initial setup costs, the process could be used for point of care applications. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  2. Methods of PCM microcapsules application and the thermal properties of modified knitted fabric

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nejman, Alicja, E-mail: anejman@iw.lodz.pl [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Cieślak, Małgorzata [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Gajdzicki, Bogumił [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Textile Chemistry and Products Modification, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland); Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna; Karaszewska, Agnieszka [Textile Research Institute, Scientific Department of Unconventional Technologies and Textiles, 5/15 Brzezinska St., 92-103 Lodz (Poland)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • We applied microcapsules containing n-octadecane for the modification of knitted fabric. • We used printing, coating and padding techniques for the application of microcapsules. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the thermal properties of textiles. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the air permeability properties of textiles. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of application methods of microcapsules containing n-octadecane as phase change materials (M-PCM) on the thermal properties and air permeability of modified textile fabric. Polyester knitted fabric, printing, coating and padding methods and polymer pastes with 20 wt.% of M-PCM were used. For the assessment of modification effects the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. DSC analysis showed that the highest enthalpy of phase transitions has printed fabric and the lowest padded fabric. The widest range of phase transitions temperatures was observed for printed fabric, slightly narrower for coated fabric and the narrowest for padded fabric. SEM analysis showed differences in the morphology of modified fabrics depending on incorporation techniques, which are compatible with differences in air permeability results. M-PCM application techniques allow to regulate the thermal and air permeability properties of fabric.

  3. Methods of PCM microcapsules application and the thermal properties of modified knitted fabric

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nejman, Alicja; Cieślak, Małgorzata; Gajdzicki, Bogumił; Goetzendorf-Grabowska, Bogna; Karaszewska, Agnieszka

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We applied microcapsules containing n-octadecane for the modification of knitted fabric. • We used printing, coating and padding techniques for the application of microcapsules. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the thermal properties of textiles. • M-PCM application methods allow to regulate the air permeability properties of textiles. - Abstract: The aim of the study is to analyze the impact of application methods of microcapsules containing n-octadecane as phase change materials (M-PCM) on the thermal properties and air permeability of modified textile fabric. Polyester knitted fabric, printing, coating and padding methods and polymer pastes with 20 wt.% of M-PCM were used. For the assessment of modification effects the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used. DSC analysis showed that the highest enthalpy of phase transitions has printed fabric and the lowest padded fabric. The widest range of phase transitions temperatures was observed for printed fabric, slightly narrower for coated fabric and the narrowest for padded fabric. SEM analysis showed differences in the morphology of modified fabrics depending on incorporation techniques, which are compatible with differences in air permeability results. M-PCM application techniques allow to regulate the thermal and air permeability properties of fabric

  4. Methods and systems for fabricating high quality superconducting tapes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Majkic, Goran; Selvamanickam, Venkat

    2018-02-13

    An MOCVD system fabricates high quality superconductor tapes with variable thicknesses. The MOCVD system can include a gas flow chamber between two parallel channels in a housing. A substrate tape is heated and then passed through the MOCVD housing such that the gas flow is perpendicular to the tape's surface. Precursors are injected into the gas flow for deposition on the substrate tape. In this way, superconductor tapes can be fabricated with variable thicknesses, uniform precursor deposition, and high critical current densities.

  5. Fabrication of Al/Diamond Particles Functionally Graded Materials by Centrifugal Sintered-Casting Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Yoshimi; Shibuya, Masafumi; Sato, Hisashi

    2013-01-01

    The continuous graded structure of functionally graded materials (FGMs) can be created under a centrifugal force. Centrifugal sintered-casting (CSC) method, proposed by the authors, is one of the fabrication methods of FGM under centrifugal force. This method is a combination of the centrifugal sintering method and centrifugal casting method. In this study, Al/diamond particle FGM was fabricated by the proposed method.

  6. Explosive-emission cathode fabricated using track method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akap'ev, G.N.; Korenev, S.A.

    1989-01-01

    Fabrication technique for large area multipoint cathodes is described. The technique is based on channels filling with metal in the ion-irradiated dielectric film producted after channel etching. It is shown, that cathode may be used under explosive emission conditions. Characteristics of diode with the mentioned type cathodes are measured

  7. Mixed ionic-electronic conductor-based radiation detectors and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conway, Adam; Beck, Patrick R; Graff, Robert T; Nelson, Art; Nikolic, Rebecca J; Payne, Stephen A; Voss, Lars; Kim, Hadong

    2015-04-07

    A method of fabricating a mixed ionic-electronic conductor (e.g. TlBr)-based radiation detector having halide-treated surfaces and associated methods of fabrication, which controls polarization of the mixed ionic-electronic MIEC material to improve stability and operational lifetime.

  8. Alkali semi-metal films and method and apparatus for fabricating them

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhandari, Harish B.; Nagarkar, Vivek V.; Ovechkina, Olena E.; Frisch, Henry J.; Attenkofer, Klaus; Smedley, John M.

    2018-03-13

    Methods and systems for fabricating a film, such as, for example, a photocathode, having a tailored band structure and thin-film components that can be tailored for specific applications, such as, for example photocathode having a high quantum efficiency, and simple components fabricated by those methods.

  9. Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gessert, Timothy A.; Yoshida, Yuki; Coutts, Timothy J.

    2014-06-10

    Transparent conducting oxides and production thereof are disclosed. An exemplary method of producing a transparent conducting oxide (TCO) material may comprise: providing a TCO target doped with either a high-permittivity oxide or a low-permittivity oxide in a process chamber. The method may also comprise depositing a metal oxide on the target in the process chamber to form a thin film having enhanced optical properties without substantially decreasing electrical quality.

  10. Study on the Filament Yarns Spreading Techniques and Assessment Methods of the Electronic Fiberglass Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xi; Chen, Shouhui; Zheng, Tianyong; Ning, Xiangchun; Dai, Yifei

    2018-03-01

    The filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric were developed in the past few years in order to meet the requirements of the development of electronic industry. Copper clad laminate (CCL) requires that the warp and weft yarns of the fabric could be spread out of apart and formed flat. The penetration performance of resin could be improved due to the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric, the same as peeling strength of CCL and drilling performance of printed circuit board (PCB). This paper shows the filament yarns spreading techniques of electronic fiberglass fabric from several aspects, such as methods and functions, also with the assessment methods of their effects.

  11. Fabrication Method for LOBSTER-Eye Optics in Silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervenak, James; Collier, Michael; Mateo, Jennette

    2013-01-01

    Soft x-ray optics can use narrow slots to direct x-rays into a desirable pattern on a focal plane. While square-pack, square-pore, slumped optics exist for this purpose, they are costly. Silicon (Si) is being examined as a possible low-cost replacement. A fabrication method was developed for narrow slots in Si demonstrating the feasibility of stacked slot optics to replace micropores. Current micropore optics exist that have 20-micron-square pores on 26-micron pitch in glass with a depth of 1 mm and an extent of several square centimeters. Among several proposals to emulate the square pore optics are stacked slot chips with etched vertical slots. When the slots in the stack are positioned orthogonally to each other, the component will approach the soft x-ray focusing observed in the micropore optics. A specific improvement Si provides is that it can have narrower sidewalls between slots to permit greater throughput of x-rays through the optics. In general, Si can have more variation in slot geometry (width, length). Further, the sidewalls can be coated with high-Z materials to enhance reflection and potentially reduce the surface roughness of the reflecting surface. Narrow, close-packed deep slots in Si have been produced using potassium hydroxide (KOH) etching and a patterned silicon nitride (SiN) mask. The achieved slot geometries have sufficient wall smoothness, as observed through scanning electron microscope (SEM) imaging, to enable evaluation of these slot plates as an optical element for soft x-rays. Etches of different angles to the crystal plane of Si were evaluated to identify a specific range of etch angles that will enable low undercut slots in the Si material. These slots with the narrow sidewalls are demonstrated to several hundred microns in depth, and a technical path to 500-micron deep slots in a precision geometry of narrow, closepacked slots is feasible. Although intrinsic stress in ultrathin wall Si is observed, slots with walls approaching 1

  12. A modeling method of semiconductor fabrication flows with extended knowledge hybrid Petri nets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Binghai; Jiang Shuyu; Wang Shijin; Wu bin

    2008-01-01

    A modeling method of extended knowledge hybrid Petri nets (EKHPNs), incorporating object-oriented methods into hybrid Petri nets (HPNs), was presented and used for the representation and modeling of semiconductor wafer fabrication flows. To model the discrete and continuous parts of a complex semiconductor wafer fabrication flow, the HPNs were introduced into the EKHPNs. Object-oriented methods were combined into the EKHPNs for coping with the complexity of the fabrication flow. Knowledge annotations were introduced to solve input and output conflicts of the EKHPNs.Finally, to demonstrate the validity of the EKHPN method, a real semiconductor wafer fabrication case was used to illustrate the modeling procedure. The modeling results indicate that the proposed method can be used to model a complex semiconductor wafer fabrication flow expediently.

  13. Metal-polymer composites comprising nanostructures and applications thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hsing-Lin [Los Alamos, NM; Jeon, Sea Ho [Dracut, MA; Mack, Nathan H [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-08-02

    Metal-polymer composites, and methods of making and use thereof, said composites comprising a thermally-cured dense polyaniline substrate; an acid dopant; and, metal nanostructure deposits wherein the deposits have a morphology dependent upon the acid dopant.

  14. Novel fabrication method of conductive polymer nanowires for sensor applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Nikolaj Ormstrup; Andersen, Karsten Brandt; Castillo, Jaime

    2013-01-01

    In this work we demonstrate a new, quiek and low cost fabrication of PEDOT:TsO nanowires using self-assembled peptide nanotubes as a masking material. The peptide nanotubes show a remarkably stability during reactive ion etching and can be dissolved in water afterwards. We have shown that the imp...... that the impedance of the nanowire is changing with backgating the wire, this gives promising possibility for application as a sensor....

  15. Methods for Fabricating Gradient Alloy Articles with Multi-Functional Properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Borgonia, John Paul C. (Inventor); Dillon, Robert P. (Inventor); Suh, Eric J. (Inventor); Mulder, Jerry L. (Inventor); Gardner, Paul B. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    Systems and methods for fabricating multi-functional articles comprised of additively formed gradient materials are provided. The fabrication of multi-functional articles using the additive deposition of gradient alloys represents a paradigm shift from the traditional way that metal alloys and metal/metal alloy parts are fabricated. Since a gradient alloy that transitions from one metal to a different metal cannot be fabricated through any conventional metallurgy techniques, the technique presents many applications. Moreover, the embodiments described identify a broad range of properties and applications.

  16. Thermal properties and water repellency of cotton fabric prepared through sol-gel method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gu Jia-Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Cotton fabrics were treated by one-step sol-gel method. The pure silica hydrosol and phosphorus-doped hydrosol were prepared with the addition of a hydrophobic hexadecyltrimethoxysilane to decrease the surface energy of cotton fabric. The thermal properties and water repellency of treated cotton fabric were characterized by thermo-gravimetric analysis, micro combustion, limiting oxygen index, and contact angle measurement. The results showed that cotton fabric treated by phosphorus-doped silica hydrosol had excellent flame retardance, and the water repellence was apparently improved with the addition of hexadecyltrimethoxysilane.

  17. Pilling evaluation of patterned fabrics based on a gradient field method

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Techniková, L.; Tunák, M.; Janáček, Jiří

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 41, č. 1 (2016), s. 97-101 ISSN 0971-0426 Institutional support: RVO:67985823 Keywords : 3D surface reconstruction * fabric pilling * gradient field method * patterned fabric * pills detection Subject RIV: JS - Reliability ; Quality Management, Testing Impact factor: 0.430, year: 2016

  18. A simple method of fabricating mask-free microfluidic devices for biological analysis.

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Xin; Kodzius, Rimantas; Gong, Xiuqing; Xiao, Kang; Wen, Weijia

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple, low-cost, rapid, and mask-free method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip for biological analysis researches. In this fabrication process, a laser system is used to cut through paper

  19. Stabilized aqueous gels and uses thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swanson, B.L.

    1978-08-29

    New improved aqueous gels, and methods of using same in contacting subterranean formations, are provided. The gels are prepared by gelling an aqueous brine having incorporated therein a water-soluble cellulose ether such as a carboxymethylcellulose (CMC), and are rendered more stable to decomposition by incorporating a sulfoalkylated tannin stabilizing agent, such as a sulfomethylated quebracho (SMQ), in the gel during the preparation thereof.

  20. Gas laser tube and method of fabricating same

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garman, L.E.

    1975-01-01

    An improved gas laser tube is fabricated by counter boring the ends of a tubular aluminum extrusion having an inner tubular portion supported from an outer tubular portion via the intermediary of a plurality of radially directed support vanes or legs. Metallic transverse walls are sealed across the ends of the tubular extrusion to define the ends of a gas tight metallic envelope. An electrically insulative glow discharge tube is axially disposed within and supported by the inner tubular portion of the extrusion in axial alignment with an optical resonator of the laser tube. (U.S.)

  1. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2016-12-20

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  2. Metallic dielectric photonic crystals and methods of fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chou, Jeffrey Brian; Kim, Sang-Gook

    2017-12-05

    A metallic-dielectric photonic crystal is formed with a periodic structure defining a plurality of resonant cavities to selectively absorb incident radiation. A metal layer is deposited on the inner surfaces of the resonant cavities and a dielectric material fills inside the resonant cavities. This photonic crystal can be used to selectively absorb broadband solar radiation and then reemit absorbed radiation in a wavelength band that matches the absorption band of a photovoltaic cell. The photonic crystal can be fabricated by patterning a sacrificial layer with a plurality of holes, into which is deposited a supporting material. Removing the rest of the sacrificial layer creates a supporting structure, on which a layer of metal is deposited to define resonant cavities. A dielectric material then fills the cavities to form the photonic crystal.

  3. Immobilization of nanoparticle titanium dioxide membrane on polyamide fabric by low temperature hydrothermal method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hui; Yang Lu

    2012-01-01

    A thin layer of nanoparticle titanium dioxide was immobilized on polyamide 6 (PA6) fiber using titanium sulfate and urea at low temperature hydrothermal condition. The titanium dioxide loaded fabric was characterized by scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermal gravimetry techniques. The optical and mechanical properties, water absorption and degradation of methylene blue dye under ultraviolet (UV) irradiation of the PA6 fabric before and after treatments were also examined. It was found that when PA6 fabric was treated in titanium sulfate and urea aqueous solution, anatase nanocrystalline titanium dioxide was synthesized and simultaneously adhered onto the fiber surface. The average crystal size of titanium dioxide nanoparticles was about 13.2 nm. The thermal behavior of PA6 fiber distinctly changed and the onset decomposition temperature decreased. As compared with the untreated fabric, the protection against UV radiation was improved. The water absorbency increased slightly. As the fabric dimensions were reduced in warp and weft directions, the breaking load and tensile strain increased to some extent. The titanium dioxide coated fabric could degradate methylene blue dye under UV irradiation. - Highlights: ► We employed a method to immobilize TiO 2 nanoparticle on polyamide fiber. ► We fabricated the TiO 2 -coated polyamide fabric with the photocatalytic activity. ► The modification method may be suitable for the potential applications.

  4. Analysis and Comparison of Thickness and Bending Measurements from Fabric Touch Tester (FTT and Standard Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Musa Atiyyah Binti Haji

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Fabric Touch Tester (FTT is a relatively new device from SDL Atlas to determine touch properties of fabrics. It simultaneously measures 13 touch-related fabric physical properties in four modules that include bending and thickness measurements. This study aims to comparatively analyze the thickness and bending measurements made by the FTT and the common standard methods used in the textile industry. The results obtained with the FTT for 11 different fabrics were compared with that of standard methods. Despite the different measurement principle, a good correlation was found between the two methods used for the assessment of thickness and bending. As FTT is a new tool for textile comfort measurement and no standard yet exists, these findings are essential to determine the reliability of the measurements and how they relate to the well-established standard methods.

  5. Systems and methods for large-scale nanotemplate and nanowire fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova; Alfadhel, Ahmed; Ivanov, Iurii; Kosel, Jü rgen

    2016-01-01

    Systems and methods for largescale nanotemplate and nanowire fabrication are provided. The system can include a sample holder and one or more chemical containers fluidly connected to the sample holder. The sample holder can be configured to contain

  6. A new physical method to assess handle properties of fabrics made from wood-based fibers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Rous, M.; Liftinger, E.; Innerlohinger, J.; Malengier, B.; Vasile, S.

    2017-10-01

    In this work, the handfeel of fabrics made of wood-based fibers such as viscose, modal and Lyocell was investigated in relation to cotton fabrics applying the Tissue Softness Analyzer (TSA) method in comparison to other classical methods. Two different construction groups of textile were investigated. The validity of TSA in assessing textile softness of these constructions was tested. TSA results were compared to human hand evaluation as well as to classical physical measurements like drape coefficient, ring pull-through and Handle-o-meter, as well as a newer device, the Fabric Touch Tester (FTT). Physical methods as well as human hand assessments mostly agreed on the softest and smoothest range, but showed different rankings in the harder/rougher side fabrics. TSA ranking of softness and smoothness corresponded to the rankings by other physical methods as well as with human hand feel for the basic textile constructions.

  7. A new and simple method of fabrication of tracheostomal prosthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Vidya Sankari

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with a tracheostomy stoma experience compromised speech and function due to the associated changes in airflow patterns. Rehabilitation of a patient with tracheal stoma is a highly challenging task. The main objective is to design an inexpensive, easily fabricated stomal prosthesis for postlaryngectomy patients who require prolonged tracheotomy. This clinical case report describes a 29-year-old male patient who underwent for tracheotomy 3 months before for respiratory distress following a suicidal attempt. Hence tracheotomy was done, and the patient has been with the tracheostomal tube since surgery for the past 3 months. Laryngoscopy examination reported as restricted bilateral vocal cord movements, and the cords were in the adducted position with minimal glottic chink. No history of difficulty in swallowing. On examination, no scar or ulceration is seen around the stoma. The skin around the stoma is healthy. The patient was referred to the oral and maxillofacial Prosthodontics Department from the Department of ENT. The patient′s old tracheostomal tube was used as the dimensions of the custom made tracheal prosthesis without making a functional impression of the mature stoma. A tracheal button was made with 2 mm polyethylene urethane sheet to maintain the airway patency of the mature stoma. Width and length of the old tracheostomal tube were measured and customized with polyurethane sheet by directly flaming over heat. The finished product was thin, flexible, maintains enhanced tear strength, require no tapes or adhesives and less technique sensitive. These properties of the prosthesis make more advantageous than the commercially available tracheal buttons. The result in this patient was excellent with no postoperative complications. An innovative approach for fabrication of tracheostomal prosthesis was discussed to increase its successful use in tracheostomal patients. The patient′s old tracheostomal tube was used as the dimensions

  8. Silicon-based photonic crystals fabricated using proton beam writing combined with electrochemical etching method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Zhiya; Breese, Mark Bh; Recio-Sánchez, Gonzalo; Azimi, Sara; Song, Jiao; Liang, Haidong; Banas, Agnieszka; Torres-Costa, Vicente; Martín-Palma, Raúl José

    2012-07-23

    A method for fabrication of three-dimensional (3D) silicon nanostructures based on selective formation of porous silicon using ion beam irradiation of bulk p-type silicon followed by electrochemical etching is shown. It opens a route towards the fabrication of two-dimensional (2D) and 3D silicon-based photonic crystals with high flexibility and industrial compatibility. In this work, we present the fabrication of 2D photonic lattice and photonic slab structures and propose a process for the fabrication of 3D woodpile photonic crystals based on this approach. Simulated results of photonic band structures for the fabricated 2D photonic crystals show the presence of TE or TM gap in mid-infrared range.

  9. The design and fabrication of two portal vein flow phantoms by different methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunker, Bryan E., E-mail: bryan.yunker@ucdenver.edu; Lanning, Craig J.; Shandas, Robin; Hunter, Kendall S. [Department of Bioengineering, University of Colorado – Denver/Anschutz, 12700 East 19th Avenue, MS 8607, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Dodd, Gerald D., E-mail: gerald.dodd@ucdenver.edu; Chang, Samuel; Scherzinger, Ann L. [Department of Radiology, University of Colorado – SOM, 12401 East 17th Avenue, Mail Stop L954, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Chen, S. James, E-mail: james.chen@ucdenver.edu [Department of Medicine, University of Colorado Denver, Colorado 80045 and Department of Medicine/Cardiology, University of Colorado – SOM, 12401 East 17th Avenue, Mail Stop B132, Aurora, Colorado 80045 (United States); Feng, Yusheng, E-mail: yusheng.feng@utsa.edu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Texas – San Antonio, One UTSA Circle, Mail Stop: AET 2.332, San Antonio, Texas 78249–0670 (United States)

    2014-02-15

    Purpose: This study outlines the design and fabrication techniques for two portal vein flow phantoms. Methods: A materials study was performed as a precursor to this phantom fabrication effort and the desired material properties are restated for continuity. A three-dimensional portal vein pattern was created from the Visual Human database. The portal vein pattern was used to fabricate two flow phantoms by different methods with identical interior surface geometry using computer aided design software tools and rapid prototyping techniques. One portal flow phantom was fabricated within a solid block of clear silicone for use on a table with Ultrasound or within medical imaging systems such as MRI, CT, PET, or SPECT. The other portal flow phantom was fabricated as a thin walled tubular latex structure for use in water tanks with Ultrasound imaging. Both phantoms were evaluated for usability and durability. Results: Both phantoms were fabricated successfully and passed durability criteria for flow testing in the next project phase. Conclusions: The fabrication methods and materials employed for the study yielded durable portal vein phantoms.

  10. A new method for measuring the thermal regulatory properties of phase change material (PCM) fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, X; Fan, J

    2009-01-01

    Several methods already exist for the measurement of the thermal regulatory properties of fabrics containing phase change materials (PCMs). However, they do not adequately simulate the actual use condition; consequently the measurements may not have relevance to the performance of PCM fabrics in actual use. Here we report on the development of a new method, which better simulates the real use situation. In this method, a hot plate, simulating the human body, generates a constant amount of heat depending on the type of human activity to be simulated. The hot plate covered by the PCM fabric is then exposed to a thermal transient simulating a wearer moving from one thermal environment to another; the changes of surface temperature and heat loss of the hot plate are then recorded and used to characterize the thermal regulatory properties of the PCM fabrics

  11. Microneedle fabrication using the plane pattern to cross-section transfer method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khumpuang, Sommawan; Horade, Mitsuhiro; Fujioka, Kazuya; Sugiyama, Susumu

    2006-04-01

    In this paper, microneedle fabrication using the PCT (plane pattern to cross-section transfer) method is summarized. Three types of microneedle array have been developed: the single-tip, quadruplet, and hollow microneedle arrays. A brief introduction to the fabrication process using PCT and detailed design concepts for optimizing the fabrication steps for shape improvement of the three types of microneedle are provided. The microneedle structures have controllable angled sidewalls, exhibiting an extraordinarily geometrical level of accuracy compared to what is achieved using other existing fabrication methods based on deep x-ray lithography by synchrotron radiation. Furthermore, the improvements reported in this work as compared to the results from the existing methods are: sharper tips for the single-tip microneedles, strength improvement for the quadruplet microneedles, and cost reduction for the hollow microneedles. Each type of microneedle was designed to serve a different biomedical need.

  12. Fabrication of colloidal crystal heterostructures by a room temperature floating self-assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Aijun; Chen Shengli; Dong Peng

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Opal colloidal crystal heterostructure of several square centimeters in area was fabricated within only tens of minutes. → A fabricated colloidal crystal heterostructure was composed of a PS opal and a TiO 2 inverse opal crystal films. → The photonic heterostructure had two photonic-band gaps. → The relative position of the two photonic-band gaps can be controlled by the size of PS microspheres used to fabricate the photonic heterostructure. - Abstract: Photonic crystal heterostructures were fabricated through a room temperature floating self-assembly (RTFSA) method recently developed by our research group. Applying this method, opal colloidal crystal heterostructures of several square centimeters in area were fabricated within tens of minutes without special facilities, and a heterostructure composed of a PS opal and a TiO 2 inverse opal crystal films was fabricated. SEM image of the PS opal-TiO 2 inverse opal heterostructure showed the ordered growth of the top opal film of the heterostructure was hardly disturbed by the cracks in the TiO 2 inverse opal film. The UV-vis transmission spectra indicated that the photonic heterostructures had two photonic-band gaps, and the relative position of two photonic-band gaps can be controlled by the size of PS microspheres used to fabricated the photonic heterostructures.

  13. Complete Dentures Fabricated with CAD/CAM Technology and a Traditional Clinical Recording Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janeva, Nadica; Kovacevska, Gordana; Janev, Edvard

    2017-10-15

    The introduction of computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology into complete denture (CD) fabrication ushered in a new era in removable prosthodontics. Commercially available CAD/CAM denture systems are expected to improve upon the disadvantages associated with conventional fabrication. The purpose of this report is to present the workflow involved in fabricating a CD with a traditional clinical recording method and CAD/CAM technology and to summarize the advantages to the dental practitioner and the patient.

  14. Computer-Aided Design Method of Warp-Knitted Jacquard Spacer Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xinxin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on a further study on knitting and jacquard principles, this paper presents a mathematical design model to make computer-aided design of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics more efficient. The mathematical model with matrix method employs three essential elements of chain notation, threading and Jacquard designing. With this model, the processing to design warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics with CAD software is also introduced. In this study, the sports shoes which have separated functional areas according to the feet structure and characteristics of movement are analysed. The results show the different patterns on Jacquard spacer fabrics that are seamlessly stitched with jacquard technics. The computer-aided design method of warp-knitted jacquard spacer fabrics is efficient and simple.

  15. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dolata, A. J.; Dyzia, M.

    2012-05-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al2O3, SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  16. Aspects of fabrication aluminium matrix heterophase composites by suspension method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolata, A J; Dyzia, M

    2012-01-01

    Composites with an aluminium alloy matrix (AlMMC) exhibit several advantageous properties such as good strength, stiffness, low density, resistance and dimensional stability to elevated temperatures, good thermal expansion coefficient and particularly high resistance to friction wear. Therefore such composites are more and more used in modern engineering constructions. Composites reinforced with hard ceramic particles (Al 2 O 3 , SiC) are gradually being implemented into production in automotive or aircraft industries. Another application of AlMMC is in the electronics industry, where the dimensional stability and capacity to absorb and remove heat is used in radiators. However the main problems are still: a reduction of production costs, developing methods of composite material tests and final product quality assessment, standardisation, development of recycling and mechanical processing methods. AlMMC production technologies, based on liquid-phase methods, and the shaping of products by casting methods, belong to the cheapest production methods. Application of a suspension method for the production of composites with heterophase reinforcement may turn out to be a new material and technological solution. The article presents the material and technological aspects of the transfer procedures for the production of composite suspensions from laboratory scale to a semi-industrial scale.

  17. Amorphous uranium alloy and use thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gambino, R.J.; McElfresh, M.W.; McGuire, T.R.; Plaskett, T.S.

    1991-01-01

    An amorphous alloy containing uranium and a member selected from the group N, P, As, Sb, Bi, S, Se, Te, Po and mixtures thereof; and use thereof for storage medium, light modulator or optical isolator. (author) figs

  18. Carboranylporphyrins and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Michiko; Renner, Mark W

    2012-10-16

    The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing porphyrin compounds with halide, amine, or nitro groups and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), X-ray radiation therapy (XRT), and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head and neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing porphyrin compounds in methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.

  19. Carbonylporphyrins and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miura, Michiko; Renner, Mark W

    2014-03-18

    The present invention is directed to low toxicity boronated compounds and methods for their use in the treatment, visualization, and diagnosis of tumors. More specifically, the present invention is directed to low toxicity carborane-containing porphyrin compounds with halide, amine, or nitro groups and methods for their use particularly in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), X-ray radiation therapy (XRT), and photodynamic therapy (PDT) for the treatment of tumors of the brain, head and neck, and surrounding tissue. The invention is also directed to using these carborane-containing porphyrin compounds in methods of tumor imaging and/or diagnosis such as MRI, SPECT, or PET.

  20. Method for the fabrication of nuclear fuel bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.E.; Leary, D.F.

    1976-01-01

    According to the method, graphite particles are treated with a liquid impregnating agent containing heat-hardenable resin components; the resulting particles are mixed with nuclear fuel particles, and a nuclear fuel body is formed by binding the mixture of particles into a cohesive mass by means of a carbon-contained binder. The claim concerns the details of the process. (UA) [de

  1. Applying the Taguchi method for optimized fabrication of bovine ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    SERVER

    2008-02-19

    Feb 19, 2008 ... Nanobiotechnology Research Lab., School of Chemical Engineering, Babol University of Technology, Po.Box: 484, ... nanoparticle by applying the Taguchi method with characterization of the ... of BSA/ethanol and organic solvent adding rate. ... Sodium aside and all other chemicals were purchased from.

  2. Method to fabricate micro and nano diamond devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales, Alfredo M.; Anderson, Richard J.; Yang, Nancy Y. C.; Skinner, Jack L.; Rye, Michael J.

    2017-04-11

    A method including forming a diamond material on the surface of a substrate; forming a first contact and a separate second contact; and patterning the diamond material to form a nanowire between the first contact and the second contact. An apparatus including a first contact and a separate second contact on a substrate; and a nanowire including a single crystalline or polycrystalline diamond material on the substrate and connected to each of the first contact and the second contact.

  3. Fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu Xingsheng; Chen Hongda; Xiong Zhigang; Jin Aizi; Gu Changzhi; Cheng Bingying; Zhang Daozhong

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, we introduced the fabrication of photonic crystals on several kinds of semiconductor materials by using focused-ion beam machine, it shows that the method of focused-ion beam can fabricate two-dimensional photonic crystal and photonic crystal device efficiently, and the quality of the fabricated photonic crystal is high. Using the focused-ion beam method, we fabricate photonic crystal wavelength division multiplexer, and its characteristics are analyzed

  4. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Y.; Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y.; Cheng, C.H.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T c superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T c superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances

  5. Progress of long coated conductors fabrication with fluorine-free CSD method at SWJTU

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Y., E-mail: yzhao@swjtu.edu.cn [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia); Wang, W.T.; Lei, M.; Pu, M.H.; Zhang, Y. [Key Lab of Advanced Materials Technologies, Key Lab of Magnetic Levitation Technologies and Maglev Trains (Ministry of Education), Superconductivity and New Energy Center (SNEC), Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031 (China); Cheng, C.H. [School of Materials Science and Engineering, University of New South Wales, Sydney 2052, NSW (Australia)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • Recent progress on the long coated conductors fabrication by F-free CSD method is presented. • Single buffer and partial-melting technology and slot-die coating methods have been developed. • Reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved. -- Abstract: Recent progress on the fabrication of long high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors with a fluorine-free chemical solution deposition (CSD) method is presented. Developments including such novel methods as single buffer technology, partial-melting process on YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7} (YBCO), slot-die coating and drying; reel-to-reel facilities for continuous process have been achieved in the effort on high-T{sub c} superconducting coated conductors at SWJTU, which form a comprehensive technology to fabricate long coated tapes with high performances.

  6. 3D scan line method for identifying void fabric of granular materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Theocharis Alexandros I.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Among other processes measuring the void phase of porous or fractured media, scan line approach is a simplified “graphical” method, mainly used in image processing related procedures. In soil mechanics, the application of scan line method is related to the soil fabric, which is important in characterizing the anisotropic mechanical response of soils. Void fabric is of particular interest, since graphical approaches are well defined experimentally and most of them can also be easily used in numerical experiments, like the scan line method. This is in contrast to the definition of fabric based on contact normal vectors that are extremely difficult to determine, especially considering physical experiments. The scan line method has been proposed by Oda et al [1] and implemented again by Ghedia and O’Sullivan [2]. A modified method based on DEM analysis instead of image measurements of fabric has been previously proposed and implemented by the authors in a 2D scheme [3-4]. In this work, a 3D extension of the modified scan line definition is presented using PFC 3D®. The results show clearly similar trends with the 2D case and the same behaviour of fabric anisotropy is presented.

  7. Characterization of Three-Dimensional Printed Composite Scaffolds Prepared with Different Fabrication Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szlązak K.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available An optimal method for composites preparation as an input to rapid prototyping fabrication of scaffolds with potential application in osteochondral tissue engineering is still needed. Scaffolds in tissue engineering applications play a role of constructs providing appropriate mechanical support with defined porosity to assist regeneration of tissue. The aim of the presented study was to analyze the influence of composite fabrication methods on scaffolds mechanical properties. The evaluation was performed on polycaprolactone (PCL with 5 wt% beta-tricalcium phosphate (TCP scaffolds fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM. Three different methods of PCL-TCP composite preparation: solution casting, particles milling, extrusion and injection were used to provide material for scaffold fabrication. The obtained scaffolds were investigated by means of scanning electron microscope, x-ray micro computed tomography, thermal gravimetric analysis and static material testing machine. All of the scaffolds had the same geometry (cylinder, 4×6 mm and fiber orientation (0/60/120°. There were some differences in the TCP distribution and formation of the ceramic agglomerates in the scaffolds. They depended on fabrication method. The use of composites prepared by solution casting method resulted in scaffolds with the best combination of compressive strength (5.7±0.2 MPa and porosity (48.5±2.7 %, both within the range of trabecular bone.

  8. A novel fabrication method for suspended high-aspect-ratio microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao-Joe; Kuo, Wen-Cheng

    2005-11-01

    Suspended high-aspect-ratio structures (suspended HARS) are widely used for MEMS devices such as micro-gyroscopes, micro-accelerometers, optical switches and so on. Various fabrication methods, such as SOI, SCREAM, AIM, SBM and BELST processes, were proposed to fabricate HARS. However, these methods focus on the fabrication of suspended microstructures with relatively small widths of trench opening (e.g. less than 10 µm). In this paper, we propose a novel process for fabricating very high-aspect-ratio suspended structures with large widths of trench opening using photoresist as an etching mask. By enhancing the microtrenching effect, we can easily release the suspended structure without thoroughly removing the floor polymer inside the trenches for the cases with a relatively small trench aspect ratio. All the process steps can be integrated into a single-run single-mask ICP-RIE process, which effectively reduces the process complexity and fabrication cost. We also discuss the phenomenon of corner erosion, which results in the undesired etching of silicon structures during the structure-releasing step. By using the proposed process, 100 µm thick suspended structures with the trench aspect ratio of about 20 are demonstrated. Also, the proposed process can be used to fabricate devices for applications which require large in-plane displacement. This paper was orally presented in the Transducers'05, Seoul, Korea (paper ID: 3B1.3).

  9. Method of fabricating nested shells and resulting product

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Timothy M.; Kool, Lawrence B.

    1982-01-01

    A multiple shell structure and a method of manufacturing such structure wherein a hollow glass microsphere is surface treated in an organosilane solution so as to render the shell outer surface hydrophobic. The surface treated glass shell is then suspended in the oil phase of an oil-aqueous phase dispersion. The oil phase includes an organic film-forming monomer, a polymerization initiator and a blowing agent. A polymeric film forms at each phase boundary of the dispersion and is then expanded in a blowing operation so as to form an outer homogeneously integral monocellular substantially spherical thermoplastic shell encapsulating an inner glass shell of lesser diameter.

  10. Biosensors and preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2008-01-01

    A low-temp. prepn. method for a biosensor device with a layer of reagent on the sensor surface is disclosed. During manufg. biol. interaction between the biosensor substrate and the reagent layer material is reduced, e.g. by cooling the biosensor substrate and depositing the reagent layer on the

  11. A Method for Fabricating Additive Manufactured Lightweight Metallic Mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-06-14

    machinable by diamond turning. It  has added optical advantages such as  temperature  stability,  high  reflectivity, and resistance to  corrosion.  The...manufacturing  cost and lead times are serious limitations. The cost is very  high  because of both the rarity of  beryllium and the  high  toxicity of...beryllium mirrors beyond the typical  isogrid design. One of those methods explores the bonding or  brazing  of aluminum face sheets  to aluminum foams

  12. Process system and method for fabricating submicron field emission cathodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.

    1998-01-01

    A process method and system for making field emission cathodes exists. The deposition source divergence is controlled to produce field emission cathodes with height-to-base aspect ratios that are uniform over large substrate surface areas while using very short source-to-substrate distances. The rate of hole closure is controlled from the cone source. The substrate surface is coated in well defined increments. The deposition source is apertured to coat pixel areas on the substrate. The entire substrate is coated using a manipulator to incrementally move the whole substrate surface past the deposition source. Either collimated sputtering or evaporative deposition sources can be used. The position of the aperture and its size and shape are used to control the field emission cathode size and shape.

  13. Carbon nanotubes grown on bulk materials and methods for fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menchhofer, Paul A [Clinton, TN; Montgomery, Frederick C [Oak Ridge, TN; Baker, Frederick S [Oak Ridge, TN

    2011-11-08

    Disclosed are structures formed as bulk support media having carbon nanotubes formed therewith. The bulk support media may comprise fibers or particles and the fibers or particles may be formed from such materials as quartz, carbon, or activated carbon. Metal catalyst species are formed adjacent the surfaces of the bulk support material, and carbon nanotubes are grown adjacent the surfaces of the metal catalyst species. Methods employ metal salt solutions that may comprise iron salts such as iron chloride, aluminum salts such as aluminum chloride, or nickel salts such as nickel chloride. Carbon nanotubes may be separated from the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species by using concentrated acids to oxidize the carbon-based bulk support media and the metal catalyst species.

  14. Solid freeform fabrication of piezoelectric actuators by a micro-casting method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, B.; Gorter, H.; Dortmans, L.J.M.G.

    2004-01-01

    In recent years, there has been much interest in the manufacturing of piezoceramic actuators by Solid Freeform Fabrication (SFF) methods, following developments in polymer and metal shaping. With these methods, actuator shapes can be realized that are impossible or very difficult to obtain by

  15. Co-deposition methods for the fabrication of organic optoelectronic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Mark E.; Liu, Zhiwei; Wu, Chao

    2016-09-06

    A method for fabricating an OLED by preparing phosphorescent metal complexes in situ is provided. In particular, the method simultaneously synthesizes and deposits copper (I) complexes in an organic light emitting device. Devices comprising such complexes may provide improved photoluminescent and electroluminescent properties.

  16. Flexible method for fabricating protein patterns on superhydrophobic platforms controlled by magnetic field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jian; Li, Hao; Zou, Haoyang; Wang, Chenmiao; Zhang, Hao; Mano, João F; Song, Wenlong

    2017-02-28

    Inspired by the rolling of water droplets on lotus leaves, we developed a novel, magnetic field-controlled patterning method for water-soluble proteins and other functional materials on superhydrophobic platforms. This simple method can be used to fabricate biochips and open micro-fluidic devices in a simple way.

  17. Modifying of Cotton Fabric Surface with Nano-ZnO Multilayer Films by Layer-by-Layer Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarıışık Merih

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract ZnO nanoparticle–based multilayer nanocomposite films were fabricated on cationized woven cotton fabrics via layer-by-layer molecular self-assembly technique. For cationic surface charge, cotton fabrics were pretreated with 2,3-epoxypropyltrimethylammonium chloride (EP3MAC by pad-batch method. XPS and SEM were used to examine the deposited nano-ZnO multilayer films on the cotton fabrics. The nano-ZnO films deposited on cotton fabrics exhibited excellent antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria. The results also showed that the coated fabrics with nano-ZnO multilayer films enhanced the protection of cotton fabrics from UV radiation. Physical tests (tensile strength of weft and warp yarns, air permeability and whiteness values were performed on the fabrics before and after the treatment with ZnO nanoparticles to evaluate the effect of layer-by-layer (LbL process on cotton fabrics properties.

  18. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya; Shekhah, Osama; Eddaoudi, Mohamed

    2016-01-01

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method

  19. THE STUDY OF THE CHARACTERIZATION INDICES OF FABRICS BY PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS METHOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HRISTIAN Liliana

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper was pursued to prioritize the worsted fabrics type, for the manufacture of outerwear products by characterization indeces of fabrics, using the mathematical model of Principal Component Analysis (PCA. There are a number of variables with a certain influence on the quality of fabrics, but some of these variables are more important than others, so it is useful to identify those variables to a better understanding the factors which can lead the improving of the fabrics quality. A solution to this problem can be the application of a method of factorial analysis, the so-called Principal Component Analysis, with the final goal of establishing and analyzing those variables which influence in a significant manner the internal structure of combed wool fabrics according to armire type. By applying PCA it is obtained a small number of the linear combinations (principal components from a set of variables, describing the internal structure of the fabrics, which can hold as much information as possible from the original variables. Data analysis is an important initial step in decision making, allowing identification of the causes that lead to a decision- making situations. Thus it is the action of transforming the initial data in order to extract useful information and to facilitate reaching the conclusions. The process of data analysis can be defined as a sequence of steps aimed at formulating hypotheses, collecting primary information and validation, the construction of the mathematical model describing this phenomenon and reaching these conclusions about the behavior of this model.

  20. Photosensitive-polyimide based method for fabricating various neural electrode architectures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasuhiro X Kato

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available An extensive photosensitive polyimide (PSPI-based method for designing and fabricating various neural electrode architectures was developed. The method aims to broaden the design flexibility and expand the fabrication capability for neural electrodes to improve the quality of recorded signals and integrate other functions. After characterizing PSPI’s properties for micromachining processes, we successfully designed and fabricated various neural electrodes even on a non-flat substrate using only one PSPI as an insulation material and without the time-consuming dry etching processes. The fabricated neural electrodes were an electrocorticogram electrode, a mesh intracortical electrode with a unique lattice-like mesh structure to fixate neural tissue, and a guide cannula electrode with recording microelectrodes placed on the curved surface of a guide cannula as a microdialysis probe. In vivo neural recordings using anesthetized rats demonstrated that these electrodes can be used to record neural activities repeatedly without any breakage and mechanical failures, which potentially promises stable recordings for long periods of time. These successes make us believe that this PSPI-based fabrication is a powerful method, permitting flexible design and easy optimization of electrode architectures for a variety of electrophysiological experimental research with improved neural recording performance.

  1. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Structures Including Metallic Glass-Based Materials Using Low Pressure Casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmann, Douglas C. (Inventor); Kennett, Andrew (Inventor)

    2018-01-01

    Systems and methods to fabricate objects including metallic glass-based materials using low-pressure casting techniques are described. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes a metallic glass-based material includes: introducing molten alloy into a mold cavity defined by a mold using a low enough pressure such that the molten alloy does not conform to features of the mold cavity that are smaller than 100 microns; and cooling the molten alloy such that it solidifies, the solid including a metallic glass-based material.

  2. Fabrication of advanced Bragg gratings with complex apodization profiles by use of the polarization control method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deyerl, Hans-Jürgen; Plougmann, Nikolai; Jensen, Jesper Bo Damm

    2004-01-01

    The polarization control method offers a flexible, robust, and low-cost route for the parallel fabrication of gratings with complex apodization profiles including several discrete phase shifts and chirp. The performance of several test gratings is evaluated in terms of their spectral response...... and compared with theoretical predictions. Short gratings with sidelobe-suppression levels in excess of 32 dB and transmission dips lower than 80 dB have been realized. Finally, most of the devices fabricated by the polarization control method show comparable quality to gratings manufactured by far more...

  3. Laser and Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing Methods of Fabricating Titanium Bone Implants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartłomiej Wysocki

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Additive Manufacturing (AM methods are generally used to produce an early sample or near net-shape elements based on three-dimensional geometrical modules. To date, publications on AM of metal implants have mainly focused on knee and hip replacements or bone scaffolds for tissue engineering. The direct fabrication of metallic implants can be achieved by methods, such as Selective Laser Melting (SLM or Electron Beam Melting (EBM. This work compares the SLM and EBM methods used in the fabrication of titanium bone implants by analyzing the microstructure, mechanical properties and cytotoxicity. The SLM process was conducted in an environmental chamber using 0.4–0.6 vol % of oxygen to enhance the mechanical properties of a Ti-6Al-4V alloy. SLM processed material had high anisotropy of mechanical properties and superior UTS (1246–1421 MPa when compared to the EBM (972–976 MPa and the wrought material (933–942 MPa. The microstructure and phase composition depended on the used fabrication method. The AM methods caused the formation of long epitaxial grains of the prior β phase. The equilibrium phases (α + β and non-equilibrium α’ martensite was obtained after EBM and SLM, respectively. Although it was found that the heat transfer that occurs during the layer by layer generation of the component caused aluminum content deviations, neither methods generated any cytotoxic effects. Furthermore, in contrast to SLM, the EBM fabricated material met the ASTMF136 standard for surgical implant applications.

  4. A method to control the fabrication of etched optical fiber probes with nanometric tips

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tao, Miaomiao; Gu, Ning; Huang, Lan; Jin, Yonglong

    2010-01-01

    Optical fiber probes with small size tips have attracted much interest in the areas of biosensor and near-field scanning optical microscopy. Chemical etching is a common useful method to fabricate such probes. But it is difficult to study or determine the etching time and control the shape of the fiber during the etching. In this work, a new method combining a fiber optic spectrometer with static chemical etching has been developed to fabricate optical fiber probe nanotips, where the fiber optic spectrometer is used to measure the optical signal during the etching. By calculating and analyzing the testing data, the relationship between the apex angle and the optical signal can be obtained. Accordingly, the process of fabricating optical fibers based on the optical signal can be controlled

  5. A method for UV-bonding in the fabrication of glass electrophoretic microchips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Z; Sanders, J C; Dunsmor, C; Ahmadzadeh, H; Landers, J P

    2001-10-01

    This paper presents an approach for the development of methodologies amenable to simple and inexpensive microchip fabrication, potentially applicable to dissimilar materials bonding and chip integration. The method involves a UV-curable glue that can be used for glass microchip fabrication bonding at room temperature. This involves nothing more than fabrication of glue "guide channels" into the microchip architecture that upon exposure to the appropriate UV light source, bonds the etched plate and cover plate together. The microchip performance was verified by capillary zone electrophoresis (CZE) of small fluorescent molecules with no microchannel surface modification carried out, as well as with a DNA fragment separation following surface modification. The performance of these UV-bonded electrophoretic microchips indicates that this method may provide an alternative to high temperature bonding.

  6. Effect of fabric mounting method and backing material on bloodstain patterns of drip stains on textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, J Y M; Michielsen, S

    2016-05-01

    Textiles may provide valuable bloodstain evidence to help piece together events or activities at violent crime scenes. However, in spite of over 75 years of research, there are still difficulties encountered in many cases in the interpretation and identification of bloodstains on textiles. In this study, we dripped porcine blood onto three types of fabric (plain woven, single jersey knit, and denim) that are supported in four different ways (hard, taut, loose, and semi-hard, i.e., fabric laid on denim). These four mounting methods represent different ways in which a textile may be present when blood from a violent act lands on it. This study investigates how the fabric mounting method and backing material affect the appearance of drip stains on textiles. We found that bloodstain patterns formed on fabric lying flat on a hard surface were very different from when the same fabric was suspended loosely. We also found that bloodstains formed on the technical back of single jersey knit were vastly different from those on the technical face. Interestingly, some drip stains showed blood passing through the textile and leaving a stain behind it that resembled insect stains. By observing, recording, and describing how a blood stained textile is found or presented at the scene, the analyst may be able to better understand bloodstains and bloodstain patterns on textiles, which could be useful to confirm or refute a witness's account of how blood came to be where it was found after a bloodshed event.

  7. Direct spraying method for fabrication of paper-based microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Ning; An, Hong-Jie; Lew, Wen Siang; Xu, Jing; Phan, Dinh-Tuan; Hashimoto, Michinao

    2017-01-01

    Direct spraying of hydrophobic materials is an affordable, easy-to-use and equipment-free method for fabrication of flexible microsensors, albeit not yet widely adopted. To explore its application potential, in this paper, we propose and demonstrate two novel hybrid methods to fabricate paper-based components. Firstly, through combing direct spraying with Parafilm embedding, a leak-free paper-based sample preconcentrator for fluorescence sensing was fabricated. The leak-free device worked on the principle of ion concentration polarization (ICP) effect, and achieved enhancement of fluorescent tracer by 220 folds on a paper substrate. Secondly, by using the sprayed hydrophobic patterns, paper-based microsized supercapacitors (mSCs) were fabricated. Vacuum filtration was used to deposit multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT)-dispersed solution on a porous substrate to form electrodes. A volumetric capacitance of 42.5 mF cm −3 at a current density of 2 mA cm −3 was obtained on the paper-based mSC. Our demonstrations have shown the versatility of direct spraying for the fabrication of integrative paper-based microfluidic devices. (paper)

  8. A low-cost, high-yield fabrication method for producing optimized biomimetic dry adhesives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameoto, D; Menon, C

    2009-01-01

    We present a low-cost, large-scale method of fabricating biomimetic dry adhesives. This process is useful because it uses all photosensitive polymers with minimum fabrication costs or complexity to produce molds for silicone-based dry adhesives. A thick-film lift-off process is used to define molds using AZ 9260 photoresist, with a slow acting, deep UV sensitive material, PMGI, used as both an adhesion promoter for the AZ 9260 photoresist and as an undercutting material to produce mushroom-shaped fibers. The benefits to this process are ease of fabrication, wide range of potential layer thicknesses, no special surface treatment requirements to demold silicone adhesives and easy stripping of the full mold if process failure does occur. Sylgard® 184 silicone is used to cast full sheets of biomimetic dry adhesives off 4'' diameter wafers, and different fiber geometries are tested for normal adhesion properties. Additionally, failure modes of the adhesive during fabrication are noted and strategies for avoiding these failures are discussed. We use this fabrication method to produce different fiber geometries with varying cap diameters and test them for normal adhesion strengths. The results indicate that the cap diameters relative to post diameters for mushroom-shaped fibers dominate the adhesion properties

  9. A Twice Electrochemical-Etching Method to Fabricate Superhydrophobic-Superhydrophilic Patterns for Biomimetic Fog Harvest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaolong; Song, Jinlong; Liu, Junkai; Liu, Xin; Jin, Zhuji

    2017-08-18

    Superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surfaces have attracted more and more attention due to their great potential applications in the fog harvest process. In this work, we developed a simple and universal electrochemical-etching method to fabricate the superhydrophobic-superhydrophilic patterned surface on metal superhydrophobic substrates. The anti-electrochemical corrosion property of superhydrophobic substrates and the dependence of electrochemical etching potential on the wettability of the fabricated dimples were investigated on Al samples. Results showed that high etching potential was beneficial for efficiently producing a uniform superhydrophilic dimple. Fabrication of long-term superhydrophilic dimples on the Al superhydrophobic substrate was achieved by combining the masked electrochemical etching and boiling-water immersion methods. A long-term wedge-shaped superhydrophilic dimple array was fabricated on a superhydrophobic surface. The fog harvest test showed that the surface with a wedge-shaped pattern array had high water collection efficiency. Condensing water on the pattern was easy to converge and depart due to the internal Laplace pressure gradient of the liquid and the contact angle hysteresis contrast on the surface. The Furmidge equation was applied to explain the droplet departing mechanism and to control the departing volume. The fabrication technique and research of the fog harvest process may guide the design of new water collection devices.

  10. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2016-05-03

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  11. Fabrication of starch-based microparticles by an emulsification-crosslinking method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starch-based microparticles (MPs) fabricated by a water-in-water (w/w) emulsification-crosslinking method could be used as a controlled-release delivery vehicle for food bioactives. Due to the processing route without the use of toxic organic solvents, it is expected that these microparticles can be...

  12. Electronic interconnects and devices with topological surface states and methods for fabricating same

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yazdani, Ali; Ong, N. Phuan; Cava, Robert J.

    2017-04-04

    An interconnect is disclosed with enhanced immunity of electrical conductivity to defects. The interconnect includes a material with charge carriers having topological surface states. Also disclosed is a method for fabricating such interconnects. Also disclosed is an integrated circuit including such interconnects. Also disclosed is a gated electronic device including a material with charge carriers having topological surface states.

  13. A method for the easy fabrication of all-ceramic bridges with the Cerec system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbad, A; Schnock, H A

    2009-01-01

    Both pressing technology and CAD/CAM methods have proven themselves clinically for the fabrication of all-ceramic restorations. The advantages of the Cerec technology for the economic fabrication of all-ceramic bridges can be exploited by the use of burn-out blanks of polymer material. The milling process of very hard ceramics in the milling unit, which has some disadvantages, is replaced by the pressing process and makes the IPS e.max press material accessible to CAD/CAM users, primarily for extending the range of indications to splinted crowns and small all-ceramic bridges.

  14. A simple method of fabricating mask-free microfluidic devices for biological analysis.

    KAUST Repository

    Yi, Xin

    2010-09-07

    We report a simple, low-cost, rapid, and mask-free method to fabricate two-dimensional (2D) and three-dimensional (3D) microfluidic chip for biological analysis researches. In this fabrication process, a laser system is used to cut through paper to form intricate patterns and differently configured channels for specific purposes. Bonded with cyanoacrylate-based resin, the prepared paper sheet is sandwiched between glass slides (hydrophilic) or polymer-based plates (hydrophobic) to obtain a multilayer structure. In order to examine the chip\\'s biocompatibility and applicability, protein concentration was measured while DNA capillary electrophoresis was carried out, and both of them show positive results. With the utilization of direct laser cutting and one-step gas-sacrificing techniques, the whole fabrication processes for complicated 2D and 3D microfluidic devices are shorten into several minutes which make it a good alternative of poly(dimethylsiloxane) microfluidic chips used in biological analysis researches.

  15. Comparison of 3 methods on fabricating micro- /nano- structured surface on 3D mold cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yang; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bissacco, Giuliano

    2015-01-01

    The methods to manufacture micro- or nano- structures on surfaces have been an area of intense investigation. Demands are shown for technologies for surface structuring on real 3D parts in many fields. However, most technologies for the fabrication of micro-structured functional surfaces are still...... limited to flat or simple shaped geometries. In this paper, 3 approaches for fabricating micro and nano- structured surfaces on a mold cavity for injection moulding are investigated and compared. The first approach is to use pre-fabricated plate with micro-structured surface as an insert for the mold......, in this way micro holes (Ø4 μm) was obtained. The second approach is to produce the cavity part using anodizing process chain, and in this way sub-micro structures can be obtained all over the cavity surface. The third approach is to machine the surface inside the cavity directly by femtosecond laser combined...

  16. Fabrication of porous aluminium with directional pores through thermal decomposition method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakajima, H; Kim, S Y; Park, J S

    2009-01-01

    Lotus-type porous metals were fabricated by unidirectional solidification in pressurized gas atmosphere. The elongated pres are evolved by insoluble gas resulted from the solubility gap between liquid and solid when the melt is solidified. Recently we developed a novel fabrication technique, in which gas compounds are used as a source of dissolving gas instead of the high pressure. In the present work this gas compound method was applied to fabrication of lotus aluminium. Hydrogen decomposed from calcium hydroxide, sodium bicarbonate and titanium hydride evolves cylindrical pores in aluminium. The porosity is about 20%. The pore size decreases and the pore number density increases with increasing amount of calcium hydroxide, which is explained by increase in pore nucleation sites.

  17. Fabrication of Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders by ball milling method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, S.; Nam, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ti-Ni and Ti-Ni-Cu shape memory alloy powders have been fabricated by ball milling method, and then alloying behavior and transformation behavior were investigated by means of optical microscopy, electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. As milled Ti-Ni powders fabricated with milling time less than 20 hrs was a mixture of pure elemental Ti and Ni, and therefore it was unable to obtain alloy powders because the combustion reaction between Ti and Ni occurred during heat treatment. Since those fabricated with milling time more than 20 hrs was a mixture of Ti-rich and Ni-rich Ti-Ni solid solution, however, it was possible to obtain alloy powders without the combustion reaction during heat treatment. Clear exothermic and endothermic peaks appeared in the cooling and heating curves, respectively in DSC curves of 20 hrs and 30 hrs milled Ti-Ni powders. On the other hand, in DSC curves of 1 hr, 10 hrs, 50 hrs and 100 hrs, the thermal peaks were almost discernible. The most optimum ball milling time for fabricating Ti-Ni alloy powders was 30 hrs. Ti-40Ni-10Cu(at%) alloy powders were fabricated successfully by ball milling conditions with rotating speed of 100 rpm and milling time of 30 hrs. (author)

  18. Original method to compute epipoles using variable homography: application to measure emergent fibers on textile fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jun; Cudel, Christophe; Kohler, Sophie; Fontaine, Stéphane; Haeberlé, Olivier; Klotz, Marie-Louise

    2012-04-01

    Fabric's smoothness is a key factor in determining the quality of finished textile products and has great influence on the functionality of industrial textiles and high-end textile products. With popularization of the zero defect industrial concept, identifying and measuring defective material in the early stage of production is of great interest to the industry. In the current market, many systems are able to achieve automatic monitoring and control of fabric, paper, and nonwoven material during the entire production process, however online measurement of hairiness is still an open topic and highly desirable for industrial applications. We propose a computer vision approach to compute epipole by using variable homography, which can be used to measure emergent fiber length on textile fabrics. The main challenges addressed in this paper are the application of variable homography on textile monitoring and measurement, as well as the accuracy of the estimated calculation. We propose that a fibrous structure can be considered as a two-layer structure, and then we show how variable homography combined with epipolar geometry can estimate the length of the fiber defects. Simulations are carried out to show the effectiveness of this method. The true length of selected fibers is measured precisely using a digital optical microscope, and then the same fibers are tested by our method. Our experimental results suggest that smoothness monitored by variable homography is an accurate and robust method of quality control for important industrial fabrics.

  19. Nanopore fabricated in pyramidal HfO2 film by dielectric breakdown method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yifan; Chen, Qi; Deng, Tao; Liu, Zewen

    2017-10-01

    The dielectric breakdown method provides an innovative solution to fabricate solid-state nanopores on insulating films. A nanopore generation event via this method is considered to be caused by random charged traps (i.e., structural defects) and high electric fields in the membrane. Thus, the position and number of nanopores on planar films prepared by the dielectric breakdown method is hard to control. In this paper, we propose to fabricate nanopores on pyramidal HfO2 films (10-nm and 15-nm-thick) to improve the ability to control the location and number during the fabrication process. Since the electric field intensity gets enhanced at the corners of the pyramid-shaped film, the probability of nanopore occurrence at vertex and edge areas increases. This priority of appearance provides us chance to control the location and number of nanopores by monitoring a sudden irreversible discrete increase in current. The experimental results showed that the probability of nanopore occurrence decreases in an order from the vertex area, the edge area to the side face area. The sizes of nanopores ranging from 30 nm to 10 nm were obtained. Nanopores fabricated on the pyramid-shaped HfO2 film also showed an obvious ion current rectification characteristic, which might improve the nanopore performance as a biomolecule sequencing platform.

  20. Method of fabricating a monolithic core for a solid oxide fuel cell

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zwick, S.A.; Ackerman, J.P.

    1985-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a core for use in a solid oxide fuel cell that electrochemically combines fuel and oxidant for generating galvanic output. The core has an array of electrolyte and interconnect walls that are substantially devoid of any composite inert materials for support consisting instead only of the active anode, cathode, electrolyte and interconnect materials. Each electrolyte wall consists of cathode and anode materials sandwiching electrolyte material therebetween, and each interconnect wall consists of the cathode and anode materials sandwiching interconnect material therebetween. The electrolyte and interconnect walls define a plurality of substantially parallel core passageways alternately having respectively the inside faces thereof with only the anode material or with only the cathode material exposed. In the wall structure, the electrolyte and interconnect materials are only 0.002-0.01 cm thick; and the cathode and anode materials are only 0.002-0.05 cm thick. The method consists of building up the electrolyte and interconnect walls by depositing each material on individually and endwise of the wall itself, where each material deposit is sequentially applied for one cycle; and where the depositing cycle is repeated many times until the material buildup is sufficient to formulate the core. The core is heat cured to become dimensionally and structurally stable

  1. Induction of broad immunity by thermostabilised vaccines incorporated in dissolvable microneedles using novel fabrication methods

    OpenAIRE

    Vrdoljak, Anto; Allen, Evin A.; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel J.; Crean, Abina M.; Moore, Anne C.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolvable microneedle (DMN) patches for immunization have multiple benefits, including vaccine stability and ease-of-use. However, conventional DMN fabrication methods have several drawbacks. Here we describe a novel, microfluidic, drop dispensing-based dissolvable microneedle production method that overcomes these issues. Uniquely, heterogeneous arrays, consisting of microneedles of diverse composition, can be easily produced on the same patch. Robustness of the process was demonstrated by...

  2. A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S

    2006-01-01

    We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process

  3. A novel method of microneedle array fabrication using inclined deep x-ray exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Sang Jun; Jin, Chun Yan; Lee, Seung S [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology (KAIST), 373-1, Guseong-dong, Yuseong-dong, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-04-01

    We report a novel fabrication method for the microneedle array with a 3-dimensional feature and its replication method; 'Hot-pressing' process with bio-compatible material, PLLA (Poly L-LActide). Using inclined deep X-ray exposure technique, we fabricate a band type microneedle array with a single body on the same material basement. Since the single body feature does not make adhesion problem with the microneedle shank and basement during peel-off step of a mold, the PMMA (Poly-Methyl-MethAcrylate) microneedle array mold insert can be used for mold process which is used with the soft material mold, PDMS (Poly-Di- Methyl-Siloxane). The side inclined deep X-ray exposure also makes complex 3-dimensional features by the regions which are not exposed during twice successive exposure steps. In addition, the successive exposure does not need an additional mask alignment after the first side exposure. The fabricated band type microneedle array mold inserts are assembled for large area patch type out-of-plane microneedle array. The bio-compatible microneedle array can be fabricated to the laboratory scale mass production by the single body PMMA mold insert and 'Hot-pressing' process.

  4. Rapid fabrication method of a microneedle mold with controllable needle height and width.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yen-Heng; Lee, I-Chi; Hsu, Wei-Chieh; Hsu, Ching-Hong; Chang, Kai-Ping; Gao, Shao-Syuan

    2016-10-01

    The main issue of transdermal drug delivery is that macromolecular drugs cannot diffuse through the stratum corneum of skin. Many studies have pursued micro-sized needles encapsulated with drugs to overcome this problem, as these needles can pierce the stratum corneum and allow drugs to enter the circulatory system of the human body. However, most microneedle fabrication processes are time-consuming and require expensive equipment. In this study, we demonstrate a rapid method for fabricating a microneedle mold using drawing lithography and a UV-cured resin. The mold was filled with a water-soluble material, polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP), which was then demolded to produce a water-soluble microneedle array. The results of an in vitro skin insertion test using PVP microneedles and pig ear skin demonstrated the feasibility of the microneedle mold. In addition, by controlling the viscosity of the UV-cured resin through various heat treatments, microneedles with different heights and aspect ratios were produced. Compared with other methods, this technology significantly simplifies and accelerates the mold fabrication process. In addition, the required equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive. Through this technology, we can rapidly fabricate microneedle molds with controllable dimensions for various applications.

  5. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2017-10-25

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  6. Dopant ink composition and method of fabricating a solar cell there from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loscutoff, Paul; Wu, Kahn; Molesa, Steven Edward

    2015-03-31

    Dopant ink compositions and methods of fabricating solar cells there from are described. A dopant ink composition may include a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. A method of fabricating a solar cell may include delivering a dopant ink composition to a region above a substrate. The dopant ink composition includes a cross-linkable matrix precursor, a bound dopant species, and a solvent. The method also includes baking the dopant ink composition to remove a substantial portion of the solvent of the dopant ink composition, curing the baked dopant ink composition to cross-link a substantial portion of the cross-linkable matrix precursor of the dopant ink composition, and driving dopants from the cured dopant ink composition toward the substrate.

  7. Fe nanodot system fabricated by non-lithographic method and its structural properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chu Van Chiem; Nguyen Thi Thu Ha; Ngo Thi Thanh Tam; Nguyen Van Chuc; Phan Ngoc Minh; Li Huying; Seo Jae Muyng

    2009-01-01

    In this work, we study the magnetic structure and morphology of the Fe nanodot system fabricated by the non-lithographic method, using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as a template. By the two-steps aluminum anodization, the AAO patterns with the hexagonal pore arrangement have been achieved. Using AAO pattern as a template, under suitable conditions we successfully deposited the iron metal in the pores by the thermal vacuum evaporation. By the exposure of the deposited system from the bottom of the AAO membrane, the hexagonal ordered Fe nanodot system has been obtained. The morphologies of the nanodot system were imaged by the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FESEM) methods. The magnetic structures were investigated by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDS) and Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) methods. Experimental results confirmed that the MFM image of the fabricated Fe nanodot system is similar to their AFM image.

  8. Fe nanodot system fabricated by non-lithographic method and its structural properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiem, Chu Van; Thu Ha, Nguyen Thi; Thanh Tam, Ngo Thi; Chuc, Nguyen Van; Minh, Phan Ngoc [Institute of Materials Science, Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology, 18 Hoang Quoc Viet Road, Cau Giay Distr., Hanoi (Viet Nam); Huying, Li; Seo Jae Muyng [Physics department, Chonbuk National University (Korea, Republic of)], E-mail: chucnv@ims.vast.ac.vn

    2009-09-01

    In this work, we study the magnetic structure and morphology of the Fe nanodot system fabricated by the non-lithographic method, using anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) membrane as a template. By the two-steps aluminum anodization, the AAO patterns with the hexagonal pore arrangement have been achieved. Using AAO pattern as a template, under suitable conditions we successfully deposited the iron metal in the pores by the thermal vacuum evaporation. By the exposure of the deposited system from the bottom of the AAO membrane, the hexagonal ordered Fe nanodot system has been obtained. The morphologies of the nanodot system were imaged by the Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Field Emission Scanning Microscopy (FESEM) methods. The magnetic structures were investigated by the Energy Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectroscopy (EDS) and Magnetic Force Microscopy (MFM) methods. Experimental results confirmed that the MFM image of the fabricated Fe nanodot system is similar to their AFM image.

  9. Evaluation of methods for seismic analysis of nuclear fuel reprocessing and fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arthur, D.F.; Dong, R.G.; Murray, R.C.; Nelson, T.A.; Smith, P.D.; Wight, L.H.

    1978-01-01

    Methods of seismic analysis for critical structures and equipment in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants (NFRPs) and mixed oxide fuel fabrication plants (MOFFPs) are evaluated. The purpose of this series of reports is to provide the NRC with a technical basis for assessing seismic analysis methods and for writing regulatory guides in which methods ensuring the safe design of nuclear fuel cycle facilities are recommended. The present report evaluates methods of analyzing buried pipes and wells, sloshing effects in large pools, earth dams, multiply supported equipment, pile foundations, and soil-structure interactions

  10. Detailed Design and Fabrication Method of the ITER Vacuum Vessel Ports

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hee-Jae Ahn; Kwon, T.H.; Hong, Y.S.

    2006-01-01

    The engineering design of the ITER vacuum vessel (VV) has been progressed by the ITER International Team (IT) with the cooperation of several participant teams (PT). The VV and ports are the components allocated to Korea for the construction of the ITER. Hyundai Heavy Industries has been involved in the structural analysis, detailed design and development of the fabrication method of the upper and lower ports within the framework of the ITER transitional arrangements (ITA). The design of the port structures has been investigated to validate and to improve the conceptual designs of the ITER IT and other PT. The special emphasis was laid on the flange joint between the port extension and the in-port plug to develop the design of the upper port. The modified design with a pure friction type flange with forty-eight pieces of bolts instead of the tangential key is recommended. Furthermore, the alternative flange designs developed by the ITER IT have been analyzed in detail to simplify the lip seal maintenance into the port flange. The structural analyses of the lower RH port have been also performed to verify the capacity for supporting the VV. The maximum stress exceeds the allowable value at the reinforcing block and basement. More elaborate local models have been developed to mitigate the stress concentration and to modify the component design. The fabrication method and the sequence of the detailed fabrication for the ports are developed focusing on the cost reduction as well as the simplification. A typical port structure includes a port stub, a stub extension and a port extension with a connecting duct. The fabrication sequence consists of surface treatment, cutting, forming, cleaning, welding, machining, and non-destructive inspection and test. Tolerance study has been performed to avoid the mismatch of each fabricated component and to obtain the suitable tolerances in the assembly at the shop and site. This study is based on the experience in the fabrication of

  11. FABRICATION OF TUBE TYPE FUEL ELEMENT FOR NUCLEAR REACTORS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loeb, E.; Nicklas, J.H.

    1959-02-01

    A method of fabricating a nuclear reactor fuel element is given. It consists essentially of fixing two tubes in concentric relationship with respect to one another to provide an annulus therebetween, filling the annulus with a fissionablematerial-containing powder, compacting the powder material within the annulus and closing the ends thereof. The powder material is further compacted by swaging the inner surface of the inner tube to increase its diameter while maintaining the original size of the outer tube. This process results in reduced fabrication costs of powdered fissionable material type fuel elements and a substantial reduction in the peak core temperatures while materially enhancing the heat removal characteristics.

  12. Facile fabrication of super-hydrophobic nano-needle arrays via breath figures method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jiseok; Lew, Brian; Kim, Woo Soo

    2011-12-06

    Super-hydrophobic surfaces which have been fabricated by various methods such as photolithography, chemical treatment, self-assembly, and imprinting have gained enormous attention in recent years. Especially 2D arrays of nano-needles have been shown to have super-hydrophobicity due to their sharp surface roughness. These arrays can be easily generated by removing the top portion of the honeycomb films prepared by the breath figures method. The hydrophilic block of an amphiphilic polymer helps in the fabrication of the nano-needle arrays through the production of well-ordered honeycomb films and good adhesion of the film to a substrate. Anisotropic patterns with water wettability difference can be useful for patterning cells and other materials using their selective growth on the hydrophilic part of the pattern. However, there has not been a simple way to generate patterns with highly different wettability. Mechanical stamping of the nano-needle array with a polyurethane stamp might be the simplest way to fabricate patterns with wettability difference. In this study, super-hydrophobic nano-needle arrays were simply fabricated by removing the top portion of the honeycomb films. The maximum water contact angle obtained with the nano-needle array was 150°. By controlling the pore size and the density of the honeycomb films, the height, width, and density of nano-needle arrays were determined. Anisotropic patterns with different wettability were fabricated by simply pressing the nano-needle array at ambient temperature with polyurethane stamps which were flexible but tough. Mechanical stamping of nano-needle arrays with micron patterns produced hierarchical super-hydrophobic structures.PACS: 05.70.Np, 68.55.am, 68.55.jm.

  13. A novel method of fabricating carbon nanotubes-polydimethylsiloxane composite electrodes for electrocardiography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Benyan; Chen, Yingmin; Luo, Zhangyuan; Zhang, Wenzan; Tu, Quan; Jin, Xun

    2015-01-01

    Polymer-based flexible electrodes are receiving much attention in medical applications due to their good wearing comfort. The current fabrication methods of such electrodes are not widely applied. In this study, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and conductive additives of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) were employed to fabricate composite electrodes for electrocardiography (ECG). A three-step dispersion process consisting of ultrasonication, stirring, and in situ polymerization was developed to yield homogenous CNTs-PDMS mixtures. The CNTs-PDMS mixtures were used to fabricate CNTs-PDMS composite electrodes by replica technology. The influence of ultrasonication time and CNT concentration on polymer electrode performance was evaluated by impedance and ECG measurements. The signal amplitude of the electrodes prepared using an ultrasonication time of 12 h and CNT content of 5 wt% was comparable to that of commercial Ag/AgCl electrodes. The polymer electrodes were easily fabricated by conventional manufacturing techniques, indicating a potential advantage of reduced cost for mass production.

  14. Fabrication of three-dimensional ordered nanodot array structures by a thermal dewetting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Zhenxing; Yoshino, Masahiko; Yamanaka, Akinori

    2012-01-01

    A new fabrication method for three-dimensional nanodot arrays with low cost and high throughput is developed in this paper. In this process, firstly a 2D nanodot array is fabricated by combination of top-down and bottom-up approaches. A nanoplastic forming technique is utilized as the top-down approach to fabricate a groove grid pattern on an Au layer deposited on a substrate, and self-organization by thermal dewetting is employed as the bottom-up approach. On the first-layer nanodot array, SiO 2 is deposited as a spacer layer. Au is then deposited on the spacer layer and thermal dewetting is conducted to fabricate a second-layer nanodot array. The effective parameters influencing dot formation on the second layer, including Au layer thickness and SiO 2 layer thickness, are studied. It is demonstrated that a 3D nanodot array of good vertical alignment is obtained by repeating the SiO 2 deposition, Au deposition and thermal dewetting. The mechanism of the dot agglomeration process is studied based on geometrical models. The effects of the spacer layer thickness and Au layer thickness on the morphology and alignment of the second-layer dots are discussed. (paper)

  15. Design and fabrication methods of FW/blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Ibbott, C.; Janeschitz, G.; Johnson, G.; Kalinin, G.; Miki, N.; Onozuka, M.; Sannazzaro, G.; Tivey, R.; Utin, Y.; Yamada, M.

    2000-01-01

    Design has progressed on the vacuum vessel, FW/blanket and Divertor for the Reduced Technical Objective/Reduced Cost (RTO/RC) ITER. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design [K. Ioki et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 258-263 (1998) 74]. Design and fabrication methods of the components have been improved to achieve ∼50% reduction of the construction cost. Detailed blanket module designs with flat separable FW panels have been developed to reduce the fabrication cost and the future radioactive waste. Most of the R and D performed so far during the Engineering Design Activities (EDAs) are still applicable. Further cost reduction methods are also being investigated and additional R and D is being performed

  16. A facile method to fabricate close-packed concave microlens array on cylindrical glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng, Zefang; Chen, Feng; Yang, Qing; Liu, Hewei; Bian, Hao; Du, Guangqing; Hu, Yang; Si, Jinhai; Meng, Xiangwei; Hou, Xun

    2012-01-01

    This work presents a facile method to fabricate concave microlens arrays (MLAs) with controllable shape and high fill factor on cylindrical silica glass by a femtosecond laser-enhanced chemical wet etching process. The hexagonal and rectangular MLAs are flexibly fabricated on the silica glass cylinder with a diameter of 3 mm. The morphological characteristics of MLAs are measured by a scanning electron microscope and a laser scanning confocal microscope. The measurements show that the good uniformity and high packing density MLA structures are generated. It has also been demonstrated that the shape and size of the concave structures could be easily tuned by changing laser power and the arrangement of laser exposure spots. The convex MLAs replicated by the polymer casting method experience excellent image quality. (paper)

  17. A Method for Direct Fabrication of a Lingual Splint for Management of Pediatric Mandibular Fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerardo P. Romeo, DDS, MD

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Pediatric mandibular fractures have successfully been managed in various ways. The use of a lingual splint is one such option. The typical indirect method for acrylic lingual splint fabrication involves obtaining dental impressions. Dental models are produced from those impressions so that model surgery may be performed. The splint is then made on those models using resin powder and liquid monomer in a wet laboratory and transferred to the patient. Obvious limitations to this technique exist for both patient and operator. We present a technique for direct, intraoperative, fabrication of a splint using commercially available light-cured material that avoids some of the shortcomings of the indirect method. Recommendations are made based on available material safety information.

  18. Validation of cleaning method for various parts fabricated at a Beryllium facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, Cynthia M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-12-15

    This study evaluated and documented a cleaning process that is used to clean parts that are fabricated at a beryllium facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The purpose of evaluating this cleaning process was to validate and approve it for future use to assure beryllium surface levels are below the Department of Energy’s release limits without the need to sample all parts leaving the facility. Inhaling or coming in contact with beryllium can cause an immune response that can result in an individual becoming sensitized to beryllium, which can then lead to a disease of the lungs called chronic beryllium disease, and possibly lung cancer. Thirty aluminum and thirty stainless steel parts were fabricated on a lathe in the beryllium facility, as well as thirty-two beryllium parts, for the purpose of testing a parts cleaning method that involved the use of ultrasonic cleaners. A cleaning method was created, documented, validated, and approved, to reduce beryllium contamination.

  19. Design and fabrication methods of FW/blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel for ITER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K. E-mail: iokik@itereu.deiokik@ipp.mpg.de; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Ibbott, C.; Janeschitz, G.; Johnson, G.; Kalinin, G.; Miki, N.; Onozuka, M.; Sannazzaro, G.; Tivey, R.; Utin, Y.; Yamada, M

    2000-12-01

    Design has progressed on the vacuum vessel, FW/blanket and Divertor for the Reduced Technical Objective/Reduced Cost (RTO/RC) ITER. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design [K. Ioki et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 258-263 (1998) 74]. Design and fabrication methods of the components have been improved to achieve {approx}50% reduction of the construction cost. Detailed blanket module designs with flat separable FW panels have been developed to reduce the fabrication cost and the future radioactive waste. Most of the R and D performed so far during the Engineering Design Activities (EDAs) are still applicable. Further cost reduction methods are also being investigated and additional R and D is being performed.

  20. Design and fabrication methods of FW/blanket, divertor and vacuum vessel for ITER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Ibbott, C.; Janeschitz, G.; Johnson, G.; Kalinin, G.; Miki, N.; Onozuka, M.; Sannazzaro, G.; Tivey, R.; Utin, Y.; Yamada, M.

    2000-12-01

    Design has progressed on the vacuum vessel, FW/blanket and Divertor for the Reduced Technical Objective/Reduced Cost (RTO/RC) ITER. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design [K. Ioki et al., J. Nucl. Mater. 258-263 (1998) 74]. Design and fabrication methods of the components have been improved to achieve ˜50% reduction of the construction cost. Detailed blanket module designs with flat separable FW panels have been developed to reduce the fabrication cost and the future radioactive waste. Most of the R&D performed so far during the Engineering Design Activities (EDAs) are still applicable. Further cost reduction methods are also being investigated and additional R&D is being performed.

  1. A New Method for Determining Permethrin Level on Military Uniform Fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-06-01

    new desorption-gas chromatography– mass spectrometry based screening tool for permethrin content in military fabrics was developed. The method allows...SUBJECT TERMS permethrin, Army Combat Uniform, ACU, camouflage, desorption-gas chromatography- mass spectrometry , D-GC-MS 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF...reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 hour per response, including the time for reviewing instructions, searching

  2. Method of fabricating a (1223) Tl-Ba-Ca-Cu-O superconductor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkaczyk, J.E.; Lay, K.W.; He, Q.

    1997-07-08

    A method is disclosed for fabricating a polycrystalline thallium-containing superconductor having high critical current at elevated temperatures and in the presence of a magnetic field. A powder precursor containing compounds other than thallium is compressed on a substrate. Thallium is incorporated in the densified powder precursor at a high temperature in the presence of a partial pressure of a thallium-containing vapor. 2 figs.

  3. A Comparison of Single-Wall Carbon Nanotube Electrochemical Capacitor Electrode Fabrication Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-24

    exposed area of graphene . The ends of the graphene extending outside of the ceramic cell were electrically contacted with the aid of silver paint . For...other of 4.3 k was measured. This resistance is a combination of contact resistance between the silver paint and the graphene , as well as the resistance... Graphene , Supercapacitor, Fabrication method Matthew H. Ervin, Benjamin S. Miller, Brendan Hanrahan, Benjamin Mailly, Tomas Palacios Massachusetts

  4. Cliché fabrication method using precise roll printing process with 5 um pattern width

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Yejin; Kim, Inyoung; Oh, Dong-Ho; Lee, Taik-Min

    2016-09-01

    Among the printing processes for printed electronic devices, gravure offset and reverse offset method have drawn attention for its fine pattern printing possibility. These printing methods use cliché, which has critical effect on the final product precision and quality. In this research, a novel precise cliché replica method is proposed. It consists of copper sputtering, precise mask pattern printing with 5 um width using reverse offset printing, Ni electroplating, lift-off, etching, and DLC coating. We finally compare the fabricated replica cliché with the original one and print out precise patterns using the replica cliché.

  5. Development of likelihood estimation method for criticality accidents of mixed oxide fuel fabrication facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tamaki, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Kazuo; Kimoto, Tatsuya; Hamaguchi, Yoshikane

    2010-01-01

    A criticality accident in a MOX fuel fabrication facility may occur depending on several parameters, such as mass inventory and plutonium enrichment. MOX handling units in the facility are designed and operated based on the double contingency principle to prevent criticality accidents. Control failures of at least two parameters are needed for the occurrence of criticality accident. To evaluate the probability of such control failures, the criticality conditions of each parameter for a specific handling unit are necessary for accident scenario analysis to be clarified quantitatively with a criticality analysis computer code. In addition to this issue, a computer-based control system for mass inventory is planned to be installed into MOX handling equipment in a commercial MOX fuel fabrication plant. The reliability analysis is another important issue in evaluating the likelihood of control failure caused by software malfunction. A likelihood estimation method for criticality accident has been developed with these issues been taken into consideration. In this paper, an example of analysis with the proposed method and the applicability of the method are also shown through a trial application to a model MOX fabrication facility. (author)

  6. Fabrication of metallic surfaces with long-term superhydrophilic property using one-stop laser method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guan, Y.C.; Luo, F.F.; Lim, G.C.; Hong, M.H.; Zheng, H.Y.; Qi, Bojin

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • One-stop laser method is presented to fabricate superhydrophilic surface on metals. • Wettability study shows the longest superhydrophilic duration as more than 1 month. • Water-soluble compounds, polar functional groups and dual-scale structures were formed. • Surface roughness shows an amplification effect of the wetting behavior. - Abstract: A simple method for fabricating stable superhydrophilic surface at metallic substrates is reported. This technique comprises irradiating the surface with multiple laser pulses. Surface wettability can be taylored through controlling laser parameters and processing conditions. The substrates were selected as aluminum alloy and stainless steel. Physical morphology and chemical composition of laser-textured surfaces were characterized by SEM, XPS, and 3D profiler measurements. Results showed that the longest wettability duration was achieved as more than 1 month for stainless steel and more than 200 h for Al alloy, respectively. The possible mechanism of hydrophilic behavior of laser-textured surfaces was discussed. The effect of surface topography on superhydrophilicity property was also evaluated. This study presents a promising method in fabricating long-term superhydrophilic surfaces, which is useful for improving adhesion or achieving water-assisted flow in industrial applications as well as developing cell-based technologies in biomedical applications

  7. Methods, Devices and Computer Program Products Providing for Establishing a Model for Emulating a Physical Quantity Which Depends on at Least One Input Parameter, and Use Thereof

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2014-01-01

    The present invention proposes methods, devices and computer program products. To this extent, there is defined a set X including N distinct parameter values x_i for at least one input parameter x, N being an integer greater than or equal to 1, first measured the physical quantity Pm1 for each...

  8. Biocompatible, biodegradable polymer-based, lighter than or light as water scaffolds for tissue engineering and methods for preparation and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Mohammed Yusuf (Inventor); Laurencin, Cato T. (Inventor); Lu, Helen H. (Inventor); Botchwey, Edward (Inventor); Pollack, Solomon R. (Inventor); Levine, Elliot (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    Scaffolds for tissue engineering prepared from biocompatible, biodegradable polymer-based, lighter than or light as water microcarriers and designed for cell culturing in vitro in a rotating bioreactor are provided. Methods for preparation and use of these scaffolds as tissue engineering devices are also provided.

  9. Safety of protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gertjan Schaafsma

    2009-01-01

    This paper evaluates the safety for humans with regard to consumption of protein hydrolysates and fractions thereof, including bioactive peptides. The available literature on the safety of protein, protein hydrolysates, fractions thereof and free amino acids on relevant food legislation is reviewed

  10. Fit of screw-retained fixed implant frameworks fabricated by different methods: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abduo, Jaafar; Lyons, Karl; Bennani, Vincent; Waddell, Neil; Swain, Michael

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to review the published literature investigating the accuracy of fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated using different materials and methods. A comprehensive electronic search was performed through PubMed (MEDLINE) using Boolean operators to combine key words. The search was limited to articles written in English and published through May 2010. In addition, a manual search through articles and reference lists retrieved from the electronic search and peer-reviewed journals was also conducted. A total of 248 articles were retrieved, and 26 met the specified inclusion criteria for the review. The selected articles assessed the fit of fixed implant frameworks fabricated by different techniques. The investigated fabrication approaches were one-piece casting, sectioning and reconnection, spark erosion with an electric discharge machine, computer-aided design/computer-assisted manufacturing (CAD/CAM), and framework bonding to prefabricated abutment cylinders. Cast noble metal frameworks have a predictable fit, and additional fit refinement treatment is not indicated in well-controlled conditions. Base metal castings do not provide a satisfactory level of fit unless additional refinement treatment is performed, such as sectioning and laser welding or spark erosion. Spark erosion, framework bonding to prefabricated abutment cylinders, and CAD/CAM have the potential to provide implant frameworks with an excellent fit; CAD/CAM is the most consistent and least technique-sensitive of these methods.

  11. Lithography-free centimeter-long nanochannel fabrication method using an electrospun nanofiber array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Suk Hee; Shin, Hyun-Jun; Lee, Sangyoup; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Yang, Dong-Yol; Lee, Jong-Chul

    2012-01-01

    Novel cost-effective methods for polymeric and metallic nanochannel fabrication have been demonstrated using an electrospun nanofiber array. Like other electrospun nanofiber-based nanofabrication methods, our system also showed high throughput as well as cost-effective performances. Unlike other systems, however, our fabrication scheme provides a pseudo-parallel nanofiber array a few centimeters long at a speed of several tens of fibers per second based on our unique inclined-gap fiber collecting system. Pseudo-parallel nanofiber arrays were used either directly for the PDMS molding process or for the metal lift-off process followed by the SiO 2 deposition process to produce the nanochannel array. While the PDMS molding process was a simple fabrication based on one-step casting, the metal lift-off process followed by SiO 2 deposition allowed finetuning on height and width of nanogrooves down to subhundred nanometers from a few micrometers. Nanogrooves were covered either with cover glass or with PDMS slab and nanochannel connectivity was investigated with a fluorescent dye. Also, nanochannel arrays were used to investigate mobility and conformations of λ-DNA. (paper)

  12. A novel bonding method for large scale poly(methyl methacrylate) micro- and nanofluidic chip fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Xingtian; Li, Jinlai; Yin, Zhifu

    2018-04-01

    Micro- and nanofluidic chips are becoming increasing significance for biological and medical applications. Future advances in micro- and nanofluidics and its utilization in commercial applications depend on the development and fabrication of low cost and high fidelity large scale plastic micro- and nanofluidic chips. However, the majority of the present fabrication methods suffer from a low bonding rate of the chip during thermal bonding process due to air trapping between the substrate and the cover plate. In the present work, a novel bonding technique based on Ar plasma and water treatment was proposed to fully bond the large scale micro- and nanofluidic chips. The influence of Ar plasma parameters on the water contact angle and the effect of bonding conditions on the bonding rate and the bonding strength of the chip were studied. The fluorescence tests demonstrate that the 5 × 5 cm2 poly(methyl methacrylate) chip with 180 nm wide and 180 nm deep nanochannels can be fabricated without any block and leakage by our newly developed method.

  13. A novel fabrication method of silicon nano-needles using MEMS TMAH etching techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yan Sheping; Xu Yang; Yang Junyi; Wang Huiquan; Jin Zhonghe; Wang Yuelin

    2011-01-01

    Nano-needles play important roles in nanoscale operations. However, current nano-needle fabrication is usually expensive and controling the sizes and angles is complicated. We have developed a simple and low cost silicon nano-needle fabrication method using traditional microelectromechanical system (MEMS) tetramethyl ammonium hydroxide (TMAH) etching techniques. We take advantage of the fact that the decrease of the silicon etch rate in TMAH solutions exhibits an inverse fourth power dependence on the boron doping concentration in our nano-needle fabrication. Silicon nano-needles, with high aspect ratio and sharp angles θ as small as 2.9 deg., are obtained, which could be used for bio-sensors and nano-handling procedures, such as penetrating living cells. An analytic model is proposed to explain the etching evolution of the experimental results, which is used to predict the needle angle, length, and etching time. Based on our method, nano-needles with small acute angle θ can be obtained.

  14. Fabricating superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance by a simple lamination templating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Qian Feng; Mondal, Bikash; Lyons, Alan M

    2011-09-01

    Fabricating robust superhydrophobic surfaces for commercial applications is challenging as the fine-scale surface features, necessary to achieve superhydrophobicity, are susceptible to mechanical damage. Herein, we report a simple and inexpensive lamination templating method to create superhydrophobic polymer surfaces with excellent abrasion resistance and water pressure stability. To fabricate the surfaces, polyethylene films were laminated against woven wire mesh templates. After cooling, the mesh was peeled from the polymer creating a 3D array of ordered polymer microposts on the polymer surface. The resulting texture is monolithic with the polymer film and requires no chemical modification to exhibit superhydrophobicity. By controlling lamination parameters and mesh dimensions, polyethylene surfaces were fabricated that exhibit static contact angles of 160° and slip angles of 5°. Chemical and mechanical stability was evaluated using an array of manual tests as well as a standard reciprocating abraser test. Surfaces remained superhydrophobic after more than 5500 abrasion cycles at a pressure of 32.0 kPa. In addition, the surface remains dry after immersing into water for 5 h at 55 kPa. This method is environmental friendly, as it employs no solvents or harsh chemicals and may provide an economically viable path to manufacture large areas of mechanically robust superhydrophobic surfaces from inexpensive polymers and reusable templates.

  15. A Review on Anodic Aluminum Oxide Methods for Fabrication of Nanostructures for Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goszczak, Arkadiusz Jaroslaw; Cielecki, Pawel Piotr

    2018-01-01

    Implementation of nanostructures into the organic solar cell (OSC) architecture has great influence on the device performance. Nanostructuring the active layer increases the interfacial area between donor and acceptor, which enhances the probability of exciton dissociation. Introduction of nanost......Implementation of nanostructures into the organic solar cell (OSC) architecture has great influence on the device performance. Nanostructuring the active layer increases the interfacial area between donor and acceptor, which enhances the probability of exciton dissociation. Introduction......, low fabrication cost and easy control over its nano-scale morphology, make AAO patterning methods an intriguing candidate for nanopatterning. Hence, in this work, we present a review on the fabrication techniques and on nanostructures from Anodic Aluminum Oxide (AAO) for OSC applications...

  16. Novel fabrication of flexible graphene-based chemical sensors with heaters using soft lithographic patterning method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Wook; Myung, Sung; Song, Wooseok; Kang, Min-A; Kim, Sung Ho; Yang, Cheol-Soo; Lee, Sun Sook; Lim, Jongsun; Park, Chong-Yun; Lee, Jeong-O; An, Ki-Seok

    2014-08-27

    We have fabricated graphene-based chemical sensors with flexible heaters for the highly sensitive detection of specific gases. We believe that increasing the temperature of the graphene surface significantly enhanced the electrical signal change of the graphene-based channel, and reduced the recovery time needed to obtain a normal state of equilibrium. In addition, a simple and efficient soft lithographic patterning process was developed via surface energy modification for advanced, graphene-based flexible devices, such as gas sensors. As a proof of concept, we demonstrated the high sensitivity of NO2 gas sensors based on graphene nanosheets. These devices were fabricated using a simple soft-lithographic patterning method, where flexible graphene heaters adjacent to the channel of sensing graphene were utilized to control graphene temperature.

  17. A novel method for the fabrication of a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Khalifa

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available We present a novel method for fabricating a high-density carbon nanotube microelectrode array (MEA chip. Vertically aligned carbon nanotubes (VACNTs were synthesized by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and thermal chemical vapor deposition. The device was characterized using electrochemical experiments such as cyclic voltammetry, impedance spectroscopy and potential transient measurements. Through-silicon vias (TSVs were fabricated and partially filled with polycrystalline silicon to allow electrical connection from the high-density electrodes to a stimulator microchip. In response to the demand for higher resolution implants, we have developed a unique process to obtain a high-density electrode array by making the microelectrodes smaller in size and designing new ways of routing the electrodes to current sources. Keywords: Microelectrode array, Neural implant, Carbon nanotubes, Through-silicon via interconnects, Microfabrication

  18. Fabrication And Determination Of Coefficient Absorption Of Hydrogenated Amorphous Silicon By Direct Evaporation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santoso, Agus; Darsono; Sujitno, Tjipto; Suprapto

    1996-01-01

    Fabrication and characterization of hydrogenated amorphous silicon produced by direct evaporation method have been done. The experiment was carried out at pressure conditions of 2 x 10-5 torr, RF frequency of 13.56 MHz, hydrogen gas flow of 0,8 1/minute, electrode distance of 2.48 cm. voltage electrode of 700 volt and evaporation time 1.45 minute. Using UV-VIS spectrophotometer, it is found that at wavelength of 359 nm, the absorbance degree of material that was by direct hydrogenated method was 0,886. This means that more hydrogen are absorbed by direct method While, if the hydrogenation is carried out by means of indirect method, the degree of absorbance at the wavelength of 359 nm is 0,103. From this result, it can be concluded that the direct methods is better than indirect method

  19. Fabrication method to create high-aspect ratio pillars for photonic coupling of board level interconnects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debaes, C.; Van Erps, J.; Karppinen, M.; Hiltunen, J.; Suyal, H.; Last, A.; Lee, M. G.; Karioja, P.; Taghizadeh, M.; Mohr, J.; Thienpont, H.; Glebov, A. L.

    2008-04-01

    An important challenge that remains to date in board level optical interconnects is the coupling between the optical waveguides on printed wiring boards and the packaged optoelectronics chips, which are preferably surface mountable on the boards. One possible solution is the use of Ball Grid Array (BGA) packages. This approach offers a reliable attachment despite the large CTE mismatch between the organic FR4 board and the semiconductor materials. Collimation via micro-lenses is here typically deployed to couple the light vertically from the waveguide substrate to the optoelectronics while allowing for a small misalignment between board and package. In this work, we explore the fabrication issues of an alternative approach in which the vertical photonic connection between board and package is governed by a micro-optical pillar which is attached both to the board substrate and to the optoelectronic chips. Such an approach allows for high density connections and small, high-speed detector footprints while maintaining an acceptable tolerance between board and package. The pillar should exhibit some flexibility and thus a high-aspect ratio is preferred. This work presents and compares different fabrication methods and applies different materials for such high-aspect ratio pillars. The different fabrication methods are: photolithography, direct laser writing and deep proton writing. The selection of optical materials that was investigated is: SU8, Ormocers, PU and a multifunctional acrylate polymer. The resulting optical pillars have diameters ranging from 20um up to 80um, with total heights ranging between 30um and 100um (symbol for micron). The aspect-ratio of the fabricated structures ranges from 1.5 to 5.

  20. A simple method for fabricating multi-layer PDMS structures for 3D microfluidic chips

    KAUST Repository

    Zhang, Mengying

    2010-01-01

    We report a simple methodology to fabricate PDMS multi-layer microfluidic chips. A PDMS slab was surface-treated by trichloro (1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorooctyl) silane, and acts as a reusable transferring layer. Uniformity of the thickness of the patterned PDMS layer and the well-alignment could be achieved due to the transparency and proper flexibility of this transferring layer. Surface treatment results are confirmed by XPS and contact angle testing, while bonding forces between different layers were measured for better understanding of the transferring process. We have also designed and fabricated a few simple types of 3D PDMS chip, especially one consisting of 6 thin layers (each with thickness of 50 μm), to demonstrate the potential utilization of this technique. 3D fluorescence images were taken by a confocal microscope to illustrate the spatial characters of essential parts. This fabrication method is confirmed to be fast, simple, repeatable, low cost and possible to be mechanized for mass production. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2010.

  1. Fabrication of Si surface pattern by Ar beam irradiation and annealing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Momota, S.; Maeda, K.; Terauchi, H.; Furuta, M.; Kawaharamura, T.; Nitta, N.; Wang, D.

    2012-01-01

    The fabrication process of crater structures on Si crystal has been studied by an irradiation of Ar beam and a thermal annealing at 600 °C. The fabricated surface was measured by field emission scanning electron microscope and atomic force microscope. The results have shown the controllability of specifications of crater formation such as density, diameter and depth by changing two irradiation parameters, fluence and energy of Ar ions. By changing the fluence over a range of 1 ∼ 10 × 10 16 /cm 2 , we could control a density of crater 0 ∼ 39 counts/100μm 2 . By changing the energy over a range of 90 ∼ 270 keV, we could control a diameter and a depth of crater in 0.8 ∼ 4.1μm and 99 ∼ 229nm, respectively. The present result is consistent with the previously proposed model that the crater structure would be arising from an exfoliated surface layer of silicon. The present result has indicated the possibility of the crater production phenomena as a hopeful method to fabricate the surface pattern on a micro-nano meter scale.

  2. A repeatable and scalable fabrication method for sharp, hollow silicon microneedles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H.; Theogarajan, L. S.; Pennathur, S.

    2018-03-01

    Scalability and manufacturability are impeding the mass commercialization of microneedles in the medical field. Specifically, microneedle geometries need to be sharp, beveled, and completely controllable, difficult to achieve with microelectromechanical fabrication techniques. In this work, we performed a parametric study using silicon etch chemistries to optimize the fabrication of scalable and manufacturable beveled silicon hollow microneedles. We theoretically verified our parametric results with diffusion reaction equations and created a design guideline for a various set of miconeedles (80-160 µm needle base width, 100-1000 µm pitch, 40-50 µm inner bore diameter, and 150-350 µm height) to show the repeatability, scalability, and manufacturability of our process. As a result, hollow silicon microneedles with any dimensions can be fabricated with less than 2% non-uniformity across a wafer and 5% deviation between different processes. The key to achieving such high uniformity and consistency is a non-agitated HF-HNO3 bath, silicon nitride masks, and surrounding silicon filler materials with well-defined dimensions. Our proposed method is non-labor intensive, well defined by theory, and straightforward for wafer scale mass production, opening doors to a plethora of potential medical and biosensing applications.

  3. A novel method of flat YBCO rings development for shield-type superconducting fault current limiters fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hekmati, Arsalan; Hosseini, Mehdi; Vakilian, Mehdi; Fardmanesh, Mehdi

    2012-01-01

    A method has been proposed for flat YBCO ring Fabrication. A prototype SFCL with proposed design has been fabricated using the rings. J c characteristics of the rings are measured using an innovative method. The application of flat superconductor rings has been investigated in the structure of inductive shield-type high temperature superconducting fault current limiters, HT c -SFCL. A laboratory scale inductive shield-type HT c -SFCL has been designed and fabricated using flat superconductor rings. The fabrication process has been fully presented. YBCO powder has been used for the fabrication of superconductor rings. This fabrication process, being quite innovative, is introduced completely. The method of the trapped field measurement has been used for the critical current density measurement of the fabricated superconductor rings. The device with nominal current of 2 A was tested in a 30 V circuit. The SFCL successfully limited the fault currents of up to 10 times the nominal current to an approximately fixed value of 3 A. The voltage-current characteristic of the fabricated prototype has also been obtained and has shown compatibility with the fault current limitation results.

  4. Statistical methods to assess and control processes and products during nuclear fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidinger, H.

    1999-01-01

    Very good statistical tools and techniques are available today to access the quality and the reliability of fabrication process as the original sources for a good and reliable quality of the fabricated processes. Quality control charts of different types play a key role and the high capability of modern electronic data acquisition technologies proved, at least potentially, a high efficiency in the more or less online application of these methods. These techniques focus mainly on stability and the reliability of the fabrication process. In addition, relatively simple statistical tolls are available to access the capability of fabrication process, assuming they are stable, to fulfill the product specifications. All these techniques can only result in as good a product as the product design is able to describe the product requirements necessary for good performance. Therefore it is essential that product design is strictly and closely performance oriented. However, performance orientation is only successful through an open and effective cooperation with the customer who uses or applies those products. During the last one to two decades in the west, a multi-vendor strategy has been developed by the utility, sometimes leading to three different fuel vendors for one reactor core. This development resulted in better economic conditions for the user but did not necessarily increase an open attitude with the vendor toward the using utility. The responsibility of the utility increased considerably to ensure an adequate quality of the fuel they received. As a matter of fact, sometimes the utilities had to pay a high price because of unexpected performance problems. Thus the utilities are now learning that they need to increase their knowledge and experience in the area of nuclear fuel quality management and technology. This process started some time ago in the west. However, it now also reaches the utilities in the eastern countries. (author)

  5. Single step fabrication method of fullerene/TiO2 composite photocatalyst for hydrogen production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kum, Jong Min; Cho, Sung Oh

    2011-01-01

    Hydrogen is one of the most promising alternative energy sources. Fossil fuel, which is the most widely used energy source, has two defects. One is CO 2 emission causing global warming. The other is exhaustion. On the other hand, hydrogen emits no CO 2 and can be produced by splitting water which is renewable and easily obtainable source. However, about 95% of hydrogen is derived from fossil fuel. It limits the merits of hydrogen. Hydrogen from fossil fuel is not a renewable energy anymore. To maximize the merits of hydrogen, renewability and no CO 2 emission, unconventional hydrogen production methods without using fossil fuel are required. Photocatalytic water-splitting is one of the unconventional hydrogen production methods. Photocatalytic water-splitting that uses hole/electron pairs of semiconductor is expectable way to produce clean and renewable hydrogen from solar energy. TiO 2 is the semiconductor material which has been most widely used as photocatalyst. TiO 2 shows high photocatalytic reactivity and stability in water. However, its wide band gap only absorbs UV light which is only 5% of sun light. To enhance the visible light responsibility, composition with fullerene based materials has been investigated. 1-2 Methano-fullerene carboxylic acid (FCA) is one of the fullerene based materials. We tried to fabricate FCA/TiO 2 composite using UV assisted single step method. The method not only simplified the fabrication procedures, but enhanced hydrogen production rate

  6. Advanced fabrication method for the preparation of MOF thin films: Liquid-phase epitaxy approach meets spin coating method.

    KAUST Repository

    Chernikova, Valeriya

    2016-07-14

    Here we report a new and advanced method for the fabrication of highly oriented/polycrystalline metal-organic framework (MOF) thin films. Building on the attractive features of the liquid-phase epitaxy (LPE) approach, a facile spin coating method was implemented to generate MOF thin films in a high-throughput fashion. Advantageously, this approach offers a great prospective to cost-effectively construct thin-films with a significantly shortened preparation time and a lessened chemicals and solvents consumption, as compared to the conventional LPE-process. Certainly, this new spin-coating approach has been implemented successfully to construct various MOF thin films, ranging in thickness from a few micrometers down to the nanometer scale, spanning 2-D and 3-D benchmark MOF materials including Cu2(bdc)2•xH2O, Zn2(bdc)2•xH2O, HKUST-1 and ZIF-8. This method was appraised and proved effective on a variety of substrates comprising functionalized gold, silicon, glass, porous stainless steel and aluminum oxide. The facile, high-throughput and cost-effective nature of this approach, coupled with the successful thin film growth and substrate versatility, represents the next generation of methods for MOF thin film fabrication. Thereby paving the way for these unique MOF materials to address a wide range of challenges in the areas of sensing devices and membrane technology.

  7. Silica particles and method of preparation thereof

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2015-01-01

    The invention is in the field of silica products. More in particular, the invention is in the field of amorphous silica particles. The invention is directed to amorphous silica particles and related products including clusters of said silica particles, a suspension of said silica particles, and an

  8. Reactor container and controlling method thereof

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosaka, Seiichi.

    1990-01-01

    An object of the present invention is to prevent stress corrosion crack caused in pipelines made of stainless steels by preventing deposition of chlorine, etc. on the surface, etc. of the pipelines. That is, an internal evolving gas elimination system comprises a gas extraction device for extracting gases in the reactor container, an obstacle elimination device for eliminating obstacles contained in the extracted gases and an internal gas elimination device for eliminating internal evolving gases contained in the extracted gases. Further, gases in the upper portion of the reactor container are extracted and then the ingredients of the internal evolving gases contained in the gases are eliminated and, thereafter, the gases are supplied to the lower portion of the container to keep the relative humidity in the reactor container to less than 20%RH. As a result, since the internal evolving gases are eliminated and the relative humidity at the inside is kept to less than 20%RH, deposition of chlorine or salts on the pipelines can be prevented to thereby prevent the stress corrosion cracks. (I.S.)

  9. Microfluidics apparatus and methods for use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peeters, John P.; Wiggins, Thomas; Ghosh, Madhushree; Bottomley, Lawrence A.; Seminara, Salvatore; Hu, Zhiyu; Seeley, Timothy; Kossek, Sebastian

    2005-08-09

    A microfluidics device includes a plurality of interaction cells and fluid control means including i) means for providing to the interaction cells a preparation fluid, and ii) means for providing to the interaction cells a sample fluid, wherein each interaction cell receives a different sample fluid. A plurality of microcantilevers may be disposed in each of the interaction cells, wherein each of the plurality of microcantilevers configured to deflect in response to an interaction involving a component of the sample fluid.

  10. Method of using sacrificial materials for fabricating internal cavities in laminated dielectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Kenneth A [Albuquerque, NM

    2009-02-24

    A method of using sacrificial materials for fabricating internal cavities and channels in laminated dielectric structures, which can be used as dielectric substrates and package mounts for microelectronic and microfluidic devices. A sacrificial mandrel is placed in-between two or more sheets of a deformable dielectric material (e.g., unfired LTCC glass/ceramic dielectric), wherein the sacrificial mandrel is not inserted into a cutout made in any of the sheets. The stack of sheets is laminated together, which deforms the sheet or sheets around the sacrificial mandrel. After lamination, the mandrel is removed, (e.g., during LTCC burnout), thereby creating a hollow internal cavity in the monolithic ceramic structure.

  11. Method of fabricating thin-walled articles of tungsten-nickel-iron alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovis, Jr., Victor M.; Northcutt, Jr., Walter G.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention relates to a method for fabricating thin-walled high-density structures oftungsten-nickel-iron alloys. A powdered blend of the selected alloy constituents is plasma sprayed onto a mandrel having the desired article configuration. The sprayed deposit is removed from the mandrel and subjected to liquid phase sintering to provide the alloyed structure. The formation of the thin-walled structure by plasma spraying significantly reduces shrinkage, and cracking while increasing physical properties of the structure over that obtainable by employing previously known powder metallurgical procedures.

  12. Color-tunable electrophosphorescent device fabricated by a photo-bleaching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Tae-Ho; Park, Jong Hyeok; Park, O Ok

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrated an efficient color-tunable electrophosphorescent device fabricated by a photo-bleaching method. Electroluminescence studies indicate that excellent device performance can be achieved through efficient Foerster energy transfer from the conjugated polymer to the iridium complexes by improving their miscibility. The use of a very low concentration of red phosphorescent dye and the easy degradation characteristics of conjugated structure of the red dopant enable color-tuning from red to green emission by a simple UV-irradiation process without a sacrifice of luminescent properties.tp

  13. Design and fabrication methods of FW/blanket and vessel for ITER-FEAT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ioki, K. E-mail: iokik@itereu.de; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Kalinin, G.; Miki, N.; Onozuka, M.; Osaki, T.; Rozov, V.; Sannazzaro, G.; Utin, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yoshimura, H

    2001-11-01

    Design has progressed on the vacuum vessel and FW/blanket for ITER-FEAT. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design. Detailed blanket module designs of the radially cooled shield block with flat separable FW panels have been developed. The ITER blanket R and D program covers different materials and fabrication methods in order make a final selection based on the results. Separate manifolds have been designed and analysed for the blanket cooling. The vessel design with flexible support housings has been improved to minimise the number of continuous poloidal ribs. Most of the R and D performed so far during EDA are still applicable.

  14. Design and fabrication methods of FW/blanket and vessel for ITER-FEAT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ioki, K.; Barabash, V.; Cardella, A.; Elio, F.; Kalinin, G.; Miki, N.; Onozuka, M.; Osaki, T.; Rozov, V.; Sannazzaro, G.; Utin, Y.; Yamada, M.; Yoshimura, H.

    2001-01-01

    Design has progressed on the vacuum vessel and FW/blanket for ITER-FEAT. The basic functions and structures are the same as for the 1998 ITER design. Detailed blanket module designs of the radially cooled shield block with flat separable FW panels have been developed. The ITER blanket R and D program covers different materials and fabrication methods in order make a final selection based on the results. Separate manifolds have been designed and analysed for the blanket cooling. The vessel design with flexible support housings has been improved to minimise the number of continuous poloidal ribs. Most of the R and D performed so far during EDA are still applicable

  15. Individual SnO2 nanowire transistors fabricated by the gold microwire mask method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun Jia; Tang Qingxin; Lu Aixia; Jiang Xuejiao; Wan Qing

    2009-01-01

    A gold microwire mask method is developed for the fabrication of transistors based on single lightly Sb-doped SnO 2 nanowires. Damage of the nanowire's surface can be avoided without any thermal annealing and surface modification, which is very convenient for the fundamental electrical and photoelectric characterization of one-dimensional inorganic nanomaterials. Transport measurements of the individual SnO 2 nanowire devices demonstrate the high-performance n-type field effect transistor characteristics without significant hysteresis in the transfer curves. The current on/off ratio and the subthreshold swing of the nanowire transistors are found to be 10 6 and 240 mV/decade, respectively.

  16. A simple two-step method to fabricate highly transparent ITO/polymer nanocomposite films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Haitao; Zeng, Xiaofei; Kong, Xiangrong; Bian, Shuguang; Chen, Jianfeng

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► A simple two-step method without further surface modification step was employed. ► ITO nanoparticles were easily to be uniformly dispersed in polymer matrix. ► ITO/polymer nanocomposite film had high transparency and UV/IR blocking properties. - Abstract: Transparent functional indium tin oxide (ITO)/polymer nanocomposite films were fabricated via a simple approach with two steps. Firstly, the functional monodisperse ITO nanoparticles were synthesized via a facile nonaqueous solvothermal method using bifunctional chemical agent (N-methyl-pyrrolidone, NMP) as the reaction solvent and surface modifier. Secondly, the ITO/acrylics polyurethane (PUA) nanocomposite films were fabricated by a simple sol-solution mixing method without any further surface modification step as often employed traditionally. Flower-like ITO nanoclusters with about 45 nm in diameter were mono-dispersed in ethyl acetate and each nanocluster was assembled by nearly spherical nanoparticles with primary size of 7–9 nm in diameter. The ITO nanoclusters exhibited an excellent dispersibility in polymer matrix of PUA, remaining their original size without any further agglomeration. When the loading content of ITO nanoclusters reached to 5 wt%, the transparent functional nanocomposite film featured a high transparency more than 85% in the visible light region (at 550 nm), meanwhile cutting off near-infrared radiation about 50% at 1500 nm and blocking UV ray about 45% at 350 nm. It could be potential for transparent functional coating materials applications.

  17. Fabrication of corneal epithelial cell sheets maintaining colony-forming cells without feeder cells by oxygen-controlled method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Ryota; Takeda, Shizu

    2014-01-01

    The use of murine 3T3 feeder cells needs to be avoided when fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for use in treating ocular surface diseases. However, the expression level of the epithelial stem/progenitor cell marker, p63, is down-regulated in feeder-free culture systems. In this study, in order to fabricate corneal epithelial cell sheets that maintain colony-forming cells without using any feeder cells, we investigated the use of an oxygen-controlled method that was developed previously to fabricate cell sheets efficiently. Rabbit limbal epithelial cells were cultured under hypoxia (1-10% O2) and under normoxia during stratification after reaching confluence. Multilayered corneal epithelial cell sheets were fabricated using an oxygen-controlled method, and immunofluorescence analysis showed that cytokeratin 3 and p63 was expressed in appropriate localization in the cell sheets. The colony-forming efficiency of the cell sheets fabricated by the oxygen-controlled method without feeder cells was significantly higher than that of cell sheets fabricated under 20% O2 without feeder cells. These results indicate that the oxygen-controlled method has the potential to achieve a feeder-free culture system for fabricating corneal epithelial cell sheets for corneal regeneration. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A New Method for Fabrication of Nanohydroxyapatite and TCP from the Sea Snail Cerithium vulgatum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Gunduz

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Biphasic bioceramic nanopowders of hydroxyapatite (HA and β-tricalcium phosphate (TCP were prepared from shells of the sea snail Cerithium vulgatum (Bruguière, 1792 using a novel chemical method. Calcination of the powders produced was carried out at varying temperatures, specifically at 400°C and 800°C, in air for 4 hours. When compared to the conventional hydrothermal transformation method, this chemical method is very simple, economic, due to the fact that it needs inexpensive and safe equipment, because the transformation of the aragonite and calcite of the shells into the calcium phosphate phases takes place at 80°C under the atmospheric pressure. The powders produced were determined using infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. The features of the powders produced along with the fact of their biological origin qualify these powders for further consideration and experimentation to fabricate nanoceramic biomaterials.

  19. A novel and simple fabrication method of embedded SU-8 micro channels by direct UV lithography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fu, C; Hung, C; Huang, H

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we presents a novel and simple method to fabricate embedded micro channels. The method based on different light absorption properties of the SU-8 thick photoresist under different incident UV wavelengths. The channel structures are defined by the ordinary I-line, while the cover layer is patterned by the deep UV. Because the deep UV is obtained directly on the same aligner with a set of filter mirrors, the embedded channel can be easily produced without other rare facilities. Besides, the relationship between the thickness of the top layer and the exposure dose of the deep UV has been measured by an ingeniously designed experiment. The specific thickness of the top layer of the embedded micro channel can then be secured by the specific deep-UV exposure dose. Further more, many meaningful mechanical structures have been realized by this method, the material property of the top layer are also measured

  20. Systems and methods for large-scale nanotemplate and nanowire fabrication

    KAUST Repository

    Vidal, Enrique Vilanova

    2016-03-31

    Systems and methods for largescale nanotemplate and nanowire fabrication are provided. The system can include a sample holder and one or more chemical containers fluidly connected to the sample holder. The sample holder can be configured to contain a solution and to releasably hold a substrate material within the solution. In other aspects, the system can include a robotic arm including a head configured to releasably hold a substrate material. The methods can include initiating a treatment step by moving a chemical solution from a chemical container to the sample holder to submerge the substrate material for a period of time. The methods can include moving the robotic arm to position the substrate in a chemical container. The treatment steps can be stopped by removing the chemical solution from the sample holder or by moving the robotic arm to remove the substrate from the chemical container. The treatment steps can include degreasing, polishing, rinsing, anodization, and deposition.

  1. Fabrication of silica ceramic membrane via sol-gel dip-coating method at different nitric acid amount

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlib, N. A. Z.; Daud, F. D. M.; Mel, M.; Hairin, A. L. N.; Azhar, A. Z. A.; Hassan, N. A.

    2018-01-01

    Fabrication of silica ceramics via the sol-gel method has offered more advantages over other methods in the fabrication of ceramic membrane, such as simple operation, high purity homogeneous, well defined-structure and complex shapes of end products. This work presents the fabrication of silica ceramic membrane via sol-gel dip-coating methods by varying nitric acid amount. The nitric acid plays an important role as catalyst in fabrication reaction which involved hydrolysis and condensation process. The tubular ceramic support, used as the substrate, was dipped into the sol of Tetrethylorthosilicate (TEOS), distilled water and ethanol with the addition of nitric acid. The fabricated silica membrane was then characterized by (Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscope) FESEM and (Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy) FTIR to determine structural and chemical properties at different amount of acids. From the XRD analysis, the fabricated silica ceramic membrane showed the existence of silicate hydrate in the final product. FESEM images indicated that the silica ceramic membrane has been deposited on the tubular ceramic support as a substrate and penetrate into the pore walls. The intensity peak of FTIR decreased with increasing of amount of acids. Hence, the 8 ml of acid has demonstrated the appropriate amount of catalyst in fabricating good physical and chemical characteristic of silica ceramic membrane.

  2. Induction of broad immunity by thermostabilised vaccines incorporated in dissolvable microneedles using novel fabrication methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vrdoljak, Anto; Allen, Evin A; Ferrara, Francesca; Temperton, Nigel J; Crean, Abina M; Moore, Anne C

    2016-03-10

    Dissolvable microneedle (DMN) patches for immunization have multiple benefits, including vaccine stability and ease-of-use. However, conventional DMN fabrication methods have several drawbacks. Here we describe a novel, microfluidic, drop dispensing-based dissolvable microneedle production method that overcomes these issues. Uniquely, heterogeneous arrays, consisting of microneedles of diverse composition, can be easily produced on the same patch. Robustness of the process was demonstrated by incorporating and stabilizing adenovirus and MVA vaccines. Clinically-available trivalent inactivated influenza vaccine (TIV) in DMN patches is fully stable for greater than 6months at 40°C. Immunization using low dose TIV-loaded DMN patches induced significantly higher antibody responses compared to intramuscular-based immunization in mice. TIV-loaded patches also induced a broader, heterosubtypic neutralizing antibody response. By addressing issues that will be faced in large-scale fill-finish DMN fabrication processes and demonstrating superior thermostable characteristics and immunogenicity, this study progresses the translation of this microneedle platform to eventual clinical deployment. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Design and fabrication of facial prostheses for cancer patient applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Din, Tengku Noor Daimah Tengku; Jamayet, Nafij; Rajion, Zainul Ahmad; Luddin, Norhayati; Abdullah, Johari Yap; Abdullah, Abdul Manaf; Yahya, Suzana

    2016-12-01

    Facial defects are either congenital or caused by trauma or cancer where most of them affect the person appearance. The emotional pressure and low self-esteem are problems commonly related to patient with facial defect. To overcome this problem, silicone prosthesis was designed to cover the defect part. This study describes the techniques in designing and fabrication for facial prosthesis applying computer aided method and manufacturing (CADCAM). The steps of fabricating the facial prosthesis were based on a patient case. The patient was diagnosed for Gorlin Gotz syndrome and came to Hospital Universiti Sains Malaysia (HUSM) for prosthesis. The 3D image of the patient was reconstructed from CT data using MIMICS software. Based on the 3D image, the intercanthal and zygomatic measurements of the patient were compared with available data in the database to find the suitable nose shape. The normal nose shape for the patient was retrieved from the nasal digital library. Mirror imaging technique was used to mirror the facial part. The final design of facial prosthesis including eye, nose and cheek was superimposed to see the result virtually. After the final design was confirmed, the mould design was created. The mould of nasal prosthesis was printed using Objet 3D printer. Silicone casting was done using the 3D print mould. The final prosthesis produced from the computer aided method was acceptable to be used for facial rehabilitation to provide better quality of life.

  4. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-10-21

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure.

  5. Method and apparatus for fabricating a composite structure consisting of a filamentary material in a metal matrix

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banker, J.G.; Anderson, R.C.

    1975-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for preparing a composite structure consisting of filamentary material within a metal matrix. The method is practiced by the steps of confining the metal for forming the matrix in a first chamber, heating the confined metal to a temperature adequate to effect melting thereof, introducing a stream of inert gas into the chamber for pressurizing the atmosphere in the chamber to a pressure greater than atmospheric pressure, confining the filamentary material in a second chamber, heating the confined filamentary material to a temperature less than the melting temperature of the metal, evacuating the second chamber to provide an atmosphere therein at a pressure, placing the second chamber in registry with the first chamber to provide for the forced flow of the molten metal into the second chamber to effect infiltration of the filamentary material with the molten metal, and thereafter cooling the metal infiltrated-filamentary material to form said composite structure

  6. Novel hard mask fabrication method for hybrid plasmonic waveguide and metasurfaces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choudhury, Sajid; Zenin, Vladimir A.; Saha, Soham

    2017-01-01

    A hybrid plasmonic waveguide fabrication technique has been developed and waveguides fabricated using this technique have been demonstrated experimentally. The developed technique can be utilized for creating similar hybrid waveguide structures and metasurfaces with an array of material platforms...

  7. A fabrication method for field emitter array of carbon nanotubes with improved carbon nanotube rooting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chouhan, V., E-mail: vchouhan@post.kek.jp [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Noguchi, T. [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); Kato, S. [School of High Energy Accelerator, The Graduate University for Advanced Studies, Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan); High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Tsukuba 305-0801 (Japan)

    2015-11-30

    We have developed a technique for fabrication of a field emitter array (FEA) of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) to obtain a high emission current along with a high current density. The FEA was prepared with many small equidistant circular emitters of randomly oriented multiwall carbon nanotubes. The fabrication of a FEA substrate followed with deposition of titanium nitride (TiN) film on a tantalum (Ta) substrate and circular titanium (Ti) islands on the TiN coated Ta substrate in a DC magnetron sputtering coater. CNTs were dispersed on the substrate and rooted into the circular Ti islands at a high temperature to prepare an array of circular emitters of CNTs. The TiN film was applied on a Ta substrate to make a reaction barrier between the Ta substrate and CNTs in order to root CNTs only into the Ti islands without a reaction with the Ta substrate at the high temperature. A high emission current of 31.7 mA with an effective current density of 34.5 A/cm{sup 2} was drawn at 6.5 V/μm from a FEA having 130 circular emitters in a diameter of 50 μm and with a pitch of 200 μm. The high emission current was ascribed to the good quality rooting of CNTs into the Ti islands and an edge effect, in which a high emission current was expected from the peripheries of the circular emitters. - Highlights: • We developed a method to fabricate a field emitter array of carbon nanotubes (CNTs). • CNT rooting into array of titanium islands was improved at a high temperature. • Titanium nitride film was used to stop reaction between CNT and tantalum substrate. • Strong edge effect was achieved from an array of small circular emitters of CNTs. • The good quality CNT rooting and the edge effect enhanced an emission current.

  8. Cultivating Fluorescent Flowers with Highly Luminescent Carbon Dots Fabricated by a Double Passivation Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Shuai; Chang, Tao; Zhao, Haiping; Du, Huanhuan; Liu, Shan; Wu, Baoshuang; Qin, Shenjun

    2017-07-07

    In this work, we present the fabrication of highly luminescent carbon dots (CDs) by a double passivation method with the assistance of Ca(OH)₂. In the reaction process, Ca 2+ protects the active functional groups from overconsumption during dehydration and carbonization, and the electron-withdrawing groups on the CD surface are converted to electron-donating groups by the hydroxyl ions. As a result, the fluorescence quantum yield of the CDs was found to increase with increasing Ca(OH)₂ content in the reaction process. A blue-shift optical spectrum of the CDs was also found with increasing Ca(OH)₂ content, which could be attributed to the increasing of the energy gaps for the CDs. The highly photoluminescent CDs obtained (quantum yield: 86%) were used to cultivate fluorescent carnations by a water culture method, while the results of fluorescence microscopy analysis indicated that the CDs had entered the plant tissue structure.

  9. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manonukul, Anchalee, E-mail: anchalm@mtec.or.th [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Srikudvien, Pathompoom [National Metal and Materials Technology Center (MTEC), National Science and Technology Development Agency (NSTDA), 114 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Tange, Makiko [Taisei Kogyo Thailand Co., Ltd., Room INC2d-409, Innovation Cluster 2 Building, Tower D, 141 Thailand Science Park, Paholyothin Rd., Klong 1, Klong Luang, Pathumthani 12120 (Thailand); Puncreobutr, Chedtha [Department of Metallurgical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, Chulalongkorn University, Pathumwan, Bangkok 10330 (Thailand)

    2016-02-08

    Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

  10. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment

  11. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gupta, C.K.; Rohilla, Aman; Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P.; Mehta, D.; Chamoli, S.K.

    2014-01-01

    A thin isotopic 94 Zr target of thickness 520μg/cm 2 has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm 2 thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of 94 Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a 94 Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched 94 Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of 94 Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC

  12. Fabrication of 94Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, C. K.; Rohilla, Aman; Abhilash, S. R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R. P.; Mehta, D.; Chamoli, S. K.

    2014-11-01

    A thin isotopic 94Zr target of thickness 520 μg /cm2 has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm2 thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of 94Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a 94Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched 94Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of 94Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC.

  13. Geometry anisotropy and mechanical property isotropy in titanium foam fabricated by replica impregnation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Manonukul, Anchalee; Srikudvien, Pathompoom; Tange, Makiko; Puncreobutr, Chedtha

    2016-01-01

    Polyurethane (PU) foams have both geometry and mechanical property anisotropy. Metal foams, which are manufacturing by investment casting or melt deposition method and using PU foam as a template, also have mechanical property anisotropy. This work studied the mechanical properties in two directions of titanium foam with four different cell sizes fabricated using the replica impregnation method. The two directions are (1) the loading direction parallel to the foaming direction where the cells are elongated (EL direction) and (2) the loading direction perpendicular to the foaming direction where the cell are equiaxed (EQ direction). The results show that the compression responses for both EL and EQ directions are isotropy. Micrographs and X-ray micro-computed tomography show that the degree of geometry anisotropy is not strong enough to results in mechanical property anisotropy.

  14. Plasmonic color metasurfaces fabricated by a high speed roll-to-roll method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murthy, Swathi; Pranov, Henrik; Feidenhans'l, Nikolaj Agentoft

    2017-01-01

    Lab-scale plasmonic color printing using nano-structured and subsequently metallized surfaces have been demonstrated to provide vivid colors. However, upscaling these structures for large area manufacturing is extremely challenging due to the requirement of nanometer precision of metal thickness....... In this study, we have investigated a plasmonic color meta-surface design that can be easily upscaled. We have demonstrated the feasibility of fabrication of these plasmonic color surfaces by a high-speed roll-to-roll method, comprising roll-to-roll extrusion coating at 10 m min-1 creating a polymer foil having...... 100 nm deep pits of varying sub-wavelength diameter and pitch length. Subsequently this polymer foil was metallized and coated also by high-speed roll-to-roll methods. The perceived colors have high tolerance towards the thickness of the metal layer, when this thickness exceeds the depths of the pits...

  15. Fabrication and Application of Mono-sized Spherical Micro Particles by Pulsated Orifice Ejection Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DONG Wei

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available A novel technology called pulsated orifice ejection method(POEM and used for preparing mono-sized and high-precision spherical micro particles was introduced in this article. The working principle of the technique was illustrated and it was in two modes:low-melting point diaphragm mode and high-melting point rod mode, depending on the different melting points of materials. The particles prepared by POEM have the advantages of mono-sized, uniform and controllable particle size, high sphericity, and consistent thermal history. By introducing the application of particles prepared by this method, showing the huge application prospects of this technology in electronic packaging, bioengineering, micro-fabrication, rapid solidification analysis of metal droplets, additive manufacturing and so on.With the development of POEM, this technology is predicted to have wider prospects due to its unique characteristics.

  16. Fabrication and optical properties of SnS thin films by SILAR method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biswajit; Das, Madhumita; Banerjee, Pushan; Das, Subrata

    2008-01-01

    Although the fabrication of tin disulfide thin films by SILAR method is quiet common, there is, however, no report is available on the growth of SnS thin film using above technique. In the present work, SnS films of 0.20 μm thickness were grown on glass and ITO substrates by SILAR method using SnSO 4 and Na 2 S solution. The as-grown films were smooth and strongly adherent to the substrate. XRD confirmed the deposition of SnS thin films. Scanning electron micrograph revealed almost equal distribution of the particle size well covered on the surface of the substrate. EDAX showed that as-grown SnS films were slightly rich in tin component while UV-vis transmission spectra exhibited high absorption in the visible region. The intense and sharp emission peaks at 680 and 825 nm (near band edge emission) dominated the photoluminescence spectra

  17. Investigation of methods for fabricating, characterizing, and transporting cryogenic inertial-confinement-fusion tartets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fanning, J.J.; Kim, K.

    1981-01-01

    The objective of this work is to investigate methods for fabricating, characterizing and transporting cryogenic inertial confinement fusion targets on a continuous basis. A microprocessor-based data acquisition system has been built that converts a complete target image to digital data, which are then analyzed by automated software procedures. The low temperatures required to freeze the hydrogen isotopes contained in a target is provided by a cryogenic cold chamber capable of attaining 15 K. A new method for target manipulation and positioning is studied that employs molecular gas beams to levitate a target and an electrostatic quadrupole structure to provide for its lateral containment. Since the electrostatic target-positioning scheme requires that the targets be charged, preliminary investigation has been carried out for a target-charging mechanism based on ion-bombardment.

  18. Novel fabrication method for three-dimensional nanostructuring: an application to micro-optics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tormen, Massimo; Carpentiero, Alessandro; Ferrari, Enrico; Cojoc, Dan; Fabrizio, Enzo Di

    2007-01-01

    We propose a 3D micro and nanofabrication method with potential applications to several nanotechnology-related fields. Our approach is based on the combination of lithographic steps and isotropic wet etchings performed on a quartz or glass substrate to form 3D structures with very accurate shape control and nanometer scale surface roughness. The resulting concavities at the quartz surface are converted into convex plastic elements by hot embossing or casting techniques. Complex all-polymer refractive optical elements have been realized by this method. Upon illumination, such micro-optics focus the light into predetermined 3D distributions of focal lines and spots. The general fabrication scheme explored here is illustrated through a series of examples in optics, but is expected to offer new solutions to other fields such as medicine, microfluidics and nano-optics

  19. Fabrication of {sup 94}Zr thin target for recoil distance doppler shift method of lifetime measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gupta, C.K.; Rohilla, Aman [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India); Abhilash, S.R.; Kabiraj, D.; Singh, R.P. [Inter University Accelerator Centre, Aruna Asaf Ali Marg, New Delhi 110067 (India); Mehta, D. [Department of Physics, Panjab University, Chandigarh 160014 (India); Chamoli, S.K., E-mail: skchamoli@physics.du.ac.in [Department of Physics and Astrophysics, University of Delhi, Delhi 110007 (India)

    2014-11-11

    A thin isotopic {sup 94}Zr target of thickness 520μg/cm{sup 2} has been prepared for recoil distance Doppler shift method (RDM) lifetime measurement by using an electron beam deposition method on tantalum backing of 3.5 mg/cm{sup 2} thickness at Inter University Accelerator Center (IUAC), New Delhi. To meet the special requirement of smoothness of surface for RDM lifetime measurement and also to protect the outer layer of {sup 94}Zr from peeling off, a very thin layer of gold has been evaporated on a {sup 94}Zr target on a specially designed substrate holder. In all, 143 mg of 99.6% enriched {sup 94}Zr target material was utilized for the fabrication of {sup 94}Zr targets. The target has been successfully used in a recent RDM lifetime measurement experiment at IUAC.

  20. THE STUDY OF THE CHARACTERIZATION INDICES OF FABRICS BY PRINCIPAL COMPONENT ANALYSIS METHOD

    OpenAIRE

    HRISTIAN Liliana; OSTAFE Maria Magdalena; BORDEIANU Demetra Lacramioara; APOSTOL Laura Liliana

    2017-01-01

    The paper was pursued to prioritize the worsted fabrics type, for the manufacture of outerwear products by characterization indeces of fabrics, using the mathematical model of Principal Component Analysis (PCA). There are a number of variables with a certain influence on the quality of fabrics, but some of these variables are more important than others, so it is useful to identify those variables to a better understanding the factors which can lead the improving of the fabrics quality. A s...

  1. The effects of composition and sintering temperature on the silica foam fabricated by slurry method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baharom, Syazwani; Ahmad, Sufizar; Taib, Hariati; Muda, Rizamarhaiza

    2016-01-01

    Reticulated ceramic or open pore ceramic foam is a well-known material which exhibits extremely high porosities, with a significant degree of interconnectivity that makes them desirable in a wide range of applications. There were broad types of ceramic foam fabrication method such as polymeric sponge method, direct foaming, and starch consolidation. In this study, the slurry method has been chosen to fabricate Silica (SiO_2) foam. In this process, Polyurethane (PU) foam template was dipped into ceramic slurry and followed by drying and sintering to obtain foam which contains porosity in the range of 50% to 70%. The compositions of SiO_2 were varied starting from 55 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 65 wt.% and 70 wt.%. The samples of SiO_2 that have been dipped and dried were sintered at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, and 1250°C. The sintered SiO_2 ceramic foam samples were characterized to observe their morphology, and physical properties. Thus, the microstructure of the SiO_2 ceramic foams samples was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Meanwhile, the physical properties of the SiO_2 ceramic foam samples such as the total porosity (%) and bulk density were determined using Archimedes method. It was found that the density of ceramic foam produced was in the range of 0.25 g/cm"3 up to 0.75 g/cm"3, whereas the level of porosity percentage was in the range of 61.81% to 82.18% with the size of open pore or window cells were in between 141 µm up to 626 µm.

  2. Facile fabrication of controllable zinc oxide nanorod clusters on polyacrylonitrile nanofibers via repeatedly alternating immersion method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Ying; Li, Xia; Yu, Hou-Yong, E-mail: phdyu@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, The Key Laboratory of Advanced Textile Materials and Manufacturing Technology of Ministry of Education, College of Materials and Textiles (China); Hu, Guo-Liang; Yao, Ju-Ming, E-mail: yaoj@zstu.edu.cn [Zhejiang Sci-Tech University, National Engineering Lab for Textile Fiber Materials and Processing Technology (China)

    2016-12-15

    Polyacrylonitrile/zinc oxide (PAN/ZnO) composite nanofiber membranes with different ZnO morphologies were fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion and single alternating hot–cold immersion methods. The influence of the PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio and different immersion methods on the morphology, microstructure, and properties of the nanofiber membranes was investigated by using field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and ultraviolet–visible (UV–Vis) spectroscopy. A possible mechanism for different morphologies of PAN/ZnO nanofiber membranes with different PAN/ZnCl{sub 2} ratio through different immersion processes was presented, and well-dispersed ZnO nanorod clusters with smallest average dimeter of 115 nm and hexagonal wurtzite structure were successfully anchored onto the PAN nanofiber surface for R-7/1 nanofiber membrane. Compared to S-5/1 prepared by single alternating hot–cold immersion method, the PAN/ZnO nanofiber membrane fabricated by repeatedly alternating hot–cold immersion method (especially for R-7/1) showed improved thermal stability and high photocatalytic activity for methylene blue (MB). Compared to S-5/1, decomposition temperature at 5% weight loss (T{sub 5%}) was increased by 43 °C from 282 to 325 °C for R-7/1; meanwhile, R-7/1 showed higher photocatalytic degradation ratio of approximately 100% (after UV light irradiation for 8 h) than 65% for S-5/1 even after irradiation for 14 h. Moreover, the degradation efficiency of R-7/1 with good reuse stability remained above 94% after 3 cycles.

  3. The effects of composition and sintering temperature on the silica foam fabricated by slurry method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baharom, Syazwani, E-mail: hd140001@siswa.uthm.edu.my; Ahmad, Sufizar, E-mail: sufizar@uthm.edu.my; Taib, Hariati, E-mail: hariati@uthm.edu.my; Muda, Rizamarhaiza, E-mail: hd130013@siswa.uthm.edu.my [Department of Material and Design Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM), 86400 Parit Raja, Batu Pahat, Johor (Malaysia)

    2016-07-19

    Reticulated ceramic or open pore ceramic foam is a well-known material which exhibits extremely high porosities, with a significant degree of interconnectivity that makes them desirable in a wide range of applications. There were broad types of ceramic foam fabrication method such as polymeric sponge method, direct foaming, and starch consolidation. In this study, the slurry method has been chosen to fabricate Silica (SiO{sub 2}) foam. In this process, Polyurethane (PU) foam template was dipped into ceramic slurry and followed by drying and sintering to obtain foam which contains porosity in the range of 50% to 70%. The compositions of SiO{sub 2} were varied starting from 55 wt.%, 60 wt.%, 65 wt.% and 70 wt.%. The samples of SiO{sub 2} that have been dipped and dried were sintered at 900°C, 1000°C, 1100°C, and 1250°C. The sintered SiO{sub 2} ceramic foam samples were characterized to observe their morphology, and physical properties. Thus, the microstructure of the SiO{sub 2} ceramic foams samples was examined by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), and Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS). Meanwhile, the physical properties of the SiO{sub 2} ceramic foam samples such as the total porosity (%) and bulk density were determined using Archimedes method. It was found that the density of ceramic foam produced was in the range of 0.25 g/cm{sup 3} up to 0.75 g/cm{sup 3}, whereas the level of porosity percentage was in the range of 61.81% to 82.18% with the size of open pore or window cells were in between 141 µm up to 626 µm.

  4. A novel fabrication method for surface integration of metal structures into polymers (SIMSIP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrion-Gonzalez, Hector

    Recently developed flexible electronics applications require that the thin metal films embedded on elastomer substrates also be flexible. These electronic systems are radically different in terms of performance and functionality than conventional silicon-based devices. A key question is whether the metal deposited on flexible films can survive large strains without rupture. Cumbersome macro-fabrication methods have been developed for functional and bendable electronics (e.g., interconnects) encapsulated between layers of polymer films. However, future electronic applications may require electronic flexible devices to be in intimate contact with curved surfaces (e.g., retinal implants) and to be robust enough to withstand large and repeated mechanical deformations. In this research, a novel technique for surface integration of metal structures into polymers (SIMSIP) was developed. Surface embedding, as opposed to placing metal on polymers, provides better adherence while leaving the surface accessible for contacts. This was accomplished by first fabricating the micro-scale metal patterns on a quartz or Teflon mother substrate, and then embedding them to a flexible polyimide thin film. The technique was successfully used to embed micro-metal structures of gold (Au), silver (Ag), and copper (Cu) into polyimide films without affecting the functional properties of the either the metals or the polymers. Experimental results confirm the successful surface-embedding of metal structures as narrow as 0.6 microm wide for different geometries commonly used in circuit design. Although similar approaches exist in literature, the proposed methodology provides a simpler and more reliable way of producing flexible circuits/electronics that is also suitable for high volume manufacturing. In order to demonstrate the flexibility of metal interconnects fabricated using the SIMSIP technique, multiple Au electrodes (5 microm and 2.5 microm wide) were tested using the X-theta bending

  5. Trial fabrication of Be12Ti electrode for pebble production by rotating electrode method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uda, M.; Iwadachi, T.; Uchida, M.; Nakamichi, M.; Kawamura, H.

    2004-01-01

    Be 12 Ti has been one of candidates for advanced neutron multipliers, due to its high melting points and good chemical stability. Although Be 12 Ti is too brittle to product pebbles for neutron multipliers with the rotating electrode method (REM), a preliminary production of the pebbles which was made of two phase material of α-beryllium (α-Be) and Be 12 Ti was successfully demonstrated with REM. In this study a trial fabrication of the Be-5at%Ti'' ingot (α-Be + Be 12 Ti) for the REM electrode was carried out with a vacuum casting process. Three kinds of refractory crucibles (MgO, CaO and BeO) were tested for the evaluation of durability to the melt of Be-5%Ti. The water-cooled copper mould was applied for the casting mold to assist a one-direction solidification. The appearance (crack(s), shrinkage, etc.), microstructure and chemical analysis of the ''Be-5at%Ti'' ingots were investigated. As for the results of the trial fabrication, it was made clear that BeO crucible is most useful for the melting of Be-5at%Ti. The ingot, which was a size of φ85 x h 150 mm, had h 40mm sound portion from the bottom. The microstructure of the ingots showed two phases (probably α-Be and Be 12 Ti). The chemical composition of the Ti in the ingot were 3.1 - 6.2at%. (author)

  6. In vitro bioactivity of a biocomposite fabricated from HA and Ti powders by powder metallurgy method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ning, C Q; Zhou, Y

    2002-07-01

    Traditionally, hydroxyapatite was used as a coating material on titanium substrate by various techniques. In the present work, a biocomposite was successfully fabricated from hydroxyapatite and titanium powders by powder metallurgy method. Bioactivity of the composite in a simulated body fluid (SBF) was investigated. Main crystal phases of the as-fabricated composite are found to be Ti2O, CaTiO3, CaO, alpha-Ti and a TiP-like phase. When the composite is immersed in the simulated body fluid for a certain time, a poor-crystallized, calcium-deficient, carbonate-containing apatite film will form on the surface of the composite. The time required to induce apatite nucleation is within 2 h. In addition, the apatite is also incorporated with a little magnesium and chlorine element. It is found that Ti2O has the ability to induce the formation of bone-like apatite in the SBF. And a dissolve of the CaO phase could also provide favorable conditions for the apatite formation, by forming open pores on the surface of the composite and increasing the degree of supersaturation of the SBF with respect to the apatite.

  7. Ultrafast Laser Engraving Method to Fabricate Gravure Plate for Printed Metal-Mesh Touch Panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiyuan Chen

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In order to engrave gravure plate with fine lines structures, conventional art used lithography with dry/wet etching. Lithography with dry/wet etching method allows to engrave lines with smooth concave shape, but its disadvantages include difficulty in controlling aspect ratio, high and uniform in large size process, substrate material limitation due to etching solution availability, and process complexity. We developed ultra-fast laser technology to directly engrave a stainless plate, a gravure plate, to be used for fabricating 23 in. metal-mesh touch panel by gravure offset printing process. The technology employs high energy pulse to ablate materials from a substrate. Because the ultra-fast laser pulse duration is shorter than the energy dissipation time between material lattices, there is no heating issue during the ablation process. Therefore, no volcano-type protrusion on the engraved line edges occurs, leading to good printing quality. After laser engraving, we then reduce surface roughness of the gravure plate using electro-polishing process. Diamond like carbon (DLC coating layer is then added onto the surface to increase scratch resistance. We show that this procedure can fabricate gravure plate for gravure offset printing process with minimum printing linewidth 10.7 μm. A 23 in. metal-mesh pattern was printed using such gravure plate and fully functional touch panel was demonstrated in this work.

  8. A progressively reduced pretension method to fabricate Bradbury-Nielsen gates with uniform tension

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ni, Kai; Guo, Jingran; Yu, Zhou; Cao, Like; Yu, Quan; Qian, Xiang; Wang, Xiaohao

    2015-01-01

    A Bradbury-Nielsen gate (BNG) is often used to modulate ion beams. It consists of two interleaved and electrically isolated sets of wires with uniform tension, which ideally keep parallel, equidistant, and coplanar over a wide temperature range, making the BNG reliable and robust. We have previously analyzed the non-uniformity problem of wire tensions with sequentially winding method and developed a template-based transfer method to solve this problem. In this paper, we introduced a progressively reduced pretension method, which allows directly and sequentially fixing wires onto the substrate without using a template. Theoretical analysis shows that by applying proper pretension to each wire when fixing it, the final wire tensions of all wires can be uniform. The algorithm and flowchart to calculate the pretension sequence are given, and the fabrication process is introduced in detail. Pretensions are generated by weight combination with a weaving device. A BNG with stainless steel wire and a printed circuit board substrate is constructed with this method. The non-uniformity of the final wire tensions is less than 2.5% in theory. The BNG is successfully employed in our ion mobility spectrometer, and the measured resolution is 33.5 at a gate opening time of 350 μs. Compared to the template-based method, this method is simpler, faster, and more flexible with comparable production quality when manufacturing BNGs with different configurations

  9. A Developed Meta-model for Selection of Cotton Fabrics Using Design of Experiments and TOPSIS Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Shankar; Chatterjee, Prasenjit

    2017-12-01

    Selection of cotton fabrics for providing optimal clothing comfort is often considered as a multi-criteria decision making problem consisting of an array of candidate alternatives to be evaluated based of several conflicting properties. In this paper, design of experiments and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) are integrated so as to develop regression meta-models for identifying the most suitable cotton fabrics with respect to the computed TOPSIS scores. The applicability of the adopted method is demonstrated using two real time examples. These developed models can also identify the statistically significant fabric properties and their interactions affecting the measured TOPSIS scores and final selection decisions. There exists good degree of congruence between the ranking patterns as derived using these meta-models and the existing methods for cotton fabric ranking and subsequent selection.

  10. Towards seamlessly-integrated textile electronics: methods to coat fabrics and fibers with conducting polymers for electronic applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allison, Linden; Hoxie, Steven; Andrew, Trisha L

    2017-06-29

    Traditional textile materials can be transformed into functional electronic components upon being dyed or coated with films of intrinsically conducting polymers, such as poly(aniline), poly(pyrrole) and poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene). A variety of textile electronic devices are built from the conductive fibers and fabrics thus obtained, including: physiochemical sensors, thermoelectric fibers/fabrics, heated garments, artificial muscles and textile supercapacitors. In all these cases, electrical performance and device ruggedness is determined by the morphology of the conducting polymer active layer on the fiber or fabric substrate. Tremendous variation in active layer morphology can be observed with different coating or dyeing conditions. Here, we summarize various methods used to create fiber- and fabric-based devices and highlight the influence of the coating method on active layer morphology and device stability.

  11. Rapid fabrication of an ordered nano-dot array by the combination of nano-plastic forming and annealing methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshino, Masahiko; Ohsawa, Hiroki; Yamanaka, Akinori

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a new fabrication method for an ordered nano-dot array is developed. Combination of coating, nano-plastic forming and annealing processes is studied to produce uniformly sized and ordered gold nano-dot array on a quartz glass substrate. The experimental results reveal that patterning of a groove grid on the gold-coated substrate with NPF is effective to obtain the ordered gold nano-dot array. In the proposed fabrication process, the size of the gold nano-dot can be controlled by adjusting the groove grid size. A minimum gold nano-dot array fabricated on a quartz-glass substrate was 93 nm in diameter and 100 nm in pitch. Furthermore, the mechanism of nano-dot array generation by the presented process is investigated. Using a theoretical model it is revealed that the proposed method is capable of fabrication of smaller nano-dots than 10 nm by controlling process conditions adequately.

  12. Diluted melt proton exchange slab waveguides in LiNbO3: A new fabrication and characterization method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veng, Torben; Skettrup, Torben

    1997-01-01

    A method of dilute-melt proton exchange employing a mixture of glycerol and KHSO4 with lithium benzoate added is used to fabricate planar waveguides in c-cut LiNbO3. With this exchange melt system the waveguide refractive index profiles can be fabricated with a high degree of reproducibility...... the waveguide refractive index profile from the measured mode indices is introduced. The main advantage of this characterization method compared with other methods is that it also applies to single-mode waveguides. Using the new characterization method we investigate in detail the relation between waveguide...

  13. Progress on the Fabrication Methods Development for the Korean Test Blanket Module First Wall in the ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Won; Kim, Suk Kwon; Bae, Young Dug; Yoon, Jae Sung; Cho, Seung Yon

    2010-01-01

    A Korean helium cooled molten lithium (HCML) test blanket module (TBM) has been designed to be tested in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) TBM and related fabrication methods have been developed especially for the purpose of joining. Since the first wall (FW) of the HCML TBM is composed of a beryllium (Be) as an armor material and a FMS as a structural one, joining with Be to FMS and FMS to FMS should be developed in order to fabricate it

  14. Disentanglement Effects on the Welding Behaviour of Polymer Melts during the Fused-Filament-Fabrication Method for Additive Manufacturing

    OpenAIRE

    McIlroy, Claire; Olmsted, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Although 3D printing has the potential to transform manufacturing processes, the strength of printed parts often does not rival that of traditionally-manufactured parts. The fused-filament fabrication method involves melting a thermoplastic, followed by layer-by-layer extrusion of the molten viscoelastic material to fabricate a three-dimensional object. The strength of the welds between layers is controlled by interdiffusion and entanglement of the melt across the interface. However, diffusio...

  15. Influence of Starting Powders on Hydroxyapatite Coatings Fabricated by Room Temperature Spraying Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seo, Dong Seok; Lee, Jong Kook; Hwang, Kyu Hong; Hahn, Byung Dong; Yoon, Seog Young

    2015-08-01

    Three types of raw materials were used for the fabrication of hydroxyapatite coatings by using the room temperature spraying method and their influence on the microstructure and in vitro characteristics were investigated. Starting hydroxyapatite powders for coatings on titanium substrate were prepared by a heat treatment at 1100 °C for 2 h of bovine bone, bone ash, and commercial hydroxyapatite powders. The phase compositions and Ca/P ratios of the three hydroxyapatite coatings were similar to those of the raw materials without decomposition or formation of a new phase. All hydroxyapatite coatings showed a honeycomb structure, but their surface microstructures revealed different features in regards to surface morphology and roughness, based on the staring materials. All coatings consisted of nano-sized grains and had dense microstructure. Inferred from in vitro experiments in pure water, all coatings have a good dissolution-resistance and biostability in water.

  16. Method and device for fabricating dispersion fuel comprising fission product collection spaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaber, Eric L; Fielding, Randall S

    2015-05-05

    A method of fabricating a nuclear fuel comprising a fissile material, one or more hollow microballoons, a phenolic resin, and metal matrix. The fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined. The combined fissile material, phenolic resin and the hollow microballoons are heated sufficiently to form at least some fissile material carbides creating a nuclear fuel particle. The resulting nuclear fuel particle comprises one or more fission product collection spaces. In a preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by forming the fissile material into microspheres. The fissile material microspheres are then overcoated with the phenolic resin and microballoon. In another preferred embodiment, the fissile material, phenolic resin and the one or more hollow microballoons are combined by overcoating the microballoon with the fissile material, and phenolic resin.

  17. Sensor fabrication method for in situ temperature and humidity monitoring of light emitting diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Yuan; Su, Ay; Liu, Yin-Chieh; Chan, Pin-Cheng; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2010-01-01

    In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED). The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS), this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304). The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06±0.005 (Ω/°C) and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively.

  18. Metallizing porous scaffolds as an alternative fabrication method for solid oxide fuel cell anodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Trejo, Enrique; Atkinson, Alan; Brandon, Nigel P.

    2015-04-01

    A combination of electroless and electrolytic techniques is used to incorporate nickel into a porous Ce0.9Gd0.1O1.90 scaffold. First a porous backbone was screen printed into a YSZ electrolyte using an ink that contains sacrificial pore formers. Once sintered, the scaffold was coated with silver using Tollens' reaction followed by electrodeposition of nickel in a Watts bath. At high temperatures the silver forms droplets enabling direct contact between the gadolinia-doped ceria and nickel. Using impedance spectroscopy analysis in a symmetrical cell a total area specific resistance of 1 Ωcm2 at 700 °C in 97% H2 with 3% H2O was found, indicating the potential of this fabrication method for scaling up.

  19. Fabrication of CdS nanowires with increasing anionic precursor by SILAR method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dariani, R. S.; Salehi, F.

    2016-05-01

    CdS nanowires were fabricated on glass substrate at room temperature by SILAR method with cadmium nitrate cationic and sodium sulfide anionic precursors. The deposition were done at different S:Cd concentration ratios of 1:1, 3:1, 5:1, and 7:1. Nanowires growth procedure was studied in the mentioned concentrations. The number of immersion cycles was kept constant at 15 cycles. EDX analysis showed that in all stoichiometric ratios, S/Cd composition ratio remains at about unity. Our results indicated that S:Cd concentration ratio of 7:1 had the longest nanowires with hexagonal structure. The main objective of this paper was to produce CdS nanowires with increasing concentration of sulfur.

  20. A Convenient and Templated Method for the Fabrication of Monodisperse Micrometer Hollow Titania Spheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haibo Yao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple and widely applicable methodology was presented to synthesize monodisperse micrometer hollow titania spheres (HTS based on the templating method. It was performed by using the preformed poly(styrene-acrylic acid (PSA as template spheres which was mixed with tetrabutyltitanate (TBOT in an ethanol solvent under steam treatment. The HTS which were obtained by the calcination of PSA/TiO2 composite core-shell spheres had a narrow particle size distribution and commendable surface topography characterized by SEM. The calcined HTS at 500°C displayed crystalline reflection peaks that were characteristic to the anatase phase by XRD. Moreover, some key influencing factors including TBOT concentration and reaction time were analyzed. As expected, the diameter of HTS could be readily controlled by altering the size of PSA template spheres. In addition, the approach was also applied to fabricate hollow zirconia spheres and other inorganic spheres.

  1. Facile method to fabricate raspberry-like particulate films for superhydrophobic surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hui-Jung; Lee, Yuh-Lang

    2007-12-04

    A facile method using layer-by-layer assembly of silica particles is proposed to prepare raspberry-like particulate films for the fabrication of superhydrophobic surfaces. Silica particles 0.5 microm in diameter were used to prepare a surface with a microscale roughness. Nanosized silica particles were then assembled on the particulate film to construct a finer structure on top of the coarse one. After surface modification with dodecyltrichlorosilane, the advancing and receding contact angles of water on the dual-sized structured surface were 169 and 165 degrees , respectively. The scale ratio of the micro/nano surface structure and the regularity of the particulate films on the superhydrophobic surface performance are discussed.

  2. Fabricated super-hydrophobic film with potentiostatic electrolysis method on copper for corrosion protection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Peng; Qiu Ri; Zhang Dun; Lin Zhifeng; Hou Baorong

    2010-01-01

    A novel one-step potentiostatic electrolysis method was proposed to fabricate super-hydrophobic film on copper surface. The resulted film was characterized by contact angle tests, Fourier transform infrared spectra (FT-IR), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM) and electrochemical measurements. It could be inferred that the super-hydrophobic property resulted from the flower-like structure of copper tetradecanoate film. In the presence of super-hydrophobic film, the anodic and cathodic polarization current densities are reduced for more than five and four orders of magnitude, respectively. The air trapped in the film is the essential contributor of the anticorrosion property of film for its insulation, the copper tetradecanoate film itself acts as a 'frame' to trap air as well as a coating with inhibition effect. The super-hydrophobic film presents excellent inhibition effect to the copper corrosion and stability in water containing Cl - .

  3. Fabrication of cerium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet thin films by a mist CVD method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murai, Shunsuke, E-mail: murai@dipole7.kuic.kyoto-u.ac.jp; Sato, Takafumi; Yao, Situ; Kamakura, Ryosuke; Fujita, Koji; Tanaka, Katsuhisa

    2016-02-15

    We synthesized thin films, consisting of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce), using the mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method, which allows the fabrication of high-quality thin films under atmospheric conditions without the use of vacuum equipment. Under a deposition rate of approximately 1 μm/h, the obtained thin films had a typical thickness of 2 μm. The XRD analysis indicated that the thin films consisted of single-phase YAG:Ce. The Rutherford backscattering confirmed the stoichiometry; the composition of the film was determined to be (Y, Ce){sub 3}Al{sub 5}O{sub 12}, with a Ce content of Ce/(Y+Ce)=2.5%. The YAG:Ce thin films exhibited fluorescence due to the 5d–4f electronic transitions characteristic of the Ce ions occupying the eight-coordinated dodecahedral sites in the YAG lattice. - Highlights: • We have synthesized thin films of yttrium aluminum garnet doped with Ce{sup 3+} (YAG:Ce) by using a mist chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method for the first time. • The thickness of the single-phase and stoichiometric thin film obtained by 2 h deposition and following heat treatments is 2 μm. • The thin film is porous but optically transparent, and shows yellow fluorescence upon irradiation with a blue light. • Mist-CVD is a green and sustainable technique that allows fabrication of high-quality thin films at atmospheric conditions without vacuum equipment.

  4. Fabricating TiO2 nanocolloids by electric spark discharge method at normal temperature and pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-11-01

    In this study, TiO2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (T on) and pulse off time (T off) were respectively set at 50 and 100 μs, 100 and 100 μs, 150 and 100 μs, and 200 and 100 μs to produce four types of TiO2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in T on increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between T on and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between -51.2 and -46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen.

  5. Fabricating TiO2 nanocolloids by electric spark discharge method at normal temperature and pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chang, Chaur-Yang; Chung, Meng-Yun; Cheng, Ting-Shou

    2017-11-17

    In this study, TiO 2 nanocolloids were successfully fabricated in deionized water without using suspending agents through using the electric spark discharge method at room temperature and under normal atmospheric pressure. This method was exceptional because it did not create nanoparticle dispersion and the produced colloids contained no derivatives. The proposed method requires only traditional electrical discharge machines (EDMs), self-made magnetic stirrers, and Ti wires (purity, 99.99%). The EDM pulse on time (T on ) and pulse off time (T off ) were respectively set at 50 and 100 μs, 100 and 100 μs, 150 and 100 μs, and 200 and 100 μs to produce four types of TiO 2 nanocolloids. Zetasizer analysis of the nanocolloids showed that a decrease in T on increased the suspension stability, but there were no significant correlations between T on and particle size. Colloids produced from the four production configurations showed a minimum particle size between 29.39 and 52.85 nm and a zeta-potential between -51.2 and -46.8 mV, confirming that the method introduced in this study can be used to produce TiO 2 nanocolloids with excellent suspension stability. Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy also indicated that the TiO 2 colloids did not contain elements other than Ti and oxygen.

  6. Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Ávila-Orta

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP with different melt flow indexes (MFI were used to fabricate nanocomposites (NCs with 10 wt % loadings of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs using ultrasound-assisted extrusion methods to determine their effect on the morphology, melt flow, and electrical properties of the NCs. Three different types of iPPs were used with MFIs of 2.5, 34 and 1200 g/10 min. Four different NC fabrication methods based on melt extrusion were used. In the first method melt extrusion fabrication without ultrasound assistance was used. In the second and third methods, an ultrasound probe attached to a hot chamber located at the exit of the die was used to subject the sample to fixed frequency and variable frequency, respectively. The fourth method is similar to the first method, with the difference being that the carbon nanotubes were treated in a fluidized air-bed with an ultrasound probe before being used in the fabrication of the NCs with no ultrasound assistance during extrusion. The samples were characterized by MFI, Optical microscopy (OM, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, Transmission electron microscopy (TEM, electrical surface resistivity, and electric charge. MFI decreases in all cases with addition of MWCNTs with the largest decrease observed for samples with the highest MFI. The surface resistivity, which ranged from 1013 to 105 Ω/sq, and electric charge, were observed to depend on the ultrasound-assisted fabrication method as well as on the melt flow index of the iPP. A relationship between agglomerate size and area ratio with electric charge was found. Several trends in the overall data were identified and are discussed in terms of MFI and the different fabrication methods.

  7. Ultrasound-Assist Extrusion Methods for the Fabrication of Polymer Nanocomposites Based on Polypropylene/Multi-Wall Carbon Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Orta, Carlos A.; Quiñones-Jurado, Zoe V.; Waldo-Mendoza, Miguel A.; Rivera-Paz, Erika A.; Cruz-Delgado, Víctor J.; Mata-Padilla, José M.; González-Morones, Pablo; Ziolo, Ronald F.

    2015-01-01

    Isotactic polypropylenes (iPP) with different melt flow indexes (MFI) were used to fabricate nanocomposites (NCs) with 10 wt % loadings of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) using ultrasound-assisted extrusion methods to determine their effect on the morphology, melt flow, and electrical properties of the NCs. Three different types of iPPs were used with MFIs of 2.5, 34 and 1200 g/10 min. Four different NC fabrication methods based on melt extrusion were used. In the first method melt extrusion fabrication without ultrasound assistance was used. In the second and third methods, an ultrasound probe attached to a hot chamber located at the exit of the die was used to subject the sample to fixed frequency and variable frequency, respectively. The fourth method is similar to the first method, with the difference being that the carbon nanotubes were treated in a fluidized air-bed with an ultrasound probe before being used in the fabrication of the NCs with no ultrasound assistance during extrusion. The samples were characterized by MFI, Optical microscopy (OM), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Transmission electron microscopy (TEM), electrical surface resistivity, and electric charge. MFI decreases in all cases with addition of MWCNTs with the largest decrease observed for samples with the highest MFI. The surface resistivity, which ranged from 1013 to 105 Ω/sq, and electric charge, were observed to depend on the ultrasound-assisted fabrication method as well as on the melt flow index of the iPP. A relationship between agglomerate size and area ratio with electric charge was found. Several trends in the overall data were identified and are discussed in terms of MFI and the different fabrication methods. PMID:28793686

  8. An Investigation On Air and Thermal Transmission Through Knitted Fabric Structures Using the Taguchi Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghosh Anindya

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Knitted fabrics have excellent comfort properties because of their typical porous structure. Different comfort properties of knitted fabrics such as air permeability, thermal absorptivity, and thermal conductivity depend on the properties of raw material and knitting parameters. In this paper, an investigation was done to observe the effect of yarn count, loop length, knitting speed, and yarn input tension in the presence of two uncontrollable noise factors on selected comfort properties of single jersey and 1×1 rib knitted fabrics using the Taguchi experimental design. The results show that yarn count and loop length have significant influence on the thermo-physiological comfort properties of knitted fabrics.

  9. A Facile Method to Fabricate Anisotropic Hydrogels with Perfectly Aligned Hierarchical Fibrous Structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mredha, Md Tariful Islam; Guo, Yun Zhou; Nonoyama, Takayuki; Nakajima, Tasuku; Kurokawa, Takayuki; Gong, Jian Ping

    2018-03-01

    Natural structural materials (such as tendons and ligaments) are comprised of multiscale hierarchical architectures, with dimensions ranging from nano- to macroscale, which are difficult to mimic synthetically. Here a bioinspired, facile method to fabricate anisotropic hydrogels with perfectly aligned multiscale hierarchical fibrous structures similar to those of tendons and ligaments is reported. The method includes drying a diluted physical hydrogel in air by confining its length direction. During this process, sufficiently high tensile stress is built along the length direction to align the polymer chains and multiscale fibrous structures (from nano- to submicro- to microscale) are spontaneously formed in the bulk material, which are well-retained in the reswollen gel. The method is useful for relatively rigid polymers (such as alginate and cellulose), which are susceptible to mechanical signal. By controlling the drying with or without prestretching, the degree of alignment, size of superstructures, and the strength of supramolecular interactions can be tuned, which sensitively influence the strength and toughness of the hydrogels. The mechanical properties are comparable with those of natural ligaments. This study provides a general strategy for designing hydrogels with highly ordered hierarchical structures, which opens routes for the development of many functional biomimetic materials for biomedical applications. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. A novel fabrication method of carbon electrodes using 3D printing and chemical modification process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Pan; Chen, Chaoyang; Hu, Jie; Qi, Jin; Wang, Qianghua; Chen, Jimmy Ching-Ming; Cavanaugh, John; Peng, Yinghong; Cheng, Mark Ming-Cheng

    2017-11-23

    Three-dimensional (3D) printing is an emerging technique in the field of biomedical engineering and electronics. This paper presents a novel biofabrication method of implantable carbon electrodes with several advantages including fast prototyping, patient-specific and miniaturization without expensive cleanroom. The method combines stereolithography in additive manufacturing and chemical modification processes to fabricate electrically conductive carbon electrodes. The stereolithography allows the structures to be 3D printed with very fine resolution and desired shapes. The resin is then chemically modified to carbon using pyrolysis to enhance electrochemical performance. The electrochemical characteristics of 3D printing carbon electrodes are assessed by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The specific capacitance of 3D printing carbon electrodes is much higher than the same sized platinum (Pt) electrode. In-vivo electromyography (EMG) recording, 3D printing carbon electrodes exhibit much higher signal-to-noise ratio (40.63 ± 7.73) than Pt electrodes (14.26 ± 6.83). The proposed biofabrication method is envisioned to enable 3D printing in many emerging applications in biomedical engineering and electronics.

  11. Color matching of fabric blends: hybrid Kubelka-Munk + artificial neural network based method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furferi, Rocco; Governi, Lapo; Volpe, Yary

    2016-11-01

    Color matching of fabric blends is a key issue for the textile industry, mainly due to the rising need to create high-quality products for the fashion market. The process of mixing together differently colored fibers to match a desired color is usually performed by using some historical recipes, skillfully managed by company colorists. More often than desired, the first attempt in creating a blend is not satisfactory, thus requiring the experts to spend efforts in changing the recipe with a trial-and-error process. To confront this issue, a number of computer-based methods have been proposed in the last decades, roughly classified into theoretical and artificial neural network (ANN)-based approaches. Inspired by the above literature, the present paper provides a method for accurate estimation of spectrophotometric response of a textile blend composed of differently colored fibers made of different materials. In particular, the performance of the Kubelka-Munk (K-M) theory is enhanced by introducing an artificial intelligence approach to determine a more consistent value of the nonlinear function relationship between the blend and its components. Therefore, a hybrid K-M+ANN-based method capable of modeling the color mixing mechanism is devised to predict the reflectance values of a blend.

  12. A low-cost, manufacturable method for fabricating capillary and optical fiber interconnects for microfluidic devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, Daniel M; Nevill, J Tanner; Pettigrew, Kenneth I; Votaw, Gregory; Kung, Pang-Jen; Crenshaw, Hugh C

    2008-04-01

    Microfluidic chips require connections to larger macroscopic components, such as light sources, light detectors, and reagent reservoirs. In this article, we present novel methods for integrating capillaries, optical fibers, and wires with the channels of microfluidic chips. The method consists of forming planar interconnect channels in microfluidic chips and inserting capillaries, optical fibers, or wires into these channels. UV light is manually directed onto the ends of the interconnects using a microscope. UV-curable glue is then allowed to wick to the end of the capillaries, fibers, or wires, where it is cured to form rigid, liquid-tight connections. In a variant of this technique, used with light-guiding capillaries and optical fibers, the UV light is directed into the capillaries or fibers, and the UV-glue is cured by the cone of light emerging from the end of each capillary or fiber. This technique is fully self-aligned, greatly improves both the quality and the manufacturability of the interconnects, and has the potential to enable the fabrication of interconnects in a fully automated fashion. Using these methods, including a semi-automated implementation of the second technique, over 10,000 interconnects have been formed in almost 2000 microfluidic chips made of a variety of rigid materials. The resulting interconnects withstand pressures up to at least 800psi, have unswept volumes estimated to be less than 10 femtoliters, and have dead volumes defined only by the length of the capillary.

  13. Fabrication of ordered bulk heterojunction organic photovoltaic cells using nanopatterning and electrohydrodynamic spray deposition methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sung-Eun; Kim, Sehwan; Kim, Kangmin; Joe, Hang-Eun; Jung, Buyoung; Kim, Eunkyoung; Kim, Woochul; Min, Byung-Kwon; Hwang, Jungho

    2012-12-21

    Organic photovoltaic cells with an ordered heterojunction (OHJ) active layer are expected to show increased performance. In the study described here, OHJ cells were fabricated using a combination of nanoimprinting and electrohydrodynamic (EHD) spray deposition methods. After an electron donor material was nanoimprinted with a PDMS stamp (valley width: 230 nm, period: 590 nm) duplicated from a Si nanomold, an electron acceptor material was deposited onto the nanoimprinted donor layer using an EHD spray deposition method. The donor-acceptor interface layer was observed by obtaining cross-sectional images with a focused ion beam (FIB) microscope. The photocurrent generation performance of the OHJ cells was evaluated with the current density-voltage curve under air mass (AM) 1.5 conditions. It was found that the surface morphology of the electron acceptor layer affected the current and voltage outputs of the photovoltaic cells. When an electron acceptor layer with a smooth thin (250 nm above the valley of the electron donor layer) surface morphology was obtained, power conversion efficiency was as high as 0.55%. The electrohydrodynamic spray deposition method used to produce OHJ photovoltaic cells provides a means for the adoption of large area, high throughput processes.

  14. Fabrication of Chitosan Silk-based Tracheal Scaffold Using Freeze-Casting Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nematollahi, Zeinab; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Zamanian, Ali; Seyedsalehi, Amir; Mohammad-Behgam, Shadmehr; Ghorbani, Fariba; Mirahmadi, Fereshte

    2017-01-01

    Background: Since the treatments of long tracheal lesions are associated with some limitations, tissue engineered trachea is considered as an alternative option. This study aimed at preparing a composite scaffold, based on natural and synthetic materials for tracheal tissue engineering. Methods: Nine chitosan silk-based scaffolds were fabricated using three freezing rates (0.5, 1, and 2°C/min) and glutaraldehyde (GA) concentrations (0, 0.4, and 0.8 wt%). Samples were characterized, and scaffolds having mechanical properties compatible with those of human trachea and proper biodegradability were selected for chondrocyte cell seeding and subsequent biological assessments. Results: The pore sizes were highly influenced by the freezing rate and varied from 135.3×372.1 to 37.8×83.4 µm. Swelling and biodegradability behaviors were more affected by GA rather than freezing rate. Tensile strength raised from 120 kPa to 350 kPa by an increment of freezing rate and GA concentration. In addition, marked stiffening was demonstrated by increasing elastic modulus from 1.5 MPa to 12.2 MPa. Samples having 1 and 2°C/min of freezing rate and 0.8 wt% GA concentration made a non-toxic, porous structure with tensile strength and elastic modulus in the range of human trachea, facilitating the chondrocyte proliferation. The results of 21-day cell culture indicated that glycosaminoglycans content was significantly higher for the rate of 2°C/min (12.04 µg/min) rather than the other (9.6 µg/min). Conclusion: A homogenous porous structure was created by freeze drying. This allows the fabrication of a chitosan silk scaffold cross-linked by GA for cartilage tissue regeneration with application in tracheal regeneration. PMID:28131109

  15. Development of Low-Cost Method for Fabrication of Metal Neutron Guides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engelhaupt, Darell [Dawn Research Inc., Madison, AL (United States); Khaykovich, Boris [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States); Romaine, Suzanne [Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA (United States)

    2017-12-19

    Neutron scattering is one of the most useful methods of studying the structure and dynamics of matter. US DOE neutron scattering research facilities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory are among the World’s most advanced, providing researchers with unmatched capabilities for probing the structure and properties of materials, including engineering and biological systems. This task is to develop a lower cost process to optimize and produce the required neutron guides capable of efficiently delivering neutron beams for tens of meters between neutron moderators and instruments. Therefore, our effort is to improve the performance and lower the production cost of neutron guides. Our approach aims at improving guide quality while controlling their rising costs by adopting a novel electroforming replication approach to their fabrication. These guides will be especially advantageous when used near the neutron source since the radiation resistance of nickel is superior to glass. Additionally, we are depositing low-stress nickel from an extremely low impurity solution completely free of stress-reducing agents, which nominally contain and impart sulfur, carbon and other elements that potentially activate in the neutron environment. This is achieved by using a pulsed periodically reversed current methodology. The best guides quote waviness of 0.1 mrad. It is reasonable to prepare just one mandrel of about 0.5 m long, for production of tens of guide segments, saving both the cost and supply time of guides to neutron facilities. We estimate that we can fabricate a single mandrel for the current cost of an individual one-meter guide, but from this, we can produce tens of meters of guide very inexpensively without mandrel refurbishment. While a multilayer coating will add to the overall cost, we expect this will be less than that of commercially available guides today. Therefore, we will produce higher quality guides, which are less susceptible to radiation damage, at the lower cost

  16. Modern methods of material accounting for mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.; Pindak, J.L.; Brouns, R.J.; Williams, R.C.; Brite, D.W.; Kinnison, R.R.; Fager, J.E.

    1981-01-01

    The generic requirements loss detection, and response to alarms of a contemporary material control and accounting (MCandA) philosophy have been applied to a mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant to produce a detailed preliminary MCandA system design that is generally applicable to facilities of this type. This paper summarizes and discusses detailed results of the mixed oxide fuel fabrication plant study

  17. Injection molded nanofluidic chips: Fabrication method and functional tests using single-molecule DNA experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Utko, Pawel; Persson, Karl Fredrik; Kristensen, Anders

    2011-01-01

    We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels.......We demonstrate that fabrication of nanofluidic systems can be greatly simplified by injection molding of polymers. We functionally test our devices by single-molecule DNA experiments in nanochannels....

  18. A novel method for the fabrication of freestanding PZT features on substrates

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Bennekom, Joost G.; van Bennekom, J.G.; Winnubst, Aloysius J.A.; Nijdam, W.; Wessling, Matthias; Lammertink, Rob G.H.

    2009-01-01

    A simple and cheap micromoulding fabrication route was developed to prepare freestanding piezo active features. Dimensions as small as 200 μm by 200 μm and 40 μm high were successfully fabricated via a replication technique. The lead zirconate titanate features were thoroughly characterized using

  19. A novel method to fabricate discrete porous carbon hemispheres and their electrochemical properties as supercapacitors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jiafu; Lang, Zhanlin; Xu, Qun; Zhang, Jianan; Fu, Jianwei; Chen, Zhimin

    2013-11-07

    A simple and efficient method to produce discrete, hierarchical porous carbon hemispheres (CHs) with high uniformity has been successfully developed by constructing nanoreactors and using low crosslinked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (P(St-co-DVB)) capsules as precursors. The samples are characterized by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared and Raman spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, and N2 adsorption and desorption. Considering their application, the cyclic voltammetry and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy characterization are tested. The experimental results show that the achievement of discrete and perfect carbon hemispheres is dependent on the proper amount of DVB in the P(St-co-DVB) capsules, which can contribute to the ideal thickness or mechanical strength of the shells. When the amount of DVB is 35 wt% in the precursors, a high Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area of 676 m(2) g(-1) can be obtained for the carbon hemispheres, and the extremely large pore volume of 2.63 cm(3) g(-1) can also be achieved at the same time. The electrochemical test shows the carbon hemispheres have a higher specific capacitance of ca. 83 F g(-1) at 10 mV s(-1), compared to other carbon materials. So this method supplies a platform to extend the fabrication field of carbon materials and supplies more chances for the application of carbon materials including carbon hemispheres that are important components and substrates for supercapacitors.

  20. High aspect ratio lead zirconate titanate tube structures: I. Template assisted fabrication - vacuum infiltration method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Kovaľ

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Polycrystalline Pb(Zr0.52Ti0.48O3 (PZT microtubes are fabricated by a vacuum infiltration method. The method is based on repeated infiltration of precursor solution into macroporous silicon (Si templates at a sub-atmospheric pressure. The pyrolyzed PZT tubes of a 2-µm outer diameter, extending to over 30 µm in length were released from the template using a selective isotropic-pulsed XeF2 reactive ion etching of silicon. Free-standing microtubes, partially anchored at the bottom of the Si template, were then crystallized in pure oxygen atmosphere at 750 °C for 2 min using a rapid thermal annealer. The perovskite phase of the final PZT tubes was confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD analysis. The XRD spectrum also revealed a small amount of the pyrochlore phase in the structure and signs of possible fluoride contamination caused most likely by the XeF2 etching process. The surface morphology was examined using scanning electron microscopy. It was demonstrated that the whole surface of the pore walls was conformally coated during the repeated infiltration of templates, resulting in straight tubes with closed tips formed on the opposite ends as replicas of the pore bottoms. These high aspect ratio ferroelectric structures are suggested as building units for developing miniaturized electronic devices, such as memory storage (DRAM trenched capacitors, piezoelectric scanners and actuators, and are of fundamental value for the theory of ferroelectricity in systems with low dimensionality.

  1. Printing-based fabrication method using sacrificial paper substrates for flexible and wearable microfluidic devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Daehan; Gray, Bonnie L.

    2017-11-01

    We present a simple, fast, and inexpensive new printing-based fabrication process for flexible and wearable microfluidic channels and devices. Microfluidic devices are fabricated on textiles (fabric) for applications in clothing-based wearable microfluidic sensors and systems. The wearable and flexible microfluidic devices are comprised of water-insoluable screen-printable plastisol polymer. Sheets of paper are used as sacrificial substrates for multiple layers of polymer on the fabric’s surface. Microfluidic devices can be made within a short time using simple processes and inexpensive equipment that includes a laser cutter and a thermal laminator. The fabrication process is characterized to demonstrate control of microfluidic channel thickness and width. Film thickness smaller than 100 micrometers and lateral dimensions smaller than 150 micrometers are demonstrated. A flexible microfluidic mixer is also developed on fabric and successfully tested on both flat and curved surfaces at volumetric flow rates ranging from 5.5-46 ml min-1.

  2. Multifunctional surface modification of silk fabric via graphene oxide repeatedly coating and chemical reduction method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jiliang; Wang, Chaoxia

    2017-05-01

    Multifunctional silk fabrics with electrical conductive, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent were successfully prepared by surface modification with graphene oxide (GO). The yellow-brown GO deposited on the surface of silk fabric was converted into graphitic black reduced graphene (RGO) by sodium hydrosulfite. The surface properties of silk fabrics were changed by repeatedly RGO coating process, which have been proved by SEM and XPS. The SEM results showed that the RGO sheets were successive form a continuously thin film on the surface of silk fabrics, and the deposition of GO or RGO also can be proved by XPS. The electrical conductivity was tested by electrical surface resistance value of the silk fabric, the surface resistance decreased with increasing of RGO surface modification times, and a low surface resistance value reached to 3.24 KΩ cm-1 after 9 times of modification, indicating the silk obtained excellent conductivity. The UPF value of one time GO modification silk fabric (silk-1RGO) was enhanced significantly to 24.45 in comparison to 10.40 of original silk. The contact angle of RGO coating silk samples was all above of 120°. The durability of RGO coated silk fabrics was tested by laundering. The electrical surface resistance of silk-4RGO (65.74 KΩ cm-1), silk-6RGO (15.54 KΩ cm-1) and silk-8RGO (3.86 KΩ cm-1) fabrics was up to 86.82, 22.30 and 6.57 KΩ cm-1 after 10 times of standard washing, respectively. The UPF value, contact angle and color differences of RGO modified silk fabric slightly changed before and after 10 times of standard washing. Therefore, the washing fastness of electric conduction, anti-ultraviolet and water repellent multifunctional silk fabrics was excellent.

  3. ZK30-bioactive glass composites for orthopedic applications: A comparative study on fabrication method and characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huan, Z.G.; Leeflang, M.A. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Zhou, J., E-mail: j.zhou@tudelft.nl [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands); Duszczyk, J. [Department of Biomechanical Engineering, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 2, 2628 CD Delft (Netherlands)

    2011-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Biodegradable Mg-bioglass composites were made using casting; powder metallurgy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Bioglass powder retained its composition and morphology. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Accelerated deposition of Ca; P ions on composites occurred due to bioglass. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Mg-bioglass composites made from powders had reduced degradation rates. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Powder metallurgy appeared to be better for making biodegradable composites. - Abstract: Previous in vivo studies on biodegradable magnesium alloys for orthopedic implant applications showed the need to improve early-stage bioactivity. Introducing bioactive particles into a magnesium alloy to form a metal matrix composite (MMC) represents an effective way to enhance the bioactivity of the alloy. In this study, composites with the ZK30 alloy as the matrix and the 45S5 bioactive glass (BG) as the reinforcement phase were fabricated using a semi-solid casting (SSC) method and a powder metallurgy (P/M) method. The SSC and P/M biocomposites with the same weight percents of bioactive glass particles were compared. Optical microscopy showed homogeneously dispered BG particles in the SSC and P/M composites. SEM and EDX analyses confirmed the retention of the morphological characteristics and composition of BG particles in the composites. However, the SSC composites exhibited micro-porous structures, while the P/M composites had nearly fully densified structures. As compared with the ZK30 matrix, the SSC composites exhibited significantly higher degradation rates, while the P/M composites possessed lower degradation rates. On the surface of all the composites, accelerated deposition of Ca and P ions occurred during immersion in the cell culture medium, indicating an improved surface bioactivity of the composites. The P/M method was found to be advantageous over the SSC method and could yield magnesium-matrix composites with enhanced

  4. Microstructure and properties of sintered silicon carbides fabricated by different methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Tadashi; Kitamura, Hideya; Iseki, Takayoshi

    1986-01-01

    Studies were made of effects of fabrication methods on the properties and microstructure of sintered silicon carbides. The specimens used in this investigation were three kinds of commercially available SiC bodies which were fabricated by reaction bonding, pressureless sintering and hot-pressing. The hot-pressed SiC contained a small amount of BeO. Measurements were carried out on density, the polytype by X-ray diffraction method and 4-point bend strength. Microstructural observation was also carried out using an optical microscope, a scanning electron microscope (SEM) and a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The results of density measurement showed that the open porosities of three specimens were negligibly small and that the density of the hot pressed SiC had nearly the theoretical density. The measurement of 4-point bend strength indicated that the reaction bonded SiC had the highest value and the hot-pressed SiC the lowest. The analysis of the polytype indicated that all the specimens consisted mainly of α-SiC of 6 H type. In the reaction bonded SiC, about 11 % of 3 C type (β-SiC) and 9 % of free Si were recognized. The average grain diameter and fracture mode of each specimen were determined from observation with an optical microscope and SEM. In the hot-pressed SiC, the fracture occurred mainly at grain boundaries, whereas it occurred mostly in grains in the reaction bonded and pressureless sintered SiC. A lot of stacking faults were observed in all the specimens with a TEM. In addition, small closed pores were often recognized in the pressureless sintered SiC. In the hot-pressed SiC, a contrast originated from strain field within grains was observed, and dislocations near grain boundaries were a characteristic feature of this material. Small short partial dislocations accompanied by stacking fault were often observed in the reaction bonded SiC. (author)

  5. Fabrication and evaluation of 3D β-TCP scaffold by novel direct-write assembly method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa, Min Woo; Kim, Jong Young

    2015-01-01

    Various scaffold fabrication methods have been explored to enhance the cell interaction effects and mechanical properties of scaffolds in bone regeneration. Rapid prototyping (RP) for tissue engineering is a useful technology that may provide a potential scaffolding structure to regenerate, restore, and repair a damaged bone tissue or organ, that is, RP is a promising tissue engineering technique through a 3D scaffold fabrication by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. In this study, 3D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were fabricated by a novel direct-write assembly method. The mechanical property of β-TCP scaffolds was analyzed by stress-strain curves by using a compression testing machine. Furthermore, an in vitro CCK-8 assay of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells showed the significant cell attachment and proliferation in the β-TCP scaffold.

  6. Critical analysis of stability and performance of organometal halide perovskite solar cells via various fabrication method (Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhaimi Suriati

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Organometal halide perovskite solar cells (Omh-PSCs have attracted attention due to its unique electrical and optical properties. Ideally, the Omh-PSCs should remain free from degradation under normal operating conditions for several years, preferably tens of years. In order to produce high power conversion efficiency with low potential of degradation, different fabrication methods have been developed. The reported stability of perovskite films can vary significantly and reported to decay substantially up to 20% of its original performance. A thorough understanding of fabrication process upon the stability of the device is regarded as crucial to pave the way for future endeavors. This review summarized and highlighted the recent research of fabrication methods that gave an impact to the stability of perovskite devices.

  7. Fabrication and evaluation of 3D β-TCP scaffold by novel direct-write assembly method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sa, Min Woo; Kim, Jong Young [Andong National University, Andong (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-11-15

    Various scaffold fabrication methods have been explored to enhance the cell interaction effects and mechanical properties of scaffolds in bone regeneration. Rapid prototyping (RP) for tissue engineering is a useful technology that may provide a potential scaffolding structure to regenerate, restore, and repair a damaged bone tissue or organ, that is, RP is a promising tissue engineering technique through a 3D scaffold fabrication by using a computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing system. In this study, 3D β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) scaffolds were fabricated by a novel direct-write assembly method. The mechanical property of β-TCP scaffolds was analyzed by stress-strain curves by using a compression testing machine. Furthermore, an in vitro CCK-8 assay of osteosarcoma MG-63 cells showed the significant cell attachment and proliferation in the β-TCP scaffold.

  8. Fabricating 40 µm-thin silicon solar cells with different orientations by using SLiM-cut method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng-Yu; Chen, Chien-Hsun; Shiao, Jui-Chung; Chen, Sung-Yu; Du, Chen-Hsun

    2017-10-01

    Thin silicon foils with different crystal orientations were fabricated using the stress induced lift-off (SLiM-cut) method. The thickness of the silicon foils was approximately 40 µm. The ≤ft foil had a smoother surface than the ≤ft foil. With surface passivation, the minority carrier lifetimes of the ≤ft and ≤ft silicon foil were 1.0 µs and 1.6 µs, respectively. In this study, 4 cm2-thin silicon solar cells with heterojunction structures were fabricated. The energy conversion efficiencies were determined to be 10.74% and 14.74% for the ≤ft and ≤ft solar cells, respectively. The surface quality of the silicon foils was determined to affect the solar cell character. This study demonstrated that fabricating the solar cell by using silicon foil obtained from the SLiM-cut method is feasible.

  9. Fruit and vegetable films and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    The present invention is directed to monolayer, bilayer, and multilayer films made from fruit, vegetable or a combination thereof, which films have the thinness, strength, flexibility and crispness to serve as alternates or substitutes for seaweed-based films such as nori, while providing nutrition ...

  10. Low-cost fabrication and performance testing of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) micromixers using an improved print-and-Peel (PAP) method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abagon, Ma. Victoria; Buendia, Neil Daniel; Jasper Caracas, Corine; July Yap, Kristian

    2018-03-01

    The research presents different configurations of microfluidic mixers made from polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) fabricated using an improved, low-cost print-and-peel (PAP) method. Processes, such as mixing, operated in the micro scale allow decreased equipment size-to-production capacity ratio and decreased energy consumption per unit product. In the study, saturated solutions of blue and yellow food dyes were introduced inside the channels using a LEGO® improvised microsyringe pump. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) was used to determine the average depth of the fabricated micromixers which was found to be around 14 ¼m. The flows were observed and images were taken using a light microscope. The color intensities of the images were then measured using MATLAB®. From the relationship between color intensity and concentration, the mixing indices were calculated and found to be 0.9435 to 0.9941, which falls within the standard mixing index range (0.8 - 1.0) regardless of the flow rate and the configuration of the micromixer as verified through the two-way ANOVA. From the cost analysis, the cost of the device fabricated in this study is a hundred-fold less than expenses from standard fabrication procedures. Hence, the fabricated device provides an alternative for micromixers produced from expensive and conventional lithographic methods.

  11. Fabrication of ITO particles using a combination of a homogeneous precipitation method and a seeding technique and their electrical conductivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshio Kobayashi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present work proposes a method to fabricate indium tin oxide (ITO particles using precursor particles synthesized with a combination of a homogeneous precipitation method and a seeding technique, and it also describes their electronic conductivity properties. Seed nanoparticles were produced using a co-precipitation method with aqueous solutions of indium (III chloride, tin (IV chloride aqueous solution and sodium hydroxide. Three types of ITO nanoparticles were fabricated. The first type was fabricated using the co-precipitation method (c-ITO. The second and third types were fabricated using a homogeneous precipitation method with the seed nanoparticles (s-ITO and without seeds (n-ITO. The as-prepared precursor particles were annealed in air at 500 °C, and their crystal structures were cubic ITO. The c-ITO nanoparticles formed irregular-shaped agglomerates of nanoparticles. The n-ITO nanoparticles had a rectangular-parallelepiped or quasi-cubic structure. Most s-ITO nanoparticles had a quasi-cubic structure, and their size was larger than the n-ITO particles. The volume resistivities of the c-ITO, n-ITO and s-ITO powders decreased in that order because the regular-shaped particles were made to strongly contact with each other.

  12. Structure of Polymer Fibers Fabricated by Electrospinning Method Utilizing a Metal Wire Electrode in a Capillary Tube

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onozuka, Shintaro; Hoshino, Rikiya; Mizuno, Yoshinori; Shinbo, Kazunari; Ohdaira, Yasuo; Baba, Akira; Kato, Keizo; Kaneko, Futao

    We fabricated electrospun poly (vinylalcohol) (PVA) fibers using a copper wire electrode in Teflon capillary tube, and the SEM images were observed. The apparatus in this method is reasonable, and needed volume of polymer solution and distance between the electrodes can be largely reduced compared to conventional method. The wire electrode tip position in the capillary tube is also important in this method and should be close to the polymer solution surface.

  13. Lignin blockers and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bin [West Lebanon, NH; Wyman, Charles E [Norwich, VT

    2011-01-25

    Disclosed is a method for converting cellulose in a lignocellulosic biomass. The method provides for a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein treatment of high lignin solids. The treatment enhances cellulase availability in cellulose conversion and allows for the determination of optimized pretreatment conditions. Additionally, ethanol yields from a Simultaneous Saccharification and Fermentation process are improved 5-25% by treatment with a lignin-blocking polypeptide and/or protein. Thus, a more efficient and economical method of processing lignin containing biomass materials utilizes a polypeptide/protein treatment step that effectively blocks lignin binding of cellulase.

  14. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N. [Barkatullah Univ., Bhopal (India); Dixit, Mahur Savita [Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology, Bhopla (India)

    2013-02-15

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO{sub 2} as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO{sub 2} flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl{sub 4} onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area.

  15. Sensor Fabrication Method for in Situ Temperature and Humidity Monitoring of Light Emitting Diodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chi-Yuan Lee

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available In this work micro temperature and humidity sensors are fabricated to measure the junction temperature and humidity of light emitting diodes (LED. The junction temperature is frequently measured using thermal resistance measurement technology. The weakness of this method is that the timing of data capture is not regulated by any standard. This investigation develops a device that can stably and continually measure temperature and humidity. The device is light-weight and can monitor junction temperature and humidity in real time. Using micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS, this study minimizes the size of the micro temperature and humidity sensors, which are constructed on a stainless steel foil substrate (40 μm-thick SS-304. The micro temperature and humidity sensors can be fixed between the LED chip and frame. The sensitivities of the micro temperature and humidity sensors are 0.06 ± 0.005 (Ω/°C and 0.033 pF/%RH, respectively.

  16. Surface and Adsorption Properties of Activated Carbon Fabric Prepared from Cellulosic Polymer: Mixed Activation Method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhati, Surendra; Mahur, J. S.; Choubey, O. N.; Dixit, Mahur Savita

    2013-01-01

    In this study, activated carbon fabric was prepared from a cellulose-based polymer (viscose rayon) via a combination of physical and chemical activation (mixed activation) processes by means of CO 2 as a gasifying agent and surface and adsorption properties were evaluated. Experiments were performed to investigate the consequence of activation temperature (750, 800, 850 and 925 .deg. C), activation time (15, 30, 45 and 60 minutes) and CO 2 flow rate (100, 200, 300 and 400 mL/min) on the surface and adsorption properties of ACF. The nitrogen adsorption isotherm at 77 K was measured and used for the determination of surface area, total pore volume, micropore volume, mesopore volume and pore size distribution using BET, t-plot, DR, BJH and DFT methods, respectively. It was observed that BET surface area and TPV increase with rising activation temperature and time due to the formation of new pores and the alteration of micropores into mesopores. It was also found that activation temperature dominantly affects the surface properties of ACF. The adsorption of iodine and CCl 4 onto ACF was investigated and both were found to correlate with surface area

  17. Fabrication of optical chemical ammonia sensors using anodized alumina supports and sol-gel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markovics, Akos; Kovács, Barna

    2013-05-15

    In this comparative study, the fabrication and the sensing properties of various reflectometric optical ammonia gas sensors are described. In the first set of experiments the role of the support material was investigated on four different sensor membranes. Two of them were prepared by the adsorption of bromocresol green indicator on anodized aluminum plates. The applied anodizing voltages were 12 V and 24 V, which resulted in different dynamic ranges and response times for gaseous ammonia. The sol-gel method was used for the preparation of the other batch of sensors. These layers were coated on anodized aluminum plates (24 V) and on standard microscope cover glasses. In spite of the identical sensing chemistry, slightly different response times were measured merely because of the aluminum surface porosity. Gas molecules can remain entrapped in the pores, which results in delayed recovery time. On the other hand, the porous oxide film provides excellent adhesion, making the anodized aluminum an attractive support for the sol-gel layer. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. A practical method to fabricate gold substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tantra, Ratna; Brown, Richard J C; Milton, Martin J T; Gohil, Dipak

    2008-09-01

    We describe a practical method of fabricating surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) substrates based on dip-coating poly-L-lysine derivatized microscope slides in a gold colloidal suspension. The use of only commercially available starting materials in this preparation is particularly advantageous, aimed at both reducing time and the inconsistency associated with surface modification of substrates. The success of colloid deposition has been demonstrated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the corresponding SERS response (giving performance comparable to the corresponding traditional colloidal SERS substrates). Reproducibility was evaluated by conducting replicate measurements across six different locations on the substrate and assessing the extent of the variability (standard deviation values of spectral parameters: peak width and height), in response to either Rhodamine 6G or Isoniazid. Of particular interest is the observation of how some peaks in a given spectrum are more susceptible to data variability than others. For example, in a Rhodamine 6G SERS spectrum, spectral parameters of the peak at 775 cm(-1) were shown to have a relative standard deviation (RSD) % of or=10%. This observation is best explained by taking into account spectral variations that arise from the effect of a chemisorption process and the local nature of chemical enhancement mechanisms, which affects the enhancement of some spectral peaks but not others (analogous to resonant Raman phenomenon).

  19. Fabrication of redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules from hen egg white by the sonochemical method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Shuangling; Cui, Xuejun; Tian, Fangyuan

    2015-01-01

    Redox-responsive magnetic protein microcapsules with Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) encapsulated inside have been obtained using a facile, cost-effective and fast sonochemical method from hen egg white proteins. Such prepared redox-responsive magnetic hen egg white protein microcapsules (MHEWPMCs) could be easily manipulated to do magnetic-guided targeting delivery. The synchronous loading of the hydrophobic dye Coumarin 6 as a model of drug into MHEWPMCs was readily achieved during the fabrication of MHEWPMCs by dissolving them into the oil phase before ultrasonication. TEM images indicated that Fe3O4 MNPs were encapsulated in MHEWPMCs. Confocal laser scanning microscopic images indicated that the dye was distributed evenly in the MHEWPMCs and no leakage of dye from the MHEWPMCs was observed due to the protection of protein shells. The MHEWPMCs are potential candidates as attractive carriers for drug targeting delivery and stimuli-responsive release due to their magnetic and redox responsiveness of the disulfide in the microcapsule shells.

  20. Optical properties of TiO2 nanotube arrays fabricated by the electrochemical anodization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ly, Ngoc Tai; Nguyen, Van Chien; Dao, Thi Hoa; Hoang To, Le Hong; Pham, Duy Long; Do, Hung Manh; Vu, Dinh Lam; Le, Van Hong

    2014-01-01

    Perpendicularly self-aligned TiO 2 nanotube samples of size of 3 × 5 cm 2 were fabricated by the electrochemical anodization method using a solution containing NH 4 F. Influences of the technological conditions such as NH 4 F concentration and anodization voltage were studied. It was found that NH 4 F concentration in the solution and anodization voltage significantly affect the diameter and length of a TiO 2 nanotube. The diameter and the length of a TiO 2 nanotube were observed and estimated by using scanning electron microscopy. It has shown that the largest diameter and the longest length of about 80 nm and 20 μm, respectively, were obtained for the sample anodized in a solution containing 0.4% of NH 4 F, under a voltage of 48 V. Photoluminescence spectra excited by laser lights having wavelengths of 325 and 442 nm (having energies higher and lower than the band gap energy of TiO 2 ) was recorded at room temperature for the TiO 2 nanotube arrays. An abnormal luminescence result was observed. It is experimental evidence that the manufactured TiO 2 nanotube array is an expected material for hydrogen splitting from water by photochemical effect under sunlight as well as for the nano solar cells. (paper)

  1. An Advanced Electrospinning Method of Fabricating Nanofibrous Patterned Architectures with Controlled Deposition and Desired Alignment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasel, Sheikh Md

    We introduce a versatile advanced method of electrospinning for fabricating various kinds of nanofibrous patterns along with desired alignment, controlled amount of deposition and locally variable density into the architectures. In this method, we employed multiple electrodes whose potentials have been altered in milliseconds with the help of microprocessor based control system. Therefore, key success of this method was that the electrical field as well as charge carrying fibers could be switched shortly from one electrode's location to another, as a result, electrospun fibers could be deposited on the designated areas with desired alignment. A wide range of nanofibrous patterned architectures were constructed using proper arrangement of multiple electrodes. By controlling the concurrent activation time of two adjacent electrodes, we demonstrated that amount of fibers going into the pattern can be adjusted and desired alignment in electrospun fibers can be obtained. We also revealed that the deposition density of electrospun fibers in different areas of patterned architectures can be varied. We showed that by controlling the deposition time between two adjacent electrodes, a number of functionally graded patterns can be generated with uniaxial alignment. We also demonstrated that this handy method was capable of producing random, aligned, and multidirectional nanofibrous mats by engaging a number of electrodes and switching them in desired patterns. A comprehensive study using finite element method was carried out to understand the effects of electrical field. Simulation results revealed that electrical field strength alters shortly based on electrode control switch patterns. Nanofibrous polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) scaffolds and its composite reinforced with wollastonite and wood flour were fabricated using rotating drum electrospinning technique. Morphological, mechanical, and thermal, properties were characterized on PVA/wollastonite and PVA/wood flour nanocomposites

  2. Catalyst systems and uses thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozkan, Umit S [Worthington, OH; Holmgreen, Erik M [Columbus, OH; Yung, Matthew M [Columbus, OH

    2012-07-24

    A method of carbon monoxide (CO) removal comprises providing an oxidation catalyst comprising cobalt supported on an inorganic oxide. The method further comprises feeding a gaseous stream comprising CO, and oxygen (O.sub.2) to the catalyst system, and removing CO from the gaseous stream by oxidizing the CO to carbon dioxide (CO.sub.2) in the presence of the oxidation catalyst at a temperature between about 20 to about 200.degree. C.

  3. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merk, Susanne; Wagner, Christina; Stock, Veronika; Eichberger, Marlis; Schmidlin, Patrick R; Roos, Malgorzata; Stawarczyk, Bogna

    2016-11-08

    This study investigates the retention load (RL) between ZrO₂ primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK) crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO₂ crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° ( n = 10/group). Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i) milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM); (ii) pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP) (BioHPP Pellet); or (iii) pressed from granular PEEK (PG) (BioHPP Granulat). One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé's post-hoc test were used for data analysis ( p impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  4. Suitability of Secondary PEEK Telescopic Crowns on Zirconia Primary Crowns: The Influence of Fabrication Method and Taper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Merk

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the retention load (RL between ZrO2 primary crowns and secondary polyetheretherketone (PEEK crowns made by different fabrication methods with three different tapers. Standardized primary ZrO2 crowns were fabricated with three different tapers: 0°, 1°, and 2° (n = 10/group. Ten secondary crowns were fabricated (i milled from breCam BioHPP blanks (PM; (ii pressed from industrially fabricated PEEK pellets (PP (BioHPP Pellet; or (iii pressed from granular PEEK (PG (BioHPP Granulat. One calibrated operator adjusted all crowns. In total, the RL of 90 secondary crowns were measured in pull-off tests at 50 mm/min, and each specimen was tested 20 times. Two- and one-way ANOVAs followed by a Scheffé’s post-hoc test were used for data analysis (p < 0.05. Within crowns with a 0° taper, the PP group showed significantly higher retention load values compared with the other groups. Among the 1° taper, the PM group presented significantly lower retention loads than the PP group. However, the pressing type had no impact on the results. Within the 2° taper, the fabrication method had no influence on the RL. Within the PM group, the 2° taper showed significantly higher retention load compared with the 1° taper. The taper with 0° was in the same range value as the 1° and 2° tapers. No impact of the taper on the retention value was observed between the PP groups. Within the PG groups, the 0° taper presented significantly lower RL than the 1° taper, whereas the 2° taper showed no differences. The fabrication method of the secondary PEEK crowns and taper angles showed no consistent effect within all tested groups.

  5. Surface micro-dissolve method of imparting self-cleaning property to cotton fabrics in NaOH/urea aqueous solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan, Tao; Hu, Ruimin; Zhao, Zhenyun [College of Textile & Garment, Southwest University, 400716, Chongqing (China); Liu, Yiping [College of Textile & Garment, Southwest University, 400716, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716, Chongqing (China); Lu, Ming, E-mail: lumingswu@163.com [College of Textile & Garment, Southwest University, 400716, Chongqing (China); Chongqing Engineering Research Center of Biomaterial Fiber and Modern Textile, 400716, Chongqing (China)

    2017-04-01

    Highlights: • A novel micro-dissolved process was carried out to embedding commercial titanium dioxide nanoparticles into cotton fabric with NaOH/urea aqueous solution. • X-ray diffraction pattern of modified fabrics shown that the cellulose structure of modified fabrics had not changed. • Modified cotton fabrics demonstrated favourable photocatalytic self-cleaning performance while tensile strength and whiteness of treated fabrics also expressed an increasement slightly. - Abstract: A simple and economical micro-dissolved process of embedding titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) nanoparticles into surface zone of cotton fabrics was developed. TiO{sub 2} was coated on cotton fabrics in 7% wt NaOH/12% wt urea aqueous solution at low temperature. Photocatalytic efficiency of cotton fabrics treated with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles was studied upon measuring the photocatalytic decoloration of Rhodamine B (RhB) under ultraviolet irradiation. Self-cleaning property of cotton fabric coated with TiO{sub 2} was evaluated with color depth of samples (K/S value). The treated fabrics were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FITR), tensile strength, stiffness and whiteness. The results indicated, TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles could be embedded on the surface layer of cotton fabrics throuth surface micro-dissolve method. Treated cotton fabrics possessed distinct photocatalytic efficiency and self-cleaning properties. Tensile strength and whiteness of modified cotton fabrics appeared moderately increasement.

  6. Two-In-One Method for Graphene Transfer: Simplified Fabrication Process for Organic Light-Emitting Diodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lihui; Shang, Wenjuan; Han, Chao; Zhang, Qing; Yao, Yao; Ma, Xiaoqian; Wang, Minghao; Yu, Hongtao; Duan, Yu; Sun, Jie; Chen, Shufen; Huang, Wei

    2018-02-28

    Graphene as one of the most promising transparent electrode materials has been successfully applied in organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs). However, traditional poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) transfer method usually results in hardly removed polymeric residues on the graphene surface, which induces unwanted leakage current, poor diode behavior, and even device failure. In this work, we proposed a facile and efficient two-in-one method to obtain clean graphene and fabricate OLEDs, in which the poly(9,9-di-n-octylfluorene-alt-(1,4-phenylene-(4-sec-butylphenyl)imino)-1,4-phenylene) (TFB) layer was inserted between the graphene and PMMA film both as a protector during the graphene transfer and a hole-injection layer in OLEDs. Finally, green OLED devices were successfully fabricated on the PMMA-free graphene/TFB film, and the device luminous efficiency was increased from 64.8 to 74.5 cd/A by using the two-in-one method. Therefore, the proposed two-in-one graphene transfer method realizes a high-efficient graphene transfer and device fabrication process, which is also compatible with the roll-to-roll manufacturing. It is expected that this work can enlighten the design and fabrication of the graphene-based optoelectronic devices.

  7. Corrosion resistance assessment of Co-Cr alloy frameworks fabricated by CAD/CAM milling, laser sintering, and casting methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuna, Süleyman Hakan; Özçiçek Pekmez, Nuran; Kürkçüoğlu, Işin

    2015-11-01

    The effects of fabrication methods on the corrosion resistance of frameworks produced with Co-Cr alloys are not clear. The purpose of this in vitro study was to evaluate the electrochemical corrosion resistance of Co-Cr alloy specimens that were fabricated by conventional casting, milling, and laser sintering. The specimens fabricated with 3 different methods were investigated by potentiodynamic tests and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy in an artificial saliva. Ions released into the artificial saliva were estimated with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry, and the results were statistically analyzed. The specimen surfaces were investigated with scanning electron microscopy before and after the tests. In terms of corrosion current and Rct properties, statistically significant differences were found both among the means of the methods and among the means of the material groups (Pcorrosion than those produced by milling and laser sintering. The corrosion resistance of a Co-Cr alloy specimens fabricated by milling or laser sintering was greater than that of the conventionally cast alloy specimens. The Co-Cr specimens produced by the same method also differed from one another in terms of corrosion resistance. These differences may be related to the variations in the alloy compositions. Copyright © 2015 Editorial Council for the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. SU-8 Cantilevers for Bio/chemical Sensing; Fabrication, Characterisation and Development of Novel Read-out Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Anja Boisen; Mogens Havsteen-Jakobsen; Gabriela Blagoi; Daniel Haefliger; Søren Dohn; Alicia Johansson; Michael Lillemose; Stephan Keller; Maria Nordström

    2008-01-01

    Here, we present the activities within our research group over the last five years with cantilevers fabricated in the polymer SU-8. We believe that SU-8 is an interesting polymer for fabrication of cantilevers for bio/chemical sensing due to its simple processing and low Young's modulus. We show examples of different integrated read-out methods and their characterisation. We also show that SU-8 cantilevers have a reduced sensitivity to changes in the environmental temperature and pH of the bu...

  9. Fabrication of titanium removable dental prosthesis frameworks with a 2-step investment coating method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koike, Mari; Hummel, Susan K; Ball, John D; Okabe, Toru

    2012-06-01

    Although pure titanium is known to have good biocompatibility, a titanium alloy with better strength is needed for fabricating clinically acceptable, partial removable dental prosthesis (RDP) frameworks. The mechanical properties of an experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy cast with a 2-step investment technique were examined for RDP framework applications. Patterns for tests for various properties and denture frameworks for a preliminary trial casting were invested with a 2-step coating method using 2 types of mold materials: a less reactive spinel compound (Al(2)O(3)·MgO) and a less expensive SiO(2)-based material. The yield and tensile strength (n=5), modulus of elasticity (n=5), elongation (n=5), and hardness (n=8) of the cast Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy were determined. The external appearance and internal porosities of the preliminary trial castings of denture frameworks (n=2) were examined with a conventional dental radiographic unit. Cast Ti-6Al-4V alloy and commercially pure titanium (CP Ti) were used as controls. The data for the mechanical properties were statistically analyzed with 1-way ANOVA (α=.05). The yield strength of the cast Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy was 851 MPa and the hardness was 356 HV. These properties were comparable to those of the cast Ti-6Al-4V and were higher than those of CP Ti (PAl-5Cu frameworks was found to have been incompletely cast. The cast biocompatible experimental Ti-5Al-5Cu alloy exhibited high strength when cast with a 2-step coating method. With a dedicated study to determine the effect of sprue design on the quality of castings, biocompatible Ti-5Al-5Cu RDP frameworks for a clinical trial can be produced. Copyright © 2012 The Editorial Council of the Journal of Prosthetic Dentistry. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Biomimetic hydrophobic surface fabricated by chemical etching method from hierarchically structured magnesium alloy substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yan; Yin, Xiaoming; Zhang, Jijia [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Wang, Yaming [Institute for Advanced Ceramics, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Han, Zhiwu, E-mail: zwhan@jlu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China); Ren, Luquan [Key Laboratory of Bionic Engineering (Ministry of Education), Jilin University, Changchun 130022 (China)

    2013-09-01

    As one of the lightest metal materials, magnesium alloy plays an important role in industry such as automobile, airplane and electronic product. However, magnesium alloy is hindered due to its high chemical activity and easily corroded. Here, inspired by typical plant surfaces such as lotus leaves and petals of red rose with super-hydrophobic character, the new hydrophobic surface is fabricated on magnesium alloy to improve anti-corrosion by two-step methodology. The procedure is that the samples are processed by laser first and then immersed and etched in the aqueous AgNO{sub 3} solution concentrations of 0.1 mol/L, 0.3 mol/L and 0.5 mol/L for different times of 15 s, 40 s and 60 s, respectively, finally modified by DTS (CH{sub 3}(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}Si(OCH{sub 3}){sub 3}). The microstructure, chemical composition, wettability and anti-corrosion are characterized by means of SEM, XPS, water contact angle measurement and electrochemical method. The hydrophobic surfaces with microscale crater-like and nanoscale flower-like binary structure are obtained. The low-energy material is contained in surface after DTS treatment. The contact angles could reach up to 138.4 ± 2°, which hydrophobic property is both related to the micro–nano binary structure and chemical composition. The results of electrochemical measurements show that anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy is improved. Furthermore, our research is expected to create some ideas from natural enlightenment to improve anti-corrosion property of magnesium alloy while this method can be easily extended to other metal materials.

  11. A Novel Method for Fabricating Double Layers Porous Anodic Alumina in Phosphoric/Oxalic Acid Solution and Oxalic Acid Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanfang Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method for fabricating ordered double layers porous anodic alumina (DL-PAA with controllable nanopore size was presented. Highly ordered large pore layer with interpore distance of 480 nm was fabricated in phosphoric acid solution with oxalic acid addition at the potential of 195 V and the small pore layer was fabricated in oxalic acid solution at the potential from 60 to 100 V. Experimental results show that the thickness of large pore layer is linearly correlative with anodizing time, and pore diameter is linearly correlative with pore widening time. When the anodizing potential in oxalic acid solution was adjusted from 60 to 100 V, the small pore layers with continuously tunable interpore distance from 142 to 241 nm and pore density from 1.94×109 to 4.89×109 cm−2 were obtained. And the interpore distance and the pore density of small pore layers are closely correlative with the anodizing potential. The fabricated DL-PAA templates can be widely utilized for fabrication of ordered nanomaterials, such as superhydrophobic or gecko-inspired adhesive materials and metal or semiconductor nanowires.

  12. SU-8 Lenses: Simple Methods of Fabrication and Application in Optical Interconnection Between Fiber/LED and Microstructures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Minh-Hang; Nguyen, Hai-Binh; Nguyen, Tuan-Hung; Vu, Xuan-Manh; Lai, Jain-Ren; Tseng, Fan-Gang; Chen, Te-Chang; Lee, Ming-Chang

    2016-05-01

    This paper presents two facile methods to fabricate off-plane lenses made of SU-8, an epoxy-based negative photoresist from MicroChem, on glass for optical interconnection. The methods allow the fabrication of lenses with flexible spot size and focal length depending on SU-8 well size and SU-8 drop volume and viscosity. In the first method, SU-8 drops were applied directly into patterned SU-8 wells with Teflon-coated micropipettes, and were baked to become (a)-spherical lenses. The lens shape and size were mainly determined by SU-8 viscosity, ratio of drop volume to well volume, and baking temperature and time. In the second method, a glass substrate with SU-8 patterned wells was emerged in diluted SU-8, then drawn up and baked to form lenses. The lens shapes and sizes were mainly determined by SU-8 viscosity and well volume. By the two methods, SU-8 lenses were successfully fabricated with spot sizes varying in range from micrometers to hundred micrometers, and focal lengths varying in range of several millimeters, depending on the lens rim diameters and aspheric sag height. Besides, on-plane SU-8 lenses were fabricated by photolithography to work in conjunction with the off-plane SU-8 lenses. The cascaded lenses produced light spots reduced to several micrometers, and they can be applied as a coupler for light coupling from fiber/Light-emitting diode (LED) to microstructures and nanostructures. The results open up the path for fabricating novel optical microsystems for optical communication and optical sensing applications.

  13. Novel fabrication method for 3D microstructures using surface-activated bonding and its application to micro-mechanical parts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Takayuki; Takahashi, Mutsuya; Ozawa, Takashi; Tawara, Satoshi; Goto, Takayuki

    2002-11-01

    The purpose of this work is to demonstrate that a novel fabrication method for 3-D microstructures (FORMULA) is applicable to fabrication of micro mechanical parts with a large flexibility. This method is a kind of layer manufacturing method of thin films for metallic or dielectric microstructures using surface-activated bonding (SAB). The bonding interfaces of thin films are investigated by transmission electron microscope (TEM). Voids were observed at the interfaces of both pure aluminum films and Al-Cu alloy films. The ratio of void on the Al-Cu/Al-Cu interface is much larger than that of Al/Al interface, although the films have the same surface roughness of 3nm in Ra (average roughness). And approximately 10nm-thick amorphous intermediate layers were found at the interfaces. Furthermore, we have fabricated a micro gear of 900μm in diameter and 200μm in height, which is about ten times as large as our previous test pieces. Overhung structures such as a bridge structure and a cantilever were also fabricated without supporting layers beneath them.

  14. High performance a-Si solar cells and new fabrication methods for a-Si solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakano, S.; Kuwano, Y.; Ohnishi, M.

    1986-12-01

    The super chamber, a separated UHV reaction-chamber system has been developed. A conversion efficiency of 11.7% was obtained for an a-Si solar cell using a high-quality i-layer deposited by the super chamber, and a p-layer fabricated by a photo-CVD method. As a new material, amorphous superlattice-structure films were fabricated by the photo-CVD method for the first time. Superlattice structure p-layer a-Si solar cells were fabricated, and a conversion efficiency of 10.5% was obtained. For the fabrication of integrated type a-Si solar cell modules, a laser pattering method was investigated. A thermal analysis of the multilayer structure was done. It was confirmed that selective scribing for a-Si, TCO and metal film is possible by controlling the laser power density. Recently developed a-Si solar power generation systems and a-Si solar cell roofing tiles are also described.

  15. Polymer blend lithography: A versatile method to fabricate nanopatterned self-assembled monolayers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Huang

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and cost-effective lithographic method, polymer blend lithography (PBL, is reported to produce patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAM on solid substrates featuring two or three different chemical functionalities. For the pattern generation we use the phase separation of two immiscible polymers in a blend solution during a spin-coating process. By controlling the spin-coating parameters and conditions, including the ambient atmosphere (humidity, the molar mass of the polystyrene (PS and poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA, and the mass ratio between the two polymers in the blend solution, the formation of a purely lateral morphology (PS islands standing on the substrate while isolated in the PMMA matrix can be reproducibly induced. Either of the formed phases (PS or PMMA can be selectively dissolved afterwards, and the remaining phase can be used as a lift-off mask for the formation of a nanopatterned functional silane monolayer. This “monolayer copy” of the polymer phase morphology has a topographic contrast of about 1.3 nm. A demonstration of tuning of the PS island diameter is given by changing the molar mass of PS. Moreover, polymer blend lithography can provide the possibility of fabricating a surface with three different chemical components: This is demonstrated by inducing breath figures (evaporated condensed entity at higher humidity during the spin-coating process. Here we demonstrate the formation of a lateral pattern consisting of regions covered with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS and (3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES, and at the same time featuring regions of bare SiOx. The patterning process could be applied even on meter-sized substrates with various functional SAM molecules, making this process suitable for the rapid preparation of quasi two-dimensional nanopatterned functional substrates, e.g., for the template-controlled growth of ZnO nanostructures.

  16. Superhydrophobic Copper Surfaces with Anticorrosion Properties Fabricated by Solventless CVD Methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vilaró, Ignasi; Yagüe, Jose L; Borrós, Salvador

    2017-01-11

    Due to continuous miniaturization and increasing number of electrical components in electronics, copper interconnections have become critical for the design of 3D integrated circuits. However, corrosion attack on the copper metal can affect the electronic performance of the material. Superhydrophobic coatings are a commonly used strategy to prevent this undesired effect. In this work, a solventless two-steps process was developed to fabricate superhydrophobic copper surfaces using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) methods. The superhydrophobic state was achieved through the design of a hierarchical structure, combining micro-/nanoscale domains. In the first step, O 2 - and Ar-plasma etchings were performed on the copper substrate to generate microroughness. Afterward, a conformal copolymer, 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate-ethylene glycol diacrylate [p(PFDA-co-EGDA)], was deposited on top of the metal via initiated CVD (iCVD) to lower the surface energy of the surface. The copolymer topography exhibited a very characteristic and unique nanoworm-like structure. The combination of the nanofeatures of the polymer with the microroughness of the copper led to achievement of the superhydrophobic state. AFM, SEM, and XPS were used to characterize the evolution in topography and chemical composition during the CVD processes. The modified copper showed water contact angles as high as 163° and hysteresis as low as 1°. The coating withstood exposure to aggressive media for extended periods of time. Tafel analysis was used to compare the corrosion rates between bare and modified copper. Results indicated that iCVD-coated copper corrodes 3 orders of magnitude slower than untreated copper. The surface modification process yielded repeatable and robust superhydrophobic coatings with remarkable anticorrosion properties.

  17. Polymer blend lithography: A versatile method to fabricate nanopatterned self-assembled monolayers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cheng; Moosmann, Markus; Jin, Jiehong; Heiler, Tobias; Walheim, Stefan; Schimmel, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A rapid and cost-effective lithographic method, polymer blend lithography (PBL), is reported to produce patterned self-assembled monolayers (SAM) on solid substrates featuring two or three different chemical functionalities. For the pattern generation we use the phase separation of two immiscible polymers in a blend solution during a spin-coating process. By controlling the spin-coating parameters and conditions, including the ambient atmosphere (humidity), the molar mass of the polystyrene (PS) and poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA), and the mass ratio between the two polymers in the blend solution, the formation of a purely lateral morphology (PS islands standing on the substrate while isolated in the PMMA matrix) can be reproducibly induced. Either of the formed phases (PS or PMMA) can be selectively dissolved afterwards, and the remaining phase can be used as a lift-off mask for the formation of a nanopatterned functional silane monolayer. This "monolayer copy" of the polymer phase morphology has a topographic contrast of about 1.3 nm. A demonstration of tuning of the PS island diameter is given by changing the molar mass of PS. Moreover, polymer blend lithography can provide the possibility of fabricating a surface with three different chemical components: This is demonstrated by inducing breath figures (evaporated condensed entity) at higher humidity during the spin-coating process. Here we demonstrate the formation of a lateral pattern consisting of regions covered with 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyltrichlorosilane (FDTS) and (3-aminopropyl)triethoxysilane (APTES), and at the same time featuring regions of bare SiO(x). The patterning process could be applied even on meter-sized substrates with various functional SAM molecules, making this process suitable for the rapid preparation of quasi two-dimensional nanopatterned functional substrates, e.g., for the template-controlled growth of ZnO nanostructures [1].

  18. Printing-based fabrication method using sacrificial paper substrates for flexible and wearable microfluidic devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chung, Daehan; Gray, Bonnie L

    2017-01-01

    We present a simple, fast, and inexpensive new printing-based fabrication process for flexible and wearable microfluidic channels and devices. Microfluidic devices are fabricated on textiles (fabric) for applications in clothing-based wearable microfluidic sensors and systems. The wearable and flexible microfluidic devices are comprised of water-insoluable screen-printable plastisol polymer. Sheets of paper are used as sacrificial substrates for multiple layers of polymer on the fabric’s surface. Microfluidic devices can be made within a short time using simple processes and inexpensive equipment that includes a laser cutter and a thermal laminator. The fabrication process is characterized to demonstrate control of microfluidic channel thickness and width. Film thickness smaller than 100 micrometers and lateral dimensions smaller than 150 micrometers are demonstrated. A flexible microfluidic mixer is also developed on fabric and successfully tested on both flat and curved surfaces at volumetric flow rates ranging from 5.5–46 ml min −1 . (paper)

  19. Dielectrokinetic chromatography and devices thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chirica, Gabriela S; Fiechtner, Gregory J; Singh, Anup K

    2014-04-22

    Disclosed herein are methods and devices for dielectrokinetic chromatography. As disclosed, the devices comprise microchannels having at least one perturber which produces a non-uniformity in a field spanning the width of the microchannel. The interaction of the field non-uniformity with a perturber produces a secondary flow which competes with a primary flow. By decreasing the size of the perturber the secondary flow becomes significant for particles/analytes in the nanometer-size range. Depending on the nature of a particle/analyte present in the fluid and its interaction with the primary flow and the secondary flow, the analyte may be retained or redirected. The composition of the primary flow can be varied to affect the magnitude of primary and/or secondary flows on the particles/analytes and thereby separate and concentrate it from other particles/analytes.

  20. Aerosol based direct-write micro-additive fabrication method for sub-mm 3D metal-dielectric structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Taibur; Renaud, Luke; Heo, Deuk; Renn, Michael; Panat, Rahul

    2015-10-01

    The fabrication of 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale is highly important in order to realize low-loss passives and GHz wavelength antennas with applications in wearable and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The inherent 2D nature of lithographic processes severely limits the available manufacturing routes to fabricate 3D structures. Further, the lithographic processes are subtractive and require the use of environmentally harmful chemicals. In this letter, we demonstrate an additive manufacturing method to fabricate 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale. A UV curable dielectric is dispensed from an Aerosol Jet system at 10-100 µm length scale and instantaneously cured to build complex 3D shapes at a length scale  <1 mm. A metal nanoparticle ink is then dispensed over the 3D dielectric using a combination of jetting action and tilted dispense head, also using the Aerosol Jet technique and at a length scale 10-100 µm, followed by the nanoparticle sintering. Simulation studies are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of using such structures as mm-wave antennas. The manufacturing method described in this letter opens up the possibility of fabricating an entirely new class of custom-shaped 3D structures at a sub-mm length scale with potential applications in 3D antennas and passives.

  1. Facile fabrication of superhydrophobic surface with excellent mechanical abrasion and corrosion resistance on copper substrate by a novel method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Fenghua; Yao, Kai

    2014-06-11

    A novel method for controllable fabrication of a superhydrophobic surface with a water contact angle of 162 ± 1° and a sliding angle of 3 ± 0.5° on copper substrate is reported in this Research Article. The facile and low-cost fabrication process is composed from the electrodeposition in traditional Watts bath and the heat-treatment in the presence of (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetradecyl) triethoxysilane (AC-FAS). The superhydrophobicity of the fabricated surface results from its pine-cone-like hierarchical micro-nanostructure and the assembly of low-surface-energy fluorinated components on it. The superhydrophobic surface exhibits high microhardness and excellent mechanical abrasion resistance because it maintains superhydrophobicity after mechanical abrasion against 800 grit SiC sandpaper for 1.0 m at the applied pressure of 4.80 kPa. Moreover, the superhydrophobic surface has good chemical stability in both acidic and alkaline environments. The potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy test shows that the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has excellent corrosion resistance that can provide effective protection for the bare Cu substrate. In addition, the as-prepared superhydrophobic surface has self-cleaning ability. It is believed that the facile and low-cost method offer an effective strategy and promising industrial applications for fabricating superhydrophobic surfaces on various metallic materials.

  2. Aerosol based direct-write micro-additive fabrication method for sub-mm 3D metal-dielectric structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, Taibur; Panat, Rahul; Renaud, Luke; Heo, Deuk; Renn, Michael

    2015-01-01

    The fabrication of 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale is highly important in order to realize low-loss passives and GHz wavelength antennas with applications in wearable and Internet-of-Things (IoT) devices. The inherent 2D nature of lithographic processes severely limits the available manufacturing routes to fabricate 3D structures. Further, the lithographic processes are subtractive and require the use of environmentally harmful chemicals. In this letter, we demonstrate an additive manufacturing method to fabricate 3D metal-dielectric structures at sub-mm length scale. A UV curable dielectric is dispensed from an Aerosol Jet system at 10–100 µm length scale and instantaneously cured to build complex 3D shapes at a length scale  <1 mm. A metal nanoparticle ink is then dispensed over the 3D dielectric using a combination of jetting action and tilted dispense head, also using the Aerosol Jet technique and at a length scale 10–100 µm, followed by the nanoparticle sintering. Simulation studies are carried out to demonstrate the feasibility of using such structures as mm-wave antennas. The manufacturing method described in this letter opens up the possibility of fabricating an entirely new class of custom-shaped 3D structures at a sub-mm length scale with potential applications in 3D antennas and passives. (technical note)

  3. Optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide fabricated via electrochemical etching method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ching, C.G.; Lee, S.C.; Ooi, P.K.; Ng, S.S.; Hassan, Z.; Hassan, H. Abu; Abdullah, M.J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Hillock like porous structure zinc oxide was obtained via electrochemical etching. • Anisotropic dominance etching process by KOH etchant. • Reststrahlen features are sensitive to multilayer porous structure. • Determination of porosity from IR reflectance spectrum. -- Abstract: We investigated the optical and structural properties of porous zinc oxide (ZnO) thin film fabricated by ultraviolet light-assisted electrochemical etching. This fabrication process used 10 wt% potassium hydroxide solution as an electrolyte. Hillock-like porous ZnO films were successfully fabricated according to the field emission scanning electron microscopy results. The cross-sectional study of the sample indicated that anisotropic-dominated etching process occurred. However, the atomic force microscopic results showed an increase in surface roughness of the sample after electrochemical etching. A resonance hump induced by the porous structure was observed in the infrared reflectance spectrum. Using theoretical modeling technique, ZnO porosification was verified, and the porosity of the sample was determined

  4. Modern methods of material accounting for mixed-oxide fuel-fabrication facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eggers, R.F.; Brouns, R.J.; Brite, D.W.; Pindak, J.L.

    1981-07-01

    The generic requirements loss detection, and response to alarms of a contemporary material control and accounting (MC and A) philosophy have been applied to a mixed-oxide fuel-fabrication plant to produce a detailed preliminary MC and A system design that is generally applicable to facilities of this type. This paper summarizes and discusses detailed results of the mixed-oxide fuel-fabrication plant study. Topics covered in this paper include: mixed-oxide fuel-fabrication process description, process disaggregation into MC and A system control units, quantitative results of analysis of control units for abrupt and recurring loss-detection capability, impact of short- and long-term holdup on loss-detection capability, response to alarms for abrupt loss, and response to alarms for recurring loss

  5. Fabrication of radiation sources for educational purposes from chemical fertilizers using compressing and forming method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kawano, Takao

    2008-01-01

    Chemical fertilizers contain potassium, which is composed of a small amount of naturally occurring potassium-40. The potassium-40 radionuclide emits beta and gamma radiation. Three brands of chemical fertilizer were used to fabricate disk-shaped radiation sources and the fabricated radiation sources were examined for applicability to an educational radiation course. In the examination, tests to determine dependence of count rate on distance, shielding thickness, and shielding materials were conducted using the radiation sources. Results showed that radiation sources fabricated from the three brands of chemical fertilizer were equivalent for explaining radiation characteristics, particularly those related to the dependence of radiation strength on distance and shielding thickness. The relation between shielding effect and mass density can be explained qualitatively. Thus, chemical fertilizer radiation sources can be a useful teaching aid for educational courses to better promote understanding of radiation characteristics and the principles of radiation protection. (author)

  6. Double electrochemical covalent coupling method based on click chemistry and diazonium chemistry for the fabrication of sensitive amperometric immunosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Honglan; Li, Min; Zhang, Rui; Dong, Manman; Ling, Chen

    2013-08-20

    A double electrochemical covalent coupling method based on click chemistry and diazonium chemistry for the fabrication of sensitive amperometric immunosensor was developed. As a proof-of-concept, a designed alkyne functionalized human IgG was used as a capture antibody and a HRP-labeled rabbit anti-goat IgG was used as signal antibody for the determination of the anti-human IgG using the sandwich model. The immunosensor was fabricated by electrochemically grafting a phenylazide on the surface of a glassy carbon electrode, and then, by coupling the alkyne functionalized human IgG with the phenylazide group through an electro-click chemistry in the presence of Cu(II). The amperometric measurement for the determination of the anti-human IgG was performed after the fabricated immunosensor was incubated with the target anti-human IgG and then with the HRP-labeled anti-goat IgG at -0.25V in 0.10M PBS (pH 7.0) containing 0.1mM hydroquinone and 2.0mM H2O2. The results showed that the increased current was linear with the logarithm of the concentration of the anti-human IgG in the range from 1.0×10(-10)g mL(-1) to 1.0×10(-8)g mL(-1) with a detection limit of 3×10(-11)g mL(-1). Furthermore, the feasibility of the double electrochemical covalent coupling method proposed in this work for fabricating the amperometric immunosensor array was explored. This work demonstrates that the double electrochemical covalent coupling method is a promising approach for the fabrication of the immunosensor and immunosensor array. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Large-area gold nanohole arrays fabricated by one-step method for surface plasmon resonance biochemical sensing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Huijie; Niu, Lihong; Zhang, Jie; Chen, Jian; Wang, Shujie; Yang, Jingjing; Guo, Siyi; Lawson, Tom; Shi, Bingyang; Song, Chunpeng

    2018-04-01

    Surface plasmon resonance (SPR) nanosensors based on metallic nanohole arrays have been widely reported to detect binding interactions in biological specimens. A simple and effective method for constructing nanoscale arrays is essential for the development of SPR nanosensors. In this work, we report a one-step method to fabricate nanohole arrays by thermal nanoimprinting in the matrix of IPS (Intermediate Polymer Stamp). No additional etching process or supporting substrate is required. The preparation process is simple, time-saving and compatible for roll-to-roll process, potentially allowing mass production. Moreover, the nanohole arrays were integrated into detection platform as SPR sensors to investigate different types of biological binding interactions. The results demonstrate that our one-step method can be used to efficiently fabricate large-area and uniform nanohole arrays for biochemical sensing.

  8. Direct fabrication of bio-inspired gecko-like geometries with vat polymerization additive manufacturing method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Davoudinejad, A.; M. Ribo, M.; Pedersen, D. B.

    2018-01-01

    on. The geometry and fabrication of these surfaces are still under research. In this study, the feasibility of using direct fabrication of microscale features by Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes was investigated. The investigation was carried out using a specifically designed vat...... photopolymerization AM machine-tool suitable for precision manufacturing at the micro dimensional scale which has previously been developed, built and validated at the Technical University of Denmark. It was shown that it was possible to replicate a simplified surface inspired by the Tokay gecko, the geometry...

  9. Characterization of the dynamic friction of woven fabrics: Experimental methods and benchmark results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sachs, Ulrich; Akkerman, Remko; Fetfatsidis, K.; Vidal-Sallé, E.; Schumacher, J.; Ziegmann, G.; Allaoui, S.; Hivet, G.; Maron, B.; Vanclooster, K.; Lomov, S.V.

    2014-01-01

    A benchmark exercise was conducted to compare various friction test set-ups with respect to the measured coefficients of friction. The friction was determined between Twintex®PP, a fabric of commingled yarns of glass and polypropylene filaments, and a metal surface. The same material was supplied to

  10. A novel method to fabricate TiAl intermetallic alloy 3D parts using additive manufacturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.J.S. Dilip

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The present work explores the feasibility of fabricating porous 3D parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy directly from Ti–6Al–4V and Al powders. This approach uses a binder jetting additive manufacturing process followed by reactive sintering. The results demonstrate that the present approach is successful for realizing parts in TiAl intermetallic alloy.

  11. A novel and simple method of printing flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zehong; Wang, Wei; Jiang, Zhikang; Yu, Dan

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • A simple preparation of nano-silver conductive ink was proposed. • Conductive pattern was printed on PET fabrics without heat sintering. • The surface resistivity of printed pattern is low to 0.197 Ω cm. - Abstract: Flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics were fabricated by a simple approach. Firstly, well dispersed nano-silver colloids with average size of 87 nm were synthesized with poly (vinyl pyrrolidone). Then, by adding polyurethane and thickening agent into these colloids, Ag NP-based ink was produced and printed on PET fabrics by screen printing. Conductive patterns were achieved through the swelling process of polyurethane and the decrease of contact resistance between nano-silver particles when immersed in dichloromethane (DCM) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) mixed solution. After it was dried at 40 °C,the surface resistivity was about 0.197 Ω cm with width 1.9 mm, and thickness 20 μm. Moreover, the effects of different DCM contents on the conductivity and the film forming ability have been investigated. We believe these foundings will provide some important analysis for printing flexible conductive circuits on textiles.

  12. A novel and simple method of printing flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zehong; Wang, Wei [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Jiang, Zhikang [Saintyear Holding Group Co., Ltd. (China); Yu, Dan, E-mail: vchtian@163.com [College of Chemistry, Chemical Engineering and Biotechnology, Donghua University, Shanghai 201620 (China); Key Laboratory of Textile Science & Technology, Ministry of Education (China); Saintyear Holding Group Co., Ltd. (China)

    2017-02-28

    Highlights: • A simple preparation of nano-silver conductive ink was proposed. • Conductive pattern was printed on PET fabrics without heat sintering. • The surface resistivity of printed pattern is low to 0.197 Ω cm. - Abstract: Flexible conductive circuits on PET fabrics were fabricated by a simple approach. Firstly, well dispersed nano-silver colloids with average size of 87 nm were synthesized with poly (vinyl pyrrolidone). Then, by adding polyurethane and thickening agent into these colloids, Ag NP-based ink was produced and printed on PET fabrics by screen printing. Conductive patterns were achieved through the swelling process of polyurethane and the decrease of contact resistance between nano-silver particles when immersed in dichloromethane (DCM) and diallyldimethylammonium chloride (DMDAAC) mixed solution. After it was dried at 40 °C,the surface resistivity was about 0.197 Ω cm with width 1.9 mm, and thickness 20 μm. Moreover, the effects of different DCM contents on the conductivity and the film forming ability have been investigated. We believe these foundings will provide some important analysis for printing flexible conductive circuits on textiles.

  13. A simple method to fabricate electrochemical sensor systems with predictable high-redox amplification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Straver, M.G.; Odijk, Mathieu; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2012-01-01

    In this paper an easy to fabricate SU8/glass-based microfluidic sensor is described with two closely spaced parallel electrodes for highly selective measurements using the redox cycling effect. By varying the length of the microfluidic entrance channel, a diffusion barrier is created for non-cycling

  14. Video-based Learning Versus Traditional Method for Preclinical Course of Complete Denture Fabrication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fayaz, Amir; Mazahery, Azita; Hosseinzadeh, Mohammad; Yazdanpanah, Samane

    2015-03-01

    Advances in computer science and technology allow the instructors to use instructional multimedia programs to enhance the process of learning for dental students. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of a new educational modality by using videotapes on the performance of dental students in preclinical course of complete denture fabrication. This quasi-experimental study was performed on 54 junior dental students in Shahid Beheshti University of Medical Sciences (SBMU). Twenty-five and 29 students were evaluated in two consecutive semesters as controls and cases, respectively for the same course. The two groups were matched in terms of "knowledge about complete denture fabrication" and "basic dental skills" using a written test and a practical exam, respectively. After the intervention, performance and clinical skills of students were assessed in 8 steps. Eventually, a post-test was carried out to find changes in knowledge and skills of students in this regard. In the two groups with the same baseline level of knowledge and skills, independent T-test showed that students in the test group had a significantly superior performance in primary impression taking (p= 0.001) and primary cast fabrication (p= 0.001). In terms of anterior teeth set up, students in the control group had a significantly better performance (p= 0.001). Instructional videotapes can aid in teaching fabrication of complete denture and are as effective as the traditional teaching system.

  15. Parameters for Fabricating Nano-Au Colloids through the Electric Spark Discharge Method with Micro-Electrical Discharge Machining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tseng, Kuo-Hsiung; Chung, Meng-Yun; Chang, Chaur-Yang

    2017-06-02

    In this study, the Electric Spark Discharge Method (ESDM) was employed with micro-electrical discharge machining (m-EDM) to create an electric arc that melted two electrodes in deionized water (DW) and fabricated nano-Au colloids through pulse discharges with a controlled on-off duration (T ON -T OFF ) and a total fabrication time of 1 min. A total of six on-off settings were tested under normal experimental conditions and without the addition of any chemical substances. Ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-Vis), Zetasizer Nano measurements, and scanning electron microscopy-energy dispersive X-ray (SEM-EDX) analyses suggested that the nano-Au colloid fabricated at 10-10 µs (10 µs on, 10 µs off) had higher concentration and suspension stability than products made at other T ON -T OFF settings. The surface plasmon resonance (SPR) of the colloid was 549 nm on the first day of fabrication and stabilized at 532 nm on the third day. As the T ON -T OFF period increased, the absorbance (i.e., concentration) of all nano-Au colloids decreased. Absorbance was highest at 10-10 µs. The SPR peaks stabilized at 532 nm across all T ON -T OFF periods. The Zeta potential at 10-10 µs was -36.6 mV, indicating that no nano-Au agglomeration occurred and that the particles had high suspension stability.

  16. Facile Method and Novel Dielectric Material Using a Nanoparticle-Doped Thermoplastic Elastomer Composite Fabric for Triboelectric Nanogenerator Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhi; Chen, Ying; Debeli, Dereje Kebebew; Guo, Jian Sheng

    2018-04-18

    The trends toward flexible and wearable electronic devices give rise to the attention of triboelectric nanogenerators (TENGs) which can gather tiny energy from human body motions. However, to accommodate the needs, wearable electronics are still facing challenges for choosing a better dielectric material to improve their performance and practicability. As a kind of synthetic rubber, the thermoplastic elastomer (TPE) contains many advantages such as lightweight, good flexibility, high tear strength, and friction resistance, accompanied by good adhesion with fabrics, which is an optimal candidate of dielectric materials. Herein, a novel nanoparticle (NP)-doped TPE composite fabric-based TENG (TF-TENG) has been developed, which operates based on the NP-doped TPE composite fabric using a facile coating method. The performances of the TENG device are systematically investigated under various thicknesses of TPE films, NP kinds, and doping mass. After being composited with a Cu NP-doped TPE film, the TPE composite fabric exhibited superior elastic behavior and good bending property, along with excellent flexibility. Moreover, a maximum output voltage of 470 V, a current of 24 μA, and a power of 12 mW under 3 MΩ can be achieved by applying a force of 60 N on the TF-TENG. More importantly, the TF-TENG can be successfully used to harvest biomechanical energy from human body and provides much more comfort. In general, the TF-TENG has great application prospects in sustainable wearable devices owing to its lightweight, flexibility, and high mechanical properties.

  17. Introduction of the new process and quality control methods in fuel fabrication at Siemens/ANF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogge, K.T.; Fickers, H.H.; Doerr, W.

    2000-01-01

    The central point of ANFs quality philosophy is the process of continuous improvements. With respect to the causes of defects and the efforts needed for elimination, the importance of continuous improvements is evident. In most of the cases, defects are caused in the initial stages of a product but the majority of the problems will be only detected during fabrication and inspection and in the worst case when the product is already in use. Goal of the improvement process is to assure a high product quality. Therefore, the efforts are focused on robust and centered processes. A reasonable quality planning is the basis for achieving and maintaining the quality targets. Quality planning includes prefabrication studies, in-process inspections and final inspections. The inspections provide a large amount of various quality data, process parameters as well as product proper-ties. Key data will be defined and subjected to a statistical analysis. In view of the effectiveness of the analysis, it is important, that the process parameters which influence the characteristics of the product are well known and that appropriate methods for data evaluation and visualization will be used. Main approach of the data visualization is to obtain a tighter control of the product properties and to improve the process robustness by implementation of defined improvements. With respect to the fuel safety and fuel performance, the presentation shows for typical product quality characteristics some examples of visualized quality data. The examples includes the integrity of the pellet column (rod scanner results), the spring force of PWR spacers (critical characteristic with regard to rod fretting) and the spacer intersection weld size (thermo-hydraulic fuel bundle behaviour). The presentation also includes an example for the statistical process control, the in-line surveillance of the fuel rod weld parameters which assures the integrity of the welds within tight tolerance ranges. The quality

  18. The Relation Between Structure-Performance of Thin Film Composite Membranes and the Tools Used for Their Fabrication Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briceno, Kelly; Javakhishvili, Irakli; Guo, Haofei

    For more than 30 years polyimides (PA) have been one of the main polymers for the fabrication of thin film composite membranes. Several researchers have assessed the main fabrication variables that influence the final structure of the polyamide layers including monomer concentration, solvents....... A polymeric support is initially brought in contact with the aqueous phase containing m-phenylene diamine (MPD) monomer and then with the organic phase containing the trimesoly chloride (TMC) monomer in order to promote PA formation through interfacial polymerization. The critical step occurs immediately......, or for that matter the absence of any tool using only water evaporation. In this work different methods of avoiding drop formation during the membrane preparation are tested to evaluate how the preparation methods influence the membrane structure and the final membrane properties. Understanding the membrane...

  19. Fabrication and characterization of anode-supported micro-tubular solide oxide fuel cell by phase inversion method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Cong

    Nowadays, the micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs), especially the anode supported MT-SOFCs have been extensively developed to be applied for SOFC stacks designation, which can be potentially used for portable power sources and vehicle power supply. To prepare MT-SOFCs with high electrochemical performance, one of the main strategies is to optimize the microstructure of the anode support. Recently, a novel phase inversion method has been applied to prepare the anode support with a unique asymmetrical microstructure, which can improve the electrochemical performance of the MT-SOFCs. Since several process parameters of the phase inversion method can influence the pore formation mechanism and final microstructure, it is essential and necessary to systematically investigate the relationship between phase inversion process parameters and final microstructure of the anode supports. The objective of this study is aiming at correlating the process parameters and microstructure and further preparing MT-SOFCs with enhanced electrochemical performance. Non-solvent, which is used to trigger the phase separation process, can significantly influence the microstructure of the anode support fabricated by phase inversion method. To investigate the mechanism of non-solvent affecting the microstructure, water and ethanol/water mixture were selected for the NiO-YSZ anode supports fabrication. The presence of ethanol in non-solvent can inhibit the growth of the finger-like pores in the tubes. With the increasing of the ethanol concentration in the non-solvent, a relatively dense layer can be observed both in the outside and inside of the tubes. The mechanism of pores growth and morphology obtained by using non-solvent with high concentration ethanol was explained based on the inter-diffusivity between solvent and non-solvent. Solvent and non-solvent pair with larger Dm value is benefit for the growth of finger-like pores. Three cells with different anode geometries was

  20. Fabrication of YBa2Cu3O7-δ superconducting fibers by the sol-gel method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Umeda, Tetsu; Kozuka, Hiromitsu; Sakka, Sumio

    1988-01-01

    High-T c superconducting oxide fibers were fabricated by the sol-gel method. An aqueous solution of metal acetates was concentrated to form a viscous sol, from which gel fibers were spun. The gel fibers, 5 to 1,000 μm in diameter, were converted to ceramic fibers by heating to 900 degree C. The fired fibers (T c (onset) of 94 K and T c (end) of 62.2 K) were rough and had porous microstructures

  1. Apparatus, system, and method for providing fabric-elastomer composites as pneumatic actuators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez, Ramses V.; Whitesides, George M.

    2017-10-25

    Soft pneumatic actuators based on composites consisting of elastomers with embedded sheet or fiber structures (e.g., paper or fabric) that are flexible but not extensible are described. On pneumatic inflation, these actuators move anisotropically, based on the motions accessible by their composite structures. They are inexpensive, simple to fabricate, light in weight, and easy to actuate. This class of structure is versatile: the same principles of design lead to actuators that respond to pressurization with a wide range of motions (bending, extension, contraction, twisting, and others). Paper, when used to introduce anisotropy into elastomers, can be readily folded into three-dimensional structures following the principles of origami; these folded structures increase the stiffness and anisotropy of the elastomeric actuators, while keeping them light in weight.

  2. Observations of Fabric Development in Polycrystalline Ice at Basal Pressures: Methods and Initial Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breton, D. J.; Baker, I.; Cole, D. M.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding and predicting the flow of polycrystalline ice is crucial to ice sheet modeling and paleoclimate reconstruction from ice cores. Ice flow rates depend strongly on the fabric (i.e. the distribution of grain sizes and crystallographic orientations) which evolves over time and enhances the flow rate in the direction of applied stress. The mechanisms for fabric evolution in ice have been extensively studied at atmospheric pressures, but little work has been done to observe these processes at the high pressures experienced deep within ice sheets where long-term changes in ice rheology are expected to have significance. We conducted compressive creep tests on a 917 kg m-3 polycrystalline ice specimen at 20 MPa hydrostatic pressure, thus simulating ~2,000 m depth. Initial specimen grain orientations were random, typical grain diameters were 1.2 mm, and the applied creep stress was 0.3 MPa. Subsequent microstructural analyses on the deformed specimen and a similarly prepared, undeformed specimen allowed characterization of crystal fabric evolution under pressure. Our microstructural analysis technique simultaneously collected grain shape and size data from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) micrographs and obtained crystallographic orientation data via Electron BackScatter Diffraction (EBSD). Combining these measurements allows rapid analysis of the ice fabric over large numbers of grains, yielding statistically useful numbers of grain size and full c- and a-axis grain orientation data. The combined creep and microstructural data demonstrate pressure-dependent effects on the mechanical and microstructural evolution of polycrystalline ice. We discuss possible mechanisms for the observed phenomena, and future directions for hydrostatic creep testing.

  3. Quench-age method for the fabrication of niobium--aluminum superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pickus, M.R.; Ciardella, R.L.

    1978-01-01

    A flexible Nb 3 Al superconducting wire is fabricated from a niobium-aluminum composite wire by heating to form a solid solution which is retained at room temperature as a metastable solid solution by quenching. The metastable solid solution is then transformed to the stable superconducting A-15 phase by low temperature aging. The transformation induced by aging can be controlled to yield either a multifilamentary or a solid A-15 core surrounded by ductile niobium

  4. Quench-age method for the fabrication of niobium-aluminum superconductors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pickus, Milton R.; Ciardella, Robert L.

    1978-01-01

    A flexible Nb.sub.3 Al superconducting wire is fabricated from a niobium-aluminum composite wire by heating to form a solid solution which is retained at room temperature as a metastable solid solution by quenching. The metastable solid solution is then transformed to the stable superconducting A-15 phase by low temperature aging. The transformation induced by aging can be controlled to yield either a multifilamentary or a solid A-15 core surrounded by ductile niobium.

  5. Nanomechanical Pyrolytic Carbon Resonators: Novel Fabrication Method and Characterization of Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maksymilian Kurek

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Micro- and nanomechanical string resonators, which essentially are highly stressed bridges, are of particular interest for micro- and nanomechanical sensing because they exhibit resonant behavior with exceptionally high quality factors. Here, we fabricated and characterized nanomechanical pyrolytic carbon resonators (strings and cantilevers obtained through pyrolysis of photoresist precursors. The developed fabrication process consists of only three processing steps: photolithography, dry etching and pyrolysis. Two different fabrication strategies with two different photoresists, namely SU-8 2005 (negative and AZ 5214e (positive, were compared. The resonant behavior of the pyrolytic resonators was characterized at room temperature and in high vacuum using a laser Doppler vibrometer. The experimental data was used to estimate the Young’s modulus of pyrolytic carbon and the tensile stress in the string resonators. The Young’s moduli were calculated to be 74 ± 8 GPa with SU-8 and 115 ± 8 GPa with AZ 5214e as the precursor. The tensile stress in the string resonators was 33 ± 7 MPa with AZ 5214e as the precursor. The string resonators displayed maximal quality factor values of up to 3000 for 525-µm-long structures.

  6. Eco-friendly all-carbon paper electronics fabricated by a solvent-free drawing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanaparthi, Srinivasulu; Badhulika, Sushmee

    2016-01-01

    Here we report the fabrication of high-performance all-carbon temperature and infrared (IR) sensors with a solvent-free multiwalled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) trace as the sensing element and commercial graphite pencil trace as the electrical contact on recyclable and biodegradable cellulose filter paper without using any toxic materials or complex procedures. The temperature sensor shows a large negative temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) in the range of −3100 ppm K −1 to −4900 ppm K −1 , which is comparable to available commercial temperature sensors, and an activation energy of 34.85 meV. The IR sensor shows a high responsivity of 58.5 V W −1 , which is greater than reported IR sensors with similar dimensions. A detailed study of the conduction mechanism in MWCNTs with temperature and the photo response with IR illumination was done and it was found that the conduction is due to thermally assisted hopping in band tails and the photo response is bolometric in nature. The successful fabrication of these sensors on cellulose filter paper with a comparable performance to existing components indicates that it is possible to fabricate high-performance electronics using low-cost, eco-friendly materials without the need for expensive clean-room processing techniques or harmful chemicals. (paper)

  7. Development of fabrication method for thermal expansion difference irradiation temperature monitor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noguchi, Kouichi; Takatsudo, Hiroshi; Miyakawa, Shun-ichi; Kobori, Takahisa; Miyo, Toshimasa

    1998-03-01

    This report describes the development activities for the fabrication of the Thermal Expansion Difference irradiation temperature monitor (TED) at the Oarai Engineering Center (OEC)/PNC. TED is used for various irradiation tests in the experimental fast reactor JOYO. TED is the most accurate off-line temperature monitor used for irradiation examination. The TED is composed of a metallic sphere lid and either a stainless steel or nickel alloy container. Once the container is filled with sodium, the metallic sphere lid is sealed by using a resistance weld. This capsule is then loaded into a reactor. Once a TED is loaded into the JOYO reactor, the sodium inside the metallic container increases as a result of thermal expansion. The TED identifies the peak irradiation temperature of the reactor based on a formula correlating temperature to increment values. This formula is established specifically for the particular TED being used during a calibration process performed when the TED is fabricated. Initially the TED was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) in the United States, and was imported by PNC for use in the JOYO reactor. In 1992 PNC decided to fabricate TED domestically in order to ensure the stability of future supplies. Based on technical information provided by ANL, PNC began fabrication of a TED on an experimental basis. In addition, PNC endeavored to make the domestically produced TED more efficient. This involved improving the techniques used in the sodium filling and the metallic sphere welding processes. These quality control efforts led to PNC's development of processes enabling the capsules to be filled with sodium to nearly 100%. As a result, the accuracy of the temperature dispersion in the out-pile calibration test was improved from +/-10degC to +/-5degC. In 1996 the new domestically fabricated TED was attached to a JOYO irradiation rig. In March of 1997, irradiation of the rig was started on the 30th duty cycle operation, and should be

  8. A novel method combining additive manufacturing and alloy infiltration for NdFeB bonded magnet fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ling; Tirado, Angelica; Conner, B. S.; Chi, Miaofang; Elliott, Amy M.; Rios, Orlando; Zhou, Haidong; Paranthaman, M. Parans

    2017-09-01

    In this paper, binder jetting additive manufacturing technique is employed to fabricate NdFeB isotropic bonded magnets, followed by an infiltration process with low-melting point eutectic alloys [i.e., Nd3Cu0.25Co0.75 (NdCuCo) and Pr3Cu0.25Co0.75 (PrCuCo)]. Densification and mechanical strength improvement are achieved for the as-printed porous part. Meanwhile, the intrinsic coercivity Hci is enhanced from 732 to 1345 kA/m and 1233 kA/m after diffusion of NdCuCo and PrCuCo, respectively. This study presents a novel method for fabricating complex-shaped bonded magnets with promising mechanical and magnetic properties.

  9. Magnetron Sputtering as a Fabrication Method for a Biodegradable Fe32Mn Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Till Jurgeleit

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Biodegradable metals are a topic of great interest and Fe-based materials are prominent examples. The research task is to find a suitable compromise between mechanical, corrosion, and magnetic properties. For this purpose, investigations regarding alternative fabrication processes are important. In the present study, magnetron sputtering technology in combination with UV-lithography was used in order to fabricate freestanding, microstructured Fe32Mn films. To adjust the microstructure and crystalline phase composition with respect to the requirements, the foils were post-deposition annealed under a reducing atmosphere. The microstructure and crystalline phase composition were investigated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. Furthermore, for mechanical characterization, uniaxial tensile tests were performed. The in vitro corrosion rates were determined by electrochemical polarization measurements in pseudo-physiological solution. Additionally, the magnetic properties were measured via vibrating sample magnetometry. The foils showed a fine-grained structure and a tensile strength of 712 MPa, which is approximately a factor of two higher compared to the sputtered pure Fe reference material. The yield strength was observed to be even higher than values reported in literature for alloys with similar composition. Against expectations, the corrosion rates were found to be lower in comparison to pure Fe. Since the annealed foils exist in the austenitic, and antiferromagnetic γ-phase, an additional advantage of the FeMn foils is the low magnetic saturation polarization of 0.003 T, compared to Fe with 1.978 T. This value is even lower compared to the SS 316L steel acting as a gold standard for implants, and thus enhances the MRI compatibility of the material. The study demonstrates that magnetron sputtering in combination with UV-lithography is a new concept for the fabrication of already in situ

  10. Method and alloys for fabricating wrought components for high-temperature gas-cooled reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, L.D.; Johnson, W.R.

    1983-01-01

    Wrought, nickel-based alloys, suitable for components of a high-temperature gas-cooled reactor exhibit strength and excellent resistance to carburization at elevated temperatures and include aluminum and titanium in amounts and ratios to promote the growth of carburization resistant films while preserving the wrought character of the alloys. These alloys also include substantial amounts of molybdenum and/or tungsten as solid-solution strengtheners. Chromium may be included in concentrations less than 10% to assist in fabrication. Minor amounts of carbon and one or more carbide-forming metals also contribute to high-temperature strength. The range of compositions of these alloys is given. (author)

  11. Cellulase variants with improved expression, activity and stability, and use thereof

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aehle, Wolfgang; Bott, Richard R; Bower, Benjamin; Caspi, Jonathan; Estell, David A; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus W.J.; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley; Kralj, Slavko; Van Lieshout, Johan; Nikolaev, Igor; Van Stigt Thans, Sander; Wallace, Louise; Vogtentanz, Gudrun; Sandgren, Mats

    2014-03-25

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having improved expression, activity and/or stability. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase variants, compositions comprising the cellulase variants, and methods of use thereof.

  12. Cellulase variants with improved expression, activity and stability, and use thereof

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aehle, Wolfgang; Bott, Richard R.; Bower, Benjamin S.; Caspi, Jonathan; Goedegebuur, Frits; Hommes, Ronaldus Wilhelmus Joannes; Kaper, Thijs; Kelemen, Bradley R.; Kralj, Slavko; Van Lieshout, Johannes Franciscus Thomas; Nikolaev, Igor; Wallace, Louise; Van Stigt Thans, Sander; Vogtentanz, Gudrun; Sandgren, Mats

    2016-12-20

    The present disclosure relates to cellulase variants. In particular the present disclosure relates to cellulase variants having improved expression, activity and/or stability. Also described are nucleic acids encoding the cellulase variants, compositions comprising the cellulase variants, and methods of use thereof.

  13. Fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si Ribbons by Melt Spinning Method on Large Scale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. F. Liang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Melt spinning method has been widely applied for fabrication of Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline ribbons in industry. Compared with Fe-based amorphous/nanocrystalline alloys, Fe-6.5wt%Si high silicon steel is of low cost and has comparable excellent soft magnetic properties. Due to higher melting point and absence of supercooled liquid region, fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si ribbons is very hard and is only on lab scale. In this paper, we report that large scale fabrication of Fe-6.5wt%Si ribbons was successful and microstructures, ordered structures, and mechanical and soft magnetic properties of the ribbons were investigated. Due to rapid solidification rate, the ribbons were of ultrafine grains, and low degree of order and exhibited some extent of bending and tensile ductility. After heat treatment, excellent soft magnetic properties were obtained. Due to near-zero magnetostriction, the ribbons are promising to be used in electric devices with high frequencies where low noises are required.

  14. Magnetic and Electrical Properties of Nitrogen-Doped Multiwall Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated by a Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Luisa García-Betancourt

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical vapor deposition (CVD is a preferential method to fabricate carbon nanotubes (CNTs. Several changes have been proposed to obtain improved CNTs. In this work we have fabricated nitrogen-doped multiwall carbon nanotubes (N-MWCNTs by means of a CVD which has been slightly modified. Such modification consists in changing the content of the by-product trap. Instead of acetone, we have half-filled the trap with an aqueous solution of NaCl (0–26.82 wt.%. Scanning electron microscope (SEM characterization showed morphological changes depending upon concentration of NaCl included in the trap. Using high resolution transmission electron microscopy several shape changes on the catalyst nanoparticles were also observed. According to Raman spectroscopy results N-MWCNTs fabricated using pure distillate water exhibit better crystallinity. Resistivity measurements performed on different samples by physical properties measurement Evercool system (PPMS showed metallic to semiconducting temperature dependent transitions when high content of NaCl is used. Results of magnetic properties show a ferromagnetic response to static magnetic fields and the coercive fields were very similar for all the studied cases. However, saturation magnetization is decreased if aqueous solution of NaCl is used in the trap.

  15. Fabrication of recyclable superhydrophobic cotton fabrics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Sang Wook; Park, Eun Ji; Jeong, Myung-Geun; Kim, Il Hee; Seo, Hyun Ook; Kim, Ju Hwan; Kim, Kwang-Dae; Kim, Young Dok

    2017-04-01

    Commercial cotton fabric was coated with SiO2 nanoparticles wrapped with a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) layer, and the resulting material surface showed a water contact angle greater than 160°. The superhydrophobic fabric showed resistance to water-soluble contaminants and maintained its original superhydrophobic properties with almost no alteration even after many times of absorption-washing cycles of oil. Moreover, superhydrophobic fabric can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. We demonstrated a simple method of fabrication of superhydrophobic fabric with potential interest for use in a variety of applications.

  16. Novel method of fabricating individual trays for maxillectomy patients by computer-aided design and rapid prototyping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhi; Wang, Xin-zhi; Hou, Yue-Zhong

    2015-02-01

    Making impressions for maxillectomy patients is an essential but difficult task. This study developed a novel method to fabricate individual trays by computer-aided design (CAD) and rapid prototyping (RP) to simplify the process and enhance patient safety. Five unilateral maxillectomy patients were recruited for this study. For each patient, a computed tomography (CT) scan was taken. Based on the 3D surface reconstruction of the target area, an individual tray was manufactured by CAD/RP. With a conventional custom tray as control, two final impressions were made using the different types of tray for each patient. The trays were sectioned, and in each section the thickness of the material was measured at six evenly distributed points. Descriptive statistics and paired t-test were used to examine the difference of the impression thickness. SAS 9.3 was applied in the statistical analysis. Afterwards, all casts were then optically 3D scanned and compared digitally to evaluate the feasibility of this method. Impressions of all five maxillectomy patients were successfully made with individual trays fabricated by CAD/RP and traditional trays. The descriptive statistics of impression thickness measurement showed slightly more uneven results in the traditional trays, but no statistical significance was shown. A 3D digital comparison showed acceptable discrepancies within 1 mm in the majority of cast areas. The largest difference of 3 mm was observed in the buccal wall of the defective areas. Moderate deviations of 1 to 2 mm were detected in the buccal and labial vestibular groove areas. This study confirmed the feasibility of a novel method of fabricating individual trays by CAD/RP. Impressions made by individual trays manufactured using CAD/RP had a uniform thickness, with an acceptable level of accuracy compared to those made through conventional processes. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  17. Two methods to prepare nanorings/nanoholes for the fabrication of vertical nanotransistors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peng Xiaofeng; Kamiya, Itaru

    2008-01-01

    A self-assembled monolayer of polystyrene (PS) beads is formed on a silicon wafer by spin-coating. After drying at 80 deg. C, a thin film of metal/oxide is deposited. During the deposition, the PS beads are detached due to forces such as the inner stress induced by plasma sputtering deposition, mechanical vibration, and centrifugal shearing induced by substrate rotation, resulting in nanoring/nanohole formation. Further experiments demonstrate that the PS detachment can be controlled by scanning probe microscopy (SPM) tip manipulation. We believe this is a promising set of processes for fabricating nanodevice structures such as those of vertical nanotransistors, which provides high flexibility for nanocrystal characterizations and application for single-electron devices

  18. Novel epoxy-free construction method for fabricating dipole magnets and test results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, C.; Althaus, R.; Caspi, S.; Gilbert, W.S.; Hassenzahl, W.; Meuser, R.; Rechen, J.; Warren, R.

    1981-01-01

    Three model superconducting dipole magnets, lm length and having a bore diameter of 76mm, fabricated without epoxy resins or other adhesives, have been built and the first two have been tested in He I and He II. The conductor is the 23-strand Rutherford-type cable used in the Fermilab Doubler/Saver magnets, and is insulated with Mylar and Kapton. The two-layer winding is highly compessed by a system of structural support rings and tapered collets. Little training was required. Quench currents greater than 95% of short sample were obtained in He I with rise-times of 15 to 20 seconds to a central field of 4.6 T; 6.0 T in Helium II

  19. Antimicrobial activity of biopolymer–antibiotic thin films fabricated by advanced pulsed laser methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cristescu, R., E-mail: rodica.cristescu@inflpr.ro [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Popescu, C.; Dorcioman, G.; Miroiu, F.M.; Socol, G.; Mihailescu, I.N. [National Institute for Lasers, Plasma and Radiation Physics, Lasers Department, P.O. Box MG-36, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Gittard, S.D.; Miller, P.R.; Narayan, R.J. [Biomedical Engineering, University of North Carolina and North Carolina State University, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-7575 (United States); Enculescu, M. [National Institute for Materials Physics, PO Box MG-7, Bucharest-Magurele (Romania); Chrisey, D.B. [Tulane University, Department of Physics and Engineering Physics, New Orleans, LA (United States)

    2013-08-01

    We report on thin film deposition by matrix assisted pulsed laser evaporation (MAPLE) of two polymer–drug composite thin film systems. A pulsed KrF* excimer laser source (λ = 248 nm, τ = 25 ns, ν = 10 Hz) was used to deposit composite thin films of poly(D,L-lactide) (PDLLA) containing several gentamicin concentrations. FTIR spectroscopy was used to demonstrate that MAPLE-transferred materials exhibited chemical structures similar to those of drop cast materials. Scanning electron microscopy data indicated that MAPLE may be used to fabricate thin films of good morphological quality. The activity of PDLLA–gentamicin composite thin films against Staphylococcus aureus bacteria was demonstrated using drop testing. The influence of drug concentration on microbial viability was also assessed. Our studies indicate that polymer–drug composite thin films prepared by MAPLE may be used to impart antimicrobial activity to implants, medical devices, and other contact surfaces.

  20. Review on the explosive consolidation methods to fabricate tungsten based PFMs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Shuming, E-mail: wangshuming@ustb.edu.cn; Sun, Chongxiao; Guo, Wenhao; Yan, Qingzhi; Zhou, Zhangjian; Zhang, Yingchun; Shen, Weiping; Ge, Changchun

    2014-12-15

    Tungsten is one of the best candidates for plasma-facing materials in the fusion reactors, owing to its many unique properties. In the development of tungsten-based Plasma Facing Materials/Components (PFMs/PFCs), materials scientists have explored many different, innovative preparation and processing routes to meet the requirement of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Some explosive consolidation technology intrinsic characteristics, which make it suitable for powder metallurgy (powders consolidation) and PFMs production, are the high pressure processing, highly short heating time and can be considered as a highly competitive green technology. In this work, an overview of explosive consolidation techniques applied to fabricate tungsten-based PFMs is presented. Emphasis is given to describe the main characteristics and potentialities of the explosive sintering, explosive consolidation techniques. The aspects presented and discussed in this paper indicate the explosive consolidation processes as a promising and competitive technology for tungsten-based PFMs processing.

  1. A Novel Method of Fabricating Flexible Transparent Conductive Large Area Graphene Film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fan Tian-Ju; Yuan Chun-Qiu; Tang Wei; Tong Song-Zhao; Huang Wei; Min Yong-Gang; Liu Yi-Dong; Epstein, Arthur J.

    2015-01-01

    We fabricate flexible conductive and transparent graphene films on position-emission-tomography substrates and prepare large area graphene films by graphite oxide sheets with the new technical process. The multi-layer graphene oxide sheets can be chemically reduced by HNO 3 and HI to form a highly conductive graphene film on a substrate at lower temperature. The reduced graphene oxide sheets show a high conductivity sheet with resistance of 476 Ω/sq and transmittance of 76% at 550 nm (6 layers). The technique used to produce the transparent conductive graphene thin film is facile, inexpensive, and can be tunable for a large area production applied for electronics or touch screens. (paper)

  2. Fabrication of biomimetic superhydrophobic surface on engineering materials by a simple electroless galvanic deposition method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianghui; Zhang, Zhaozhu; Yang, Jin

    2010-03-02

    We have reported an easy means in this paper to imitate the "lotus leaf" by constructing a superhydrophobic surface through a process combining both electroless galvanic deposition and self-assembly of n-octadecanethiol. Superhydrophobicity with a static water contact angle of about 169 +/- 2 degrees and a sliding angle of 0 +/- 2 degrees was achieved. Both the surface chemical compositions and morphological structures were analyzed. We have obtained a feather-like surface structure, and the thickness of the Ag film is about 10-30 microm. The stability of the superhydrophobic surface was tested under the following three conditions: (1) pH value from 1 to 13; (2) after freezing treatment at -20 degrees C; (3) at ambient temperature. It shows a notable stability in that the contact angle of the sample still remained higher than 150 degrees in different conditions. It can be concluded that our approach can provide an alternative way to fabricate stable superhydrophobic materials.

  3. A new method of fabricating a blend scaffold using an indirect three-dimensional printing technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Hyungseok; Hong, Jung Min; Park, Jeong Hun; Cho, Dong-Woo; Shim, Jung Hee; Choi, Tae Hyun

    2015-01-01

    Due to its simplicity and effectiveness, the physical blending of polymers is considered to be a practical strategy for developing a versatile scaffold having desirable mechanical and biochemical properties. In the present work, an indirect three-dimensional (i3D) printing technique was proposed to fabricate a 3D free-form scaffold using a blend of immiscible materials, such as polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin. The i3D printing technique includes 3D printing of a mold and a sacrificial molding process. PCL/chloroform and gelatin/water were physically mixed to prepare the blend solution, which was subsequently injected into the cavity of a 3D printed mold. After solvent removal and gelatin cross-linking, the mold was dissolved to obtain a PCL–gelatin (PG) scaffold, with a specific 3D structure. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that PCL masses and gelatin fibers in the PG scaffold homogenously coexisted without chemical bonding. Compression tests confirmed that gelatin incorporation into the PCL enhanced its mechanical flexibility and softness, to the point of being suitable for soft-tissue engineering, as opposed to pure PCL. Human adipose-derived stem cells, cultured on a PG scaffold, exhibited enhanced in vitro chondrogenic differentiation and tissue formation, compared with those on a PCL scaffold. The i3D printing technique can be used to blend a variety of materials, facilitating 3D scaffold fabrication for specific tissue regeneration. Furthermore, this convenient and versatile technique may lead to wider application of 3D printing in tissue engineering. (paper)

  4. Review Article: Fabricated Microparticles: An Innovative Method to Minimize the Side Effects of NSAIDs in Arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abadi, Shaivad Shabee Hulhasan; Moin, Afrasim; Veerabhadrappa, Gangadharappa Hosahalli

    2016-01-01

    Microparticles are polymeric bodies ranging 1-1000 µm that constitute a variety of forms such as microcapsules, microspheres, microcages, microshells, microrods, biosensors microparticles, radiolabeled microparticles, and so forth. This review focuses on general microparticles, mainly microcapsules and microspheres. Nonsteriodal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the mostcommonly prescribed medications in the world. Most of the NSAIDs available have severe side effects. With increased awareness of NSAID-induced gastrointestinal (GI) side effects, safety has become a priority in treatment of arthritis and other inflammatory diseases with NSAIDs. A trend in NSAID development has been to improve therapeutic efficacy while reducing the severity of GI side effects by altering dosage through modified release to optimize drug delivery. One such approach is the use of fabricated microparticles such as microcapsules and microspheres as carriers of drugs. Microparticles provide delivery of macromolecules and micromolecules via different routes and effectively control the release profile of such drugs. Microcapsules and microspheres are compatible with most natural and synthetic polymers and can be used for several routes of administration, including parenteral, oral, nasal, intra-ocular, topical, and the like. Because of greater stability and multiple manufacturing techniques, microspheres and microcapsules are preferred as drug carriers over other colloidal drug delivery systems. Microparticles provide effective protection of the encapsulated agent against degradation by enzymatic activities, controlled and confined delivery of drugs from a few hours to months, and ingenious administration compared to alternative forms of controlled-release parenteral dosages, such as macro-sized implants. This comprehensive overview of fabricated microparticles describes microencapsulation technologies to produce microparticles for targeted therapy of arthritis and other

  5. A new method of fabricating a blend scaffold using an indirect three-dimensional printing technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jin Woo; Lee, Hyungseok; Hong, Jung Min; Park, Jeong Hun; Shim, Jung Hee; Choi, Tae Hyun; Cho, Dong-Woo

    2015-11-03

    Due to its simplicity and effectiveness, the physical blending of polymers is considered to be a practical strategy for developing a versatile scaffold having desirable mechanical and biochemical properties. In the present work, an indirect three-dimensional (i3D) printing technique was proposed to fabricate a 3D free-form scaffold using a blend of immiscible materials, such as polycaprolactone (PCL) and gelatin. The i3D printing technique includes 3D printing of a mold and a sacrificial molding process. PCL/chloroform and gelatin/water were physically mixed to prepare the blend solution, which was subsequently injected into the cavity of a 3D printed mold. After solvent removal and gelatin cross-linking, the mold was dissolved to obtain a PCL-gelatin (PG) scaffold, with a specific 3D structure. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis indicated that PCL masses and gelatin fibers in the PG scaffold homogenously coexisted without chemical bonding. Compression tests confirmed that gelatin incorporation into the PCL enhanced its mechanical flexibility and softness, to the point of being suitable for soft-tissue engineering, as opposed to pure PCL. Human adipose-derived stem cells, cultured on a PG scaffold, exhibited enhanced in vitro chondrogenic differentiation and tissue formation, compared with those on a PCL scaffold. The i3D printing technique can be used to blend a variety of materials, facilitating 3D scaffold fabrication for specific tissue regeneration. Furthermore, this convenient and versatile technique may lead to wider application of 3D printing in tissue engineering.

  6. Fabrication of agarose concave petridish for 3D-culture microarray method for spheroids formation of hepatic cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Binbin; Li, Yang; Wang, Gaoshang; Jia, Zhidong; Li, Haiyan; Peng, Qing; Gao, Yi

    2018-04-19

    Liver is one of the most important organ in the body. But there are many limitations about liver transplantation for liver failure. It is quite important to develop the xenogeneic biological liver for providing an alternation to transplantation or liver regeneration. In this paper, we proposed a method to construct a novel kind of agarose 3D-culture concave microwell array for spheroids formation of hepatic cells. Using the 3D printing method, the microwell array was fabricated with an overall size of 6.4 mm × 6.4 mm, containing 121 microwells with 400 μm width/400 μm thickness. By exploiting the Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes as a bridge, we finally fabricated the agarose one. We co-cultured three types of liver cells with bionics design in the microwell arrays. Using the methods described above, the resulting co-formed hepatocyte spheroids maintained the high viability and stable liver-specific functions. This engineered agarose concave microwell array could be a potentially useful tool for forming the elements for biological liver support. After developing the complete system, we also would consider to scale up the application of this system. It will be not only applied to the therapy of human organ damage, but also to the development of disease models and drug screening models.

  7. Development of a method for fabricating polypropylene non-articulated dorsiflexion assist ankle foot orthoses with predetermined stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsey, Jason Allan

    2011-03-01

    A non-articulated plantarflexion resist ankle foot orthosis (AFO), commonly known as a posterior leaf spring AFO, is indicated for patients with motor impairment to the dorsiflexors. The AFO is often custom molded to a patient's lower limb anatomy and fabricated from polypropylene. There are no established guidelines for fabricating this type of AFO with predetermined stiffness of the ankle region for normal walking speeds. Therefore an AFO may not meet the biomechanical needs of the patient. Quantify the biomechanical ankle stiffness requirement for an individual with complete dorsiflexor impairment and develop a method for fabricating an AFO with ankle stiffness to meet that requirement. Experimental, bench research. The literature on sagittal biomechanics of non-pathological adults was reviewed to derive the stiffness of the ankle during loading response. Computer models of 144 AFOs were created with geometric variations to account for differences in human anthropometrics. Computer-based finite element analysis was employed to determine the stiffness and safety factor of the models. Stiffness of the AFOs ranged from 0.04 to 1.8 Nm/deg. This ample range is expected to account for the stiffness required for most adults with complete dorsiflexor impairment. At 5° deflection the factor of safety (ratio of strength to stress) ranged from 2.8 to 9.1. A computer program was generated that computes AFO stiffness from user-input variables of AFO geometry. The stiffness is compared to a theoretically appropriate stiffness based on the patient mass. The geometric variables can be modified until there is a close match, resulting in AFO design specification that is appropriate for the patient. Through validation on human subjects, this method may benefit patient outcomes in clinical practice by avoiding the current uncertainty surrounding AFO performance and reducing the labor and time involved in rectifying a custom AFO post-fabrication. This method provides an avenue for

  8. Development of end plug welding method in the fabrication of FBR fuel pins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtani, Seiji; Sawayama, Takeo; Tateishi, Yoshinori

    1977-01-01

    As a part of the development of the automatic and remote controlled fabrication of FBR fuel pins, welding of fuel pin end plugs has been examined. Cladding tubes and end plugs used for this experiment are made of SUS 316, and they are the components of fuel pins for the prototype fast breeder reactor (Monju) or the second core of Joyo (Joyo MK-II). The welding tests of cladding tubes and four kinds of end plugs were carried out by means of two techniques; tungsten inert gas welding and laser welding. It can be said that no considerable difference was observed in weld penetration, occurrence rate of weld defects and breaking strength between the tight fit and the loose fit plugs. The face-to-face fit welding requires the least welding heat input, but involves much difficulty in the control of weld penetration and bead zone diameter. The good concentrative property and high energy density of laser beam make the face of weld hollow due to the vaporization of weld metal. However, this problem can be easily solved by changing the shape of end plugs. Good results in the other characteristics of the weld also were obtained by this laser welding. Further experiment is needed in connection with the compatibility of weld metal with sodium and neutron irradiation before final judgement is made on the laser welding technique. (Nakai, Y.)

  9. Comparative Investigation of Tungsten Fibre Nets Reinforced Tungsten Composite Fabricated by Three Different Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linhui Zhang

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Tungsten fibre nets reinforced tungsten composites (Wf/W containing four net layers were fabricated by spark plasma sintering (SPS, hot pressing (HP and cold rolling after HP (HPCR, with the weight fraction of fibres being 17.4%, 10.5% and 10.5%, respectively. The relative density of the HPCRed samples is the highest (99.8% while that of the HPed composites is the lowest (95.1%. Optical and scanning electron microscopy and electron back scattering diffraction were exploited to characterize the microstructure, while tensile and hardness tests were used to evaluate the mechanical properties of the samples. It was found that partial recrystallization of fibres occurred after the sintering at 1800 °C. The SPSed and HPed Wf/W composites begin to exhibit plastic deformation at 600 °C with tensile strength (TS of 536 and 425 MPa and total elongation at break (TE of 11.6% and 23.0%, respectively, while the HPCRed Wf/W composites exhibit plastic deformation at around 400 °C. The TS and TE of the HPCRed Wf/W composites at 400 °C are 784 MPa and 8.4%, respectively. The enhanced mechanical performance of the Wf/W composites over the pure tungsten can be attributed to the necking, cracking, and debonding of the tungsten fibres.

  10. Development and testing of a superconducting acceleration resonator using new methods in design and fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Steck, M.

    1986-01-01

    A superconducting quarter-wave resonator at 325 MHz was studied for the implementation at the Heidelberg post-accelerator. Using the computer programs SUPERFISH and URMEL the first design derived from analytical approaches was optimized regarding the superconducting operation. The measurements on the model showed good agreement with the calculations. By modification of the standard techniques the fabrication of the resonator body and the preparation of the superconducting surface could be simplified. On the superconducting resonator 1 μm thick superconducting surfaces of pure lead as well as a lead/tin alloy were tested. Thereby with lead a quality of the resonator Q 0 =8.5.10 7 and a maximal electrical acceleration field in the continuous region of epsilonsub(acc)=2.16 MV/m at Q=1.10 7 were reached. The measurements with a surface of lead/tin yielded Q 0 =1.4.10 8 and as maximal acceleration field epsilonsub(acc)=1.93 MV/m at Q=1.10 7 . A further increasing of the maximal electric field by conditioning of the resonator can be expected because of the test results. The excellent mechanical stability not reachable with other resonator types which manifests by a static frequency shift of 4 Hz/(MV/m) 2 and rapid frequency oscillations [de

  11. Automotive assessment of carbon-silicon composite anodes and methods of fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karulkar, Mohan; Blaser, Rachel; Kudla, Bob

    2015-01-01

    To assess the potential of carbon silicon composite anodes for automotive applications, C-Si anodes were fabricated and certain improvements employed. The use of a PVDF buffer layer is demonstrated for the first time with a C-Si composite material. The buffer layer increases adhesion by 89%, and increases capacity by 50-80%. Also, a limited capacity range is employed to improve cycle life by up to 200%, and enable currents as high as 2 mA cm-1. The combined use of a buffer layer and limited capacity range has not been reported before. A model is also presented for comparing C-Si performance with real-world automotive targets from USABC, including energy density, power density, specific energy, and specific power. The analysis reveals a capacity penalty that arises from pairing C-Si with a traditional cathode (NCA), and which prevents the cell from meeting all targets. Scenarios are presented in which a higher-capacity cathode (250 mAh g-1) allows all targets to be hypothetically met.

  12. Electrochemical properties of Sn/C nanoparticles fabricated by redox treatment and pulsed wire evaporation method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Ju-Seok; Cho, Gyu-Bong; Ahn, Jou-Hyeon; Cho, Kwon-Koo

    2017-09-01

    Tin (Sn) based anode materials are the most promising anode materials for lithium-ion batteries due to their high theoretical capacity corresponding to the formation of Li4.4Sn composition (Li4.4Sn, 994 mAh/g). However, the applications of tin based anodes to lithium-ion battery system are generally limited by a large volume change (>260%) during lithiation and delithiation cycle, which causes pulverize and poor cycling stability. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we fabricate a Sn/C nanoparticle with a yolk-shell structure (Sn/void/C) by using pulsed wire evaporation process and oxidation/reduction heat treatment. Sn nanoparticles are encapsulated by a conductive carbon layer with structural buffer that leaves enough room for expansion and contraction during lithium insertion/desertion. We expect that the yolk-shell structure has the ability to accommodate the volume changes of tin and leading to an improved cycle performance. The Sn/Void/C anode with yolk-shell structure shows a high specific capacity of 760 mAh/g after 50 cycles.

  13. Characteristics of via-hole interconnections fabricated by using an inkjet printing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Suk; You, In Kyu; Koo, Jae Bon; Lee, Sang Seok; Lim, Sang Chul; Kang, Seong Youl; Noh, Yong Young

    2010-01-01

    Inkjet printing is a familiar technique that creates and releases droplets of fluid on demand and precisely deposits those droplets on a substrate. It has received increased attention for its novelty and ability to produce patterned and template material structures. In the application of electronic interconnection fabrication, drop-on-demand inkjet printers especially offer the advantages of contactless printing and eliminat the use of a die or photomask. In this study, we created a via-hole interconnecting structure through a polymer insulator layer by using an inkjet printing. When the droplets of Ag ink were dropped onto a PMMA/Au/Cr/SiO 2 /Si area and the Ag film was annealed at high temperatures, the Ag ink containing solvents penetrated into the PMMA layer and generated the conducting paths between the top Ag and the bottom Au electrodes by partial dissolution and swelling of the polymer. The surface and the cross-sectional topologies of the formed via-holes were investigated by using an optical microscope and a field emission transmission electron microscope.

  14. Fabrication Of Scaffolds From Ti6Al4V Powders Using The Computer Aided Laser Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrzański L.A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the research, the results of which are presented in the paper, is to fabricate, by Selective Laser Melting (SLM, a metallic scaffold with Ti6Al4V powder based on a virtual model corresponding to the actual loss of a patient’s craniofacial bone. A plaster cast was made for a patient with a palate recess, and the cast was then scanned with a 3D scanner to create a virtual 3D model of a palate recess, according to which a 3D model of a solid implant was created using specialist software. The virtual 3D solid implant model was converted into a 3D porous implant model after designing an individual shape of the unit cell conditioning the size and three-dimensional shape of the scaffold pores by multiplication of unit cells. The data concerning a virtual 3D porous implant model was transferred into a selective laser melting (SLM device and a metallic scaffold was produced from Ti6Al4V powder with this machine, which was subjected to surface treatment by chemical etching. An object with certain initially adopted assumptions, i.e. shape and geometric dimensions, was finally achieved, which perfectly matches the patient bone recesses. The scaffold created was subjected to micro-and spectroscopic examinations.

  15. Sol–gel method to fabricate CaP scaffolds by robocasting for tissue engineering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Qiang; Saiz, Eduardo; Tomsia, Antoni P.

    2012-01-01

    Highly porous calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffolds for bone-tissue engineering were fabricated by combining a robocasting process with a sol–gel synthesis that mixed Calcium Nitrate Tetrahydrate and Triethyl Phosphite precursors in an aqueous medium. The resulting gels were used to print scaffolds by robocasting without the use of binder to increase the viscosity of the paste. X-ray diffraction analysis confirmed that the process yielded hydroxyapatite and β-tricalcium phosphate biphasic composite powders. Thus, the scaffold composition after crystallization of the amorphous structure could be easily modified by varying the initial Ca/P ratio during synthesis. The compressive strengths of the scaffolds are ~6 MPa, which is in the range of human cancellous bone (2–12 MPa). These highly porous scaffolds (~73 vol% porosity) are composed of macro-pores of ~260 μm in size; such porosity is expected to enable bone ingrowth into the scaffold for bone repair applications. The chemistry, porosity, and surface topography of such scaffolds can also be modified by the process parameters to favor bone formation. The studied sol–gel process can be used to coat these scaffolds by dip-coating, which induces a significant enhancement of mechanical properties. This can adjust scaffold properties such as composition and surface morphology, which consequently may improve their performances. PMID:22311079

  16. A simple method to fabricate an NIR detector by PbTe nanowires in a large scale

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baghchesara, Mohammad Amin; Yousefi, Ramin; Cheraghizade, Mohsen; Jamali-Sheini, Farid; Saáedi, Abdolhossein; Mahmmoudian, M.R.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • PbTe nanowires were grown by tellurization of the Pb sheets for the first time. • It was observed a band gap value for the PbTe nanostructures in the NIR region. • NIR detector was fabricated in a large scale using a simple method. • Effect of Te concentration on morphology of PbTe nanostructures was investigated. - Abstract: A simple method was used to fabricate a near-infrared (NIR) detector using PbTe nanostructures. Samples were synthesized by tellurization of lead sheets in a tube furnace. PbTe nanostructures with wires and flakes shapes were grown on the lead sheets that were placed at 300 and 330 °C, respectively, while, PbTe nanoporous were grown at 360 and 390 °C. X-ray diffraction patterns and X-ray photoelectron spectra results indicated that, the PbTe phase was formed in all samples. UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectra measurements showed a band gap for the PbTe nanostructures in the near-infrared region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Actually, the results indicated that, the band gap values of the PbTe nanowires and nanoporous were 1.54 eV and 1.61 eV, respectively. Finally, the PbTe nanostructures were used as a simple photoresponse device under a red light source. The photoresponse results revealed, PbTe nanowires are promising for photoelectrical applications in the NIR region.

  17. Interfacial characteristics of diamond/aluminum composites with high thermal conductivity fabricated by squeeze-casting method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jiang, Longtao, E-mail: longtaojiang@163.com [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Wang, Pingping [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Xiu, Ziyang [Skate Key Laboratory of Advanced Welding and Joining, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Chen, Guoqin [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Lin, Xiu [Heilongjiang Academy of Industrial Technology, Harbin 150001 (China); Dai, Chen; Wu, Gaohui [Department of Material Science and Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001 (China)

    2015-08-15

    In this work, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (diamond/aluminum composites) were fabricated by squeeze casting method. The material exhibited a thermal conductivity as high as 613 W / (m · K). The obtained composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope in terms of the (100) and (111) facets of diamond particles. The diamond particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed in the aluminum matrix. The diamond{sub (111)}/Al interface was found to be devoid of reaction products. While at the diamond{sub (100)}/Al interface, large-sized aluminum carbides (Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}) with twin-crystal structure were identified. The interfacial characteristics were believed to be responsible for the excellent thermal conductivity of the material. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Squeeze casting method was introduced to fabricate diamond/Al composite. • Sound interfacial bonding with excellent thermal conductivity was produced. • Diamond{sub (111)}/ aluminum interface was firstly characterized by TEM/HRTEM. • Physical combination was the controlling bonding for diamond{sub (111)}/aluminum. • The growth mechanism of Al{sub 4}C{sub 3} was analyzed by crystallography theory.

  18. An environmentally friendly method for the fabrication of reduced graphene oxide foam with a super oil absorption capacity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    He, Yongqiang; Liu, Yue; Wu, Tao; Ma, Junkui; Wang, Xingrui; Gong, Qiaojuan; Kong, Weina; Xing, Fubao; Liu, Yu; Gao, Jianping

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • RGO foams were fabricated from GO foams prepared by freeze-drying methods. • The RGO foams made from 2% GO suspension had a maximum value of 122 g g −1 for oil. • The RGO foams had a maximum value of 99 g g −1 for organic solvents. • The RGO foams can be used as a filter to separate oil from water. -- Abstract: Three kinds of graphene oxide (GO) foams were fabricated using different freezing methods (unidirectional freezing drying (UDF), non-directional freezing drying, and air freezing drying), and the corresponding reduced graphene oxide (RGO) foams were prepared by their thermal reduction of those GO foams. These RGO foams were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, thermal gravimetric analysis, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy. The absorption process and the factors that influence the absorption capacity were investigated. The RGO foams are hydrophobic and showed extremely high absorbing abilities for organic liquids. The absorption capacity of the RGO foams made by UDF was higher than 100 g g −1 for all the oils tested (gasoline, diesel oil, pump oil, lubricating oil and olive oil) and had the highest value of about 122 g g −1 for olive oil. The oil absorption capacity of the GO foams was lower than that of the RGO foams, but for olive oil, the absorption capacity was still high than 70 g g −1 , which is higher than that of most oil absorbents

  19. Interfacial characteristics of diamond/aluminum composites with high thermal conductivity fabricated by squeeze-casting method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Longtao; Wang, Pingping; Xiu, Ziyang; Chen, Guoqin; Lin, Xiu; Dai, Chen; Wu, Gaohui

    2015-01-01

    In this work, aluminum matrix composites reinforced with diamond particles (diamond/aluminum composites) were fabricated by squeeze casting method. The material exhibited a thermal conductivity as high as 613 W / (m · K). The obtained composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope in terms of the (100) and (111) facets of diamond particles. The diamond particles were observed to be homogeneously distributed in the aluminum matrix. The diamond (111) /Al interface was found to be devoid of reaction products. While at the diamond (100) /Al interface, large-sized aluminum carbides (Al 4 C 3 ) with twin-crystal structure were identified. The interfacial characteristics were believed to be responsible for the excellent thermal conductivity of the material. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • Squeeze casting method was introduced to fabricate diamond/Al composite. • Sound interfacial bonding with excellent thermal conductivity was produced. • Diamond (111) / aluminum interface was firstly characterized by TEM/HRTEM. • Physical combination was the controlling bonding for diamond (111) /aluminum. • The growth mechanism of Al 4 C 3 was analyzed by crystallography theory

  20. Silica/Perfluoropolymer nanocomposites fabricated by direct melt-compounding: a novel method without surface modification on nano-silica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanahashi, Mitsuru; Hirose, Masaki; Watanabe, Yusuke; Lee, Jeong-Chang; Takeda, Kunihiko

    2007-07-01

    A novel method for the fabrication of silica/perfluoropolymer nanocomposites was investigated, whereby nano-sized silica particles without surface modification were dispersed uniformly through mechanical breakdown of loosely packed agglomerates of silica nanoparticles with low fracture strength in a polymer melt during direct melt-compounding. The method consists of two stages. The first stage involves preparation of the loose silica agglomerate, and the second stage involves melt-compounding of a completely hydrophobic perfluoropolymer, poly(tetrafluoroethyleneco-perfluoropropylvinylether), with the loose silica agglomerates prepared in the first stage. In the first stage, the packing structure and the fracture strength of the silica agglomerate were controlled by destabilizing an aqueous colloidal silica solution with a mean primary diameter of 190 nm via pH control and salt addition. In the next stage, the silica/perfluoropolymer nanocomposite was fabricated by breaking down the prepared loose silica agglomerates with low fracture strength by means of a shear force inside the polymer melt during melt-compounding.

  1. 77 FR 65713 - Certain Optoelectronic Devices for Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-10-30

    ... Fiber Optic Communications, Components Thereof, and Products Containing the Same; Notice of Institution... certain optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing... optoelectronic devices for fiber optic communications, components thereof, and products containing the same that...

  2. 76 FR 78693 - Certain Electric Fireplaces, Components Thereof, and Manuals for Same, Processes for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-19

    ... INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION [DN 2865] Certain Electric Fireplaces, Components Thereof, and... Commission has received a complaint entitled In Re Certain Electric Fireplaces, Components Thereof, and... fireplaces, components thereof, and manuals for same, processes for manufacturing or relating to same, and...

  3. Fabrication Method of the Mo-99 Target with Advanced Planar Flow Casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, M. S.; Lee, J. H. [Chungnam University, Green Energy Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, C. K.; Woo, Y. M. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-05-15

    Mo-99 is a parent isotope of Tc-99m for medical diagnosis and very significant owing to its large fraction over 80% of the whole demand of medical radioisotopes in the all countries. Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by {sup 235}U which is extracting fission products. All the major providers of fission Mo have used HEU as a target material. But RERTR program that is non-proliferation policy encourages using HEU to LEU. KAERI has developed a processing to be able to produce a uranium foil continuously at one go. This processing gave an opportunity for LEU target using uranium foil to be commercialized. It correspond RERTR program. KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by PFC. This process is simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the foil{center_dot}{center_dot}{center_dot}s air-side surface is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 205 {mu}m. This roughness could affect target fabrication and irradiation behavior. After issuing this problem KAERI launched a further effort since 2008. A new equipment was designed and manufactured in the industry in 2009. While the new equipment being test-operating, some occurrence of appearing problems appeared. Since 2010, Equipment was moved to KAERI, we performed many experiments using depleted uranium, and go get satisfied some results. We have got interesting results and manufactured uranium foil. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 87 {mu}m and a maximum thickness of 194 {mu}m. However, the average thickness is 130 {mu}m as a result of measurement by a micrometer

  4. Fabrication Method of the Mo-99 Target with Advanced Planar Flow Casting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, M. S.; Lee, J. H.; Kim, C. K.; Kim, W. J.

    2011-01-01

    Mo-99 is a parent isotope of Tc-99m for medical diagnosis and very significant owing to its large fraction over 80% of the whole demand of medical radioisotopes in the all countries. Mo-99 isotope has been produced mainly by 235 U which is extracting fission products. All the major providers of fission Mo have used HEU as a target material. But RERTR program that is nonproliferation policy encourages using HEU to LEU. KAERI has developed a processing to be able to produce a uranium foil continuously at one go. This processing gave an opportunity for LEU target using uranium foil to be commercialized. It correspond RERTR program. KAERI developed a new process of making foil directly from uranium melt by PFC. This process is simple, productive, and cost-effective. But the foil's air-side surface is generally very rough. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 65 μm and a maximum thickness of 205 μm. This roughness could affect target fabrication and irradiation behavior. After issuing this problem KAERI launched a further effort since 2008. A new equipment was designed and manufactured in the industry in 2009. While the new equipment being test-operating, some occurrence of appearing problems appeared. Since 2010, Equipment was moved to KAERI, we performed many experiments using depleted uranium, and go get satisfied some results. We have got interesting results and manufactured uranium foil. A typical transverse cross section had a minimum thickness of 87 μm and a maximum thickness of 194 μm. The average thickness is 120 μm as a result of calculation

  5. Fabrication and properties of Y-Ba-Cu-O high Tc superconductor by upset-forging method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Ho Jung; Kang, Kae Myung; Song, Jin Tae

    1990-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x oxide superconductors was fabricated by sintering process and upset-forging method, respectively, and microstructures and conduction properties were compared. There was no difference in crystal structure the (001) x-ray reflection presumably due to preferred crystal orientation of the YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconductor. Furthermore, the grain size of the 123-phase increased as the reduction ratio became larger during the upset-forging. The critical temperature for zero resistivity of both samples was almost the same, i.e., about 90K. These results have demonstrated the potential of producing YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x superconducting wire or tape effectively using a upset-forging method. The critical current density of the upset-forged sample, however, was lower than that of the sintered one, which fact might be ascribed to microcrack formation during fast upset-forging. (Author)

  6. The Temporal Fabric of Research Methods: Posthuman Social Science and the Digital Data Deluge

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Freitas, Elizabeth

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to adumbrate methods more suitable to a posthuman social science, so as to better attend to the digital datafication of life. Five core functions of research method are presented. The first three--the desire for origins, the need to exclude, and the establishment of a regime of labour--often reinstate social orders and…

  7. Nanocomposite Thin Film of Poly(3-aminobenzoic acid and Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Fabricated through an Electrochemical Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paphawadee Netsuwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The composite thin films of poly(3-aminobenzoic acid (PABA and multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs are successfully fabricated through an electrochemical method. The composite mixtures containing 50 mM of 3-aminobenzoic acid with various concentrations of MWNTs (1.0, 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, and 10 mg/mL in 0.5 M H2SO4 were prepared and used in this study. Cyclic voltammetry (CV was used for fabrication and monitoring the electropolymerization of the composite thin films with potential range of 0 to 1100 mV for 5 cycles at scan rate of 20 mV/s on indium tin oxide- (ITO-coated glass substrate. UV-vis absorption spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy (AFM, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM techniques were employed to characterize the obtained composite thin films. It was found that MWNTs can enhance the peak current of CV traces of the PABA/MWNTs composite thin films without affecting the UV-vis absorption spectra. The surface morphology of the thin films can be studied using AFM and SEM techniques.

  8. Influence of cell shape on mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V meshes fabricated by electron beam melting method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S J; Xu, Q S; Wang, Z; Hou, W T; Hao, Y L; Yang, R; Murr, L E

    2014-10-01

    Ti-6Al-4V reticulated meshes with different elements (cubic, G7 and rhombic dodecahedron) in Materialise software were fabricated by additive manufacturing using the electron beam melting (EBM) method, and the effects of cell shape on the mechanical properties of these samples were studied. The results showed that these cellular structures with porosities of 88-58% had compressive strength and elastic modulus in the range 10-300MPa and 0.5-15GPa, respectively. The compressive strength and deformation behavior of these meshes were determined by the coupling of the buckling and bending deformation of struts. Meshes that were dominated by buckling deformation showed relatively high collapse strength and were prone to exhibit brittle characteristics in their stress-strain curves. For meshes dominated by bending deformation, the elastic deformation corresponded well to the Gibson-Ashby model. By enhancing the effect of bending deformation, the stress-strain curve characteristics can change from brittle to ductile (the smooth plateau area). Therefore, Ti-6Al-4V cellular solids with high strength, low modulus and desirable deformation behavior could be fabricated through the cell shape design using the EBM technique. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Fabrication of nano-electrode arrays of free-standing carbon nanotubes on nano-patterned substrate by imprint method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, W.S., E-mail: paul@kimm.re.kr [Department of Nano Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, J.W. [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, 36 Goeyeon-dong, Yeongcheon, Gyeongbuk 770-170 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, D.G. [Department of Nano Mechanics, Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, 104 Sinseongno, Yuseong-gu Daejeon 305-343 (Korea, Republic of); Han, C.S. [Gyeongbuk Hybrid Technology Institute, 36 Goeyeon-dong, Yeongcheon, Gyeongbuk 770-170 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-01-15

    The synthesis of isolated carbon nanotubes with uniform outer diameters and ordered spacing over wafer-scale areas was investigated for fabrication of nano-electrode arrays on silicon wafers for field emission and sensor devices. Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were grown on TiN electrode layer with iron catalyst patterned by nano-imprint lithography (NIL), which allows the precise placement of individual CNTs on a substrate. The proposed techniques, including plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) and NIL, are simple, inexpensive, and reproducible methods for fabrication of nano-scale devices in large areas. The catalyst patterns were defined by an array of circles with 200 nm in diameter, and variable lengths of pitch. The nano-patterned master and Fe catalyst were observed with good pattern fidelity over a large area by atomic force microscope (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Nano-electrodes of MWCNTs had diameters ranging from 50 nm to 100 nm and lengths of about 300 nm. Field emission tests showed the reducing ignition voltage as the geometry of nanotube arrays was controlled by catalyst patterning. These results showed a wafer-scale approach to the control of the size, pitch, and position of nano-electrodes of nanotubes for various applications including electron field-emission sources, electrochemical probes, functionalized sensor elements, and so on.

  10. Flexible dye-sensitized solar cell fabricated on plastic substrate by laser-detachment and press method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Choonghoe; Kim, Seongsu; Lee, Myeongkyu

    2013-01-01

    This report shows that flexible dye-sensitized solar cell can be fabricated by a laser-detachment and press method where the TiO 2 electrode typically sintered on glass source substrate is detached by a laser pulse and then is firmly adhered to the conductive plastic substrate by applying a high pressure. The cells fabricated by this process exhibited 36–43% smaller photocurrent and efficiency than the conventional glass cells with directly coated TiO 2 electrodes. It was attributed to the lowered dye coverage and electron diffusion length, both of which originate from the press-induced reduction of TiO 2 porosity. A maximum efficiency of 5.68% was obtained for the plastic cell. Bending of the electrode led to 20% loss of the current density and efficiency. However, no further performance degradation was observed even when the bending cycle was increased to 100, 300, and 500 times. This indicates that the bending-induced degradation of TiO 2 electrode on the plastic substrate takes place at the first bending.

  11. A high-temperature, short-duration method of fabricating surrogate fuel microkernels for carbide-based TRISO nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vasudevamurthy, G.; Radecka, A.; Massey, C.

    2015-01-01

    High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology is a frontrunner among generation IV nuclear reactor designs. Among the advanced nuclear fuel forms proposed for these reactors, dispersion-type fuel consisting of microencapsulated uranium di-oxide kernels, popularly known as tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel, has emerged as the fuel form of choice. Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactors offer the benefit of recycling nuclear waste with increased burn-ups in addition to producing the required power and hydrogen. Uranium carbide has shown great potential to replace uranium di-oxide for use in these fast spectrum reactors. Uranium carbide microkernels for fast reactor TRISO fuel have traditionally been fabricated by long-duration carbothermic reduction and sintering of precursor uranium dioxide microkernels produced using sol-gel techniques. These long-duration conversion processes are often plagued by issues such as final product purity and process parameters that are detrimental to minor actinide retention. In this context a relatively simple, high-temperature but relatively quick-rotating electrode arc melting method to fabricate microkernels directly from a feedstock electrode was investigated. The process was demonstrated using surrogate tungsten carbide on account of its easy availability, accessibility and the similarity of its melting point relative to uranium carbide and uranium di-oxide.

  12. A high-temperature, short-duration method of fabricating surrogate fuel microkernels for carbide-based TRISO nuclear fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasudevamurthy, G.; Radecka, A.; Massey, C. [Virginia Commonwealth Univ., Richmond, VA (United States). High Temperature Materials Lab.

    2015-07-01

    High-temperature gas-cooled reactor technology is a frontrunner among generation IV nuclear reactor designs. Among the advanced nuclear fuel forms proposed for these reactors, dispersion-type fuel consisting of microencapsulated uranium di-oxide kernels, popularly known as tri-structural isotropic (TRISO) fuel, has emerged as the fuel form of choice. Generation IV gas-cooled fast reactors offer the benefit of recycling nuclear waste with increased burn-ups in addition to producing the required power and hydrogen. Uranium carbide has shown great potential to replace uranium di-oxide for use in these fast spectrum reactors. Uranium carbide microkernels for fast reactor TRISO fuel have traditionally been fabricated by long-duration carbothermic reduction and sintering of precursor uranium dioxide microkernels produced using sol-gel techniques. These long-duration conversion processes are often plagued by issues such as final product purity and process parameters that are detrimental to minor actinide retention. In this context a relatively simple, high-temperature but relatively quick-rotating electrode arc melting method to fabricate microkernels directly from a feedstock electrode was investigated. The process was demonstrated using surrogate tungsten carbide on account of its easy availability, accessibility and the similarity of its melting point relative to uranium carbide and uranium di-oxide.

  13. Fabrication of graphene-based flexible devices utilizing a soft lithographic patterning method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Min Wook; Myung, Sung; Kim, Ki Woong; Song, Wooseok; Jo, You-Young; Lee, Sun Suk; Lim, Jongsun; Park, Chong-Yun; An, Ki-Seok

    2014-07-01

    There has been considerable interest in soft lithographic patterning processing of large scale graphene sheets due to the low cost and simplicity of the patterning process along with the exceptional electrical or physical properties of graphene. These properties include an extremely high carrier mobility and excellent mechanical strength. Recently, a study has reported that single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was patterned and transferred to a target surface by controlling the surface energy of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. However, applications are limited because of the challenge of CVD-graphene functionalization for devices such as chemical or bio-sensors. In addition, graphene-based layers patterned with a micron scale width on the surface of biocompatible silk fibroin thin films, which are not suitable for conventional CMOS processes such as the patterning or etching of substrates, have yet to be reported. Herein, we developed a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors. Using this approach, the surface of a relief-patterned elastomeric stamp was functionalized with hydrophilic dimethylsulfoxide molecules to enhance the surface energy of the stamp and to remove the graphene-based layer from the initial substrate and transfer it to a target surface. As a proof of concept using this soft lithographic patterning technique, we demonstrated a simple and efficient chemical sensor consisting of reduced graphene oxide and a metallic nanoparticle composite. A flexible graphene-based device on a biocompatible silk fibroin substrate, which is attachable to an arbitrary target surface, was also successfully fabricated. Briefly, a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification was developed for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors and attachable devices on a

  14. Fabrication of graphene-based flexible devices utilizing a soft lithographic patterning method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wook Jung, Min; Myung, Sung; Woong Kim, Ki; Song, Wooseok; Suk Lee, Sun; Lim, Jongsun; An, Ki-Seok; Jo, You-Young; Park, Chong-Yun

    2014-01-01

    There has been considerable interest in soft lithographic patterning processing of large scale graphene sheets due to the low cost and simplicity of the patterning process along with the exceptional electrical or physical properties of graphene. These properties include an extremely high carrier mobility and excellent mechanical strength. Recently, a study has reported that single layer graphene grown via chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was patterned and transferred to a target surface by controlling the surface energy of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) stamp. However, applications are limited because of the challenge of CVD-graphene functionalization for devices such as chemical or bio-sensors. In addition, graphene-based layers patterned with a micron scale width on the surface of biocompatible silk fibroin thin films, which are not suitable for conventional CMOS processes such as the patterning or etching of substrates, have yet to be reported. Herein, we developed a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors. Using this approach, the surface of a relief-patterned elastomeric stamp was functionalized with hydrophilic dimethylsulfoxide molecules to enhance the surface energy of the stamp and to remove the graphene-based layer from the initial substrate and transfer it to a target surface. As a proof of concept using this soft lithographic patterning technique, we demonstrated a simple and efficient chemical sensor consisting of reduced graphene oxide and a metallic nanoparticle composite. A flexible graphene-based device on a biocompatible silk fibroin substrate, which is attachable to an arbitrary target surface, was also successfully fabricated. Briefly, a soft lithographic patterning process via surface energy modification was developed for advanced graphene-based flexible devices such as transistors or chemical sensors and attachable devices on a

  15. Review of Fabrication Methods, Physical Properties, and Applications of Nanostructured Copper Oxides Formed via Electrochemical Oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech J. Stepniowski

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Typically, anodic oxidation of metals results in the formation of hexagonally arranged nanoporous or nanotubular oxide, with a specific oxidation state of the transition metal. Recently, the majority of transition metals have been anodized; however, the formation of copper oxides by electrochemical oxidation is yet unexplored and offers numerous, unique properties and applications. Nanowires formed by copper electrochemical oxidation are crystalline and composed of cuprous (CuO or cupric oxide (Cu2O, bringing varied physical and chemical properties to the nanostructured morphology and different band gaps: 1.44 and 2.22 eV, respectively. According to its Pourbaix (potential-pH diagram, the passivity of copper occurs at ambient and alkaline pH. In order to grow oxide nanostructures on copper, alkaline electrolytes like NaOH and KOH are used. To date, no systemic study has yet been reported on the influence of the operating conditions, such as the type of electrolyte, its temperature, and applied potential, on the morphology of the grown nanostructures. However, the numerous reports gathered in this paper will provide a certain view on the matter. After passivation, the formed nanostructures can be also post-treated. Post-treatments employ calcinations or chemical reactions, including the chemical reduction of the grown oxides. Nanostructures made of CuO or Cu2O have a broad range of potential applications. On one hand, with the use of surface morphology, the wetting contact angle is tuned. On the other hand, the chemical composition (pure Cu2O and high surface area make such materials attractive for renewable energy harvesting, including water splitting. While compared to other fabrication techniques, self-organized anodization is a facile, easy to scale-up, time-efficient approach, providing high-aspect ratio one-dimensional (1D nanostructures. Despite these advantages, there are still numerous challenges that have to be faced, including the

  16. Fabrication And Properties Of Silver Based Multiwall Carbon Nanotube Composite Prepared By Spark Plasma Sintering Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lis M.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents results of investigations of the obtained nanocomposite materials based on silver with addition of multiwall carbon nanotubes. The powder of carbon nanotubes content from 0.1 to 3 wt. % was produced by application of powder metallurgy methods, through mixing and high-energetic milling, and also chemical methods. Modification of carbon nanotubes included electroless deposition of silver particles on the carbon nanotube active surfaces and chemical reduction with strong reducing agent – sodium borohydride (NaBH4. The obtained powder mixtures were consolidated by SPS – Spark Plasma Sintering method. The formed composites were subjected to tests of relative density, electrical conductivity and electro-erosion properties. Detailed examinations of the structure with application of X-ray microanalysis, with consideration of carbon nanotubes distribution, were also carried out. The effect of manufacturing methods on properties of the obtained composites was observed.

  17. Development of an innovative plate-type SG for fast breeder reactor. Proposal of the concept and the evaluation of the fabricating method by the test fabrication of the partial model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi

    2006-01-01

    The concept of an innovative plate type SG for the fast reactor fabricated by using the HIP (Hot Isostatic Pressing) method was proposed. The heat transfer plate, which is assembled with rectangular tubes and is fabricated by HIP method, is surrounded by leakage detection spaces. It is possible to apply it to both the pool-type and the loop-type LMFR. In this report, the fabrication technique was studied about the concept for the loop-type LMFR, and the following results were obtained. Hip tests, tensile tests, and structure observation were performed to clarify the suitable HIP condition for the modified 9Cr-1Mo steel. As a result, the optimum condition of 1150 deg C x 1200 kgf/cm 2 x 3 hr was found. Nickel-type solder (BNi-5) and gold-type solder (BAu-4) were selected as a joining material to laminate the heat transfer tube plates. Through the comparison of tensile tests, BAu-4 that showed a more excellent joining performance was selected on the assumption of the margin of 5 mm from the welding line. After buckling load had been clarified, the BAu-4 brazing of the heat transfer tube plates was performed using a hot pressing method. Problems were not observed in the welding of simulated header, and in the fabricating of the partial model of SG. (author)

  18. Communication methods and production techniques in fixed prosthesis fabrication: a UK based survey. Part 2: Production techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, J.; Nesbit, M.; Saberi, S.; Petridis, H.

    2014-01-01

    Aim The aim of this study was to identify the communication methods and production techniques used by dentists and dental technicians for the fabrication of fixed prostheses within the UK from the dental technicians' perspective. This second paper reports on the production techniques utilised. Materials and methods Seven hundred and eighty-two online questionnaires were distributed to the Dental Laboratories Association membership and included a broad range of topics, such as demographics, impression disinfection and suitability, and various production techniques. Settings were managed in order to ensure anonymity of respondents. Statistical analysis was undertaken to test the influence of various demographic variables such as the source of information, the location, and the size of the dental laboratory. Results The number of completed responses totalled 248 (32% response rate). Ninety percent of the respondents were based in England and the majority of dental laboratories were categorised as small sized (working with up to 25 dentists). Concerns were raised regarding inadequate disinfection protocols between dentists and dental laboratories and the poor quality of master impressions. Full arch plastic trays were the most popular impression tray used by dentists in the fabrication of crowns (61%) and bridgework (68%). The majority (89%) of jaw registration records were considered inaccurate. Forty-four percent of dental laboratories preferred using semi-adjustable articulators. Axial and occlusal under-preparation of abutment teeth was reported as an issue in about 25% of cases. Base metal alloy was the most (52%) commonly used alloy material. Metal-ceramic crowns were the most popular choice for anterior (69%) and posterior (70%) cases. The various factors considered did not have any statistically significant effect on the answers provided. The only notable exception was the fact that more methods of communicating the size and shape of crowns were utilised for

  19. Fabrication of the flexible nanogenerator from BTO nanopowders on graphene coated PMMA substrates by sol-gel method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sankar Ganesh, R. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankullathur, Chennai, 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 432-8011 (Japan); Sharma, Sanjeev K., E-mail: sksharma@dongguk.edu [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Jung-gu, Seoul, 04620 (Korea, Republic of); Abinnas, N. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankullathur, Chennai, 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Durgadevi, E. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 432-8011 (Japan); Raji, P. [Department of Physics, Mepco Schlenk Engineering College, Sivakasi, 626 005, Tamil Nadu (India); Ponnusamy, S., E-mail: suruponnus@gmail.com [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankullathur, Chennai, 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Muthamizhchelvan, C. [Department of Physics and Nanotechnology, SRM University, Kattankullathur, Chennai, 603203, Tamil Nadu (India); Hayakawa, Y. [Research Institute of Electronics, Shizuoka University, 3-5-1 Johoku, Naka-ku, Hamamatsu, Shizuoka, 432-8011 (Japan); Kim, Deuk Young [Department of Semiconductor Science, Dongguk University-Seoul, Jung-gu, Seoul, 04620 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-01

    Nanostructured bismuth titanate (Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12}) or BTO powders were synthesized by the combustion method. The crystalline phase of BTO nanopowders was evaluated from X-ray diffraction (XRD) and further confirmed by selected area electron diffraction (SAED) pattern. The SEM and TEM micrographic images clearly showed the nanosheets like morphology of BTO nanopowder. The EDS spectrum of BTO nanopowder showed the elemental peaks of O, Bi and Ti at 0.53 keV, 2.41 keV and 4.49 keV, respectively. FTIR band peaks were observed at 815 and 595 cm{sup -1} corresponding to the stretching vibrations of Bi-O and Ti-O. The red shift in optical absorption of BTO was observed and the bandgap decreased from 3.18 to 3.08 eV as the calcined temperature increased from 600 to 800 °C. The sandwich structure, called the nanogenerator, Graphene/BTO-PDMS/Graphene (G/BTO/G), was fabricated on graphene coated polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) substrates, which produced a peak voltage (10 mV) by applying the pressure from human's finger. The switching mechanism of BTO nanosheets was observed to be dependent on the polarity and intrinsic dipole formation. - Highlights: • Bi{sub 4}Ti{sub 3}O{sub 12} (BTO) nanosheets synthesized from a simple combustion method. • SEM & TEM images confirmed the nanosheets structure with a hexagonal shape. • XRD and SAED pattern of BTO nanosheets confirmed the orthorhombic crystal structure. • Flexible G/BTO/G nanogenerator fabricated by sol-gel method. • Peak voltage was observed to be 10 mV by applying pressure from human's finger.

  20. Effects of AFM tip-based direct and vibration assisted scratching methods on nanogrooves fabrication on a polymer resist

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geng, Yanquan [The State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Robotics Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150080 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Yan, Yongda, E-mail: yanyongda@hit.edu.cn [The State Key Laboratory of Robotics and Systems, Robotics Institute, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150080 (China); Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China); Zhuang, Yun; Hu, Zhenjiang [Center for Precision Engineering, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin, Heilongjiang 150001 (China)

    2015-11-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The comparison of three different atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-based material processing techniques to generate nano-grooves on polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin film is presented. • The machined depths of the nano-grooves machined by these three methods are analyzed. • Nano-groove with the machined depth closed to the thickness of the thin-film resist is achieved. - Abstract: This study proposes two atomic force microscope (AFM) tip-based direct nanoscratching methods including single-pass scratching and multi-pass scratching compared with a vibration-assisted scratching method to fabricate nano-grooves on the surface of the polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) thin-film resist. In order to protect the AFM tip from wearing and optimize the subsequent etching process, the machined depth is expected slightly less than the PMMA thickness to prevent the tip directly contacting with the silicon substrate and obtain better process results. First, single-pass scratching tests are performed on films with different thickness employing varied normal loads. Results show that the machined depths of the grooves cannot be obtained slightly less than the thickness of the film very easily when scratching with single-pass method, 50–120 nm in the present study, which may not be very suitable for the following etching process. Multi-pass and vibration-assisted methods are then utilized to solve this limitation of the machined depth in single-pass process. The machined depths using the multi-pass method are dependent on scratching times and the applied normal loads. Moreover, the depth closed to the thickness of the film can be obtained by enlarging the number of the scratching cycles. However, with a longer scratching time, large tip wear can be found. For vibration assisted method, the machined depths are controlled by the vibration amplitude and the applied normal load. With the vibration in z direction increasing, the machined depth can