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Sample records for f-18 high alpha

  1. F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) parameter identification flight test maneuvers for optimal input design validation and lateral control effectiveness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1995-01-01

    Flight test maneuvers are specified for the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The maneuvers were designed for open loop parameter identification purposes, specifically for optimal input design validation at 5 degrees angle of attack, identification of individual strake effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack, and study of lateral dynamics and lateral control effectiveness at 40 and 50 degrees angle of attack. Each maneuver is to be realized by applying square wave inputs to specific control effectors using the On-Board Excitation System (OBES). Maneuver descriptions and complete specifications of the time/amplitude points define each input are included, along with plots of the input time histories.

  2. A study of high alpha dynamics and flow visualization for a 2.5-percent model of the F-18 HARV undergoing wing rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quast, Thomas; Nelson, Robert C.; Fisher, David F.

    1991-01-01

    Free-to-roll experiments and flow visualization studies have been conducted for a 2.5-percent model of the F-18 undergoing unsteady wing rock oscillations. Data have been acquired in the form of roll angle time histories as well as video recordings and 35 mm photography of the forebody and leading edge extension vortices. The time histories were differentiated to produce angular velocity and angular acceleration. From this the roll moment as a function of time and/or roll angle could be estimated. A thorough analysis of the data has revealed a genuine wing-rock phenomenon. Off-surface flow visualization was used to identiify the forebody and LEX vortex core positions and their interaction in both static and dynamic configurations. A direct correlation between the dynamic data and visualized vortex activity during the wing-rock motion has been made.

  3. High Yield F-18 Target for KOTRON-13 Cyclotron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, W. K.; Song, J. Y.; Park, J. Y.; Jung, K. I.; Chae, S. K.

    2009-01-01

    Currently the domestic radiation market for medical diagnosis witnesses a high increase of the use of PET/CT for the purpose of cancer diagnosis, and the cases of cancer diagnosis using PET/CT increase by geometric progression every year. In case of domestic practice, full body scan is taken by using FDG medical isotope medicines mainly using F-18, but the necessity of various medical radioactive isotopes according to each medical purpose is increasing. F-18 output yield is directly proportional to energy of protons and beam current, and has correlation with heat production rate in case of target and decides the function of target in accordance with the efficiency of a cooling device. At present, in case of most F-18 target, when one irradiates beam in O-18 water of about 0.2∼5mL, one has to apply heat of over 300W, a high thermal energy per unit area is irradiated in target, which is easily damaged, and it has limitation in beam current. Currently, in case of commercial target, about 2,000W beam current is the maximum value, and in case of double-grid target developed by Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences in 2004, it was designed to stand up to about 1,000W theoretically, but in reality it can irradiate lower beam current than this because of the shortage of cooling efficiency. In general, the irradiation strength to produce radioactive isotopes given in the heat emission by target substance currently is limited to 50μA against target substance irradiated in 1.6mL. However, current KOTRON-13 cyclotron can accelerate proton beam with a high scope of strength marking 100μA thru 120μA by a continuous development. Therefore, it doesn't fully function compared with that of proton beam of KOTRON-13 cyclotron. The solution about this is to get over the problem of cooling target substance of cavity in the production system of radioactive isotopes. Especially, one has to develop the method to cool target substance, and provide higher F-18 yield than

  4. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen [College of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Jin Sook [Asan Medical Center, University of Ulsan College of Medicine (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images.

  5. A Case of Esophageal Leiomyoma Showing High FDG Uptake on F-18 FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Ryu, Jin Sook

    2008-01-01

    An esophageal leiomyoma is the most common benign tumor of the esophagus mainly occurred in intramural portion. Occasionally, it is difficult to discriminate esophageal malignancy from large leiomyoma. Although F-18 FDG PET has been used for differentiating malignant from benign disease, false-positive cases have been reported. Recently, uterine leiomyoma has been reported to have relatively high F-18 FDG uptake in some patients but little is known about how an esophageal leiomyoma might be showed on F-18 FDG PET. We report a case of esophageal leiomyoma that showed high FDG uptake on PET images

  6. High susceptibility prevalence for F4+ and F18+Escherichia coli in Flemish pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Ut V; Coddens, Annelies; Melkebeek, Vesna; Devriendt, Bert; Goetstouwers, Tiphanie; Poucke, Mario Van; Peelman, Luc; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 and/or F18 enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (F4 + /F18 + ETEC) are responsible for diarrhea while F18 + verotoxigenic E. coli (F18 + VTEC) cause edema disease in pigs. Both infections can result in severe economic losses, which are mainly the result of the medication, growth retardation and mortality. The susceptibility of piglets to these pathogens is determined by the presence of F4 and F18 receptors (F4R and F18R). Understanding the composition of the susceptibility phenotypes of pigs is useful for animal health and breeding management. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of the F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes and F18 + E. coli susceptibility among Flemish pig breeds by using the in vitro villous adhesion assay. In this study, seven F4 ETEC susceptibility phenotypes were found, namely A (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R + ; 59.16%), B (F4 ab R + , ac R + , ad R - ; 6.28%), C (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R + ; 2.62%), D (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R + ; 6.28%), E (F4 ab R - , ac R - , ad R - ; 24.08%), F (F4 ab R + , ac R - , ad R - ; 1.05%) and G (F4 ab R - , ac R + , ad R - ; 0.52%). F4ab and F4ac E. coli showed a stronger degree of adhesion to the intestinal villi (53.40% and 52.88% strong adhesion, respectively), compared to F4ad E. coli (43.46% strong adhesion). Furthermore, the correlation between F4ac and F4ab adhesion was higher (r=0.78) than between F4ac and F4ad adhesion (r=0.41) and between F4ab and F4ad adhesion (r=0.57). For F18 + E. coli susceptibility, seven out of 82 pigs were F18R negative (8.54%), but only two of these seven pigs (2.44%) were also negative for F4R. As such, the chance to identify a pig that is positive for a F4 ETEC variant or F18 + E. coli is 97.56%. Therefore, significant economic losses will arise due to F4 + and/or F18 + E. coli infections in the Flemish pig population due to the high susceptibility prevalence. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. STM study of C60F18 high dipole moment molecules on Au(111)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bairagi, K.; Bellec, A.; Chumakov, R. G.; Menshikov, K. A.; Lagoute, J.; Chacon, C.; Girard, Y.; Rousset, S.; Repain, V.; Lebedev, A. M.; Sukhanov, L. P.; Svechnikov, N. Yu.; Stankevich, V. G.

    2015-11-01

    Scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy studies of C60F18 molecules deposited on Au(111) are reported and compared to C60 molecules both at liquid helium temperature and room temperature (RT). Whereas adsorption and electronic properties of C60F18 single molecules were studied at low temperature (LT), self-assemblies were investigated at RT. In both cases, the fluorine atoms of the C60F18 molecules are pointed towards the surface. Individual C60F18 molecules on Au(111) have a HOMO-LUMO gap of 2.9 eV. The self-assembled islands exhibit a close-packed hexagonal lattice with amorphous borders. The comparison with C60 molecules clearly demonstrates the influence of the C60F18 electric dipole moment (EDM) on the electronic properties of single molecules and on the thermodynamics of self-assembled islands. Besides, the apparent height value of a separate molecule increases in a self-assembly environment as a result of a depolarization phenomenon.

  8. Flight-Determined, Subsonic, Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives of the Thrust-Vectoring F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV), and Comparisons to the Basic F-18 and Predicted Derivatives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1999-01-01

    The subsonic, lateral-directional, stability and control derivatives of the thrust-vectoring F-1 8 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. State noise is accounted for in the identification formulation and is used to model the uncommanded forcing functions caused by unsteady aerodynamics. Preprogrammed maneuvers provided independent control surface inputs, eliminating problems of identifiability related to correlations between the aircraft controls and states. The HARV derivatives are plotted as functions of angles of attack between 10deg and 70deg and compared to flight estimates from the basic F-18 aircraft and to predictions from ground and wind tunnel tests. Unlike maneuvers of the basic F-18 aircraft, the HARV maneuvers were very precise and repeatable, resulting in tightly clustered estimates with small uncertainty levels. Significant differences were found between flight and prediction; however, some of these differences may be attributed to differences in the range of sideslip or input amplitude over which a given derivative was evaluated, and to differences between the HARV external configuration and that of the basic F-18 aircraft, upon which most of the prediction was based. Some HARV derivative fairings have been adjusted using basic F-18 derivatives (with low uncertainties) to help account for differences in variable ranges and the lack of HARV maneuvers at certain angles of attack.

  9. Extraction of Lateral-Directional Stability and Control Derivatives for the Basic F-18 Aircraft at High Angles of Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The results of parameter identification to determine the lateral-directional stability and control derivatives of an F-18 research aircraft in its basic hardware and software configuration are presented. The derivatives are estimated from dynamic flight data using a specialized identification program developed at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center. The formulation uses the linearized aircraft equations of motions in their continuous/discrete form and a maximum likelihood estimator that accounts for both state and measurement noise. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics, such as separated and vortical flows, over the aircraft. The derivatives are plotted as functions of angle of attack between 3 deg and 47 deg and compared with wind-tunnel predictions. The quality of the derivative estimates obtained by parameter identification is somewhat degraded because the maneuvers were flown with the aircraft's control augmentation system engaged, which introduced relatively high correlations between the control variables and response variables as a result of control motions from the feedback control system.

  10. Forebody Aerodynamics of the F-18 High Alpha Research Vehicle with Actuated Strakes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Fisher, David

    2003-01-01

    .... Results show that large yawing moments can be generated with forebody strakes. At a 500-angle-of attack, deflecting one strake at a time resulted in a forebody yawing moment control reversal for small strake deflection angles...

  11. Flight-Determined Subsonic Longitudinal Stability and Control Derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) with Thrust Vectoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iliff, Kenneth W.; Wang, Kon-Sheng Charles

    1997-01-01

    The subsonic longitudinal stability and control derivatives of the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV) are extracted from dynamic flight data using a maximum likelihood parameter identification technique. The technique uses the linearized aircraft equations of motion in their continuous/discrete form and accounts for state and measurement noise as well as thrust-vectoring effects. State noise is used to model the uncommanded forcing function caused by unsteady aerodynamics over the aircraft, particularly at high angles of attack. Thrust vectoring was implemented using electrohydraulically-actuated nozzle postexit vanes and a specialized research flight control system. During maneuvers, a control system feature provided independent aerodynamic control surface inputs and independent thrust-vectoring vane inputs, thereby eliminating correlations between the aircraft states and controls. Substantial variations in control excitation and dynamic response were exhibited for maneuvers conducted at different angles of attack. Opposing vane interactions caused most thrust-vectoring inputs to experience some exhaust plume interference and thus reduced effectiveness. The estimated stability and control derivatives are plotted, and a discussion relates them to predicted values and maneuver quality.

  12. Flight and full-scale wind-tunnel comparison of pressure distributions from an F-18 aircraft at high angles of attack. [Conducted in NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, David F.; Lanser, Wendy R.

    1994-01-01

    Pressure distributions were obtained at nearly identical fuselage stations and wing chord butt lines in flight on the F-18 HARV at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center and in the NASA Ames Research Center's 80 by 120 ft wind tunnel on a full-scale F/A-18 aircraft. The static pressures were measured at the identical five stations on the forebody, three stations on the left and right leading-edge extensions, and three spanwise stations on the wing. Comparisons of the flight and wind-tunnel pressure distributions were made at alpha = 30 deg, 45 deg, and 60 deg/59 deg. In general, very good agreement was found. Minor differences were noted at the forebody at alpha = 45 deg and 60 deg in the magnitude of the vortex footprints and a Mach number effect was noted at the leading-edge extension at alpha = 30 deg. The inboard leading edge flap data from the wind tunnel at alpha = 59 deg showed a suction peak that did not appear in the flight data. This was the result of a vortex from the corner of the leading edge flap whose path was altered by the lack of an engine simulation in the wind tunnel.

  13. Small volume target for F-18 production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellicioli, M.; Schuler, J.; Marchand, P.; Brasse, D.

    2017-05-01

    In order to reduce the volume of O-18 enriched water used for each F-18 production for research a small volume target of 1 ml has been designed at IPHC. The designed is derived from ACSI 3.8ml F-18 target and uses both water and Helium cooling. After one year of use production yield is reported.

  14. Syntheses of F-18 Labeled Fluoroalkyltyrosine Derivatives

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Kyo Chul; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo [Korea Institute of Radiological and Medical Sciences, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Chi, Dae Yoon [Inha Univ., Inchon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers the highest resolution of all nuclear medicine imaging modalities and allows quantitation of tracer concentration in tissues. For more than 60 years, some of C-11 or F-18 labeled amino acids have been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in oncology, neurology and psychiatric disorders. Besides, a variety of radioisotope labeled amino acids have proven to be useful for imaging tumors, especially for brain tumor, lung tumor and breast tumor. These amino acids can be subdivided into two categories. The first category is represented by radiolabled naturally occurring amino acids and structurally similar analogues. Although these radiolabeled amino acids have proven useful in detecting brain and systemic tumors, it is susceptible to in vivo metabolism through multiple pathways that give rise to numerous radiolabled metabolites. On the other side, structurally similar amino acid analogues have some significant advantages over the natural amino acids. These nonnatural amino acids are not metabolized, which simplifieds the kinetic analysis of their uptake. On the basis of the promising results obtained with these nonnatural amino acids in preclinical studies, recent efforts have focused on the development of new F-18 labeled nonnatural amino acids. Recently, O-(2-[{sup 18}F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), O-(3-[{sup 18}F]Fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine (FPT) were developed and evaluated among structurally similar to a new amino acid analogue. FET has shown high uptake in activated inflammatory cells using an experimental acute abscess model and in inflammation within lymph nodes. FPT was superior to FDG and had a slight advantage over FET in the differentiation of tumor from inflammation, and, like FET, it appeared to be a potential amino acid tracer for tumor imaging with PET. In this paper, we elected to introduce fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups at the R{sub 1} positions and OCH{sub 3} at R{sub 2} position to the same effect

  15. Syntheses of F-18 Labeled Fluoroalkyltyrosine Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moon, Byung Seok; Lee, Kyo Chul; Yang, Seung Dae; Chun, Kwon Soo; Chi, Dae Yoon

    2005-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) offers the highest resolution of all nuclear medicine imaging modalities and allows quantitation of tracer concentration in tissues. For more than 60 years, some of C-11 or F-18 labeled amino acids have been synthesized and evaluated for potential use in oncology, neurology and psychiatric disorders. Besides, a variety of radioisotope labeled amino acids have proven to be useful for imaging tumors, especially for brain tumor, lung tumor and breast tumor. These amino acids can be subdivided into two categories. The first category is represented by radiolabled naturally occurring amino acids and structurally similar analogues. Although these radiolabeled amino acids have proven useful in detecting brain and systemic tumors, it is susceptible to in vivo metabolism through multiple pathways that give rise to numerous radiolabled metabolites. On the other side, structurally similar amino acid analogues have some significant advantages over the natural amino acids. These nonnatural amino acids are not metabolized, which simplifieds the kinetic analysis of their uptake. On the basis of the promising results obtained with these nonnatural amino acids in preclinical studies, recent efforts have focused on the development of new F-18 labeled nonnatural amino acids. Recently, O-(2-[ 18 F]Fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET), O-(3-[ 18 F]Fluoropropyl)-L-tyrosine (FPT) were developed and evaluated among structurally similar to a new amino acid analogue. FET has shown high uptake in activated inflammatory cells using an experimental acute abscess model and in inflammation within lymph nodes. FPT was superior to FDG and had a slight advantage over FET in the differentiation of tumor from inflammation, and, like FET, it appeared to be a potential amino acid tracer for tumor imaging with PET. In this paper, we elected to introduce fluoroethyl and fluoropropyl groups at the R 1 positions and OCH 3 at R 2 position to the same effect of FET. Herein, we wish

  16. Impact of [F-18]-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine PET imaging on target definition for radiation therapy of high-grade glioma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    af Rosenschold, Per Munck; Costa, Junia; Engelholm, Svend Aage

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: We sought to assess the impact of amino-acid (18)F-fluoro-ethyl-tyrosine (FET) positron emission tomography (PET) on the volumetric target definition for radiation therapy of high-grade glioma versus the current standard using MRI alone. Specifically, we investigated the influence....... Patients with grade IV glioma were found to be the primary candidates for PET-guided radiation therapy planning....

  17. High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) longitudinal controller: Design, analyses, and simulation resultss

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Proffitt, Melissa S.; Brown, Philip W.; Phillips, Michael R.; Rivers, Robert A.; Messina, Michael D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Bacon, Barton J.; Foster, John F.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design, analysis, and nonlinear simulation results (batch and piloted) for a longitudinal controller which is scheduled to be flight-tested on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is an F-18 airplane modified for and equipped with multi-axis thrust vectoring. The paper includes a description of the facilities, a detailed review of the feedback controller design, linear analysis results of the feedback controller, a description of the feed-forward controller design, nonlinear batch simulation results, and piloted simulation results. Batch simulation results include maximum pitch stick agility responses, angle of attack alpha captures, and alpha regulation for full lateral stick rolls at several alpha's. Piloted simulation results include task descriptions for several types of maneuvers, task guidelines, the corresponding Cooper-Harper ratings from three test pilots, and some pilot comments. The ratings show that desirable criteria are achieved for almost all of the piloted simulation tasks.

  18. Improvement in the detection of locoregional recurrence in head and neck malignancies: F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography compared to high-resolution contrast-enhanced computed tomography and endoscopic examination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangaswamy, Balasubramanya; Fardanesh, M Reza; Genden, Eric M; Park, Eunice E; Fatterpekar, Girish; Patel, Zara; Kim, Jongho; Som, Peter M; Kostakoglu, Lale

    2013-11-01

    To compare the diagnostic efficacy of positron emission tomography (PET) with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG-PET)/computed tomography (CT) to that of contrast-enhanced high-resolution CT (HRCT) and assess the value of a combinatorial approach in detection of recurrent squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (HNC) and to assess the efficacy of FDG-PET/CT with and without HRCT in comparison to standard-of-care follow-up--physical examination (PE) and endoscopy (E)--in determination of locally recurrent HNC. Retrospective study. A total of 103 patients with HNC underwent FDG-PET/CT and neck HRCT. There were two groups of patients: Group A had an FDG-PET study acquired with low-dose CT, and group B had an FDG-PET study acquired with HRCT. The PET data obtained with or without HRCT were compared on a lesion and patient basis with the results of the PE/E. On a lesion basis, both groups combined had higher sensitivity and negative predictive value (NPV) than the HRCT. Specificity and positive predictive value (PPV) for group B were higher than for group A. On a patient basis, both groups combined had a higher sensitivity and NPV than PE/E, respectively, although specificity of PE/E was higher than that of either group. PET data obtained with either protocol directly influenced treatment. HRCT increases the specificity and PPV of PET/CT when acquired simultaneously with PET. FDG-PET/CT acquired with either LDCT or HRCT has higher accuracy than HRCT alone and increases the sensitivity and NPV of PE/E. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  19. Nicotinic receptor imaging with F-18 A85380 PET in Alzheimer's disease and normal ageing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bottlaender, M.; Maziere, B.; Pappata, S.; Dolle, F.; Rowe, C.; Tochon-Danguy, H.; Reutens, D.; Chan, G.; Woodward, M.

    2002-01-01

    high affinity but low potency for the nicotinic receptor (i.e. it is a weak agonist). It is selective for the alpha2beta4 (A2B4) subtype. A85380 does not bind to the alpha 7 subtype receptor nor the ganglionic alpha3beta4 subtype and therefore has minimal cardiovascular effects. It also has low affinity for muscle nicotinic receptors (Sullivan JP 1996). These properties indicate a high level of safety when this compound is used in the extremely low (nanomolar) concentrations required for PET imaging studies. Labelling of A85380 with fluorine-18, a positron emitting radioisotope, has been achieved without alteration of the receptor binding characteristics by Frederic Dolle and colleagues at the CEA PET Centre, Orsay (Dolle F et al., 1998). In March 2000, F-18 A85380 PET studies in baboons were presented by Prof. Bernard Maziere at the France Australia Scientific Meeting in Melbourne. After this presentation a collaboration between the CEA PET Centre and ARMC was discussed between Prof. Maziere and Dr. Rowe (Director, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Centre for PET, ARMC). Subsequently in June 2000 at the US SNM meeting in St. Louis further discussions were held between Dr. Rowe and Professor Syrota. In September 2000, draft protocols were exchanged and communication between Frederic Dolle and Henri Tochon-Danguy commenced regarding the radiochemistry. In May 2001, Dr. Rowe visited the CEA PET Centre, Orsay and a collaborative agreement was signed. Subsequently between May and August 2001, CEA PET Centre supplied the chemical precursor, labelling method, toxicology results and human radiation dosimetry data to ARMC. The research plan is to investigate the uptake and distribution of F-18 A85380 with PET in normal elderly persons, and subjects with mild Alzheimer's disease, and to quantify the effect of age on uptake. We will assess the utility of nicotinic receptor imaging with PET for the early diagnosis of AD and its potential for monitoring therapies designed to

  20. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in colorectal cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joerg, L.; Langsteger, W.

    2002-01-01

    Whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) with the radiolabeled glucose analog F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) is a sensitive diagnostic tool that images tumors based on increased uptake of glucose. Several recent publications have shown that F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography is more sensitive than computed-tomography (CT) in detecting colorectal cancer. In patients with increasing CEA (carcinoembryonic antigen) and no evidence of recurrent disease on CT F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography often detects recurrent cancer. In all, patient management seems to be changed in about 25 % of patients who undergo F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in addition to standard staging procedure. Limited reports to date on both chemotherapy and radiotherapy support the role of F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography in assessing treatment response. Also regarding preoperative staging of primary colorectal cancer the literature is very limited. (author)

  1. Locoregional injection of F-18 radiopharmaceuticals suppresses tumor xenograft growth in rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wong, C -L [The Univ. of Texas M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Texas (United States)

    2004-07-01

    The energetic positrons (0.633 Mev) from F-18 dissipate kinetic energies before annihilation to produce two 0.511 Mev photons which also contribute to the radiation absorbed dose to the surroundings. In living organism, the contribution from the positron itself to the surrounding tissues (up to 2 mm) is larger than from the 2 photons. Apoptosis has been reported in rat tumors after systemic injection of F-18 FDG although no growth retardation was noted. This study is designed to exploit the pharmacokinetic advantages of locoregional injection of positron emitters in the suppression of tumor growth in rats. Methods: Groups of Fisher 344 adult female rats were inoculated with rat mammary tumors (100,000 cells) intramuscularly (IM) in the thigh. Locoregional injection with F-18 NaF or F-18 FDG was accomplished in days 3 or 7 with single doses of increasing strengths (0.2 to 3 mCi). Tumor growth rates were noted and compared to control (sham injection with saline). The locoregional distribution and clearance of F-18 were estimated from serial tomograms using a Concord MicroPET (R4) after intramuscular injection of 0.1-0.2 mCi of F-18 NaF or F-18 FDG in groups of triplicate rats. Results: A dose-related pattern of tumor suppression is noted with F-18 FDG, whether treatment occurs in day 3 or 7 after inoculation. Additional experiment of injection of 5 mci of F-18 FDG at day 14 also suppressed the growth of a well-formed tumor. Tumor suppression by F-18 NaF is less obvious and only occurs with high dose (2 mCi). MicroPET images demonstrate that F-18 FDG is retained in the injection site while F-18 NaF dissipates rapidly. Conclusion: Locoregional injection of positron-emitters may be sufficient to suppress tumor growth. The mechanism is likely related to the pharmacokinetic profile of the compound within the tissue. Discussion: Locoregional application of radionuclides may provide feasible alternatives to slow tumor growth or prevent tumor recurrence. The use of

  2. Volume-Based F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging Markers Provide Supplemental Prognostic Information to Histologic Grading in Patients With High-Grade Bone or Soft Tissue Sarcoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Kim Francis; Fuglo, Hanna Maria; Rasmussen, Sine Hvid

    2015-01-01

    analysis. Kaplan-Meier survival estimates and log-rank test were used to compare the degree of equality of survival distributions. Prognostic variables with related hazard ratios (HR) were assessed using Cox proportional hazards regression analysis.Forty-one of 92 patients died during follow-up (45%; 12 BS.......05, HR 3.37 [95% CI 1.02-11.11]). No significant results were demonstrated for MTV40%.Volume-based F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging markers in terms of pretreatment estimation of TLG provide supplemental prognostic information to histologic grading, with significant independent properties for prediction...

  3. Imaging dopamine-2 receptors in cebus apella at PET with F-18 fluoropropylspiperone and F-18 fluorinated benzamide neuroleptic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukherjee, J.; Yasillo, N.J.; Luh, K.E.; Diamond, M.; Levy, D.; Chen, C.T.; Cooper, M.

    1990-01-01

    Tardive dyskinesia (TD), an intractable disorder believed to involve dysfunction of dopamine D-2 receptors, often occurs with neuroleptic treatment in neuropsychiatric illness. This paper investigates the role of these receptors using a unique primate model of TD with newly developed (F-18) fluorinated radioligands. Two radioligands, (F-18)FPMB (one of a new class of fluorinated benzamide neuroleptics) have been used to image these receptors in a normal Cebus apella. Either (F-18)FPSP or (F-18)FPMB was administered intravenously to a normal Cebus, which was scanned for 2 hours in a PETT VI tomograph

  4. F-18-FDG PET of the thyroid in Graves` disease; F-18-FDG-PET der Schilddruese bei Morbus Basedow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boerner, A.R.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H. [Klinik und Poliklinik fuer Nuklearmedizin, Koeln Univ. (Germany); Wienhard, K.; Wagner, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Neurologische Forschung, Koeln (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    This study evaluates F-18-FDG PET of the thyroid in Graves` disease. Methods: Thirty patients were investigated the day before radioiodine therapy, 15 patients 3-10 days after radioiodine therapy. Twenty patients with cancer of the head or neck and normal thyroid function served as controls. Results: F-18-FDG uptake was higher in Graves` disease patients than in controls. Negative correlations of F-18-FDG uptake with half-life of radioiodine and absorbed radiation dose due to radioiodine therapy were found along with a positive correlation to autoantibody levels. Conclusion: Thus F-18-FDG PET is likely to give information on the biological activity of Graves` disease as well as on early radiation effects. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Diese Studie evaluiert F-18-Fluoro-Deoxy-Glukose (F-18-FDG) PET der Schilddruese bei Patienten mit M. Basedow. Methoden: 30 Patienten wurden am Tag vor Radioiod-Therapie, 15 Patienten am 3.-10. Tag nach Radioiodtherapie untersucht. 20 Patienten mit Kopf/Halstumoren und normaler Schilddruesenfunktion dienten als Kontrollgruppe. Ergebnisse: Die F-18-FDG-Aufnahme in der Schilddruese war signifikant hoeher bei Patienten mit M-Basedow im Vergleich zu den Kontrollen. Sie stieg mit hoeheren, antithyreoidalen Antikoerpern und sank bei laengerer I-131-Halbwertzeit. Es bestand eine Korrelation einer reduzierten Glukose-Utilisation bei hoeherer absorbierter Schilddruesendosis nach Radioiod-Therapie. Schlussfolgerung: Damit erscheint die F-18-FDG-PET-Untersuchung zur biologischen Aktivitaetsbeurteilung des M. Basedow und Darstellung von fruehen Strahleneffekten geeignet. (orig.)

  5. F-18-FDG PET of the thyroid in Graves' disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, A.R.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.; Wienhard, K.; Wagner, R.

    1998-01-01

    This study evaluates F-18-FDG PET of the thyroid in Graves' disease. Methods: Thirty patients were investigated the day before radioiodine therapy, 15 patients 3-10 days after radioiodine therapy. Twenty patients with cancer of the head or neck and normal thyroid function served as controls. Results: F-18-FDG uptake was higher in Graves' disease patients than in controls. Negative correlations of F-18-FDG uptake with half-life of radioiodine and absorbed radiation dose due to radioiodine therapy were found along with a positive correlation to autoantibody levels. Conclusion: Thus F-18-FDG PET is likely to give information on the biological activity of Graves' disease as well as on early radiation effects. (orig.) [de

  6. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission tomography in neurology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fazekas, F.; Payer, F.

    2002-01-01

    Positron emission tomography using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG-PET) is an ideal tool for imaging regional cerebral metabolism as glucose is the most important source of energy for neurons. Under physiologic conditions the pattern of metabolism reflects the state of cerebral activation which can be modulated by various stimuli to investigate cerebral organization. Pathologic conditions usually cause a drop in metabolism because of neuronal inactivity or loss. They can, however, also be associated with an increased rate of glucose metabolism such as in case of active epileptic foci or malignant tumors. As a consequence F-18-FDG-PET has become a valuable functional imaging modality especially for the diagnostic clarification of non-contributory or negative morphologic imaging results. Dementia, pre-surgical evaluation of epilepsy and neurooncology are currently frequent indications for referral to F-18-FDG-PET in neurology. (author)

  7. F-18 FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Chan H.; Lee, Myoung Hoon; Yoon, Seek Nam; Hwang, Kyung Hoon

    2001-01-01

    F-18 FDG PET has become an important diagnostic imaging modality of various malignancies including thyroid cancer. Focal hypermetabolic lesion in the thyroid gland is usually considered malignant (Fig.1), although some benign lesions are also hypermetabolic. The aim of our poster presentation is to demonstrate F-18- FDG PET finding in autonomous thyroid nodules (ATN) and to avoid confusion in the interpretation of F-18-FDG PET performed for the evaluation of thyroid malignancy. Two patients with ATN (one with toxic and the other with nontoxic) underwent F-18-PET. ATN was proven by Tc-99m pertechnate thyroid scan (TS) and thyroid function tests (TFTs) were performed. First patient with ATN was asymptomatic and had a long history of thyroid nodule. Second patient was suffering from acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) and he was mildly thyrotoxic clinically and chemically. Gamma camera based F-18 FDG PET was performed utilizing Elscints Varicam (Haifa, Israel) one hour after IV administration of 111 MBq (3mCi) F-18 FDG. Patients were fasting more than 6 hours prior ot FDG injection. First patients was scanned the neck and second patient had scan of the whole trunk including neck for the evaluation of AML. Both nontoxic and toxic ATNs were hypermetabolic and it was impossible to differentiate benign from malignancy. Biopsy of nodule of the first patient and surgical removal of the nodule in the second patient was benign. Benign nontoxic and toxic ATNs are F-18 FDG avid. The reason for this is that ATN has increased glycolysis and iodide metabolism. Therefore, focal increased FDG uptake within the thyroid gland should be interpreted with TS and TFTs for an accurate diagnosis when F-18 FDG PET is used in the evaluation of thyroid malignancy

  8. Hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha Protects Against High-Fat Diet Exposure by Regulating ER alpha

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Morselli, Eugenia; Fuente-Martin, Esther; Finan, Brian; Kim, Min; Frank, Aaron; Garcia-Caceres, Cristina; Navas, Carlos Rodriguez; Gordillo, Ruth; Neinast, Michael; Kalainayakan, Sarada P.; Li, Dan L.; Gao, Yuanqing; Yi, Chun-Xia; Hahner, Lisa; Palmer, Biff F.; Tschöp, Matthias H.; Clegg, Deborah J.

    2014-01-01

    High-fat diets (HFDs) lead to obesity and inflammation in the central nervous system (CNS). Estrogens and estrogen receptor alpha (ER alpha) protect premenopausal females from the metabolic complications of inflammation and obesity-related disease. Here, we demonstrate that hypothalamic PGC-1 alpha

  9. Clinical Application of F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) in Malignancy of Unknown Origin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Il

    2008-01-01

    Diagnosis of primary origin site in the management of malignancy of unknown origin (MUO) is the most important issue. According to the histopathologic subtype of primary lesion, specialized treatment can be given and survival gain is expected. F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) has been estimated as useful in detection of primary lesion with high sensitivity and moderate specificity. F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) study before conventional studies is also recommended because it has high diagnostic performance compared to conventional studies. Although there has few data, F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) is expected to be useful in diagnosis of recurrence, restaging, evaluation of treatment effect, considering that PET (PET/CT) has been reported as useful in other malignancies

  10. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography for detecting atherosclerotic plaques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Jun

    2015-01-01

    A large number of major cardiovascular events occur in patients due to minimal or some lumen narrowing of the coronary artery. Recent biological studies have shown that the biological composition or vulnerability of the plaque is more critical for plaque rupture compared to the degree of stenosis. To overcome the limitations of anatomical images, molecular imaging techniques have been suggested as promising imaging tools in various fields. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is widely used in the field of oncology, is an example of molecular probes used in atherosclerotic plaque evaluation. FDG is a marker of plaque macrophage glucose utilization and inflammation, which is a prominent characteristic of vulnerable plaque. Recently, F-18 fluoride has been used to visualize vulnerable plaque in clinical studies. F-18 fluoride accumulates in regions of active microcalcification, which is normally observed during the early stages of plaque formation. More studies are warranted on the accumulation of F-18 fluoride and plaque formation/vulnerability; however, due to high specific accumulation, low background activity, and easy accessibility, F-18 fluoride is emerging as a promising non-invasive imaging probe to detect vulnerable plaque

  11. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography-computed tomography for detecting atherosclerotic plaques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Won Jun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Severance Hospital, Yonsei University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    A large number of major cardiovascular events occur in patients due to minimal or some lumen narrowing of the coronary artery. Recent biological studies have shown that the biological composition or vulnerability of the plaque is more critical for plaque rupture compared to the degree of stenosis. To overcome the limitations of anatomical images, molecular imaging techniques have been suggested as promising imaging tools in various fields. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), which is widely used in the field of oncology, is an example of molecular probes used in atherosclerotic plaque evaluation. FDG is a marker of plaque macrophage glucose utilization and inflammation, which is a prominent characteristic of vulnerable plaque. Recently, F-18 fluoride has been used to visualize vulnerable plaque in clinical studies. F-18 fluoride accumulates in regions of active microcalcification, which is normally observed during the early stages of plaque formation. More studies are warranted on the accumulation of F-18 fluoride and plaque formation/vulnerability; however, due to high specific accumulation, low background activity, and easy accessibility, F-18 fluoride is emerging as a promising non-invasive imaging probe to detect vulnerable plaque.

  12. Calibration of F-18 activity for PET applications in Cuba

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    León, Yecenia Moreno; Verdecia, Pilar Oropesa; Rodríguez, Lourdes García; Águila, Rolando A. Serra; Magaña, Yoel Jénez; Hechavarría, Ailec Bell; Pérez, Nayla; Cacero, Maray Dubalón; Ruiz, Javier Mas

    2016-01-01

    In the paper we present the results of the calibration of the concentration of F-18 dissolution activity in Cuba. Methods of measurement in a calibrated well ionization chamber, traceable to the UK national standard and gamma spectrometry yielded equivalent results within the limit of the associated uncertainties, respectively. The measurement uncertainties of the F-18 activity of the secondary standard activity activator, CAPINTEC CRCTM 15R, obtained from calibration of the instrument with the calibrated solutions of radionuclide, are also shown for the measurement of samples in the geometries of interest in Nuclear Medicine: glass jars and plastic syringes. The results presented in this paper constitute the necessary metrological support for the use of F-18 radiopharmaceuticals and the new PET and PET / CT technologies in medical practice in Cuba.

  13. Activity-based costing evaluation of [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krug, Bruno; Van Zanten, Annie; Pirson, Anne-Sophie; Crott, Ralph; Borght, Thierry Vander

    Introduction As healthcare expenses are escalating in many countries, the sector faces a new challenge of becoming more cost efficient. There is an urgent need for more accurate data on the costs of healthcare procedures. The cost of Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with [F-18]-fludeoxyglucose

  14. Improved methods to determine radionuclidic purity of F-18 compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Thomas; Micheelsen, Mille Ankerstjerne; Jensen, Mikael

    2012-01-01

    Current revisions of monographs for F-18 pharmaceuticals in the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) (Ph. Eur., 2011) call for a radionuclidic purity (RNP) of or better than 99.9%. However, the current method is not sufficient nor effective for testing this required RNP level. We present a theoretical...

  15. The poststall nonlinear dynamics and control of an F-18: A preliminary investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patten, William N.

    1988-01-01

    The successful high angle of attack (HAOA) operation of fighter aircraft will necessarily require the introduction of a new onboard control methodology that address the nonlinearity of the system when flown at the stall/poststall limits of the craft's flight envelope. As a precursor to this task, a researcher endeavored to familarize himself with the dynamics of one specific aircraft, the F-18, when it is flown at HAOA. This was accomplished by conducting a number of real time flight sorties using the NASA-Langley Research Center's F-18 simulator, which was operated with a pilot in the loop. In addition to developing a first hand familarity with the aircraft's dynamic characteristic at HAOA, work was also performed to identify the input/output operational footprint of the F-18's control surfaces. This investigator proposes to employ the nonlinear models of the plant identified this summer in a subsequent research effort that will make it possible to fly the F-18 effectively at poststall angles of attack. The controller design used there will rely on a new technique proposed by this investigator that provides for the automatic generation of online optimal control solutions for nonlinear dynamic systems.

  16. High collection efficiency CVD diamond alpha detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergonzo, P.; Foulon, F.; Marshall, R.D.; Jany, C.; Brambilla, A.; McKeag, R.D.; Jackman, R.B.

    1998-01-01

    Advances in Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond have enabled the routine use of this material for sensor device fabrication, allowing exploitation of its unique combination of physical properties (low temperature susceptibility (> 500 C), high resistance to radiation damage (> 100 Mrad) and to corrosive media). A consequence of CVD diamond growth on silicon is the formation of polycrystalline films which has a profound influence on the physical and electronic properties with respect to those measured on monocrystalline diamond. The authors report the optimization of physical and geometrical device parameters for radiation detection in the counting mode. Sandwich and co-planar electrode geometries are tested and their performances evaluated with regard to the nature of the field profile and drift distances inherent in such devices. The carrier drift length before trapping was measured under alpha particles and values as high as 40% of the overall film thickness are reported. Further, by optimizing the device geometry, they show that a gain in collection efficiency, defined as the induced charge divided by the deposited charge within the material, can be achieved even though lower bias values are used

  17. F-18-FDG-PET in autonomous goiter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boerner, A.R.; Voth, E.; Schicha, H.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: Gain-of-function mutations of the thyrotropin receptor (TSHR) gene have been invoked as one of the major causes of toxic thyroid adenomas. This study evaluates F-18-FDG-PET in these patients. Methods: Twenty patients with focal autonomous nodules and ten with disseminated autonomy were investigated the day before radioiodine therapy. Twenty patients with cancer of the head or neck and normal thyroid function served as controls. Results: F-18-FDG-Uptake was higher in patients than in controls. Focal autonomous nodules were associated with focally enhanced glucose metabolism. Disseminated autonomous goiters showed various patterns of focal or global hypermetabolism. Conclusion: Autonomous thyroid tissue caused by constitutive mutations of the TSH receptor is characterised by simultaneous increases in glucose and iodine metabolism which are correlated. (orig.) [de

  18. [F18]-FDG imaging of experimental animal tumours using a hybrid gamma-camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lausson, S.; Maurel, G.; Kerrou, K.; Montravers, F.; Petegnief, Y.; Talbot, J.N.; Fredelizi, D.

    2001-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) has been widely used in clinical studies. This technology permits detection of compounds labelled with positron emitting radionuclides and in particular, [F18]-fluorodeoxyglucose ([F18]-FDG).[F18]-FDG uptake and accumulation is generally related to malignancy; some recent works have suggested the usefulness of PET camera dedicated to small laboratory animals (micro-PET). Our study dealt with the feasibility of [F18]-FDG imaging of malignant tumours in animal models by means of an hybrid camera dedicated for human scintigraphy. We evaluated the ability of coincidence detection emission tomography (CDET) using this hybrid camera to visualize in vivo subcutaneous tumours grafted to mice or rats. P815 murine mastocytoma grafted in syngeneic DBA/2 mice resulted with foci of very high FDG uptake. Tumours with a diameter of only 3 mm were clearly visualized. Medullary thyroid cancer provoked by rMTC 6/23 and CA77 lines in syngeneic Wag/Rij rat was also detected. The differentiated CA77 tumours exhibited avidity for [F18]-FDG and a tumour, which was just palpable (diameter lower than 2 mm), was identified. In conclusion, CDET-FDG is a non-invasive imaging tool which can be used to follow grafted tumours in the small laboratory animal, even when their size is smaller than 1 cm. It has the potential to evaluate experimental anticancer treatments in small series of animals by individual follow-up. It offers the opportunity to develop experimental PET research within a nuclear medicine or biophysics department, the shift to a dedicated micro-PET device being subsequently necessary. It is indeed compulsory to strictly follow the rules for non contamination and disinfection of the hybrid camera. (authors)

  19. Internal radiation dosimetry of F-18-5-fluorouracil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shani, J.; Schlesinger, T.; Wolf, W.

    1980-01-01

    The projected internal radiations dose to different human organs per millicurie of injected F-18-5-Fluorouracil is calculated from rat distribution studies and human urinary excretion data. The calculations assume a similar distribution of labelled drug in humans as in rats, inasmuch as preliminary human distribution studies appeared to validate the use of the rat model for human dosimetry calculations. (U.K.)

  20. Intraindividual comparison of F-18-FLT PET and F-18 FET PET in brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Sung Eun; Cheon, G. J.; Cho, Y. S.; Kwak, H. S.; Lee, C. H.; Choi, C. W.; Lim, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    To compare findings on FLT PET with FET PET, we prospectively undertaken FLT, FET and FDG PET in same patient with suspected primary/metastatic and recurrent brain tumors. Seventeen studies in 16 patients (47 8.3 years, M: F 10: 6) with brain tumor (3 for initial diagnosis, 6 for therapeutic response, 6 for detecting recurrence, 1 for diagnosis and recurrence both) were included. Brain tumors were 14 gliomas (6 high- grade 9 low-grade by the WHO classification), 2 metastatic brain tumors and 1 CNS lymphoma. 18F-FDG, FLT and FET PET were performed within two weeks. Attenuation-corrected brain images were acquired 30 minutes after injection of 370-555 MBq FDG, FLT and FET with a dedicated PET scanner (ECAT HR scanner, Siemens-CTI). Maximum SUV (max SUV) and relative uptake defined by FLT and FET accumulation within the tumor in relation to a contralateral control region (max SUV for tumor/ mean SUV for contralateral normal gray matter) were calculated. 26 tumor foci were analyzed. Relative FLT uptake (4.17 2.4, 0.58 to 7.45) was grater than than FET uptake (2.03 1.17, 0.92 to 4.53 (p<0.0006)) and FDG uptake (1.16 0.34, 0.76 to 2.08). Among FLT, FET and FDG uptakes in 20 tumor foci, correlation were poor. the relative FLT uptake of high-grade glioma was higher than low-glioma (6.070.76 vs 3.11 2.15, p=0.002), however, relative FET uptake was not different significantly (2.68 1.51, high-grade vs 1.970.78, low-grade). The correlation between tumor grade (high vs low grade) and relative uptake (FLT and FET) was shown only with relative FLT uptake (r=0.62, p=0.002). The best cut off value of relative FLT uptake between high-grade and low-grade glioma was 4.54 (AUC: 0.89 sensitivity: 100 specificity: 86.7%). Compared with FET uptake, FLT uptake showed much higher contrast and associated with tumor grade. Further study, evaluation of proliferative index of Ki-67 and its relationship with FLT and FET uptake, are ongoing

  1. Giant cell tumor of the rib: Two cases of F-18 FDG PET/CT findings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Le Ryung; Lee, Yeong Joo; Jung, Chan Kwon [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Sonya Young Ju [Molecular Imaging Program, Dept. of Radiology, Stanford Hospital and Clinics, Stanford (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    We report two cases of giant cell tumor arising from the rib and their F-18 FDG PET/CT findings. The two patients complained of chest wall pain, and large lobulated soft tissue masses with intense FDG uptake were seen on F-18 FDG PET/CT. A malignant tumor such as osteosarcoma or chondrosarcoma was suspected due to the large size of the mass, bony destruction, and intense FDG uptake. En bloc resection was performed and final pathologic results revealed giant cell tumor of the rib. Giant cell tumor of the rib is very rare, and larger lesions with high FDG uptake can be misdiagnosed as an intrathoracic malignancy arising from the rib, pleura, or chest wall.

  2. Anti-pp,. cap alpha cap alpha. and p. cap alpha. elastic scattering at high energies and Chou-Yang conjecture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saleem, M.; Fazal-e-Aleem; Rifique, M.

    1987-03-01

    The recent experimental measurements for anti-pp and ..cap alpha cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies have shown that the Chou-Yang conjecture regarding the relationship between the electromagnetic and the hadronic form factor of a particle is only an approximation. A new ansatz has been proposed to obtain hadronic form factors of proton and the ..cap alpha..-particle. These form factors have been used to explain the various characteristics of anti-pp, ..cap alpha cap alpha.. and p..cap alpha.. elastic scattering at high energies.

  3. Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    d' Enterria, David [CERN; Skands, Peter Z. [Monash U.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experimental uncertainties associated to each extraction method, the improvements expected from LHC data in the coming years, and future perspectives achievable in $e^+e^-$ collisions at the Future Circular Collider (FCC-ee) with $\\cal{O}$(1--100 ab$^{-1}$) integrated luminosities yielding 10$^{12}$ Z bosons and jets, and 10$^{8}$ W bosons and $\\tau$ leptons, are thoroughly reviewed. The current uncertainty of the (preliminary) 2015 strong coupling world-average value, $\\alpha_s(m_Z)$ = 0.1177 $\\pm$ 0.0013, is about 1\\%. Some participants believed this may be reduced by a factor of three in the near future by including novel high-precision observables, although this opinion was not universally shared. At the FCC-ee facility, a factor of ten reduction in the $\\alpha_s$ uncertainty should be possible, mostly thanks to the huge Z and W data samples available.

  4. Differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism using dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jin, So Young; Oh, Min Young; Ok, Seung Jun; Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik; Kim, Jae Seung

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging can demonstrate presynaptic dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, differentiating atypical parkinsonism (APD) from PD is often difficult. We investigated the usefulness of dual phase F 18 FP CIT positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Ninety eight subjects [five normal, seven drug induced parkinsonism (DIP), five essential tremor (ET), 24 PD, 20 multiple system atrophy parkinson type (MSA-P), 13 multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C), 13 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 11 dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB)] underwent F 18 FP CIT PET. PET images were acquired at 5 min (early phase) and 3 h (late phase) after F 18 FP CIT administration (185MBq). Regional uptake pattern of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres was assessed on early phase images, using visual, quantitative, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses. Striatal DAT binding was normal in normal, ET, DIP, and MSA C groups, but abnormal in PD, MSA P PSP, and DLB groups. No difference was found in regional uptake on early phase images among normal DAT binding groups, except in the MSA C group. Abnormal DAT binding groups showed different regional uptake pattern on early phase images compared with PD in SPM analysis (FDR<0.05). When discriminating APD from PD, visual interpretation of the early phase image showed high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (75.4% and 100%, respectively). Regarding the ability to distinguish specific APD, sensitivities were 81% for MSA P, 77% for MSA C, 23% for PSP, and 54.5% for DLB. Dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging is useful in demonstrating striatal DAT loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonism, and also in differentiating APD, particularly MSA, from PD

  5. Differential diagnosis of Parkinsonism using dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jin, So Young; Oh, Min Young; Ok, Seung Jun; Oh, Jung Su; Lee, Sang Ju; Chung, Sun Ju; Lee, Chong Sik; Kim, Jae Seung [Univ. of Ulsan, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-03-15

    Dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging can demonstrate presynaptic dopaminergic neuronal loss in Parkinson's disease (PD). However, differentiating atypical parkinsonism (APD) from PD is often difficult. We investigated the usefulness of dual phase F 18 FP CIT positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in the differential diagnosis of parkinsonism. Ninety eight subjects [five normal, seven drug induced parkinsonism (DIP), five essential tremor (ET), 24 PD, 20 multiple system atrophy parkinson type (MSA-P), 13 multiple system atrophy cerebellar type (MSA-C), 13 progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and 11 dementia with Lewy bodies(DLB)] underwent F 18 FP CIT PET. PET images were acquired at 5 min (early phase) and 3 h (late phase) after F 18 FP CIT administration (185MBq). Regional uptake pattern of cerebral and cerebellar hemispheres was assessed on early phase images, using visual, quantitative, and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analyses. Striatal DAT binding was normal in normal, ET, DIP, and MSA C groups, but abnormal in PD, MSA P PSP, and DLB groups. No difference was found in regional uptake on early phase images among normal DAT binding groups, except in the MSA C group. Abnormal DAT binding groups showed different regional uptake pattern on early phase images compared with PD in SPM analysis (FDR<0.05). When discriminating APD from PD, visual interpretation of the early phase image showed high diagnostic sensitivity and specificity (75.4% and 100%, respectively). Regarding the ability to distinguish specific APD, sensitivities were 81% for MSA P, 77% for MSA C, 23% for PSP, and 54.5% for DLB. Dual phase F 18 FP CIT PET imaging is useful in demonstrating striatal DAT loss in neurodegenerative parkinsonism, and also in differentiating APD, particularly MSA, from PD.

  6. Pet imaging of human pituitary 5-HT2 receptors with F-18 setoperone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischman, A.J.; Bonab, A.A.; Babich, J.W. [Massachusetts General Hospital, Boston, MA (United States)] [and others

    1995-05-01

    Serotonin (5-HT) receptors play an important role in the regulation of pituitary function. In particular, 5HT agonists stimulate ACTH, {beta}-endorphin, prolactin and growth hormone secretion but inhibit TSH release. 5-HT binding sites have been identified by autoradiographic studies of rat and human pituitary. In the present investigation, we used PET with F-18 setoperone to image 5-HT2 receptors in normal humans. Setoperone, a piperidine derivative with potent 5-HT2 receptor blocking properties was labelled with F-18 by nucleophilic substitution on the nitro derivative. After HPLC purification, specific activity was between 10,000 and 15,000 mCi/{mu} mole and radiochemical purity was >98%. Six healthy male volunteers were injected with 5-7 mCi of F-18. Setoperone and serial PET images and arterial blood samples were collected over 2 hrs. Specific binding to 5-HT2 receptors in the frontal cortex (FC), striatum (ST) and pituitary (P) was quantitated using the cerebellum (C) as reference. The tracer showed clear retention in FC, ST and P (known to contain a high density of 5-HT2 receptors) relative to C (known to be devoid of 5-HT2 receptors). In all subjects, FC/C, ST/C and P/C ratios increased during the first hr. and remained stable thereafter. For FC and ST, the ratios reached similar values; 3.92{plus_minus}0.73 and 3.53{plus_minus}0.32. For pituitary, a significantly higher ratio, was measured at all times; 6.53{plus_minus}1.82 (p<0.01). These results indicate that F-18 setoperone is an effective PET radiopharmaceutical for imaging 5-HT2 receptors in the human pituitary. Future applications of this agent could provide important new insights into neuroendocrine function.

  7. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) accumulation in melanoma cells. Is FDG a substrate of multidrug resistance (MDR)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to specify the influence of multidrug-resistance (MDR) on the accumulation of the PET tracer, F-18 FDG ([Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose, in melanoma cells, both the MDR function and expression of two human melanoma cell lines SK-MEL 23 and 24, were evaluated. The effects of MDR modulators on FDG accumulation and efflux were also investigated. A functional analysis using representative MDR fluorescent substrates and inhibitors clarified the following characteristics: SK-MEL 23 possesses a highly active function of multidrug resistance-associated protein (MRP), but not P-gp. SK-MEL 24 possesses weak functions of both MRP and P-gp. Western blot analysis using monoclonal antibodies for MDR expression demonstrated an exceedingly high MRP expression of SK-MEL 23 and only slight P-gp and MRP expression of SK-MEL 24, corresponding to the functional data. The efflux inhibition assay using F-18 FDG revealed a considerable retention of FDG in SK-MEL 23 in the presence of the MRP inhibitor probenecid. It was also found that the P-gp inhibitor verapamil depressed the FDG efflux of SK-MEL 24. Our present in vitro study suggests that FDG may be a substrate of MDR in some melanoma cells and further MDR may be one of the important factors affecting FDG-PET melanoma imaging. (author)

  8. Unusual soft tissue uptake of F-18 sodium fluoride in three patients undergoing F-18 NaF PET/CT bone scans for prostate cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawkins, Andrew S.; Howard, Brandon A. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Three males aged 71 to 80 years with known stage IV metastatic prostate cancer underwent F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) PET/CT to assess osseous metastatic disease burden and stability. In addition to F-18 NaF avid known osseous metastases, each patient also exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in soft tissues. The first patient exhibited multiple F-18 NaF avid enlarged retroperitoneal and pelvic lymph nodes on consecutive PET/CT scans. The second patient demonstrated an F-18 NaF avid thyroid nodule on consecutive PET/CT scans. The third patient exhibited increased F-18 NaF activity in a hepatic metastasis.

  9. Analysis of cadmium in high alpha solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, L.W.; Overman, L.A.; Hodgens, H.F.

    1977-07-01

    Cadmium nitrate is occasionally used as a neutron poison for convenience in the separation of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium. As the classical methods of analysis for cadmium are very time-consuming, a method to isolate it in solution using solvent extraction of uranium, neptunium, and plutonium with TBP in an n-paraffin hydrocarbon was investigated. After removal of the radionuclides, the cadmium is determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Precision of the method at the 95 percent confidence level is +-2.4 percent. Alpha content of the solutions was typically reduced from 1-10 x 10 11 dis/(min ml) 238 Pu to 1-15 x 10 4 dis/(min ml). Analysis time was typically reduced from approximately 24 hours per sample to less than 1 hour

  10. F-18 FDG uptake in respiratory muscle mimicking metastasis in patients with gastric cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Hyun, In Young; Kim, Jeong Ho

    2006-01-01

    A 67-year-old man with a history of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for staging of gastric cancer. The projection images of F-18 FDG PET/CT showed intensely increased F-18 FDG uptake in the anterior neck, chest wall, and upper abdomen. We suspected distant metastases of cervical lymph nodes, ribs, and peritoneum in gastric cancer. However, the transaxial images of F-18 FDG PET/CT showed abnormal F-18 FDG uptake in scalene muscles of anterior neck, intercostal muscles of chest wall, and diaphragm of upper abdomen. Patients with COPD use respiratory muscles extensively on the resting condition. These excessive physiologic use of respiratory muscles causes increased F-18 FDG uptake as a result of increased glucose metabolism. The F-18 FDG uptake in respiratory muscles of gastric cancer patient with COPD mimicked distant metastases in cervical lymph nodes, ribs, and peritoneum

  11. F-18 FDG PET/CT in Bilateral Diffuse Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Senthil, Raja; Parghane, Rahul; Kashyap, Raghava; Bhattacharya, Anish; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai [Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Resaarch, Chandigarh (India)

    2012-06-15

    A 51-year-old female patient, who had undergone left-sided modified radical mastectomy for left breast carcinoma 4 years ago, presented with dyspnea of 4 months duration F-18 FDG PET/CT of this patient showed diffusely in-creased FDG uptake in the bilateral lung fields along the thickened bronchovascular bundles. SUVmax of lymphangitic lung was 5.2. The standardized uptake ratio (SUR) of mediastinal blood pool to lymphangitic lung was 0.44. High resolution computed tomography (HRCT) of the same patient showed thickening of interlobular septa and bronchovaseular bundles, with preservation of normal parenchymal architecture. Multiple intrapulmonary nodules and bilateral hilar lymphadenopathy with pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC). The lungs are the second most common sites for metastases after lymph nodes. These metastases are usually nodular on radiologic images. PLC with interstitial involvement constitutes only 7% of pulmonary metastastases. The most common primary sites, in order of frequency, are adenocarcinoma of the lung, breast, stomach, colon, and prostrate. HRCT has been the modality of choice in the radiologic diagnosis of PLC. Only a few studies have de-scribed the F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis. These studies have shown diffusely increased FDG uptake corresponding to the typical changes in the CT as the most common finding. One study has reported that F-18 FDG PET/CT is 100% specific and 86% sensitive in diagnosing PLC by subjective analysis. The mean SUV in the region of pulmonary lymphangitic lung was 1.26{+-}0.45 and that of blood pool to normal lung was 3.78{+-}1.37.

  12. Myocardial glucose metabolism in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Assessment by F-18-FDG PET study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uehara, Toshiisa; Ishida, Yoshio; Hayashida, Kohei

    1998-01-01

    In an investigation of myocardial metabolic abnormalities in hypertrophic myocardium, the myocardial glucose metabolism was evaluated with F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in 32 patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, and the results were compared with those in 9 patients with hypertensive heart disease. F-18-FDG PET study was performed in the fasting and glucose-loading states. The myocardial regional %dose uptake was calculated quantitatively. The average regional %dose uptake in the fasting state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was significantly higher than that in the patients with hypertensive heart disease (0.75±0.34%, 0.65±0.25%, and 0.43±0.22%/100 g myocardium, respectively). In contrast, the average %dose uptake in the glucose-loading state in the patients with asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy was not significantly different from that in patients with hypertensive heart disease (1.17±0.49%, 0.80±0.44% and 0.99±0.45%, respectively). The patients with apical hypertrophy had also low %dose uptake in the fasting state (0.38±0.21%) as in the hypertensive heart disease patients, so that the characteristics of asymmetric septal hypertrophy and dilated-phase hypertrophic cardiomyopathy are considered to be high FDG uptake throughout the myocardium in the fasting state. Patients with apical hypertrophy are considered to belong to other disease categories metabolically. F-18-FDG PET study is useful in the evaluation of the pathophysiologic diagnosis of patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. (author)

  13. Lithium abundances in high- and low-alpha halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nissen, P. E.; Schuster, W. J.

    2012-01-01

    A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 < [Fe/H] < -0.7. The kinematics of the stars and models of galaxy formation suggest that the ......A previous study of F and G main-sequence stars in the solar neighborhood has revealed the existence of two distinct halo populations with a clear separation in [alpha /Fe] for the metallicity range -1.4 ... that the ``high-alpha '' stars were formed in situ in the inner parts of the Galaxy, whereas the ``low-alpha '' ones have been accreted from satellite galaxies. In order to see if there is any systematic difference in the lithium abundances of high- and low-alpha stars, equivalent widths of the iLi 6707.8 Å line...... have been measured from VLT/UVES and NOT/FIES spectra and used to derive Li abundances. Furthermore, stellar masses are determined from evolutionary tracks in the log T_eff - log g diagram. For stars with masses 0.7 lithium abundance...

  14. Stimulation of Escherichia coli F-18Col- Type-1 fimbriae synthesis by leuX

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Newman, Joseph V.; Burghoff, Robert L.; Pallesen, Lars

    1994-01-01

    Escherichia coli F-18, a normal human fecal isolate, is an excellent colonizer of the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine. E. coli F-18Col-, a derivative of E. coli F-18 which no longer makes the E. coli F-18 colicin, colonizes the large intestine as well as E. coli F-18 when fed to mice...... alone but is eliminated when fed together with E. coli F-18. Recently we randomly cloned E. coli F-18 DNA into E. coli F-18Col- and let the mouse intestine select the best colonizer. In this way, we isolated a 6.5-kb E. coli F-18 DNA sequence that simultaneously stimulated synthesis of type 1 fimbriae...... and enhanced E. coli F-18Col- colonizing ability. In the present investigation we show that the gene responsible for stimulation of type 1 fimbriae synthesis appears to be leuX, which encodes a tRNA specific for the rare leucine codon UUG. Moreover, it appears that expression of leuX may be regulated by two...

  15. Association between the porcine Escherichia coli F18 receptor genotype and phenotype and susceptibility to colonisation and postweaning diarrhoea caused by E-coli O138 : F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydendahl, K.; Jensen, Tim Kåre; Andersen, Jens Strodl

    2003-01-01

    Porcine postweaning Escherichia coli enteritis is a cause of significant morbidity and mortality in pigs worldwide, and effective prevention remains an unsolved problem. This study examined the correlation between susceptibility of pigs to experimental infection with an E. coli F18 strain...... and the porcine intestinal F18 receptor genotypes. Thirty-one pigs classified as either belonging to the susceptible or the resistant genotype were inoculated with cultures of an E. coli 0138:F18 isolated from a pig with postweaning diarrhoea. Susceptibility to colonisation and diarrhoea was assessed by clinical...... and heterozygotic susceptible pigs. Faecal shedding of the challenge strain correlated with the genetic receptor profile. Twenty pigs examined immunohistochemically revealed focal to extensive small intestinal mucosal colonisation by E. coli O138:F18 in nine of 10 susceptible and three of 10 resistant pigs. Results...

  16. Do the metabolites of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa and of [F-18]fluoro-meta-L-tyrosine contribute to the F-18 accumulation in the human brain?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Firnau, G.; Chirakal, R.; Nahmias, C.; Garnett, E.S.

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if the metabolites of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dopa (F-dopa) and of [F-18]fluoro-meta-L-tyrosine (FmLtyr) contribute to the accumulation of fluorine-18 in the brain through unspecific retention. PET studies were conducted on a healthy human subject who was treated with both of the radiopharmaceuticals and their labelled metabolites. Results indicated that in contrast to F-dopa, the metabolite of FmLtyr does not 'contaminate' the brain with extraneous fluorine-18

  17. Acute toxicity of high doses of the glycoalkaloids, alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, in the Syrian Golden hamster

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langkilde, Søren; Schrøder, Malene; Stewart, Derek

    2008-01-01

    Sprouted, stressed, or spoiled potato tubers have reportedly led to human acute intoxication, coma, and death when consumed in high amounts. These effects have been attributed to glycoalkaloids (GAs), primarily alpha-solanine and alpha-chaconine, naturally present in all potatoes. The level of GAs...

  18. Monitoring HSVtk suicide gene therapy : the role of [F-18]FHPG membrane transport

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buursma, AR; van Dillen, IJ; van Waarde, A; Vaalburg, W; Hospers, GAP; Mulder, NH; de Vries, EFJ

    2004-01-01

    Favourable pharmacokinetics of the prodrug are essential for successful HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV) suicide gene therapy. [F-18] FHPG PET might be a suitable technique to assess the pharmacokinetics of the prodrug GCV noninvasively, provided that [F-18] FHPG mimics the behaviour of GCV. Since membrane

  19. A simple method for the quality control of [F-18]FDG

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Koziorowski, J.

    2010-01-01

    Most automated synthesis modules produce [F-18]FDG within half an hour, but the quality control involving up to three separate methods and three different analytical systems is time consuming. The use of HPLC, TLC, and GC for the quality control of [F-18]FDG is both time consuming and expensive...

  20. 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-D-mannose positron emission tomography imaging in atherosclerosis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tahara, Nobuhiro; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar; de Haas, Hans J; Petrov, Artiom D; Tawakol, Ahmed; Haider, Nezam; Tahara, Atsuko; Constantinescu, Cristian C; Zhou, Jun; Boersma, Hendrikus H; Imaizumi, Tsutomu; Nakano, Masataka; Finn, Aloke; Fayad, Zahi; Virmani, Renu; Fuster, Valentin; Bosca, Lisardo; Narula, Jagat

    Progressive inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques is associated with increasing risk of plaque rupture. Molecular imaging of activated macrophages with 2-deoxy-2[F-18]fluoro-D-glucose ([F-18]FDG) has been proposed for identification of patients at higher risk for acute vascular events. Because

  1. F-18-FDG-hybrid-camera-PET in patients with postoperative fever

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Lehmann, K.; Siefker, U.; Meyer, I.; Altenvoerde, G.; Becker, W.; Sahlmann, C.O.; Schreiber, K.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Evaluation of F-18-FDG-hybrid-camera-PET imaging in patients with undetermined postoperative fever (POF). Methods: Prospective study of 18 patients (9 women, 9 men; age 23-85 years) suffering from POF with 2-fluoro-2'-deoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) using a dual headed coincidence camera (DHCC). Surgery had been performed 5-94 days prior to our investigation. 13 of the 18 patients received antibiotic therapy during the time of evaluation. Ten (55%) had an infectious and eight (45%) a norr infectious cause of fever. Results: Increased F-18-FDG-uptake outside the surgical wound occurred in 13 regions (infection n = 11, malignancy n = 2). The sensitivity of F-18-FDG-hybrid-camera-PET in imaging infection in areas outside the surgical wound was 86% and the specificity 100%, respectively. Antibiotic therapy did not negatively influence the results of F-18-FDG-scanning. Increased F-18-FDG-uptake within the surgical wound was seen in 8 of 18 patients. The sensitivity of F-18-FDG-hybrid-camera-PET in imaging infection within the surgical wound was 100% and the specificty 56%, respectively. The interval between surgery and F-18-FDG-scanning was significantly shorter in patients with false positive results compared with patients showing true negative results (median 34 vs. 54 days; p = 0,038). Conclusion: In POF-Patients, F-18-FDG transaxial tomography performed with a F-18-FDG-hybrid-camera-PET is sensitive in the diagnosis of inflammation and malignant disease within and outside the surgical wound. Because of the accumulation of the tracer both in granulation tissue and infection, the specificity in detecting the focus of fever within the surgical wound is poor. (orig.) [de

  2. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turpin, Sophie; Carret, Anne-Sophie; Dubois, Josée; Buteau, Chantal; Patey, Natalie

    2015-11-01

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis.

  3. Isolated thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis discovered on F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turpin, Sophie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Nuclear Medicine, Montreal (Canada); Carret, Anne-Sophie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Hemato-Oncology, Montreal (Canada); Dubois, Josee [CHU Sainte-Justine, Radiology, Montreal (Canada); Buteau, Chantal [CHU Sainte-Justine, Infectious Diseases, Montreal (Canada); Patey, Natalie [CHU Sainte-Justine, Pathology, Montreal (Canada)

    2015-11-15

    The thymic infiltration in young patients with multisystemic Langerhans cell histiocytosis and its radiologic features are well known. However, isolated thymic disease has seldom been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 10-month-old child admitted for fever of unknown origin. Whole-body F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) was performed to identify a focus of infection. It demonstrated an unusual aspect of the thymus, which led to further investigation and revealed isolated infiltration of the thymus by Langerhans cell histiocytosis. The patient was treated accordingly and is now disease free. As evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis patients with F-18 FDG PET/CT is becoming more frequent, it is important to be aware of the scintigraphical characteristics of thymic Langerhans cell histiocytosis. (orig.)

  4. F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography Appearance of Extramedullary Hematopoesis in a Case of Primary Myelofibrosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukherjee, Anirban; Bal, Chandrasekhar; Tripathi, Madhavi; Das, Chandan Jyoti; Shamim, Shamim Ahmed

    2017-01-01

    A 44-year-old female with known primary myelofibrosis presented with shortness of breath. High Resolution Computed Tomography thorax revealed large heterogeneously enhancing extraparenchymal soft tissue density mass involving bilateral lung fields. F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography revealed mildly FDG avid soft tissue density mass with specks of calcification involving bilateral lung fields, liver, and spleen. Subsequent histopathologic evaluation from the right lung mass was suggestive of extramedullary hematopoesis. PMID:28533647

  5. Fluorinated glucose analog, 2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18): nontoxic tracer for rapid tumor detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Som, P.; Atkins, H.L.; Bandoypadhyay, D.

    1980-01-01

    Rapid uptake of F-18 FDG was observed in a variety of transplanted and spontaneous tumors in animals. The tumor uptake reached a peak by 30 min and remained relatively constant up to 60 min, with a very slow wash-out of F-18 activity from the tumor thereafter. Tumor-to-normal tissue and tumor-to-blood ratios ranged from 2.10 to 9.15 and 2.61 to 17.82, respectively, depending on the type of tumor. A scintiscan of a seminoma in a dog showed very high uptake in the viable part and lack of uptake in the necrotic mass. Toxicological studies in mice using 1000 times human tracer dose (HTD) per week for 3 weeks and in dogs using 50 times HTD per week for 3 weeks did not show any evidence of acute or chronic toxicity

  6. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography imaging for diagnosing ovarian small cell carcinoma of the hypercalcaemic type

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Kim, Hun Soo [Wonkwang University School of Medicine and Institute of Wonkwang Medical Science, Iksan (Korea, Republic of); Oldan, Jorge Daniel [Radiology, Cardiovascular Imaging at the Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland (United States)

    2016-03-15

    A 19-year-old woman presented with lower abdominal pain. Laboratory results showed elevated levels of ionized calcium 1.85 mmol/1, and total calcium, 3.75 mmol/1, but a low level of parathyroid hormone, 1.2 ng/l. This F-18 FDG PET/CT study demonstrated a hypermetabolic unilateral complex mass, composed of solid and necrotic portions, with a concomitant increase in FDG uptake on osteolytic lesions throughout the axial breakdown of bone. In young women, pelvic neoplasms are often difficult to characterize with imaging, because it is often difficult to classify a tumor as benign or malignant based on its appearance on imaging studies. Therefore, features such as ovarian masses in girl and adolescents, a high calculcium level, and the diffuse FDG-avid asterolytic lesions on F-18 FDG PET/CT are probably suggestive of a malignant OSCCHT secreting the PTH-rP.

  7. Lessons learned about [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding from an autopsy-confirmed Parkinson's case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marquié, Marta; Verwer, Eline E; Meltzer, Avery C; Kim, Sally Ji Who; Agüero, Cinthya; Gonzalez, Jose; Makaretz, Sara J; Siao Tick Chong, Michael; Ramanan, Prianca; Amaral, Ana C; Normandin, Marc D; Vanderburg, Charles R; Gomperts, Stephen N; Johnson, Keith A; Frosch, Matthew P; Gómez-Isla, Teresa

    2017-10-19

    [F-18]-AV-1451 is a novel positron emission tomography (PET) tracer with high affinity to neurofibrillary tau pathology in Alzheimer's disease (AD). PET studies have shown increased tracer retention in patients clinically diagnosed with dementia of AD type and mild cognitive impairment in regions that are known to contain tau lesions. In vivo uptake has also consistently been observed in midbrain, basal ganglia and choroid plexus in elderly individuals regardless of their clinical diagnosis, including clinically normal whose brains are not expected to harbor tau pathology in those areas. We and others have shown that [F-18]-AV-1451 exhibits off-target binding to neuromelanin, melanin and blood products on postmortem material; and this is important for the correct interpretation of PET images. In the present study, we further investigated [F-18]-AV-1451 off-target binding in the first autopsy-confirmed Parkinson's disease (PD) subject who underwent antemortem PET imaging. The PET scan showed elevated [F-18]-AV-1451 retention predominantly in inferior temporal cortex, basal ganglia, midbrain and choroid plexus. Neuropathologic examination confirmed the PD diagnosis. Phosphor screen and high resolution autoradiography failed to show detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 binding in multiple brain regions examined with the exception of neuromelanin-containing neurons in the substantia nigra, leptomeningeal melanocytes adjacent to ventricles and midbrain, and microhemorrhages in the occipital cortex (all reflecting off-target binding), in addition to incidental age-related neurofibrillary tangles in the entorhinal cortex. Additional legacy postmortem brain samples containing basal ganglia, choroid plexus, and parenchymal hemorrhages from 20 subjects with various neuropathologic diagnoses were also included in the autoradiography experiments to better understand what [F-18]-AV-1451 in vivo positivity in those regions means. No detectable [F-18]-AV-1451 autoradiographic binding was

  8. Disturbed neural circuits in a subtype of chronic catatonic schizophrenia demonstrated by F-18-FDG-PET and F-18-DOPA-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lauer, M.; Beckmann, H.; Stoeber, G.; Schirrmeister, H.; Gerhard, A.; Ellitok, E.; Reske, S.N.

    2001-01-01

    Permanent verbal, visual scenic and coenaestetic hallucinations are the most prominent psychopathological symptoms aside from psychomotor disorders in speech-sluggish catatonia, a subtype of chronic catatonic schizophrenia according to Karl Leonhard. These continuous hallucinations serve as an excellent paradigm for the investigation of the assumed functional disturbances of cortical circuits in schizophrenia. Data from positron emission tomography (F-18-FDG-PET and F-18-DOPA-PET) from three patients with this rare phenotype were available (two cases of simple speech-sluggish catatonia, one case of a combined speech-prompt/speech-sluggish subtype) and were compared with a control collective. During their permanent hallucinations, all catatonic patients showed a clear bitemporal hypometabolism in the F-18-FDG-PET. Both patients with the simple speech-sluggish catatonia showed an additional bilateral thalamic hypermetabolism and an additional bilateral hypometabolism of the frontal cortex, especially on the left side. In contrast, the patient with the combined speech-prompt/speech-sluggish catatonia showed a bilateral thalamic hypo-metabolism combined with a bifrontal cortical hypermetabolism. However, the left/right ratio of the frontal cortex also showed a lateralization effect with a clear relative hypometabolism of the left frontal cortex. The F-18-DOPA-PET of both schizophrenic patients with simple speech-sluggish catatonia showed a normal F-18-DOPA storage in the striatum, whereas in the right putamen of the patient with the combined form a higher right/left ratio in F-DOPA storage was discernible, indicating an additional lateralized influence of the dopaminergic system in this subtype of chronic catatonic schizophrenia. (author)

  9. A Case of Acute Q Fever Hepatitis Diagnosed by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beak, Sora [Hallym Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Oh, Minyoung; Lee, Sand-Oh; Yu, Eunsil; Ryu Jin-Sook [Univ. of Ulsan College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-06-15

    A 53-year-old man with fever of unknown origin underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) as a workup for a fever of unknown origin. On presentation, he complained of fever, chills, and myalgia. The F-18 FDG PET/CT scan showed diffusely increased uptake of the liver with mild hepatomegaly. A liver biopsy then revealed fibrin-ring granulomas typically seen in Q fever. The patient was later serologically diagnosed as having acute Q fever as the titers for C. IgM and IgG were 64:1 and -16:1, respectively. He recovered completely following administration of doxycycline. This indicates that F-18 FDG PET/CT may be helpful for identifying hepatic involvement in Q fever as a cause of fever of unknown origin.

  10. Clinical relevance of F-18 FDG PET for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors; Wertigkeit der F-18-FDG-PET bei neuroendokrinen Tumoren

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S. [Klinikum der Ruhr-Univ. Bochum - Marienhospital, Herne (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie und Nuklearmedizin; Baum, R.P. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin/PET-Zentrum; Hoer, G. [Frankfurt Univ., Frankfurt am Main (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin

    2001-04-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are characterized immunocytochemically by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. Hormones induce their biological action by binding to and stimulating specific membrane-associated receptors for e.g. somatostatin. The presence of somatostatin receptors (SR) has been described mainly in endocrine glands and the central nervous system. Interestingly, a large variety of human tumors, including gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) also express a high density of SR and can be imaged with [{sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}]-pentetreotide. Cell proliferative activity is an important indicator of the growth of various malignant tumors associated with a poorer prognosis and Ki-67 expression. {sup 18}F-FDG is a marker of tumor viability, based upon the increased glycolysis that is associated with malignancy as compared with normal tissue. SR-containing neuroendocrine tumors are well-differentiated and tend to grow slowly. Furthermore, these tumors demonstrate inverse relationship between in vivo SR expression, cell proliferation (low Ki-67 expression) and FDG uptake (normal biodistribution). In comparison, less differentiated tumors, e.g. atypical carcinoids or MTC with increasing CEA levels show mitotic activity (high levels of Ki-67 immunoreactivity and increased FDG uptake) and often lack of SR. In conclusion, SR scintigraphy has been shown to localize well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. In contrast, PET imaging is valuable for predicting malignancy only in less differentiated tumors with incresed glucose metabolism. Therefore, an additional F-18 FDG PET should be performed if SR scintigraphy (GEP tumors) or combined imaging using [{sup 111}In-DTPA-D-Phe{sup 1}]-pentetreotide and {sup 99m}Tc(V)-DMSA (MTC) is negative. (orig.) [German] Neuroendokrine Tumoren werden durch die spezifische Produktion von Polypeptidhormonen und biogenen Aminen klassifiziert. Die Informationsuebertragung der

  11. Synthesis and evaluation of 4-[F-18]fluoro thalidomide for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, D. H.; Choi, Y. S.; Jeong, K. H.; Lee, K. H.; Choi, Y.; Kim, B. T.

    2005-01-01

    Thalidomide has been recently rediscovered for its possible utility as an antitumor agent, although it was marketed as a sedative in the 1950s and later found to be a potent teratogen. In this study, therefore, F-18 labeled thalidomide was synthesized and evaluated for the in vivo studies of angiogenesis. 4-[F-18]Fluoro thalidomide ([F-18]1) was prepared by labeling of 4-trimethylammonium thalidomide triflate with TBA[F-18]F in DMSO (90 .deg. C, 10 min) and purified by HPLC. The triflate salt was prepared from 3-fluoro phthalic anhydride in 3 steps. [F-18]1 was incubated with HUVEC cells at 37 .deg. C for 15, 30, 60, and 120 min, respectively. Dynamic PET images of [F-18]1 was obtained in mice implanted with LLC cells. In vitro metabolism study of [F-18]1 was carried out using mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes in the presence of NADPH, and the metabolites obtained from the mouse liver microsomal incubation of 1 were analyzed using LC-MS. Radiochemical yield of [F-18]1 was 50-60%, and the specific activity was 42-120 GBq/imol. The HUVEC cell uptake of [F-18]1 increased with time (100% at 15 min and 241% at 120 min). PET images showed that the radioactivity was accumulated in the liver, the kidneys and the bladder of the mice, and brain uptake was shown from 40 min postinjection. However, there was low level of radioactivity uptake in tumor. [F-18]1 was not metabolized by mouse, rabbit, or human liver microsomes but was hydrolyzed significantly at physiological pH. The hydrolyzed product was further analyzed by LC-MS, showing a mass peak corresponding to that of 4-fluoro-N-(o-carboxybenzoyl)glutamic acid imide. This result suggests that [F-18]1 is easily hydrolyzed at physiological pH and thus may not be suitable for the in vivo studies of tumor angiogenesis at least in rodents, although it was reported that the hydrolysis product of thalidomide may be responsible for its angiogenesis activity in humans

  12. The findings of F-18 FDG camera-based coincidence PET in acute leukemia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, S. N.; Joh, C. W.; Lee, M. H. [Ajou University School of Medicine, Suwon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-07-01

    We evaluated the usefulness of F-18 FDG coincidence PET (CoDe-PET) using a dual-head gamma camera in the assessment of patients with acute leukemia. F-18 FDG CoDE-PET studies were performed in 5 patients with acute leukemia (6 ALL and 2 AML) before or after treatment. CoDe-PET was performed utilizing a dual-head gamma camera equipped with 5/8 inch NaI(Tl) crystal. Image acquisition began 60 minutes after the injection of F-18 FDG in the fasting state. A whole trunk from cervical to inguinal regions or selected region were scanned. No attenuation correction was made and image reconstruction was done using filtered back-projection. CoDe-PET studies were evaluated visually. F-18 FDG image performed in 5 patients with ALL before therapy depicted multiple lymph node involvement and diffuse increased uptake involving axial skeleton, pelvis and femurs. F-18 FDG image done in 2 AML after chemotherapy showed only diffuse increased uptake in sternum, ribs, spine, pelvis and proximal femur and these may be due to G-CSF stimulation effect in view of drug history. But bone marrow histology showed scattered blast cell suggesting incomplete remission in one and completer remission in another. F-18 image done in 1 ALL after therapy showed no abnormal uptake. CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG in acute lymphoblastic lymphoma showed multiple lymphnode and bone marrow involvement in whole body. Therefore we conclude that CoDe-PET with F-18 FDG usefulness for evaluation of extent in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. But there was a limitation to assess therapy effectiveness during therapy due to reactive bone marrow.

  13. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    The determination of radium-226 by alpha spectrometry has been investigated critically to determine experimental conditions under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids such as soils, ores, and tailings from uranium mills are dissolved completely by fusion with potassium fluoride in the presence of barium-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion with simultaneous volatilization of all silica and fluoride. Radium is precipitated with barium already present in the sample by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute hydrochloric acid solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of diethylenetriaminepentaacetic acid, and the radium and barium sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid. The precipitate is mounted on a membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution of the subsequent alpha spectra is much better than has been achieved previously from barium sulfate, and is almost as good as is obtainable with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates. The resolution is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97% and accuracy is generally as good as the counting statistics obtained will permit. Grossly inaccurate results can be obtained under certain conditions when barium-133 tracer is used to determine the chemical yield of radium-226. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and by recoil products of the radium isotopes being counted is demonstrated, amd methods for virtual elimination of both problems are discussed

  14. A Pilot Study for the Feasibility of F-18 FLT-PET in Locally Advanced Breast Cancer: Comparison with F-18 FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jai Hyuen; Kim, Euy Nyong; Hong, Il Ki

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the feasibility of 3'-[F-18]fluoro-3'-deoxythymidine positron emission tomography(FLT-PET) for the detection of locally advanced breast cancer and to compare the degree of FLT and 2'-deoxy-2'-[F-18]fluoro-d-glucose(FDG) uptake in primary tumor, lymph nodes and other normal organs. The study subjects consisted of 22 female patients (mean age; 42±6 years) with biopsy-confirmed infiltrating ductal carcinoma between Aug 2005 and Nov 2006. We performed conventional imaging workup, FDG-PET and FLT PET/CT. Average tumor size measured by MRI was 7.2±3.4 cm. With visual analysis, Tumor and Lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG were determined by calculation of standardized uptake value (SUV) and tumor to background (TB) ratio. We compared FLT tumor uptake with FDG tumor uptake. We also investigated the correlation between FLT tumor uptake and FDG tumor uptake and the concordant rate with lymph node uptakes of FLT and FDG. FLT and FDG uptakes of bone marrow and liver were measured to compare the biodistribution of each other. All tumor lesions were visually detected in both FLT-PET and FDG-PET. There was no significant correlation between maximal tumor size by MRI and SUVmax of FLT-PET or FDG-PET (p>0.05). SUVmax and SUV75 (average SUV within volume of interest using 75% isocontour) of FLT-PET were significantly lower than those of FDG-PET in primary tumor (SUVmax; 6.3±5.2 vs 8.3±4.9, p=0.02 / SUV75; 5.3±4.3 vs 6.9 4.2, p=0.02). There is significant moderate correlation between uptake of FLT and FDG in primary tumor (SUVmax; rho=0.450, p=0.04 / SUV75; rho=0.472, p=0.03). But, TB ratio of FLT-PET was higher than that of FDG-PET(11.7±7.7 vs 6.3±3.8, p=0.001). The concordant rate between FLT and FDG uptake of lymph node was reasonably good (33/34). The FLT SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 4.2±1.2 and 8.3±4.9. The FDG SUVs of liver and bone marrow were 1.8±0.4 and 1.6±0.4. The uptakes of FLT were lower than those of FDG, but all

  15. Peritoneal Lymphomatosis Imaged by F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Eun Kyung; Lee, Se Ryeon; Kim, Young Chul; Oh, Sun Young; Choe, Jae Gol

    2010-01-01

    Peritoneal lymphomatosis is uncommon, but when encountered is associated with aggressive histological subtypes of high-grade lymphoma, such as small-cell, large-cell, mixed large and small cell, non-cleaved, lymphoblastic Burkitt-like, and diffuse large B-cell lymphomas. The CT findings of peritoneal lymphomatosis are linear or nodular peritoneal thickening, retroperitoneal lymphadenopathy, omental and mesenteric involvement with streak-like infiltrations or a bulky mass, bowel wall thickening, hepatosplenomegaly, and ascites. The authors reports report the first FDG PET/CT images of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma of small bowel origin associated with peritoneal lymphomatosis in a 69-year-old man. The lesions demonstrated intense FDG uptake in PET/CT images.

  16. Intra-individual comparison of F-18-FLT PET and F-18 FET PET in brain tumor patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, S.; Cheon, G.J.; Cho, Y.S.; Kwak, H.S.; Lee, C.H.; Choi, C.W.; Lim, S.M.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: The nucleoside analogue 18F-3'-deoxy-3'-fluorothymidine (FLT) for cellular proliferation and the amino acid analogue O- (2'18F-fluoroethyl)-L-tyrosine (FET) are recently developed PET-tracer for tumor imaging. Previous studies have demonstrated that the diagnostic ability of FET PET better than FDG PET in patient with newly diagnosed or recurrent brain tumors after radiation therapy. To compare findings on FLT PET with FET PET, we prospectively undertook FLT, FET and FDG PET in same patient with suspected primary/metastatic and recurrent brain tumors. Seventeen studies (FLT +FET + FDG: 13, FLT+FDG: 3, FLT +FET: 1) in 16 consecutive patients (47 ± 8.3 years, M: F 10: 6) with brain tumor (3 for initial diagnosis, 6 for therapeutic response, 6 for detecting recurrence, 1 for diagnosis and recurrence both) were included. Brain tumors were 14 gliomas (6 high-grade, 9 low-grade by the WHO classification), 2 metastatic brain tumors and 1 CNS lymphoma. 18F-FDG, FLT and FET PET were performed within two weeks. Attenuation-corrected brain images were acquired 30 minutes after injection of 370-555 MBq FDG, FLT and FET with a dedicated PET scanner (ECAT HR+ scanner, Siemens-CTI, Knoxville, Tenn., USA). Maximum SUV (max SUV) and relative uptake defined by FLT and FET accumulation within the tumor in relation to a contra lateral control region (max SUV for tumor/mean SUV for contra lateral normal gray matter) were calculated. A total of 26 tumor foci (26 on FLT and FDG, 22 on FET) in 17 studies were analysed. In most of tumor foci (20 of 22) FLT and FET PET images showed a similar extent of tumor activity. In 2 tumor foci discrepant findings were noticed; intense FLT uptake with negative FLT uptake in primary CNS lymphoma and negative FLT uptake with mild FET uptake in low-grade astrocytoma. Overall positive FLT, FET and FDG uptakes were 85 % (22/26), 90 % (18/ 20) and 58 % (15/26) respectively. Max SUV and relative FLT/FET uptake: The mean max SUV of FLT (0.97 ± 0

  17. High-resolution Lyman-alpha filtergrams of the sun

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonnet, R. M.; Decaudin, M.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Acton, L. W.; Brown, W. A.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experiment, conducted jointly by the Lockheed Palo Alto Research Laboratory and the Laboratoire de Physique Stellaire et Planetaire du CNRS, which investigated the transition-region plasma and the geometry of coronal active regions, in relation to models of the high-temperature layers, are presented. A Black Brant rocket was used to obtain 1-arc sec resolution L-alpha pictures of the sun, which revealed small scale features not seen previously at this wavelength, that delineate the geometry of the magnetic field in the chromosphere and in the corona. It is concluded that these observations might provide a new way of observing the upper chromosphere and corona, and that they provide direct evidence of the inhomogeneous character of the chromosphere and of the dominant role of the magnetic field

  18. Adaptive Flight Control Design with Optimal Control Modification on an F-18 Aircraft Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burken, John J.; Nguyen, Nhan T.; Griffin, Brian J.

    2010-01-01

    In the presence of large uncertainties, a control system needs to be able to adapt rapidly to regain performance. Fast adaptation is referred to as the implementation of adaptive control with a large adaptive gain to reduce the tracking error rapidly; however, a large adaptive gain can lead to high-frequency oscillations which can adversely affect the robustness of an adaptive control law. A new adaptive control modification is presented that can achieve robust adaptation with a large adaptive gain without incurring high-frequency oscillations as with the standard model-reference adaptive control. The modification is based on the minimization of the Y2 norm of the tracking error, which is formulated as an optimal control problem. The optimality condition is used to derive the modification using the gradient method. The optimal control modification results in a stable adaptation and allows a large adaptive gain to be used for better tracking while providing sufficient robustness. A damping term (v) is added in the modification to increase damping as needed. Simulations were conducted on a damaged F-18 aircraft (McDonnell Douglas, now The Boeing Company, Chicago, Illinois) with both the standard baseline dynamic inversion controller and the adaptive optimal control modification technique. The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed modification in tracking a reference model.

  19. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Buck Christensen, Janne

    2016-01-01

    the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). RESULTS: We found the following important...... results from the literature review: 1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). 2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). 3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out...... by CT in a structured programme. 2) No curative-intent treatment should be commenced until a PET-CT scan has excluded occult distant metastases. 3) In general, lymph node metastasis in the mediastinum cannot be ruled out on the basis of a negative PET-CT, and confirmative invasive staging should...

  20. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forgacs, Attila; Pall Jonsson, Hermann; Dahlbom, Magnus; Daver, Freddie; D. DiFranco, Matthew; Opposits, Gabor; K. Krizsan, Aron; Garai, Ildiko; Czernin, Johannes; Varga, Jozsef; Tron, Lajos; Balkay, Laszlo

    2016-01-01

    Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25–30 ml), provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%), and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians. PMID:27736888

  1. A Study on the Basic Criteria for Selecting Heterogeneity Parameters of F18-FDG PET Images.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attila Forgacs

    Full Text Available Textural analysis might give new insights into the quantitative characterization of metabolically active tumors. More than thirty textural parameters have been investigated in former F18-FDG studies already. The purpose of the paper is to declare basic requirements as a selection strategy to identify the most appropriate heterogeneity parameters to measure textural features. Our predefined requirements were: a reliable heterogeneity parameter has to be volume independent, reproducible, and suitable for expressing quantitatively the degree of heterogeneity. Based on this criteria, we compared various suggested measures of homogeneity. A homogeneous cylindrical phantom was measured on three different PET/CT scanners using the commonly used protocol. In addition, a custom-made inhomogeneous tumor insert placed into the NEMA image quality phantom was imaged with a set of acquisition times and several different reconstruction protocols. PET data of 65 patients with proven lung lesions were retrospectively analyzed as well. Four heterogeneity parameters out of 27 were found as the most attractive ones to characterize the textural properties of metabolically active tumors in FDG PET images. These four parameters included Entropy, Contrast, Correlation, and Coefficient of Variation. These parameters were independent of delineated tumor volume (bigger than 25-30 ml, provided reproducible values (relative standard deviation< 10%, and showed high sensitivity to changes in heterogeneity. Phantom measurements are a viable way to test the reliability of heterogeneity parameters that would be of interest to nuclear imaging clinicians.

  2. Primary Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee

    2009-01-01

    Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare neoplasm with a rapidly fatal course. The tumour arises from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura and peritoneum or, rarely, in the pericardium or tunica vaginalis. This neoplasm is characterized by being difficult to diagnose, having a rapid evolution and a poor response to therapy. Mesothelioma is very glucose avid, and malignant pleural mesothelioma has been reported concerning the utility of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT. But little has been known about the imaging finding of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma on F-18 FDG PET/CT. We report a case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis of F-18 FDG PET/CT

  3. Primary Malignant Peritoneal Mesothelioma Mimicking Peritoneal Carcinomatosis on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jin Suk; Lim, Seok Tae; Jeong, Young Jin; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Sohn, Myung Hee [Chonbuk National University Medical School and Hospital, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-08-15

    Malignant mesothelioma of the peritoneum is a rare neoplasm with a rapidly fatal course. The tumour arises from the mesothelial cells lining the pleura and peritoneum or, rarely, in the pericardium or tunica vaginalis. This neoplasm is characterized by being difficult to diagnose, having a rapid evolution and a poor response to therapy. Mesothelioma is very glucose avid, and malignant pleural mesothelioma has been reported concerning the utility of F-18 FDG PET or PET/CT. But little has been known about the imaging finding of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma on F-18 FDG PET/CT. We report a case of malignant peritoneal mesothelioma mimicking peritoneal carcinomatosis of F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  4. Pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT Parameters to Evaluate Progression-Free Survival in Gastric Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jeonghun; Lim, Seok Tae; Na, Chang Ju; Han, Yeonhee; Kim, Chanyoung; Jeong, Hwanjeong; Sohn, Myunghee [Chonbuk National Univ., Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-03-15

    We performed this study to evaluate the predictive value of pretreatment F-18 FDG PET/CT for progression-free survival (PFS) in patients with gastric cancer. Of 321 patients with a diagnosis of gastric cancer, we retrospectively enrolled 97 patients (men:women = 61:36, age 59.8±13.2 years), who underwent pretreatment F-18 fluoro-2-deoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) from January 2009 to December 2009. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured for each case with detectable primary lesions. In the remaining non-detectable cases, SUVmax was measured from the corresponding site seen on gastroduodenoscopy for analysis. In subgroup analysis, metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was measured in 50 patients with clearly distinguishable primary lesions. SUVmax, stage, depth of tumor invasion and presence of lymph node metastasis were analyzed in terms of PFS. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves were used to find optimal cutoff values of SUVmax and MTV for disease progression. The relationship between SUVmax, MTV and PFS was analyzed using the Kaplan-Meier with log-rank test and Cox's proportional hazard regression methods. Of 97 patients, 15 (15.5 %) had disease progression. The mean follow-up duration was 29.6±10.2 months. The mean PFS of low SUVmax group (≤5.74) was significantly longer than that of the high SUVmax group (>5.74) (30.9±8.0 vs 24.3±13.6 months, p =0.008). In univariate analysis, stage (I vs II, III, IV), depth of tumor invasion (T1 vs T2, T3, T4), presence of lymph node metastasis and SUVmax (>5.74 vs ≤5.74) were significantly associated with recurrence. In multivariate analysis, high SUVmax (>5.74) was the only poor prognostic factor for PFS (p =0.002, HR 11.03, 95% CI 2.48.49.05). Subgroup multivariate analysis revealed that high MTV (>16.42) was the only poor prognostic factor for PFS (p =0.034, HR 3.59, 95 % CI 1.10.11.71). In gastric cancer, SUVmax measured by pretreatment F-18

  5. Chorea in systemic lupus erythematosus: evidence for bilateral putaminal hypermetabolism on F-18 FDG PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Wook Jang; Chung, Son Mi; Koh, Su Jin; Lee, Chang Keun; Yoo, Bin; Moon, Hee Bom [College of Medicine, Ulsan Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jae Seung; Im, Joo Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    We describe a 54-year-old woman with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) who suddenly presented with chorea and had positive antiphospholipid antibodies. F-18 FDG PET showed abnormally increased glucose metabolism in bilateral putamen and primary motor cotex. Tc-99m ECD SPECT also showed abnormally increased regional cerebral blood flow in bilateral putamen. She was treated with corticosteroid and aspirin after which the symptoms improved. Four months later, follow up F-18 FDG PET showed improvement with resolution of hypermetabolism in bilateral putamen. This case suggests that striatal hypermetabolism is associated with chorea in SLE.

  6. Factors Associated with Diffusely Increased Splenic F-18 FDG Uptake in Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seongjang; Kim, Injoo; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Sojung; Ahn, Sang Hyun [Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-06-15

    Although diffuse splenic {sup 18}F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake exceeding hepatic activity, is considered abnormal, its clinical significance is rarely discussed in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the contributing factors causing diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. From January 2010 to March 2013, 140 patients (84 men, 56 women) were enrolled in this study. All patients had been diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma and underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the pretreatment staging work up. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Various hematological parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, CEA, CA19-9, pancreatic enzymes and liver function tests were conducted within 2 days after the F-18 FDG PET/CT study. Diffuse splenic uptake was observed in 23 patients (16.4%). Of those, 19 patients (82.6%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreastography (ERCP) 7 days before F-18 FDG PET/CT. The CRP level (p <0.001) and white blood cell count (p =0.023) were significantly higher in the group of patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. The hemoglobin (p <0.001) and the hematocrit (p <0.001) were significantly lower in patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. Pancreatic enzymes, liver function test results, and tumor markers were not significantly different between the patients who did or did not have diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. The significant factors for diffuse splenic F-18 FDG uptake exceeding hepatic F-18 FDG uptake on multivariate analysis included: performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET-CT (odds ratio [OR], 77.510; 95% CI, 7.624-132.105), and the presence of leukocytosis (OR, 12.436; 95% CI, 2.438-63.445) or anemia (OR, 1.211; 95% CI, 1.051-1.871). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that concurrent inflammation could be associated with diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. We suggest that performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET

  7. Factors Associated with Diffusely Increased Splenic F-18 FDG Uptake in Patients with Cholangiocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Keunyoung; Kim, Seongjang; Kim, Injoo; Kim, Dong Uk; Kim, Heeyoung; Kim, Sojung; Ahn, Sang Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Although diffuse splenic 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) uptake exceeding hepatic activity, is considered abnormal, its clinical significance is rarely discussed in the literature. The aim of this study was to determine the contributing factors causing diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake in patients with cholangiocarcinoma. From January 2010 to March 2013, 140 patients (84 men, 56 women) were enrolled in this study. All patients had been diagnosed with cholangiocarcinoma and underwent F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for the pretreatment staging work up. Clinical records were reviewed retrospectively. Various hematological parameters, C-reactive protein (CRP) level, CEA, CA19-9, pancreatic enzymes and liver function tests were conducted within 2 days after the F-18 FDG PET/CT study. Diffuse splenic uptake was observed in 23 patients (16.4%). Of those, 19 patients (82.6%) underwent endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreastography (ERCP) 7 days before F-18 FDG PET/CT. The CRP level (p <0.001) and white blood cell count (p =0.023) were significantly higher in the group of patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. The hemoglobin (p <0.001) and the hematocrit (p <0.001) were significantly lower in patients with diffuse splenic FDG uptake. Pancreatic enzymes, liver function test results, and tumor markers were not significantly different between the patients who did or did not have diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. The significant factors for diffuse splenic F-18 FDG uptake exceeding hepatic F-18 FDG uptake on multivariate analysis included: performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET-CT (odds ratio [OR], 77.510; 95% CI, 7.624-132.105), and the presence of leukocytosis (OR, 12.436; 95% CI, 2.438-63.445) or anemia (OR, 1.211; 95% CI, 1.051-1.871). In conclusion, our study demonstrated that concurrent inflammation could be associated with diffusely increased splenic FDG uptake. We suggest that performing ERCP before F-18 FDG PET

  8. NaF18-PET/CT imaging of second hyperparathyroidism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari [San Francisco VA Medical Center, San Franciso (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The patient was a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension and end-stage renal disease for 14 years. An NaF-18 positron emission tomography/CT bone scan was ordered to rule out osteosarcoma or other possible bone malignancies. A lesion representing a brown tumor was observed on the left femoral shaft. The incidence of ESRD is about 400 cases per million in the United States and it has risen fastest in older individuals. This is the second paper to report the use of NaF18-PET/CT to image secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, mixed renal ostedystrophy and adyanmic bone disease.

  9. NaF18-PET/CT imaging of second hyperparathyroidism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Win, Aung Zaw; Aparici, Carina Mari

    2015-01-01

    The patient was a 59-year-old man with a history of hypertension and end-stage renal disease for 14 years. An NaF-18 positron emission tomography/CT bone scan was ordered to rule out osteosarcoma or other possible bone malignancies. A lesion representing a brown tumor was observed on the left femoral shaft. The incidence of ESRD is about 400 cases per million in the United States and it has risen fastest in older individuals. This is the second paper to report the use of NaF18-PET/CT to image secondary hyperparathyroidism, osteomalacia, mixed renal ostedystrophy and adyanmic bone disease

  10. High energy beam thermal processing of alpha zirconium alloys and the resulting articles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabol, G.P.; McDonald, S.G.; Nurminen, J.I.

    1983-01-01

    Alpha zirconium alloy fabrication methods and resultant products exhibiting improved high temperature, high pressure steam corrosion resistance. The process, according to one aspect of this invention, utilizes a high energy beam thermal treatment to provide a layer of beta treated microstructure on an alpha zirconium alloy intermediate product. The treated product is then alpha worked to final size. According to another aspect of the invention, high energy beam thermal treatment is used to produce an alpha annealed microstructure in a Zircaloy alloy intermediate size or final size component. The resultant products are suitable for use in pressurized water and boiling water reactors

  11. Sc and neutron-capture abundances in Galactic low- and high-alpha field halo stars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fishlock, Cherie K.; Yong, D.; Karakas, Amanda I.

    2017-01-01

    We determine relative abundance ratios for the neutron-capture elements Zr, La, Ce, Nd and Eu for a sample of 27 Galactic dwarf stars with -1.5 stars separate into three populations (low-and high-a halo and thick-disc stars) based......-alpha stars have a lower abundance compared to the high-alpha stars. The low-alpha stars display the same abundance patterns of high [Ba/Y] and low [Y/Eu] as observed in present-day dwarf spheroidal galaxies, although with smaller abundance differences, when compared to the high-alpha stars. These distinct...... chemical patterns have been attributed to differences in the star formation rate between the two populations and the contribution of low-metallicity, low-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to the low-alpha population. By comparing the low-alpha population with AGB stellar models, we place constraints...

  12. WE-H-207A-05: Spatial Co-Localization of F-18 NaF Vs. F-18 FDG Defined Disease Volumes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferjancic, P; Harmon, S; Jeraj, R [University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Chen, S [1st Hospital of China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning (China); Simoncic, U [Jozef Stefan Institute, Ljubljana (Slovenia)

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Both [F-18]NaF and [F-18]FDG show promise for quantitative PET/CT assessment in metastatic prostate cancer to bone. Broad agreement between the tracers has been shown but voxel-wise correspondence has not been explored in depth. This study evaluates the spatial co-localization of [F-18]NaF PET and [F-18]FDG PET in bone lesions. Methods: Seventy-three lesion contours were identified in six patients receiving dynamic NaF PET/CT and FDG PET/CT scans two hours apart using identical fields-of-view. Tracer uptake (SUV) reflecting 60 minutes post-injection was modeled from kinetic parameters. Lesions were segmented by a physician separately on NaF PET and FDG PET. PET images were rigidly aligned using skeletal references on CT images. Lesion size, degree of overlap, voxel-wise tracer uptake values (SUV), and CT density distributions were compared using Dice coefficient, Positive Predictive Value (PPV), and Spearman rank correlation tests. Results: Across all patients, 42 lesions were identified on NaF PET (median 1.4 cm{sup 3}, range <1–204 cm{sup 3}) compared to 31 using FDG PET (median 1.8 cm{sup 3}, range <1–244 cm{sup 3}). Spatial cooccurrence was found in 25 lesion pairs. Lesions on NaF PET had PPV of 0.91 and on FDG a PPV of 0.65. Overall, NaF-defined lesions were 47% (±24%) larger by volume with moderate overlap to FDG, resulting in mean Dice coefficient of 34% (±22%). In areas of overlap, voxel-wise correlation of NaF and FDG SUV was moderate (ρ=0.56). Expanding to regions of non-spatial overlap, voxels contained in FDG-only contours were almost exclusively low HU (median 118), compared to dense regions of NaF-only voxels (median 250). In sclerotic sub-volumes (HU > 300) NaF-defined contours encompassed 83% of total FDG volume. Conclusion: Moderate voxel-wise correlation of FDG and NaF PET/CT uptake was observed. Spatial discrepancies in FDG and NaF PET/CT imaging of boney metastases could be influenced by poor sensitivity of FDG PET/CT in

  13. Use of Peltier cells in high resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bueno, C.C.; Santos, M.D.S.; Goncalves, J.A.C.

    1994-01-01

    The experiments with low-cost commercial silicon PIN photodiodes have shown the possibility of their transformation for use as alpha detectors with performance comparable with surface barrier detectors which are more expensive. Utilizing the silicon photodiode with reverse bias, an energy resolution for 241 Am alpha particles of 28 KeV and 23 KeV were obtained at room temperature and at -30 0 C respectively. (author). 4 refs, 4 figs

  14. Determination of radium-226 by high-resolution alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sill, C.W.

    1983-01-01

    Condition were determined under which high resolution and accurate and reliable results can be obtained. Refractory solids are dissolved completely by fusion with KF and Ba-133 tracer. The fluoride cake is then transposed with sulfuric acid to a pyrosulfate fusion. Radium is precipitated with barium by addition of lead perchlorate to a dilute HCl solution of the pyrosulfate cake. The resulting insoluble sulfates are dissolved in an alkaline solution of DTPA and the Ra and Ba sulfates are reprecipitated with acetic acid to produce very small crystals. The precipitate is mounted on 0.1-μm membrane filter and analyzed by alpha spectrometry. Water samples are partially evaporated and treated similarly. Resolution, almost as good as with actinides electrodeposited on polished steel plates, is about 60 keV full-width-half-maximum with 100 μg of barium on a 1-inch filter with a 450 mm 2 detector at 20% counting efficiency. Recovery is about 97%. One solid sample can be prepared for counting in less than 2 hours. Methods are discussed for ensuring reliability of the results. Severe contamination of the surface-barrier detector by polonium-210 and recoil products is discussed

  15. Treatment of solid waste highly contaiminated by alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Breschet, C.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    In the recent years, efforts have been made in order to reduce the amount of alpha emitters essentially plutonium isotopes present in the solid wastes produced either during research experiments on fuel reprocessing, done in the Radiochemistry building in the centre d'etudes nucleaires de FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES (CEA, FRANCE), or in the MARCOULE reprocessing plant (COGEMA, FRANCE). The goals defined for the treatments of these different wastes were: to reduce their α and β, Y contamination levels; to recover the plutonium, a highly valuable material, and to minimize its quantity to be discharged with the wastes. To achieve these goals leaching processes using electrogenerated Ag (II(a very aggressive agent for PuO 2 )) in nitric acid solutions, were developed and several facilities were designed and built to operate the processes. A brief description of the process and of the different facilities will be presented in this paper; the main results obtained in ELISE and PROLIXE are also summarized

  16. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Breschet, C.; Vigreaux, B.

    1990-01-01

    In the recent years, efforts have been made in order to reduce the amount of alpha emitters essentially plutonium isotopes present in the solid wastes produced either during research experiments on fuel reprocessing, done in the Radiochemistry building in the centre d'etudes nuclearires de FONTENAY-AUX-ROSES (CEA, FRANCE), or in the MARCOULE reprocessing plant (COGEMA, FRANCE). The goals defined for the treatments of these different wastes were: to reduce their α and β, γ, contamination levels. and to recover the plutonium, an highly valuable material, and to minimize its quantity to be discharged with the wastes. To achieve these goals leaching processes using electrogenerated Ag (II (a very aggressive agent for PuO 2 )) in nitric acid solutions, were developed and several facilities were designed and built to operate the processes: ELISE and PROLIXE facilities: PILOT ASHES FACILITY for delete, the treatment of plutonium contaminated ashes (COGEMA, MARCOULE). A brief description of the process and of the different facilities will be presented in this paper; the main results obtained in ELISE and PROLIXE are also summarized

  17. Nanobody mediated inhibition of attachment of F18 Fimbriae expressing Escherichia coli.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristof Moonens

    Full Text Available Post-weaning diarrhea and edema disease caused by F18 fimbriated E. coli are important diseases in newly weaned piglets and lead to severe production losses in farming industry. Protective treatments against these infections have thus far limited efficacy. In this study we generated nanobodies directed against the lectin domain of the F18 fimbrial adhesin FedF and showed in an in vitro adherence assay that four unique nanobodies inhibit the attachment of F18 fimbriated E. coli bacteria to piglet enterocytes. Crystallization of the FedF lectin domain with the most potent inhibitory nanobodies revealed their mechanism of action. These either competed with the binding of the blood group antigen receptor on the FedF surface or induced a conformational change in which the CDR3 region of the nanobody displaces the D″-E loop adjacent to the binding site. This D″-E loop was previously shown to be required for the interaction between F18 fimbriated bacteria and blood group antigen receptors in a membrane context. This work demonstrates the feasibility of inhibiting the attachment of fimbriated pathogens by employing nanobodies directed against the adhesin domain.

  18. Fluorine-18 radiopharmaceuticals beyond [F-18]FDG for use in oncology and neurosciences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coenen, H. H.; Elsinga, P. H.; Iwata, R.; Kilbourn, M. R.; Pillai, M. R. A.; Rajan, M. G. R.; Wagner, H. N.; Zaknun, J. J.

    2010-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET) is a rapidly expanding clinical modality worldwide thanks to the availability of compact medical cyclotrons and automated chemistry for the production of radiopharmaceuticals. There is an armamentarium of fluorine-18 (F-18) tracers that can be used for PET studies

  19. CYP4F18-Deficient Neutrophils Exhibit Increased Chemotaxis to Complement Component C5a

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Vaivoda

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available CYP4Fs were first identified as enzymes that catalyze hydroxylation of leukotriene B4 (LTB4. CYP4F18 has an unusual expression in neutrophils and was predicted to play a role in regulating LTB4-dependent inflammation. We compared chemotaxis of wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout neutrophils using an in vitro assay. There was no significant difference in the chemotactic response to LTB4, but the response to complement component C5a increased 1.9–2.25-fold in knockout cells compared to wild-type (P < 0.01. This increase was still observed when neutrophils were treated with inhibitors of eicosanoid synthesis. There were no changes in expression of other CYP4 enzymes in knockout neutrophils that might compensate for loss of CYP4F18 or lead to differences in activity. A mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate colitis was used to investigate the consequences of increased C5a-dependent chemotaxis in vivo, but there was no significant difference in weight loss, disease activity, or colonic tissue myeloperoxidase between wild-type and Cyp4f18 knockout mice. This study demonstrates the limitations of inferring CYP4F function based on an ability to use LTB4 as a substrate, points to expanding roles for CYP4F enzymes in immune regulation, and underscores the in vivo challenges of CYP knockout studies.

  20. Clinical relevance of F-18 FDG PET for imaging of neuroendocrine tumors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.; Baum, R.P.; Hoer, G.

    2001-01-01

    Neuroendocrine tumors are characterized immunocytochemically by the expression of different peptides and biogenic amines. Hormones induce their biological action by binding to and stimulating specific membrane-associated receptors for e.g. somatostatin. The presence of somatostatin receptors (SR) has been described mainly in endocrine glands and the central nervous system. Interestingly, a large variety of human tumors, including gastroenteropancreatic (GEP) tumors and medullary thyroid carcinomas (MTC) also express a high density of SR and can be imaged with [ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 ]-pentetreotide. Cell proliferative activity is an important indicator of the growth of various malignant tumors associated with a poorer prognosis and Ki-67 expression. 18 F-FDG is a marker of tumor viability, based upon the increased glycolysis that is associated with malignancy as compared with normal tissue. SR-containing neuroendocrine tumors are well-differentiated and tend to grow slowly. Furthermore, these tumors demonstrate inverse relationship between in vivo SR expression, cell proliferation (low Ki-67 expression) and FDG uptake (normal biodistribution). In comparison, less differentiated tumors, e.g. atypical carcinoids or MTC with increasing CEA levels show mitotic activity (high levels of Ki-67 immunoreactivity and increased FDG uptake) and often lack of SR. In conclusion, SR scintigraphy has been shown to localize well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. In contrast, PET imaging is valuable for predicting malignancy only in less differentiated tumors with increased glucose metabolism. Therefore, an additional F-18 FDG PET should be performed if SR scintigraphy (GEP tumors) or combined imaging using [ 111 In-DTPA-D-Phe 1 ]-pentetreotide and 99m Tc(V)-DMSA (MTC) is negative. (orig.) [de

  1. Incidental thyroid uptake on F-18 FDG PET/CT. Correlation with ultrasonography and pathology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Bong-Joo; Baik, Jun-Hyun; Jung, So-Lyung; Park, Young-Ha; O, Joo-Hyun; Chung, Soo-Kyo

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of maximum standard uptake value (max SUV) calculated from F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) examination and findings from ultrasonographic (US) examination on incidentally detected thyroid FDG uptake on FDG PET/CT. We collected and reviewed FDG PET/CT images performed at our institution from March 2005 to March 2008. This study included 190 subjects with increased FDG uptake of thyroid gland who later underwent thyroid US and histological examinations. Of these subjects, the uptake pattern on FDG PET/CT was classified as either diffuse or focal. The FDG uptake pattern, max SUV, and US findings were evaluated and correlated with the histological results. In the focal FDG uptake pattern cases (n=148), the mean max SUV of malignant cases was higher than that of benign cases (5.93±5.35 vs. 3.47±2.89). Of the diffuse FDG uptake cases (n=42), nodules were detected in 25 subjects (59.5%) by US examination. Thyroid nodules were well characterized on US studies, and combined findings of suspicious US features or high max SUV of focal FDG uptake lesion increased sensitivity, positive predictive value (PPV), negative predictive value (NPV), and accuracy. Focal uptake pattern and high max SUV may be helpful in differentiating benign and malignant nodules on FDG PET/CT. However, US examination provides further information, and for lesions with increased FDG uptake of thyroid, US examination should be recommended. (author)

  2. Imaging of accidental contamination with F-18-solution; a quick trouble-shooting procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalevi Kairemo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available To the best of our knowledge, imaging of accidental exposure to radioactive fluorine-18 (F-18 due to liquid spill has not been described earlier in the scientific literature. The short half-life of F-18 (t½=110 min, current radiation safety requirements, and Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP regulations on radiopharmaceuticals have restrained the occurrence of these incidents. The possibility of investigating this type of incidents by gamma and positron imaging is also quite limited. Additionally, a quick and precise analysis of radiochemical contamination is cumbersome and sometimes challenging if the spills of radioactive materials are low in activity. Herein, we report a case of accidental F-18 contamination in a service person during a routine cyclotron maintenance procedure. During target replacement, liquid F-18 was spilled on the person responsible for the maintenance. The activities of spills were immediately measured using contamination detectors, and the photon spectrum of contaminated clothes was assessed through gamma spectroscopy. Despite protective clothing, some skin areas were contaminated, which were then thoroughly washed. Later on, these areas were imaged, using positron emission tomography (PET, and a gamma camera (including spectroscopy. Two contaminated skin areas were located on the hand (9.7 and 14.7 cm2, respectively, which showed very low activities (19.0 and 22.8 kBq respectively at the time of incident. Based on the photon spectra, F-18 was confirmed as the main present radionuclide. PET imaging demonstrated the shape of these contaminated hot spots. However, the measured activities were very low due to the use of protective clothing. With prompt action and use of proper equipments at the time of incident, minimal radionuclide activities and their locations could be thoroughly analyzed. The cumulative skin doses of the contaminated regions were calculated at 1.52 and 2.00 mSv, respectively. In the follow-up, no skin

  3. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin [College of Medicine, Yonsei University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)] (and others)

    2005-08-15

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement.

  4. F-18 FDG PET scan findings in patients with pulmonary involvement in the hypereosinophilic syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Hoon; Kim, Tae Hoon; Yun, Mi Jin

    2005-01-01

    Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES) is an infiltrative disease of eosinophils affecting multiple organs including the lung. F-18 2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) may accumulate at sites of inflammation or infection, making interpretation of whole body PET scan difficult in patients with cancer. This study was to evaluate the PET findings of HES with lung involvement and to find out differential PET features between lung malignancy and HES with lung involvement. F-18 FDG PET and low dose chest CT scan was performed for screening of lung cancer. Eight patients who showed ground-glass attenuation (GGA) and consolidation on chest CT scan with peripheral blood eosinophilia were included in this study. The patients with history of parasite infection, allergy and collagen vascular disease were excluded. CT features and FDG PET findings were meticulously evaluated for the distribution of GGA and consolidation and nodules on CT scan and mean and maximal SUV of abnormalities depicted on F-18 FDG PET scan. In eight patients, follow-up chest CT scan and FDG PET scan were done one or two weeks after initial study. F-18 FDG PET scan identified metabolically active lesions in seven out of eight patients. Maximal SUV was ranged from 2.8 to 10.6 and mean SUV was ranged from 2.2 to 7.2. Remaining one patient had maximal SUV of 1.3. On follow-up FDG PET scan taken on from one to four weeks later showed decreased degree of initially noted FDG uptakes or migration of previously noted abnormal FDG uptakes. Lung involvement in the HES might be identified as abnormal uptake foci on FDG PET scan mimicking lung cancer. Follow-up FDG PET and CT scan for the identification of migration or resolution of abnormalities and decrement of SUV would be of help for the differentiation between lung cancer and HES with lung involvement

  5. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Christensen, Janne Buck; Høilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2016-10-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a resource-demanding imaging modality with increasing popularity in the workup of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. To review the clinical usefulness of this imaging modality in the diagnosis, staging, and pre-operative evaluation, we conducted a systematic literature search, review, and quality assessment using the rapid evidence assessment toolkit and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine methodology. The literature search resulted in 4,208 records including 918 reviews, of which 139 met the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). We found the following important results from the literature review: 1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). 2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). 3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out mediastinal lymph node metastasis (recommendation level A). ᅟ 1) With few exceptions, solitary pulmonary nodules can safely be considered benign if the PET-CT scan is negative. Exceptions consist of small (PET-CT scan has excluded occult distant metastases. 3) In general, lymph node metastasis in the mediastinum cannot be ruled out on the basis of a negative PET-CT, and confirmative invasive staging should be performed in most patients before mediastinal metastasis is confirmed or ruled out.

  6. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madsen, Poul Henning [Vejle Hospital, Department of Medicine, Division of Respiratory Medicine, Vejle (Denmark); Holdgaard, Paw Christian [Vejle Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Vejle (Denmark); Christensen, Janne Buck [Odense University Hospital/University of Southern Denmark, Department of Quality and Research/HTA, Odense University Hospital and Medical Research Library, Odense (Denmark); Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming [Odense University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Odense (Denmark)

    2016-10-15

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a resource-demanding imaging modality with increasing popularity in the workup of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. To review the clinical usefulness of this imaging modality in the diagnosis, staging, and pre-operative evaluation, we conducted a systematic literature search, review, and quality assessment using the rapid evidence assessment toolkit and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine methodology. The literature search resulted in 4,208 records including 918 reviews, of which 139 met the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). We found the following important results from the literature review: (1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). (2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). (3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out mediastinal lymph node metastasis (recommendation level A). (1) With few exceptions, solitary pulmonary nodules can safely be considered benign if the PET-CT scan is negative. Exceptions consist of small (<1 cm) and non-solid, solitary pulmonary nodules. These abnormalities should be followed up by CT in a structured programme. (2) No curative-intent treatment should be commenced until a PET-CT scan has excluded occult distant metastases. (3) In general, lymph node metastasis in the mediastinum cannot be ruled out on the basis of a negative PET-CT, and confirmative invasive staging should be performed in most patients before mediastinal metastasis is confirmed or ruled out. (orig.)

  7. Clinical utility of F-18 FDG PET-CT in the initial evaluation of lung cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madsen, Poul Henning; Holdgaard, Paw Christian; Christensen, Janne Buck; Hoeilund-Carlsen, Poul Flemming

    2016-01-01

    Positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) is a resource-demanding imaging modality with increasing popularity in the workup of patients with suspected or proven lung cancer. To review the clinical usefulness of this imaging modality in the diagnosis, staging, and pre-operative evaluation, we conducted a systematic literature search, review, and quality assessment using the rapid evidence assessment toolkit and the Oxford Centre for Evidence-Based Medicine methodology. The literature search resulted in 4,208 records including 918 reviews, of which 139 met the predefined criteria and were read in full to identify relevant original articles on F-18 FDG PET-CT (1) in the evaluation of solitary pulmonary nodules (n = 14), (2) in curative-intent treatment trials (n = 9), and (3) in planning of invasive procedures (n = 18). We found the following important results from the literature review: (1) PET-CT can rule out malignancy in most solitary pulmonary nodules due to high sensitivity (recommendation level A). (2) PET-CT reduces the number of futile treatment trials (recommendation level A). (3) The sensitivity of PET-CT in general is insufficient to rule out mediastinal lymph node metastasis (recommendation level A). (1) With few exceptions, solitary pulmonary nodules can safely be considered benign if the PET-CT scan is negative. Exceptions consist of small (<1 cm) and non-solid, solitary pulmonary nodules. These abnormalities should be followed up by CT in a structured programme. (2) No curative-intent treatment should be commenced until a PET-CT scan has excluded occult distant metastases. (3) In general, lymph node metastasis in the mediastinum cannot be ruled out on the basis of a negative PET-CT, and confirmative invasive staging should be performed in most patients before mediastinal metastasis is confirmed or ruled out. (orig.)

  8. Jet Production in ep Collisions at High $Q^2$ and Determination of $\\alpha_s$

    CERN Document Server

    Aaron, F.D.; Alimujiang, K.; Andreev, V.; Antunovic, B.; Asmone, A.; Backovic, S.; Baghdasaryan, A.; Barrelet, E.; Bartel, W.; Begzsuren, K.; Belousov, A.; Bizot, J.C.; Boudry, V.; Bozovic-Jelisavcic, I.; Bracinik, J.; Brandt, G.; Brinkmann, M.; Brisson, V.; Bruncko, D.; Bunyatyan, A.; Buschhorn, G.; Bystritskaya, L.; Campbell, A.J.; Cantun Avila, K.B.; Cassol-Brunner, F.; Cerny, K.; Cerny, V.; Chekelian, V.; Cholewa, A.; Contreras, J.G.; Coughlan, J.A.; Cozzika, G.; Cvach, J.; Dainton, J.B.; Daum, K.; Deak, M.; de Boer, Y.; Delcourt, B.; Del Degan, M.; Delvax, J.; De Roeck, A.; De Wolf, E.A.; Diaconu, C.; Dodonov, V.; Dossanov, A.; Dubak, A.; Eckerlin, G.; Efremenko, V.; Egli, S.; Eliseev, A.; Elsen, E.; Falkiewicz, A.; Faulkner, P.J.W.; Favart, L.; Fedotov, A.; Felst, R.; Feltesse, J.; Ferencei, J.; Fischer, D.-J.; Fleischer, M.; Fomenko, A.; Gabathuler, E.; Gayler, J.; Ghazaryan, Samvel; Glazov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Goerlich, L.; Gogitidze, N.; Gouzevitch, M.; Grab, C.; Greenshaw, T.; Grell, B.R.; Grindhammer, G.; Habib, S.; Haidt, D.; Helebrant, C.; Henderson, R.C.W.; Hennekemper, E.; Henschel, H.; Herbst, M.; Herrera, G.; Hildebrandt, M.; Hiller, K.H.; Hoffmann, D.; Horisberger, R.; Hreus, T.; Jacquet, M.; Janssen, M.E.; Janssen, X.; Jemanov, V.; Jonsson, L.; Jung, Andreas Werner; Jung, H.; Kapichine, M.; Katzy, J.; Kenyon, I.R.; Kiesling, C.; Klein, M.; Kleinwort, C.; Kluge, T.; Knutsson, A.; Kogler, R.; Korbel, V.; Kostka, P.; Kraemer, M.; Krastev, K.; Kretzschmar, J.; Kropivnitskaya, A.; Kruger, K.; Kutak, K.; Landon, M.P.J.; Lange, W.; Lastovicka-Medin, G.; Laycock, P.; Lebedev, A.; Leibenguth, G.; Lendermann, V.; Levonian, S.; Li, G.; Lipka, K.; Liptaj, A.; List, B.; List, J.; Loktionova, N.; Lopez-Fernandez, R.; Lubimov, V.; Lytkin, L.; Makankine, A.; Malinovski, E.; Marage, P.; Marti, Ll.; Martyn, H.-U.; Maxfield, S.J.; Mehta, A.; Meyer, A.B.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, H.; Meyer, J.; Michels, V.; Mikocki, S.; Milcewicz-Mika, I.; Moreau, F.; Morozov, A.; Morris, J.V.; Mozer, Matthias Ulrich; Mudrinic, M.; Muller, K.; Murin, P.; Naroska, B.; Naumann, Th.; Newman, P.R.; Niebuhr, C.; Nikiforov, A.; Nowak, G.; Nowak, K.; Nozicka, M.; Olivier, B.; Olsson, J.E.; Osman, S.; Ozerov, D.; Palichik, V.; Panagoulias, I.; Pandurovic, M.; Papadopoulou, Th.; Pascaud, C.; Patel, G.D.; Pejchal, O.; Perez, E.; Petrukhin, A.; Picuric, I.; Piec, S.; Pitzl, D.; Placakyte, R.; Pokorny, B.; Polifka, R.; Povh, B.; Preda, T.; Radescu, V.; Rahmat, A.J.; Raicevic, N.; Raspiareza, A.; Ravdandorj, T.; Reimer, P.; Rizvi, E.; Robmann, P.; Roland, B.; Roosen, R.; Rostovtsev, A.; Rotaru, M.; Ruiz Tabasco, J.E.; Rurikova, Z.; Rusakov, S.; Salek, D.; Sankey, D.P.C.; Sauter, M.; Sauvan, E.; Schmitt, S.; Schmitz, C.; Schoeffel, L.; Schoning, A.; Schultz-Coulon, H.-C.; Sefkow, F.; Shaw-West, R.N.; Sheviakov, I.; Shtarkov, L.N.; Shushkevich, S.; Sloan, T.; Smiljanic, Ivan; Soloviev, Y.; Sopicki, P.; South, D.; Spaskov, V.; Specka, Arnd E.; Staykova, Z.; Steder, M.; Stella, B.; Stoicea, G.; Straumann, U.; Sunar, D.; Sykora, T.; Tchoulakov, V.; Thompson, G.; Thompson, P.D.; Toll, T.; Tomasz, F.; Tran, T.H.; Traynor, D.; Trinh, T.N.; Truol, P.; Tsakov, I.; Tseepeldorj, B.; Turnau, J.; Urban, K.; Valkarova, A.; Vallee, C.; Van Mechelen, P.; Vargas Trevino, A.; Vazdik, Y.; Vinokurova, S.; Volchinski, V.; von den Driesch, M.; Wegener, D.; Wissing, Ch.; Wunsch, E.; Zacek, J.; Zalesak, J.; Zhang, Z.; Zhokin, A.; Zimmermann, T.; Zohrabyan, H.; Zomer, F.; Zus, R.

    2010-01-01

    The production of jets is studied in deep-inelastic ep scattering at large negative four momentum transfer squared 150alpha_s(M_Z) = 0.1168 +/-0.0007 (exp.) +0.0046/-0.0030 (th.) +/-0.0016(pdf).

  9. Preoperative assessment of asymptomatic adnexal masses by positron emission tomography and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose; Praeoperative Dignitaetsbeurteilung asymptomatischer Adnextumoren mittels Positronen-Emissions-Tomographie und F-18-Fluordeoxyglukose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fenchel, S.; Kotzerke, J.; Reske, S.N. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Nuklearmedizin; Stoehr, I.; Grab, D.; Kreienberg, R. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Frauenklinik; Nuessle, K.; Rieber, A.; Brambs, H.J. [Ulm Univ. (Germany). Abt. Radiologie 1 (Roentgendiagnostik)

    1999-08-01

    Aim: To evaluate use of F-18-FDG-PET in assessment of dignity of asymptomatic adnexal masses. Methods: 85 asymptomatic patients with suspicious, asymptomatic adnexal masses were evaluated. Static FDG-PET (Exact HR+ or ECAT 931) imaging of the abdomen was performed following application of 222-555 MBq F-18-FDG. Iterative reconstruction was applied. PET data were analysed visually, at first without and second together with MRT images. Final diagnosis was made by histopathology. Results: FDG-PET allowed correct identification of 4 of 8 malignant adnexal tumors. False negative results were obtained in 2 adenocarcinomas stage pT1a and 2 borderline-tumors. In 60 out of 77 benign adnexal masses malignancy could be excluded. False positive FDG-uptake, partly because of misinterpretation of gastrointestinal activity, was found in 3 inflammatory processes, 1 teratoma, 1 benign schwannoma, 1 dermoid cyst, 1 benign thecoma, 1 serous cyst, 1 serous cystadenoma, 2 mucinous cystadenomas, 2 corpus luteum cysts, 3 endometriosic cysts and 1 sactosalpinx. The overall sensitivity and specifity of FDG-PET alone were 50% and 78%. Evaluation together with MRT images showed a sensitivity of 50% and a specifity of 86%. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: Es wurde untersucht, ob die FDG-PET zu einer Verbesserung der Dignitaetsbeurteilung asymptomatischer, sonographisch malignomsuspekter Ovarialtumoren beitragen kann. Methode: 85 Patientinnen mit malignomsuspekten, asymptomatischen Adnextumoren unterzogen sich einer FDG-PET Untersuchung. Emissionsaufnahmen des Abdomens wurden ca. 1 h nach i.v. Injektion von 222-555 MBq F-18-FDG angefertigt (Exact HR + bzw. ECAT 931). Die Bildrekonstruktion erfolgte iterativ. Die PET-Aufnahmen wurden visuell ausgewertet, zum einen ohne andere bildgebende Verfahren, zum anderen zusammen mit der Kernspintomographie. Die Validierung erfolgte mittels Histologie. Ergebnisse: Histologisch fanden sich 8 Malignome, von denen 4 mittels FDG-PET als richtig positiv erkannt wurden

  10. Real-time monitoring for alpha emitters in high-airflow environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koster, J.E.; MacArthur, D.W.; Bounds, J.A.; Rawool-Sullivan, M.; Whitley, C.R.; Conaway, J.G.; Steadman, P.A.

    1996-01-01

    Key problems in detecting alpha contamination for site characterization and decontamination and decommissioning that remain to be solved include measurement of airborne contamination, material holdup within pipes, and leakage of material containers. These problems are very difficult using traditional alpha detectors and systems. The ionization detection method (long-range alpha detection of LRAD) offers a number of specific advantages for these environmental measurements. An LRAD system detects the air molecules ionized by alpha-emitting contamination rather than the alpha particles. Thus, LRAD-based detectors are not limited by the short range of alpha particles and can be used to detect contamination anywhere that air can penetrate. Extending this technology to large enclosures of long pipes requires a system optimized for large airflows. In this paper we will present designs and preliminary results for high-volume flow-through air monitors based on the LRAD technique. In addition, we will discuss the behavior of the monitors and their potential applications

  11. Intrahepatic hematoma: hepatic lesion in a newborn with high {alpha}-fetoprotein level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lam, Chiu Ying Flora; Chan, Kui Fai; Fan, Tsz Wo; Kwok, Chong Hei Philip; Chan, Chi Hum Susan; Tsang, Tsz Kan [Queen Elizabeth Hospital, Department of Radiology and Imaging, Hong Kong (China)

    2005-11-01

    Hepatic hematomas are relatively common in fetuses and neonates; most are subcapsular in location. Sometimes their imaging features can be non-specific, so differentiation from other aggressive lesions like hepatoblastoma can be difficult, especially if there is a concurrent high {alpha}-fetoprotein level. We report a case of intrahepatic hematoma with a rising {alpha}-fetoprotein level. (orig.)

  12. CHARACTERIZATION OF A NEW BACILLUS-STEAROTHERMOPHILUS ISOLATE - A HIGHLY THERMOSTABLE ALPHA-AMYLASE-PRODUCING STRAIN

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIND, RD; BUITELAAR, RM; EGGINK, G; HUIZING, HJ; DIJKHUIZEN, L

    A novel strain of Bacillus stearothermophilus was isolated from samples of a potato-processing industry. Compared to known alpha-amylases from other B. stearothermophilus strains, the isolate was found to produce a highly thermostable alpha-amylase. The half-time of inactivation of this

  13. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2010-01-01

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  14. Cerebral Toxoplasmosis in a Patient with AIDS on F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hae Won; Won, Kyung Sook; Choi, Byung Wook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The distinction between primary central nervous system (CNS) lymphoma and nonmalignant lesions due to opportunistic infections, in particular cerebral toxoplasmosis, is important because of the different treatments involved. A 32-year-old patient with AIDS was hospitalized for intermittent headaches. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a small well-enhanced nodular lesion in the right frontal lobe. A fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) position emission tomography (PET)/ computed tomography (CT) scan showed moderate FDG uptake in the nodular lesion of the right frontal lobe. We present a case of cerebral toxoplasmosis in a patient with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the differential diagnosis of the cerebral toxoplasmosis will be discussed.

  15. F18-FDG PET/CT Scanning in Angiosarcoma: Report of Two Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emel TOKMAK

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Angiosarcomas are uncommon tumors and constitute less than 5% of all soft tissue sarcomas. They are aggressive tumors with poor prognosis, therefore, it is quite important to determine disease extension and detect local recurrence and/or distant metastases for appropriate therapy management. In this paper, we aimed to demonstrate the potential role of 1F18-FDG PET/CT imaging by reporting two cases with angiosarcoma (MIRT 2011;20:63-66

  16. [F-18] halofluorination: A rapid and efficient method for the incorporation of radiofluorine into organic molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chi, D.Y.; Katzenellenbogen, J.A.; Kilbourn, M.R.; Welch, M.J.

    1985-01-01

    The addition of halogen fluoride to olefins (Hal-F, halofluorination, where Hal is Br or I) is a more favorable reaction for labeling with tracer levels of F-18 than is addition of hydrogen fluoride (H-F, hydrofluorination), because of the more productive soft acid-soft base interaction between the Hal and the olefin. The authors have found that simple olefins (allylbenzene, 1-hexene, 1-propene) undergo rapid bromofluorination when treated with 1,3-dibromo-5,5-dimethylhydantoin (DBH), giving a 7:1 mixture of Markownikow (M) and anti-Markownikow (AM) adducts. In chlorinated solvents, the reaction is rapid and efficient, giving yields of 50-90% based on fluoride as limiting reagent. The products can be reduced to the fluorocarbon by debromination (R/sub 3/SnH or LiAlH/sub 4/), or they can be used to alkylate amines. Reasonable radiochemical yields can be obtained using F-18 produced in a water target [/sup 18/O(p,n)/sup 18/F], in either carrier-added (20-50%) or no-carrier-added (ca. 10-20%) modes. This reaction is being used to prepare F-18 labeled radiopharmaceuticals

  17. Clinical Significance of F 18 FP CIT Dual Time Point PET Imaging in Idiopathic Parkinson's Disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oh, Jin Kyoung; Yoo, Ik Dong; Seo, Ye Young; Chung, Youg An; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Kim, Sung Hoon; Song, In Uk

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the diagnostic value of dual time point F 18 FP CIT PET imaging in idiopathic Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty four patients with PD (mean age 69.6) and 18 healthy people (mean age 70.26) underwent two sequential PET/CT scans (dual time point imaging) at 90 and 210 min after F 18 FP CIT injection. Tracer activity of region of interest was measured in the caudate, putamen and a reference region in the brain from both time points. The outcome parameter was the striatooccipital ratio (SOR). Normal SOR values were obtained in the control group. The percent change in tracer activity between 90 and 210 min images was calculated. The SOR values and the percent change in tracer activity were compared between the patients and healthy control group. The SOR values for the caudate, anterior and posterior putamen at both 90 and 210 min images were significantly reduced in the patients with PD. The lowest P value was obtained for the anterior and posterior putamen (p<0.001) at both time points. There were significant differences of the percent change in tracer activity for the anterior and posterior putamen in the two groups (p=0.01) F 18 FP CIT PET scans at 90 and 210 min after injection are both able to diagnose PD. Therefore, the 90 min image by itself in sufficient for diagnosing PD.

  18. In vivo characterization of chronic traumatic encephalopathy using [F-18]FDDNP PET brain imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrio, Jorge R; Small, Gary W; Wong, Koon-Pong; Huang, Sung-Cheng; Liu, Jie; Merrill, David A; Giza, Christopher C; Fitzsimmons, Robert P; Omalu, Bennet; Bailes, Julian; Kepe, Vladimir

    2015-04-21

    Chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE) is an acquired primary tauopathy with a variety of cognitive, behavioral, and motor symptoms linked to cumulative brain damage sustained from single, episodic, or repetitive traumatic brain injury (TBI). No definitive clinical diagnosis for this condition exists. In this work, we used [F-18]FDDNP PET to detect brain patterns of neuropathology distribution in retired professional American football players with suspected CTE (n = 14) and compared results with those of cognitively intact controls (n = 28) and patients with Alzheimer's dementia (AD) (n = 24), a disease that has been cognitively associated with CTE. [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging results in the retired players suggested the presence of neuropathological patterns consistent with models of concussion wherein brainstem white matter tracts undergo early axonal damage and cumulative axonal injuries along subcortical, limbic, and cortical brain circuitries supporting mood, emotions, and behavior. This deposition pattern is distinctively different from the progressive pattern of neuropathology [paired helical filament (PHF)-tau and amyloid-β] in AD, which typically begins in the medial temporal lobe progressing along the cortical default mode network, with no or minimal involvement of subcortical structures. This particular [F-18]FDDNP PET imaging pattern in cases of suspected CTE also is primarily consistent with PHF-tau distribution observed at autopsy in subjects with a history of mild TBI and autopsy-confirmed diagnosis of CTE.

  19. Impact of F-18 FDG-PET for the Clinical Multidisciplinary Evaluation of Dementia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prakash, Vineet; Vestergård, Karsten; Frost, Majbritt

    PURPOSE            Dementia is a challenging clinical diagnosis. Compared with conventional clinical evaluations, F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET has been reported to improve not only the diagnostic accuracy of dementia but also help better define the underlying  type. This is because FDG PET d...... or Frontotemporal dementia.                       CLINICAL RELEVANCE/APPLICATION            F18-FDG Brain PET with visual and automated analyses can be valuable  in a diagnostic algorithim for the work up of dementia when the cause is uncertain.......PURPOSE            Dementia is a challenging clinical diagnosis. Compared with conventional clinical evaluations, F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET has been reported to improve not only the diagnostic accuracy of dementia but also help better define the underlying  type. This is because FDG PET...... patients had FDG-PET scans with visual and automated analyses. At a multidisciplinary meeting attended by a neuroradiologist and PET specialist, a pre-PET diagnosis, type of dementia and management plan was composed by a neurologist on the basis of clinical assessment, MRI, neuropsychometry...

  20. Clinical Application of F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) in Colo-rectal and Anal Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Byung Il

    2008-01-01

    In the management of colo-retal and anal cancer, accurate staging, treatment evaluation, early detection of recurrence are main clinical problems. F-18 FDG PET (PET/CT) has been reported as useful in the management of colo-rectal and anal cancer because that PET has high diagnostic performance comparing to conventional studies. In case of liver metastases, for confirmation of no extrahepatic metastases, in case of high risk of metastasis, for avoiding unnecessary operation, PET (PET/CT) is expected more useful. In anal cancer, PET is expected useful in lymph node staging. For the early prediction of chemotherapy or radiation therapy effect PET has been reported as useful, also. In early detection of recurrence by PET, cost-benefit advantages has been suggested, also. PET/CT is expected to have higher diagnostic performance than PET alone

  1. Utility of F-18 FDG PET/CT on the evaluation of primary bone lymphoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Li-Juan; Wu, Hu-Bing; Wang, Meng; Han, Yan-Jiang; Li, Hong-Sheng; Zhou, Wen-Lan; Wang, Quan-Shi

    2015-11-01

    Primary bone lymphoma (PBL) is a rare type of malignant lymphoma. Few data have been reported regarding the utility of F-18 FDG PET/CT in this disease. The aim of this study was to assess the role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis and therapeutic effect evaluation of PBL. A total of 19 consecutive patients with PBL were enrolled. Whole-body PET/CT scan was performed for all patients. The diagnosis of PBL was established by histopathology and immunohistochemistry. F-18 FDG PET/CT was positive in 94.7% (18/19) of patients. Uptake of FDG in lesions was intense with SUVmax of 15.14 ± 11.82. Multiple involved lesions were found in 47.4% (9/19) patients, while 52.6% presented with a single involved lesion. Based on the lesions, PET detected 98.9% (87/88) lesions. Among them, 71.6% (63/88) lesions were found to be located in axial skeleton and 28.4% (25/88) in the extremity skeleton. FDG PET/CT also found the lesions infiltrate to the surrounding soft tissue in 84.2% (16/19) patients. On the syn-modality CT, the bone destruction was noted in 43.2% (38/88) of the lesions, of which 50.0% lesions presented as slight change in bone density and 50.0% as severe change. The diagnostic sensitivity of PET was much higher than that of CT (98.9% vs. 43.2%, P=0.000). PET/CT was performed for evaluation of treatment response in 13 patients. In 12 patients with complete response(CR), PET/CT found the 25 lesions were F-18 FDG fully resoluted after treatment, however, bone destruction was still presented in 72.0% (18/25) lesions. The present study suggests that F-18 FDG PET/CT was a sensitive imaging modality for diagnosis and treatment response evaluation of PBL. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Seok Nam

    2012-01-01

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass from

  3. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension mimicking dual concordant endometrial and cervical malignancy by F18 FDG PET and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Seok Nam [Kwandong Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-09-15

    A 35 year old woman with endometrial cancer and cervical extension underwent F18 FDG PET CT and MRI studies after resection of a cervical mass presumed to be cervical myoma. The patient underwent cervical myomectomy and the histopathologic report revealed poorly differentiated invasive carcinoma. Cervical cancer was ruled out because the patient had no history of sexual intercourse and was negative for human papilloma virus infection. The patient underwent radical hysterectomy, bilateral salpingo oophorectomy, pelvic and para aortic lymph node dissection, and multiple biopsies. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the cervix wall. T2 weighted MRI also revealed a mass lesion with high SI involving the anterior and posterior lips of the uterine cervix. Another area of focal increased uptake above the endometrial lesion in the left pelvic cavity was observed on PET CT and MRI, possibly due to a functioning ovary. PET CT and MRI were interpreted as showing a dual concordant malignant lesion due to separated FDG uptakes and high SI without any connection between the cervical and endometrial lesions. F18 FDG PET CT showed intense FDG uptake along the endometrium. Given the patient's history and the fact that she was not menstruating at the time of imaging, this intense uptake was interpreted as another pathologic lesion, suggesting dual primary lesions. A suspected heterogeneous mass lesion along the endometrium suggesting concordant endometrial cancer was found on MRI. Endometrial cancer with cervical extension is sometimes difficult to differentiate from primary cervical cancer. The final histopathologic report showed poorly differentiated endometrial adenocarcinoma with cervical extension, although the FDG PET CT and MRI findings were suggestive of concordant cervical and endometrial cancer. Although histopathologic confirmation is necessary for final diagnosis, MRI and FDG PET CT studies may aid in the differential diagnosis. A metastatic cervical mass

  4. F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings of Subcutaneous Panniculitis - Like T- Cell Lymphoma : A Case Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kong, Eun Jung; Cho, Ihn Ho; Chun, Kyung Ah; Bae, Yeung Kyung; Choi, Joon Hyuk; Hyun, Myung Soo

    2009-01-01

    F-18 FDG PET is a metabolic imaging modality that is efficacious in staging and assessment of treatment response for variety of lymphomas. We report usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in evaluating severity of the disease and response to therapy in a patient with subcutaneous panniculitis- like T-cell lymphoma (SPTCL). Here we describe a case of SPTCL in 24-year-old man who had wide spread firm and tender nodular lesions with increased F-18 FDG uptake. After chemotherapy follow up F-18 FDG PET/CT image shows disseminated malignancy and then the patient died with hemophagocytic syndrome. This report suggests that F-18 FDG PET/CT may be useful in determining disease activity at the time of initial diagnosis, after treatment, and evaluating a suspected outcome of SPTCL

  5. Surgical outcome of patients with ischemic cardiomyopathy selected by the results of myocardial viability by preoperative F-18 FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Jae Sung; Hong, Suk Keun; Lee, Young Tak; Kim, Youn Jung; Moon, Keon Sik; Won, Tae Kyoung; Hwang, Hweung Kon; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Yu Kyeong

    2000-01-01

    We investigated the operative outcome after bypass surgery in patients selected using viability criteria on F-18 FDG PET. Rest-24hr delay redistribution imaging of Tl-201 SPECT and F-18 FDG PET were performed in 11 patients. Seven of these 11 patients (6 men, 1 woman) were evaluated to have viable myocardium by F-18 FDG PET. Changes in symptoms and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) after operation were evaluated. In seven of 11 patients, a significant amount of viable myocardium was found on F-18 FDG PET and Tl-201 SPECT. Severity of both chest pain and dyspnea improved markedly in all patients. Mean LVEF improved from 22% to 32%. F-18 FDG PET could be used to select the patients who will benefit from coronary artery bypass surgery.=20

  6. Effect of duration of fasting and diet on the myocardial uptake of F-18-2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) at rest

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Pankaj; Patel, Chetan D; Singla, Suhas; Malhotra, A

    2014-01-01

    Patterns of myocardial fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) uptake with respect to duration of fasting and dietary modifications. We observed the effect of duration of fasting and diet on the myocardial uptake pattern of F-18 FDG in patients routinely referred for oncological evaluation and no previous history of Coronary Artery Disease (CAD). Prospective study. A total of 153 patients (M: 81, F: 72; mean age: 47 ± 15 years; mean blood glucose level (mBG) 105 ± 23 mg/dl) were randomly divided in three groups. Group A: 4-6 h fasting; Group B: Overnight fasting (12–14 h); Group C: Low carbohydrate and fat rich diet for 2 days coupled with overnight fasting prior to the positron emission tomography (PET) scan. FDG uptake was classified as following: 1) homogeneous uptake, 2) heterogeneous uptake, and 3) ‘no uptake’ in the left ventricular (LV) myocardium. FDG PET study was performed as standard protocol for oncological conditions. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square test or Fisher's exact test, and Spearman's rank correlation tests were applied. We observed the ‘no uptake’ pattern in five (10%), 28 (55%), and 39 (77%), ‘heterogeneous’ pattern in 20 (39%), 14 (28%), and seven (14%), and ‘homogeneous’ pattern in 26 (51%), nine (18%), and five (10%) patients in Group A, B, and C, respectively. There was statistically significant difference of myocardial uptake pattern between group A and B (P < 0.0001), between group A and C (P < 0.0001), and between Group B and C (P = 0.023). The mBG was 102, 105, and 111 mg/dl in ‘no uptake’, heterogeneous, and homogeneous uptake pattern, respectively, (P = 0.103). Also, within each group the mBG was not related to the uptake pattern. Both restricted diet and duration of fasting play an important role in determining the pattern and suppression of myocardial F-18 FDG uptake. Overnight fasting and restricted diet together suppress myocardial FDG uptake more than overnight fasting alone, which suppresses uptake

  7. Alpha lipoic acid attenuates high-fructose-induced pancreatic toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topsakal, Senay; Ozmen, Ozlem; Cankara, Fatma Nihan; Yesilot, Sukriye; Bayram, Dilek; Genç Özdamar, Nilüfer; Kayan, Sümeyra

    2016-01-01

    Chronic consumption of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) causes several problems such as insulin resistance. The goal of the study was to investigate pancreatic damage induced by chronic HFCS consumption and the protective effects of alpha lipoic acid (ALA) on pancreatic cells. Wistar Albino, 4-month-old, female rats weighing 250-300 g were randomly distributed into three groups, each containing eight rats. The study included an HFCS group, an HFCS + ALA-administered group and a control group (CON). The prepared 30% solution of HFCS (F30) (24% fructose, 28% dextrose) was added to the drinking water for 10 weeks. ALA treatment was begun 4 weeks after the first HFCS administration (100 mg/kg/oral, last 6 weeks). Rats were anaesthetised and euthanised by cervical dislocation 24 h after the last ALA administration. Blood samples for biochemical tests (amylase, lipase, malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT)) and tissue samples for histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations (caspase-3, insulin and glucagon) were collected. Comparing the control and HFCS groups, serum glucose (150.92 ± 39.77 and 236.50 ± 18.28, respectively, p < 0.05), amylase (2165.00 ± 150.76 and 3027.66 ± 729.19, respectively, p < 0.01), lipase (5.58 ± 2.22 and 11.51 ± 2.74, respectively, p < 0.01) and pancreatic tissue MDA (0.0167 ± 0.004 and 0.0193 ± 0.006, respectively, p < 0.05) levels were increased, whereas tissue CAT (0.0924 ± 0.029 and 0.0359 ± 0.023, respectively, p < 0.05) activity decreased in the HFCS group significantly. Histopathological examination revealed degenerative and necrotic changes in Langerhans islet cells and slight inflammatory cell infiltration in pancreatic tissue in the HFCS group. Immunohistochemically there was a significant decrease in insulin (2.85 ± 0.37 and 0.87 ± 0.64, respectively, p < 0.001) and glucagon (2.71 ± 0.48 and 1.00 ± 0.75, respectively, p < 0.001) secreting cell scores, whereas a

  8. Radiosynthesis of [F-18]fluoxetine as a potential radiotracer for serotonin reuptake sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Das, M.K.; Mukherjee, Jogeshwar (Chicago Univ., IL (United States). Dept. of Radiology)

    1993-05-01

    Synthesis of 4-nitro-[alpha]-bromo-[alpha],[alpha]-difluorotoluene was accomplished in two steps starting from 4-nitrobenzaldehyde, with a 30% overall yield. Radiolabeling of 4-nitro-[alpha]-bromo-[alpha], [alpha]-difluorotoluene with no-carrier-added [[sup 18]F]fluoride provided 4-nitro-[alpha],[alpha]-difluoro-[alpha]-[[sup 18]F] fluorotoluene in 2-4% yields with a specific activity of 2590 GBq/mmol (70 Ci/mmol). The effect of the reaction temperature on the radiochemical yield and specific activity of the radiolabeling reaction was studied. Radiochemical yields increased, whereas specific activity decreased, with increasing temperature. Radiosynthesis of [[sup 18]F] fluoxetine involved coupling of 4-nitro-[alpha],[alpha]-difluoro-[alpha]-[[sup 18]F]fluorotoluene with the sodium alkoxide of (S)-3-(methylamino)-1-phenyl-1-propanol. The overall yield of HPLC purified [[sup 18]F]fluoxetine was 1-2% (decay-corrected; total radiosynthesis time, 150-180 min). The specific activity of the product was 1480 GBq/mmol (40 Ci/mmol). (Author).

  9. A basic research of gadolinium hydrogen [alpha], [alpha]', [alpha]'', [alpha]'''-tetramethly- 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetate with high complex stability as a contrast agent for MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seri, Shigemi; Hashiguchi, Yuji; Kubomura, Kan; Abe, Yukiko; Iguchi, Toshio; Iwai, Kumiko [Nihon Medi-Physics Co., Ltd., Sodegaura, Chiba (Japan); Watanabe, Tokuko

    1993-05-01

    Gadolinium hydrogen [alpha], [alpha]', [alpha]'', [alpha]'''-tetramethyl- 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane- 1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (abbreviated Gd-DOTMA) was developed as a new contrast agent for magnetic resonance imaging. Our study focused on the evaluation of the pharmaceutical properties as in vivo agent. The new modified process by which Gd-DOTMA was synthesized resulted in high yields of this agent. A high stability constant of 10[sup 26] fro Gd-DOTMA was determined at physiological pH. It is more stable than Gd complex with tetraazacyclododecanetetraacetic acid (which is regarded as the most stable Gd complex). The strong T[sub 1] relaxivities of 4.0 and 3.7 (mM [center dot] s)[sup -1] at 0.5 tesla and 1.5 tesla were measured in the aqueous solution. The osmolarity of 0.5 M solution, dissolved with equal amounts of meglumine as a solubilizer is 1020 mOsmol/kg. This contrasting agent was studied in vivo by using rats as the experimental group. The agent showed strong enhancement of transplanted tumors within the rat population studied. This compound is rapidly excreted by the kidneys, and has a half-life of 26 min in blood. The median lethal dose (LD[sub 50] value) of the stable Gd-DOTMA has a favorable tolerance of over 12.3 mmol/kg. (author).

  10. F-18 FDG PET findings for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Park Sonya Young Ju [Dept. of of Radiology, Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of MedicineThe Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-06-15

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a rare multisystemic granulomatous autoimmune disorder affecting pigmented tissues such as the choroid, meninges, inner ear, and the skin. Neurologic symptoms are usually mild. Clinical manifestations include generalized muscle weakness, headache, meningismus, vertigo, decreased visual acuity, hearing loss and mental changes ranging from mild confusion to psychosis, hemiparesis, dysarthria, and aphasia. Seizures are very rare. We describe a case of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and software-fused PET-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease with seizure.

  11. Imaging the β-adrenergic receptor. II: [F-18]-fluoroalkyl derivatives of carazolol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinsey, B.M.; Tewson, T.J.

    1990-01-01

    Carazolol is a ligand with one of the highest association constants known for the β-adrenergic receptor and presumably has one of the slowest rates of dissociation from the receptor. The authors have prepared a [F-18]-fluoroalkyl derivative of carazolol which the authors believe will be useful in the in vivo detection and measurement of the β-adrenergic receptor. The synthesis is based upon the formation of a hydrazole from cyclohexanedione and para-[2-hydroxyethyl]phenylhydrazine followed by Fischer indole synthesis, dehydrogenation and side chain addition to give the protected hydroxyethylcarazolol derivative 1

  12. F-18 FDG PET findings for Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Hye Lim; Yoo, Ie Ryung; Park Sonya Young Ju

    2017-01-01

    Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease is a rare multisystemic granulomatous autoimmune disorder affecting pigmented tissues such as the choroid, meninges, inner ear, and the skin. Neurologic symptoms are usually mild. Clinical manifestations include generalized muscle weakness, headache, meningismus, vertigo, decreased visual acuity, hearing loss and mental changes ranging from mild confusion to psychosis, hemiparesis, dysarthria, and aphasia. Seizures are very rare. We describe a case of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) and software-fused PET-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in Vogt-Koyanagi-Harada disease with seizure

  13. New Cyclotron Targetry to Enhance F-18 clinical Position Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Doster, J. Michael

    2008-01-01

    This project proposes to develop cyclotron targets that produce F-18 for clinical Positron Emission Tomography (PET) at significantly higher rates than that available from current targetry. This production rate of 18F is directly proportional to the beam current. Higher beam currents would result in increased 18F production but would be accompanied by higher heat loads to the target. The beam power available in most commercial cyclotrons exceeds the heat removal capacity of current target technology by a factor of two to four, significantly limiting the production rate of Fluorine-18

  14. GMP production of [18F]FDOPA and issues concerning its quality analyses as in USP 'Fluorodopa F 18 Injection'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kao, C.K.; Hsu Wenlin; Xie Hengli; Lin Mingchi; Lan Wenchun; Chao Haoyu

    2011-01-01

    Lately, 6-[ 18 F]fluoro-L-DOPA (FDOPA) has found increase in its clinical demand for whole-body positron emission tomography (PET) scans, and two key issues in fulfilling this demand are the difficulties in producing FDOPA under the recently imposed PET drug good manufacturing practice (GMP) regulations and in providing it in the quality meeting the terms of major compendia. This paper describes the approaches for the GMP production of FDOPA and for the product testing to meet the standard of United States Pharmacopeia (USP) 'Fluorodopa F 18 Injection.' FDOPA was produced by the carrier-added electrophilic aromatic substitution reaction in the facility complying Pharmaceutical Inspection Cooperation Scheme clean room standard. The special aseptic handling technique was applied to minimize the bioburden. The product quality control followed all testing items and procedures, including three different settings of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The process yielded FDOPA average 2.60±0.26 GBq (N=22) in every batch. All qualities of the product were within the specifications described in the USP 'Fluorodopa F 18 Injection.' The entire production was audited by the government authority and certified to comply with the latest PET drug GMP regulation. Our efforts in producing FDOPA following all aspects of GMP requirements have resulted in a product with the USP quality and certified as GMP complied. The routine production yields enough doses for three to four whole-body scans in each batch. The issues discussed in the report provide good reference for producers planning in routine production for PET drugs that are not commonly produced or with complicated compendial quality control tests. (author)

  15. Usefulness of F 18 FDG PET/CT In Assessment of Recurrence of Cervical Cancer After Treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Minkyung; Lee, Yukyung; Hwang, Kyung Hoon; Park, Chan Youg; Choe, Wonsick

    2011-01-01

    Until now, serum tumor markers, physical examination, and conventional imaging modalities, such as CT of MRI, have been used in assessment of recurrence of cervical cancer after treatment. However, CT and MRI provide only anatomical data, which makes analysis of post treatment change difficult. This study aims to explore the effectiveness of PET/CT, a new scanning device that combines PET and CT, in evaluation of cervical cancer lesions in patients with suspected recurrence. We studied 51 patients suspected of recurrence among those who underwent F 18 FDG PET/CT for cervical cancer follow up at Gachon University Gil Hospital between June 2006 and August 2009. Patients were considered to be at risk for recurrence if they reported symptoms that were clinically suggestive of recurrence, or if physical examination showed abnormalities, serum tumor marker levels rose, or follow up images revealed changes, such as new lesions or swelling of previous sites. Sensitivity, accuracy, specificity, and positive and negative predictive values of PET/CT were measured. A total of 37 patients were confirmed with recurrence or metastasis, 13 of whom were diagnosed histologically. Measured across all patients, PET/CT scored 97.3% on sensitivity, 71.4% on specificity, a positive predictive value of 90%, a negative predictive value of 90.9%, and an accuracy of 90.2%. PET/CT yielded only one false negative diagnosis and four false positives. As F 18 FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and negative predictive value in diagnosis of recurrent cervical cancers, it is expected that it will be useful for clinical determination of recurrence and prevention of unnecessary additional treatments. The hope is that a future study on a larger scale will contribute further to determination of the efficacy of PET/CT

  16. Estimated environmental loads of alpha-amylase from transgenic high-amylase maize

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolt, Jeffrey D. [Department of Agronomy, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States); Karaman, Sule [Biosafety Institute for Genetically Modified Agricultural Products, 164 Seed Science, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011 (United States)

    2007-11-15

    Environmental exposure of plants bioengineered to improve efficiencies of biofuel production is an important consideration for their adoption. High-amylase maize genetically engineered to produce thermostable alpha-amylase in seed endosperm is currently in development, and its successful adoption will entail >1000 km{sup 2} of annual production in the USA. Environmental exposure of thermostable amylase will occur in production fields from preharvest and harvest dropped grain, with minor additional contributions from stover and root biomass. Mass loadings of thermostable alpha-amylase are projected to be 16 kg km{sup -2} and represent a potential source of increased alpha-amylase activity in receiving soils. An understanding of the degradation, persistence, accumulation, and activity of thermostable alpha-amylase introduced from transgenic high-amylase maize will be necessary in order to effectively manage transgenic crop systems intended or biofeedstock production. (author)

  17. F-18 FDG PET with coincidence detection, dual-head gamma camera, initial experience in oncology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chu, J.M.G.; Pocock, N.; Quach, T.; Camden, B.M.C. [Liverpool Health Services, Liverpool, NSW (Australia). Department of Nuclear Medicine and Clinical Ultrasound

    1998-06-01

    Full text: The development of Co-incidence Detection (CD) in gamma camera technology has allowed the use of positron radiopharmaceuticals in clinical practice without dedicated PET facilities. We report our initial experience of this technology in Oncological applications. All patients were administered 200 MBq of F- 18 FDG intravenously in a fasting state, with serum glucose below 8.9 mmol/L., and hydration well maintained. Tomography was performed using an ADAC Solus Molecular Co-incidence Detection (MCD) dual-head gamma camera, 60 minutes after administration and immediately after voiding. Tomography of the torso required up to three collections depending on the length of the patient, with each collection requiring 32 steps of 40 second duration, and a 50% overlap. Tomography of the brain required a single collection with 32 steps of 80 seconds. Patients were scanned in the supine position. An iterative reconstruction algorithm was employed without attenuation correction. All patients had histologically confirmed malignancy. Scan findings were correlated with results of all conventional diagnostic imaging procedures that were pertinent to the evaluation and management of each individual patient`s disease. Correlation with tumour type and treatment status was also undertaken. F-18 FDG uptake as demonstrated by CD-PET was increased in tumour bearing sites. The degree of increased uptake varied with tumour type and with treatment status. Our initial experience with CD-PET has been very encouraging, and has led us to undertake prospective short and long term studies to define its role in oncology

  18. Preoperative assessment of asymptomatic adnexal masses by positron emission tomography and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fenchel, S.; Kotzerke, J.; Reske, S.N.

    1999-01-01

    Aim: To evaluate use of F-18-FDG-PET in assessment of dignity of asymptomatic adnexal masses. Methods: 85 asymptomatic patients with suspicious, asymptomatic adnexal masses were evaluated. Static FDG-PET (Exact HR+ or ECAT 931) imaging of the abdomen was performed following application of 222-555 MBq F-18-FDG. Iterative reconstruction was applied. PET data were analysed visually, at first without and second together with MRT images. Final diagnosis was made by histopathology. Results: FDG-PET allowed correct identification of 4 of 8 malignant adnexal tumors. False negative results were obtained in 2 adenocarcinomas stage pT1a and 2 borderline-tumors. In 60 out of 77 benign adnexal masses malignancy could be excluded. False positive FDG-uptake, partly because of misinterpretation of gastrointestinal activity, was found in 3 inflammatory processes, 1 teratoma, 1 benign schwannoma, 1 dermoid cyst, 1 benign thecoma, 1 serous cyst, 1 serous cystadenoma, 2 mucinous cystadenomas, 2 corpus luteum cysts, 3 endometriosic cysts and 1 sactosalpinx. The overall sensitivity and specifity of FDG-PET alone were 50% and 78%. Evaluation together with MRT images showed a sensitivity of 50% and a specifity of 86%. (orig.) [de

  19. Performance of an Electro-Hydrostatic Actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Robert

    1997-01-01

    An electro-hydrostatic actuator was evaluated at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. The primary goal of testing this actuator system was the flight demonstration of power-by-wire technology on a primary flight control surface. The electro-hydrostatic actuator uses an electric motor to drive a hydraulic pump and relies on local hydraulics for force transmission. This actuator replaced the F-18 standard left aileron actuator on the F-18 Systems Research Aircraft and was evaluated throughout the Systems Research Aircraft flight envelope. As of July 24, 1997 the electro-hydrostatic actuator had accumulated 23.5 hours of flight time. This paper presents the electro-hydrostatic actuator system configuration and component description, ground and flight test plans, ground and flight test results, and lessons learned. This actuator performs as well as the standard actuator and has more load capability than required by aileron actuator specifications of McDonnell- Douglas Aircraft, St. Louis, Missouri. The electro-hydrostatic actuator system passed all of its ground tests with the exception of one power-off test during unloaded dynamic cycling.

  20. Histomorphometric characteristics of immune cells in small intestine of pigs perorally immunized with vaccine candidate F18ac+ nonenterotoxigenic E. coli strain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Valpotic

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Colidiarrhea and colienterotoxemia caused by F4+ and/or F18+ enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC strains are the most prevalent infections of suckling and weaned pigs. Here we tested the immunogenicity and protective effectiveness of attenuated F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine candidate strain against challenge infection with F4ac+ ETEC strain by quantitative phenotypic analysis of small intestinal leukocyte subsets in weaned pigs. We also evaluated levamisole as an immune response modifier (IRM and its adjuvanticity when given in the combination with the experimental vaccine. The pigs were parenterally immunized with either levamisole (at days -2, -1 and 0 or with levamisole and perorally given F18ac+ non-ETEC strain (at day 0, and challenged with F4ac+ ETEC strain 7 days later. At day 13 the pigs were euthanatized and sampled for immunohistological/histomorphometrical analyses. Lymphoid CD3+, CD45RA+, CD45RC+, CD21+, IgA+ and myeloid SWC3+ cell subsets were identified in jejunal and ileal epithelium, lamina propria and Peyer’s patches using the avidin-biotin complex method, and their numbers were determined by computer-assisted histomorphometry. Quantitative immunophenotypic analyses showed that levamisole treated pigs had highly increased numbers of jejunal CD3+, CD45RC+ and SWC3+ cells (p<0.05 as compared to those recorded in nontreated control pigs. In the ileum of these pigs we have recorded that only CD21+ cells were significantly increased (p<0.01. The pigs that were treated with levamisole adjuvanted experimental vaccine had significantly increased numbers of all tested cell subsets in both segments of the small intestine. It was concluded that levamisole adjuvanted F18ac+ non-ETEC vaccine was a requirement for the elicitation of protective gut immunity in this model; nonspecific immunization with levamisole was less effective, but confirmed its potential as an IRM.

  1. A significant discrepancy of uptake between I-131 MIBG and F-18 FDG in a patient with malignant paraganglioma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jong Su; Kim, Hyun Keun; Choi, Kyu Young; Park, Hyung Ki; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Yun Kwon; Kim, So Yon [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-06-15

    A 38-year-old man who was diagnosed with malignant paraganglioma underwent computed tomography (CT) and I-131 metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scan. CT showed extensive lymph node enlargement in right iliac area and retroperitoneum with severe hydronephrosis and mass on posterior bladder wall. However, I-131 MIBG scan didn't showed abnormal uptake. He also underwent F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT for localizing accurate tumor site. F-18 FDG PET/CT showed multiple metastases of left supraclavicular, hilar, mediastinal para-aortic, inguinal, right iliac lymph nodes, lung, vertebrae, and pelvis. There are a few reports showing that the F-18 FDG PET/CT is helpful for staging and localizing tumor site of patients who are diagnosed with negative on the MIBG scans. Thus, we report a case with paraganglioma which showed negative I-131 MIBG scan, but revealed multiple intense hypermetabolic foci in F-18 FDG PET/CT.

  2. 1,2-Fucosyllactose Does Not Improve Intestinal Function or Prevent Escherichia coli F18 Diarrhea in Newborn Pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Sangild, Per Torp; Jensen, Michael Ladegaard

    2017-01-01

    of mucosa and activities of some brush border enzymes in the proximal small intestine. In situ abundance of α-1,2-fucose and E coli was similar between groups, whereas sequencing showed higher abundance of Enterobacteriaceae in F18, Enterococcus in control and Lachnospiraceae in 2FL-F18 pigs. Conclusions: 2......′-FL inhibited in vitro adhesion of E coli F18 to epithelial cells, but had limited effects on diarrhea and mucosal health in newborn pigs challenged with E coli F18...... in the intestine and may in part explain the protective effects of human milk. We hypothesized that 2′-FL prevents diarrhea via competitive inhibition of pathogen adhesion in a pig model for sensitive newborn infants. Methods: Intestinal cell studies were coupled with studies on cesarean-delivered newborn pigs (n...

  3. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayana, Shankaramurthy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Paramjeet; Prakash, Mahesh; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAVN) is one of the increasingly common causes of musculoskeletal disability and poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been widely used in the diagnosis of FHAVN, positron emission tomography (PET) has recently been evaluated to assess vascularity of the femoral head. In this study, the authors compared F-18 fluoride PET/CT with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN. Patients and Methods: We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients with a high clinical suspicion of FHAVN. All patients underwent MRI and F-18 fluoride PET/CT, the time interval between the two scans being 4–10 (mean 8) days. Two nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the MRI report read the PET/CT scans. Clinical assessment was also done. Final diagnoses were made by surgical pathology or clinical and radiologic follow-up. Results: A final diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) was made in 40 patients. MRI was 96.5% sensitive, 100% specific, and 98.03% accurate while PET/CT was 100% sensitive, specific, and accurate in diagnosing FHAVN. The agreement between the two imaging modalities for the diagnosis of AVN was 96.07%. Conclusion: F-18 fluoride PET/CT showed good agreement with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN and can be better than MRI in detecting early disease. PMID:26917886

  4. F-18 fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography in the diagnosis of avascular necrosis of the femoral head: Comparison with magnetic resonance imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gayana, Shankaramurthy; Bhattacharya, Anish; Sen, Ramesh Kumar; Singh, Paramjeet; Prakash, Mahesh; Mittal, Bhagwant Rai

    2016-01-01

    Femoral head avascular necrosis (FHAVN) is one of the increasingly common causes of musculoskeletal disability and poses a major diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Although radiography, scintigraphy, computed tomography (CT), and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) have been widely used in the diagnosis of FHAVN, positron emission tomography (PET) has recently been evaluated to assess vascularity of the femoral head. In this study, the authors compared F-18 fluoride PET/CT with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN. We prospectively studied 51 consecutive patients with a high clinical suspicion of FHAVN. All patients underwent MRI and F-18 fluoride PET/CT, the time interval between the two scans being 4–10 (mean 8) days. Two nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the MRI report read the PET/CT scans. Clinical assessment was also done. Final diagnoses were made by surgical pathology or clinical and radiologic follow-up. A final diagnosis of avascular necrosis (AVN) was made in 40 patients. MRI was 96.5% sensitive, 100% specific, and 98.03% accurate while PET/CT was 100% sensitive, specific, and accurate in diagnosing FHAVN. The agreement between the two imaging modalities for the diagnosis of AVN was 96.07%. F-18 fluoride PET/CT showed good agreement with MRI in the initial diagnosis of FHAVN and can be better than MRI in detecting early disease

  5. Alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Richard T; Smith, Shelby L; Kraus, Brian T; Allen, Anna V; Moses, Michael A; Simon-Dack, Stephanie L

    2018-01-17

    Trait anxiety has been shown to cause significant impairments on attentional tasks. Current research has identified alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals. Here, we further investigated the underlying alpha band frequency differences between low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals during their resting state and the completion of an inhibition executive functioning task. Using human participants and quantitative electroencephalographic recordings, we measured alpha band frequency in individuals both high and low in trait anxiety during their resting state, and while they completed an Eriksen Flanker Task. Results indicated that high-trait anxious individuals exhibit a desynchronization in alpha band frequency from a resting state to when they complete the Eriksen Flanker Task. This suggests that high-trait anxious individuals maintain fewer attentional resources at rest and must martial resources for task performance as compared with low-trait anxious individuals, who appear to maintain stable cognitive resources between rest and task performance. These findings add to the cognitive neuroscience literature surrounding the role of alpha band frequency in low-trait and high-trait anxious individuals.

  6. Preliminary study on the evaluation of Langerhans cell histiocytosis using F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose PET/CT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhou Wenlan; Wu Hubing; Han Yanjiang; Wang Shaobo; Dong Ye; Wang Quanshi

    2014-01-01

    Background Limited number of studies have been reported regarding the utilization of F-18-fluoro-deoxy-glucose (F-18-FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT) in Langerhans cell histiocytosis (LCH).The aim of this study was to assess the role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in the diagnosis and treatment of LCH.Methods Eight newly diagnosed and seven recurrent patients with LCH received F-18-FDG PET/CT scans.The diagnosis of LCH was established by pathology,multi-modality imaging,and clinical follow-up.Results F-18-FDG PET/CT was positive in 14 patients with 13 true positives and one false positive.All 45 LCH lesions were F-18-FDG avid including six small bone lesions <1.0 cm in diameter.The mean maximal standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was 7.13±4.91.F-18-FDG uptake showed no significant difference between newly diagnosed lesions vs recurrent lesions (SUVmax:6.50±2.97 vs.7.93±6.60,t=-0.901,P=0.376).Among 45 LCH lesions,68.9% (31/45) were found in bones and 31.1% (14/45) in soft tissue.The most commonly involved bones were the pelvis and vertebrae.There was no significant difference in F-18-FDG uptake between bone lesions vs.non-bone lesions (SUVmax:6.30±2.87 vs.8.97±7.58,t=1.277,P=0.221).In two patients,changes in F-18-FDG uptake on serial PET/CT scans reflected response of lesions to treatment.Conclusions The present study suggests that F-18-FDG PET/CT may be useful for diagnosis and assessing the treatment response of LCH.Because of the small sample size,further research is warranted to confirm our findings.

  7. Characterization of saturation of CR-39 detector at high alpha-particle fluence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. El Ghazaly

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available The occurrence of saturation in the CR-39 detector reduces and limits its detection dynamic range; nevertheless, this range could be extended using spectroscopic techniques and by measuring the net bulk rate of the saturated CR-39 detector surface. CR-39 detectors were irradiated by 1.5 MeV high alpha-particle fluence varying from 0.06 × 108 to 7.36 × 108 alphas/cm2 from Am-241 source; thereafter, they were etched in a 6.25N NaOH solution at a temperature of 70°C for different durations. Net bulk etch rate measurement of the 1.5 MeV alpha-irradiated CR-39 detector surface revealed that rate increases with increasing etching time and reaches its maximum value at the end of the alpha-particle range. It is also correlated with the alpha-particle fluence. The measurements of UV–Visible (UV–Vis absorbance at 500 and 600 nm reveal that the absorbance is linearly correlated with the fluence of alpha particles at the etching times of 2 and 4 hour. For extended etching times of 6, 10, and 14.5 hour, the absorbance is saturated for fluence values of 4.05 × 108, 5.30 × 108, and 7.36 × 108 alphas/cm2. These new methods pave the way to extend the dynamic range of polymer-based solid state nuclear track detectors (SSNTDs in measurement of high fluence of heavy ions as well as in radiation dosimetry. Keywords: Alpha Particle, Bulk Etch Rate, CR-39 Detector, Saturated Regime, UV–Vis Spectroscopy

  8. F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with Hashimoto's thyroiditis and MALT lymphoma recurrence of the thyroid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikosch, P.; Gallowitsch, H.-J.; Kresnik, E.; Lind, P.; Wuertz, F.G.

    2003-01-01

    We report on the case of a 86-year-old male patient with a rapidly growing nodule within the right lobe of the thyroid gland, which after hemithyroidectomy, turned out to be a mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma of the thyroid gland. In addition, Hashimoto's thyroiditis was reported in the thyroid tissue adjacent to the MALT lymphoma. During follow-up a second nodule emerged within the left lobe and, because of evidence of MALT lymphoma recurrence, F-18-FDG-PET was performed. F-18-FDG-PET imaged a clearly in-creased accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus. Thus, no differences in the degree of hypermetabolism could be imaged between the nodule and the adjacent thyroid tissue. To our knowledge, this is the first report about F-18-FDG-PET in a patient with MALT lymphoma of the thyroid. Literature search revealed only a few cases of MALT lymphomas in locations other than the thyroid gland that were studied with F-18-FDG-PET. In no case was F-18 FDG accumulation seen in the MALT lesions. However, clear F-18 FDG accumulation was reported in some patients with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. It is concluded that the intensive F-18-FDG accumulation within the whole left lobe and isthmus of the presented case was due to the coexisting Hashimoto's thyroiditis. Consequently, F-18-FDG-PET imaging does not seem to be indicated in a patient with MALT lymphoma and known Hashimoto's thyroiditis in order to evaluate the status of the MALT lymphoma. (author)

  9. Plasmodium vivax merozoite surface protein-3 alpha: a high-resolution marker for genetic diversity studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, Surendra Kumar; Joshi, Hema; Valecha, Neena

    2010-06-01

    Malaria, an ancient human infectious disease caused by five species of Plasmodium, among them Plasmodium vivax is the most widespread human malaria species and causes huge morbidity to its host. Identification of genetic marker to resolve higher genetic diversity for an ancient origin organism is a crucial task. We have analyzed genetic diversity of P. vivax field isolates using highly polymorphic antigen gene merozoite surface protein-3 alpha (msp-3 alpha) and assessed its suitability as high-resolution genetic marker for population genetic studies. 27 P. vivax field isolates collected during chloroquine therapeutic efficacy study at Chennai were analyzed for genetic diversity. PCR-RFLP was employed to assess the genetic variations using highly polymorphic antigen gene msp-3 alpha. We observed three distinct PCR alleles at msp-3 alpha, and among them allele A showed significantly high frequency (53%, chi2 = 8.22, p = 0.001). PCR-RFLP analysis revealed 14 and 17 distinct RFLP patterns for Hha1 and Alu1 enzymes respectively. Further, RFLP analysis revealed that allele A at msp-3 alpha is more diverse in the population compared with allele B and C. Combining Hha1 and Alu1 RFLP patterns revealed 21 distinct genotypes among 22 isolates reflects higher diversity resolution power of msp-3 alpha in the field isolates. P. vivax isolates from Chennai region revealed substantial amount of genetic diversity and comparison of allelic diversity with other antigen genes and microsatellites suggesting that msp-3 alpha could be a high-resolution marker for genetic diversity studies among P. vivax field isolates.

  10. Discordant Findings of Skeletal Metastasis Between Tc99m MDP Bone Scans and F18 FDG PET/CT Imaging for Advanced Breast and Lung Cancers—Two Case Reports and Literature Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Wen Chen

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, Tc99m methyl diphosphate (MDP bone scintigraphy provides high-sensitivity detection of skeletal metastasis from breast and lung cancers in regular follow-up. Fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT, based on the glucose metabolism of malignant cells, plays a role in describing rumor growth, proliferation of neoplasm and the extent of metastasis. In general, concordant findings of skeletal metastasis are seen on both types of image, especially in cases of breast and lung cancer. However, there were extremely discordant findings of skeletal metastasis between bone scans and F18 FDG PET/CT imaging in two cases among 300 consecutive F18 FDG PET/CT follow-up exams of patients with malignancies, during the past year, in our center. Both cases, one of breast cancer and one of lung cancer, had negative bone scintigraphic findings, but a diffusely high grade of F18 FDG avid marrow infiltration in the axial spine, leading to the diagnosis of stage IV disease in both cases. Owing to variant genetic aberrance of malignance, F18 FDG PET/CT reveals direct evidence of diffuse, rapid neoplasm metabolism in the bone marrow of the spine, but not of secondary osteoblastic reactions in vivo. F18 FDG PET/CT should always be employed in the follow-up of patients with malignancies.

  11. Feasibility of F-18-FDG PET/CT scan in abdominopelvic regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi

    2008-01-01

    F-18-2-Fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/CT scan, which simultaneously provides metabolic function and morphology on the same tomographic section, is being the key imaging modality for diagnosis and treatment strategy of makignancies in various organs. FDG PET/CT scanning of the whole body beneficially allows the assessment of primary tumor and regional lymph nodes, and distant metastases and co-existed benign/other malignant lesions, as ''one stop shopping'' fashion. This technique contributes to the selection of the optimal treatment in individual patients, and also can predict histopathologic response to treatment and postoperative/post chemo-radiation therapeutic prognosis. In this paper, we describe the fundamental knowledge required for accurate interpretation of FDG PET/CT scan, and review the utility of this technique for diagnosis and treatment strategy of makignancies in abdominal and pelvic regions. (author)

  12. SR-71B - in Flight with F-18 Chase Aircraft - View from Air Force Tanker

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    NASA 831, an SR-71B operated by the Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California, cruises over the Mojave Desert with an F/A-18 Hornet flying safety chase. They were photographed on a 1996 mission from an Air Force refueling tanker The F/A-18 Hornet is used primarily as a safety chase and support aircraft at Dryden. As support aircraft, the F-18s are used for safety chase, pilot proficiency and aerial photography. Two SR-71 aircraft have been used by NASA as testbeds for high-speed and high-altitude aeronautical research. The aircraft, an SR-71A and an SR-71B pilot trainer aircraft, have been based here at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center, Edwards, California. They were transferred to NASA after the U.S. Air Force program was cancelled. As research platforms, the aircraft can cruise at Mach 3 for more than one hour. For thermal experiments, this can produce heat soak temperatures of over 600 degrees Fahrenheit (F). This operating environment makes these aircraft excellent platforms to carry out research and experiments in a variety of areas -- aerodynamics, propulsion, structures, thermal protection materials, high-speed and high-temperature instrumentation, atmospheric studies, and sonic boom characterization. The SR-71 was used in a program to study ways of reducing sonic booms or over pressures that are heard on the ground, much like sharp thunderclaps, when an aircraft exceeds the speed of sound. Data from this Sonic Boom Mitigation Study could eventually lead to aircraft designs that would reduce the 'peak' overpressures of sonic booms and minimize the startling affect they produce on the ground. One of the first major experiments to be flown in the NASA SR-71 program was a laser air data collection system. It used laser light instead of air pressure to produce airspeed and attitude reference data, such as angle of attack and sideslip, which are normally obtained with small tubes and vanes extending into the airstream. One of Dryden's SR-71s was used

  13. Cranberry extract inhibits in vitro adhesion of F4 and F18+Escherichia coli to pig intestinal epithelium and reduces in vivo excretion of pigs orally challenged with F18+ verotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coddens, Annelies; Loos, Michaela; Vanrompay, Daisy; Remon, Jean Paul; Cox, Eric

    2017-04-01

    F4 + E. coli and F18 + E. coli infections are an important threat for pig industry worldwide. Antibiotics are commonly used to treat infected piglets, but the emerging development of resistance against antibiotics raises major concerns. Hence, alternative therapies to prevent pigs from F4 + E. coli and F18 + E. coli infections need to be developed. Since cranberry previously showed anti-adhesive activity against uropathogenic E. coli, we aimed to investigate whether cranberry extract could also inhibit binding of F4 + E. coli and F18 + E. coli to pig intestinal epithelium. Using the in vitro villus adhesion assay, we found that low concentrations of cranberry extract (20μg or 100μg/ml) have strong inhibitory activity on F4 + E. coli (75.3%, S.D.=9.31 or 95.8%, S.D.=2.56, respectively) and F18 + E. coli adherence (100% inhibition). This effect was not due to antimicrobial activity. Moreover, cranberry extract (10mg or 100mg) could also abolish in vivo binding of F4 and F18 fimbriae to the pig intestinal epithelium in ligated loop experiments. Finally, two challenge experiments with F18 + E. coli were performed to address the efficacy of in-feed or water supplemented cranberry extract. No effect could be observed in piglets that received cranberry extract only in feed (1g/kg or 10g/kg). However, supplementation of feed (10g/kg) and drinking water (1g/L) significantly decreased excretion and diarrhea. The decreased infection resulted in a decreased serum antibody response indicating reduced exposure to F18 + E. coli. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of I-131 MIBG scintigrapy and F-18 FDG PET in neuroblastoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pai, M.; Lee, S.; Yoo, E

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare the utility of metaiodobenzylguanidine(MIBG) scintigraphy and F-18 FDG PET for the detection of primary and metastatic lesions of neuroblatoma. F-18 FDG PET and I-131 MIBG scan or SPECT were performed with in 1 month of each other in 4 patients (age: 4-5, all female) with known neuroblastoma after primary treatment. In 3 of 4 patients with confirmed neuroblastoma, FDG PET and MIBG scans were concordant for the presence or absence of diseased sites. In two cases, residual abdominal masses less than 1cm in which the X -ray computed tomography showed no change in tumor volume had a simultaneous negative uptake in both MIBG scan and FDG PET. In a patient with histologic evidence of bone marrow involvement, there was no skeletal uptake of both MIBG and FDG but Tc-99m HDP bone scan revealed disseminated bone marrow involvement, while a large mediastinal primary mass of this patient showed intense MIBG and FDG uptake. In one patient whose large abdominal mass of neuroblastoma failed to accumulate FDG, MIBG uptake in the tumor was intense. We concluded that FDG PET could reveal metabolic state of primary or residual neuroblastoma as much as MIBG in majority of our cases but it did not show any advantages over MIBG or even bone scan. FDG PET had an obvious defect in detection of residual viable disease in one patient. FDG PET may not replace MIBG or bone scan for evaluation of primary or metastatic disease of neuroblastoma in the diagnostic and staging procedure from INSS recommendation

  15. Comparison of I-131 MIBG scintigrapy and F-18 FDG PET in neuroblastoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pai, M.; Lee, S.; Yoo, E [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this preliminary study was to compare the utility of metaiodobenzylguanidine(MIBG) scintigraphy and F-18 FDG PET for the detection of primary and metastatic lesions of neuroblatoma. F-18 FDG PET and I-131 MIBG scan or SPECT were performed with in 1 month of each other in 4 patients (age: 4-5, all female) with known neuroblastoma after primary treatment. In 3 of 4 patients with confirmed neuroblastoma, FDG PET and MIBG scans were concordant for the presence or absence of diseased sites. In two cases, residual abdominal masses less than 1cm in which the X -ray computed tomography showed no change in tumor volume had a simultaneous negative uptake in both MIBG scan and FDG PET. In a patient with histologic evidence of bone marrow involvement, there was no skeletal uptake of both MIBG and FDG but Tc-99m HDP bone scan revealed disseminated bone marrow involvement, while a large mediastinal primary mass of this patient showed intense MIBG and FDG uptake. In one patient whose large abdominal mass of neuroblastoma failed to accumulate FDG, MIBG uptake in the tumor was intense. We concluded that FDG PET could reveal metabolic state of primary or residual neuroblastoma as much as MIBG in majority of our cases but it did not show any advantages over MIBG or even bone scan. FDG PET had an obvious defect in detection of residual viable disease in one patient. FDG PET may not replace MIBG or bone scan for evaluation of primary or metastatic disease of neuroblastoma in the diagnostic and staging procedure from INSS recommendation.

  16. Nuclear reactions induced by high-energy alpha particles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, B. S. P.

    1974-01-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of nuclear reactions induced by high energy protons and heavier ions are included. Fundamental data needed in the shielding, dosimetry, and radiobiology of high energy particles produced by accelerators were generated, along with data on cosmic ray interaction with matter. The mechanism of high energy nucleon-nucleus reactions is also examined, especially for light target nuclei of mass number comparable to that of biological tissue.

  17. Differentiation between malignant and benign pathologic fractures with F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, D.S.; Shon, O.J.; Byun, S.J. [Yeungnam University, Department of Orthopedic Surgery College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea); Choi, J.H. [Yeungnam University, Department of Surgical Pathology, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea); Chun, K.A.; Cho, I.H. [Yeungnam University, Department of Nuclear Medicine, College of Medicine, Daegu (Korea)

    2008-05-15

    To evaluate the efficacy of F-18-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (FDG PET/CT) in differentiating malignant from benign pathologic fractures. F-18 FDG PET/CT was performed on 34 patients with pathologic fractures between May 2004 and June 2007. Fractures were located in tubular bones (26), in the pelvis (six), in the spine (one) and in a rib (one). The FDG uptake pattern at the fracture site was described, whether FDG uptake occurred in the marrow or cortex and soft tissue. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUVmax, the largest value at the region of interest) were measured at the fracture site, including cortical bone, bone marrow and soft tissue. As a reference standard, biopsy was used for 12 patients and clinical follow-up for 22 patients. Sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT were calculated. There were 19 malignant and 15 benign fractures. In the malignant fractures, PET/CT demonstrated high (mean SUVmax 12.0, range 4.3 to 45.7) F-18 FDG uptake in bone marrow in most cases (17 of 19). In benign fractures, there was low FDG uptake (mean SUVmax 2.9, range 0.6 to 5.5) within cortical bone or adjacent soft tissue around the fracture, rarely in the marrow. There were significant differences in the pattern of intramedullary FDG uptake (P < 0.001) and in the mean SUVmax (P < 0.01) between malignant and benign fractures. The sensitivity, specificity and diagnostic accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT were 89.5%, 86.7% and 88.2%, respectively, with a cut-off SUVmax set at 4.7. The time interval between fracture and PET/CT did not significantly influence FDG uptake at the fracture site. F-18 FDG PET/CT reliably differentiated between malignant and benign fractures based on the SUVmax and based on medullary uptake, which was characteristic for malignant fractures. (orig.)

  18. Atmospheric histories and growth trends of C4F10, C5F12, C6F14, C7F16 and C8F18

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. F. Weiss

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Atmospheric observations and trends are presented for the high molecular weight perfluorocarbons (PFCs: decafluorobutane (C4F10, dodecafluoropentane (C5F12, tetradecafluorohexane (C6F14, hexadecafluoroheptane (C7F16 and octadecafluorooctane (C8F18. Their atmospheric histories are based on measurements of 36 Northern Hemisphere and 46 Southern Hemisphere archived air samples collected between 1973 to 2011 using the Advanced Global Atmospheric Gases Experiment (AGAGE "Medusa" preconcentration gas chromatography-mass spectrometry systems. A new calibration scale was prepared for each PFC, with estimated accuracies of 6.8% for C4F10, 7.8% for C5F12, 4.0% for C6F14, 6.6% for C7F16 and 7.9% for C8F18. Based on our observations the 2011 globally averaged dry air mole fractions of these heavy PFCs are: 0.17 parts-per-trillion (ppt, i.e., parts per 1012 for C4F10, 0.12 ppt for C5F12, 0.27 ppt for C6F14, 0.12 ppt for C7F16 and 0.09 ppt for C8F18. These atmospheric mole fractions combine to contribute to a global average radiative forcing of 0.35 mW m−2, which is 6% of the total anthropogenic PFC radiative forcing (Montzka and Reimann, 2011; Oram et al., 2012. The growth rates of the heavy perfluorocarbons were largest in the late 1990s peaking at 6.2 parts per quadrillion (ppq, i.e., parts per 1015 per year (yr for C4F10, at 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C5F12 and 16.6 ppq yr−1 for C6F14 and in the early 1990s for C7F16 at 4.7 ppq yr−1 and in the mid 1990s for C8F18 at 4.8 ppq yr−1. The 2011 globally averaged mean atmospheric growth rates of these PFCs are subsequently lower at 2.2 ppq yr−1 for C4F10, 1.4 ppq yr−1 for C5F12, 5.0 ppq yr−1 for C6F14, 3.4 ppq yr−1 for C7F16 and 0.9 ppq yr−1 for C8F18. The more recent slowdown in the growth rates suggests that emissions are declining as compared to the 1980s and 1990s.

  19. Clinical Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in papillary thyroid cancer with negative radioiodine scan and elevated thyroglobulin level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Lee, Sun Seong; Park, Yun Soo; Lee, Seok Mo [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Busan Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of); Bae, Sang Kyun [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Haeundae Paik Hospital, Inje University College of Medicine, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    Elevated thyroglobulin (Tg) levels, along with a negative radioiodine scan, present a clinical problem for the diagnosis of recurrence in papillary thyroid cancer (PTC) patients. The purpose of this study was to assess (1) the usefulness of 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) for PTC patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg level or positive anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb), and (2) the effect of endogenous thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) stimulation (ETS) on detecting recurrence in these circumstances. Eighty-four patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb under ETS were included. Correlation with clinicopathological features and recurrence, detectability of FDG PET/CT and cut-off value of serum Tg for recurrence in PTC patients with these circumstance were assessed. In addition, detectability of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS and suppression were compared. In Cox regression analysis, only serum Tg level was significantly associated with recurrence (P<0.001, HR  = 1.13; 95 % CI, 1.061–1.208). The cut-off level of Tg was 21.5 ng/mL (AUC, 0.919; P < 0.001) for discriminating the recurrence in the patients with positive PET/CT finding. The sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT for detecting recurrence were 64 %, 94 %, 86 %, 81 %, and 83 %. In the analysis of F-18 FDG PET/CT under ETS, the sensitivity, specificity, PPV, NPV and accuracy was 64 %, 94 %, 88 %, 81 % and 83 %. Those under TSH suppression were 67 %, 92 %, 80 %, 85 % and 83 %. F-18 FDG PET/CT, although less sensitive, showed high specificity, PPV, NPV, and accuracy and therefore can be useful for the patients with negative diagnostic radioiodine scan and elevated serum Tg or positive TgAb. In addition, FDG PET/CT under ETS does not seem to have an additive role in detecting recurrence in these patients.

  20. Characterization of high level waste for minor actinides by chemical separation and alpha spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murali, M.S.; Bhattacharayya, A.; Kar, A.S.; Tomar, B.S.; Manchanda, V.K.

    2010-01-01

    Quantification of minor actinides present in of High Level Waste (HLW) solutions originating from the power reactors is important in view of management of radioactive wastes and actinide partitioning. Several methods such as ICP-MS, X-ray fluorescence methods, ICP-AES, alpha spectrometry are used in characterizing such types of wastes. As alpha spectrometry is simple and reliable, this technique has been used for the estimation of minor actinides after devising steps of separation for estimating Np and Pu present in HLW solutions of PHWR origin. Using a wealth of knowledge appropriate to the solution chemistry of actinides, the task of separation, though appears easy, it is challenging job for a radiochemist handling high-dose HLW samples, for obtaining clean alpha peaks for Np and Pu. This paper reports on the successful attempt made to quantify 241 Am, 244 Cm, Pu (239 mainly) and 237 Np present in HLW-PHWR obtained from PREFRE, Tarapur

  1. High temperature slagging incinerator for alpha contaminated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van de Voorde, N.

    1985-01-01

    This report describes the experiences collected by the treatment of plutonium-contaminated wastes, in the High Temperature Slagging Incinerator at the C.E.N./S.C.K. at Mol, with the support of the Commission of the European Communities. The major objective of the exercise is to demonstrate the operability of this facility for the treatment of mixed transuranic (TRU) and beta-gamma solid waste material. The process will substantially reduce the TRU waste volume by burning the combustibles and converting the non-combustibles into a chemically inert and physically stable basalt-like slag product, suitable for safe transport and final disposal. (Auth.)

  2. Identification of distal regulatory regions in the human alpha IIb gene locus necessary for consistent, high-level megakaryocyte expression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thornton, Michael A; Zhang, Chunyan; Kowalska, Maria A; Poncz, Mortimer

    2002-11-15

    The alphaIIb/beta3-integrin receptor is present at high levels only in megakaryocytes and platelets. Its presence on platelets is critical for hemostasis. The tissue-specific nature of this receptor's expression is secondary to the restricted expression of alphaIIb, and studies of the alphaIIb proximal promoter have served as a model of a megakaryocyte-specific promoter. We have examined the alphaIIb gene locus for distal regulatory elements. Sequence comparison between the human (h) and murine (m) alphaIIb loci revealed high levels of conservation at intergenic regions both 5' and 3' to the alphaIIb gene. Additionally, deoxyribonuclease (DNase) I sensitivity mapping defined tissue-specific hypersensitive (HS) sites that coincide, in part, with these conserved regions. Transgenic mice containing various lengths of the h(alpha)IIb gene locus, which included or excluded the various conserved/HS regions, demonstrated that the proximal promoter was sufficient for tissue specificity, but that a region 2.5 to 7.1 kb upstream of the h(alpha)IIb gene was necessary for consistent expression. Another region 2.2 to 7.4 kb downstream of the gene enhanced expression 1000-fold and led to levels of h(alpha)IIb mRNA that were about 30% of the native m(alpha)IIb mRNA level. These constructs also resulted in detectable h(alpha)IIb/m(beta)3 on the platelet surface. This work not only confirms the importance of the proximal promoter of the alphaIIb gene for tissue specificity, but also characterizes the distal organization of the alphaIIb gene locus and provides an initial localization of 2 important regulatory regions needed for the expression of the alphaIIb gene at high levels during megakaryopoiesis.

  3. High-level expression of the native barley alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor in Pichia pastoris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Micheelsen, Pernille Ollendorff; Ostergaard, Peter Rahbek; Lange, Lene

    2008-01-01

    An expression system for high-level expression of the native Hordeum vulgare alpha-amylase/subtilisin inhibitor (BASI) has been developed in Pichia pastoris, using the methanol inducible alcohol oxidase 1 (AOX1) promoter. To optimize expression, two codon-optimized coding regions have been designed...... and expressed alongside the wild-type coding region. To ensure secretion of the native mature protein, a truncated version of the alpha mating factor secretion signal from Saccharomyces cerevisiae was used. In order to be able to compare expression levels from different clones, single insertion transformants...

  4. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1.4 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E.; Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y.; Ziemba, F.P.

    1991-01-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm 2 by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.)

  5. Prevalence and clinical significance of incidental F18-FDG breast uptake. A systematic review and meta-analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertagna, F.; Giubbini, R.; Treglia, G.; Giovanella, L.; Orlando, E.; Dognini, L.; Sadeghi, R.

    2014-01-01

    This review aims to analyse the published data on the prevalence and clinical significance of breast incidental F18-FDG uptake detected by PET or PET/CT (BIU). A comprehensive computer literature search of the Pub-Med/MEDLINE, Scopus and Embase databases for studies on BIU published through July 2013 was performed. Pooled prevalence and malignancy risk of BIU were calculated. The literature search revealed 42 articles, and 17 were selected. One study was excluded because of data overlap but four additional studies were found screening the references. Finally, 20 articles were included in the systematic review and 13 were eligible for a meta-analysis. The pooled prevalence of BIU on all scans was 0.4% (95% CI 0.23-0.61%), the pooled prevalence on scans on female patients only was 0.82% (95% CI 0.51-1.2%), the pooled risk of malignancy of BIU when further analysed was 48% (95% CI 38-58%) and the pooled risk of malignancy of BIU with histological examination was 60% (95% CI 53-66%). The most frequent malignant lesion detected was infiltrating ductal carcinoma. Despite being rare, the identification of BIU frequently signals the presence of an unsuspected subclinical lesion, which differs from the indicated reason for which the patient was initially scanned, and the risk of malignancy is very high. (author)

  6. False-positive axillary lymph node on F-18 FDG PET/CT due to moxibustion therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Hyoung [Inje University Haeundae Paik Hospital, Busan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent total thyroidectomy and high-dose radioiodine ablation. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for recurrence detection of thyroid carcinoma was performed at 3 years after total thyroidectomy. Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy using moxa or the mugwort herb. Moxibustion is the burning of a small, thimble-sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves such as moxa or mugwort on the skin at an acupuncture point. Acupuncture and moxibustion induce hyperemia and a local inflammatory reaction. Complications associated with moxibustion such as skin bums or infection of the site have been reported previously. False-positive FDG uptake in PET may result from inflammation, infection, and variations in physiological uptake. In the present case, the hypermetabolic axillary lymph node disappeared without any treatment. Well-known of false-positive FDG uptake in axillary lymph noes such as arthritis of the upper extremity, extravasation of injected FDG, and vaccination were not found. Thus, left axillary lymph node uptake was

  7. False-positive axillary lymph node on F-18 FDG PET/CT due to moxibustion therapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Shin Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae; Seo, Ji Hyoung

    2010-01-01

    A 30-year-old female was diagnosed with papillary thyroid cancer and underwent total thyroidectomy and high-dose radioiodine ablation. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) for recurrence detection of thyroid carcinoma was performed at 3 years after total thyroidectomy. Moxibustion is a traditional Chinese medicine therapy using moxa or the mugwort herb. Moxibustion is the burning of a small, thimble-sized, smoldering plug of dried leaves such as moxa or mugwort on the skin at an acupuncture point. Acupuncture and moxibustion induce hyperemia and a local inflammatory reaction. Complications associated with moxibustion such as skin bums or infection of the site have been reported previously. False-positive FDG uptake in PET may result from inflammation, infection, and variations in physiological uptake. In the present case, the hypermetabolic axillary lymph node disappeared without any treatment. Well-known of false-positive FDG uptake in axillary lymph noes such as arthritis of the upper extremity, extravasation of injected FDG, and vaccination were not found. Thus, left axillary lymph node uptake was

  8. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Massardo, Teresa [Universidad de Chile, Hospital Clinico. Centro de Medicina Nuclear, Santiago (Chile); Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange [Universidad de Chile, Santiago (Chile). Hospital Clinico. Centros de Medicina Nuclear e Cardiovascular; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago [Chile

    2003-04-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  9. FDG F18/Rest Tl 201 SPECT patterns in recent myocardial infarction. Predictive value for regional function recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Massardo, Teresa; Gonzalez, Patricio; Coll, Claudia; Yovanovich, Jorge; Jofre, M. Josefina; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Chamorro, Hernan; Ramirez, Alfredo; Kunstmann, Sonia; Lopez, Hector; Aramburu, Ivonne; Bru, Solange; Clinica Santa Maria, Santiago

    2003-01-01

    Background: detecting viability is important after recent myocardial infarction (MI). SPECT FDG/Tl flow-metabolism patterns for predicting functional recovery were analyzed in this setting. Method: forty-one patients were studied (56+-12 years; 80% males) with Tl 201 at rest and FDG F 18 SPECT at a mean of 8.9 days post MI (range:1-24). All had baseline and 3 month follow-up echocardiography (Echo) and initial coronary angiography. They were submitted to primary PTCA in 12 cases, late PTCA in 15 and bypass surgery in 10 and thrombolysis was performed in 4 patients as only procedure. A total of 345 culprit artery territory segments were interpreted by 3 nuclear independent observers. Analysis included segments with or without abnormal motion. Results: FDG/Tl 201 on patient basis, had: sensitivity 91%; specificity 56%; positive predictive value 88 %; negative predictive value (NPV) 63% and accuracy 83%. The analysis of segments with abnormal contractility showed values of 67%, 69%, 44%, 85% and 68%, respectively. Reverse mismatch with FDG/Tl appears to predict viability similarly to classical mismatch; severe or moderate match was highly associated with no functional recovery (NPV 85%). Conclusion: flow-perfusion patterns are variable in recent MI. FDG/Tl 201 SPECT has acceptable accuracy for predicting functional recovery and excellent NPV to further exclude viability (author)

  10. F-18 FDG PET/CT Findings of a Patient with Takayasu Arteritis Before and After Therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sait Sağer

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Vasculitis is defined as inflammation and necrosis with leukocytic infiltration of the blood vessel wall. Takayasu arteritis is a chronic inflammatory arteritis that primarily involves the aorta and its main branches. A 64-year-old female patient with a 2-month history of fever of unknown origin was presented to our clinic for F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging. Baseline PET/CT images demonstrated intense F-18 FDG uptake in the aorta, bilateral subclavian and brachiocephalic arteries consistent with Takayasu arteritis. After 2 months of immunosuppressive therapy, she was asymptomatic and follow-up FDG PET/CT scan showed almost complete disappearance of large vessels’ F-18 FDG uptake. FDG PET/CT is a sensitive technique for assessing presence of large-vessel vasculitis such as Takayasu arteritis, extent of large-vessel inflammation and disease activity after therapy. (MIRT 2012;21:32-34

  11. A Case of Urethral Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Cancer Diagnostically and Prognostically Indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seo, Han Seok; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Soyon; Im, Su Jin; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Hur, So Chong

    2011-01-01

    Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and is known to have a poor prognosis. A 72 year old man with a history of colectomy and colostomy due to sigmoid colon cancer was admitted to the emergency room with bowel distension, rectal bleeding and urinary symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdominopelvis showed sigmoid colon cancer with multiple metastases involving the liver. Positron emission tomography with F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed multiple hypermetabolic foci in the liver, penis and pubic bone, which otherwise could not be diagnosed. The lesions revealed no improvement with chemotherapy and urological surgery on follow up F 18 FDG PET/CT. We present a case of urethral metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer diagnostically and prognostically indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT.

  12. F-18 FDG Uptake in an Eosinophilic Liver Abscess Mimicking Hepatic Metastasis on PET/CT Images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yin, Chang Yeol

    2008-01-01

    A 61-year-old man had a F-18 FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of a common bile duct cancer identified on CT. The PET/CT image showed a hypermetabolic mass in the common bile duct, and a focal area of increased F-18 FDG uptake in segment IV of the liver, which corresponded to a hypoattenuated lesion on non-enhanced CT, and was consistent with hepatic metastasis. The patient underwent choledochojejunostomy with hepatic resection, and pathologic findings were compatible with an eosinophilic abscess in the liver. This case demonstrates that F-18 FDG uptake by an eosinophilic abscess can mimic hepatic metastasis in a patient with a malignancy

  13. F-18 FDG Uptake in an Eosinophilic Liver Abscess Mimicking Hepatic Metastasis on PET/CT Images

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Yin, Chang Yeol [Chonbuk National University Medical School, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-06-15

    A 61-year-old man had a F-18 FDG PET/CT scan for evaluation of a common bile duct cancer identified on CT. The PET/CT image showed a hypermetabolic mass in the common bile duct, and a focal area of increased F-18 FDG uptake in segment IV of the liver, which corresponded to a hypoattenuated lesion on non-enhanced CT, and was consistent with hepatic metastasis. The patient underwent choledochojejunostomy with hepatic resection, and pathologic findings were compatible with an eosinophilic abscess in the liver. This case demonstrates that F-18 FDG uptake by an eosinophilic abscess can mimic hepatic metastasis in a patient with a malignancy.

  14. A Case of Urethral Metastasis from Sigmoid Colon Cancer Diagnostically and Prognostically Indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Han Seok; Kim, Eun Sil; Kim, Soyon; Im, Su Jin; Park, Yong Hyun; Lee, Ju Hyoung; Hur, So Chong [National Police Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-12-15

    Urethral metastasis from colorectal cancer is rare and is known to have a poor prognosis. A 72 year old man with a history of colectomy and colostomy due to sigmoid colon cancer was admitted to the emergency room with bowel distension, rectal bleeding and urinary symptoms. Computed tomography of the abdominopelvis showed sigmoid colon cancer with multiple metastases involving the liver. Positron emission tomography with F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) showed multiple hypermetabolic foci in the liver, penis and pubic bone, which otherwise could not be diagnosed. The lesions revealed no improvement with chemotherapy and urological surgery on follow up F 18 FDG PET/CT. We present a case of urethral metastasis of sigmoid colon cancer diagnostically and prognostically indicated by F 18 FDG PET/CT.

  15. Radiation assessment to paediatric with F-18-FDG undergo whole-body PET/CT examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhalisa, H., E-mail: dhalisa82@gmail.com; Rafidah, Z. [Kluster Oncology Science and Radiology, Advanced Medical Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM), Bertam, Penang (Malaysia); Mohamad, A. S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, National Cancer Institute, No 4 Jalan P7, Presint 7, Putrajaya (Malaysia)

    2016-01-22

    This study was carried out on wholebody radiation dose assessment to paediatrics patient who undergo PET/CT scanner at Institut Kanser Negara. Consist of 68 patients with varies of malignancies and epilepsy disease case covering age between 2 years to 12 years old. This is a retrospective study from 2010-2014. The use of PET/CT scanner as an advanced tool has been proven to give an extra radiation dose to the patient. It is because of the radiation exposure from the combination of both CT and PET scans rather than a single CT or PET scan. Furthermore, a study on radiation dose to paediatric patient undergoing PET/CT is rare in Malaysia. So, the aim of this study is to estimate the wholebody effective dose to paediatric patient in Malaysia. Effective dose from PET scan was calculated based on the activity of F18 FDG and dose coefficient reported in International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) Publication 106. Effective dose from CT was determined using k coefficient as reported in ICRP publication 102 and Dose Length Product (DLP) value. The average effective dose from PET and CT were found to be 7.05mSv and 5.77mSv respectively. The mean wholebody effective dose received by a patient with combined PETCT examination was 12.78mSv. These results could be used as reference for dosimetry of a patient undergoing PETCT examination in Malaysia.

  16. Current concepts in F18 FDG PET/CT-based Radiation Therapy planning for Lung Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Percy eLee

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Radiation therapy is an important component of cancer therapy for early stage as well as locally advanced lung cancer. The use of F18 FDG PET/CT has come to the forefront of lung cancer staging and overall treatment decision-making. FDG PET/CT parameters such as standard uptake value and metabolic tumor volume provide important prognostic and predictive information in lung cancer. Importantly, FDG PET/CT for radiation planning has added biological information in defining the gross tumor volume as well as involved nodal disease. For example, accurate target delineation between tumor and atelectasis is facilitated by utilizing PET and CT imaging. Furthermore, there has been meaningful progress in incorporating metabolic information from FDG PET/CT imaging in radiation treatment planning strategies such as radiation dose escalation based on standard uptake value thresholds as well as using respiratory gated PET and CT planning for improved target delineation of moving targets. In addition, PET/CT based follow-up after radiation therapy has provided the possibility of early detection of local as well as distant recurrences after treatment. More research is needed to incorporate other biomarkers such as proliferative and hypoxia biomarkers in PET as well as integrating metabolic information in adaptive, patient-centered, tailored radiation therapy.

  17. Florbetapir F18 PET Amyloid Neuroimaging and Characteristics in Patients With Mild and Moderate Alzheimer Dementia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Degenhardt, Elisabeth K; Witte, Michael M; Case, Michael G; Yu, Peng; Henley, David B; Hochstetler, Helen M; D'Souza, Deborah N; Trzepacz, Paula T

    2016-01-01

    Clinical diagnosis of Alzheimer disease (AD) is challenging, with a 70.9%-87.3% sensitivity and 44.3%-70.8% specificity, compared with autopsy diagnosis. Florbetapir F18 positron emission tomography (FBP-PET) estimates beta-amyloid plaque density antemortem. Of 2052 patients (≥55 years old) clinically diagnosed with mild or moderate AD dementia from 2 solanezumab clinical trials, 390 opted to participate in a FBP-PET study addendum. We analyzed baseline prerandomization characteristics. A total of 22.4% had negative FBP-PET scans, whereas 72.5% of mild and 86.9% of moderate AD patients had positive results. No baseline clinical variable reliably differentiated negative from positive FBP-PET scan groups. These data confirm the challenges of correctly diagnosing AD without using biomarkers. FBP-PET can aid AD dementia differential diagnosis by detecting amyloid pathology antemortem, even when the diagnosis of AD is made by expert clinicians. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Psychosomatic Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging of primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsuya Mitamura

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Primary hepatic neuroendocrine tumors (PHNETs are extremely rare neoplasms. Herein, we report a case of a 70-year-old man with a hepatic mass. The non-contrast computed tomography (CT image showed a low-density mass, and dynamic CT images indicated the enhancement of the mass in the arterial phase and early washout in the late phase. F18- fluorodeoxyglucose (18F-FDG positron emission tomography (PET and fused PET/CT images showed increased uptake in the hepatic mass. Whole-body 18F-FDG PET images showed no abnormal activity except for the liver lesion. Presence of an extrahepatic tumor was also ruled out by performing upper gastrointestinal endoscopy, total colonoscopy, and chest and abdominal CT. A posterior segmentectomy was performed, and histologic examination confirmed a neuroendocrine tumor (grade 1. The patient was followed up for about 2 years after the resection, and no extrahepatic lesions were radiologically found. Therefore, the patient was diagnosed with PHNET. To the best of our knowledge, no previous case of PHNET have been detected by 18F-FDG PET imaging.

  19. Evaluation of acetazolamine response in patients with cerebellar ataxia using dynamic quantitative F-18-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y. K.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, J. S.; Kim, M. H.; Lee, K. M.; Yeo, J. S.; Chung, J. K.; Lee, M. C.

    2001-01-01

    Cerebellar Ataxia (CA) usually shows dramatic response to acetazolamide treatment. But few cases of acetazolamide unresponse CA were reported recently. Using dynamic FDG PET, we tried to evaluate the metabolic abnormality and its drug response in CA. Quantitative F-18-FDG PET was performed prior and after treatment of acetazolamide (250 mg qid for 10 days) in two patient suspected episodic cerebellar ataxia. Using Model-based clustering method, the regional cerebral glucose metabolic rate (rCMRglu) was calculated. Two patients showed different treatment response to acetazolamide. In one patient who showed markedly reduced frequency of the ataxic attack after treatment. FDG PET showed that mean cerebellar glucose metabolism was increased after treatment (ΔrCMRglu:9%). However, in the other who showed poor response to acetazolamide, FDG PET showed the more decrease metabolism in cerebellar metabolism after treatment (ΔrCMRglu:-17%). The change of the cerebellar glucose metabolism on FDG PET reflected the symptomatic improvement after acetazolamide in these two CA patients. We could expected that FDG PET might be a very useful tool to quantitatively predict the treatment response in CA and other neurologic disorder

  20. High linear energy transfer degradation studies simulating alpha radiolysis of TRU solvent extraction processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pearson, Jeremy [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science - University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Miller, George [Department of Chemistry- University of California Irvine, 2046D PS II, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States); Nilsson, Mikael [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science - University of California Irvine, 916 Engineering Tower, Irvine, CA, 92697 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Treatment of used nuclear fuel through solvent extraction separation processes is hindered by radiolytic damage from radioactive isotopes present in used fuel. The nature of the damage caused by the radiation may depend on the radiation type, whether it be low linear energy transfer (LET) such as gamma radiation or high LET such as alpha radiation. Used nuclear fuel contains beta/gamma emitting isotopes but also a significant amount of transuranics which are generally alpha emitters. Studying the respective effects on matter of both of these types of radiation will allow for accurate prediction and modeling of process performance losses with respect to dose. Current studies show that alpha radiation has milder effects than that of gamma. This is important to know because it will mean that solvent extraction solutions exposed to alpha radiation may last longer than expected and need less repair and replacement. These models are important for creating robust, predictable, and economical processes that have strong potential for mainstream adoption on the commercial level. The effects of gamma radiation on solvent extraction ligands have been more extensively studied than the effects of alpha radiation. This is due to the inherent difficulty in producing a sufficient and confluent dose of alpha particles within a sample without leaving the sample contaminated with long lived radioactive isotopes. Helium ion beam and radioactive isotope sources have been studied in the literature. We have developed a method for studying the effects of high LET radiation in situ via {sup 10}B activation and the high LET particles that result from the {sup 10}B(n,a){sup 7}Li reaction which follows. Our model for dose involves solving a partial differential equation representing absorption by 10B of an isentropic field of neutrons penetrating a sample. This method has been applied to organic solutions of TBP and CMPO, two ligands common in TRU solvent extraction treatment processes. Rates

  1. 99m-Tc-ubiquicidin scintigraphy in diagnosis of knee prosthesis infection and comparison with F-18 fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kamaleshwaran, Koramadai Karuppusamy; Rajkumar, N; Mohanan, Vyshak; Kalarikal, Radhakrishnan; Shinto, Ajit Sugunan

    2005-01-01

    Total knee arthroplasty has witnessed a significant increase in recent years. Despite the advantages of this surgical procedure, it has some complications, the most serious of which is prosthetic infection. The discrimination of bacterial infections from sterile inflammatory processes is of great importance in the management of periprosthetic infection (PPI). Ubiquicidin (UBI) is a synthetic antimicrobial peptide fragment reported to be highly infection-specific. Tc99m-UBI has recently been reported to be a promising radiotracer for infection imaging. We report a case of left knee PPI diagnosed using 99mTc-UBI scintigraphy and compared with F-18 fluorodeoxy-glucose positron emission tomography

  2. High circulating levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha in centenarians are not associated with increased production in T lymphocytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandmand, Marie; Bruunsgaard, Helle; Kemp, Kåre

    2003-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Aging is characterized by increased inflammatory activity reflected by increased plasma levels of proinflammatory cytokines, concomitant with an altered cytokine profile of T lymphocytes. High plasma levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha are strongly associated with morbidity...... and mortality in elderly humans. However, the cellular source and mechanisms for the increased circulating TNF-alpha levels are unknown. OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to investigate if high plasma levels of TNF-alpha are associated with increased production of TNF-alpha by T lymphocytes in elderly...... humans. METHODS: TNF-alpha production by CD4+ and CD8+ T lymphocytes was measured by flow cytometry following stimulation with phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate and ionomycin in 28 young controls, 14, 81-year-olds and 25 centenarians. RESULTS: Plasma levels of TNF-alpha increased with increasing age...

  3. Impact of dual-time-point F-18 FDG PET/CT in the assessment of pleural effusion in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkhawaldeh, Khaled; Biersack, Hans-J; Henke, Anna; Ezziddin, Samer

    2011-06-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the utility of dual-time-point F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) in differentiating benign from malignant pleural disease, in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer. A total of 61 patients with non-small-cell lung cancer and pleural effusion were included in this retrospective study. All patients had whole-body FDG PET/CT imaging at 60 ± 10 minutes post-FDG injection, whereas 31 patients had second-time delayed imaging repeated at 90 ± 10 minutes for the chest. Maximum standardized uptake values (SUV(max)) and the average percent change in SUV(max) (%SUV) between time point 1 and time point 2 were calculated. Malignancy was defined using the following criteria: (1) visual assessment using 3-points grading scale; (2) SUV(max) ≥2.4; (3) %SUV ≥ +9; and (4) SUV(max) ≥2.4 and/or %SUV ≥ +9. Analysis of variance test and receiver operating characteristic analysis were used in statistical analysis. P < 0.05 was considered significant. Follow-up revealed 29 patient with malignant pleural disease and 31 patients with benign pleural effusion. The average SUV(max) in malignant effusions was 6.5 ± 4 versus 2.2 ± 0.9 in benign effusions (P < 0.0001). The average %SUV in malignant effusions was +13 ± 10 versus -8 ± 11 in benign effusions (P < 0.0004). Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy for the 5 criteria were as follows: (1) 86%, 72%, and 79%; (2) 93%, 72%, and 82%; (3) 67%, 94%, and 81%; (4) 100%, 94%, and 97%. Dual-time-point F-18 FDG PET can improve the diagnostic accuracy in differentiating benign from malignant pleural disease, with high sensitivity and good specificity.

  4. Actions of alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at alpha2A and 5-HT1A receptors: the antagonist, atipamezole, and the agonist, dexmedetomidine, are highly selective for alpha2A adrenoceptors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman-Tancredi, A; Nicolas, J P; Audinot, V; Gavaudan, S; Verrièle, L; Touzard, M; Chaput, C; Richard, N; Millan, M J

    1998-08-01

    This study examined the activity of chemically diverse alpha2 adrenoceptor ligands at recombinant human (h) and native rat (r) alpha2A adrenoceptors compared with 5-HT1A receptors. First, in competition binding experiments at h alpha2A and h5-HT1A receptors expressed in CHO cells, several compounds, including the antagonists 1-(2-pyrimidinyl)piperazine (1-PP), (+/-)-idazoxan, benalfocin (SKF 86466), yohimbine and RX 821,002, displayed preference for h alpha2A versus h5-HT1A receptors of only 1.4-, 3.6-, 4-, 10- and 11-fold, respectively (based on differences in pKi values). Clonidine, brimonidine (UK 14304), the benzopyrrolidine fluparoxan and the guanidines guanfacine and guanabenz exhibited intermediate selectivity (22- to 31-fold) for h alpha2A receptors. Only the antagonist atipamezole and the agonist dexmedetomidine (DMT) displayed high preference for alpha2 adrenoceptors (1290- and 91-fold, respectively). Second, the compounds were tested for their ability to induce h5-HT1A receptor-mediated G-protein activation, as indicated by the stimulation of [35S]GTPgammaS binding. All except atipamezole and RX 821,002 exhibited agonist activity, with potencies which correlated with their affinity for h5-HT1A receptors. Relative efficacies (Emax values) were 25-35% for guanabenz, guanfacine, WB 4101 and benalfocin, 50-65% for 1-PP, (+/-)-idazoxan and clonidine, and over 70% for fluparoxan, oxymetazoline and yohimbine (relative to 5-HT = 100%). Yohimbine-induced [35S]GTPgammaS binding was inhibited by the selective 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY 100,635. In contrast, RX 821,002 was the only ligand which exhibited antagonist activity at h5-HT1A receptors, inhibiting 5-HT-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding. Atipamezole, which exhibited negligeable affinity for 5-HT1A receptors, was inactive. Third, the affinities for r alpha2A differed considerably from the affinities for h alpha2A receptors whereas the affinities for r5-HT1A differed much less from the affinities for h5-HT

  5. Pyelo-cystic Reflux in F-18 FDG PET Scan Due to Ureteral Obstruction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reyhan, Mehmet [Baskent Univ., Adana (Turkmenistan)

    2013-09-15

    A 72-year-old woman with a history of cervical cancer was treated with brachytherapy and chemotherapy. Combined F-18 FDG PET/CT performed for restaging demonstrated increased FDG uptake in a hypodense cystic lesion at the posterior part of the right renal cortex and a hypermetabolic soft tissue mass at the right parailiac region suggestive of a metastatic lymph node causing ureteral obstruction. There had been no FDG uptake in the cystic lesion on the FDG PET/CT study performed 1 year before. These findings suggest that the increased FDG uptake in the cystic lesion was caused by pyelocystic reflux due to ureteral obstruction secondary to parailiac lymph node metastasis (Figs. 1 and 2). Several renal lesions may have increased metabolism, such as renal cell carcinoma, lymphoma, oncocytoma, adult Wilms' tumor, angiomyolipoma, metastatic lesions, xanthogranulo-matous pyelonephritis and infected cyst. Most of these lesions are solid. Some infected renal cysts may be FDG avid, but in this situation increased FDG uptake is observed on the wall of the cyst. In our case, FDG uptake was seen in the entire cystic lesion. The patient had no symptoms or laboratory findings related to infection. Cysts are the most common space-occupying lesions of the kidney. The vast majority of these are simple cysts that are usually unilateral and solitary. Simple cysts are asymptomatic, except when complications exist such as hemorrhage, infection or rupture. There have been a few reports on spontaneous communications between renal cysts and the pyelocaliceal system, in most cases involving ruptures of the cysts into the pyelocaliceal system due to increased intracystic pressure caused by bleeding or infection of the cyst. In the present case, the cause of the connection between the cystic cavity and the pyelocaliceal system is the increased pressure in the renal pelvic cavity due to the ureteral obstruction secondary to parailiac lymph node metastasis.

  6. Comparison of C-11-choline and F-18-FDG PET in primary diagnosis and staging of patients with thoracic cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pieterman, RM; Que, TH; Elsinga, PH; Pruim, J; van Putten, JWG; Willemsen, ATM; Vaalburg, W; Groen, HJM

    PET with F-18-FDG is used for detection and staging of thoracic cancer; however, more specific PET radiopharmaceuticals would be welcome. C-11-labeled choline (CHOL) is a new radiopharmaceutical potentially useful for tumor imaging, since it is incorporated into cell membranes as

  7. Quantification of the beta-adrenoceptor ligand S-1'[F-18]fluorocarazolol in plasma of humans, rats and sheep

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanWaarde, A; Posthumus, H; Elsinga, PH; Anthonio, RL; van Loenen - Weemaes, Anne-miek; Beaufort-Krol, Gertie C. M.; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W; Visser, Thomas; Visser, Gerben

    1996-01-01

    Myocardial and pulmonary beta-adrenoceptors can be imaged with 2-(S)-(-)-(9H-carbazol-4-yl-oxy)-3-[1-(fluoromethyl)ethyl]amino-2-propanol (S-1'-[F-18]fluorocarazolol, I). Quantification of unmodified fluorocarazolol in plasma is necessary for analysis of PET images in terms of receptor densities. We

  8. The usefulness of F-18 FDG whole body PET in the evaluation of postoperative recurrence of cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Won Jun; So, Young; Jeong, Jae Min

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of whole body F-18 FDG PET scan for detecting postoperative recurrence of cancer. One hundred four cancer patients after operation were enrolled (14 brain tumor, 15 head and neck cancer, 23 gynecologic cancer, 16 gastrointestinal cancer, 16 thyroid cancer, and 20 other cancers). Besides conventional images (CI) including CT and MRI, F-18 FDG PET scan was obtained on ECAT EXACT 47 scanner (Siemens- CTI), beginning 60 minutes after injection of 370MBq(10mCi) of F-18 FDG. Regional scan was also obtained with emission image. Transmission images using Ge-68 were carried out for attenuation correction in both whole body and regional images. Findings of PET and CI were confirmed by pathology or clinical follow up. The sensitivity and specificity of PET for detecting recurrence were 94% and 92%, respectively. Contrarily, the sensitivity and specificity of CI were 78% and 68%. CI results were negative and PET results were positive in 11 cases. The biopsy or clinical follow-up of those cases confirmed recurrence of tumor. False negative cases of CI were frequent in patients with gynecologic cancers. Also we measured the serum concentration of tumor markers in patients with gynecologic cancer (CA125), thyroid cancer (thyroglobulin), and colorectal cancer (CEA). The sensitivity and specificity of tumor markers were 71% and 84%, respectively. We conclude that F-18 FDG PET can be used valuably in detecting recurrent foci of a wide variety of malignancy compared to conventional diagnostic methods

  9. Very low-dose adult whole-body tumor imaging with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krol, Andrzej; Naveed, Muhammad; McGrath, Mary; Lisi, Michele; Lavalley, Cathy; Feiglin, David

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if effective radiation dose due to PET component in adult whole-body tumor imaging with time-of-flight F-18 FDG PET/CT could be significantly reduced. We retrospectively analyzed data for 10 patients with the body mass index ranging from 25 to 50. We simulated F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose via reconstruction of simulated shorter acquisition time per bed position scans from the acquired list data. F-18 FDG whole-body scans were reconstructed using time-of-flight OSEM algorithm and advanced system modeling. Two groups of images were obtained: group A with a standard dose of F-18 FDG and standard reconstruction parameters and group B with simulated 25% dose and modified reconstruction parameters, respectively. Three nuclear medicine physicians blinded to the simulated activity independently reviewed the images and compared diagnostic quality of images. Based on the input from the physicians, we selected optimal modified reconstruction parameters for group B. In so obtained images, all the lesions observed in the group A were visible in the group B. The tumor SUV values were different in the group A, as compared to group B, respectively. However, no significant differences were reported in the final interpretation of the images from A and B groups. In conclusion, for a small number of patients, we have demonstrated that F-18 FDG dose reduction to 25% of the ACR recommended dose, accompanied by appropriate modification of the reconstruction parameters provided adequate diagnostic quality of PET images acquired on time-of-flight PET/CT.

  10. Alpha-ray spectrometry at high temperature by using a compound semiconductor detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jang Ho; Kim, Han Soo

    2013-11-01

    The use of conventional radiation detectors in harsh environments is limited by radiation damage to detector materials and by temperature constraints. We fabricated a wide-band gap semiconductor radiation detector based on silicon carbide. All the detector components were considered for an application in a high temperature environment like a nuclear reactor core. The radiation response, especially to alpha particles, was measured using an (241)Am source at variable operating voltages at room temperature in the air. The temperature on detector was controlled from 30°C to 250°C. The alpha-particle spectra were measured at zero bias operation. Even though the detector is operated at high temperature, the energy resolution as a function of temperature is almost constant within 3.5% deviation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. High throughput octal alpha/gamma spectrometer for low level bioassay estimations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhasin, B.D.; Shirke, S.H.; Suri, M.M.; Vaidya, P.P.; Ghodgaonkar, M.D.

    1995-01-01

    The present paper describes the development of a high throughput octal alpha spectrometry system specially developed for the estimation of low levels of actinides in bioassay and environmental samples. The system processes simultaneously the outputs coming from eight independent detectors. It can be configured to simultaneously record low level alpha and gamma spectra. The high throughput is achieved by using a prioritised multiplexer router. The prioritised multiplexing and routing coupled with fast 8K ADC (conversion time 20 μsec) allow simultaneous acquisition of multiple spectra without any significant loss in counts. The dual (8K, 24bit) port memory facilitates easy online viewing of spectrum buildup. A menu driven user friendly software makes the operating system convenient to use. A specially developed software provides built-in routines for processing the spectra and estimating the isotopic activity. The interactive mode of software provides easy identification of isotopes compatible with the separation chemistry of different actinides. (author). 6 refs., 2 figs

  12. Status of high level and alpha bearing waste management in PNC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uematsu, Kunihiko

    1982-04-01

    For completing the nuclear fuel cycle in Japan, Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) has a role to promote the management of high level and alpha bearing wastes. For high level waste management, it is planned in Japan to initiate the operation of a vitrification pilot plant by 1987 for the development of the solidification process, and to make it possible to initiate trial disposal by 2015 for the development of geological disposal technology. In PNC, monolithic borosilicate glass was selected as the final form of solidification. Alpha bearing wastes have been produced in the mixed oxide fuel fabrication facility and the reprocessing plant in PNC; and the amount should increase considerably in the future in Japan. About these two areas of waste management, the policy and the research/development programs are described. (J.P.N.)

  13. Operation of a high-purity silicon diode alpha particle detector at 1. 4 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martoff, C.J.; Kaczanowicz, E. (Temple Univ., Philadelphia, PA (USA)); Neuhauser, B.J.; Lopez, E.; Zhang, Y. (San Francisco State Univ., CA (USA)); Ziemba, F.P. (Quantrad Corp. (USA))

    1991-03-01

    Detection of alpha particles at temperatures as low as 1.4 K was demonstrated using a specially fabricated Si diode. The diode was 475 mm{sup 2} by 0.280 mm thick, fabricated from high-purity silicon with degenerately doped contacts. This is an important step toward development of dual-mode (ionization plus phonon) silicon detectors for low energy radiation. (orig.).

  14. arXiv Proceedings, High-Precision $\\alpha_s$ Measurements from LHC to FCC-ee Geneva, Switzerland, October 2-13, 2015

    CERN Document Server

    d'Enterria, David; Alekhin, S.; Banfi, A.; Bethke, S.; Blümlein, J.; Chetyrkin, K.G.; Dissertori, G.; Garcia i Tormo, X.; Hoang, A.H.; Klasen, M.; Klijnsma, T.; Kluth, S.; Kneur, J.-L.; Kniehl, B.A.; Kolodrubetz, D.W.; Kühn, J.; Mackenzie, P.; Malaescu, B.; Mateu, V.; Mihaila, L.; Moch, S.; Mönig, K.; Pérez-Ramos, R.; Pich, A.; Pires, J.; Rabbertz, K.; Salam, G.P.; Sannino, F.; Soto i Riera, J.; Srebre, M.; Stewart, I.W.

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a writeup of all contributions to the workshop on "High precision measurements of $\\alpha_s$: From LHC to FCC-ee" held at CERN, Oct. 12--13, 2015. The workshop explored in depth the latest developments on the determination of the QCD coupling $\\alpha_s$ from 15 methods where high precision measurements are (or will be) available. Those include low-energy observables: (i) lattice QCD, (ii) pion decay factor, (iii) quarkonia and (iv) $\\tau$ decays, (v) soft parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, as well as high-energy observables: (vi) global fits of parton distribution functions, (vii) hard parton-to-hadron fragmentation functions, (viii) jets in $e^\\pm$p DIS and $\\gamma$-p photoproduction, (ix) photon structure function in $\\gamma$-$\\gamma$, (x) event shapes and (xi) jet cross sections in $e^+e^-$ collisions, (xii) W boson and (xiii) Z boson decays, and (xiv) jets and (xv) top-quark cross sections in proton-(anti)proton collisions. The current status of the theoretical and experiment...

  15. Clinical and virological effects of high-dose recombinant interferon-alpha in disseminated AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Wit, R.; Schattenkerk, J. K.; Boucher, C. A.; Bakker, P. J.; Veenhof, K. H.; Danner, S. A.

    1988-01-01

    The effectiveness and antiretroviral activities of interferon-alpha in AIDS-related Kaposi's sarcoma was assessed in a non-randomised, phase-II clinical trial. 28 patients were treated with high-dose (27-36 MU) human recombinant interferon-alpha 2a subcutaneously every day for 8 weeks. In patients

  16. INTERACTION BETWEEN THE ADH AND ALPHA-GPDH LOCI IN DROSOPHILA-MELANOGASTER - ADULT SURVIVAL AT HIGH-TEMPERATURE

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    OUDMAN, L; VANDELDEN, W; KAMPING, A; BIJLSMA, R

    The role of high temperature resistance in the world-wide cline of Adh and alpha-Gpdh allele frequencies of Drosophila melanogaster was investigated. Experimental strains were used with different combinations of Adh and alpha-Gpdh alleles but with similar genetic background. The survival time of

  17. The value of f-18 FDG PET /CT in the assessment of recurrent ovarian cancer after cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hae Won; Zeon, Seok Kil; Won, Kyoung Sook

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate the accuracy and clinical impact of integrated positron emission tomography (PET) and computed tomography (CT) for detection of recurrent ovarian carcinoma after cytoreductive surgery and chemotherapy. Medical records of 39 patients (age, 54.912.6 years) with previously treated ovarian cancer who underwent integrated PET/CT between April 1, 2007 and June 30, 2007 were reviewed retrospectively. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT was performed for the evaluation of suspected recurrence. Imaging findings were compared with results of histological examination after surgical exploration or clinical follow-up to determine the diagnostic accuracy of PET/CT in the evaluation of disease status. The clinical impact of information provided by PET/CT on patient management was assessed on the basis of clinical follow up data concerning further diagnostic or therapeutic approach. Sixteen of the 39 patients had documented recurrence during surgical exploration or clinical follow-up. Of the 16 patients with recurrence, 14 patients showed suspected lesions on PET/CT. Twenty-three of the 39 patients had no evidence of recurrent tumor during surgical exploration or clinical follow-up, and two of the 23 patients with no recurrent tumor showed suspected lesions on PET/CT. The overall sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of PET/CT were 87.5 %, 91.3 %, 89.7 %, 87.5 % and 91.3 %, respectively. PET/CT modified the diagnostic or treatment plan in 15 (38.4 %) patients, by leading to the use of previously unplanned therapeutic procedures in 10 (66.7 %) patients and the avoidance of previously planned diagnostic procedures in 5 (33.3 %) patients. Integrated FDG PET/CT has high sensitivity and specificity in the detection of recurrent ovarian cancer. Thus, it is likely to play a significant role in management of recurrent ovarian cancer

  18. Difference in F-18 FDG uptake after esophago gastroduodenoscopy and colonoscopy in healthy sedated subjects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jong Ryool; Chang, Woo Jin; Bae, Seung Il; Song, In Wook; Bong, Jin Gu; Jeong, Hye Yeon; Park, So Young; Bae, Jeong Yup; Yoon, Hyun Dae [Raphael Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Ji Hyoung [Dept. of Nuclear MedicineFatima Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-09-15

    We aimed to evaluate the difference in fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in sedated healthy subjects after they underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD) and colonoscopy procedures. The endoscopy group (n = 29) included healthy subjects who underwent screening via F-18 FDG positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after an EGD and/or colonoscopy under sedation on the same day. The control group (n = 35) included healthy subjects who underwent screening via PET/CT only. FDG uptake in the tongue, uvula, epiglottis, vocal cords, esophagus, stomach, duodenum, liver, cecum, colon, anus, and muscle were compared between the two groups. Maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) in the tongue, pharynx, larynx, and esophagus did not significantly differ between the endoscopy and control groups. In contrast, mean SUVmax in the whole stomach was 18 % higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (SUVmax: 2.96 vs. 2.51, P = 0.010). In the lower gastrointestinal track, SUVmax from the cecum to the rectum was not significantly different between the two groups, whereas SUVmax in the anus was 20 % higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (SUVmax: 4.21 vs. 3.50, P = 0.002). SUVmax in the liver and muscle was not significantly different between the two groups. Mean volume of the stomach and mean cross section of the colon was significantly higher in the endoscopy group than in the control group (stomach: 313.28 cm{sup 3} vs. 209.93 cm{sup 3}, P < 0.001, colon: 8.82 cm{sup 2} vs. 5.98 cm{sup 2}, P = 0.001). EGD and colonoscopy under sedation does not lead to significant differences in SUVmax in most parts of the body. Only gastric FDG uptake in the EGD subjects and anal FDG uptake in the colonoscopy subjects was higher than uptake in those regions in the control subjects.

  19. The role of F18-FDG PET scans in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, E. H.; Cho, H. J.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose is to evaluate F18-FDG PET in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness. 41 patients (38 female, mean age 50y) who had PET before total thyroidectomy between 2002.1∼2007.8 were reviewed. Patients with thyroiditis and multiple nodules were excluded. Thyroid nodules were visually analyzed into groups with increased and no FDG uptake. Peak SUV ratio of liver-to-nodule (pSUV ratio) was taken. pSUV ratio was correlated with nodule size and micropapillary cancer aggressiveness. Perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis was used as an indicator of micropapillary cancer aggressiveness 20 patients had 0.89 and nodules with increased FDG uptake, with an average pSUV ratio of 1.67 0.15. 21 patients had nodules that were not visible, average size of 0.66 cm 0.24. FDG uptake and nodule size correlation was with an average size of 0.52 cm significant (p=0.051). The nodules were divided into two groups using a cut-off value of pSUV ratio of 0.9. 19 patients had nodules with a pSUV ratio of 0.9 or higher, and 15 of the 19 patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. 22 patients had nodules with pSUV ratio lower than 0.9 and 7 of these patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. Patients with higher pSUV ratio showed more perithyroid extension or LN metastasis than those with lower pSUV ratio (p=0.01). A total of 8 patients had LN metastasis, but none were visualized on PET. Higher FDG uptake seems to be significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas. But FDG uptakes in primary tumors were also correlated with tumor size. In other words, larger nodules tend to show aggressive behavior in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas and FDG it self may not be an independent factor for tumor aggressiveness. Also, PET shows an extremely poor sensitivity for the detection of LN metastasis. Therefore, PET may not have any role in the evaluation of patients with micropapillary thyroid carcinomas

  20. The role of F18-FDG PET scans in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cho, E. H.; Cho, H. J.; Kim, T. S.; Kang, W. J.; Yun, M. J.; Lee, J. D. [Severance Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-07-01

    The purpose is to evaluate F18-FDG PET in predicting micropapillary thyroid cancer aggressiveness. 41 patients (38 female, mean age 50y) who had PET before total thyroidectomy between 2002.1{approx}2007.8 were reviewed. Patients with thyroiditis and multiple nodules were excluded. Thyroid nodules were visually analyzed into groups with increased and no FDG uptake. Peak SUV ratio of liver-to-nodule (pSUV ratio) was taken. pSUV ratio was correlated with nodule size and micropapillary cancer aggressiveness. Perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis was used as an indicator of micropapillary cancer aggressiveness 20 patients had 0.89 and nodules with increased FDG uptake, with an average pSUV ratio of 1.67 0.15. 21 patients had nodules that were not visible, average size of 0.66 cm 0.24. FDG uptake and nodule size correlation was with an average size of 0.52 cm significant (p=0.051). The nodules were divided into two groups using a cut-off value of pSUV ratio of 0.9. 19 patients had nodules with a pSUV ratio of 0.9 or higher, and 15 of the 19 patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. 22 patients had nodules with pSUV ratio lower than 0.9 and 7 of these patients had perithyroid extension and/or LN metastasis. Patients with higher pSUV ratio showed more perithyroid extension or LN metastasis than those with lower pSUV ratio (p=0.01). A total of 8 patients had LN metastasis, but none were visualized on PET. Higher FDG uptake seems to be significantly correlated with tumor aggressiveness in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas. But FDG uptakes in primary tumors were also correlated with tumor size. In other words, larger nodules tend to show aggressive behavior in micropapillary thyroid carcinomas and FDG it self may not be an independent factor for tumor aggressiveness. Also, PET shows an extremely poor sensitivity for the detection of LN metastasis. Therefore, PET may not have any role in the evaluation of patients with micropapillary thyroid carcinomas.

  1. Ultra-high-resolution alpha spectrometry for nuclear forensics and safeguards applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bacrania, Minesh K.; Croce, Mark; Bond, Evelyn; Dry, Donald; Moody, W. Allen; Lamont, Stephen; Rabin, Michael; Rim, Jung; Smith, Audrey; Beall, James; Bennett, Douglas; Kotsubo, Vincent; Horansky, Robert; Hilton, Gene; Schmidt, Daniel; Ullom, Joel; Cantor, Robin

    2010-01-01

    We will present our work on the development of ultra-high-resolution detectors for alpha particle spectrometry. These detectors, based on superconducting transition-edge sensors, offer energy resolution that is five to ten times better than conventional silicon detectors. Using these microcalorimeter detectors, the isotopic composition of mixed-actinide samples can be determined rapidly without the need for actinide separation chemistry to isolate each element, or mass spectrometry to separate isotopic signatures that can not be resolved using traditional alpha spectrometry (e.g. Pu-239/Pu-240, or Pu-238/Am-241). This paper will cover the detector and measurement system, actinide source preparation, and the quantitative isotopic analysis of a number of forensics- and safeguards-relevant radioactive sources.

  2. Ionization and scintillation response of high-pressure xenon gas to alpha particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Álvarez, V; Cárcel, S; Cervera, A; Díaz, J; Ferrario, P; Gil, A; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; Borges, F I G; Conde, C A N; Fernandes, L M P; Freitas, E D C; Cebrián, S; Dafni, T; Gómez, H; Egorov, M; Gehman, V M; Goldschmidt, A; Esteve, R; Evtoukhovitch, P; Ferreira, A L

    2013-01-01

    High-pressure xenon gas is an attractive detection medium for a variety of applications in fundamental and applied physics. In this paper we study the ionization and scintillation detection properties of xenon gas at 10 bar pressure. For this purpose, we use a source of alpha particles in the NEXT-DEMO time projection chamber, the large scale prototype of the NEXT-100 neutrinoless double beta decay experiment, in three different drift electric field configurations. We measure the ionization electron drift velocity and longitudinal diffusion, and compare our results to expectations based on available electron scattering cross sections on pure xenon. In addition, two types of measurements addressing the connection between the ionization and scintillation yields are performed. On the one hand we observe, for the first time in xenon gas, large event-by-event correlated fluctuations between the ionization and scintillation signals, similar to that already observed in liquid xenon. On the other hand, we study the field dependence of the average scintillation and ionization yields. Both types of measurements may shed light on the mechanism of electron-ion recombination in xenon gas for highly-ionizing particles. Finally, by comparing the response of alpha particles and electrons in NEXT-DEMO, we find no evidence for quenching of the primary scintillation light produced by alpha particles in the xenon gas.

  3. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy: A potential cause of incidental F-18 FDG uptke in the prostate gland on F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with bladder cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Choon Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Seock Hwan; Son, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake. A total of 395 bladder cancer patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to BCG therapy status. Elapsed time after BCG therapy, serum PSA level, results of prostate biopsy, and the SUV max and uptake pattern in the prostate gland were reviewed. For patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, the changes in SUV max were calculated. While 35 % of patients showed prostate uptake in the BCG therapy group, only 1 % showed prostate uptake in the non-BCG therapy group (p < 0.001). Among 49 patients with FDG-avid prostate lesions, none had suspected malignancy during the follow-up period (median: 16 months). Five patients revealed granulomatous prostatitis on biopsy. The incidence of FDG-avid prostate lesions was significantly higher if the elapsed time after BCG therapy was less than 1 year compared to more than 1 year (p < 0.001). Serum PSA was normal in 88 % of patients. All patients with incidental F-18 FDG uptake in the prostate gland showed focal or multifocal prostate uptake, and median SUV max was 4.7. In 16 patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, SUV max was decreased in 14 patients (88 %) without treatment, and no patients demonstrated further increased prostate uptake (p < 0.001). BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake, especially in those with a history of bladder cancer treated with BCG. In BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis, focal or multifocal prostate uptake is frequently seen within 1 year after BCG therapy, and the intensity of prostate uptake is decreased on the follow-up PET/CT without any treatment

  4. High frequency of HIF-1 alpha overexpression in BRCA1 related breast cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Groep, Petra; Bouter, Alwin; Menko, Fred H.; van der Wall, Elsken; van Diest, Paul J.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia is a hallmark of cancer. Hypoxia inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1 alpha) is the key regulator of the hypoxia response. HIF-1 alpha is overexpressed during sporadic breast carcinogenesis and correlated with poor prognosis. Little is known on the role of HIF-1 alpha in hereditary breast

  5. Direct-scanning alpha spectrometer for americium and plutonium contamination on highly-enriched uranium surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ward, W.C.; Martinez, H.E.; Abeyta, C.L.; Morgan, A.N.; Nelson, T.O.

    1997-01-01

    Trace Pu 239 and Am 241 contamination on a surface whose alpha count is dominated by U 235 and U 234 decay has been successfully quantified by counting swipes in external alpha spectroscopy chambers. The swipe process, however, is labor intensive and subject to uncertainties in the swiping process as well as degraded spectral resolution due to the presence of the swipe material. A multichannel instrument for automated in situ measurements of interior and exterior contamination has been developed which incorporates a rotary table, 13 fixed ion-implanted silicon detectors, and spectroscopy electronics. Custom software was written to allow alpha spectrometer to function as a virtual instrument in the LabView environment. This system gives improved speed and resolution as well as a complete log of the location of areas of high surface contamination, a feature not practical to obtain by other methods, and one which opens the possibility of long term studies such as Pu outgrowth evaluation employing the instrument. The authors present performance data as well as system integration, calibration, control, and dynamic geometric efficiency calculations related to the design of this and next generation systems

  6. High-Velocity Ly(Alpha) Emission from SMR 1987A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael, Eli; McCray, Richard; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Pun, Chu S. J.; Sonneborn, George

    1998-01-01

    The high-velocity Ly(Alpha) emission from SN 1987A observed with the Space Telescope Imaging Spectrograph (STIS) evidently comes from a reverse shock formed where the outer envelope of SN 1987A strikes ionized gas inside the inner circumstellar ring. The observations can be explained by a simple kinematic model, in which the Ly(Alpha) emission comes from hydrogen atoms with radial velocity approximately 15,000 km s(exp -1) crossing a reverse shock in the shape of a slightly prolate ellipsoid with equatorial radius 4.8 x 10(exp 17) cm or approximately 80% of the distance to the inner surface of the inner ring. N v double Lambda 1239, 1243 emission, if present, has a net luminosity approximately less than 30% times that of the Ly(Alpha) emission. Future STIS observations should enable us to predict the time of impact with the inner ring and to determine unambiguously whether or not N v emission is present. These observations will offer a unique opportunity to probe the structure of SN 1987A's circumstellar environment and the hydrodynamics and kinetics of very fast shocks.

  7. Interferon alpha adjuvant therapy in patients with high-risk melanoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mocellin, Simone; Pasquali, Sandro; Rossi, Carlo R; Nitti, Donato

    2010-04-07

    Based on previous meta-analyses of randomized controlled trials (RCTs), the use of interferon alpha (IFN-alpha) in the adjuvant setting improves disease-free survival (DFS) in patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma. However, RCTs have yielded conflicting data on the effect of IFN-alpha on overall survival (OS). We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effect of IFN-alpha on DFS and OS in patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma. The systematic review was performed by searching MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cancerlit, Cochrane, ISI Web of Science, and ASCO databases. The meta-analysis was performed using time-to-event data from which hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) of DFS and OS were estimated. Subgroup and meta-regression analyses to investigate the effect of dose and treatment duration were also performed. Statistical tests were two-sided. The meta-analysis included 14 RCTs, published between 1990 and 2008, and involved 8122 patients, of which 4362 patients were allocated to the IFN-alpha arm. IFN-alpha alone was compared with observation in 12 of the 14 trials, and 17 comparisons (IFN-alpha vs comparator) were generated in total. IFN-alpha treatment was associated with a statistically significant improvement in DFS in 10 of the 17 comparisons (HR for disease recurrence = 0.82, 95% CI = 0.77 to 0.87; P < .001) and improved OS in four of the 14 comparisons (HR for death = 0.89, 95% CI = 0.83 to 0.96; P = .002). No between-study heterogeneity in either DFS or OS was observed. No optimal IFN-alpha dose and/or treatment duration or a subset of patients more responsive to adjuvant therapy was identified using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. In patients with high-risk cutaneous melanoma, IFN-alpha adjuvant treatment showed statistically significant improvement in both DFS and OS.

  8. Supplementation with Lactobacillus paracasei or Pediococcus pentosaceus does not prevent diarrhoea in neonatal pigs infected with Escherichia coli F18

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anders Daniel; Cilieborg, Malene Skovsted; Lauridsen, Charlotte

    2017-01-01

    Infectious diarrhoea is a worldwide problem in newborns. Optimal bacterial colonisation may enhance gut maturation and protect against pathogenic bacteria after birth. We hypothesised that lactic acid bacteria (LAB) administration prevents pathogen-induced diarrhoea in formula-fed newborns. Newbo....... coli-induced diarrhoea in sensitive newborn pigs. In vulnerable newborns there may be a delicate balance among bacterial composition and load, diet and the host. Caution may be required when administering LAB to compromised newborns suffering from enteric infections....... caesarean-delivered, colostrum-deprived term piglets on parenteral nutrition for the first 15 h, were used as models for sensitive newborn infants. A commercially available probiotic strain, Lactobacillus paracasei F19 (LAP, 2·6x108 colony-forming units (CFU)/kg per d) and a novel LAB isolate, Pediococcus...... with decreased activities in most cases after F18 and LAB inoculation. Bacterial density in colon mucosa increased after F18 inoculation (PE...

  9. Predictive values of F-18-FDG PET and ictal SPECT to find epileptogenic zones in cryptogenic neocortical epilepsies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, D. S.; Lee, S. K.; Jeong, Z. K.; Kim, H. Z.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    Though cumulated reported sensitivity were 33% (F-18-FDG PET) and 81%(ictal SPECT) in neocortical epilepsy, positive predictive values rather than sensitivity should be referred if we wish to know the reliability of positive findings to predict epileptogenic zones. In cryptogenic neocortical epilepsy which did not have structural lesions on MR, we tried to find performance of F-18-FDG PET and ictal SPECT to find epileptogenic zones. In 77 patients who had no lesion on MR and who were suspected to have neocortical epilepsy on video monitored EEG, ictal SPECT were done in 44 patients and F-18-FDG PET were done in 70 patients. Invasive study and operation was done in 24 patients. The most hyper perfused area or prominently hypometabolic area was suspected to be epileptogenic on ictal SPECT or F-18-FDG PET, respectively. We could find zones of ictal hyperperfusion in 34/44(78%) patients. Positive predictive values of ictal hyperperfusion were 58%, 60%, and 12.5% in frontal lobes (n=12), lateral temporal lobes (20), and parietal lobes (8). We could find hypometabolic areas in 50/70(76%) patients. Positive predictive values of hypometabolism were 78%, 71%, 33%, and 25% in frontal lobes (9), lateral temporal lobes (28), parietal lobes (3) and occipital lobes (4). Among 24 patients who were operated, 17 patients were followed up more than 7 months (15 ± 5). Thirteen patients improved (10 : Engel class I or II, 2: 90% reduction, 1: 75% reduction but multifocal). Five among 11 PET studies were correct, 3 among 10 SPECT studies, and 6 among 11 PET/SPECT studies (55%) were correct for localization. In conclusion, three fourths of patients gave positive results to localized epileptogenic zones in cryptogenic neocortical epilepsy, and predictive values of ictal hyperperfusion or interictal hypometabolism were highest in frontal or lateral temporal lobes if these lobes were found to be culprit though rapid ictal propagation of cortical hyperperfusion confounded the exact

  10. F18 FDG positron emission tomography revelation of primary testicular lymphoma with concurrent multiple extra nodal involvement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vamsy, Mohana; Dattatreya, P.S.; Parakh, Megha; Dayal, Monal; Prabhakar Rao, V.V.S.

    2013-01-01

    Primary testicular lymphoma (PTL) a relatively rare disease of non-Hodgkin's lymphomas occurring with a lesser incidence of 1-2% has a propensity to occur at later ages above 50 years. PTL spreads to extra nodal sites due to deficiency of extra cellular adhesion molecules. We present detection of multiple sites of extra nodal involvement of PTL by F-18 positron emission tomography/computed tomography study aiding early detection of the dissemination thus aiding in staging and management. (author)

  11. Comparison of F-18-FDG PET/CT findings between pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumor and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yong-il; Kim, Seok-ki; Paeng, Jin Chul; Lee, Ho-Young

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Pancreatic solid pseudopapillary tumor (SPT) is a rare benign tumor. Little data are available on positron emission tomographic/computed tomographic (PET/CT) characteristics of this tumor. Therefore, we analyzed the metabolic characteristics of SPT using F-18-FDG PET/CT and compared the results with those of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the records of 11 SPT patients and 46 patients with ductal adenocarcinoma. Ten SPT patients had primary tumors and 1 patient had metastatic SPT. Maximum standardized uptake value (max SUV), mean SUV, metabolic tumor volume (MTV), total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and tumor-to-background ratio (TBR) were evaluated. Mann–Whitney U test between pancreatic SPT and ductal adenocarcinoma was performed. In addition, age, gender and tumor size-adjusted analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was done between pancreatic SPT and ductal adenocarcinoma. Results: Compared with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas, SPTs had significantly higher tumor size-adjusted MTV and TLG. MTV and TLG values were significantly correlated with T-stage of the SPTs. In 1 SPT patient, metastases in the liver and mesentery were revealed by intense uptake of FDG on F-18-FDG PET/CT, and after PET/CT had suggested the presence of pancreatic SPT. Conclusion: We recommend that SPT be considered when a solid pancreatic mass with increased FDG metabolism is encountered on PET/CT. F-18-FDG PET/CT may be useful in detecting subtle metastases of SPT

  12. Simulation study for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry with mesh type collimator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Seunghoon; Kwak, Sungwoo; Kang, Hanbyeol; Shin, Jungki; Park, Iljin

    2014-01-01

    An alpha particle spectrometry with a mesh type collimator plays a crucial role in identifying specific radionuclide in a radioactive source collected from the atmosphere or environment. The energy resolution is degraded without collimation because particles with a high angle have a longer path to travel in the air. Therefore, collision with the background increases. The collimator can cut out particles which traveling at a high angle. As a result, an energy distribution with high resolution can be obtained. Therefore, the mesh type collimator is simulated for high resolution alpha particle spectrometry. In conclusion, the collimator can improve resolution. With collimator, the collimator is a role of cutting out particles with a high angle, so, low energy tail and broadened energy distribution can be reduced. The mesh diameter is found out as an important factor to control resolution and counting efficiency. Therefore, a target particle, for example, 235 U, can be distinguished by a detector with a collimator under a mixture of various nuclides, for example: 232 U, 238 U, and 232 Th

  13. High prevalence of alpha-thalassemia among individuals with microcytosis and hypochromia without anemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Borges

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the contribution of alpha-thalassemia to microcytosis and hypochromia, 339 adult outpatients seen at Unicamp University Hospital (with the exception of the Clinical Hematology outpatient clinics, who showed normal hemoglobin (Hb levels and reduced mean corpuscular volume and mean corpuscular hemoglobin, were analyzed. Ninety-eight were Blacks (28.9% and 241 were Caucasians (71.1%. In all cases, Hb A2 and F levels were either normal or low. The most common deletional and nondeletional forms of alpha-thalassemia [-alpha3.7, -alpha4.2, --MED, -(alpha20.5, alphaHphIalpha, alphaNcoIalpha, aaNcoI and alphaTSAUDI] were investigated by PCR and restriction enzyme analyses. A total of 169 individuals (49.9% presented alpha-thalassemia: 145 (42.8% were heterozygous for the -alpha3.7 deletion (-alpha3.7/aa and 18 (5.3% homozygous (-alpha3.7/-alpha3.7, 5 (1.5% were heterozygous for the nondeletional form alphaHphIalpha (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.3% was a --MED carrier (--MED/aa. Among the Blacks, 56 (57.1% showed the -alpha3.7/aa genotype, whereas 12 (12.2% were -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 and 1 (1.0% was an alphaHphIalpha carrier; among the Caucasians, 89 (36.9% were -alpha3.7/aa, 6 (2.5% had the -alpha3.7/-alpha3.7 genotype, 4 (1.7% presented the nondeletional form (alphaHphIalpha/aa, and 1 (0.4% was a --MED carrier. These results demonstrate that alpha-thalassemia, mainly through the -alpha3.7 deletion, is an important cause of microcytosis and hypochromia in individuals without anemia. These data are of clinical relevance since these hematological alterations are often interpreted as indicators of iron deficiency.

  14. High-alpha band synchronization across frontal, parietal and visual cortex mediates behavioral and neuronal effects of visuospatial attention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobier, Muriel; Palva, J Matias; Palva, Satu

    2018-01-15

    Visuospatial attention prioritizes processing of attended visual stimuli. It is characterized by lateralized alpha-band (8-14 Hz) amplitude suppression in visual cortex and increased neuronal activity in a network of frontal and parietal areas. It has remained unknown what mechanisms coordinate neuronal processing among frontoparietal network and visual cortices and implement the attention-related modulations of alpha-band amplitudes and behavior. We investigated whether large-scale network synchronization could be such a mechanism. We recorded human cortical activity with magnetoencephalography (MEG) during a visuospatial attention task. We then identified the frequencies and anatomical networks of inter-areal phase synchronization from source localized MEG data. We found that visuospatial attention is associated with robust and sustained long-range synchronization of cortical oscillations exclusively in the high-alpha (10-14 Hz) frequency band. This synchronization connected frontal, parietal and visual regions and was observed concurrently with amplitude suppression of low-alpha (6-9 Hz) band oscillations in visual cortex. Furthermore, stronger high-alpha phase synchronization was associated with decreased reaction times to attended stimuli and larger suppression of alpha-band amplitudes. These results thus show that high-alpha band phase synchronization is functionally significant and could coordinate the neuronal communication underlying the implementation of visuospatial attention. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. State of the art of D ampersand D Instrumentation Technology: Alpha counting in the presence of high background

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickerman, C.E.

    1995-08-01

    Discrimination of alpha activity in the presence of a high radiation background has been identified as an area of concern to be studied for D ampersand D applications. Upon evaluating the range of alpha detection needs for D ampersand D operations, we have expanded this study to address the operational concern of greatly expediting alpha counting of rough surfaces and rubble. Note that the term, ''rough surfaces'' includes a wide range of practical cases, including contaminated equipment and work surfaces. We have developed provisional applications requirements for instrumentation of this type; and we also have generated the scope of a program of instrument evaluation and testing, with emphasis on practical implementation. In order to obtain the full operational benefit of alpha discrimination in the presence of strong beta-gamma radiation background, the detection system must be capable of some form of remote or semi-remote operation in order to reduce operator exposure. We have identified a highly promising technique, the long-range alpha detector (LRAD), for alpha discrimination in the presence of high radiation background. This technique operates upon the principle of transporting alphaionized air to an ionization detector. A transport time within a few seconds is adequate. Neither the provisional requirements nor the evaluation and testing scope were expressly tailored to force the selection of a LRAD technology, and they could be used as a basis for studies of other promising technologies. However, a technology that remotely detects alpha-ionized air (e. g., LRAD) is a natural fit to the key requirements of rejection of high background at the survey location and operator protection. Also, LRAD appears to be valuable for D ampersand D applications as a means of greatly expediting surface alpha-activity surveys that otherwise would require performing time-consuming scans over surfaces of interest with alpha detector probes, and even more labor-intensive surface

  16. Manipulation of [C-11]-5-hydroxytryptophan and 6-[F-18]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine accumulation in neuroendocrine tumor cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Neels, Oliver C.; Koopmans, Klaas P.; Jager, Pieter L.; Vercauteren, Laya; van Waarde, Aren; Doorduin, Janine; Timmer-Bosscha, Hetty; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Kema, Ido P.; Elsinga, Philip H.

    2008-01-01

    [C-11]-5-Hydroxytryptophan ([C-11]HTP) and 6-[F-18]fluoro-3,4-dihydroxy-L-phenylalanine [F-18]FDOPA) are used to image neuroendocrine tumors with positron emission tomography. The precise mechanism by which these tracers accumulate in tumor cells is unknown. We aimed to study tracer uptake via large

  17. The Escherichia coli K-12 gntP gene allows E. coli F-18 to occupy a distinct nutritional niche in the streptomycin-treated mouse large intestine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sweeney, N.J.; Klemm, Per; McCormick, Beth A.

    1996-01-01

    Escherichia coli F-18 is a human fecal isolate that makes type 1 fimbriae, encoded by the fim gene cluster, and is an excellent colonizer of the streptomycin-treated mouse intestine. E. coli F-18 fimA::tet, lacking type 1 fimbriae, was constructed by bacteriophage P1 transduction of the fim regio...

  18. F-18 FLT PET : A Noninvasive Diagnostic Tool for Visualization of the Bone Marrow Compartment in Patients With Aplastic Anemia A Pilot Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Agool, Ali; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Kluin, Philip M.; de Wolf, Joost Th. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; Vellenga, Edo

    Rationale: A discordant relationship between bone marrow cellularity and peripheral blood findings is regularly noticed in patients with aplastic anemia (AA). Therefore, the feasibility of 3-F-18 fluoro-3-deoxy-L-thymidine (F-18 FLT PET was tested as a noninvasive tool to visualize the total

  19. Induction of Th1 polarized immune responses by thiolated Eudragit-coated F4 and F18 fimbriae of enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Won-Jung; Cha, Seungbin; Shin, Minkyoung; Islam, Mohammad Ariful; Cho, Chong-su; Yoo, Han Sang

    2011-10-01

    Diarrhea in newborn and weaned piglets is mainly induced by enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) with fimbriae F4 (K88) and F18 (F107). In this study, we evaluated F4 and F18 coated with thiolated Eudragit microspheres (TEMS) as a candidate for an oral vaccine. The average particle sizes of TEMS, F4-loaded TEMS, and F18-loaded TEMS were measured as 4.2±0.75 μm, 4.7±0.50 μm, and 4.5±0.37 μm, respectively. F4 is more efficiently encapsulated than F18 in the loading with TEMS. In the release test, F4 and F18 fimbriae were protected in acidic circumstances, whereas most were released at pH 7.4 of intestine circumstances. Production of TNF-α and NO from RAW 264.7 cells was increased in a time-dependent manner after exposure to all groups, whereas only F4- or F18-loaded TEMS-stimulated IL-6 secretion. The levels of IFN-γ from mouse splenocytes after exposure to F4 or F18 were increased while IL-4 was not detectable. These results suggest that F4- and F18-loaded TEMS may effectively induce immune response with the efficient release of antigens to appropriate target sites. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. [C-11]FMAU and [F-18]FHPG as PET tracers for herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase enzyme activity and human cytomegalovirus infections

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, EFJ; van Waarde, A; Harmsen, MC; Mulder, NH; Vaalburg, W; Hospers, GAP

    [C-11]-2'-Fluoro-5-methyl-1-beta-D-arabinofuranosyluracil ([C-11]FMAU) and [F-18]-9-[(3-fluoro-1-hydroxy-2-propoxy)methyl]guanine ([F-18]FHPG), radiolabeled representatives of two classes of antiviral agents, were evaluated as tracers for measuring herpes simplex virus thymidine kinase (HSV-tk)

  1. High Affinity IgE-Fc Receptor alpha and gamma Subunit Interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rashid, A.; Housden, J. E. M.; Sabban, S.; Helm, B.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To explore the relationships between the subunits (alpha, beta and gamma) of the high affinity IgE receptor (Fc and RI) and its ability to mediate transmembrane signaling. Study Design: Experimental study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Molecular Biology and Biotechnology, University of Sheffield, UK, from 2008 to 2009. Methodology: The approach employed was to create a chimera (human alpha-gamma-gamma) using the extracellular (EC) domain of the human high affinity IgE receptor. The alpha subunit (huFc and RIalpha) of IgE receptor was spliced onto the rodent gamma TM and cytoplasmic domain (CD). This was transfected into the Rat Basophilic Leukemia cell line in order to assess the possibility of selectively activating cells transfected with this single pass construct for antigen induced mediator release. Results: The RBLs cell lines transfected with the huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA constructs were assessed for the cell surface expression of the huFc and RIalpha subunit and the response to the antigenic stimulus by looking for degranulation and intracellular Ca2+ mobilisation. The results obtained showed the absence of huFc and RIalpha subunit expression on the surface of transfected cells as seen by flowcytometric studies, beta-hexosaminidase assays and intracellular calcium mobilisation studies. Conclusion: In the present study the grounds for non-expression of huFc and RIalpha/gamma/gamma cDNA remains elusive but may be due to the fact that the human-rodent chimeric receptors are assembled differently than the endogenous rodent receptors as seen in study in which COS 7 cells were transfected with human/rat chimeric complexes. (author)

  2. Determination of 239Pu/240Pu isotopic ratio by high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amoudry, F.; Burger, P.

    1983-05-01

    The development of passivated ion-implanted silicon detectors and of very thin alpha-particle sources improves the resolution of alpha-particle spectra and allows to separate energy pics up to now unseparate. The 239 Pu/ 240 Pu isotopic ratio of a mixture has been measured using the alpha spectrometry deconvolution code DEMO [fr

  3. Granulomatous prostatitis after intravesical bacillus Calmette-Guérin instillation therapy: A potential cause of incidental F-18 FDG uptke in the prostate gland on F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with bladder cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Choon Young; Lee, Sang Woo; Choi, Seock Hwan; Son, Seung Hyun; Jung, Ji Hoon; Lee, Chang Hee; Jeong, Shin Young; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Medical Center and School of Medicine, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-03-15

    This study aimed to evaluate the possibility that Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG)-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake. A total of 395 bladder cancer patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT (PET/CT) were retrospectively evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups according to BCG therapy status. Elapsed time after BCG therapy, serum PSA level, results of prostate biopsy, and the SUV{sub max} and uptake pattern in the prostate gland were reviewed. For patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, the changes in SUV{sub max} were calculated. While 35 % of patients showed prostate uptake in the BCG therapy group, only 1 % showed prostate uptake in the non-BCG therapy group (p < 0.001). Among 49 patients with FDG-avid prostate lesions, none had suspected malignancy during the follow-up period (median: 16 months). Five patients revealed granulomatous prostatitis on biopsy. The incidence of FDG-avid prostate lesions was significantly higher if the elapsed time after BCG therapy was less than 1 year compared to more than 1 year (p < 0.001). Serum PSA was normal in 88 % of patients. All patients with incidental F-18 FDG uptake in the prostate gland showed focal or multifocal prostate uptake, and median SUV{sub max} was 4.7. In 16 patients who underwent follow-up PET/CT, SUV{sub max} was decreased in 14 patients (88 %) without treatment, and no patients demonstrated further increased prostate uptake (p < 0.001). BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis can be a potential cause of benign F-18 FDG uptake, especially in those with a history of bladder cancer treated with BCG. In BCG-induced granulomatous prostatitis, focal or multifocal prostate uptake is frequently seen within 1 year after BCG therapy, and the intensity of prostate uptake is decreased on the follow-up PET/CT without any treatment.

  4. Effective radiological contamination control and monitoring techniques in high alpha environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funke, Kevin C

    2003-02-01

    In the decommissioning of a highly contaminated alpha environment, such as the one at Hanford's 233-S Plutonium Concentration Facility, one of the key elements of a successful radiological control program is an integrated safety approach. This approach begins with the job-planning phase where the scope of the work is described. This is followed by a brainstorming session involving engineering and craft to identify how to perform the work in a logical sequence of events. Once the brainstorming session is over, a Job Hazard Analysis is performed to identify any potential problems. Mockups are utilized to enable the craft to get hands on experience and provide feedback and ideas to make the job run smoother. Ideas and experience gained during mockups are incorporated into the task instruction. To assure appropriate data are used in planning and executing the job, our principal evaluation tools included lapel and workplace air sampling, plus continuous air monitors and frequent surveys to effectively monitor job progress. In this highly contaminated alpha environment, with contamination levels ranging from 0.3 Bq cm-2 to approximately 100,000 Bq cm-2 (2,000 dpm per 100 cm2 to approximately 600 million dpm per 100 cm2), with average working levels of 1,600-3,200 Bq cm-2 (10-20 million dpm per 100 cm2) without concomitant ambient radiation levels, control of the spread of contamination is key to keeping airborne levels As Low As Reasonably Achievable.

  5. Anti-alpha interferon immunization: safety and immunogenicity in asymptomatic HIV positive patients at high risk of disease progression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gringeri, A; Santagostino, E; Mannucci, P M; Siracusano, L; Marinoni, A; Criscuolo, M; Carcagno, M; Fall, L S; M'Bika, J P; Bizzini, B

    1995-05-01

    A randomized, placebo-controlled trial was designed to evaluate safety and immunogenicity of an anti-cytokine vaccine in high risk HIV-positive patients. This strategy was aimed to modulate the impaired cytokine regulation in AIDS. Twelve asymptomatic patients on antiretroviral therapy for at least 1 year and with CD4 cell counts between 100-300/mm3 were randomized to receive adjuvanted formol-inactivated interferon alpha-2a (IFN alpha) and continue the current antiretroviral treatment, whatever it was, or to receive the adjuvant alone and the current antiretroviral treatment. All patients received 4 i.m. injections monthly, followed by booster injections every 3 months. Clinical status, immunology and virology were monitored. Immune response to vaccination was evaluated in term of antibody detection (ELISA) and serum anti-IFN alpha neutralizing capacity. Only local discomfort and transient fever were reported. All vaccines except one showed increased levels of anti-IFN alpha Abs and developed serum IFN alpha neutralizing capacity. Viral load did not increase in vaccinees while it remained unchanged or even increased in placebo-treated patients. None of them showed HIV-related symptoms and all had their CD4 cell counts stabilized over 18 months, whereas 2 placebo-treated patients developed full-blow AIDS. In conclusion, anti-IFN alpha vaccine was safe and immunogenic. Stable clinical and immunological status over 18 months was observed in vaccinees coupled to increased serum IFN alpha neutralizing capacity.

  6. Correlations in the three-dimensional Lyman-alpha forest contaminated by high column density absorbers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogers, Keir K.; Bird, Simeon; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Pontzen, Andrew; Font-Ribera, Andreu; Leistedt, Boris

    2018-05-01

    Correlations measured in three dimensions in the Lyman-alpha forest are contaminated by the presence of the damping wings of high column density (HCD) absorbing systems of neutral hydrogen (H I; having column densities N(H I) > 1.6 × 10^{17} atoms cm^{-2}), which extend significantly beyond the redshift-space location of the absorber. We measure this effect as a function of the column density of the HCD absorbers and redshift by measuring three-dimensional (3D) flux power spectra in cosmological hydrodynamical simulations from the Illustris project. Survey pipelines exclude regions containing the largest damping wings. We find that, even after this procedure, there is a scale-dependent correction to the 3D Lyman-alpha forest flux power spectrum from residual contamination. We model this residual using a simple physical model of the HCD absorbers as linearly biased tracers of the matter density distribution, convolved with their Voigt profiles and integrated over the column density distribution function. We recommend the use of this model over existing models used in data analysis, which approximate the damping wings as top-hats and so miss shape information in the extended wings. The simple `linear Voigt model' is statistically consistent with our simulation results for a mock residual contamination up to small scales (|k| account for the effect of the highest column density absorbers on the smallest scales (e.g. |k| > 0.4 h Mpc^{-1} for small damped Lyman-alpha absorbers; HCD absorbers with N(H I) ˜ 10^{21} atoms cm^{-2}). However, these systems are in any case preferentially removed from survey data. Our model is appropriate for an accurate analysis of the baryon acoustic oscillations feature. It is additionally essential for reconstructing the full shape of the 3D flux power spectrum.

  7. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in Adrenal Incidentaloma: Differential Diagnosis of Adrenal Metastasis in Oncologic Patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Hong Je; Song, Bong Il; Kang, Sung Min; Jeong, Shin Young; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Lee, Sang Woo; Yoo, Jeong Soo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2009-01-01

    We have evaluated characteristics of adrenal masses incidentally observed in nonenhanced F-18 FDG PET/CT of the oncologic patients and the diagnostic ability of F-18 FDG PET/CT to differentiate malignant from benign adrenal masses. Between Mar 2005 and Aug 2008, 75 oncologic patients (46 men, 29 women; mean age, 60.8±10.2 years; range, 35-87 years) with 89 adrenal masses incidentally found in PET/CT were enrolled in this study. For quantitative analysis, size (cm), Hounsfield unit (HU), maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax), SUVratio of all 89 adrenal masses were measured. SUVmax of the adrenal mass divided by SUVliver, which is SUVmax of the segment 8, was defined as SUVratio. The final diagnosis of adrenal masses was based on pathologic confirmation, radiologic evaluation (HU<0 : benign), and clinical decision. Size, HU, SUVmax, and SUVratio were all significantly different between benign and malignant adrenal masses.(P < 0.05) And, SUVratio was the most accurate parameter. A cut-off value of 1.0 for SUVratio provided 90.9% sensitivity and 75.6% specificity. In small adrenal masses (1.5 cm or less), only SUVratio had statistically significant difference between benign and malignant adrenal masses. Similarly a cut-off value of 1.0 for SUVratio provided 80.0% sensitivity and 86.4% specificity. F-18 FDG PET/CT can offer more accurate information with quantitative analysis in differentiating malignant from benign adrenal masses incidentally observed in oncologic patients, compared to nonenhanced CT

  8. Normal uptake of F-18 FDG in the testis as assessed by PET/CT in a pediatric study population

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goethals, I.; Vriendt, C.D.; Hoste, P.; Smeets, P.; Ham, H.

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the correlation between the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) uptake in the normal testis as assessed by positron emission tomography (PET)-CT and patient age in a pediatric study population. The study population consisted of 22 subjects aged between 9 and 17 years. For these subjects 42 PET-CT scans were available for analysis. The testis was identified on the CT images. Mean standard uptake values and testicular volume were calculated based on manually drawn regions-of-interest over the organ. The correlation between mean standardized uptake value (SUV) and age as well as between testicular volume and age was calculated using Pearson's correlation coefficient. A strong and statistically significant positive correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the testis and age was documented. The correlation coefficient was 0.406 in the analysis based on 42 PET-CT studies (p=0.005). The correlation between tracer uptake and age was reassessed based on 22 PET-CT studies including the last recorded PET-CT scan per patient. The correlation coefficient was 0.409 (p=0.05). In addition, based on 22 PET-CT scans, a strong and statistically significant positive correlation between testicular volume and age was documented (r=0.67, p<0.001). Whereas it was previously shown that in adult men there was a weak but statistically significant negative correlation between F-18 FDG uptake in the normal testis and age, we found a strong and statistically significant positive correlation in children and teenage boys. (author)

  9. Evaluation of oxygenation status during fractionated radiotherapy in human nonsmall cell lung cancers using [F-18]fluoromisonidazole positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wui-Jin, Koh; Bergman, Kenneth S.; Rasey, Janet S.; Peterson, Lanell M.; Evans, Margaret L.; Graham, Michael M.; Grierson, John R.; Lindsley, Karen L.; Lewellen, Thomas K.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Griffin, Thomas W.

    1995-01-01

    Purpose: Recent clinical investigations have shown a strong correlation between pretreatment tumor hypoxia and poor response to radiotherapy. These observations raise questions about standard assumptions of tumor reoxygenation during radiotherapy, which has been poorly studied in human cancers. Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging of [F-18]fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) uptake allows noninvasive assessment of tumor hypoxia, and is amenable for repeated studies during fractionated radiotherapy to systematically evaluate changes in tumor oxygenation. Methods and Materials: Seven patients with locally advanced nonsmall cell lung cancers underwent sequential [F-18]FMISO PET imaging while receiving primary radiotherapy. Computed tomograms were used to calculate tumor volumes, define tumor extent for PET image analysis, and assist in PET image registration between serial studies. Fractional hypoxic volume (FHV) was calculated for each study as the percentage of pixels within the analyzed imaged tumor volume with a tumor:blood [F-18]FMISO ratio ≥ 1.4 by 120 min after injection. Serial FHVs were compared for each patient. Results: Pretreatment FHVs ranged from 20-84% (median 58%). Subsequent FHVs varied from 8-79% (median 29%) at midtreatment, and ranged from 3-65% (median 22%) by the end of radiotherapy. One patient had essentially no detectable residual tumor hypoxia by the end of radiation, while two others showed no apparent decrease in serial FHVs. There was no correlation between tumor size and pretreatment FHV. Conclusions: Although there is a general tendency toward improved oxygenation in human tumors during fractionated radiotherapy, these changes are unpredictable and may be insufficient in extent and timing to overcome the negative effects of existing pretreatment hypoxia. Selection of patients for clinical trials addressing radioresistant hypoxic cancers can be appropriately achieved through single pretreatment evaluations of tumor hypoxia

  10. Comparison of F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan in diagnosis of suspicious metastatic thyroid carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seok, Ju Won; Chung, June Key

    2005-01-01

    There are several reports about the usefulness of F-18 FDG PET in thyroid cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan in suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer. There were 46 patients (11 men, 35 women; age range, 18-74yr; mean age, 47.3yr) with suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy who performed FDG PET and I-131 scan. The interval of FDG PET and I-131 scan was within 6 months. An overall clinical evaluation was performed including cytology, thyroglobulin level, sonography, MRI and CT. Metastatic regions were divided into four areas: neck, mediastinum, lung and bone. Among 46 patients, the number of patients, metastatic lesions were detected, totaled 36 (78.3%). Twenty-nine patients (63.0%) were detected by FDG PET and 18 patients (39.1%) were detected by I-131 scan. Twenty-one patients were detected in neck by two methods. Nineteen patients (90.5%) were detected by FDG PET and 7 patients (33.3%) were detected by I-131 scan. Eighteen patients were detected in mediastinum by two methods. Ten patients (55.5%) were detected by FDG PET and 10 patients (55.5%) were detected by I-131 scan. Ten patients were detected in lung by two methods. Nine patients (90.0%) were detected by FDG PET and 3 patients (30.0%) were detected by I-131 scan. Three patients were detected in bone by two methods. Three patients (100%) were detected by FDG PET and 0 patients (0%) were detected by I-131 scan. These data indicate that for detecting metastatic lesions, F-18 FDG PET and I-131 whole body scan may provide complementary information. Thus, the combination of FDG PET and I-131 scan is the method of choice for detecting suspicious metastatic thyroid cancer after total thyroidectomy

  11. Normal physiologic and Benign foci with F-18 FDG avidity on PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Soon Ah; Lee, Kwang Man; Choi, Un Jong; Kim, Hun Soo; Kim, Hye Won; Song, Jeong Hoon [College of Medicine, Wonkwnag University, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-12-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the physiologic and benign F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) avid foci in patients with breast cancer. On 309 F-18 FDG PET/CT scans of 241 women with breast cancer, the hypermetabolic lesions compared with the surrounding normal region were evaluated retrospectively. Available reports of other relevant radiological imaging medical records, and follow-up PET/CT were reviewed for explanations of the abnormal uptake. Among the 70 physiologic foci, muscular uptake of the lower neck following the surgical and/or radiation therapy of ipsilateral breast (29%), hypermetabolic ovaries (16%) and uterine (10%) uptake during the ovulatory and menstrual phases during the normal menstrual cycle were identified, and also hypermetabolic brown fat in cold-induced thermogenesis (7%), non-specific bowel uptake (35%) were observed. Among the 147 benign lesions, sequelae of the chest wall and breasts following surgical and/or radiation therapy, were often observed (27%). Hypermetabolic thyroid glands were noted as adenomas and chronic thyroiditis (18%). Reactive hyperplasia of cervical or mediastinal lymph nodes (32%), degenerative osteoarthritis and healed fractures (15%), hypermetabolic benign lung lesions (6%) were observed. Altered physiologic and benign F-18 FDG uptake in the cervical muscle and chest wall following ipsilateral breast surgery or radiotherapy were common, and also normal physiologic uptake in ovary and uterus, brown fat, thyroid were considered as predominant findings in women patients with breast cancer. Knowledge of these findings might aid in the interpretation of FDG PET/CT in patients with breast cancer

  12. Recurrent proliferating trichilemmal tumor with malignant change on the f-18 fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Eun Ha; Kim, Eun Ha; Kim, Young Jun; Yoo, Seol Bong; Nam, Kyung Hwa [Presbyterian Medical Center, Seonam University College of Medicine, Jeonju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-06-15

    F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography scan has been used for the diagnosis, assessment of treatment response, and follow-up of various neoplasms. Proliferating trichilemmal cyst or tumor (PTT) is a rare neoplasm, originated from the outer root sheath of a hair follicle. Because this tumor has unpredictable biological and clinical behavior, the long-term clinical follow-up is necessary to detect metastasis or recurrence. We reported a case of recurrent malignant PTT on scalp that showed increased FDG uptake.

  13. [Use of positron-emission tomography with F18-fluorodeoxyglucose for the assessment of lung lesions suspicious of malignancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, M Josefina; Massardo, Teresa; González, Patricio; Canessa, José; Sierralta, Paulina; Humeres, Pamela; Galaz, Rodrigo; Valdebenito, Robert

    2005-05-01

    Positron-emission tomography (PET) with F18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) is very helpful in the evaluation and management of lung lesions. It is specially useful for the characterization of solitary nodules, for the staging, evaluation of recurrence and therapeutic response in non-small cell lung cancer, for the evaluation of small cell lung cancer and for the assessment of pulmonary metastases. This article is a literature review on PET with FDG in lung cancer. A preliminary analysis of PET results at the Military Hospital in Santiago, Chile, is also presented.

  14. [F-18]FDG imaging of head and neck tumors: comparison of hybrid PET, dedicated PET and CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dresel, S.; Brinkbaeumer, K.; Schmid, R.; Poepperl, G.; Hahn, K.; Szeimies, U.

    2001-01-01

    Aim: Aim of the study was to evaluate [F-18]FDG imaging of head and neck tumors using a Hybrid-PET device of the 2nd or 3rd generation. Examinations were compared to dedicated PET and Spiral-CT. Methods: 54 patients suffering from head and neck tumors were examined using dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET after injection of 185-350 MBq [F-18]FDG. Examinations were carried out on the dedicated PET first followed by a scan on the Hybrid-PET. Dedicated PET was acquired in 3D mode, Hybrid-PET was performed in list mode using an axial filter. Reconstruction of data was performed iteratively on both, dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET. All patients received a CT scan in multislice technique. All finding have been verified by the goldstandard histology or in case of negative histology by follow up. Results: Using dedicated PET the primary or recurrent lesion was correctly diagnosed in 47/48 patients, using Hybrid-PET in 46/48 patients and using CT in 25/48 patients. Metastatic disease in cervical lymph nodes was diagnosed in 17/18 patients with dedicated PET, in 16/18 patients with Hybrid-PET and in 15/18 with CT. False positive results with regard to lymph node metastasis were seen with one patient for dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET, respectively, and with 18 patients for CT. In a total of 11 patients unknown metastastic lesions were seen with dedicated PET and with Hybrid-PET elsewhere in the body. Additional malignant disease other than the head and neck tumor was found in 4 patients. Conclusion: Using Hybrid-PET for [F-18]FDG imaging reveals a loss of sensitivity and specificity of about 1-5% as compared to dedicated PET in head and neck tumors. [F-18]FDG PET with both, dedicated PET and Hybrid-PET is superior to CT in the diagnosis of primary or recurrent lesions as well as in the assessment of lymph node involvement. (orig.) [de

  15. Role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the management of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to salmonella

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Seung Jin; Lee, Jin Soo; Cheong, Moon Hyun; Byun, Sung Su; Hyun, In Young [Inha University College of Medicine, Incheon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-12-15

    We present a case of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm due to salmonella enteritidis. F-18 FDG PET/CT was performed to diagnosis and during follow-up after antibiotic treatment. Computed tomography (CT) is considered to be the best diagnostic imaging modality in infected aortic lesions. In this case, a combination of CT and FDG PET/CT provided accurate information for the diagnosis of infected abdominal aortic aneurysm. Moreover, FDG PET/CT made an important contribution of monitoring disease activity during antibiotic treatment.

  16. Interferon alpha 2 maintenance therapy may enable high rates of treatment discontinuation in chronic myeloid leukemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchert, A; Saussele, S; Eigendorff, E; Müller, M C; Sohlbach, K; Inselmann, S; Schütz, C; Metzelder, S K; Ziermann, J; Kostrewa, P; Hoffmann, J; Hehlmann, R; Neubauer, A; Hochhaus, A

    2015-06-01

    A minority of chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) patients is capable of successfully discontinuing imatinib. Treatment modalities to increase this proportion are currently unknown. Here, we assessed the role of interferon alpha 2a (IFN) on therapy discontinuation in a previously reported cohort of 20 chronic phase CML patients who were treated upfront with IFN alpha plus imatinib followed by IFN monotherapy to maintain cytogenetic or molecular remission (MR) after imatinib discontinuation. After a median follow-up of 7.9 years (range, 5.2-12.2), relapse-free survival was 73% (8/11 patients) and 84% (5/6 patients) for patients who discontinued imatinib in major MR (MMR) and MR4/MR4.5, respectively. Ten patients discontinued IFN after a median of 4.5 years (range, 0.24-9.3). After a median of 2.8 years (range, 0.7-5.1), nine of them remain in ongoing treatment-free remission with MR5 (n=6) and MR4.5 (n=3). The four patients who still administer IFN are in stable MR5, MR4.5, MR4, and MMR, respectively. In conclusion, an IFN/imatinib induction treatment followed by a temporary IFN maintenance therapy may enable a high rate of treatment discontinuation in CML patients in at least MMR when stopping imatinib.

  17. Monte Carlo treatment planning and high-resolution alpha-track autoradiography for neutron capture therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zamenhof, R.G.; Lin, K.; Ziegelmiller, D.; Clement, S.; Lui, C.; Harling, O.K.

    Monte Carlo simulations of thermal neutron flux distributions in a mathematical head model have been compared to experimental measurements in a corresponding anthropomorphic gelatin-based head phantom irradiated by a thermal neutron beam as presently available at the MITR-II Research Reactor. Excellent agreement between Monte Carlo and experimental measurements has encouraged us to employ the Monte Carlo simulation technique to approach treatment planning problems in neutron capture therapy. We have also implemented a high-resolution alpha-track autoradiography technique originally developed in our laboratory at MIT. Initial autoradiograms produced by this technique meet our expectations in terms of the high resolution available and the ability to etch tracks without concommitant destruction of stained tissue. Our preliminary results with computer-aided track distribution analysis indicate that this approach is very promising in being able to quantify boron distributions in tissue at the subcellular level with a minimum amount of operator effort necessary.

  18. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Sternum Mimicking Bone Metastasis in a Patient with a History of Breast Cancer Evaluated by F-18-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Luca, Giovanella [Oncology Institute of Southern Switzerland, Bellinzona (Switzerland); Barbara, Muoio; Carmelo, Caldarella [Catholic Univ., Rome (Italy)

    2014-06-15

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer (stage T2N0M0 treated with left breast conservative therapy 7 years previously followed by hormone therapy) underwent fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT) for restaging due to increased serum tumour markers levels (CA15-3, 37 U/ml and CEA, 8 ng/ml). The patient presented thoracic pain before performing F-18-FDG PET/CT. PET/CT demonstrated an area of increased F-18-FDG uptake corresponding to an osteolytic lesion occupying the upper sternum suspicious for bone metastasis. No other areas of abnormal F-18-FDG uptake were detected in the rest of the body. Based on this PET/CT finding, the patient performed biopsy of the sternal lesion. Histology demonstrated the presence of a sternal plasmacytoma and the patient was addressed to radiation therapy. The role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma is well known, whereas only some articles evaluated the usefulness of this method in patients with solitary plasmacytomas. In particular, F-18-FDG PET/CT may be useful in demonstrating the evolution of solitary plasmacytomas in multiple myeloma. In our case F-18-FDG PET/CT was useful in detecting a solitary plasmacytoma of the sternum mimicking bone metastasis in a patient with history of breast cancer, correctly addressing to further histological evaluation.

  19. Solitary Plasmacytoma of the Sternum Mimicking Bone Metastasis in a Patient with a History of Breast Cancer Evaluated by F-18-FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Treglia, Giorgio; Luca, Giovanella; Barbara, Muoio; Carmelo, Caldarella

    2014-01-01

    A 65-year-old woman with a history of breast cancer (stage T2N0M0 treated with left breast conservative therapy 7 years previously followed by hormone therapy) underwent fluorine-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT) for restaging due to increased serum tumour markers levels (CA15-3, 37 U/ml and CEA, 8 ng/ml). The patient presented thoracic pain before performing F-18-FDG PET/CT. PET/CT demonstrated an area of increased F-18-FDG uptake corresponding to an osteolytic lesion occupying the upper sternum suspicious for bone metastasis. No other areas of abnormal F-18-FDG uptake were detected in the rest of the body. Based on this PET/CT finding, the patient performed biopsy of the sternal lesion. Histology demonstrated the presence of a sternal plasmacytoma and the patient was addressed to radiation therapy. The role of F-18-FDG PET/CT in patients with multiple myeloma is well known, whereas only some articles evaluated the usefulness of this method in patients with solitary plasmacytomas. In particular, F-18-FDG PET/CT may be useful in demonstrating the evolution of solitary plasmacytomas in multiple myeloma. In our case F-18-FDG PET/CT was useful in detecting a solitary plasmacytoma of the sternum mimicking bone metastasis in a patient with history of breast cancer, correctly addressing to further histological evaluation

  20. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); Determinacao de alpha-tocoferol em alho irradiado utilizando cromatografia liquida de alta frequencia (CLAE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo [Sao Paulo Univ., SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental]. E-mail: riosmagda@hotmail.com

    2003-02-01

    The effects of {sup 60}Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the {alpha}-tocopherol concentration were studied. The {alpha}-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The {alpha}-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic {alpha}-tocopherol content. (author)

  1. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2000-07-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 {+-}14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 {+-}8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness.

  2. Evaluation of glucose metabolic abnormality in postlingually deaf patients using F-18-FDG positron emission tomography and statistical parametric mapping

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Oh, Seung Ha; Kim, Chong Sun; Park, Kwang Suk; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2000-01-01

    We have previously reported the prognostic relevance of cross-modal cortical plasticity in prelingual deaf patients revealed by F-18-FDG PET and SPM analysis. In this study, we investigated metabolic abnormality in postlingual deaf patients, whose clinical features are different from prelingual deafness. Nine postlingual deaf patients (age: 30.5 ±14.0) were performed on F-18-FDG brain PET. We compared their PET images with those of age-matched 20 normal controls (age: 27.1 ±8.6), and performed correlation analysis to investigate the relationship between glucose metabolism and deaf duration using SPM99. Glucose metabolism of deaf patients was significantly (p<0.05, corrected) decreased in both anterior cingulate, inferior frontal cortices, and superior temporal cortices, and left hippocampus. Metabolism in both superior temporal cortices and association area in inferior parietal cortices showed significant (p<0.01, uncorrected) positive correlation with deaf duration. Decreased metabolism in hippocampus accompanied with hypometabolism in auditory related areas can be explained by recent finding of anatomical connectivity between them, and may be the evidence indicating their functional connectivity. Metabolism recovery in auditory cortex after long deaf duration suggests that cortical plasticity takes place also in postlingual deafness

  3. Primary Hepatosplenic B-cell Lymphoma: Initial Diagnosis and Assessment of Therapeutic Response with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Sung Min; Lee, Hong Je; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae

    2008-01-01

    A 52-year-old woman with a history of general weakness, fatigue, weight loss, elevated serum levels of liver transaminase enzyme for three months underwent an F-18 FDG PET/CT to evaluate a cause of the hepatosplenomegaly found on abdominal ultrasonography. Initial PET/CT revealed markedly enlarged liver and spleen with intense FDG uptake. Otherwise, there were no areas of abnormal FDG uptake in whole body image. Histological evaluation by a hepatic needle biopsy demonstrated diffuse large B cell type lymphoma and final diagnosis for this patient was hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma. She received five cycles of CHOP chemotherapy, and second PET/CT was followed after then. Follow-up PET-CT revealed normal sized liver with disappearance of abnormal FDG uptake. Hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma is relatively rare and mostly presents as single or multiple nodules. Diffuse type hepatosplenic lymphoma is extremely rare and poorly recognized entity. The diagnosis is very difficult and complicated by the presence of misleading symptoms.4 In this rare hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma case, F-18 FDG PET/CT provided a initial diagnostic clue of hepatosplenic lymphoma and an accurate chemotherapy response

  4. Primary Hepatosplenic B-cell Lymphoma: Initial Diagnosis and Assessment of Therapeutic Response with F-18 FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sung Min; Lee, Hong Je; Seo, Ji Hyoung; Lee, Sang Woo; Ahn, Byeong Cheol; Lee, Jae Tae [Kyungpook National University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-08-15

    A 52-year-old woman with a history of general weakness, fatigue, weight loss, elevated serum levels of liver transaminase enzyme for three months underwent an F-18 FDG PET/CT to evaluate a cause of the hepatosplenomegaly found on abdominal ultrasonography. Initial PET/CT revealed markedly enlarged liver and spleen with intense FDG uptake. Otherwise, there were no areas of abnormal FDG uptake in whole body image. Histological evaluation by a hepatic needle biopsy demonstrated diffuse large B cell type lymphoma and final diagnosis for this patient was hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma. She received five cycles of CHOP chemotherapy, and second PET/CT was followed after then. Follow-up PET-CT revealed normal sized liver with disappearance of abnormal FDG uptake. Hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma is relatively rare and mostly presents as single or multiple nodules. Diffuse type hepatosplenic lymphoma is extremely rare and poorly recognized entity. The diagnosis is very difficult and complicated by the presence of misleading symptoms.4 In this rare hepatosplenic B-cell lymphoma case, F-18 FDG PET/CT provided a initial diagnostic clue of hepatosplenic lymphoma and an accurate chemotherapy response.

  5. High-temperature effect of hydrogen on sintered alpha-silicon carbide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallum, G. W.; Herbell, T. P.

    1986-01-01

    Sintered alpha-silicon carbide was exposed to pure, dry hydrogen at high temperatures for times up to 500 hr. Weight loss and corrosion were seen after 50 hr at temperatures as low as 1000 C. Corrosion of SiC by hydrogen produced grain boundary deterioration at 1100 C and a mixture of grain and grain boundary deterioration at 1300 C. Statistically significant strength reductions were seen in samples exposed to hydrogen for times greater than 50 hr and temperatures above 1100 C. Critical fracture origins were identified by fractography as either general grain boundary corrision at 1100 C or as corrosion pits at 1300 C. A maximum strength decrease of approximately 33 percent was seen at 1100 and 1300 C after 500 hr exposure to hydrogen. A computer assisted thermodynamic program was also used to predict possible reaction species of SiC and hydrogen.

  6. Tritium recovery as waste sub product in the Fluorine 18 production in a nuclear reactor; Recuperacion de tritio como subproducto de desecho en la produccion de F-18 en un reactor nuclear

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores R, H; Palma G, F A; Ramirez, F M

    1990-09-15

    The tritium is a radioisotope that can be used to carry out basic as applied research. The current researches on the labelling of the organic molecules as well as its application in diagnostic, radiotherapy and hydrology among others confirm the before said. Due to their utility, they have been carried out studies to recover it of radioactive or nuclear waste as well as, to concentrate it of the natural water, the one which due to the nuclear tests in the last decades has gotten rich in tritium. In this work previous studies to recover the tritium coming from the process that was used to produce F-18 following the reaction {sup 6} Li (n, {alpha}) {sup 3} H, {sup 16} O (t, n) {sup 18} F in made up of lithium oxygenated, in the TRIGA Mark III Nuclear Reactor of the Nuclear Center of Mexico. The method consists on purifying by ion exchange the waste solutions where F-18 took place, to distill them and to concentrate them for an electrochemical method. It was already adapts a system reported to concentrate big volumes (approximately 250 ml) in such a way that could be used for small volumes. It was recovered 30% of the considered initial quantity of tritium. A modification to the proposed methodology will allow to recover the waste tritium in a percentage greater to 80%. (Author)

  7. Effects of UAV Supervisory Control on F-18 Formation Flight Performance in a Simulator Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-01

    of stimuli. The complexity and level of multitasking required by aviators is generally viewed as high, but the field could significantly benefit...Strike Lead). Volunteers for this study were recruited from the base by an Institutional Review Board (IRB) approved email sent to squadrons at NAS

  8. N-(4-F-18-Fluorobenzoyl)Interleukin-2 for PET of Human-Activated T Lymphocytes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Di Gialleonardo, Valentina; Signore, Alberto; Glaudemans, Andor W. J. M.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; De Vries, Erik F. J.

    Interleukin-2 (IL2) binds with high affinity to the IL2 receptors overexpressed on activated T lymphocytes in various pathologic conditions. Radiolabeling of IL2 with a positron-emitting isotope could provide a tool for noninvasive PET of activated T cells in immune-mediated diseases. We report the

  9. F-18-Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomography/CT Scanning in Diagnosing Vascular Prosthetic Graft Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saleem, Ben R.; Pol, Robert A.; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Reijnen, Michel M. P. J.; Zeebregts, Clark J.

    2014-01-01

    Vascular prosthetic graft infection (VPGI) is a severe complication after vascular surgery. CT-scan is considered the diagnostic tool of choice in advanced VPGI. The incidence of a false-negative result using CT is relatively high, especially in the presence of low-grade infections.

  10. [Fluorodeoxiglucose F18 positron emission tomography imaging (F18FDG) for the assessment of rising levels of serum CA 19-9 in pancreatic mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. Report of one case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canessa, José A; Larach, Jorge A; Massardo, Teresa; Parra, Juan; Jofré, Josefina; González, Patricio; Morales, Bernardo; Humeres, Pamela; Sierralta, Paulina; Galaz, Rodrigo

    2004-03-01

    We report a 38 year old female patient with a pancreatic mucinous cystadenocarcinoma. She presented at the onset with a peritoneal rupture that required emergency surgery. Five months later, the patient was subjected to a segmental pancreatectomy and splenectomy. One year later, the patient had a serious gastric bleeding secondary to a gastric ulcer. Due to a persistent increase in her CA 19-9 levels, a Positron Emission Tomography (PET) functional imaging with fluorine 18-deoxyglucose (F18FDG) was done. It showed an intense focal hypermetabolism in the gastric wall reported as a secondary tumour location. The patient was subjected to a total gastrectomy and Roux en Y anastomosis, with a good outcome. The pathological study confirmed the presence of a metastasis of an adenocarcinoma in the gastric wall. The relative value of CA 19-9 markers and FDG PET in pancreatic and gastric carcinomas is discussed.

  11. Bone metastasis in patients with non-small cell lung cancer: The diagnostic role of F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Ningbo; Ma Li; Zhou Wei; Pang Qingsong; Hu Man; Shi Fang; Fu Zheng; Li Minghuan; Yang Guoren; Yu Jinming

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the detection of bone metastasis in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients. Materials and methods: Three hundred and sixty-two consecutive NSCLC patients who underwent F-18 FDG PET/CT scanning were retrospectively analyzed. Each image of PET/CT, combined CT, and PET was performed at 10 separate areas and interpreted blindly and separately. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of F-18 FDG PET/CT, combined CT and F-18 FDG PET were calculated and the results were statistically analyzed. Results: Bone metastasis was confirmed in 82 patients with 331 positive segments based on the image findings and clinical follow-up. On patient-based analysis, the sensitivity of F-18 FDG PET/CT (93.9%) was significantly higher than those of combined CT (74.4%) and F-18 FDG PET (84.1%), respectively (p < 0.05). The overall specificity and accuracy of combined CT, F-18 FDG PET, and F-18 FDG PET/CT were 90.7%, 93.2%, 98.9% and 87.0%, 91.2%, and 97.8%, respectively (compared with PET/CT, p < 0.05). On segment-based analysis, the sensitivity of the three modalities were 79.5%, 94.3%, and 98.8%, respectively (compared with PET/CT, p < 0.05). The overall specificity and accuracy of the three modalities were 87.9%, 89.2%, 98.6% and 84.5%, 91.2%, 98.7%, respectively (compared with PET/CT, p < 0.05). Conclusion: F-18 FDG PET/CT is superior to F-18 FDG PET or combined CT in detecting bone metastasis of NSCLC patients because of the complementation of CT and PET. It is worth noting that the added value of F-18 FDG PET/CT may beneficially impact the clinical management of NSCLC.

  12. Quantitative digital image analysis of chromogenic assays for high throughput screening of alpha-amylase mutant libraries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shankar, Manoharan; Priyadharshini, Ramachandran; Gunasekaran, Paramasamy

    2009-08-01

    An image analysis-based method for high throughput screening of an alpha-amylase mutant library using chromogenic assays was developed. Assays were performed in microplates and high resolution images of the assay plates were read using the Virtual Microplate Reader (VMR) script to quantify the concentration of the chromogen. This method is fast and sensitive in quantifying 0.025-0.3 mg starch/ml as well as 0.05-0.75 mg glucose/ml. It was also an effective screening method for improved alpha-amylase activity with a coefficient of variance of 18%.

  13. Simulations of alpha parameters in a TFTR DT supershot with high fusion power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Budny, R.V.; Bell, M.G.; Janos, A.C.

    1995-07-01

    A TFTR supershot with a plasma current of 2.5 MA, neutral beam heating power of 33.7 MW, and a peak DT fusion power of 7.5 MW is studied using the TRANSP plasma analysis code. Simulations of alpha parameters such as the alpha heating, pressure, and distributions in energy and v parallel /v are given. The effects of toroidal ripple and mixing of the fast alpha particles during the sawteeth observed after the neutral beam injection phase are modeled. The distributions of alpha particles on the outer midplane are peaked near forward and backward v parallel /v. Ripple losses deplete the distributions in the vicinity of v parallel /v ∼-0.4. Sawtooth mixing of fast alpha particles is computed to reduce their central density and broaden their width in energy

  14. Costs of F-18-FDG PET: experience with a satellite concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lottes, G.; Kuwert, T.; Schober, O.; Gorschlueter, P.; Adam, D.

    1998-01-01

    Aim: One of the main arguments against the acceptance and introduction of FDG PET as a regular benefit in the statutory Medical Insurance system in Germany are its (alleged) high costs. The aim of the present study has been to determine empirically over a period of twelve months the costs of FDG PET, making use of a satellite concept. Methods: Documentation on performance and consumption data have been assembled for purposes of cost analysis. After analysis these data provided the basis for an assessment of the costs. In view of the high proportion of fixed overheads and strong fluctuations in consumption values, it was not possible to allocate reliably in an individual FDG PET investigation the various types of costs to individual causes. A monthly cost assessment procedure was therefore adopted. For this purpose data were recorded in the Department for Nuclear Medicine, while the statistical assessment of the consumption data and analysis of the costs were undertaken in the Institute of Industrial and Hospital Management. Results: Over the twelve month observation period (November 1995 to October 1996, 177 working days) 433 patients were included in the study: 244 with brain diseases, 37 cardiac patients, 130 whole body studies and 22 combined studies (brain and whole body scans). The non volume based costs, maintenance charges and depreciation accounted for the highest proportion of the total costs (48%). The FDG-related costs accounted for 41% of the total costs, while the personnel costs amounted to 11% and the film costs to only 0.45%. The total costs incurred amounted to DM 1,205,050. Conclusion: These data represent a first empirical cost analysis for FDG PET based on a satellite concept and form a starting point for a cost/benefit analysis of this procedure. (orig.) [de

  15. Investigation of high-alpha lateral-directional control power requirements for high-performance aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foster, John V.; Ross, Holly M.; Ashley, Patrick A.

    1993-01-01

    Designers of the next-generation fighter and attack airplanes are faced with the requirements of good high angle-of-attack maneuverability as well as efficient high speed cruise capability with low radar cross section (RCS) characteristics. As a result, they are challenged with the task of making critical design trades to achieve the desired levels of maneuverability and performance. This task has highlighted the need for comprehensive, flight-validated lateral-directional control power design guidelines for high angles of attack. A joint NASA/U.S. Navy study has been initiated to address this need and to investigate the complex flight dynamics characteristics and controls requirements for high angle-of-attack lateral-directional maneuvering. A multi-year research program is underway which includes groundbased piloted simulation and flight validation. This paper will give a status update of this program that will include a program overview, description of test methodology and preliminary results.

  16. Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose in mood disorders. Studies with positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baxter, L.R. Jr.; Phelps, M.E.; Mazziotta, J.C.; Schwartz, J.M.; Gerner, R.H.; Selin, C.E.; Sumida, R.M.

    1985-01-01

    Cerebral metabolic rates for glucose were examined in patients with unipolar depression (N = 11), bipolar depression (N = 5), mania (N = 5), bipolar mixed states (N = 3), and in normal controls (N = 9) using positron emission tomography and fluorodeoxyglucose F 18. All subjects were studied supine under ambient room conditions with eyes open. Bipolar depressed and mixed patients had supratentorial whole brain glucose metabolic rates that were significantly lower than those of the other comparison groups. The whole brain metabolic rates for patients with bipolar depression increased going from depression or a mixed state to a euthymic or manic state. Patients with unipolar depression showed a significantly lower ratio of the metabolic rate of the caudate nucleus, divided by that of the hemisphere as a whole, when compared with normal controls and patients with bipolar depression

  17. Experience of Dual Time Point Brain F-18 FDG PET/CT Imaging in Patients with Infections Disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dae Weung; Kim, Chang Guhn; Park, Soon Ah; Jung, Sang Ah [Wonkwang University School of Medicine, Iksan (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-06-15

    Dual time point FDG PET imaging (DTPI) has been considered helpful for discrimination of benign and malignant disease, and staging lymph node status in patients with pulmonary malignancy. However, DTPI for benign disease has been rarely reported, and it may show a better description of metabolic status and extent of benign infection disease than early imaging only. The authors report on the use F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography (CT) imaging with additional delayed imaging on a 52-year-old man with sparganosis and a 70-year-old man with tuberculous meningitis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on dual time point PET/CT imaging in patients with cerebral sparganosis and tuberculous meningitis.

  18. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of a case of sacral nerve root neurolymphomatosis that occurred during chemotherapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Matsunaga, Naofumi; Yujiri, Toshiaki; Nakazora, Tatsuki; Ariyoshi, Kouichi

    2011-01-01

    Neurolymphomatosis (NL) is a rare, unique subtype of lymphomatous infiltration of peripheral nerves. Clinical/radiologic diagnosis of NL is challenging. We report F-18 FDG PET/CT findings of a case of breast diffuse large B-cell lymphoma, in which NL developed regardless of regression of systemic lesions during induction chemotherapy. FDG PET/CT showed characteristic findings of well-demarcated, linear abnormal FDG uptake along a sacral vertebral foramen, leading to diagnosis of NL, with the finding of thickened nerve roots on magnetic resonance imaging. Altered chemotherapeutic regimen resulted in disappearance of these abnormal FDG uptake, with recovery of neurologic symptoms. Peripheral nerve NL may occur during chemotherapy, and FDG PET/CT can be a useful imaging modality in diagnosis and monitoring of therapeutic response of this disease.

  19. Radiation exposure to surgical staff during F-18-FDG-guided cancer surgery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Andersen, P.A.; Hesse, B.; Chakera, A.H.; Schmidt, G.; Klausen, T.L.; Binderup, T.; Grossjohann, H.S.; Friis, E.; Hansen, C.P.; Kjaer, A.

    2008-01-01

    High-energy gamma probes have recently become commercially available, developed for 18 F-FDG probe-guided surgery. The radiation received by the staff in the operating room might limit the use of it, but has never been determined. We therefore wanted to measure the absorbed staff doses at operations where patients had received a preoperative injection of 18 F-FDG. Thirty-four patients with different cancers (breast cancer, melanoma, gastrointestinal cancers, respectively) were operated. At every operation the surgeon was monitored with a TLD tablet on his finger of the operating hand and a TLD tablet on the abdomen. The surgeon and anaesthesiologist were also monitored using electronic dosimeters placed in the trousers lining at 25 operations. The dose rate to the surgeon's abdominal wall varied between 7.5-13.2 μSv/h, depending on tumour location. The doses to the anaesthesiologists and the finger doses to the surgeon were much lower. About 350-400 MBq, i.e. ca. eight times higher activities than those used in the present study are supposed to be necessary for guiding surgery. It can be calculated from the body doses measured that a surgeon can perform between 150-260 h of surgery without exceeding permissible limits for professional workers. The radiation load to the operating staff will generally be so small that it does not present any limitation for FDG-guided surgery. However, it is recommended to monitor the surgical staff considering that the surgeon may be exposed to other radiation sources, and since the staff often includes women of child-bearing age. (orig.)

  20. F 18 FDG PET/CT Findings of Spontaneous Mesenteric Fibromatosis in a Patient with Gardner's Syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sohn, Myung Hee; Jeong, Young Jin; Lim, Seok Tae; Kim, Dong Wook; Jeong, Hwan Jeong; Yim, Chang Yeol

    2011-01-01

    Gardner's syndrome (GS), a variant of familial adenomatous polyposis, is an autosomal dominant disease. Originally, Gardner described a syndrome consisting of hereditary intestinal polyposis With osteomas and multiple cutaneous and subcutaneous lesions. The syndrome was later modified by the addition of other features, such as dental abnormalities, abdominal fibromatosis, and a number of malignant tumors. the principal cutaneous lesions that have been described in GS are epidermoid cysts. Other cutaneous lesions include fibromas, lipomas, leiomyomas, neurofibromas, and pigmented skin lesions. Fibromatoses are histologically benign, but locally aggressive fibrous tumors consisting of mature fibroblasts within an extensive collagen matrix. Most cases are sporadic, but there is a clear association with familial adenomatous polyposis and GS, suggesting a link with a mutation of the APC gene on chromosome 5q22. Fibromatosis occurs in 3.5%-29% of patients with GS, and is more likely to be multiple and to involve the mesentery and abdominal wall rather than being an isolated form. Clinically, fibromatosis presents as a painless firm soft tissue mass. Most cases of fibromatosis are believed to be precipitated by surgical trauma, however, a few cases of spontaneous occurrence have been reported. In our patient, no history of abdominal surgery or trauma was present. In addition, an abdominal CT obtained 2 years ago revealed no abnormality. Although the radiological features of fibromatosis on CT or MR have been described in the literature, F 18 FDG PET or PET/CT findings are rarely reported. The F 18 FDG uptake in patients with fibromatosis ranged from low to moderate grade and was generally heterogenous with a few tiny foci of relatively intense uptake or relatively homogenous. The areas of higher FDG metabolism are likely to represent more cellular and mitotically active areas. Mesenteric fibromatosis has similar findings to extra abdominal lesions.

  1. Value of F-18 FDG hybrid camera PET and MRI in early takayasu aortitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meller, J.; Becker, W. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Georg August University, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany); Grabbe, E.; Vosshenrich, R. [Department of Radiology, Georg August University, Robert Koch Strasse 40, 37075 Goettingen (Germany)

    2003-02-01

    Takayasu aortitis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic vasculitis of large- and medium-sized arteries. Early stages of the disease show a panarteritis and inflammatory wall thickening of the aorta and its branches, whereas advanced (fibrotic) stages comprise stenosis, aneurismatic transformation and occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging visualises early-stage disease with high accuracy and is considered to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of TA. The aim of this article is the detailed comparison of FDG-PET performed with a hybrid camera and MR imaging in five patients with early TA. Five patients (median age 60 years) were enrolled during an ongoing prospective study on [18F]2'-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) hybrid camera PET in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). These patients underwent MR imaging after establishing the diagnosis of TA. Abnormal FDG uptake in the wall of the aorta was noted in all patients. The bracheocephalic artery and the common carotid arteries were visualized in 3 cases. Increased uptake of the subclavian artery was found in 3 patients and in 4 patients pathological uptake was noted in the ilio-femoral vessels. Of 34 vascular regions studied, 26 (76%) showed elevated FDG uptake. On transversal MR images vessel wall thickening and contrast enhancement of the thoracic aorta was found in 4 patients (ascending aorta/aortic arch: n=2; descending aorta: n=3; abdominal aorta: n=1). Additionally, vessel wall pathologies of the subclavian and the common carotid arteries could be shown in 1 patient and in another patient in the ilio-femoral arteries. No abnormalities were found using contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Of 28 vascular regions studied, 9 (32%) showed vasculitis on MRI. The FDG-PET is a suitable whole-body screening method in the primary diagnosis of early TA, especially in those cases with early disease that present with uncharacteristic symptoms such as FUO. Both MRI and MRA remain indispensable in the exact

  2. Value of F-18 FDG hybrid camera PET and MRI in early takayasu aortitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meller, J.; Becker, W.; Grabbe, E.; Vosshenrich, R.

    2003-01-01

    Takayasu aortitis (TA) is a chronic inflammatory and fibrotic vasculitis of large- and medium-sized arteries. Early stages of the disease show a panarteritis and inflammatory wall thickening of the aorta and its branches, whereas advanced (fibrotic) stages comprise stenosis, aneurismatic transformation and occlusion. Magnetic resonance imaging visualises early-stage disease with high accuracy and is considered to be the method of choice in the diagnosis of TA. The aim of this article is the detailed comparison of FDG-PET performed with a hybrid camera and MR imaging in five patients with early TA. Five patients (median age 60 years) were enrolled during an ongoing prospective study on [18F]2'-deoxy-2-fluoro-D-glucose (FDG) hybrid camera PET in patients with fever of unknown origin (FUO). These patients underwent MR imaging after establishing the diagnosis of TA. Abnormal FDG uptake in the wall of the aorta was noted in all patients. The bracheocephalic artery and the common carotid arteries were visualized in 3 cases. Increased uptake of the subclavian artery was found in 3 patients and in 4 patients pathological uptake was noted in the ilio-femoral vessels. Of 34 vascular regions studied, 26 (76%) showed elevated FDG uptake. On transversal MR images vessel wall thickening and contrast enhancement of the thoracic aorta was found in 4 patients (ascending aorta/aortic arch: n=2; descending aorta: n=3; abdominal aorta: n=1). Additionally, vessel wall pathologies of the subclavian and the common carotid arteries could be shown in 1 patient and in another patient in the ilio-femoral arteries. No abnormalities were found using contrast-enhanced MR angiography. Of 28 vascular regions studied, 9 (32%) showed vasculitis on MRI. The FDG-PET is a suitable whole-body screening method in the primary diagnosis of early TA, especially in those cases with early disease that present with uncharacteristic symptoms such as FUO. Both MRI and MRA remain indispensable in the exact

  3. Biological characterization of F-18-labeled rhodamine B, a potential positron emission tomography perfusion tracer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartholomä, Mark D; He, Huamei; Pacak, Christina A; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic H; McGowan, Francis X; Cowan, Douglas B; Treves, S Ted; Packard, Alan B

    2013-11-01

    Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in western countries, and positron emission tomography (PET) plays an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment planning for this disease. However, the absence of an (18)F-labeled PET myocardial perfusion tracer hampers the widespread use of PET in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We recently reported a potential MPI agent based on (18)F-labeled rhodamine B. The goal of this study was to more completely define the biological properties of (18)F-labeled rhodamine B with respect to uptake and localization in an animal model of myocardial infarction and to evaluate the uptake (18)F-labeled rhodamine B by cardiomyocytes. A total of 12 female Sprague Dawley rats with a permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied with small-animal PET. The animals were injected with 100-150 μCi of (18)F-labeled rhodamine B diethylene glycol ester ([(18)F]RhoBDEGF) and imaged two days before ligation. The animals were imaged again two to ten days post-ligation. After the post-surgery scans, the animals were euthanized and the hearts were sectioned into 1mm slices and myocardial infarct size was determined by phosphorimaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC). In addition, the uptake of [(18)F]RhoBDEGF in isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Small-animal PET showed intense and uniform uptake of [(18)F]RhoBDEGF throughout the myocardium in healthy rats. After LAD ligation, well defined perfusion defects were observed in the PET images. The defect size was highly correlated with the infarct size as determined ex vivo by phosphorimaging and TTC staining. In vitro, [(18)F]RhoBDEGF was rapidly internalized into rat cardiomyocytes with ~40 % of the initial activity internalized within the 60 min incubation time. Fluorescence microscopy clearly demonstrated localization of [(18)F]RhoBDEGF in the mitochondria of rat cardiomyocytes. Fluorine-18

  4. Biological characterization of F-18-labeled rhodamine B, a potential positron emission tomography perfusion tracer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomä, Mark D.; He, Huamei; Pacak, Christina A.; Dunning, Patricia; Fahey, Frederic H.; McGowan, Francis X.; Cowan, Douglas B.; Treves, S. Ted; Packard, Alan B.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: Myocardial infarction is the leading cause of death in western countries, and positron emission tomography (PET) plays an increasing role in the diagnosis and treatment planning for this disease. However, the absence of an 18 F-labeled PET myocardial perfusion tracer hampers the widespread use of PET in myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI). We recently reported a potential MPI agent based on 18 F-labeled rhodamine B. The goal of this study was to more completely define the biological properties of 18 F-labeled rhodamine B with respect to uptake and localization in an animal model of myocardial infarction and to evaluate the uptake 18 F-labeled rhodamine B by cardiomyocytes. Methods: A total of 12 female Sprague Dawley rats with a permanent ligation of the left anterior descending artery (LAD) were studied with small-animal PET. The animals were injected with 100–150 μCi of 18 F-labeled rhodamine B diethylene glycol ester ([ 18 F]RhoBDEGF) and imaged two days before ligation. The animals were imaged again two to ten days post-ligation. After the post-surgery scans, the animals were euthanized and the hearts were sectioned into 1 mm slices and myocardial infarct size was determined by phosphorimaging and 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining (TTC). In addition, the uptake of [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF in isolated rat neonatal cardiomyocytes was determined by fluorescence microscopy. Results: Small-animal PET showed intense and uniform uptake of [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF throughout the myocardium in healthy rats. After LAD ligation, well defined perfusion defects were observed in the PET images. The defect size was highly correlated with the infarct size as determined ex vivo by phosphorimaging and TTC staining. In vitro, [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF was rapidly internalized into rat cardiomyocytes with ∼ 40 % of the initial activity internalized within the 60 min incubation time. Fluorescence microscopy clearly demonstrated localization of [ 18 F]RhoBDEGF in the mitochondria

  5. Improved synthesis with high yield and increased molecular weight of poly(alpha,beta-malic acid) by direct polycondensation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajiyama, Tetsuto; Kobayashi, Hisatoshi; Taguchi, Tetsushi; Kataoka, Kazunori; Tanaka, Junzo

    2004-01-01

    The development of synthetic biodegradable polymers, such as poly(alpha-hydroxy acid), is particularly important for constructing medical devices, including scaffolds and sutures, and has attracted growing interest in the biomedical field. Here, we report a novel approach to preparing high molecular weight poly(malic acid) (HMW--PMA) as a biodegradable and bioabsorbable water-soluble polymer. We investigated in detail the reaction conditions for the simple direct polycondensation of l-malic acid, including the reaction times, temperatures, and catalysts. The molecular weight of synthesized alpha,beta-PMA is dependent on both the reaction temperature and time. The optimum reaction condition to obtain alpha,beta-PMA by direct polycondensation using tin(II) chloride as a catalyst was thus determined to be 110 degrees C for 45 h with a molecular weight of 5300. The method for alpha,beta-PMA synthesis established here will facilitate production of alpha,beta-PMA of various molecular weights, which may have a potential utility as biomaterials.

  6. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High Alpha Flow Visualization. Part 1: Discussion

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  7. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High ALPHA Flow Visualization. Part 2 Stationary Model Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  8. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High Alpha Flow Visualization

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1997-01-01

    ...) at low alpha condition typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  9. Analysis of Limit Cycle Oscillation/Transonic High ALPHA Flow Visualization. Part 3 Oscillating Model Data

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Cunningham, Atlee M

    1998-01-01

    ...) at low alpha conditions typical of transonic LCO flows with and without tip stores. Laser light sheet/water vapor techniques were used to illuminate the flows, and video recording was used to obtain the data...

  10. Differentiation of medial or lateral temporal lobe epilepsy by F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography: comparative study with magnetic resonance imaging in 113 surgically and pathologically proven patients

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Chang, Ki Hyun; Chung, Chun Kee; Choi, Ki Young; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    1999-01-01

    As mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) shows hypometabolism of medial and lateral temporal lobe, we investigated whether symmetric uptake of F-18-FDG in medial temporal lobes can differentiate mesial from lateral TLE. In 113 patients (83 mesial TLE, 30 lateral TLE) who underwent anterior temporal lobectomy and/or corticectomy with good surgical outcome, we performed F-18-FDG PET and compared F-18-FDG uptake of medial and lateral temporal lobes. All the patients with mesial TLE had hippocampal sclerosis except one congenital abnormal hippocampus. Patients with lateral TLE revealed cerebromalacia, microdysgenesis, arteriovenous malformation, old contusion, and cortical dysplasia. Sensitivity of F-18-FDG PET and MR for mesial TLE was 84% (70/83) and 73% (62/83), respectively. Sensitivity of F-18-FDG PET and MR for lateral TLE was 90% (27/30) and 66% (20/30), respectively. Twelve patients were normal on F-18-FDG PET. 101 patients had hypometabolism of lateral temporal lobe. Among 88 patients who showed hypometabolism of medial temporal lobe as well as lateral temporal lobe, 70 were mesial TLE patients and 18 were lateral TLE on pathologic examination. Positive predictive value of medial temporal hypometabolism for mesial TLE was 80%. Among 13 patients who showed hypometabolism of only lateral temporal lobe, 4 were mesial TLE and 9 were lateral TLE. Positive predictive value of hypometabolism of lateral temporal lobe for the diagnosis of lateral TLE was 69% (9/ 13). Normal MR findings stood against medial TLE, whose negative predictive value was 66%. Lateral temporal lobe epilepsy should be suspected when there is decreased F-18-FDG uptake in lateral temporal lobe with normal uptake in medial temporal lobe

  11. F-18 Radiopharmaceuticals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2001-12-01

    This document includes 8 presentations delivered at the symposium. The topics discussed include: optimization of accelerator production of 18 F- and 18 F 2 -fluorodeoxyglucose; radiopharmaceuticals synthesis, synthesis modules, pharmacopoeia and GLP; quality control; radiation safety of production and application; PET imaging in human medicine. Each presentation has been indexed separately

  12. F-18 labelling agents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikecz, P.

    2001-01-01

    In this presentation the production of fluorine-18, separation of [ 18 F]fluoride, converting fluoride into fluorine as well as fluorine incorporation into organic molecules are reviewed. Reaction schemes and technology schemes are included. Towards organic reactions, with help of small molecules of the 18 F can be introduced into a wide variety of radiopharmaceuticals. (author)

  13. UNUSUAL ENERGY-DEPENDENCE OF THE TOTAL NUCLEAR-REACTION CROSS-SECTION FOR A SECONDARY ISOMERIC NUCLEAR BEAM (F-18(M), J(PI)=5(+), E(X)=1.1 MEV)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ROBERTS, DA; BECCHETTI, FD; BROWN, JA; JANECKE, J; PHAM, K; ODONNELL, TW; WARNER, RE; RONNINGEN, RM; WILSCHUT, HW

    1995-01-01

    A primary O-17 beam has been used to produce a 22.3 MeV/nucleon F-18(m) isomeric secondary beam via a single nucleon transfer reaction on a carbon target. The total nuclear reaction cross sections for F-18(m) and F-18(g.s.) in silicon were measured in a stack of seven silicon solid-state detectors.

  14. Measurement of natural radioactivity in chemical fertilizer and agricultural soil: evidence of high alpha activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Dipak; Deb, Argha; Bera, Sukumar; Sengupta, Rosalima; Patra, Kanchan Kumar

    2008-02-01

    People are exposed to ionizing radiation from the radionuclides that are present in different types of natural sources, of which phosphate fertilizer is one of the most important sources. Radionuclides in phosphate fertilizer belonging to 232Th and 238U series as well as radioisotope of potassium (40K) are the major contributors of outdoor terrestrial natural radiation. The study of alpha activity in fertilizers, which is the first ever in West Bengal, has been performed in order to determine the effect of the use of phosphate fertilizers on human health. The data have been compared with the alpha activity of different types of chemical fertilizers. The measurement of alpha activity in surface soil samples collected from the cultivated land was also performed. The sampling sites were randomly selected in the cultivated land in the Midnapore district, which is the largest district in West Bengal. The phosphate fertilizer is widely used for large agricultural production, mainly potatoes. The alpha activities have been measured using solid-state nuclear track detectors (SSNTD), a very sensitive detector for alpha particles. The results show that alpha activity of those fertilizer and soil samples varies from 141 Bq/kg to 2,589 Bq/kg and from 109 Bq/kg to 660 Bq/kg, respectively. These results were used to estimate environmental radiation exposure on human health contributed by the direct application of fertilizers.

  15. High-Alpha Research Vehicle Lateral-Directional Control Law Description, Analyses, and Simulation Results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, John B.; Murphy, Patrick C.; Lallman, Frederick J.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Bacon, Barton J.

    1998-01-01

    This report contains a description of a lateral-directional control law designed for the NASA High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The HARV is a F/A-18 aircraft modified to include a research flight computer, spin chute, and thrust-vectoring in the pitch and yaw axes. Two separate design tools, CRAFT and Pseudo Controls, were integrated to synthesize the lateral-directional control law. This report contains a description of the lateral-directional control law, analyses, and nonlinear simulation (batch and piloted) results. Linear analysis results include closed-loop eigenvalues, stability margins, robustness to changes in various plant parameters, and servo-elastic frequency responses. Step time responses from nonlinear batch simulation are presented and compared to design guidelines. Piloted simulation task scenarios, task guidelines, and pilot subjective ratings for the various maneuvers are discussed. Linear analysis shows that the control law meets the stability margin guidelines and is robust to stability and control parameter changes. Nonlinear batch simulation analysis shows the control law exhibits good performance and meets most of the design guidelines over the entire range of angle-of-attack. This control law (designated NASA-1A) was flight tested during the Summer of 1994 at NASA Dryden Flight Research Center.

  16. Factors influencing [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) uptake in melanoma cells. The role of proliferation rate, viability, glucose transporter expression and hexokinase activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Kiyoshi; Brink, I.; Bisse, E.; Epting, T.; Engelhardt, R.

    2005-01-01

    Using human (SK-MEL 23, SK-MEL 24 and G361) and murine (B16) melanoma cell lines, the coregulatory potential of the uptake of the positron emission tomography (PET) tracer, [Fluorine-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) has been investigated in relationship to tumor characteristics. Comparative studies among the four melanoma cell lines demonstrated that the lowest FDG uptake in SK-MEL 24 corresponded strongly to the data for DT (population doubling time) and MTT (tetrazolium salt) cell viability as well as hexokinase (HK) activity, but was not related to the glucose transporter 1 (GLUT 1) expression level. Furthermore, the FDG uptake in each melanoma cell line measured by cell cycle kinetics was significantly positively correlated to both the proliferation index (PI=S/G 2 M phase fractions) and the cell viability, though with one exception relating to the proliferation index (PI) of the lowest FDG uptake cell line, SK-MEL 24. No positive correlation was found between the expression of GLUT 1 and FDG uptake in any individual cell line. However, the HK activities in SK-MEL 23 and 24 showed considerable positive relationships with FDG uptake. Our present study suggests that both the proliferation rate and the cell viability of melanoma cells may be key factors for FDG uptake and that HK activity, rather than GLUT 1 expression, seems to be a major factor. (author)

  17. Brain F-18 FDG PET for localization of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy: visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, Chun Kee; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the sensitivity of the F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis for the localization of the epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy. Twenty-four patients with frontal lobe epilepsy were examined. All patients exhibited improvements after surgical resection (Engel class I or II). Upon pathological examination, 18 patients revealed cortical dysplasia, 4 patients revealed tumor, and 2 patients revealed cortical scar. The hypometabolic lesions were found in F-18 FDG PET by visual assessment and SPM analysis. On SPM analysis, cutoff threshold was changed. MRI showed structural lesions in 12 patients and normal results in the remaining 12. F-18 FDG PET correctly localized epileptogenic zones in 13 patients (54%) by visual assessment. Sensitivity of F-18 FDG PET in MR-negative patients (50%) was similar to that in MR-positive patients (67%). On SPM analysis, sensitivity deceased according to the decrease of p value. Using uncorrected p value of 0.05 as threshold, sensitivity of SPM analysis was 63%, which was not statistically different from that of visual assessment. F-18 FDG PET was sensitive in finding epileptogenic zones by revealing hypometabolic areas even in MR-negative patients with frontal lobe epilepsy as well as in MR-positive patients. SPM analysis showed comparable sensitivity to visual assessment and could be used as an aid in the diagnosis of epileptogenic zones in frontal lobe epilepsy

  18. Synthesis of stereo (R and S) and geometric (E and Z) [F-18]fluoro-β-fluoromethylene-M-tyrosine derivatives: specific PET probes for central dopamine systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lacan, G.; Barrio, J.R.; Satyamurthy, N.; Yu, D.C.; Huang, S.C.; Phelps, M.E.

    1994-01-01

    Racemic β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (FMMl) was developed as an aromatic amino acid decarboxylase (AAAD)- activated monoamine oxidase (MAO) suicide inhibitor. Direct [F-18] fluorination of pure enantiomers, R and S-(E)-β- fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (E-FMMT) and the racemic geometric isomer R,S(Z)-β-fluoromethylene-m-tyrosine (Z-FMMT) with [F- 18] acetylhypofluorite, afforded 6- and 2[F-18] fluoro positional isomers as the major products. Regioselective radiofluorodestannylation of the respective 4-trimethylstannyl R,S- (E) - FMMT with [F-18]F 2 yielded the 4[F-18] fluoro derivative, thus allowing for the systematic evaluation of the regio- and stereo radiofluorinated AAAD probes. Macacca nemestrina monkeys were injected iv with purified radiofluorinated FMMT analogs and the distribution of activity in the central dopaminergic system was studied with positron emission tomography (PET). Radiofluorinated stereo and geometric FMMT derivatives showed significant differences in their in vivo striatal localization, with radioprobe localization decreasing in the order: 6F-S-(E)-FMMT >> 2F-S-(E)- FMMT >> 4F-R,S-(E)-FMMT. Neither radiofluorinated analogs of R-(E)- FMMT and R,S-(Z)-FMMT showed any significant striatal localization in vivo. (author)

  19. WE-H-207A-03: The Universality of the Lognormal Behavior of [F-18]FLT PET SUV Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scarpelli, M; Eickhoff, J; Perlman, S; Jeraj, R

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Log transforming [F-18]FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) has been shown to lead to normal SUV distributions, which allows utilization of powerful parametric statistical models. This study identified the optimal transformation leading to normally distributed [F-18]FLT PET SUVs from solid tumors and offers an example of how normal distributions permits analysis of non-independent/correlated measurements. Methods: Forty patients with various metastatic diseases underwent up to six FLT PET/CT scans during treatment. Tumors were identified by nuclear medicine physician and manually segmented. Average uptake was extracted for each patient giving a global SUVmean (gSUVmean) for each scan. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test distribution normality. One parameter Box-Cox transformations were applied to each of the six gSUVmean distributions and the optimal transformation was found by selecting the parameter that maximized the Shapiro-Wilk test statistic. The relationship between gSUVmean and a serum biomarker (VEGF) collected at imaging timepoints was determined using a linear mixed effects model (LMEM), which accounted for correlated/non-independent measurements from the same individual. Results: Untransformed gSUVmean distributions were found to be significantly non-normal (p<0.05). The optimal transformation parameter had a value of 0.3 (95%CI: −0.4 to 1.6). Given the optimal parameter was close to zero (which corresponds to log transformation), the data were subsequently log transformed. All log transformed gSUVmean distributions were normally distributed (p>0.10 for all timepoints). Log transformed data were incorporated into the LMEM. VEGF serum levels significantly correlated with gSUVmean (p<0.001), revealing log-linear relationship between SUVs and underlying biology. Conclusion: Failure to account for correlated/non-independent measurements can lead to invalid conclusions and motivated transformation to normally distributed SUVs. The log

  20. WE-H-207A-03: The Universality of the Lognormal Behavior of [F-18]FLT PET SUV Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scarpelli, M; Eickhoff, J; Perlman, S; Jeraj, R

    2016-06-15

    Purpose: Log transforming [F-18]FDG PET standardized uptake values (SUVs) has been shown to lead to normal SUV distributions, which allows utilization of powerful parametric statistical models. This study identified the optimal transformation leading to normally distributed [F-18]FLT PET SUVs from solid tumors and offers an example of how normal distributions permits analysis of non-independent/correlated measurements. Methods: Forty patients with various metastatic diseases underwent up to six FLT PET/CT scans during treatment. Tumors were identified by nuclear medicine physician and manually segmented. Average uptake was extracted for each patient giving a global SUVmean (gSUVmean) for each scan. The Shapiro-Wilk test was used to test distribution normality. One parameter Box-Cox transformations were applied to each of the six gSUVmean distributions and the optimal transformation was found by selecting the parameter that maximized the Shapiro-Wilk test statistic. The relationship between gSUVmean and a serum biomarker (VEGF) collected at imaging timepoints was determined using a linear mixed effects model (LMEM), which accounted for correlated/non-independent measurements from the same individual. Results: Untransformed gSUVmean distributions were found to be significantly non-normal (p<0.05). The optimal transformation parameter had a value of 0.3 (95%CI: −0.4 to 1.6). Given the optimal parameter was close to zero (which corresponds to log transformation), the data were subsequently log transformed. All log transformed gSUVmean distributions were normally distributed (p>0.10 for all timepoints). Log transformed data were incorporated into the LMEM. VEGF serum levels significantly correlated with gSUVmean (p<0.001), revealing log-linear relationship between SUVs and underlying biology. Conclusion: Failure to account for correlated/non-independent measurements can lead to invalid conclusions and motivated transformation to normally distributed SUVs. The log

  1. Reduction in high blood tumor necrosis factor-alpha levels after manipulative therapy in 2 cervicogenic headache patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ormos, Gábor; Mehrishi, J N; Bakács, Tibor

    2009-09-01

    This case report discusses the treatment of 2 patients with cervicogenic headache (CHA) attending the Outpatient Clinic of the Hungarian National Institute for Rheumatology and Physiotherapy (Budapest, Hungary) and reviews the pathophysiology, therapeutic strategy, and problems associated with the treatment of CHA. Patient 1 was a 27-year-old female who sustained a whiplash injury. A sharp, shooting headache developed, readily induced, and aggravated by just bending the neck backward or by turning her head. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a disk protrusion at C4-C5 pressing the anterior cerebrospinal space. Patient 2 was a 62-year-old female who sustained a whiplash injury; her cervical movements became restricted, which precipitated headaches. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a paramedian disk hernia between the C4 and C5 vertebrae that intruded into the right ventral cerebrospinal space. After 4 weeks of manipulative therapy for patient 1, both active and passive range of motion returned to normal, and the high tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) level (63 pg/mL) was substantially reduced (28 pg/mL). Patient 2 was started on manipulative therapy twice a week for 4 weeks; after 2 months, the patient became symptom-free, and high TNF-alpha level (72 pg/mL) was reduced greatly (35 pg/mL). Two patients with whiplash injury and disk herniation developed CHA associated with very high TNF-alpha levels. After manipulative therapy, these patients became symptom-free, and their TNF-alpha levels decreased substantially.

  2. High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}-{alpha}-Aspartyl- L-Glutamic at micro mole scale; Sintesis de N-Acetil-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartil-Glutamico a escala de Micromoles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez, C

    1984-07-01

    High specific activity N-Acetyl-3{sup H}- {alpha} -Aspartyl-I-Glutamic acid at micro mole scale in prepared acetylating L- {alpha} -Aspartyl-L-glutamic with 3{sup H}-acetic anhydride in re distilled toluene. The product le purified through cationic and anionic columns. The radiochemical purity as determined by thin-layer chromatography is greater then 99% at the time preparation. (Author) 5 refs.

  3. Cryogenic microcalorimeter system for ultra-high resolution alpha-particle spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rabin, Michael W.; Hoover, Andrew S.; Bacrania, Minesh K.; Croce, Mark P.; Hoteling, N.J.; Lamont, S.P.; Plionis, A.A.; Dry, D.E.; Ullom, J.N.; Bennett, D.A.; Horansky, R.; Kotsubo, V.; Cantor, R.

    2009-01-01

    Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with ∼15 uK peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis, This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha spectrometer, and will show recent results.

  4. Cryogenic Microcalorimeter System for Ultra-High Resolution Alpha-Particle Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croce, M. P.; Bacrania, M. K.; Hoover, A. S.; Rabin, M. W.; Hoteling, N. J.; LaMont, S. P.; Plionis, A. A.; Dry, D. E.; Ullom, J. N.; Bennett, D. A.; Horansky, R. D.; Kotsubo, V.; Cantor, R.

    2009-12-01

    Microcalorimeters have been shown to yield unsurpassed energy resolution for alpha spectrometry, up to 1.06 keV FWHM at 5.3 MeV. These detectors use a superconducting transition-edge sensor (TES) to measure the temperature change in an absorber from energy deposited by an interacting alpha particle. Our system has four independent detectors mounted inside a liquid nitrogen/liquid helium cryostat. An adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (ADR) cools the detector stage to its operating temperature of 80 mK. Temperature regulation with ˜15-μK peak-to-peak variation is achieved by PID control of the ADR. The detectors are voltage-biased, and the current signal is amplified by a commercial SQUID readout system and digitized for further analysis. This paper will discuss design and operation of our microcalorimeter alpha-particle spectrometer, and will show recent results.

  5. Identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium: feasibility of post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marwick, T.H.; MacIntyre, W.J.; Salcedo, E.E.; Go, R.T.; Saha, G.; Beachler, A.

    1991-01-01

    The identification of ischemic and hibernating myocardium facilitates the selection of patients most likely to benefit from revascularization. This study examined the feasibility of metabolic imaging, using post-exercise F-18 deoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) for the diagnosis of both ischemia and hibernation in 27 patients with known coronary anatomy. Normal post-exercise FDG uptake was defined in each patient by reference to normal resting perfusion and normal coronary supply. Abnormal elevation of FDG (ischemia or hibernation) was compared in 13 myocardial segments in each patient, with the results of dipyridamole stress perfusion imaging performed by rubidium-82 positron emission tomography (Rb-PET). Myocardial ischemia was diagnosed by either FDG-PET or Rb-PET in 34 segments subtended by significant local coronary stenoses. Increased FDG uptake was present in 32/34 (94%) and a reversible perfusion defect was identified by Rb-PET in 22/34 (65%, p less than .01). In 3 patients, ischemia was identified by metabolic imaging alone. In 16 patients with previous myocardial infarction, perfusion defects were present at rest in 89 regions, 30 of which (34%) demonstrated increased FDG uptake, consistent with the presence of hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. Increased post-exercise FDG uptake, appears to be a sensitive indicator of ischemia and myocardial hibernation. This test may be useful in selecting post-infarction patients for revascularization

  6. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease measured by positron emission tomography with (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54 year old male subject with autopsy confirmed CJD using (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. An x-ray computed tomographic study of the brain performed 4 days prior to PET was normal. In the PET study the frontal to temporal cortex difference of activity densities was 30% on the left and 12% on the right, reflecting temporal hypometabolism. The left-right temporal cortex difference of activity density was 25%, documenting marked hemispheric asymmetry. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are distinctly different from PET-FDG finding in patients with other dementing illnesses or in healthy aged subjects. Recent work has demonstrated extensive biological similarities between CJD, scrapie and AD. The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that AD is caused by a slow infectious (prion-like) pathogen

  7. Computer-assisted lateralization of unilateral temporal lobe epilepsy using Z-score parametric F-18 FDG PET images

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, Ching-yee Oliver; Gannon, James; Bong, Jeffrey; Wong, Christiana O; Saha, Gopal B

    2007-01-01

    To evaluate the use of unbiased computer-assisted lateralization of temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) by z-score parametric PET imaging (ZPET). 38 patients with histologically proven unilateral TLE due to pure hippocampal sclerosis, referred for pre-surgical PET evaluation of intractable seizure over a 5-year period, were included. The F-18 FDG images were oriented along temporal long axis and then transformed into ZPET images on a voxel by voxel basis. Multiple regions of interests (21 in total) were placed on cortical, subcortical and cerebellar structures on twenty-eight out of 38 patients with totally seizure-free (class I) outcome. Paired t-tests with Bonferroni correction were used to determine the location of the most asymmetric regions as variables for subsequent discriminant analysis of the entire group of the patients. The computer program identified the anterior half of the temporal lobe (p < 0.0005) and thalami (p = 0.021) as the most asymmetric regions in TLE patients with Class I outcome. Discriminant analysis using z-scores from a total of 8 ROIs (in 4 pairs) on these structures correctly lateralized thirty-seven out of 38 (97%) patients (sensitivity = 94%; specificity = 100%). The only false localization came from a patient with equivocal z-scores on the temporal lobes and this patient turned out to have poor outcome. The computer-assisted lateralization of TLE using ZPET provides an accurate, fast and objective way of seizure evaluation

  8. Analysis of blood clearance and labeled metabolites for the estrogen receptor tracer [F-18]-16α-fluorestradiol (FES)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mankoff, David A.; Tewson, Timothy J.; Eary, Janet F.

    1997-01-01

    [F-18] 16α-Fluoroestradiol (FES) has been shown to be a tracer of estrogen receptor content in breast tumors; however, quantitative analysis of FES images is complicated by the rapid metabolism of the tracer in vivo. To optimize FES PET imaging studies and to provide an input function for the quantitative analysis of the tracer FES uptake in breast tumors, we studied the clearance and metabolism of FES in 15 breast cancer patients. FES clearance, protein binding, and metabolite production and limited assays to determine the identity of labeled metabolites were performed. These studies show that FES was rapidly cleared from the blood and metabolized; at 20 min only 20% of the circulating radioactivity was unmetabolized FES, and much of this was protein bound. The detectable metabolites in either blood or urine are conjugation products, largely the glucuronide and the sulfate of FES, and these are excreted through the kidneys at a rate comparable to their introduction into the circulation. After 20 min postinjection the blood levels of radioactivity remain fairly constant. Our results, the first report on human metabolites, are in close agreement with previous animal studies of FES metabolism. These studies show that because FES clearance is rapid and metabolite background is nearly constant, imaging starting at 20 to 30 min after injection may provide good visualization of estrogen-containing tissues. Labeled metabolites need to be accounted for in quantifying FES uptake

  9. Bitemporal hypometabolism in Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease measured by positron emission tomography with (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedland, R.P.; Budinger, T.F.; Prusiner, S.B.; Jagust, W.J.

    1984-01-01

    It is well established that Creutzfeldt-Jakob Disease (CJD) is caused by a slow infectious agent similar to the scrapie prion. However, the pathogenesis of this infection is poorly understood. Positron emission tomography (PET) was performed on a 54 year old male subject with autopsy confirmed CJD using (F-18)2-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) and the Donner 280-crystal tomograph. An x-ray computed tomographic study of the brain performed 4 days prior to PET was normal. In the PET study the frontal to temporal cortex difference of activity densities was 30% on the left and 12% on the right, reflecting temporal hypometabolism. The left-right temporal cortex difference of activity density was 25%, documenting marked hemispheric asymmetry. These findings are similar to those previously obtained in PET-FDG studies of patients with clinically defined Alzheimer's Disease (AD) and are distinctly different from PET-FDG finding in patients with other dementing illnesses or in healthy aged subjects. Recent work has demonstrated extensive biological similarities between CJD, scrapie and AD. The similarities in the regional metabolic alterations between CJD and AD provide additional evidence for the hypothesis that AD is caused by a slow infectious (prion-like) pathogen.

  10. Difference in F-18 FDG Uptake According to the Patterns of CT-Based Diagnosed Pulmonary Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis in Patients with Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jun, Sung Min; Kim, Yong Ki; Kim, In Ju; Kim, Seong Jang; Nam, Hyun Yeol; Kim, Bum Soo

    2008-01-01

    Our purpose was to evaluate F-18 FDG uptake in pulmonary lymphangitic carcinomatosis (PLC) according to CT findings and histology of lung cancer. Thirty-three lung cancer patients with PLC were enrolled in this retrospective study. All the patients had a CT-based diagnosis of PLC. Chest CT findings of PLC were classified on the basis of involvement of axial interstitium. We categorized the involvement of axial interstitium as group 1, and the involvement of peripheral interstitium only as group 2. Visual and semiquantitative analyses by F-18 FDG PET/CT were performed in the PLC lesions. At first, we analyzed the F-18 FDG uptake in the PLC by visual assessment. If abnormal uptake was seen in the PLC, we drew regions of interest in the PLC lesions to obtain the maximum SUVs (maxSUVs). Of the 33 patients, 22 had abnormal F-18 FDG uptake in the visual assessment. There was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal F-18 FDG uptake between group 1 and group 2 (p=0.17), although the frequency of group 1 tended to be higher than group 2 (15/19 (78.9%) in group 1, 7/14 (50.0%) in group 2). However, group 1 had a higher maxSUV than group 2 (p<0.01, group 1: 2.9±1.4, group 2: 1.5±0.6). There was no significant difference in the frequency of abnormal F-18 FDG uptake and maxSUV among the histology of the lung cancers. The involvement of axial interstitium in the PLC by lung cancer has a higher maxSUV than the involvement of only peripheral interstitium

  11. Unexpected second primary malignancies detected by f-18 FDG PET/CT during follow-up for primary malignancy: Two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, Ji In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki [Nuclear Medicine, Research Institute and Hospital, National Cancer Center, Goyang (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-03-15

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases.

  12. Unexpected second primary malignancies detected by f-18 FDG PET/CT during follow-up for primary malignancy: Two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bang, Ji In; Lee, Eun Seong; Kim, Tae Sung; Kim, Seok Ki

    2015-01-01

    As the survival rate of cancer patients has increased over the last few decades, the risk of cancer survivors developing second primary malignancies has gained attention. We report two rare cases of second primary hematologic malignancy detected by 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) during follow-up for primary solid malignancies. Acute lymphoblastic leukemia developed in a breast cancer patient and non-Hodgkin lymphoma in an anal cancer patient. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings led to the diagnosis of unexpected second primary hematologic malignancy in cancer survivors in these two cases

  13. Purification, enzymatic characterization, and nucleotide sequence of a high-isoelectric-point alpha-glucosidase from barley malt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frandsen, T P; Lok, F; Mirgorodskaya, E

    2000-01-01

    in the transition state complex. Mass spectrometry of tryptic fragments assigned the 92-kD protein to a barley cDNA (GenBank accession no. U22450) that appears to encode an alpha-glucosidase. A corresponding sequence (HvAgl97; GenBank accession no. AF118226) was isolated from a genomic phage library using a c......High-isoelectric-point (pI) alpha-glucosidase was purified 7, 300-fold from an extract of barley (Hordeum vulgare) malt by ammonium sulfate fractionation, ion-exchange, and butyl-Sepharose chromatography. The enzyme had high activity toward maltose (k(cat) = 25 s(-1)), with an optimum at pH 4...

  14. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Low-temperature impact crushing, leaching and incineration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertolotti, G.; Vigreux, B.; Caillol, A.; Koehly, G.

    1987-01-01

    Reprocessing plants, hot laboratories and fuel fabrication plants produce solid wastes containing residual amounts of plutonium and uranium in nitrate and oxide form at concentrations up to several tens of grams per m/sup 3/. Dismantling of nuclear facilities having handled these radioelements also generates large volumes of solid wastes highly contaminated with alpha emitters. It is desirable to process these alpha wastes to recover valuable fissile materials and/or permit surface storage. Solid waste treatment by low-temperature impact crushing and then leaching, after minimal sorting and classifying at the sites of production, meets the corresponding requirements for high volume reduction plus fissile material recovery or waste decontamination. Additional volume reduction of crushed wastes containing mainly combustible materials can be obtained by incineration. This is facilitated by the low fissile material content after low-temperature impact crushing and leaching. Sorted wastes can also be leached or incinerated directly after, in most cases, crushing by more conventional techniques

  15. Basal cell carcinoma is associated with high TNF-alpha release but nor with TNF-alpha polymorphism at position--308

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skov, Lone; Allen, Michael H; Bang, Bo

    2003-01-01

    secretion of TNF-alpha has been identified in humans. We have therefore investigated the association of the --308 polymorphism with the risk of basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in humans. The frequency of TNF G and TNF A alleles among Caucasian patients with a previous BCC (n=191) and health adults (n-107) were...... compared. For the TNF--308 polymorphism there was significant association between the genotype or allele frequencies and having BCC. To determine whether patients with a previous BCC had an increased capacity to secrete TNF-alpha, mononuclear cells were stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. Mononuclear cells...... from patients with a previous BCC (n=15) demonstrated a significantly increased release of TNF-alpha upon stimulation with lipopolysaccharide (Pcells age-matched control subjects (n=16). Further studies of other polymorphisms of the TNF-alpha gene associated...

  16. Simultaneous improvement in production of microalgal biodiesel and high-value alpha-linolenic acid by a single regulator acetylcholine

    OpenAIRE

    Parsaeimehr, Ali; Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Background Photoautotrophic microalgae are a promising avenue for sustained biodiesel production, but are compromised by low yields of biomass and lipids at present. We are developing a chemical approach to improve microalgal accumulation of feedstock lipids as well as high-value alpha-linolenic acid which in turn might provide a driving force for biodiesel production. Results We demonstrate the effectiveness of the small bioactive molecule ?acetylcholine? on accumulation of biomass, total li...

  17. Interferons and interferon (IFN)-inducible protein 10 during highly active anti-retroviral therapy (HAART)-possible immunosuppressive role of IFN-alpha in HIV infection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stylianou, E; Aukrust, P; Bendtzen, K

    2000-01-01

    -infected patients had raised levels of both IP-10 and IFN-alpha compared with healthy controls (n = 19), with particularly high levels in advanced disease. HAART induced a marked decrease in levels of both IFN-alpha, neopterin and IP-10, though not to normal concentrations. In contrast, IFN-gamma levels were low...

  18. Low level tumor necrosis factor-alpha protects cardiomyocytes against high level tumor necrosis factor-alpha: brief insight into a beneficial paradox.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cacciapaglia, Fabio; Salvatorelli, Emanuela; Minotti, Giorgio; Afeltra, Antonella; Menna, Pierantonio

    2014-12-01

    Whether tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNFα) caused beneficial or detrimental cardiovascular effects remains poorly defined. Anti-TNFα agents improved cardiac end points in chronic rheumatic diseases characterized by progressive deterioration of cardiac function. In contrast, anti-TNFα agents did not always improve but actually worsened cardiac function in non-rheumatic patients with heart failure (HF), in spite of that HF usually accompanies with high circulating levels of TNFα. To shed light on these mixed findings, we characterized the effects of TNFα in H9c2 cardiomyocytes. Cells were incubated for 24 h with increasing concentrations of TNFα, hydrogen peroxide, aminotriazole, or etoposide. Posttreatment cell viability was assessed by antimycin A-inhibitable reduction of 3-(4,dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide, and the IC50 value of each test compound was defined. H9c2 cells were also preconditioned with a low non-toxic concentration of TNFα and then re-challenged with increasing concentrations of TNFα and other stressor agents. In re-challenge experiments, all of the IC50 values increased significantly, with the IC50 value of TNFα increasing approximately 16-fold. TNFα preconditioning increased cardiomyocytes shedding of the external portion of transmembrane type 1 and type 2 TNFα receptors [(soluble TNFα receptors (sTNFR)]. Levels of survival-oriented soluble TNFR2 (sTNFR2) always exceeded those of death-oriented sTNFR1. When exposed to TNFα at its IC50 value, preconditioned cardiomyocytes showed an increased release of sTNFR2 but not sTNFR1. These results denoted that preconditioning by "low TNFα" helped cardiomyocyte to withstand toxicity from "high TNFα" or other agents. These results also suggested that beneficial or detrimental effects of anti-TNFα agents might well depend on whether these agents spared or intercepted discrete amounts of TNFα that preconditioned cardiomyocytes and made them more resistant to high

  19. PET with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose measures of local brain activity and memory in schizophrenia and in depression

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Riege, W.H.; Metter, E.J.; Kuhl, D.E.; Phelps, M.E.; Kling, A.

    1984-01-01

    Positron emission tomography with [F-18] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) scan has provided non-invasive measures of regional cerebral glucose utilization which are directly related with levels of functional activity in regions of the brain. The FDG technique was applied to the study of brain activity thought to be impaired in 6 chronic schizophrenics (SCH) and 6 depressed (D) patients in comparison with 6 healthy age-matched controls (C). Local cerebral metabolic rates of glucose utilization LCMRglc were determined for 8 regions in both left and right hemispheres and were expressed in reference to a person's mean CMRglc. Multivariate comparisons of the 16 measures showed no significant differences between the 3 groups; follow-up step-down analyses and t-tests failed to specify any regional or global LCMRglc reliable to separate patients from controls. They also did not differ in any of 18 multidimensional tests of memory and decision, except for lower delayed verbal recall in D patients. When both SCH and D were classified into those with CT large and those with CT small ventricles, there were no multivariate differences. Only partial LCMRglc separated large from small ventricle patients (F(1,7) = 6.12, p<0.042), but finding no multivariate significance makes this result questionable. The ventricular grouping of SCH alone may reveal a marginal difference in global CMRglc t(4) = 2.58, p<0.06, given a larger patient sample. In contrast to recent reports, indices to brain activity in schizophrenic and depressed patients do not seem to be abnormal

  20. Differentiation of cryptogenic lateral from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy using regional asymmetric index of F-18-FDG PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, H. C.; Lee, D. S.; Lee, S. K.; Jeong, J. M.; Jeong, Z. K.; Lee, M. C.; Ko, C. S.

    1997-01-01

    We tried to find the possibility of utilization of F-18-FDG PET to differentiate lateral (neocortical) from mesial temporal lobe epilepsy(TLE) if we adopted quantitative comparison of regional metabolic activities using asymmetric index. We studied 22 pathologically proven mesial TLE(group C in Figure), and 27 lateral TLE patients. Lateral TLE patients were normal on MR(cryptogenic: 15; group A) or had structural lesions (12: group B). Asymmetric index (AI) was calculated as (ipsilateral -contralateral) / (ipsilateral + contralateral ) x 200. AI of medial lobe of cryptogenic lateral TLE was not decreased (-4.66.2, > 0.05) and AI of medial lobe of cryptogenic lateral TLE was not decreased (-4.66.2, >0.05) and AI of lateral lobe was decreased (-13.68.9). AI of medial and lateral lobes of mesial TLE was decreased (-3.44.7 and -16.58.9, respectively). AI of medial lobe of lesional lateral TLE was -7.39.1 (p<0.05 compared with mesial TEL). It was evident that lateral lobe of lesional lateral TLE had metabolic defect or decrease (AI: -21.410.4). While we could not find difference of metabolic activity in lateral temporal lobes between cryptogenic lateral TLE and mesial TLE patients, the difference of metabolic activity was significant in medial temporal lobes which was revealed by AI quantitation. An AI value larger than -10 (cutoff: AI) predicted positively for lateral TLE(PPV:80%) and negatively for mesial TLE(NPV:77%). Asymmetry of metabolic activity in medial and not in lateral lobe of temporal lobe could give hints about whether the epileptogenic zones were mesial or lateral

  1. Automatic interpretation of F-18-FDG brain PET using artificial neural network: discrimination of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Seok Ki; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul [College of Medicine, Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-06-01

    We developed a computer-aided classifier using artificial neural network (ANN) to discriminate the cerebral metabolic pattern of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied brain F-18-FDG PET images of 113 epilepsy patients surgically and pathologically proven as medial TLE (left 41, right 42) or lateral TLE (left 14, right 16). PET images were spatially transformed onto a standard template and normalized to the mean counts of cortical regions. Asymmetry indices for predefined 17 mirrored regions to hemispheric midline and those for medial and lateral temporal lobes were used as input features for ANN. ANN classifier was composed of 3 independent multi-layered perceptions (1 for left/right lateralization and 2 for medial/lateral discrimination) and trained to interpret metabolic patterns and produce one of 4 diagnoses (L/R medial TLE or L/R lateral TLE). Randomly selected 8 images from each group were used to train the ANN classifier and remaining 81 images were used as test sets. The accuracy of the diagnosis with ANN was estimated by averaging the agreement rates of independent 50 trials and compared to that of nuclear medicine experts. The accuracy in lateralization was 89% by the human experts and 90% by the ANN classifier. Overall accuracy in localization of epileptogenic zones by the ANN classifier was 69%, which was comparable to that by the human experts (72%). We conclude that ANN classifier performed as well as human experts and could be potentially useful supporting tool for the differential diagnosis of TLE.

  2. Automatic interpretation of F-18-FDG brain PET using artificial neural network: discrimination of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jae Sung; Lee, Dong Soo; Kim, Seok Ki; Park, Kwang Suk; Lee, Sang Kun; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2004-01-01

    We developed a computer-aided classifier using artificial neural network (ANN) to discriminate the cerebral metabolic pattern of medial and lateral temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE). We studied brain F-18-FDG PET images of 113 epilepsy patients surgically and pathologically proven as medial TLE (left 41, right 42) or lateral TLE (left 14, right 16). PET images were spatially transformed onto a standard template and normalized to the mean counts of cortical regions. Asymmetry indices for predefined 17 mirrored regions to hemispheric midline and those for medial and lateral temporal lobes were used as input features for ANN. ANN classifier was composed of 3 independent multi-layered perceptions (1 for left/right lateralization and 2 for medial/lateral discrimination) and trained to interpret metabolic patterns and produce one of 4 diagnoses (L/R medial TLE or L/R lateral TLE). Randomly selected 8 images from each group were used to train the ANN classifier and remaining 81 images were used as test sets. The accuracy of the diagnosis with ANN was estimated by averaging the agreement rates of independent 50 trials and compared to that of nuclear medicine experts. The accuracy in lateralization was 89% by the human experts and 90% by the ANN classifier. Overall accuracy in localization of epileptogenic zones by the ANN classifier was 69%, which was comparable to that by the human experts (72%). We conclude that ANN classifier performed as well as human experts and could be potentially useful supporting tool for the differential diagnosis of TLE

  3. F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography in the mediastinal nodal staging of non-small cell lung carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berlangieri, S.U.; Scott, A.M.; Knight, S.; Fitt, G.J.; Hess, E.M.; Pathmaraj, K.; Hennessy, O.F.; Tochon-Danguy, H.J.; Chan, J.G.; Egan, G.F.; Sinclair, R.A.; Clarke, C.P.; McKay, W.J.; St Vincents Hospital, Fitzroy, VIC

    1998-01-01

    Full text: Positron emission tomography (PET) using F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), as a metabolic tumour marker, has been proposed for staging of oncological disease. To determine its role in the mediastinal staging of lung cancer, a prospective comparison of FDG PET with surgery was performed in patients with suspected non-small cell lung carcinoma. The analysis group consists of 70 patients, 49 men and 21 women, mean age 64 yrs (range 41-83 yrs). The PET study was acquired on a Siemens 951/31R scanner over 3 bed positions, 45 minutes following 400MBq FDG. The emission scan was attenuation corrected using measured transmission data. The FDG PET were interpreted by a nuclear physician blinded to the clinical data and the results of the patients' CT scan. On PET, nodes were graded qualitatively on a 5 point scale with scores 4 or greater, positive for tumour involvement. Surgical specimens were obtained in all patients by thoracotomy or mediastinoscopy. The PET metabolic studies and pathology were mapped according to the American Thoracic Society nodal classification resulting in a total of 277 nodal stations evaluated. The PET studies analysed N2 or N3 tumour involvement by nodal station in comparison to histology of pathological specimens or direct visual assessment of the nodal stations at surgery. All patients had proven non-small cell lung carcinoma, except two, in whom, a tissue confirmation of the suspected diagnosis was not attained. PET excluded tumour in 237 of 246 nodal stations (specificity 96%). PET correctly identified 23 of 31 nodal stations with disease (sensitivity 74%). PET correctly staged 260 of 277 nodal stations (accuracy 94%) for disease. FDG PET is an accurate non-invasive functional imaging modality for the mediastinal staging of non-small cell lung cancer and has an important clinical role in the preoperative staging of lung cancer patients

  4. Study of the antioxidant effect of {alpha}-tocopherol on low-density lipoprotein peroxidation induced at low and high {gamma}-radiation dose rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khalil, Abdelouahed [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)]. E-mail: abdelouahed.khalil@usherbrooke.ca; Milochevitch, Christelle [Research Centre on Aging and Department of Medicine, University of Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, QC, J1H 4C4 (Canada)

    2005-02-01

    It is well known that vitamin E ({alpha}-tocopherol, {alpha}-toc) is a very efficient lipid soluble antioxidant and several studies showed its beneficial action in the prevention and reduction of atherosclerosis. However, some in vitro studies suggest a prooxidant role of vitamin E, which could occur under given circumstances. This study was thus designed to investigate the antioxidant vs. prooxidant effect of vitamin E with regards to LDL peroxidation induced under different oxidative stress conditions. LDL was enriched with {alpha}-tocopherol and different {alpha}-toc/LDL ratios were studied (8.0{+-}2.5, 14.3{+-}3.0, 33.3{+-}3.7, 42.7{+-}3.5 and 48.2{+-}4.5 molecules of {alpha}-toc/LDL particle). Enriched and control LDL were oxidized by action of {sup {center_dot}}OH and O{sub 2}{sup {center_dot}}{sup -} free radicals produced by {gamma}-radiolysis at different dose rates. Susceptibility of LDL to oxidation was examined by the measure of conjugated diene and TBARS formation as well as LDL endogenous {alpha}-toc disappearance. Increasing LDL {alpha}-toc concentration reduced the LDL susceptibility to oxidation and their oxidizability. {alpha}-toc disappearance rates were comprised between 43 and 8.3x10{sup -10} M s{sup -1} and decreased with the radiation dose rate. Our results support an antioxidant role for {alpha}-tocopherol at high and low oxidative stress conditions.

  5. Reduced glucose metabolism in the frontal cortex and basal ganglia of multiple sclerosis patients with fatigue : A F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roelcke, U; Kappos, L; LechnerScott, J; Brunnschweiler, H; Ammann, W; Plohmann, A; Dellas, S; Maguire, RP; Missimer, J; Radu, EW; Steck, A; Leenders, KL

    To investigate the pathophysiology of fatigue in MS, we assessed cerebral glucose metabolism (CMRGlu) in 47 MS patients using PET and F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose. Applying the Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS), we first compared MS patients with severe fatigue (MS-FAT, n = 19, FSS > 4.9) and MS patients

  6. Residual F-18-FDG-PET Uptake 12 Weeks After Stereotactic Ablative Radiotherapy for Stage I Non-Small-Cell Lung Cancer Predicts Local Control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bollineni, Vikram Rao; Widder, Joachim; Pruim, Jan; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wiegman, Erwin M.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the prognostic value of [F-18]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) uptake at 12 weeks after stereotactic ablative radiotherapy (SABR) for stage I non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Methods and Materials: From November 2006 to February 2010, 132 medically

  7. Usefulness of F-18 FDG PET/CT in the Evaluation of Early Treatment Response After Inverventional Therapy for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim Sung Hoon; Won Kyoung Sook; Choi Byung Wook; Jo Il; Zeon Seok Kil; Chung Woo Jin; Kwon Jung Hyeok

    2012-01-01

    This retrospective study investigated the usefulness of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) after inter-ventional therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Between March 2007 and November 2010, 31 Patients (24 men, 7 women; mean age, 61.8±11.0 -5-

  8. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil

    2004-01-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity

  9. Predicting Response to Neoadjuvant Chemoradiotherapy in Esophageal Cancer with Textural Features Derived from Pretreatment F-18-FDG PET/CT Imaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beukinga, Roelof J.; Hulshoff, Jan B.; van Dijk, Lisanne V.; Muijs, Christina T.; Burgerhof, Johannes G. M.; Kats-Ugurlu, Gursah; Slart, Riemer H. J. A.; Slump, Cornelis H.; Mul, Veronique E. M.; Plukker, John Th. M.

    Adequate prediction of tumor response to neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) in esophageal cancer (EC) patients is important in a more personalized treatment. The current best clinical method to predict pathologic complete response is SUVmax in F-18-FDG PET/ CT imaging. To improve the prediction of

  10. Synthesis of no carrier added F-18 16-fluorohexadecanoic acid (FHDA) and investigation of its labeled metabolites and its kinetics in the heart

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    DeGrado, T.R.; Bernstein, D.R.; Gatley, S.J.; Ng, C.K.; Holden, J.E.

    1984-01-01

    No carrier added FHDA was prepared via saponification of the product of silver oxide assisted reaction of near-anhydrous tetraethylammonium fluoride with methyl 16-iodohexadecanoate. The labeled fatty acid was injected into isolated perfused rat hearts. Coronary perfusate was collected for 4-9 minutes, when hearts were chilled and homogenized. F-18 in perfusate was analysed by HPLC (NH column; 50mM amm. acetate in 50% acetonitrile). Material with the same retention time as F-18 fluoroacetate (prepared by F-for-I exchange with ethyl iodoacetate) was found. Some F-18 stuck permanently to the column and was assigned as fluoride since the same fraction of label in perfusate was retained on alumina columns eluted with water. Anion exchange HPLC (SAX column; 20mM pot. phosphate, pH 7) of homogenates gave peaks corresponding to fluoroacetate plus fluoride and minor peaks which could be fluoroacetylCoA and fluorocitrate. The authors interpret their data as follows. Beta-oxidation of FHDA results in fluoroacetylCoA which either undergoes ''lethal synthesis'' to fluorocitrate or is hydrolysed to fluoroacetate which diffuses out of the heart. The source of the fluoride is not yet clear, but could complicate interpretation of FHDA kinetics measured in vivo with positron tomography. Clearance of label from FHDA in isolated perfused hearts was faster than for labeled 16-iodohexadecanoic acid, indicating that the F-18 tracer may be a more sensitive probe of myocardial fatty acid metabolism

  11. SPM analysis of brain perfusion SPECT and F-18 FDG PET in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy family

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Won, Kyoung Sook; Zeon, Seok Kil [Keimyung University Dongsan Medical Center, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This study attempted to investigate the specific pattern of brain perfusion and glucose metabolism in the Korean autosomal dominant nocturnal frontal lobe epilepsy (ADNFLE) family. Using Tc-99m ECD brain perfusion SPECT. we assessed brain perfusion in 6 patients at interictal period and 5 patients at ictal period. Interictal F-18 FDG PET was performed on 6 affected family members. The scans were statistically analyzed by using statistical parametric mapping (SPM99). The data of the affected family members were compared to those of the control subjects. Interictal F-18 FDG PET SPM group analysis showed decreased glucose metabolism over the left middle and superior frontal gyri and the left central regions including the anterior parietal lobe. There was a less pronounced decrease in glucose uptake in the right anterior superior frontal gyrus. Interictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis showed similar pattern of decreased perfusion compared to those of interictal F-18 FDG PET. Ictal brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis revealed increased perfusion over the left pre-and postcentral gyri and less pronounced increased perfusion in the right postcentral gyrus. lnterictal F -18 PET and brain perfusion SPECT SPM group analysis suggest that major abnormalities of ADNFLE family are in the left frontal lobe. These findings may be helpful to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of this rare disease entity.

  12. Alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein subfraction in serum of a patient with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peynet, J.; Legrand, A.; Messing, B.; Thuillier, F.; Rousselet, F.

    1989-01-01

    An alpha slow-moving high-density-lipoprotein (HDL) subfraction was seen in a patient presenting with radiation enteritis and peritoneal carcinosis, who was given long-term cyclic parenteral nutrition. This subfraction, observed in addition to normal HDL, was precipitated with low-density lipoproteins (LDL) and very-low-density lipoproteins (VLDL) by sodium phosphotungstate-magnesium chloride. The patient's serum lipoproteins were analyzed after fractionation by density gradient ultracentrifugation. The alpha slow-moving HDL floated in the ultracentrifugation subfractions with densities ranging from 1.028 to 1.084 kg/L, and their main apolipoproteins included apolipoprotein E in addition to apolipoprotein A-I. These HDL were larger than HDL2. The pathogenesis of this unusual HDL subfraction is hypothesized

  13. OPERATIONAL LIMITATIONS FOR DEMOLITION OF A HIGHLY ALPHA CONTAMINATED BUILDING MODLES VERSUS MEASURED AIR & SURFACE ACTIVITY CONCENTRATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LLOYD, E.R.

    2006-11-02

    The demolition of a facility historically used for processing and handling transuranic materials is considered. Residual alpha emitting radionuclide contamination poses an exposure hazard if released to the local environment during the demolition. The process of planning for the demolition of this highly alpha contaminated building, 232-Z, included a predemolition modeling analysis of potential exposures. Estimated emission rates were used as input to an air dispersion model to estimate frequencies of occurrence of peak air and surface exposures. Postdemolition modeling was also conducted, based on the actual demolition schedule and conditions. The modeling results indicated that downwind deposition is the main operational limitation for demolition of a highly alpha-contaminated building. During the demolition of 232-Z, airborne radiation and surface contamination were monitored. The resultant non-detect monitoring results indicate a significant level of conservatism in the modeled results. This comparison supports the use of more realistic assumption in the estimating emission rates. The resultant reduction in modeled levels of potential exposures has significant implications in terms of the projected costs of demolition of such structures.

  14. Microwave mediated radiosynthesis of [F-18] FLT and its in-vitro study with androgen independent human prostate cancer cell line (PC-3)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ponde, D.E.; Dence, C.S.; Oyama, N.; Welch, M.J.

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this work was to improve the radiosynthesis of [F-18] FLT and to study its usefulness in monitoring change of proliferative activity of prostate cancer cells in the early phase of therapy. Method: Starting with anhydrothymidine, [F-18] FLT was synthesized by microwave mediated nucleophilic displacement by fluoride ion followed by acid hydrolysis in a synthesis time of just 55 minutes, which included Oasis solid phase and HPLC purification. The total radiochemical yield was 10-15% (at EOS), and the radiochemical purity was >99%. An in vitro study was carried out with androgen-independent human prostate cancer cell line PC-3. Two X 10e5 cells were seeded in 6 well plates with Ham's F-12K medium with 2 mM L-glutamine adjusted to contain 1.5 g/L sodium bicarbonate supplemented with 10% heat activated FBS. One day later, PC-3 cells were at 50% confluent, the media was removed and the cells divided into two groups. In one group, cells were suspended in fresh media as above with 10% FBS, whereas in the other group cells were suspended in fresh media as above but without serum. Twenty-four hours later, [F-18] FLT was added to each flask (n=3). The cell-associated uptake of [F-18] FLT at 37 deg C was determined at 0, 1, 3, and 6 h after incubation. [F-18] FLT uptake in PC-3 cells decreased by 55% (from 9% to 4%) after 24h incubation with serum free media, indicating its potential usefulness to monitor cell proliferation in androgen-independent human prostate cancer. Studies to ascertain the uptake-mechanism are in the way. NIH grant HL13851

  15. Diagnostic Performance of F-18 FDG PET/CT in Patients with Cancer of Unknown Primary: Additional Benefit over CT-Based Conventional Work up

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Bakhshayeshkaram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the era of well-developed site-specific treatment strategies in cancer, identification of occult primary is of paramount importance in CUP patients. Furthermore, exact determination of the extent of the disease may help in optimizing treatment planning. The aim of the present study was to investigate additional value of F-18 FDG PET/CT in patients with cancer of unknown primary (CUP as an appropriate imaging tool in early phase of initial standard work up.Materials and Methods: Sixty-two newly diagnosed CUP patients with inconclusive diagnostic CT scan of chest, abdomen and pelvis referring for F-18 FDG PET/CT were enrolled in this study. Standard of reference was defined as histopathology, other diagnostic procedures and a 3-month formal clinical follow up. The results of PET/CT were categorized as suggestion for primary site and additional metastasis and classified as true positive, false positive, false negative and true negative. The impact of additional metastasis revealed by F-18 FDG PET/CT on treatment planning and the time contribution of F-18 FDG PET/CT in diagnostic pathway was investigated.Results: Sixty-two patients with mean age of 62 (30 men, 32 women, PET/CT correctly identified primary origin in 32% with false positive rate of 14.8%. No primary lesion was detected after negative PET/CT according to standard of reference. Sensitivity, Specificity and accuracy were 100%, 78% and 85%, respectively. Additional metastatic site was found in 56% with 22% impact on treatment planning. Time contribution for PET/CT was 10% of total diagnostic pathway.Conclusion: Providing higher detection rate of primary origin with excellent diagnostic performance, shortening the diagnostic pathway and improving treatment planning, F-18 FDG PET/CT may play a major role in diagnostic work up of CUP patients and may be recommended as an alternative imaging tool in early phase of investigation.

  16. Direct chemical synthesis of 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 with high specific activity: its use in receptor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Napoli, J.L.; Mellon, W.S.; Fivizzani, M.A.; Schnoes, H.K.; DeLuca, H.F.

    1980-01-01

    The first direct chemical synthesis of radiolabeled 1 alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 is reported. Unlike all previous syntheses, the new approach does not rely on enzymatic 1 alpha-hydroxylation of radiolabeled precursors. Rather, isotope is introduced in the last synthetic step by reaction of [3H] -methylmagnesium bromide with methyl 1 alpha-hydroxy-26,27-dinorvitamin D3-25-carboxylate to give 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 with a specific activity of 160 Ci/mmol. Mass spectroscopy confirmed that the radiohormone consists of a single isomer with six tritium atoms bound to carbons 26 and 27. Synthetically produced 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy [26,27-3H] vitamin D3 is indistinguishable from 1 alpha,25-dihydroxy-[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 obtained from the enzymatic 1 alpha-hydroxylation of 25-hydroxy[26,27-3H] vitamin D3 (160 Ci/mmol) by high-pressure liquid chromatography analysis and in the competitive binding assay using chick intestinal cytosol as the receptor source. Equilibrium dissociation constant measurements with the high specific activity radiohormone indicate a Kd of 8.2 x 10(-11) M for the chick intestinal cytosol 1 alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 receptor--a value considerably lower than the constants in the range of (1-5) x 10(-9) M previously reported

  17. Simultaneous improvement in production of microalgal biodiesel and high-value alpha-linolenic acid by a single regulator acetylcholine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsaeimehr, Ali; Sun, Zhilan; Dou, Xiao; Chen, Yi-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Photoautotrophic microalgae are a promising avenue for sustained biodiesel production, but are compromised by low yields of biomass and lipids at present. We are developing a chemical approach to improve microalgal accumulation of feedstock lipids as well as high-value alpha-linolenic acid which in turn might provide a driving force for biodiesel production. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the small bioactive molecule "acetylcholine" on accumulation of biomass, total lipids, and alpha-linolenic acid in Chlorella sorokiniana. The effectiveness exists in different species of Chlorella. Moreover, the precursor and analogs of acetylcholine display increased effectiveness at higher applied doses, with maximal increases by 126, 80, and 60% over controls for biomass, total lipids, and alpha-linolenic acid, respectively. Production of calculated biodiesel was also improved by the precursor and analogs of acetylcholine. The biodiesel quality affected by changes in microalgal fatty acid composition was addressed. The chemical approach described here could improve the lipid yield and biodiesel production of photoautotrophic microalgae if combined with current genetic approaches.

  18. High-pressure phase equilibrium data for systems with carbon dioxide, {alpha}-humulene and trans-caryophyllene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michielin, Eliane M.Z.; Rosso, Sibele R [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Franceschi, Elton; Borges, Gustavo R; Corazza, Marcos L; Oliveira, J Vladimir [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, Erechim, RS, 99700-000 (Brazil); Ferreira, Sandra R.S. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil)], E-mail: sandra@enq.ufsc.br

    2009-01-15

    The aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium data for the binary systems (CO{sub 2} + {alpha}-humulene) and (CO{sub 2} + trans-caryophyllene), and for the ternary system (CO{sub 2} + {alpha}-humulene + trans-caryophyllene). Results from literature show that {alpha}-humulene and trans-caryophyllene are the main compounds responsible for the anti-inflammatory and anti-allergic characteristics attributed to the medicinal plant Cordia verbenacea D.C., hence giving importance to the phase behaviour investigation performed in this work. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed in a high-pressure, variable-volume view cell over the temperature range of T = (303 to 343) K and pressures up to 20 MPa. (Liquid + liquid) and (vapour + liquid + liquid) equilibrium were observed at T = 303 K, while (vapour + liquid) phase transitions were verified to occur from T = (313 to 343) K, for all systems studied. Thermodynamic modelling was performed using the Peng-Robinson equation of state and the classical quadratic mixing rules, with a satisfactory agreement between experimental and calculated values.

  19. Use of F-18 fluoro deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in the assessment of malignant mesothelioma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, F.M.M.; Pathmaraj, K.; Berlangieri, S.U.; Knight, S.; Clarke, C.P.; Scott, A.M.

    2002-01-01

    Full text: Australia has the highest mesothelioma incidence rate in the world and the incidence of Mesothelioma is increasing. Therapy for Mesothelioma involves surgery (including phototherapy), radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Computed tomography (CT) is frequently used to stage the extent of Mesothelioma. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of FDG PET in staging Mesothelioma and monitoring response to therapy. Nineteen F-18 FDG PET was performed at the A and RMC Centre for PET in 14 patients (13M: 1F, age range 39-77 years, mean age 58 years) with biopsy proven malignant pleural Mesothelioma. Patients were referred for staging (5 patients) or evaluation of patients post surgery or phototherapy (9 patients). 3 patients had more than 1 PET scan. FDG scans were reviewed with full access to the CT report. Standardised Uptake Values (SUV) were performed in all scans in regions of maximal FDG uptake corresponding to CT abnormality. Normal lung SUVs were also calculated. Follow-up was possible in all patients to the time of death or December 2001 (Follow-up 4 - 45 months, mean 16 months; 3 patients still alive). All FDG PET scans were positive for FDG-avid pleural tissue. No surgery was deferred due to FDG PET findings. In 3 patients mediastinal nodes were identified pre-surgery. Post surgical therapy assessment by FDG PET (9 patients) guided therapy by confirming disease progression or further characterising post-operative changes when CT findings were uncertain. FDG PET was able to more accurately distinguish between collapse/consolidation and recurrent disease than CT scan. Almost all post-surgical scans were performed in patients who received phototherapy. Different Mesothelioma histological subtypes could not be differentiated by SUV criteria. False positive FDG PET studies were seen in 3 patients, all of whom had post-surgical empyemas. In conclusion, FDG PET has a potential role in the management of malignant mesothelioma patients, particularly in the post

  20. Myocardial viability assessment with gated SPECT Tc-99m tetrofosmin % wall thickening. Comparison with F-18 FDG-PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruyama, Atsushi; Hasegawa, Shinji; Paul, A.K.; Xiuli, M.; Yoshioka, Jun; Maruyama, Kaoru; Hori, Masatsugu; Nishimura, Tsunehiko

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to assess the value of gated SPECT Tc-99m-tetrofosmin (TF) wall thickening (WT) in addition to TF exercise (Ex)/rest myocardial SPECT, in comparison with F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG)-PET. The study population consisted of 33 patients with old myocardial infarction (27 men and 6 women; mean age, 62±8 years old). All patients underwent Ex/rest TF SPECT and glucose loading FDG-PET. Polar map images of Ex/rest TF were generated and divided into 24 segments for further analysis. We classified LV segments according to the exercise-rest perfusion scintigraphy. LV segments with less than 70% of the maximum TF activity on the exercise image were defined as stress-induced defects. Among these, the segments whose TF acitvity increased by 10% from exercise to rest images or exceeded 70% of the maximum uptake were defined as reversible (viable) defects. The remaining defects on the rest image were irreversible (non-viable) defect segments, and were considered for viability study on the basis of %WT. %WT was calculated according to the standard method: {(counts ES-counts ED)/ counts ED} x 100. A viable segment on gated SPECT was defined as a segment whose %WT exceeded the lower limit of the normal value (mean-SD). PET viability was defined as FDG uptake exceeding 50% of the maximum count. Among the 792 segments evaluated in the 33 patients studied, there were 689 PET viable segments. Of the 689 segments analyzed, 198 (29%) were identified as having defects on Ex images. Among these defects, 55 (8%) were reversible or partially reversible, as evidenced by rest images, and 143 (21%) were irreversible. Of the irreversible segments on Ex/rest images, 106 (15%) demonstrated no apparent WT by gated TF SPECT, whereas 37 (6%) segments with irreversible defects did have apparent WT. Overall, the sensitivity of Ex/rest TF perfusion imaging was 79%. Sensitivity was improved from 79% to 85% by combining %WT and perfusion data, but specificity was reduced from 70

  1. Effects of a high-pressure treatment on the wheat alpha-amylase inhibitor and its relationship to elimination of allergenicity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamamoto, S [Food Science Center, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Takanohashi, K; Nishiumi, T [Graduate School of Science and Technology, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Hara, T [Department of Applied Biological Chemistry, Faculty of Agriculture, Niigata University, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Odani, S [Department of Living Science and Technology, Faculty of Education and Human Science, Ikarashi, Niigata, 950-2181 (Japan); Suzuki, A, E-mail: shuyama@agr.niigata-u.ac.j [Department of Health and Nutrition, Faculty of Medical Science for Health, Teikyo Heisei University, Ikebukuro, Tokyo, 170-0013 (Japan)

    2010-03-01

    In this study, the effects of high-pressure treatment on structure and allergeincity of alpha amylase inhibitor (a-AI) were investigated. The pressure-induced structural changes of {alpha}-AI were estimated by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy for probed tyrosine residues and by circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The changes in the tertiary structure detected by fluorescence spectra and by fourth derivative UV-spectroscopy under high pressure were indicated at over 300 MPa. Measurements of CD spectroscopy suggested that the effects of a high-pressure treatment on changes in the secondary structure of {alpha}-AI were little. From our results, pressure-induced changes of the {alpha}-AI structure were not apparent. On the other hands, the IgE-specific binding activities of pressurized {alpha}-AI to sera from allergic patients against wheat, which is estimated by observations of dot-blotting, were decreased by high-pressure treatment. It is known that the pressure-induced elimination of allergenicity is related to the tertiary structural changes of allergen molecules. This study are suspected that the epitopes of {alpha}-AI do not contain tyrosine residues, and thus the decrease of IgE-specific binding activities is probably caused by the tertiary structural changes of these parts of {alpha}-AI.

  2. Alpha particle emission as a probe of the level density in highly excited A∼200 nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabris, D.; Fioretto, E.; Viesti, G.; Cinausero, M.; Gelli, N.; Hagel, K.; Lucarelli, F.; Natowitz, J.B.; Nebbia, G.; Prete, G.; Wada, R.

    1994-01-01

    The alpha particle emission from 90 to 140 MeV 19 F+ 181 Ta fusion-evaporation reactions has been studied. The comparisons of the experimental spectral shapes and multiplicities with statistical model predictions indicate a need to use an excitation energy dependent level-density parameter a=A/K in which K increases with excitation energy. This increase is more rapid than that in lower mass nuclei. The effect of this change in level density on the prescission multiplicities in fission is significant

  3. Highly Potent, Water Soluble Benzimidazole Antagonist for Activated (alpha)4(beta)1 Integrin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carpenter, R D; Andrei, M; Lau, E Y; Lightstone, F C; Liu, R; Lam, K S; Kurth, M J

    2007-08-29

    The cell surface receptor {alpha}{sub 4}{beta}{sub 1} integrin, activated constitutively in lymphoma, can be targeted with the bisaryl urea peptidomimetic antagonist 1 (LLP2A). However, concerns on its preliminary pharmacokinetic (PK) profile provided an impetus to change the pharmacophore from a bisaryl urea to a 2-arylaminobenzimidazole moiety resulting in improved solubility while maintaining picomolar potency [5 (KLCA4); IC{sub 50} = 305 pM]. With exceptional solubility, this finding has potential for improving PK to help diagnose and treat lymphomas.

  4. Biaxial creep deformation of Zircaloy-4 in the high alpha phase temperature range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donaldson, A.T.; Horwood, R.A.; Healey, T.

    1983-01-01

    The ballooning response of Zircaloy-4 fuel tubes during a postulated loss-of-coolant accident may be calculated from a knowledge of the thermal environment of the rods and the creep deformation characteristics of the cladding. In support of such calculations biaxial creep studies have been performed on fuel tubes supplied by Westinghouse, Wolverine and Sandvik of temperatures in the alpha phase range. This paper presents the results of an investigation of their respective creep behaviour which has resulted in the formulation of equations for use in LOCA fuel ballooning codes. (author)

  5. Redesign of a Variable-Gain Output Feedback Longitudinal Controller Flown on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostroff, Aaron J.

    1998-01-01

    This paper describes a redesigned longitudinal controller that flew on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) during calendar years (CY) 1995 and 1996. Linear models are developed for both the modified controller and a baseline controller that was flown in CY 1994. The modified controller was developed with three gain sets for flight evaluation, and several linear analysis results are shown comparing the gain sets. A Neal-Smith flying qualities analysis shows that performance for the low- and medium-gain sets is near the level 1 boundary, depending upon the bandwidth assumed, whereas the high-gain set indicates a sensitivity problem. A newly developed high-alpha Bode envelope criterion indicates that the control system gains may be slightly high, even for the low-gain set. A large motion-base simulator in the United Kingdom was used to evaluate the various controllers. Desired performance, which appeared to be satisfactory for flight, was generally met with both the low- and medium-gain sets. Both the high-gain set and the baseline controller were very sensitive, and it was easy to generate pilot-induced oscillation (PIO) in some of the target-tracking maneuvers. Flight target-tracking results varied from level 1 to level 3 and from no sensitivity to PIO. These results were related to pilot technique and whether actuator rate saturation was encountered.

  6. Correlation of high-temperature stability of alpha-chymotrypsin with 'salting-in' properties of solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levitsky VYu; Panova, A A; Mozhaev, V V

    1994-01-15

    A correlation between the stability of alpha-chymotrypsin against irreversible thermal inactivation at high temperatures (long-term stability) and the coefficient of Setchenov equation as a measure of salting-in/out efficiency of solutes in the Hofmeister series has been found. An increase in the concentration of salting-in solutes (KSCN, urea, guanidinium chloride, formamide) leads to a many-fold decrease of the inactivation rate of the enzyme. In contrast, addition of salting-out solutes has a small effect on the long-term stability of alpha-chymotrypsin at high temperatures. The effects of solutes are additive with respect to their salting-in/out capacities; the stabilizing action of the solutes is determined by the calculated Setchenov coefficient of solution. The correlation is explained by a solute-driven shift of the conformational equilibrium between the 'low-temperature' native and the 'high-temperature' denatured forms of the enzyme within the range of the kinetic scheme put forward in the preceding paper in this journal: irreversible inactivation of the high-temperature form proceeds much more slowly compared with the low-temperature form.

  7. Siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-06-01

    The main objective of this document is to summarize the basic principles and approaches to siting, design and construction of a deep geological repository for disposal of high level and alpha bearing radioactive wastes, as commonly agreed upon by Member States. This report is addressed to decision makers and technical managers as well as to specialists planning for siting, design and construction of geological repositories for disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes. This document is intended to provide Member States of the IAEA with a summary outline for the responsible implementing organizations to use for siting, designing and constructing confinement systems for high level and alpha bearing radioactive waste in accordance with the protection objectives set by national regulating authorities or derived from safety fundamentals and standards of the IAEA. The protection objectives will be achieved by the isolation of the radionuclides from the environment by a repository system, which consists of a series of man made and natural safety barriers. Engineered barriers are used to enhance natural geological containment in a variety of ways. They must complement the natural barriers to provide adequate safety and necessary redundancy to the barrier system to ensure that safety standards are met. Because of the long timescales involved and the important role of the natural barrier formed by the host rock, the site selection process is a key activity in the repository design and development programme. The choice of the site, the investigation of its geological setting, the exploration of the regional hydrogeological setting and the primary underground excavations are all considered to be part of the siting process. 16 refs

  8. Lyman Alpha Control

    CERN Document Server

    Nielsen, Daniel Stefaniak

    2015-01-01

    This document gives an overview of how to operate the Lyman Alpha Control application written in LabVIEW along with things to watch out for. Overview of the LabVIEW code itself as well as the physical wiring of and connections from/to the NI PCI-6229 DAQ box is also included. The Lyman Alpha Control application is the interface between the ALPHA sequencer and the HighFinesse Wavelength Meter as well as the Lyman Alpha laser setup. The application measures the wavelength of the output light from the Lyman Alpha cavity through the Wavelength Meter. The application can use the Wavelength Meter’s PID capabilities to stabilize the Lyman Alpha laser output as well as switch between up to three frequencies.

  9. Radiosynthesis of F-18 labeled cytidine analog 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-l-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([{sup 18}F]FIAC)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wu, C.-Y.; Chan, P.-C.; Chang, W.-T. [Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong Street, Sector 2, Bei-tou, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China); Liu, R.-S. [Department of Nuclear Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, National Yang-Ming University, Taiwan (China); Department of Nuclear Medicine and National PET/Cyclotron Center, Taipei Veterans General Hospital, Taiwan (China); Alauddin, Mian M. [Department of Experimental Diagnostic Imagiing, MD Anderson Cancer Center, University of Texas (United States); Wang, H-E. [Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Radiological Sciences, National Yang-Ming University, 155, Li-Nong Street, Sector 2, Bei-tou, Taipei 112, Taiwan (China)], E-mail: hewang@ym.edu.tw

    2009-07-15

    We reported the synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-5-iodo-1-{beta}-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodo-cytosine ([{sup 18}F]FIAC) with 15-20% radiochemical yield (decay corrected) in 3.5 h. 2-deoxy-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-{alpha}-D-arabinofuranose was prepared following literature procedures with some modifications (yield>70%). The {sup 18}F-fluorosugar was converted to 1-bromo-{sup 18}F-fluorosugar, and then coupled with 5-iodocytocine silyl ether. A mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) were employed to achieve optimum radiochemical yield and acceptable {beta}-anomer selectivity ({alpha}/{beta}=1/3). After hydrolyzed with sodium methoxide, the crude product was purified using HPLC to afford the {beta}-[{sup 18}F]FIAC with high radiochemical purity ({>=}98%)

  10. Development of thin foil Faraday collector as a lost alpha particle diagnostic for high yield D-T tokamak fusion plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Belle, P; Jarvis, O N; Sadler, G J [Commission of the European Communities, Abingdon (United Kingdom). JET Joint Undertaking; Cecil, F E [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    1994-07-01

    Alpha particle confinement is necessary for ignition of a D-T tokamak fusion plasma and for first wall protection. Due to high radiation backgrounds and temperatures, scintillators and semiconductor detectors may not be used to study alpha particles which are lost to the first wall during the D-T programs on JET and ITER. An alternative method of charged particle spectrometry capable of operation in these harsh environments, is proposed: it consists of thin foils of electrically isolated conductors with the flux of alpha particles determined by the positive current flowing from the foils. 2 refs., 3 figs.

  11. Efficacy of a single oral dose of a live bivalent E. coli vaccine against post-weaning diarrhea due to F4 and F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadeau, É; Fairbrother, J M; Zentek, J; Bélanger, L; Tremblay, D; Tremblay, C-L; Röhe, I; Vahjen, W; Brunelle, M; Hellmann, K; Cvejić, D; Brunner, B; Schneider, C; Bauer, K; Wolf, R; Hidalgo, Á

    2017-08-01

    F4- and F18-positive enterotoxigenic E. coli strains (F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC) are important causes of post-weaning diarrhea (PWD) in pigs. F4 (antigenic variant ac) and F18 (ab and ac) fimbriae are major antigens that play an important role in the early stages of infection. Herein, the efficacy of a live oral vaccine consisting of two non-pathogenic E. coli strains, one F4ac- and one F18ac-positive, was evaluated using F4ac-ETEC and F18ab-ETEC challenge models. A randomized, masked, placebo-controlled, block design, parallel-group confirmatory study with two different vaccination-challenge intervals (7 and 21 days) was conducted for each challenge model. The vaccine was administered in one dose, to ≥18-day-old piglets via drinking water. Efficacy was assessed by evaluating diarrhea, clinical observations, weight gain and fecal shedding of F4-ETEC or F18-ETEC. Anti-F4 and anti-F18 immunoglobulins in blood were measured. The vaccination resulted in significant reductions in clinical PWD and fecal shedding of F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC after the 7- and 21-day-post-vaccination heterologous challenges, except for after the 21-day-post-vaccination F4-ETEC challenge, when the clinical PWD was too mild to demonstrate efficacy. A significant reduction of mortality and weight loss by vaccination were observed following the F18-ETEC challenge. The 7-day protection was associated with induction of anti-F4 and anti-F18 IgM, whereas the 21-day protection was mainly associated with anti-F4 and anti-F18 IgA. The 7-day onset and 21-day duration of protection induced by this vaccine administered once in drinking water to pigs of at least 18days of age were confirmed by protection against F4-ETEC and F18-ETEC, and induction of F4 and F18-specific immunity. Cross protection of the vaccine against F18ab-E. coli was demonstrated for both the 7- and 21-day F18-ETEC challenges. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of Serum Levels of Pregnancy Associated Plasma Protein-A, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha and Highly Sensitive C-Reactive Protein in Diabetic Children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Messeih, PH.L.; El-safie, A.I.; Said, A.I.

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence favours the primary role of cellular auto immunity and its humoral mediators in the pathogenesis and follow up of children with type 1 diabetes mellitus (type 1 DM). The present study is carried out to investigate serum levels of pregnancy associated plasma protein-A (PAPP-A), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha ) and highly sensitive C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) in children with type 1 DM. Potential role of body mass index (BMI) was evaluated. Circulating levels of TNF-alpha, PAPP-A and hs-CRP are significantly increased in children with type 1 DM as compared with healthy subjects suggesting activation of inflammatory immune response system. A significant negative correlation was obtained between TNF-alpha and BMI in diabetic patients. This is highly suggestive of the availability of these non invasive indices to help further examining type 1 DM pathophysiology and monitoring pharmacological interventions to interfere with disease development and progression.

  13. High-temperature performance of gallium-nitride-based pin alpha-particle detectors grown on sapphire substrates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Zhifu; Zhang, Heqiu; Liang, Hongwei; Tang, Bin; Peng, Xincun; Liu, Jianxun; Yang, Chao; Xia, Xiaochuan; Tao, Pengcheng; Shen, Rensheng; Zou, Jijun; Du, Guotong

    2018-06-01

    The temperature-dependent radiation-detection performance of an alpha-particle detector that was based on a gallium-nitride (GaN)-based pin structure was studied from 290 K to 450 K. Current-voltage-temperature measurements (I-V-T) of the reverse bias show the exponential dependence of leakage currents on the voltage and temperature. The current transport mechanism of the GaN-based pin diode from the reverse bias I-V fitting was analyzed. The temperature-dependent pulse-height spectra of the detectors were studied using an 241 Am alpha-particle source at a reverse bias of 10 V, and the peak positions shifted from 534 keV at 290 K to 490 keV at 450 K. The variation of full width at half maximum (FWHM) from 282 keV at 290 K to 292 keV at 450 K is almost negligible. The GaN-based pin detectors are highly promising for high-temperature environments up to 450 K.

  14. Consistent patterns of high alpha and low beta diversity in tropical parasitic and free-living protists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lentendu, Guillaume; Mahé, Frédéric; Bass, David; Rueckert, Sonja; Stoeck, Thorsten; Dunthorn, Micah

    2018-05-30

    Tropical animals and plants are known to have high alpha diversity within forests, but low beta diversity between forests. By contrast, it is unknown whether microbes inhabiting the same ecosystems exhibit similar biogeographic patterns. To evaluate the biogeographies of tropical protists, we used metabarcoding data of species sampled in the soils of three lowland Neotropical rainforests. Taxa-area and distance-decay relationships for three of the dominant protist taxa and their subtaxa were estimated at both the OTU and phylogenetic levels, with presence-absence and abundance-based measures. These estimates were compared to null models. High local alpha and low regional beta diversity patterns were consistently found for both the parasitic Apicomplexa and the largely free-living Cercozoa and Ciliophora. Similar to animals and plants, the protists showed spatial structures between forests at the OTU and phylogenetic levels, and only at the phylogenetic level within forests. These results suggest that the biogeographies of macro- and micro-organismal eukaryotes in lowland Neotropical rainforests are partially structured by the same general processes. However, and unlike the animals and plants, the protist OTUs did not exhibit spatial structures within forests, which hinders our ability to estimate the local and regional diversity of protists in tropical forests. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 metres below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time

  16. Site selection factors for repositories of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes in geological formations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide guidelines for the selection and evaluation of suitable areas and sites for the disposal of solid high-level and alpha-bearing wastes into geological formations. This report is also intended to provide summary information on many types of geological formations underlying the land masses that might be considered as well as guidance on the geological and hydrological factors that should be investigated to demonstrate the suitability of the formations. In addition, other factors that should be considered in selecting a site for a radioactive waste repository are discussed briefly. The information, as presented, was developed to the extent of current technology for application to the evaluation of deep (greater than about 300 meters below ground level) geological formations in the selection of suitable areas for the disposal of solid or solidified high-level and alpha-bearing wastes. The extreme complexity of many geological environments and of the rock features that govern the presence and circulation of groundwater does not make it feasible to derive strict criteria for the selection of a site for a radioactive waste repository in a geological formation. Each potential repository location must be evaluated according to its own unique geological and hydrological setting. Therefore, only general guidance is offered, and this is done through discussion of the many factors that need to be considered in order to obtain the necessary assurances that the radionuclides will be confined in the geological repository over the required period of time.

  17. Alpha-PVP as an active component of herbal highs in Poland between 2013 and 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byrska, Bogumiła; Stanaszek, Roman; Zuba, Dariusz

    2017-08-01

    Alpha-PVP (alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-PVP) is a synthetic derivative of cathinone. It has been one of the most frequently detected new psychoactive substances (NPS) available on the drug market in recent years in Poland. The usual routes of administration of the drug include oral, insufflation, and injection. Unexpectedly, we dealt with a great number of herbal samples that turned out to contain α-PVP. A total number of 352 herbal samples from 19 cases in which we detected synthetic cathinones, were investigated in the Institute of Forensic Research (IFR) from 2013 to 2015. The seized products that were received by our laboratory were first screened by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Quantification of α-PVP and other cathinones was performed by ultra-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detection (UPLC-PDA). Of the samples, 84% contained only α-PVP. Other groups of products were those containing only α-PVT, α-PVP and α-PVT, α-PVP and synthetic cannabinoid A-834, 735, and α-PVP and cannabis. In one herbal sample, α-PVP was detected along with caffeine and tadalafil. The herbal products present on the market containing only α-PVP usually had a mass of 0.3 to 0.6 g, and concentration range in this group of samples was 3.0-44.0% (content: 13.0-222.0 mg per package). The amount of α-PVP in samples below 0.30 g was in a range 9-18 mg whiles in samples above 0.60 g it was in the range 30-716 mg. There were also products containing a mixture of α-PVP and α-PVT. In those samples, α-PVP concentrations were: 3.0-6.0% (amount: 15.0-34.0 mg). Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. 6-[F-18]Fluoro-L-Dihydroxyphenylalanine Positron Emission Tomography Is Superior to Conventional Imaging with I-123-Metaiodobenzylguanidine Scintigraphy, Computer Tomography, and Magnetic Resonance Imaging in Localizing Tumors Causing Catecholamine Excess

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fiebrich, Helle-Brit; Brouwers, Adrienne H.; Kerstens, Michiel N.; Pijl, Milan E. J.; Kema, Ido P.; de Jong, Johan R.; Jager, Pieter L.; Elsinga, Philip H.; Dierckx, Rudi A. J. O.; van der Wal, Jacqueline E.; Sluiter, Wim J.; de Vries, Elisabeth G. E.; Links, Thera P.

    2009-01-01

    Context: Catecholamine excess is rare, but symptoms may be life threatening. Objective: The objective of the study was to investigate the sensitivity of 6-[F-18]fluoro-L-dihydroxyphenylalanine positron emission tomography (F-18-DOPAPET), compared with I-123-metaiodobenzylguanidine (I-123-MIBG)

  19. Comparison of Tc-99m-sestamibi-F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose dual isotope simultaneous acquisition and rest-stress Tc-99m-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography for the assessment of myocardial viability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Boer, J; Slart, RHJA; Blanksma, Paulus; Willemsen, ATM; Jager, PL; Paans, AMJ; Vaalburg, W; Piers, DA

    Dual isotope simultaneous acquisition single photon emission computed tomography (DISA SPECT) offers the advantage of obtaining information on myocardial perfusion using Tc-99m-sestamibi (Tc-99m-MIBI) and metabolism using F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18-FDG) in a single study. The prerequisite is that

  20. Cerebral artery alpha-1 AR subtypes: high altitude long-term acclimatization responses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravi Goyal

    Full Text Available In response to hypoxia and other stress, the sympathetic (adrenergic nervous system regulates arterial contractility and blood flow, partly through differential activities of the alpha1 (α1 - adrenergic receptor (AR subtypes (α1A-, α1B-, and α1D-AR. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that with acclimatization to long-term hypoxia (LTH, contractility of middle cerebral arteries (MCA is regulated by changes in expression and activation of the specific α1-AR subtypes. We conducted experiments in MCA from adult normoxic sheep maintained near sea level (300 m and those exposed to LTH (110 days at 3801 m. Following acclimatization to LTH, ovine MCA showed a 20% reduction (n = 5; P<0.05 in the maximum tension achieved by 10-5 M phenylephrine (PHE. LTH-acclimatized cerebral arteries also demonstrated a statistically significant (P<0.05 inhibition of PHE-induced contractility in the presence of specific α1-AR subtype antagonists. Importantly, compared to normoxic vessels, there was significantly greater (P<0.05 α1B-AR subtype mRNA and protein levels in LTH acclimatized MCA. Also, our results demonstrate that extracellular regulated kinase 1 and 2 (ERK1/2-mediated negative feedback regulation of PHE-induced contractility is modulated by α1B-AR subtype. Overall, in ovine MCA, LTH produces profound effects on α1-AR subtype expression and function.

  1. Positron annihilation measurements in high-energy alpha-irradiated n-type gallium arsenide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pan, Sandip; Mandal, Arunava; SenGupta, Asmita [Visva-Bharati, Department of Physics, Santiniketan, West Bengal (India); Roychowdhury, Anirban [UGC-DAE Consortium for Scientific Research, Kolkata Centre, Kolkata, West Bengal (India)

    2015-07-15

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy and Doppler broadening annihilation line-shape measurements have been carried out in 40-MeV alpha-irradiated n-type GaAs. After irradiation, the sample has been subjected to an isochronal annealing over temperature region of 25-800 C with an annealing time of 30 min at each set temperature. After each annealing, the positron measurements are taken at room temperature. Formation of radiation-induced defects and their recovery with annealing temperature are investigated. The lifetime spectra of the irradiated sample have been fitted with two lifetimes. The average positron lifetime τ{sub avg} = 244 ps at room temperature after irradiation indicates the presence of defects, and the value of τ{sub 2} (262 ps) at room temperature suggests that the probable defects are mono-vacancies. Two distinct annealing stages in τ{sub avg} at 400-600 C and at 650-800 C are observed. The variations in line-shape parameter (S) and defect-specific parameter (R) during annealing in the temperature region 25-800 C resemble the behaviour of τ{sub avg} indicating the migration of vacancies, formation of vacancy clusters and the disappearance of defects between 400 and 800 C. (orig.)

  2. A technique for high-sensitivity alpha autoradiography of bronchial epithelium tissue

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henshaw, D.L.; Fews, A.P.; Webster, D.J.

    1979-01-01

    A technique for low-level alpha-particle autoradiography of bronchial epithelium utilising the plastic track detector, CR-39, is described. This plastic is new to the field of nuclear track detection and is very sensitive to α-particles. The recording properties of CR-39 for α-particles are described in detail and the technique for autoradiography discussed. This technique includes two methods of background reduction enabling activities as low as 2 α-particles cm -2 to be detected. The location of the point of emission of an α-particle from the tissue surface can be determined to an accuracy of a few μm. Determination of the lower limit to the energy of individual α-particles is possible from measurements of their range in the plastic. Examples are given of the determination of the microdistribution of α-particle active nuclei in bronchial tissue including the observation of two 'hot-spots' in an epithelium sample which are attributed to the presence of small particles of uranium with its daughter products. (author)

  3. High topographic resolution for the study of micro-distribution of alpha-emitters in bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanzlik, J.

    1977-10-01

    The project dealt with the method of using dielectric track detectors to determine the micro distribution of bone seekers, particularly radium-226. The bones studied were the mouse femur and vertebrae which were incorporated with radium-226. The preparatory work consisted of a.) preparation of dielectric foils suitable for optimal quantitative alpha autoradiography; b.) preparation of bone sections for such autoradiography; and c.) comparison of various dielectric materials. The autoradiographic method was applied to detect the radium deposition in small localities in bones and in particular, to determine the micro distribution with the aim of establishing a relationship between the incorporated activity and the dose. In evaluating such a relationship, it was concluded that it is essential to take into consideration the density distribution (using the macro method), the concentration gradient in the bands (using the semi micro method) and special track groups (using the micro method). Seven bands were observed characterized by transversal and longitudinal gradients. The transversal concentration gradients are functions of metabolism. The concentration gradients gave information about incorporative trend. Special track groupings indicate the existence of a variable course of repair process

  4. Monitoring of the Formation and Development Process for Infection and Inflammation Using F-18 FDG, PET/CT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Türkan Ertay

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Many radiopharmaceuticals have been evaluated extensively in both preclinical and clinical studies as potential diagnostic agents to identify the sites of infection. There is a definite role of FDG-PET in diagnosis, extent of assessing the disease, evaluation of treatment response and disease activity in patients with infections and inflammation. The aim of the study, the process of formation and development of infection and inflammation is monitored using (18 F 2’-deoxy-2-fluoroD-glucose (F-18 FDG by Positron Emission Computed Tomography (PET-CT. Methods: In this study, sterile abscess was induced by using turpentine and infected abscess was induced by using Staphylococcus aureus atcc 25923 strain on rats. In the abscess formation on rats, three grups rats were used as sterile, infected and control grups. There were examined male White Wistar Rats, the clinical healthy animals were 150-220 gr body weight. Bacterial strain and rat model for abscess formation for infected abscess formation on rats (n=7, S. aureus 0.5 ml 107 CFU/ml was inoculated in the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. For sterile abscess formation on rats (n=7 0.2-0.4 ml turpentine (sigma-aldrich was injected into the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. In control group (n=6, 0.5 ml 0.9% NaCl was injected into the right arm of the rats as subcutaneous. First day imsaging was acquired 24 hours after inoculation of S.aureus and turpentine. 1 mCi 18F-FDG was injected intravenously via the tail vein. Prior to 18F-FDG injection, rats fasted at least 4 hours and well hydrated. Imaging was done using PET-CT (PHILIPS Gemini TF, beginning 1 hour following injection of 18F-FDG IV in the first day and at intervals of 24 hours for five days. First day imaging was performed 1. hour after IV injection of 18F-FDG to obtain optimum imaging time. PET/CT images were visually and semiquantitatively assessed. For semiquantitative analysis of the PET images, a region of interest

  5. F18-choline PET/CT guided surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism when ultrasound and MIBI SPECT/CT are negative or inconclusive: the APACH1 study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quak, Elske; Blanchard, David; Houdu, Benjamin; Le Roux, Yannick; Ciappuccini, Renaud; Lireux, Barbara; de Raucourt, Dominique; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Licaj, Idlir; Bardet, Stéphane; Reznik, Yves; Clarisse, Bénédicte; Aide, Nicolas

    2018-04-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of F18-choline (FCH) PET/CT for parathyroid adenoma detection prior to surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or inconclusive cervical ultrasound and Tc99m-sestaMIBI SPECT/CT. We conducted a prospective bicentric study (NCT02432599). All patients underwent FCH PET/CT. The result was scored positive, inconclusive or negative. The number of uptakes and their sites were recorded. The FCH PET/CT result guided the surgical procedure (minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, bilateral cervical exploration, or other in case of multiple or ectopic foci). FCH PET/CT results were compared to the surgical and pathological findings and the follow-up. Twenty-five patients were included. Mean calcium and PTH levels prior to surgery were 2.76 ± 0.17 mmol/l and 94.8 ± 37.4 ng/l. Nineteen (76%) FCH PET/CTs were scored positive, 3 (12%) inconclusive and 3 (12%) negative, showing 21 cases of uniglandular disease, including 1 ectopic localization and 1 case of multiglandular (3 foci) disease. Mean lesion size was 13.1 ± 8.6 mm. Twenty-four patients underwent surgery. FCH PET/CT guided surgery in 22 (88%) patients, allowing for 17 minimally invasive parathyroidectomies, 1 bilateral cervical exploration for multifocality and 4 other surgical procedures. Two patients with negative FCH-PET/CT underwent bilateral cervical exploration. When dichotomizing the FCH PET/CT results, thereby classifying the inconclusive FCH PET/CT results as positive, the per lesion and per patient sensitivities were 91.3% (95%CI: 72.0-98.9) and 90.5% (95%CI: 69.6-98.8) and the corresponding positive predictive values were 87.5% (95%CI: 67.6-97.3) and 86.4% (95%CI: 65.1-97.1), respectively. Twenty-one (88%) patients were considered cured after surgery. Their mean calcium level after surgery was 2.36 ± 0.17 mmol/l. Preoperative FCH PET/CT has a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for parathyroid adenoma detection in patients

  6. F18-choline PET/CT guided surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism when ultrasound and MIBI SPECT/CT are negative or inconclusive. The APACH1 study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quak, Elske; Lireux, Barbara; Bardet, Stephane [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Unit, Caen (France); Blanchard, David; Raucourt, Dominique de [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Department of Head and Neck Surgery, Caen (France); Houdu, Benjamin [University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Le Roux, Yannick [University Hospital, Department of General and Endocrine Surgery, Caen (France); Ciappuccini, Renaud [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Unit, Caen (France); Caen University, INSERM 1086 ANTICIPE, Caen (France); Grellard, Jean-Michel; Licaj, Idlir; Clarisse, Benedicte [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Department of Clinical Research, Caen (France); Reznik, Yves [University Hospital, Department of Endocrinology, Caen (France); Aide, Nicolas [Francois Baclesse Cancer Centre, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Thyroid Unit, Caen (France); University Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Caen (France); Caen University, INSERM 1086 ANTICIPE, Caen (France)

    2018-04-15

    To evaluate the sensitivity of F18-choline (FCH) PET/CT for parathyroid adenoma detection prior to surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or inconclusive cervical ultrasound and Tc99m-sestaMIBI SPECT/CT. We conducted a prospective bicentric study (NCT02432599). All patients underwent FCH PET/CT. The result was scored positive, inconclusive or negative. The number of uptakes and their sites were recorded. The FCH PET/CT result guided the surgical procedure (minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, bilateral cervical exploration, or other in case of multiple or ectopic foci). FCH PET/CT results were compared to the surgical and pathological findings and the follow-up. Twenty-five patients were included. Mean calcium and PTH levels prior to surgery were 2.76 ± 0.17 mmol/l and 94.8 ± 37.4 ng/l. Nineteen (76%) FCH PET/CTs were scored positive, 3 (12%) inconclusive and 3 (12%) negative, showing 21 cases of uniglandular disease, including 1 ectopic localization and 1 case of multiglandular (3 foci) disease. Mean lesion size was 13.1 ± 8.6 mm. Twenty-four patients underwent surgery. FCH PET/CT guided surgery in 22 (88%) patients, allowing for 17 minimally invasive parathyroidectomies, 1 bilateral cervical exploration for multifocality and 4 other surgical procedures. Two patients with negative FCH-PET/CT underwent bilateral cervical exploration. When dichotomizing the FCH PET/CT results, thereby classifying the inconclusive FCH PET/CT results as positive, the per lesion and per patient sensitivities were 91.3% (95%CI: 72.0-98.9) and 90.5% (95%CI: 69.6-98.8) and the corresponding positive predictive values were 87.5% (95%CI: 67.6-97.3) and 86.4% (95%CI: 65.1-97.1), respectively. Twenty-one (88%) patients were considered cured after surgery. Their mean calcium level after surgery was 2.36 ± 0.17 mmol/l. Preoperative FCH PET/CT has a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for parathyroid adenoma detection in patients with primary

  7. F18-choline PET/CT guided surgery in primary hyperparathyroidism when ultrasound and MIBI SPECT/CT are negative or inconclusive. The APACH1 study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Quak, Elske; Lireux, Barbara; Bardet, Stephane; Blanchard, David; Raucourt, Dominique de; Houdu, Benjamin; Le Roux, Yannick; Ciappuccini, Renaud; Grellard, Jean-Michel; Licaj, Idlir; Clarisse, Benedicte; Reznik, Yves; Aide, Nicolas

    2018-01-01

    To evaluate the sensitivity of F18-choline (FCH) PET/CT for parathyroid adenoma detection prior to surgery in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism and negative or inconclusive cervical ultrasound and Tc99m-sestaMIBI SPECT/CT. We conducted a prospective bicentric study (NCT02432599). All patients underwent FCH PET/CT. The result was scored positive, inconclusive or negative. The number of uptakes and their sites were recorded. The FCH PET/CT result guided the surgical procedure (minimally invasive parathyroidectomy, bilateral cervical exploration, or other in case of multiple or ectopic foci). FCH PET/CT results were compared to the surgical and pathological findings and the follow-up. Twenty-five patients were included. Mean calcium and PTH levels prior to surgery were 2.76 ± 0.17 mmol/l and 94.8 ± 37.4 ng/l. Nineteen (76%) FCH PET/CTs were scored positive, 3 (12%) inconclusive and 3 (12%) negative, showing 21 cases of uniglandular disease, including 1 ectopic localization and 1 case of multiglandular (3 foci) disease. Mean lesion size was 13.1 ± 8.6 mm. Twenty-four patients underwent surgery. FCH PET/CT guided surgery in 22 (88%) patients, allowing for 17 minimally invasive parathyroidectomies, 1 bilateral cervical exploration for multifocality and 4 other surgical procedures. Two patients with negative FCH-PET/CT underwent bilateral cervical exploration. When dichotomizing the FCH PET/CT results, thereby classifying the inconclusive FCH PET/CT results as positive, the per lesion and per patient sensitivities were 91.3% (95%CI: 72.0-98.9) and 90.5% (95%CI: 69.6-98.8) and the corresponding positive predictive values were 87.5% (95%CI: 67.6-97.3) and 86.4% (95%CI: 65.1-97.1), respectively. Twenty-one (88%) patients were considered cured after surgery. Their mean calcium level after surgery was 2.36 ± 0.17 mmol/l. Preoperative FCH PET/CT has a high sensitivity and positive predictive value for parathyroid adenoma detection in patients with primary

  8. A detector module with highly efficient surface-alpha event rejection operated in CRESST-II Phase 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, R. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Angloher, G.; Ferreiro, N.; Hauff, D.; Kiefer, M.; Petricca, F.; Proebst, F.; Reindl, F.; Seidel, W.; Stodolsky, L.; Tanzke, A.; Wuestrich, M. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Physik, Munich (Germany); Bento, A. [Universidade de Coimbra, CIUC, Departamento de Fisica, Coimbra (Portugal); Bucci, C.; Canonica, L.; Gorla, P.; Schaeffner, K. [Laboratori Nazionali del Gran Sasso, INFN, Assergi (Italy); Erb, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Walther-Meissner-Institut fuer Tieftemperaturforschung, Garching (Germany); Feilitzsch, F. von; Guetlein, A.; Lanfranchi, J.C.; Muenster, A.; Potzel, W.; Roth, S.; Schoenert, S.; Stanger, M.; Ulrich, A.; Wawoczny, S.; Willers, M.; Zoeller, A. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); Jochum, J.; Loebell, J.; Rottler, K.; Sailer, C.; Scholl, S.; Strandhagen, C.; Uffinger, M.; Usherov, I. [Eberhard-Karls-Universitaet Tuebingen, Physikalisches Institut, Tuebingen (Germany); Kluck, H. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien (Austria); Vienna University of Technology, Atominstitut, Wien (Austria); Kraus, H. [University of Oxford, Department of Physics, Oxford (United Kingdom); Schieck, J. [Institut fuer Hochenergiephysik der Oesterreichischen Akademie der Wissenschaften, Wien (Austria); Sivers, M. von [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Physik-Department, Garching (Germany); University of Bern, Albert Einstein Center for Fundamental Physics, Bern (Switzerland)

    2015-08-15

    The cryogenic dark matter experiment CRESSTII aims at the direct detection of WIMPs via elastic scattering off nuclei in scintillating CaWO{sub 4} crystals. We present a new, highly improved, detector design installed in the current run of CRESST-II Phase 2 with an efficient active rejection of surface-alpha backgrounds. Using CaWO{sub 4} sticks instead of metal clamps to hold the target crystal, a detector housing with fully-scintillating inner surface could be realized. The presented detector (TUM40) provides an excellent threshold of ∝0.60 keV and a resolution of σ ∼ 0.090 keV (at 2.60 keV).With significantly reduced background levels, TUM40 sets stringent limits on the spin-independent WIMP nucleon scattering cross section and probes a new region of parameter space for WIMP masses below 3GeV/c{sup 2}. In this paper, we discuss the novel detector design and the surface-alpha event rejection in detail. (orig.)

  9. (Alpha, gamma) irradiation effect on the alteration of high-level radioactive wastes matrices (UO2, hollandite, glass SON68)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, T.

    2007-06-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the effect of irradiation on the alteration of high level nuclear waste forms matrices. The matrices investigated are UO 2 to simulate the spent fuel, the hollandite for the specific conditioning of Cs, and the inactive glass SON68 representing the nuclear glass R7T7) The alpha irradiation experiments on UO 2 colloids in aqueous carbonate media have enabled to distinguish between the oxidation of UO 2 matrix as initial and dissolution as subsequent step. The simultaneous presence of carbonate and H 2 O 2 (product resulting from water radiolysis) increased the dissolution rate of UO 2 to its maximum value governed by the oxidation rate. ii) The study of hollandite alteration under gamma irradiation confirmed the good retention capacity for Cs and Ba. Gamma irradiation had brought only a little influence on releasing of Cs and Ba in solution. Electronic irradiation had conducted to the amorphization of the hollandite only for a dose 1000 times higher than the auto-induced dose of Ba over millions of years. iii) The experiences of glass irradiation under alpha beam and of helium implantation in the glass SON68 were analyzed by positon annihilation spectroscopy. No effect has been observed on the solid surface for an irradiation dose equal to 1000 years of storage. (author)

  10. The determination of $\\alpha_s$ by the ALPHA collaboration

    CERN Document Server

    Bruno, Mattia

    2016-01-01

    We review the ALPHA collaboration strategy for obtaining the QCD coupling at high scale. In the three-flavor effective theory it avoids the use of perturbation theory at $\\alpha > 0.2$ and at the same time has the physical scales small compared to the cutoff $1/a$ in all stages of the computation. The result $\\Lambda_\\overline{MS}^{(3)}=332(14)$~MeV is translated to $\\alpha_\\overline{MS}(m_Z)=0.1179(10)(2)$ by use of (high order) perturbative relations between the effective theory couplings at the charm and beauty quark "thresholds". The error of this perturbative step is discussed and estimated as $0.0002$.

  11. High-LET alpha-emitters: Radon, lung cancer and smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fabrikant, J.I.

    1988-11-01

    The National Academy of Sciences BEIR IV Report deals with the health effects in human populations exposed to internally-deposited alpha-emitting radionuclides and their decay products. Quantitative risk estimates for cancer induction are derived, mainly from analyses of epidemiological data. The Report addresses the health outcomes of exposure to radon and its daughters, primarily lung cancer risks of worker exposure to radon progeny in underground mines and in the general public in indoor domestic environments. An excess relative risk model of lung cancer mortality and exposure to radon progeny is developed; this models the excess risk per Working Level Month in terms of time intervals prior to an attained age, and is dependent on time-since-exposure and age at risk. Risk projections are presented and cover exposure situations of current public health concern. For example, lifetime exposure to 1 WLM y/sup /minus/1/ is estimated to increase the number of deaths due to lung cancer by a factor of about 1.5 over the current rate for both males and females in a population having the current prevalence of cigarette-smoking. Occupational exposure to 4 WLM y/sup /minus/1/ from ages 20 y to 40 y is projected to increase lung cancer deaths by a factor of 1.6 over the current rate of this age cohort in the general population. In all of these cases, most of the increased risk occurs to smokers for whom the risk is up to ten times greater than for non-smokers. 8 refs., 1 tab

  12. A non-perturbative exploration of the high energy regime in Nf=3 QCD. ALPHA Collaboration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalla Brida, Mattia; Fritzsch, Patrick; Korzec, Tomasz; Ramos, Alberto; Sint, Stefan; Sommer, Rainer

    2018-05-01

    Using continuum extrapolated lattice data we trace a family of running couplings in three-flavour QCD over a large range of scales from about 4 to 128 GeV. The scale is set by the finite space time volume so that recursive finite size techniques can be applied, and Schrödinger functional (SF) boundary conditions enable direct simulations in the chiral limit. Compared to earlier studies we have improved on both statistical and systematic errors. Using the SF coupling to implicitly define a reference scale 1/L_0≈ 4 GeV through \\bar{g}^2(L_0) =2.012, we quote L_0 Λ ^{N_f=3}_{{\\overline{MS}}} =0.0791(21). This error is dominated by statistics; in particular, the remnant perturbative uncertainty is negligible and very well controlled, by connecting to infinite renormalization scale from different scales 2^n/L_0 for n=0,1,\\ldots ,5. An intermediate step in this connection may involve any member of a one-parameter family of SF couplings. This provides an excellent opportunity for tests of perturbation theory some of which have been published in a letter (ALPHA collaboration, M. Dalla Brida et al. in Phys Rev Lett 117(18):182001, 2016). The results indicate that for our target precision of 3 per cent in L_0 Λ ^{N_f=3}_{{\\overline{MS}}}, a reliable estimate of the truncation error requires non-perturbative data for a sufficiently large range of values of α _s=\\bar{g}^2/(4π ). In the present work we reach this precision by studying scales that vary by a factor 2^5= 32, reaching down to α _s≈ 0.1. We here provide the details of our analysis and an extended discussion.

  13. Buffett's Alpha

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frazzini, Andrea; Kabiller, David; Heje Pedersen, Lasse

    Berkshire Hathaway has realized a Sharpe ratio of 0.76, higher than any other stock or mutual fund with a history of more than 30 years, and Berkshire has a significant alpha to traditional risk factors. However, we find that the alpha becomes insignificant when controlling for exposures to Betting...

  14. Alpha Blockers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... quickly, but their effects last only a few hours. Long-acting medications take longer to work, but their effects last longer. Which alpha blocker is best for you depends on your health and the condition being treated. Alpha blockers are ...

  15. Design of a mixer for the thrust-vectoring system on the high-alpha research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pahle, Joseph W.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    One of the advanced control concepts being investigated on the High-Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV) is multi-axis thrust vectoring using an experimental thrust-vectoring (TV) system consisting of three hydraulically actuated vanes per engine. A mixer is used to translate the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands into the appropriate TV-vane commands for distribution to the vane actuators. A computer-aided optimization process was developed to perform the inversion of the thrust-vectoring effectiveness data for use by the mixer in performing this command translation. Using this process a new mixer was designed for the HARV and evaluated in simulation and flight. An important element of the Mixer is the priority logic, which determines priority among the pitch-, roll-, and yaw-TV commands.

  16. High resolution alpha-autoradiography for measurement of 10B distribution in subcellular scale using CR-39 and AFM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amemiya, K.; Takahashi, H.; Yasuda, N.

    2000-01-01

    In order to measure 10 B distribution in tumor tissues for BNCT at subcellular scale, we have developed a new method for high resolution alpha-autoradiography using contact X-ray microscopy technique with CR-39 plastic track detectors. Sliced sections of boron-injected brain tumors in rats were mounted on CR-39 and irradiated with thermal neutrons at KUR. Then the samples were exposed to soft X-rays from a laser plasma source. After etching the CR-39 in NaOH solution for a short time (1-5 min.), transmission X-ray image of tumor cells appeared as relief on CR-39 surface, and could be observed with the atomic force microscopy (AFM). Very small etch pits of about 100 nm in diameter corresponding to particle tracks from 10 B(n, α) 7 Li reactions were also observed in the image simultaneously. This method provides an accurate distribution of 10 B inside the cell. (author)

  17. [Complex formation between alpha-chymotrypsin and block copolymers based on ethylene and propylene oxide, induced by high pressure].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topchieva, I N; Sorokina, E M; Kurganov, B I; Zhulin, V M; Makarova, Z G

    1996-06-01

    A new method of formation of non-covalent adducts based on an amphiphilic diblock copolymer of ethylene and propylene oxides with molecular mass of 2 kDa and alpha-chymotrypsin (ChT) under high pressure, has been developed. The composition of the complexes corresponds to seven polymer molecules per one ChT molecule in the pressure range of 1.1 to 400 MPa. The complexes fully retain the catalytic activity. Kinetic constants (Km and kcat) for enzymatic hydrolysis of N-benzoyl-L-tyrosine ethyl ester catalyzed by the complexes are identical with the corresponding values for native ChT. Analysis of kinetics of thermal inactivation of the complexes revealed that the constant of the rate of the slow inactivation step is markedly lower than for ChT.

  18. A thin foil Faraday collector as a lost alpha detector for high yield d-t tokamak fusion plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cecil, F. Ed

    2011-01-01

    This report summarizes the accomplishment of sixteen years of work toward the development of thin foil Faraday collectors as a lost energetic ion diagnostic for high temperature magnetic confinement fusion plasmas. Following initial, proof of principle accelerator based studies, devices have been tested on TFTR, NSTX, ALCATOR, DIII-D, and JET (KA-1 and KA-2). The reference numbers refer to the attached list of publications. The JET diagnostic KA-2 continues in operation and hopefully will provide valuable diagnostic information during a possible d-t campaign on JET in the coming years. A thin Faraday foil spectrometer, by virtue of its radiation hardness, may likewise provide a solution to the very challenging problem of lost alpha particle measurements on ITER and other future burning plasma machines.

  19. The value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography in asymptomatic examinees with unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Wenfeng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Radiation Oncology, Wenzhou (China); Yin, Weiwei [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); Ou, Rongying [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Gynaecology and Obstetrics, Wenzhou (China); Chen, Ting; Xiong, Lingling; Xu, Yunsheng [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Dermatovenereology, Wenzhou (China); Cheng, Dezhi; Xie, Deyao [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, Wenzhou (China); Zheng, Xiangwu; Zhao, Liang [The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Laboratory for Advanced Interdisciplinary Research, Institutes of Translational Medicine, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Division of PET/CT, Department of Radiology, Wenzhou (China); The First Affiliated Hospital of Wenzhou Medical University, Institutes of Intelligent and Molecular Imaging, Wenzhou (China)

    2016-04-15

    Cancer is still a clinical challenge, with many efforts invested in order to achieve timely detection. Unexplained elevated blood carcinoembryonic antigen levels are occasionally observed in an asymptomatic population and considered as a risk factor of cancers. The purpose of this study was to determine the validity of 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG-PET/CT) for detecting cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) levels. This retrospective study included a total of 1920 asymptomatic examinees conducted from August 2011 through September 2013. The participants underwent CEA assay and conventional medical imaging (CEA-conventional), or CEA assay and F-18 FDG-PET/CT (CEA-PET/CT). The validity of conventional medical imaging and CEA-PET/CT scanning for detecting cancer and early-stage cancer in an asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in blood CEA levels were evaluated. Sensitivity, specificity, cancer detection rate, missed cancer detection rate, early-stage cancer detection rate, and early-stage cancer ratio using the CEA-PET/CT scanning were 96.6 %, 100 %, 10.4 %, 0.4 %, 3.7 %, and 34.5 %, respectively. In contrast, the corresponding values obtained using the conventional medical imaging were 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 100 % (P > 0.9999), 50.6 % (P < 0.0001), 99.9 % (P = 0.055), 2.6 % (P < 0.0001), 2.5 % (P = 0.04), 0.7 % (P = 0.0004), and 14.5 % (P = 0.002), respectively. The F-18 FDG-PET/CT scanning significantly improved the validity of the cancer detection program in the asymptomatic population with an unexplained elevation in CEA levels. (orig.)

  20. Nerve Sheath Tumors in Neurofibromatosis Type 1: Assessment of Whole-Body Metabolic Tumor Burden Using F-18-FDG PET/CT.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Salamon

    Full Text Available To determine the metabolically active whole-body tumor volume (WB-MTV on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18-FDG PET/CT in individuals with neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1 using a three-dimensional (3D segmentation and computerized volumetry technique, and to compare PET WB-MTV between patients with benign and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors (PNSTs.Thirty-six NF1 patients (18 patients with malignant PNSTs and 18 age- and sex-matched controls with benign PNSTs were examined by F-18-FDG PET/CT. WB-MTV, whole-body total lesion glycolysis (WB-TLG and a set of semi-quantitative imaging-based parameters were analyzed both on a per-patient and a per-lesion basis.On a per-lesion basis, malignant PNSTs demonstrated both a significantly higher MTV and TLG than benign PNSTs (p < 0.0001. On a per-patient basis, WB-MTV and WB-TLG were significantly higher in patients with malignant PNSTs compared to patients with benign PNSTs (p < 0.001. ROC analysis showed that MTV and TLG could be used to differentiate between benign and malignant tumors.WB-MTV and WB-TLG may identify malignant change and may have the potential to provide a basis for investigating molecular biomarkers that correlate with metabolically active disease manifestations. Further evaluation will determine the potential clinical impact of these PET-based parameters in NF1.

  1. Functional correlates of TSH, fT3 and fT4 in Alzheimer disease: a F-18 FDG PET/CT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaravalloti, Agostino; Ursini, Francesco; Fiorentini, Alessandro; Barbagallo, Gaetano; Martorana, Alessandro; Koch, Giacomo; Tavolozza, Mario; Schillaci, Orazio

    2017-07-24

    The present study was aimed to investigate the relationships between thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH), freeT3 (fT3) and freeT4 (fT4) and brain glucose consumption as detectable by means of 2-deoxy-2-(F-18) fluoro-D-glucose (F-18 FDG) Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography (PET/CT) in a selected population with Alzheimer disease (AD). We evaluated 87 subjects (37 males and 50 females, mean age 70 (±6) years old) with AD. All of them were subjected to TSH, fT3 and fT4 assay and to cerebrospinal fluid amyloid (Aβ1-42) and tau [phosphorylated-tau (p-tau) and total-tau (t-tau)] assay prior PET/CT examination. Values for TSH, fT3 and fT4 were in the normal range. The relationships were evaluated by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM8) using age, sex, MMSE, scholarship and CSF values of amyloid and tau as covariates. We found a significant positive correlation between TSH values and cortical glucose consumption in a wide portion of the anterior cingulate cortex bilaterally (BA32) and left frontal lobe (BA25) (p FWE-corr <0.001; p FDRcorr <0.000; cluster extent 66950). No significant relationships were found between cortical F-18 FDG uptake and T3 and T4 serum levels. The results of our study suggest that a cortical dysfunction in anterior cingulate and frontal lobes may affect serum values of TSH in AD patients.

  2. LaaA, a novel high-active alkalophilic alpha-amylase from deep-sea bacterium Luteimonas abyssi XH031(T).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Qinghao; Wang, Yan; Yin, Chong; Zhang, Xiao-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Alpha-amylase is a kind of broadly used industrial enzymes, most of which have been exploited from terrestrial organism. Comparatively, alpha-amylase from marine environment was largely undeveloped. In this study, a novel alkalophilic alpha-amylase with high activity, Luteimonas abyssi alpha-amylase (LaaA), was cloned from deep-sea bacterium L. abyssi XH031(T) and expressed in Escherichia coli BL21. The gene has a length of 1428bp and encodes 475 amino acids with a 35-residue signal peptide. The specific activity of LaaA reached 8881U/mg at the optimum pH 9.0, which is obvious higher than other reported alpha-amylase. This enzyme can remain active at pH levels ranging from 6.0 to 11.0 and temperatures below 45°C, retaining high activity even at low temperatures (almost 38% residual activity at 10°C). In addition, 1mM Na(+), K(+), and Mn(2+) enhanced the activity of LaaA. To investigate the function of potential active sites, R227G, D229K, E256Q/H, H327V and D328V mutants were generated, and the results suggested that Arg227, Asp229, Glu256 and Asp328 were total conserved and essential for the activity of alpha-amylase LaaA. This study shows that the alpha-amylase LaaA is an alkali-tolerant and high-active amylase with strong potential for use in detergent industry. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Hot-clot artifacts in the lung parenchyma on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/CT due to faulty injection techniques: Two case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozdemir, Elif; Yildirim, Nilufer; Keskin, Mutlay; Kandemir, Zuhai; Turkolmez, Seyda [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ataturk Training and Research Hospital, Ankara (Turkmenistan)

    2014-08-15

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT is an important whole-body imaging tool in the oncology and widely utilized to stage and restage various malignancies. The findings of significant focal accumulation of FDG in the lung parenchyma in the absence of corresponding CT abnormalities are related to the lung microembolism and known as hot-clot artifacts. Herein we present two cases with focal FDG uptake in the lung parenchyma with no structural lesions on the CT scan and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  4. Hot-clot artifacts in the lung parenchyma on F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose position emission tomography/CT due to faulty injection techniques: Two case report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ozdemir, Elif; Yildirim, Nilufer; Keskin, Mutlay; Kandemir, Zuhai; Turkolmez, Seyda

    2014-01-01

    F-18-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/CT is an important whole-body imaging tool in the oncology and widely utilized to stage and restage various malignancies. The findings of significant focal accumulation of FDG in the lung parenchyma in the absence of corresponding CT abnormalities are related to the lung microembolism and known as hot-clot artifacts. Herein we present two cases with focal FDG uptake in the lung parenchyma with no structural lesions on the CT scan and discuss the possible mechanisms.

  5. Synthesis, enantiomeric resolution, F-18 labeling and biodistribution of reboxetine analogs: promising radioligands for imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Kuo-Shyan; Ding, Yu-Shin; Kim, Sung-Won; Kil, Kun-Eek

    2005-05-01

    Racemic and enantiomerically pure ((S,S) and (R,R)) 2-[alpha-(2-(2-[(18)F]fluoroethoxy)phenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ([(18)F]FRB) and its tetradeuterated form [(18)F]FRB-D(4), analogs of the highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (2-[alpha-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine, RB), have been synthesized for studies of norepinephrine transporter (NET) system with positron emission tomography (PET). The [(18)F]fluorinated precursor, (S,S)/(R,R)-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-[alpha-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-N-Boc-desethylRB), was prepared by the N-protection of (S,S)/(R,R)-2-[alpha-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-desethylRB) with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group followed by enantiomeric resolution with chiral HPLC to provide both (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers with >99% enantiomeric purity. These compounds were then used for radiosynthesis to prepare enantiomerically pure [(18)F]FRB and [(18)F]FRB-D(4) via the following three-step procedure: (1) formation of 1-bromo-2-[(18)F]fluoroethane ([(18)F]BFE or [(18)F]BFE-D(4)) by nucleophilic displacement of 2-bromoethyl triflate (or D(4) analog) with no-carrier added [(18)F]F(-) in THF; (2) reaction of [(18)F]BFE (or [(18)F]BFE-D(4)) with N-Boc-desethylRB in DMF in the presence of excess base; and (3) deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid. The racemates, (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers of [(18)F]FRB and [(18)F]FRB-D(4) were obtained in 11-27% (decay corrected to the end of bombardment, EOB) in 120-min synthesis time with a radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activities of 21-48 GBq/micromol (EOB). The results of the whole-body biodistribution studies with (S,S)-[(18)F]FRB-D(4) were similar to those with (S,S)-[(18)F]FRB but showed relatively faster blood clearance and no significant in vivo defluorination. Positron emission tomography studies in baboon brain also showed that (S,S)-[(18)F]FRB-D(4) may be a potentially useful ligand for imaging NET with PET.

  6. Synthesis, enantiomeric resolution, F-18 labeling and biodistribution of reboxetine analogs: promising radioligands for imaging the norepinephrine transporter with positron emission tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, K.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Ding, Y.-S. [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)]. E-mail: ding@bnl.gov; Kim, Sung-Won [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States); Kil, Kun-Eek [Chemistry Department, Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, New York 11973 (United States)

    2005-05-01

    Racemic and enantiomerically pure ((S,S) and (R,R)) 2-[{alpha}-(2-(2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethoxy)phenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ([{sup 18}F]FRB) and its tetradeuterated form [{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4}, analogs of the highly selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor reboxetine (2-[{alpha}-(2-ethoxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine, RB), have been synthesized for studies of norepinephrine transporter (NET) system with positron emission tomography (PET). The [{sup 18}F]fluorinated precursor, (S,S)/(R,R)-N-tert-butyloxycarbonyl-2-[{alpha}-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl] morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-N-Boc-desethylRB), was prepared by the N-protection of (S,S)/(R,R)-2-[{alpha}-(2-hydroxyphenoxy)benzyl]morpholine ((S,S)/(R,R)-desethylRB) with a tert-butyloxycarbonyl (Boc) group followed by enantiomeric resolution with chiral HPLC to provide both (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers with >99% enantiomeric purity. These compounds were then used for radiosynthesis to prepare enantiomerically pure [{sup 18}F]FRB and [{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4} via the following three-step procedure: (1) formation of 1-bromo-2-[{sup 18}F]fluoroethane ([{sup 18}F]BFE or [{sup 18}F]BFE-D{sub 4}) by nucleophilic displacement of 2-bromoethyl triflate (or D{sub 4} analog) with no-carrier added [{sup 18}F]F{sup -} in THF; (2) reaction of [{sup 18}F]BFE (or [{sup 18}F]BFE-D{sub 4}) with N-Boc-desethylRB in DMF in the presence of excess base; and (3) deprotection with trifluoroacetic acid. The racemates, (S,S) and (R,R) enantiomers of [{sup 18}F]FRB and [{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4} were obtained in 11-27% (decay corrected to the end of bombardment, EOB) in 120-min synthesis time with a radiochemical purity of >98% and specific activities of 21-48 GBq/{mu}mol (EOB). The results of the whole-body biodistribution studies with (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]FRB-D{sub 4} were similar to those with (S,S)-[{sup 18}F]FRB but showed relatively faster blood clearance and no significant in vivo defluorination. Positron emission tomography studies in baboon brain also

  7. Investigation of High Temperature Ductility Losses in Alpha-Beta Titanium Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-04-01

    Strain Rate . ...... 89 4.1.3 Results of Initial Tests .9.... 94 4.2 CCT Diagram Development .. ......... .. 94 4.3 Lattice Incompatibility Measurements...123 5.1 Phase Stability and Transformations . . . 124 5.1.1 CCT Diagrams ........... 126 Aluminum Additions. ........ .147 Beta... CCT ) Diagram of Ti-6211..............101 1 4.6 High-Temperature X-Ray Diffraction Specimen Configurations..............106 4.7 High-Temperature X-Ray

  8. Regulation of hepatic branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex in rats fed a high-fat diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Objective: Branched-chain alpha-keto acid dehydrogenase complex (BCKDC) regulates branched-chain amino acid (BCAA) metabolism at the level of branched chain alpha-ketoacid (BCKA) catabolism. It has been demonstrated that the activity of hepatic BCKDC is markedly decreased in type 2 diabetic animal...

  9. Effect of Donepezil on Wernicke Aphasia After Bilateral Middle Cerebral Artery Infarction: Subtraction Analysis of Brain F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Positron Emission Tomographic Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Seo Yeon; Kim, Je-Kyung; An, Young-Sil; Kim, Yong Wook

    2015-01-01

    Aphasia is one of the most common neurologic deficits occurring after stroke. Although the speech-language therapy is a mainstream option for poststroke aphasia, pharmacotherapy is recently being tried to modulate different neurotransmitter systems. However, the efficacy of those treatments is still controversial. We present a case of a 53-year-old female patient with Wernicke aphasia, after the old infarction in the territory of left middle cerebral artery for 8 years and the recent infarction in the right middle cerebral artery for 4 months. On the initial evaluation, the Aphasia Quotient in Korean version of the Western Aphasia Battery was 25.6 of 100. Baseline brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images demonstrated a decreased cerebral metabolism in the left temporoparietal area and right temporal lobe. Donepezil hydrochloride, a reversible acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, was orally administered 5 mg/d for 6 weeks after the initial evaluation and was increased to 10 mg/d for the following 6 weeks. After the donepezil treatment, the patient showed improvement in language function, scoring 51.0 of 100 on Aphasia Quotient. A subtraction analysis of the brain F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomographic images after donepezil medication demonstrated increased uptake in both middle temporal gyri, extended to the occipital area and the left cerebellum. Thus, we suggest that donepezil can be an effective therapeutic choice for the treatment of Wernicke aphasia.

  10. The use of quantitative PCR for identification and quantification of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis and Escherichia coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ståhl, Marie; Kokotovic, Branko; Hjulsager, Charlotte Kristiane

    2011-01-01

    Four quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays were evaluated for quantitative detection of Brachyspira pilosicoli, Lawsonia intracellularis, and E. coli fimbrial types F4 and F18 in pig feces. Standard curves were based on feces spiked with the respective reference strains. The detection limits from...... the spiking experiments were 102 bacteria/g feces for BpiloqPCR and Laws-qPCR, 103 CFU/g feces for F4-qPCR and F18-qPCR. The PCR efficiency for all four qPCR assays was between 0.91 and 1.01 with R2 above 0.993. Standard curves, slopes and elevation, varied between assays and between measurements from pure...... DNA from reference strains and feces spiked with the respective strains. The linear ranges found for spiked fecal samples differed both from the linear ranges from pure culture of the reference strains and between the qPCR tests. The linear ranges were five log units for F4- qPCR, and Laws-qPCR, six...

  11. The role of F-18 FDG-PET for 3-D radiation treatment planning of non-small cell lung cancer - first results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmuecking, M.; Baum, R.P.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A.; Lopatta, E.C.; Wendt, T.G.; Plichta, K.; Leonhardi, J.

    2001-01-01

    To determine the role of F-18 FDG-PET in 3-D-radiation therapy planning, findings in 27 patients, studied by both, PET and CT, were analyzed prospectively. All patients were first examined by helical CT and F-18 FDG-PET. The PET data were iteratively reconstructed into 3-D images and image fusion with CT data was applied. First, based on CT data, the planning target volumes (PTV) and the volumes of organs at risk were generated. In a second step, the transversal slices of CT and PET were matched. Then, based on PET data, new target volumes were generated. Treatment plans for radiation therapy were calculated on CT-based and PET-based planning target volumes. If PET results were used additionally for the 3-D-planning procedure of radiation therapy, the planning target volume could be reduced in a range of 3-21% as compared with conventional imaging methods, e.g., PET allowed differentiation between tumor and atelectasis resulting in smaller PTV. The dose volume histograms of the PET-based treatment plans showed a reduction of dose to the organs at risk, e.g., V lung (20 Gy) could be reduced by 5% to 17%. In 2 patients, the boost volume based on PET findings was larger than the one based on CT, since PET detected lymph node metastases being of normal size in CT ( [de

  12. Prospective Comparison of F-18 Choline PET/CT Scan Versus Axial MRI for Detecting Bone Metastasis in Biochemically Relapsed Prostate Cancer Patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wouter Huysse

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available We compared fluor-18 choline positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT and axial skeleton magnetic resonance imaging (MRI prospectively obtained for the detection of bone metastases in non-castrated patients with biochemically recurrent prostate cancer following primary treatment. PET/CT was performed 45 min post-injection of 3–4 MBq/kg F-18 methyl choline. MRI included T1- and fluid sensitive T2-weighted images of the spine and pelvis. Readers were initially blinded from other results and all scans underwent independent double reading. The best valuable comparator (BVC defined the metastatic status. On the basis of the BVC, 15 out of 64 patients presented with 24 bone metastases. On a patient level, the sensitivity and specificity of MRI and PET were not significantly different. On a lesion level, the sensitivity of MRI was significantly better compared to PET, and the specificity did not differ significantly. In conclusion, axial MRI is an interesting screening tool for the detection of bone metastases because of its low probability of false negative results. However, F-18 choline PET is a valuable addition as it can overrule false positive MRI results and detect non-axial metastases.

  13. Simulation model of the F/A-18 high angle-of-attack research vehicle utilized for the design of advanced control laws

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Mark E.; Bundick, W. Thomas; Messina, Michael D.; Hoffler, Keith D.; Carzoo, Susan W.; Yeager, Jessie C.; Beissner, Fred L., Jr.

    1996-01-01

    The 'f18harv' six degree-of-freedom nonlinear batch simulation used to support research in advanced control laws and flight dynamics issues as part of NASA's High Alpha Technology Program is described in this report. This simulation models an F/A-18 airplane modified to incorporate a multi-axis thrust-vectoring system for augmented pitch and yaw control power and actuated forebody strakes for enhanced aerodynamic yaw control power. The modified configuration is known as the High Alpha Research Vehicle (HARV). The 'f18harv' simulation was an outgrowth of the 'f18bas' simulation which modeled the basic F/A-18 with a preliminary version of a thrust-vectoring system designed for the HARV. The preliminary version consisted of two thrust-vectoring vanes per engine nozzle compared with the three vanes per engine actually employed on the F/A-18 HARV. The modeled flight envelope is extensive in that the aerodynamic database covers an angle-of-attack range of -10 degrees to +90 degrees, sideslip range of -20 degrees to +20 degrees, a Mach Number range between 0.0 and 2.0, and an altitude range between 0 and 60,000 feet.

  14. Treatment with interferon-alpha delays disease in swine infected with a highly virulent CSFV strain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Classical swine fever (CSF) is an economically significant, highly contagious swine disease. The etiological agent, CSF virus (CSFV), is an enveloped virus with a positive-sense, single-stranded RNA genome, classified as a member of the genus Pestivirus within the family Flaviviridae (Becher et al.,...

  15. The alpha channeling effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisch, N. J.

    2015-12-01

    Alpha particles born through fusion reactions in a tokamak reactor tend to slow down on electrons, but that could take up to hundreds of milliseconds. Before that happens, the energy in these alpha particles can destabilize on collisionless timescales toroidal Alfven modes and other waves, in a way deleterious to energy confinement. However, it has been speculated that this energy might be instead be channeled into useful energy, so as to heat fuel ions or to drive current. Such a channeling needs to be catalyzed by waves Waves can produce diffusion in energy of the alpha particles in a way that is strictly coupled to diffusion in space. If these diffusion paths in energy-position space point from high energy in the center to low energy on the periphery, then alpha particles will be cooled while forced to the periphery. The energy from the alpha particles is absorbed by the wave. The amplified wave can then heat ions or drive current. This process or paradigm for extracting alpha particle energy collisionlessly has been called alpha channeling. While the effect is speculative, the upside potential for economical fusion is immense. The paradigm also operates more generally in other contexts of magnetically confined plasma.

  16. Alpha-particle effects on high-n instabilities in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rewoldt, G.

    1988-06-01

    Hot α-particles and thermalized helium ash particles in tokamaks can have significant effects on high toroidal mode number instabilities such as the trapped-electron drift mode and the kinetically calculated magnetohydrodynamic ballooning mode. In particular, the effects can be stabilizing, destabilizing, or negligible, depending on the parameters involved. In high-temperature tokamaks capable of producing significant numbers of hot α-particles, the predominant interaction of the mode with the α-particles is through resonances of various sorts. In turn, the modes can cause significant anomalous transport of the α-particles and the helium ash. Here, results of comprehensive linear eigenfrequency-eigenfunction calculations are presented for relevant realistic cases to show these effects. 24 refs., 12 figs., 6 tabs

  17. In-situ observation of the alpha/beta cristobalite transition using high voltage electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meike, A.; Glassley, W.

    1989-10-01

    A high temperature water vapor phase is expected to persist in the vicinity of high level radioactive waste packages for several hundreds of years. The authors have begun an investigation of the structural and chemical effects of water on cristobalite because of its abundance in the near field environment. A high voltage transmission electron microscope (HVEM) investigation of bulk synthesized α-cristobalite to be used in single phase dissolution and precipitation kinetics experiments revealed the presence β-cristobalite, quartz and amorphous silica, in addition to α-cristobalite. Consequently, this apparent metastable persistence of β-cristobalite and amorphous silica during the synthesis of α-cristobalite was investigated using a heating stage and an environmental cell installed in the HVEM that allowed the introduction of either dry CO 2 or a CO 2 + H 2 O vapor. Preliminary electron diffraction evidence suggests that the presence of water vapor affected the α-β transition temperature. Water vapor may also be responsible for the development of an amorphous silica phase at the transition that may persist over an interval of several tens of degrees. The amorphous phase was not documented during the dry heating experiments. 20 refs., 7 figs., 5 tabs

  18. In-situ observation of the alpha/beta cristobalite transition using high voltage electron microscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meike, A.; Glassley, W.E.

    1990-01-01

    A high temperature water vapor phase is expected to persist in the vicinity of high level radioactive waste packages for several hundreds of years. The authors have begun an investigation of the structural and chemical effects of water on cristobalite because of its abundance in the near field environment. A high voltage transmission electron microscope (HVEM) investigation of bulk synthesized α-cristobalite to be used in single phase dissolution and precipitation kinetics experiments revealed the presence β-cristobalite, quartz and amorphous silica, in addition to α-cristobalite. Consequently, this apparent metastable persistence of β-cristobalite and amorphous silica during the synthesis of α-cristobalite was investigated using a heating stage and an environmental cell installed in the HVEM that allowed the introduction of either dry CO 2 or a CO 2 + H 2 O vapor. Preliminary electron diffraction evidence suggests that the presence of water vapor affected the α-β transition temperature. Water vapor may also be responsible for the development of an amorphous silica phase at the transition that may persist over an interval of several tens of degrees. The amorphous phase was not documented during the dry heating experiments

  19. High-throughput hydrolysis of starch during permeation across {alpha}-amylase-immobilized porous hollow-fiber membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miura, Suguru; Kubota, Noboru; Kawakita, Hidetaka; Saito, Kyoichi E-mail: marukyo@xtal.tf.chiba-u.ac.jp; Sugita, Kazuyuki; Watanabe, Kohei; Sugo, Takanobu

    2002-02-01

    Two kinds of supporting porous membranes, ethanolamine (EA) and phenol (Ph) fibers, for immobilization of {alpha}-amylase were prepared by radiation-induced graft polymerization of an epoxy-group-containing monomer, glycidyl methacrylate, onto a porous hollow-fiber membrane, and subsequent ring-opening with EA and Ph, respectively. An {alpha}-amylase solution was forced to permeate radially outward through the pores of the EA and Ph fibers. {alpha}-Amylase was captured at a density of 0.15 and 6.6 g/L of the membrane by the graft chain containing 2-hydroxyethylamino and phenyl groups, respectively. A permeation pressure of 0.10 MPa provided a space velocity of 780 and 1500 h{sup -1} for the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized EA and Ph fibers, respectively. Quantitative hydrolysis of starch during permeation of a 20 g/L starch solution in the buffer across the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized Ph fiber was attained up to a space velocity of about 2000 h{sup -1}; this was achieved because of negligible diffusional mass-transfer resistance of the starch to the {alpha}-amylase due to convective flow/ whereas an enzyme reaction-controlled system was observed for the {alpha}-amylase-immobilized EA fiber.

  20. Determination of alpha-Tocopherol (vitamin E) in irradiated garlic by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rios, Magda Dias Goncalves; Penteado, Marilene de Vuono Camargo

    2003-01-01

    The effects of 60 Co ionizing radiations in doses of 0, 75, 100, 150, 200 and 250Gy on garlic, upon the α-tocopherol concentration were studied. The α-tocopherol contents were established by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), after direct hexane extraction from the garlic samples. The α-tocopherol was determined through normal phase column, and mobile phase was composed by hexane: iso-propyl alcohol (99:01 v/v), with 2mL/min flow rate and fluorescence detector. It is statistically shown that an irradiation dose of up to 150 Gy does not affect the garlic α-tocopherol content. (author)

  1. The radiological evaluation of a prototype posting-in hatch under conditions of high alpha activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.I.; Hollick, R.C.

    1987-07-01

    A prototype posting-in hatch, mounted vertically in the top panel of a highly active glovebox has been radiologically evaluated in the Fuels Laboratory, AEEW. This simple, air-lock type system of 100 mm diameter has pneumatically operated and interlocked lids and a low velocity, inward purge, supplied by the glovebox depression. The hatch proved extremely reliable and very easy to operate. More than 1200 simulated posting movements were carried out and a > 8 order of magnitude reduction in aerosol concentration was recorded from the active glovebox to the monitoring environment. (author)

  2. [F-18]FHPG positron emission tomography for detection of herpes simplex virus (HSV) in experimental HSV encephalitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buursma, AR; de Vries, EFJ; Garssen, J; Kegler, D; van Waarde, A; Schirm, J; Hospers, GAP; Mulder, NH; Vaalburg, W; Klein, HC

    Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) is one of the most common causes of sporadic encephalitis. The initial clinical course of HSV encephalitis (HSE) is highly variable, and the infection may be rapidly fatal. For effective treatment with antiviral medication, an early diagnosis of HSE is crucial.

  3. Alpha spectrum profiling of plutonium in leached simulated high-level radioactive waste-glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diamond, H.; Friedman, A.M.

    1981-01-01

    Low-geometry X-ray spectra from /sup 239/Pu and /sup 237/Np, incorporated into simulated high-level radioactive waste-glass, were transformed into depth distributions for these elements. Changes in the depth profiles were observed for a series of static leachings in 75/degree/C water. Radiochemical assay of the leach solutions revealed that little neptunium or plutonium was leached, and that the amount leached was independent of leaching time. The depth profiles of the leached specimens showed that there was selective leaching of nonradioactive components of the glass, concentrating the remaining neptunium and plutonium in a broad zone near (but not at) the glass surface. Eventual redeposition of nonradioactive material onto the glass surface inhibited further leaching

  4. Prediction for the high-level alpha-active waste to be generated by nuclear power stations in the Member States of the European Communities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schmidt, E.

    1977-04-01

    Starting with a forecast for the nuclear power generating capacity to be installed in the Member States of the European Communities before the end of this century, a prediction is made of the annual production of high-level alpha-active waste from reprocessing plants and the corresponding accumulation up to the year 2000. The isotopic composition of the alpha-active waste from individual reactor types was calculated and an estimation of the influence of recycling plutonium through light water reactors on the produced quantity of higher actinides is made

  5. Discovering an Accessible Enzyme: Salivary [alpha]-Amylase--"Prima Digestio Fit in Ore"--A Didactic Approach for High School Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Isabella

    2005-01-01

    Human salivary [alpha]-amylase is used in this experimental approach to introduce biology high school students to the concept of enzyme activity in a dynamic way. Through a series of five easy, rapid, and inexpensive laboratory experiments students learn what the activity of an enzyme consists of: first in a qualitative then in a semi-quantitative…

  6. Alpha-particle-induced soft errors in high speed bipolar RAM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mitsusada, Kazumichi; Kato, Yukio; Yamaguchi, Kunihiko; Inadachi, Masaaki

    1980-01-01

    As bipolar RAM (Random Access Memory) has been improved to a fast acting and highly integrated device, the problems negligible in the past have become the ones that can not be ignored. The problem of a-particles emitted from the radioactive substances in semiconductor package materials should be specifically noticed, which cause soft errors. The authors have produced experimentally the special 1 kbit bipolar RAM to investigate its soft errors. The package used was the standard 16 pin dual in-line type, with which the practical system mounting test and a-particle irradiation test have been performed. The results showed the occurrence of soft errors at the average rate of about 1 bit/700 device hour. It is concluded that the cause was due to the a-particles emitted from the package materials, and at the same time, it was found that the rate of soft error occurrence was able to be greatly reduced by shielding a-particles. The error rate significantly increased with the decrease of the stand-by current of memory cells and with the accumulated charge determined by time constant. The mechanism of soft error was also investigated, for which an approximate model to estimate the error rate by means of the effective noise charge due to a-particles and of the amount of reversible charges of memory cells is shown to compare it with the experimental results. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  7. Role of quenching on alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation counting for several high capacity cocktails

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pujol, L.; Sanchez-Cabeza, J.-A.

    1997-01-01

    The optimization of alpha/beta separation in liquid scintillation using pulse shape analysis is convenient for the simultaneous determination of alpha and beta emitters in natural water and other samples. In this work, alpha/beta separation was studied for different scintillant/vial combinations and it was observed that both the optimum pulse shape discrimination level and the total interference value (that is, the summed relative interference between alpha and beta spectra) were dependent on the sample quenching and independent of the scintillant/vial combination. These results provide a simple method for modifying the counting configuration, such as a change in the cocktail, vial or sample characteristics, without the need to perform exhaustive parameter optimizations. Also, it was observed that, for our counting conditions, the combination of Ultima Gold AB scintillation cocktail with Zinsser low diffusion vials presented the lowest total interference, namely 0.94 ± 0.28%, which is insignificant for the counting of environmental samples. (Author)

  8. Prognostic factors for carcinoma of unknown primary localized to the neck only (CUP Syndrome) and the role of F-18-FDG PET for diagnosis and therapeutic management

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Niesen, A.; Bank, P.; Lopatta, E.C.; Wendt, T.G.; Koscielny, S.; Beleites, E.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Treatment of patients with carcinoma of unknown primary localized to the neck only is still controversial. To determine both patient related prognostic factors and the influence of treatment parameters the records of 99 patients were analyzed retrospectively, to evaluate the role of F-18-FDG PET for diagnostics and therapy management 33 patients were analyzed prospectively. Material and Methods: Retrospectively: Out of 99 patients with carcinoma of unknown primary, 51 received surgery as a sole treatment. 48 were treated with a combination of surgery and radiation therapy. 8/99 patients received a F-18-FDG PET. Statistical analyses: Kaplan-Meier, log-rank-test, chi-square-test. Prospectively: All PET studies were carried out after conventional diagnostic procedures failed to detect the primary tumor. PET findings were correlated with histology and/or clinical course of the patients. Results: Retrospectively: Disease specific survival (DSS) was significant longer for patients with N1/N2 vs. N3 (p=0.03), for upper nodal involvement vs. lower and/or supraclavicular nodal involvement (p=0.031) and for absence of extracapsular spread (p=0.041). No influence of DSS was noted for grading (p=0.469), treatment volume (p=0.82) and applied dose (>50Gy vs. <50Gy). In 2/8 patients, PET detected the primary tumor, in 1/8 bone metastases. Prospectively: Detection of the primary tumor by PET was successful in 21%, mostly in patients with lower and/or supraclavicular nodal involvement. In these patients the primary tumor was located extracervically in 72%, e.g. lung or gastric cancer. Distant metastases were detected in 33%. Conclusion: The presence of ECS, the extend and localization of nodal involvement are prognostic factors in patients suffering from CUP localized to the neck only. Patients with upper nodal involvement should be treated with curative intention. The irradiation fields should cover the whole neck including the potential region of the primary tumor with doses

  9. F-18-fluoride PET for early diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic outcome in patients with heterotopic ossification (HO) after recent paraplegia due to spinal cord injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Niesen, A.; Schmuecking, M.; Przetak, C.; Ruhwedel, H.; Boehm, H.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Heterotopic ossification (HO) is the presence of bone in soft tissue. The acquired form of HO most frequently is seen with either musculoskeletal trauma, spinal cord injury or central nervous system injury. Fever, swelling, erythema, and occasional joint tenderness seen in early HO can be difficult to distinguish from cellulitis, osteomyelitis or thrombophlebitis. As compared to paraplegia alone, combination of HO and paraplegia, especially excessive delay of diagnosis, is associated with a significantly higher incidence for thrombosis, immobilization, decubitus leading to a reduced expectation and quality of life. To evaluate the role of F-18-fluoride PET for the early diagnosis and the evaluation of the therapeutic outcome, 38 patients (56 PET examinations) were analyzed prospectively. Material and Methods: Within 8 weeks after acquired paraplegia, each patient was studied by F-18-fluoride PET in addition to clinical, serologic and conventional radiographic examinations. Whole-body PET studies (ECAT Exact 47, attenuation corrected, iterative reconstruction) were obtained 150 min. after injection of 12 MBq F-18-fluoride/kg body weight. For semi-quantitative analysis, standardized-uptake values (SUV) and the metabolic transverse diameters (MTD) of the lesions were assessed. To prevent post-traumatic neurogenic HO, patients received physiotherapy and NSA (indomethacin 3 x 50 mg per day for 4 months). In addition, external beam radiation therapy (EBRT, 1x7 Gy according to ICRU) was administered, if PET demonstrated HO. Therapeutic outcome was compared with a historical group of patients receiving only physiotherapy. Kaplan-Meier-Method, log-rank-, chi-square- and Wilcoxon-test were used for statistical analyses. Results: In the course of HO, 4/38 patients received EBRT with 1x7 Gy for a second time due to an increasing SUV and/or MTD and rising levels of alkaline phosphatase. Within a follow-up period of at least 30 months, none of the patients showed clinical

  10. Coaching the alpha male.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludeman, Kate; Erlandson, Eddie

    2004-05-01

    Highly intelligent, confident, and successful, alpha males represent about 70% of all senior executives. Natural leaders, they willingly take on levels of responsibility most rational people would find overwhelming. But many of their quintessential strengths can also make alphas difficult to work with. Their self-confidence can appear domineering. Their high expectations can make them excessively critical. Their unemotional style can keep them from inspiring their teams. That's why alphas need coaching to broaden their interpersonal tool kits while preserving their strengths. Drawing from their experience coaching more than 1,000 senior executives, the authors outline an approach tailored specifically for the alpha. Coaches get the alpha's attention by inundating him with data from 360-degree feedback presented in ways he will find compelling--both hard-boiled metrics and vivid verbatim comments from colleagues about his strengths and weaknesses. A 360-degree assessment is a wake-up call for most alphas, providing undeniable proof that their behavior doesn't work nearly as well as they think it does. That paves the way for a genuine commitment to change. In order to change, the alpha must venture into unfamiliar--and often uncomfortable--psychological territory. He must admit vulnerability, accept accountability not just for his own work for others', connect with his underlying emotions, learn to motivate through a balance of criticism and validation, and become aware of unproductive behavior patterns. The goal of executive coaching is not simply to treat the alpha as an individual problem but to improve the entire team dynamic. Initial success creates an incentive to persevere, and the virtuous cycle reverberates throughout the entire organization.

  11. High strength, biodegradable and cytocompatible alpha tricalcium phosphate-iron composites for temporal reduction of bone fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montufar, E B; Casas-Luna, M; Horynová, M; Tkachenko, S; Fohlerová, Z; Diaz-de-la-Torre, S; Dvořák, K; Čelko, L; Kaiser, J

    2018-04-01

    In this work alpha tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP)/iron (Fe) composites were developed as a new family of biodegradable, load-bearing and cytocompatible materials. The composites with composition from pure ceramic to pure metallic samples were consolidated by pulsed electric current assisted sintering to minimise processing time and temperature while improving their mechanical performance. The mechanical strength of the composites was increased and controlled with the Fe content, passing from brittle to ductile failure. In particular, the addition of 25 vol% of Fe produced a ceramic matrix composite with elastic modulus much closer to cortical bone than that of titanium or biodegradable magnesium alloys and specific compressive strength above that of stainless steel, chromium-cobalt alloys and pure titanium, currently used in clinic for internal fracture fixation. All the composites studied exhibited higher degradation rate than their individual components, presenting values around 200 μm/year, but also their compressive strength did not show a significant reduction in the period required for bone fracture consolidation. Composites showed preferential degradation of α-TCP areas rather than β-TCP areas, suggesting that α-TCP can produce composites with higher degradation rate. The composites were cytocompatible both in indirect and direct contact with bone cells. Osteoblast-like cells attached and spread on the surface of the composites, presenting proliferation rate similar to cells on tissue culture-grade polystyrene and they showed alkaline phosphatase activity. Therefore, this new family of composites is a potential alternative to produce implants for temporal reduction of bone fractures. Biodegradable alpha-tricalcium phosphate/iron (α-TCP/Fe) composites are promising candidates for the fabrication of temporal osteosynthesis devices. Similar to biodegradable metals, these composites can avoid implant removal after bone fracture healing, particularly in

  12. Diagnostic value of F18-FDG PET/CT in patients with the revised definition of fever of unknown origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prakash, Vineet; Ketharanathan, Nagulabaskaran; Lorenz, Eleanor

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: Fever of unknown origin (FUO) is an increasingly accepted indication for PET/CT where it has a relatively high diagnostic yield. This study assesses its diagnostic value for the revised definition of FUO. Methods: The revised definition of FUO is fever of greater than 38.3C for more...... than 3 weeks duration and an uncertain diagnosis after comprehensive evaluation as an inpatient or outpatient for a minimum of 3 days or 3 outpatient visits, having excluded immunocompromised states. 59 patients (pts) (F=35, age 18-92) with this definition underwent PET with full diagnostic contrast......), neoplasm (6 pts) and drug fever (1 pt). Before ordering a PET/CT, conventional CT or MRI was performed in 43 pts. We considered that a PET/CT was essential to establish the final diagnosis in 15/43 pts (35%) with inconclusive CT or MRI. Conclusions: 18F-FDG PET/CT contributed to establishing a final...

  13. Radiosynthesis of F-18 labeled cytidine analog 2'-fluoro-5-iodo-l-β-D-arabinofuranosylcytosine ([18F]FIAC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, C.-Y.; Chan, P.-C.; Chang, W.-T.; Liu, R.-S.; Alauddin, Mian M.; Wang, H-E.

    2009-01-01

    We reported the synthesis of 2'-deoxy-2'-[ 18 F]fluoro-5-iodo-1-β-D-arabinofuranosyl-5-iodo-cytosine ([ 18 F]FIAC) with 15-20% radiochemical yield (decay corrected) in 3.5 h. 2-deoxy-2-[ 18 F]fluoro-1,3,5-tri-O-benzoyl-α-D-arabinofuranose was prepared following literature procedures with some modifications (yield>70%). The 18 F-fluorosugar was converted to 1-bromo- 18 F-fluorosugar, and then coupled with 5-iodocytocine silyl ether. A mixture of acetonitrile (ACN) and 1,2-dichloroethane (DCE) were employed to achieve optimum radiochemical yield and acceptable β-anomer selectivity (α/β=1/3). After hydrolyzed with sodium methoxide, the crude product was purified using HPLC to afford the β-[ 18 F]FIAC with high radiochemical purity (≥98%).

  14. Functional neuroimaging using F-18 FDG PET/CT in amnestic mild cognitive impairment: a preliminary study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tripathi, Madhavi; Tripathi, Manjari; Sharma, Rajnish; Jaimini, Abhinav; D'Souza, Maria M.; Saw, Sanjiv; Mondal, Anupam; Kushwaha, Suman

    2013-01-01

    People with amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) are at a higher risk of developing Alzheimers Dementia (AD) than their cognitively normal peers. Decreased glucose metabolism with 18 F fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) is a downstream marker of neuronal injury and neurodegeneration. The risk of developing AD is higher in patients with aMCI who have a pattern of AD related glucose metabolic changes on FDG-PET than those who do not have these changes. We evaluated the utility of visual and 'statistical parametric mapping (SPM)-supported reading' of the FDG-PET scans of patients clinically classified as aMCI for identification of predementia patterns and for prediction of their progression to AD (PTAD). On visual analysis, four scans were classified as high likelihood of PTAD and reveled hypometabolism in AD related territories. Seven patients had hypometabolism in at least one AD related territory and were classified as intermediate likelihood for PTAD. Two patients had hypometabolism in other than AD territories, while 22 patients did not show any significant hypometabolism on their FDG-PET scans and were classified as low likelihood for PTAD. SPM analysis of these cases confirmed the areas hypometabolism in all 13 patients compared to a normal subgroup (P < 0.05). On follow-up of 24 months, all four cases with high likelihood scans had progression of cognitive deficits and were confirmed as AD in the CDM clinic while none of the others showed cognitive decline. A pattern of AD hypometabolism on the FDG-PET study is useful for predicting PTAD. A longer follow-up of patients with hypometabolism in single AD territories is needed to predict their clinical behavior

  15. TU-F-18C-09: Mammogram Surveillance Using Texture Analysis for Breast Cancer Patients After Radiation Therapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuo, H; Tome, W; FOX, J; Hong, L; Yaparpalvi, R; Mehta, K; Bodner, W; Kalnicki, S [Montefiore Medical Center/Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Bronx, New York (United States); Huang, Y [Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center, Great Neck, NY (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To study the feasibility of applying cancer risk model established from treated patients to predict the risk of recurrence on follow-up mammography after radiation therapy for both ipsilateral and contralateral breast. Methods: An extensive set of textural feature functions was applied to a set of 196 Mammograms from 50 patients. 56 Mammograms from 28 patients were used as training set, 44 mammograms from 22 patients were used as test set and the rest were used for prediction. Feature functions include Histogram, Gradient, Co-Occurrence Matrix, Run-Length Matrix and Wavelet Energy. An optimum subset of the feature functions was selected by Fisher Coefficient (FO) or Mutual Information (MI) (up to top 10 features) or a method combined FO, MI and Principal Component (FMP) (up to top 30 features). One-Nearest Neighbor (1-NN), Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) and Nonlinear Discriminant Analysis (NDA) were utilized to build a risk model of breast cancer from the training set of mammograms at the time of diagnosis. The risk model was then used to predict the risk of recurrence from mammogram taken one year and three years after RT. Results: FPM with NDA has the best classification power in classifying the training set of the mammogram with lesions versus those without lesions. The model of FPM with NDA achieved a true positive (TP) rate of 82% compared to 45.5% of using FO with 1-NN. The best false positive (FP) rates were 0% and 3.6% in contra-lateral breast of 1-year and 3-years after RT, and 10.9% in ipsi-lateral breast of 3-years after RT. Conclusion: Texture analysis offers high dimension to differentiate breast tissue in mammogram. Using NDA to classify mammogram with lesion from mammogram without lesion, it can achieve rather high TP and low FP in the surveillance of mammogram for patient with conservative surgery combined RT.

  16. Loss of a highly conserved sterile alpha motif domain gene (WEEP) results in pendulous branch growth in peach trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hollender, Courtney A; Pascal, Thierry; Tabb, Amy; Hadiarto, Toto; Srinivasan, Chinnathambi; Wang, Wanpeng; Liu, Zhongchi; Scorza, Ralph; Dardick, Chris

    2018-05-15

    Plant shoots typically grow upward in opposition to the pull of gravity. However, exceptions exist throughout the plant kingdom. Most conspicuous are trees with weeping or pendulous branches. While such trees have long been cultivated and appreciated for their ornamental value, the molecular basis behind the weeping habit is not known. Here, we characterized a weeping tree phenotype in Prunus persica (peach) and identified the underlying genetic mutation using a genomic sequencing approach. Weeping peach tree shoots exhibited a downward elliptical growth pattern and did not exhibit an upward bending in response to 90° reorientation. The causative allele was found to be an uncharacterized gene, Ppa013325 , having a 1.8-Kb deletion spanning the 5' end. This gene, dubbed WEEP , was predominantly expressed in phloem tissues and encodes a highly conserved 129-amino acid protein containing a sterile alpha motif (SAM) domain. Silencing WEEP in the related tree species Prunus domestica (plum) resulted in more outward, downward, and wandering shoot orientations compared to standard trees, supporting a role for WEEP in directing lateral shoot growth in trees. This previously unknown regulator of branch orientation, which may also be a regulator of gravity perception or response, provides insights into our understanding of how tree branches grow in opposition to gravity and could serve as a critical target for manipulating tree architecture for improved tree shape in agricultural and horticulture applications. Copyright © 2018 the Author(s). Published by PNAS.

  17. A static investigation of the thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high-alpha research vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mason, Mary L.; Capone, Francis J.; Asbury, Scott C.

    1992-01-01

    A static (wind-off) test was conducted in the static test facility of the Langley 16-foot Transonic Tunnel to evaluate the vectoring capability and isolated nozzle performance of the proposed thrust vectoring system of the F/A-18 high alpha research vehicle (HARV). The thrust vectoring system consisted of three asymmetrically spaced vanes installed externally on a single test nozzle. Two nozzle configurations were tested: A maximum afterburner-power nozzle and a military-power nozzle. Vane size and vane actuation geometry were investigated, and an extensive matrix of vane deflection angles was tested. The nozzle pressure ratios ranged from two to six. The results indicate that the three vane system can successfully generate multiaxis (pitch and yaw) thrust vectoring. However, large resultant vector angles incurred large thrust losses. Resultant vector angles were always lower than the vane deflection angles. The maximum thrust vectoring angles achieved for the military-power nozzle were larger than the angles achieved for the maximum afterburner-power nozzle.

  18. Effect of alpha and gamma radiation on the near-field chemistry and geochemistry of high-level waste packages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reed, D.T.

    1985-12-01

    Ionizing radiation can potentially alter geochemical and chemical processes in a geologic system. These effects can either enhance or reduce the performance of the waste package in a deep geologic repository. Current indications are that, in a repository located in basalt, ionizing radiation significantly affects geochemical/chemical processes but does not appear to significantly affect factors important to the long-term performance of the repository. The experimental results presented in this paper were obtained as part of an ongoing effort by the Basalt Waste Isolation Project to determine the effect of ionizing radiation on chemical and geochemical processes in the environment of the waste package. Gamma radiolysis experiments were done by subjecting samples of synthetic basalt groundwater in the presence of various waste package components (basalt/packing/low-carbon steel) to high levels of gamma radiation from a 60 Co source. Post-irradiation analysis was done on the gas, liquid, and solid components of the basalt system. The results obtained are important in evaluating waste package performance during the containment period. The effect of alpha radiation on the basalt groundwater system in the presence of waste package components is important in evaluating waste package performance during the isolation period. The experimental work in this area is in a very preliminary stage. Results from two experiments are reported. 9 refs., 4 figs., 7 tabs

  19. Tolerability in the elderly population of high-dose alpha lipoic acid: a potential antioxidant therapy for the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarezky D

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Daniel Sarezky, Aaishah R Raquib, Joshua L Dunaief, Benjamin J Kim Scheie Eye Institute, Department of Ophthalmology, Perelman School of Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA, USA Purpose: Alpha lipoic acid (ALA is an antioxidant and iron-chelating supplement that has potential benefits for geographic atrophy in dry age-related macular degeneration as well as other eye diseases. The purpose of this study was to determine the tolerability of ALA in the elderly population. Patients and methods: Fifteen subjects, age ≥65 years, took sequential ALA doses of 600, 800, and 1,200 mg. Each dose was taken once daily with a meal for 5 days. After each dose was taken by the subjects for 5 days, the subjects were contacted by phone, a review of systems was performed, and they were asked if they thought they could tolerate taking that dose of ALA for an extended period of time. Results: The 600 mg dose was well tolerated. At the 800 mg dose, one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. At the 1,200 mg dose, two subjects had intolerable upper gastrointestinal side effects and one subject had an intolerable flushing sensation. Subjects taking gastrointestinal prophylaxis medications had no upper gastrointestinal side effects. Conclusion: High-dose ALA is not completely tolerated by the elderly. These preliminary data suggest that gastrointestinal prophylaxis may improve tolerability. (ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT02613572. Keywords: age-related macular degeneration, geographic atrophy, antioxidant, gastrointestinal, dietary supplements, lipoic acid

  20. Guidelines for the operation and closure of deep geological repositories for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-10-01

    The operation and closure of a deep geological repository for the disposal of high level and alpha bearing wastes is a long term project involving many disciplines. This unique combination of nuclear operations in a deep underground location will require careful planning by the operating organization. The basic purpose of the operation stage of the deep repository is to ensure the safe disposal of the radioactive wastes. The purpose of the closure stage is to ensure that the wastes are safely isolated from the biosphere, and that the surface region can be returned to normal use. During these two stages of operation and closure, it is essential that both workers and the public are safely protected from radiation hazards, and that workers are protected from the hazards of working underground. For these periods of the repository, it is essential to carry out monitoring for purposes of radiological protection, and to continue testing and investigations to provide data for repository performance confirmation and for final safety assessment. Over the lengthy stages of operation and closure, there will be substantial feedback of experience and generation of site data. These will lead both to improved quality of operation and a better understanding of the site characteristics, thereby enhancing the confidence in the ability of the repository system to isolate the waste and protect future generations. 15 refs

  1. Transplastomic expression of bacterial L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase enhances photosynthesis and biomass production in response to high temperature stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, W M; Altpeter, F

    2009-10-01

    Metabolic engineering for beta-alanine over-production in plants is expected to enhance environmental stress tolerance. The Escherichia coli L-aspartate-alpha-decarboxylase (AspDC) encoded by the panD gene, catalyzes the decarboxylation of L-aspartate to generate beta-alanine and carbon dioxide. The constitutive E. coli panD expression cassette was co-introduced with the constitutive, selectable aadA expression cassette into the chloroplast genome of tobacco via biolistic gene transfer and homologous recombination. Site specific integration of the E. coli panD expression cassette into the chloroplast genome and generation of homotransplastomic plants were confirmed by PCR and Southern blot analysis, respectively, following plant regeneration and germination of seedlings on selective media. PanD expression was verified by assays based on transcript detection and in vitro enzyme activity. The AspDC activities in transplastomic plants expressing panD were drastically increased by high-temperature stress. beta-Alanine accumulated in transplastomic plants at levels four times higher than in wildtype plants. Analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence on plants subjected to severe heat stress at 45 degrees C under light verified that photosystem II (PSII) in transgenic plants had higher thermotolerance than in wildtype plants. The CO(2) assimilation of transplastomic plants expressing panD was more tolerant to high temperature stress than that of wildtype plants, resulting in the production of 30-40% more above ground biomass than wildtype control. The results presented indicate that chloroplast engineering of the beta-alanine pathway by over-expression of the E. coli panD enhances thermotolerance of photosynthesis and biomass production following high temperature stress.

  2. F-18 labelled PSMA-1007: biodistribution, radiation dosimetry and histopathological validation of tumor lesions in prostate cancer patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giesel, Frederik L.; Vinsensia, M.; Mier, W.; Haberkorn, U.; Kratochwil, C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Heidelberg (Germany); Hadaschik, B.; Radtke, J.; Kesch, C. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); Cardinale, J.; Schaefer, M.; Neels, O.C.; Kopka, K. [German Cancer Research Center (dkfz), Division of Radiopharmaceutical Chemistry, Heidelberg (Germany); Lehnert, W. [ABX-CRO, Dresden (Germany); Tolstov, Y.; Singer, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Molecular Urooncology, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany); Grabe, N. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Institute of Pathology, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Medical Oncology, National Center for Tumor Diseases (NCT), Heidelberg (Germany); University of Heidelberg, Hamamatsu Tissue Imaging and Analysis Center, Heidelberg (Germany); Duensing, S. [University Hospital Heidelberg, Department of Urology, Heidelberg (Germany); University Hospital Heidelberg, Section of Molecular Urooncology, Department of Urology, Medical Faculty Heidelberg, Heidelberg (Germany)

    2017-04-15

    The prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) targeted positron-emitting-tomography (PET) tracer {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11 shows great promise in the detection of prostate cancer. However, {sup 68}Ga has several shortcomings as a radiolabel including short half-life and non-ideal energies, and this has motivated consideration of {sup 18}F-labelled analogs. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 was selected among several {sup 18}F-PSMA-ligand candidate compounds because it demonstrated high labelling yields, outstanding tumor uptake and fast, non-urinary background clearance. Here, we describe the properties of {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 in human volunteers and patients. Radiation dosimetry of {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 was determined in three healthy volunteers who underwent whole-body PET-scans and concomitant blood and urine sampling. Following this, ten patients with high-risk prostate cancer underwent {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT (1 h and 3 h p.i.) and normal organ biodistribution and tumor uptakes were examined. Eight patients underwent prostatectomy with extended pelvic lymphadenectomy. Uptake in intra-prostatic lesions and lymph node metastases were correlated with final histopathology, including PSMA immunostaining. With an effective dose of approximately 4.4-5.5 mSv per 200-250 MBq examination, {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 behaves similar to other PSMA-PET agents as well as to other {sup 18}F-labelled PET-tracers. In comparison to other PSMA-targeting PET-tracers, {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 has reduced urinary clearance enabling excellent assessment of the prostate. Similar to {sup 18}F-DCFPyL and with slightly slower clearance kinetics than PSMA-11, favorable tumor-to-background ratios are observed 2-3 h after injection. In eight patients, diagnostic findings were successfully validated by histopathology. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 PET/CT detected 18 of 19 lymph node metastases in the pelvis, including nodes as small as 1 mm in diameter. {sup 18}F-PSMA-1007 performs at least comparably to {sup 68}Ga-PSMA-11, but its

  3. SU-F-18C-14: Hessian-Based Norm Penalty for Weighted Least-Square CBCT Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, T; Sun, N; Tan, S; Wang, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a Hessian-based norm penalty for cone-beam CT (CBCT) reconstruction that has a similar ability in suppressing noise as the total variation (TV) penalty while avoiding the staircase effect and better preserving low-contrast objects. Methods: We extended the TV penalty to a Hessian-based norm penalty based on the Frobenius norm of the Hessian matrix of an image for CBCT reconstruction. The objective function was constructed using the penalized weighted least-square (PWLS) principle. An effective algorithm was developed to minimize the objective function using a majorization-minimization (MM) approach. We evaluated and compared the proposed penalty with the TV penalty on a CatPhan 600 phantom and an anthropomorphic head phantom, each acquired at a low-dose protocol (10mA/10ms) and a high-dose protocol (80mA/12ms). For both penalties, contrast-to-noise (CNR) in four low-contrast regions-of-interest (ROIs) and the full-width-at-half-maximum (FWHM) of two point-like objects in constructed images were calculated and compared. Results: In the experiment of CatPhan 600 phantom, the Hessian-based norm penalty has slightly higher CNRs and approximately equivalent FWHM values compared with the TV penalty. In the experiment of the anthropomorphic head phantom at the low-dose protocol, the TV penalty result has several artificial piece-wise constant areas known as the staircase effect while in the Hessian-based norm penalty the image appears smoother and more similar to that of the FDK result using the high-dose protocol. Conclusion: The proposed Hessian-based norm penalty has a similar performance in suppressing noise to the TV penalty, but has a potential advantage in suppressing the staircase effect and preserving low-contrast objects. This work was supported in part by National Natural Science Foundation of China (NNSFC), under Grant Nos. 60971112 and 61375018, and Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, under Grant No. 2012QN086

  4. Pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism on F-18 FDG brain PET during vomiting and symptom free periods in cyclic vomiting syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yu Kyeong; Lee, Dong Soo; Kang, Eun Joo; Seo, Jeong Kee; Yeo, Jeong Seok; Chung, June Key; Lee, Myung Chul

    2001-01-01

    Cyclic Vomiting Syndrome (CVS) is characterized by recurrent, periodic, self-limiting vomiting. However, its pathogenesis is not yet established. We investigated the changes of the cerebral glucose metabolism using F-18 FDG during the vomiting attack and symptom free period in two children with CVS. FDG PET study showed the markedly increased metabolism in both temporal lobes and also in the medulla and cerebellum during the vomiting period. Also, FDG PET showed the decreased metabolism in the parieto-occipital and occipital areas during the in vomiting period. The area with decreased metabolism seemed to be related with the region showing abnormalities in EEG and perfusion SPECT studies. We expect that what we observed would be a helpful finding in clarifying the pathogenesis of the CVS

  5. Additional Prognostic Value of SUVmax Measured by F-18 FDG PET/CT over Biological Marker Expressions in Surgically Resected Cervical Cancer Patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yun, Man Soo; Kim, Seong-Jang; Pak, Kyoungjune; Lee, Chang Hun

    2015-01-01

    We compared the prognostic ability of the maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) and various biological marker expressions to predict recurrence in patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. A retrospective review identified 60 patients with cervical cancer who received [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/computed tomography (F-18 FDG PET/CT) at the time of the diagnosis of cancer. The SUVmax, expressions of carbonic anhydrase-IX (CA-IX), glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and known prognostic factors were investigated. The median follow-up time was 22.2 months (range 3.4-43.1 months). Using univariate analyses, the stage (stage II, p = 0.0066), SUVmax (> 6, p = 0.027), parametrial involvement (p value than biological marker expression in patients with surgically resected cervical cancer. © 2015 S. Karger GmbH, Freiburg.

  6. Radiosynthesis of F-18 PBR111, a selective radioligand for imaging the translocator protein (18 kDa) with PET

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dolle, F.; Hinnen, F.; Damont, A.; Kuhnast, B.; Tavitian, B.; Fookes, C.; Pham, T.; Katsifis, A.; Tavitian, B.

    2008-01-01

    PBR111 (2-(6-chloro-2-(4-(3-fluoro-propoxy)phenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl)-N, N-diethylacetamide) is a novel, reported, high-affinity and selective ligand for the translocator protein (18 kDa). PBR111 has been labelled with fluorine-18 (half-life: 109.8 min) using our Zymate-XP robotic system. The process involves (A) a simple one-step to syloxy-for-fluorine nucleophilic aliphatic substitution (performed at 165 degrees C for 5 min in DMSO using K[ 18 F]F-Kryptofix 222 and 6.8-7.6 μ mol of the corresponding tosylate as precursor for labelling) followed by (B) C-18 PrepSep cartridge pre-purification and(C) semi-preparative HPLC purification on a Waters Symmetry C-18. Up to 4.8 GBq (130 mCi) of [ 18 F]PBR111 could be obtained with specific radioactivities ranging from 74 to 148 GBq/μ mol (2-4 Ci/μ mol) in 75-80 min (HPLC purification and SepPak-based formulation included), starting from a 37.0 GBq (1.0 Ci) [ 18 F]fluoride batch. Overall non-decay-corrected isolated yields were 8-13% (13-21% decay-corrected). (authors)

  7. Radiosynthesis of F-18 PBR111, a selective radioligand for imaging the translocator protein (18 kDa) with PET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolle, F.; Hinnen, F.; Damont, A.; Kuhnast, B.; Tavitian, B. [CEA, Serv Hosp Frederic Joliot, Inst Imagerie Biomed, LIME, F-91406 Orsay (France); Fookes, C.; Pham, T.; Katsifis, A. [Australian Nucl Sci and Technol Org, RRI, Lucas Heights, NSW 2234 (Australia); Tavitian, B. [INSERM, U803, F-91406 Orsay (France)

    2008-07-01

    PBR111 (2-(6-chloro-2-(4-(3-fluoro-propoxy)phenyl)imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-3-yl)-N, N-diethylacetamide) is a novel, reported, high-affinity and selective ligand for the translocator protein (18 kDa). PBR111 has been labelled with fluorine-18 (half-life: 109.8 min) using our Zymate-XP robotic system. The process involves (A) a simple one-step to syloxy-for-fluorine nucleophilic aliphatic substitution (performed at 165 degrees C for 5 min in DMSO using K[{sup 18}F]F-Kryptofix 222 and 6.8-7.6 {mu} mol of the corresponding tosylate as precursor for labelling) followed by (B) C-18 PrepSep cartridge pre-purification and(C) semi-preparative HPLC purification on a Waters Symmetry C-18. Up to 4.8 GBq (130 mCi) of [{sup 18}F]PBR111 could be obtained with specific radioactivities ranging from 74 to 148 GBq/{mu} mol (2-4 Ci/{mu} mol) in 75-80 min (HPLC purification and SepPak-based formulation included), starting from a 37.0 GBq (1.0 Ci) [{sup 18}F]fluoride batch. Overall non-decay-corrected isolated yields were 8-13% (13-21% decay-corrected). (authors)

  8. Gamma radiation measurements in F-18 production in the RDS-111 Cyclotron from the Nuclear Engineering Institute

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taam, Ilka H.; Bellido, Luis F.; Vinagre Filho, Ubirajara M.

    2005-01-01

    With the acquisition of RDS-111 particle accelerator, the Institute of Nuclear Engineering in Rio de Janeiro city (IEN) operates a new cyclotron to produce 1 8F to obtain the fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), a radiopharmaceutical used in positron emission tomography (PET), a technique well advanced which allows obtaining images with high resolution for diagnoses in medicine. To evaluate and detect the gamma exposure during 1 8F production, in the routine operation, i.e. current of 30 μA and the operating time 120 minutes, it was used a portable detector hyperpure germanium (HPGe) coupled to an electronic system for acquisition of 4096 data channels. To obtain a wide energy spectrum from 0.1 to 20 MeV were performed measurements with different gains of amplification. The energy average of gamma radiation, calculated from the energy spectra of gamma rays obtained, was 1.59 ± 0.05 MeV. Meanwhile, measurements were made with a MIR 7026 monitor and with thermoluminescent detectors (TLD) of LiF: Mg, Cu, P to calculate the dose equivalent rates H * (10) of the installation

  9. Double tracer / double isotope gives Ga-68 dota-noc and F-18 FDG PET / CT. Protocol 1 day in a child with neuroblastoma to determine the clinical state and tumor metabolic state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliva Gonzalez, Juan P.; Baum, Richard P.

    2009-01-01

    We report on a 6-year-old carrier of a neuroblastoma. The tumor was diagnosed in March 2004, under the right adrenal gland and confirmed by FNAB, ultrasound, CT and tumor markers. Because of its size and extent of the tumor was inoperable at the time due to which was subject to two cycles of chemotherapy (vincristine, cisplatin, etoposide and cyclophosphamide alternating with vincristine, carboplatin, etoposide and cyclophosphamide). After these two cycles of chemotherapy the patient underwent retroperitoneal surgery getting totally dry right adrenal gland and tumor. After surgery the patient received four additional cycles of chemotherapy until March 2005. During the months of August and September 2005 the patient complained of abdominal pain and were suspected of recurrence. She received ultrasound and CT scan were not conclusive. In December 2005 he made a scan with I-131-MIBG (148 MBq, 4 mCi intravenous, is flat and SPECT imaging performed 24 hours to 6 days after injection) showing only the normal left adrenal gland but not recurrence was visualized, which showed that the tumor did not grasp MIBG. In January 2006 the boy (121 cm.'s Height, weight 21 kg) was referred to the Centre for PET / CT of the Bad Berka Central Clinic in Germany for a PET / CT using Ga-68/DOTA- receptor NOC, a high affinity analogue of somatostatin. The tumor marker NSE was determined in serum before the PET / CT whose outcome was high (24.8 ng / ml, cutoff 15). The patient received 46 MBq (1.24 mCi) of Ga-68 DOTA-NOC intravenous and PET / CT whole body was performed at 75 minutes post-injection. No abnormal uptake was observed which indicated that the appellants had no somatostatin receptors. By having this negative result was decided to perform an additional PET / CT with F-18 FDG (with a low dose of contrast to improve the TAC). After fasting for 6 hours, the patient received 151 MBq (4.1 mCi) of F-18 FDG. A PET / CT whole body was performed at 75 minutes after administration of

  10. F-18 FDG PET differentiation of benign from malignant chondroid neoplasms: a systematic review of the literature

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Winn, Aaron; Shemesh, Shai S.; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan

    2017-01-01

    Discriminating among benign chondroid tumors, low-grade chondrosarcomas, and grade 2/3 chondrosarcomas is frequently difficult with standard imaging modalities. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the performance of PET-CT in making this distinction. A systematic review was performed identifying 811 PubMed- and Embase-indexed articles containing combinations of ''chondrosarcoma,'' ''enchondroma,'' ''chondroid,'' ''cartilage'' and ''PET/CT,'' ''PET,'' ''positron.'' Eight articles including 166 lesions were included. Age, gender, tumor size, histologic grade, and SUVmax values were extracted for individual lesions when possible and otherwise recorded as aggregated data. Comparisons in SUVmax among benign, low-grade, and intermediate-/high-grade chondroid neoplasms were made. Individual SUVs were available for 101 lesions; 65 additional lesions were reported as aggregated data. There were 101 malignant and 65 benign tumors. Benign tumors were seen more frequently in females (p = 0.04, Fischer's exact test), but malignancy was not associated with age or lesion size. SUVmax was lower for benign (1.6 ± 0.7) than malignant tumors (4.4 ± 2.5) (p < 0.0001, t-test). SUVmax was lower for grade 0/1 (2.0 ± 0.7) than grade 2/3 (6.0 ± 3.2) (p < 0.0001, t-test). Increasing SUVmax correlated with higher grade chondroid tumors (Spearman's rank, ρ = 0.78). SUVmax ≥4.4 was 99% specific for grade 2/3 chondrosarcoma. SUVmax correlates with histologic grade in intraosseous chondroid neoplasms; very low SUVmax supports a diagnosis of benign tumor, while elevated SUVmax is suggestive of higher grade chondrosarcoma. (orig.)

  11. TU-F-18A-03: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Using DECT Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di, Salvio A; Bedwani, S; Carrier, J

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To develop a new segmentation technique using dual energy CT (DECT) to overcome limitations related to segmentation from a standard Hounsfield unit (HU) to electron density (ED) calibration curve. Both methods are compared with a Monte Carlo analysis of dose distribution. Methods: DECT allows a direct calculation of both ED and effective atomic number (EAN) within a given voxel. The EAN is here defined as a function of the total electron cross-section of a medium. These values can be effectively acquired using a calibrated method from scans at two different energies. A prior stoichiometric calibration on a Gammex RMI phantom allows us to find the parameters to calculate EAN and ED within a voxel. Scans from a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source system provided the data for our study. A Monte Carlo analysis compares dose distribution simulated by dosxyz-nrc, considering a head phantom defined by both segmentation techniques. Results: Results from depth dose and dose profile calculations show that materials with different atomic compositions but similar EAN present differences of less than 1%. Therefore, it is possible to define a short list of basis materials from which density can be adapted to imitate interaction behavior of any tissue. Comparison of the dose distributions on both segmentations shows a difference of 50% in dose in areas surrounding bone at low energy. Conclusion: The presented segmentation technique allows a more accurate medium definition in each voxel, especially in areas of tissue transition. Since the behavior of human tissues is highly sensitive at low energies, this reduces the errors on calculated dose distribution. This method could be further developed to optimize the tissue characterization based on anatomic site

  12. TU-F-18A-03: Improving Tissue Segmentation for Monte Carlo Dose Calculation Using DECT Data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Di, Salvio A; Bedwani, S; Carrier, J [CHUM - Notre-Dame, Montreal, QC (Canada)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: To develop a new segmentation technique using dual energy CT (DECT) to overcome limitations related to segmentation from a standard Hounsfield unit (HU) to electron density (ED) calibration curve. Both methods are compared with a Monte Carlo analysis of dose distribution. Methods: DECT allows a direct calculation of both ED and effective atomic number (EAN) within a given voxel. The EAN is here defined as a function of the total electron cross-section of a medium. These values can be effectively acquired using a calibrated method from scans at two different energies. A prior stoichiometric calibration on a Gammex RMI phantom allows us to find the parameters to calculate EAN and ED within a voxel. Scans from a Siemens SOMATOM Definition Flash dual source system provided the data for our study. A Monte Carlo analysis compares dose distribution simulated by dosxyz-nrc, considering a head phantom defined by both segmentation techniques. Results: Results from depth dose and dose profile calculations show that materials with different atomic compositions but similar EAN present differences of less than 1%. Therefore, it is possible to define a short list of basis materials from which density can be adapted to imitate interaction behavior of any tissue. Comparison of the dose distributions on both segmentations shows a difference of 50% in dose in areas surrounding bone at low energy. Conclusion: The presented segmentation technique allows a more accurate medium definition in each voxel, especially in areas of tissue transition. Since the behavior of human tissues is highly sensitive at low energies, this reduces the errors on calculated dose distribution. This method could be further developed to optimize the tissue characterization based on anatomic site.

  13. F-18 FDG PET differentiation of benign from malignant chondroid neoplasms: a systematic review of the literature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Subhawong, Ty K.; Winn, Aaron [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine/Jackson Memorial Hospital, Department of Radiology, Miami, FL (United States); Shemesh, Shai S.; Pretell-Mazzini, Juan [University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Department of Orthopaedics, Miami, FL (United States)

    2017-09-15

    Discriminating among benign chondroid tumors, low-grade chondrosarcomas, and grade 2/3 chondrosarcomas is frequently difficult with standard imaging modalities. We systematically reviewed the literature to determine the performance of PET-CT in making this distinction. A systematic review was performed identifying 811 PubMed- and Embase-indexed articles containing combinations of ''chondrosarcoma,'' ''enchondroma,'' ''chondroid,'' ''cartilage'' and ''PET/CT,'' ''PET,'' ''positron.'' Eight articles including 166 lesions were included. Age, gender, tumor size, histologic grade, and SUVmax values were extracted for individual lesions when possible and otherwise recorded as aggregated data. Comparisons in SUVmax among benign, low-grade, and intermediate-/high-grade chondroid neoplasms were made. Individual SUVs were available for 101 lesions; 65 additional lesions were reported as aggregated data. There were 101 malignant and 65 benign tumors. Benign tumors were seen more frequently in females (p = 0.04, Fischer's exact test), but malignancy was not associated with age or lesion size. SUVmax was lower for benign (1.6 ± 0.7) than malignant tumors (4.4 ± 2.5) (p < 0.0001, t-test). SUVmax was lower for grade 0/1 (2.0 ± 0.7) than grade 2/3 (6.0 ± 3.2) (p < 0.0001, t-test). Increasing SUVmax correlated with higher grade chondroid tumors (Spearman's rank, ρ = 0.78). SUVmax ≥4.4 was 99% specific for grade 2/3 chondrosarcoma. SUVmax correlates with histologic grade in intraosseous chondroid neoplasms; very low SUVmax supports a diagnosis of benign tumor, while elevated SUVmax is suggestive of higher grade chondrosarcoma. (orig.)

  14. Metabolic tumor volume measured by F 18 FDG PET/CT can further stratify the prognosis of patients with stage IV Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Kim, Ja Hae; Chong, Ar I; Kwon, Seong Young; Min, Jung Joon; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung [Chonnam National Univ. Hwasun Hospital, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-12-15

    This study aimed to further stratify prognostic factors in patients with stage IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by measuring their metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The subjects of this retrospective study were 57 patients with stage IV NSCLC. MTV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were measured on F 18 FDG PET/CT in both the primary lung lesion as well as metastatic lesions in torso. Optimal cutoff values of PET parameters were mea measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve anal analysis. Kaplan Meier survival (PET). The univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards models were used to select the significant prognostic factors. Univariate analysis showed that both MTV and TLG of primary lung lesion (MTV lung and TLG lung) were significant factors for prediction of PFS ( <0.001 =0.038, respectively). Patients showing lower values of MTV lung and TLG lung than the cutoff values had significantly longer mean PFS than those with higher values. hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of MTV lung and TLG lung measured by univariate analysis were 6.4 (2.5 16.3) and 2.4 (1.0 5.5), respectively. multivariate analysis revealed that MTV lung was the only significant factor for prediction of prognosis. Hazard ratio was 13,5 (1.6 111.1, =0,016). patients with stage IV NSCLC could be further stratified into subgroups of significantly better and worse prognosis by MTV of primary lung lesion.

  15. Metabolic tumor volume measured by F 18 FDG PET/CT can further stratify the prognosis of patients with stage IV Non Small Cell Lung Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoo, Su Woong; Kim, Ja Hae; Chong, Ar I; Kwon, Seong Young; Min, Jung Joon; Song, Ho Chun; Bom, Hee Seung

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to further stratify prognostic factors in patients with stage IV non small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) by measuring their metabolic tumor volume (MTV) using F 18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT). The subjects of this retrospective study were 57 patients with stage IV NSCLC. MTV, total lesion glycolysis (TLG), and maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) were measured on F 18 FDG PET/CT in both the primary lung lesion as well as metastatic lesions in torso. Optimal cutoff values of PET parameters were mea measured by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve anal analysis. Kaplan Meier survival (PET). The univariate and multivariate cox proportional hazards models were used to select the significant prognostic factors. Univariate analysis showed that both MTV and TLG of primary lung lesion (MTV lung and TLG lung) were significant factors for prediction of PFS ( <0.001 =0.038, respectively). Patients showing lower values of MTV lung and TLG lung than the cutoff values had significantly longer mean PFS than those with higher values. hazard ratios (95% confidence interval) of MTV lung and TLG lung measured by univariate analysis were 6.4 (2.5 16.3) and 2.4 (1.0 5.5), respectively. multivariate analysis revealed that MTV lung was the only significant factor for prediction of prognosis. Hazard ratio was 13,5 (1.6 111.1, =0,016). patients with stage IV NSCLC could be further stratified into subgroups of significantly better and worse prognosis by MTV of primary lung lesion

  16. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki

    2009-01-01

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6±18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6±19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  17. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J.; Turpin, Brian K.; Zhang, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  18. Age- and Sex-Associated Changes in Cerebral Glucose Metabolism in Normal Healthy Subjects: Statistical Parametric Mapping Analysis of F-18 Fluorodeoxyglucose Brain Positron Emission Tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In-Ju; Kim, Seong-Jang; Kim, Yong-Ki (Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Pusan National Univ. Hospital, Busan (Korea); Medical Research Institute, Pusan National Univ., Busan (Korea)). e-mail: growthkim@daum.net/growthkim@pusan.ac.kr)

    2009-12-15

    Background: The age- and sex-associated changes of brain development are unclear and controversial. Several previous studies showed conflicting results of a specific pattern of cerebral glucose metabolism or no differences of cerebral glucose metabolism in association with normal aging process and sex. Purpose: To investigate the effects of age and sex on changes in cerebral glucose metabolism in healthy subjects using fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (F-18 FDG) brain positron emission tomography (PET) and statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Material and Methods: Seventy-eight healthy subjects (32 males, mean age 46.6+-18.2 years; 46 females, mean age 40.6+-19.8 years) underwent F-18 FDG brain PET. Using SPM, age- and sex-associated changes in cerebral glucose metabolism were investigated. Results: In males, a negative correlation existed in several gray matter areas, including the right temporopolar (Brodmann area [BA] 38), right orbitofrontal (BA 47), left orbitofrontal gyrus (BA 10), left dorsolateral frontal gyrus (BA 8), and left insula (BA 13) areas. A positive relationship existed in the left claustrum and left thalamus. In females, negative changes existed in the left caudate body, left temporopolar area (BA 38), right orbitofrontal gyri (BA 47 and BA 10), and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (BA 46). A positive association was demonstrated in the left subthalamic nucleus and the left superior frontal gyrus. In white matter, an age-associated decrease in FDG uptake in males was shown in the left insula, and increased FDG uptake was found in the left corpus callosum. The female group had an age-associated negative correlation of FDG uptake only in the right corpus callosum. Conclusion: Using SPM, we found not only similar areas of brain, but also sex-specific cerebral areas of age-associated changes of FDG uptake

  19. Optimizing the interval between G-CSF therapy and F-18 FDG PET imaging in children and young adults receiving chemotherapy for sarcoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trout, Andrew T.; Sharp, Susan E.; Gelfand, Michael J. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Turpin, Brian K. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Cancer and Blood Diseases Institute, Division of Oncology, Cincinnati, OH (United States); Zhang, Bin [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Division of Biostatistics and Epidemiology, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-07-15

    Granulocyte colony-stimulating factors (G-CSF) speed recovery from chemotherapy-induced myelosuppression but the marrow stimulation they cause can interfere with interpretation of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (F-18 FDG PET) exams. To assess the frequency of interfering G-CSF-induced bone marrow activity on FDG PET imaging in children and young adults with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma and to define an interval between G-CSF administration and FDG PET imaging that limits marrow interference. Blinded, retrospective review of FDG PET exams performed in patients treated with long-acting G-CSF as part of their chemotherapeutic regimen. Exams were subjectively scored by two reviewers (R1 and R2) who assessed the level of marrow uptake of FDG and measured standardized uptake values in the marrow, liver, spleen and blood pool. FDG PET findings were correlated with time since G-CSF administration and with blood cell counts. Thirty-eight FDG PET exams performed in 17 patients were reviewed with 47.4% (18/38) of exams having marrow uptake of FDG sufficient to interfere with image interpretation. Primary predictors of marrow uptake of FDG were patient age (P = 0.0037) and time since G-CSF exposure (P = 0.0028 for subjective marrow uptake of FDG, P = 0.008 [R1] and P = 0.004 [R2] for measured maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax)). The median interval between G-CSF administration and PET imaging in cases with marrow activity considered normal or not likely to interfere was 19.5 days (range: 7-55 days). In pediatric and young adult patients with Ewing sarcoma and rhabdomyosarcoma, an interval of 20 days between administration of the long-acting form of G-CSF and FDG PET imaging should limit interference by stimulated marrow. (orig.)

  20. TU-F-18A-09: CT Number Stability Across Patient Sizes Using Virtual-Monoenergetic Dual-Energy CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalak, G; Grimes, J; Fletcher, J; McCollough, C [Mayo Clinic, Rochester, MN (United States); Halaweish, A [Siemens Healthcare, Rochester, MN (United States)

    2014-06-15

    Purpose: Virtual-monoenergetic imaging uses dual-energy CT data to synthesize images corresponding to a single photon energy, thereby reducing beam-hardening artifacts. This work evaluated the ability of a commercial virtual-monoenergetic algorithm to achieve stable CT numbers across patient sizes. Methods: Test objects containing a range of iodine and calcium hydroxyapatite concentrations were placed inside 8 torso-shaped water phantoms, ranging in lateral width from 15 to 50 cm, and scanned on a dual-source CT system (Siemens Somatom Force). Single-energy scans were acquired from 70-150 kV in 10 kV increments; dual-energy scans were acquired using 4 energy pairs (low energy: 70, 80, 90, and 100 kV; high energy: 150 kV + 0.6 mm Sn). CTDIvol was matched for all single- and dual-energy scans for a given phantom size. All scans used 128×0.6 mm collimation and were reconstructed with 1-mm thickness at 0.8-mm increment and a medium smooth body kernel. Monoenergetic images were generated using commercial software (syngo Via Dual Energy, VA30). Iodine contrast was calculated as the difference in mean iodine and water CT numbers from respective regions-of-interest in 10 consecutive images. Results: CT numbers remained stable as phantom width varied from 15 to 50 cm for all dual-energy data sets (except for at 50 cm using 70/150Sn due to photon starvation effects). Relative to the 15 cm phantom, iodine contrast was within 5.2% of the 70 keV value for phantom sizes up to 45 cm. At 90/150Sn, photon starvation did not occur at 50 cm, and iodine contrast in the 50-cm phantom was within 1.4% of the 15-cm phantom. Conclusion: Monoenergetic imaging, as implemented in the evaluated commercial system, eliminated the variation in CT numbers due to patient size, and may provide more accurate data for quantitative tasks, including radiation therapy treatment planning. Siemens Healthcare.

  1. [Genetic cloning and expression of hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha in high altitude hypoxic adaptation species Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Fang; Wuren, Tana; Ma, Lan; Yang, Ying-Zhong; Ge, Ri-Li

    2011-12-25

    In order to investigate the role of the hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha (HIF-1α) in the adaptation mechanism to high altitude hypoxia, the cloning of the HIF-1α gene cDNA of Tibetan antelope (Pantholops hodgsonii), using RT-PCR and RACE, was applied, and the comparative analysis of the tissue-specific expressions of HIF-1α among Tibetan antelope, Tibetan sheep and plain sheep was performed using real-time PCR and Western blot. The sequence analysis indicated that the cDNA sequences acquired by cloning from the HIF-1α gene of Tibetan antelope comprised a 2 471-bp open reading frame (ORF) and a 1 911-bp 3'UTR. The similarity between its coding sequence, predicted amino acid sequence and HIF-1α of other mammals exceeded 87%, in which the similarity with cow was up to more than 98%, which showed that this sequence was the cDNA of HIF-1α of Tibetan antelope. The results of real-time PCR and Western blot showed that expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein appeared in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle, with the highest expression in lung. HIF-1α mRNA and protein had obvious differential expression in these tissues. Further research showed that Tibetan antelope and Tibetan sheep possessed higher expressions of HIF-1α protein in the three tissues above-mentioned compared with plain sheep, and the expressions of HIF-1α mRNA and protein in Tibetan antelope's lung, cardiac muscle and skeletal muscle were higher than those of Tibetan sheep. It illustrates that the hypoxic HIF-1α-specific expression is one of the molecular bases of high altitude hypoxia adaptation in Tibetan antelope.

  2. Entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein in high-performance affinity columns for drug-protein binding studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bi, Cong; Jackson, Abby; Vargas-Badilla, John; Li, Rong; Rada, Giana; Anguizola, Jeanethe; Pfaunmiller, Erika; Hage, David S

    2016-05-15

    A slurry-based method was developed for the entrapment of alpha1-acid glycoprotein (AGP) for use in high-performance affinity chromatography to study drug interactions with this serum protein. Entrapment was achieved based on the physical containment of AGP in hydrazide-activated porous silica supports and by using mildly oxidized glycogen as a capping agent. The conditions needed for this process were examined and optimized. When this type of AGP column was used in binding studies, the association equilibrium constant (Ka) measured by frontal analysis at pH 7.4 and 37°C for carbamazepine with AGP was found to be 1.0 (±0.5)×10(5)M(-1), which agreed with a previously reported value of 1.0 (±0.1)×10(5)M(-1). Binding studies based on zonal elution were conducted for several other drugs with such columns, giving equilibrium constants that were consistent with literature values. An entrapped AGP column was also used in combination with a column containing entrapped HSA in a screening assay format to compare the binding of various drugs to AGP and HSA. These results also agreed with previous data that have been reported in literature for both of these proteins. The same entrapment method could be extended to other proteins and to the investigation of additional types of drug-protein interactions. Potential applications include the rapid quantitative analysis of biological interactions and the high-throughput screening of drug candidates for their binding to a given protein. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: Recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.; Vigreux, B.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alphaβgamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alphaβgamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process. 11 refs., 8 figs., 6 tabs

  4. Treatment of solid waste highly contaminated by alpha emitters: recent developments of leaching process with continuous electrolyte regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Madic, C.; Lecomte, M.

    1990-01-01

    Development of processes for leaching solid waste contaminated by alpha or alpha/beta/gamma emitters has been pursued at the Nuclear Research Center in Fontenay-aux-Roses, France with the recent active commissioning of two pilot facilities: the Elise glove box system in February 1987 and the Prolixe shielded hot cell in March 1988. The Elise facility is designed to handle alpha waste and the Prolixe facility is designed to handle alpha/beta/gamma waste. The common goal of the studies conducted in these facilities is to define the operating conditions for declassification of solid waste, i.e. to ensure that the alpha concentration of this waste will be less than 3.7 x 10 6 Bq/kg after treatment, packaging and decay prior to storage in surface repositories. The leaching process developed is mainly based on the continuous electrolytic regeneration of an aggressive agent, AgII, which can induce the dissolution of PuO 2 , the most difficult compound to remove from the solid waste. This paper summarizes recent achievements in the development of this process

  5. Changes in highly sensitive alpha-fetoprotein for the prediction of the outcome in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma after hepatectomy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toyoda, Hidenori; Kumada, Takashi; Tada, Toshifumi; Ito, Takanori; Maeda, Atsuyuki; Kaneoka, Yuji; Kagebayashi, Chiaki; Satomura, Shinji

    2014-01-01

    We investigated changes in highly sensitive lens culinaris agglutinin A-reactive fraction of alpha-fetoprotein (hsAFP-L3) measured using a novel method and its predictive ability for prognosis in patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) who underwent curative hepatectomy, comparing to other HCC tumor markers, that is, AFP, des-gamma-carboxy prothrombin (DCP), and AFP-L3 measured with conventional method (cAFP-L3). AFP, DCP, and AFP-L3 including both cAFP-L3 and hsAFP-L3 were measured before and after curative hepatectomy in 187 patients. The percentage of patients with elevated tumor marker levels pre- and postoperatively was compared, and recurrence-free and overall survival rates were analyzed based on changes in tumor markers. The percentages of patients with elevated AFP, DCP, and cAFP-L3 decreased postoperatively. In contrast, the percentage of patients with elevated hsAFP-L3 did not decrease postoperatively. Both recurrence-free and overall survival rates were significantly lower in patients whose tumor marker levels remained elevated postoperatively than patients without tumor marker elevation postoperatively. Recurrence-free and overall survival rates of patients in whom hsAFP-L3 became elevated postoperatively despite normal preoperative hsAFP-L3 levels were significantly lower than those of patients with normal hsAFP-L3 postoperatively, and were similar to those of patients with persistent elevation. Preoperative elevations of AFP, DCP, and cAFP normalized in many patients postoperatively, but not for hsAFP-L3. The elevation of hsAFP-L3 identifies patients with poor prognosis despite the normalization of AFP and DCP

  6. Subtle Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Persisting Role for Alpha-Fetoprotein Monitoring in High-Risk Patients with Cirrhosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barry Schlansky

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC is a common, aggressive malignancy that usually develops in a background of liver cirrhosis. Practice guidelines recommend screening of cirrhotic patients with ultrasound and more detailed imaging (computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging if abnormalities are detected. The utility of alpha-fetoprotein levels in HCC surveillance is controversial. Although HCC risk differs by etiology of cirrhosis, screening and surveillance guidelines are uniform after cirrhosis is established. We report a case of rapidly progressive HCC occurring in a cirrhotic patient with multiple unique risk factors for neoplasia, detected by a rising alpha-fetoprotein level without imaging features of liver cancer.

  7. Treatment of alpha bearing wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    This report deals with the current state of the art of alpha waste treatment, which is an integral part of the overall nuclear waste management system. The International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) defines alpha bearing waste as 'waste containing one or more alpha emitting radionuclides, usually actinides, in quantities above acceptable limits'. The limits are established by national regulatory bodies. The limits above which wastes are considered as alpha contaminated refer to the concentrations of alpha emitters that need special consideration for occupational exposures and/or potential safety, health, or environmental impact during one or more steps from generation through disposal. Owing to the widespread use of waste segregation by source - that is, based upon the 'suspect origin' of the material - significant volumes of waste are being handled as alpha contaminated which, in fact, do not require such consideration by reason of risk or environmental concern. The quantification of de minimis concepts by national regulatory bodies could largely contribute to the safe reduction of waste volumes and associated costs. Other factors which could significantly contribute to the reduction of alpha waste arisings are an increased application of assaying and sorting, instrumentation and the use of feedback mechanisms to control or modify the processes which generate these wastes. Alpha bearing wastes are generated during fabrication and reprocessing of nuclear fuels, decommissioning of alpha contaminated facilities, and other activities. Most alpha wastes are contact handled, but a small portion may require shielding or remote handling because of high levels of neutron (n), beta (β), or gamma (γ) emissions associated with the waste material. This report describes the sources and characteristics of alpha wastes and strategies for alpha waste management. General descriptions of treatment processes for solid and liquid alpha wastes are included. 71 refs, 14 figs, 9 tabs

  8. Regional Patterns of Elevated Alpha and High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity during Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep in Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedner, Brady A.; Goldstein, Michael R.; Plante, David T.; Rumble, Meredith E.; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M.

    2016-01-01

    Study Objectives: To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). Methods: All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. Results: The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4–8 Hz) and alpha (8–12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. Conclusions: These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. Citation: Riedner BA, Goldstein MR, Plante DT, Rumble ME, Ferrarelli F, Tononi G, Benca RM. Regional patterns of elevated alpha and high-frequency electroencephalographic activity during nonrapid eye movement sleep in chronic insomnia: a pilot study. SLEEP 2016;39(4):801–812. PMID:26943465

  9. Regional Patterns of Elevated Alpha and High-Frequency Electroencephalographic Activity during Nonrapid Eye Movement Sleep in Chronic Insomnia: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riedner, Brady A; Goldstein, Michael R; Plante, David T; Rumble, Meredith E; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Tononi, Giulio; Benca, Ruth M

    2016-04-01

    To examine nonrapid eye movement (NREM) sleep in insomnia using high-density electroencephalography (EEG). All-night sleep recordings with 256 channel high-density EEG were analyzed for 8 insomnia subjects (5 females) and 8 sex and age-matched controls without sleep complaints. Spectral analyses were conducted using unpaired t-tests and topographical differences between groups were assessed using statistical non-parametric mapping. Five minute segments of deep NREM sleep were further analyzed using sLORETA cortical source imaging. The initial topographic analysis of all-night NREM sleep EEG revealed that insomnia subjects had more high-frequency EEG activity (> 16 Hz) compared to good sleeping controls and that the difference between groups was widespread across the scalp. In addition, the analysis also showed that there was a more circumscribed difference in theta (4-8 Hz) and alpha (8-12 Hz) power bands between groups. When deep NREM sleep (N3) was examined separately, the high-frequency difference between groups diminished, whereas the higher regional alpha activity in insomnia subjects persisted. Source imaging analysis demonstrated that sensory and sensorimotor cortical areas consistently exhibited elevated levels of alpha activity during deep NREM sleep in insomnia subjects relative to good sleeping controls. These results suggest that even during the deepest stage of sleep, sensory and sensorimotor areas in insomnia subjects may still be relatively active compared to control subjects and to the rest of the sleeping brain. © 2016 Associated Professional Sleep Societies, LLC.

  10. Eosinophils from patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus express high level of myeloid alpha-defensins and myeloperoxidase

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Neuwirth, Aleš; Dobeš, Jan; Oujezdská, Jana; Ballek, Ondřej; Benešová, Martina; Sumnik, Z.; Včeláková, J.; Koloušková, S.; Obermannová, B.; Kolář, Michal; Štechová, K.; Filipp, Dominik

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 273, č. 2 (2012), s. 158-163 ISSN 0008-8749 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 2B08066 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50520514 Keywords : type 1 diabetes * alpha-defensin * myeloperoxidase * granulocyte * eosinophil Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.743, year: 2012

  11. Characteristics of Metastatic Mediastinal Lymph Nodes of Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer on Preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Ah Young; Choi, Su Jung; Jung, Kyung Pyo; Park, Ji Sun; Lee, Seok Mo; Bae, Sang Kyun

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of PET and CT features of mediastinal metastatic lymph nodes on F-18 FDG PET/CT and to determine the diagnostic criteria in nodal staging of non-small cell lung cancer. One hundred four non-small cell lung cancer patients who had preoperative F-18 FDG PET/CT were included. For quantitative analysis, the maximum SUV of the primary tumor, maximum SUV of the lymph nodes (SUVmax), size of the lymph nodes, and average Hounsfield units (aHUs) and maximum Hounsfield units (mHUs) of the lymph nodes were measured. The SUVmax, SUV ratio of the lymph node to blood pool (LN SUV/blood pool SUV), SUV ratio of the lymph node to primary tumor (LN SUV/primary tumor SUV), size, aHU, and mHU were compared between the benign and malignant lymph nodes. Among 372 dissected lymph node stations that were pathologically diagnosed after surgery, 49 node stations were malignant and 323 node stations benign. SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size were significantly different between the malignant and benign lymph node stations (P <0.0001). However, there was no significant difference in LN SUV/primary tumor SUV (P =0.18), mHU (P =0.42), and aHU (P =0.98). Using receiver-operating characteristic curve analyses, there was no significant difference among these three variables (SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and size). The optimal cutoff values were 2.9 for SUVmax, 1.4 for LN SUV/blood pool SUV, and 5 mm for size. When the cutoff value of SUVmax≥2.9 and size≥5 mm were used in combination, the positive predictive value was 44.2%, and the negative predictive value was 90.9 %. When we evaluated the results based on the histology of the primary tumor, the negative predictive value was 92.3 % in adenocarcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥2.3 and size≥5 mm) and 97.2 % in squamous cell carcinoma (cutoff values of SUVmax≥3.6 and size≥8 mm), separately. In the lymph node staging of non-small cell lung cancer, SUVmax, LN SUV/blood pool SUV

  12. The role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in evaluating the impact of HIV infection on tumor burden and therapy outcome in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawal, Ismaheel O.; Mokgoro, Neo P.; Boshomane, Tebatso G.; Sathekge, Mike M. [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); Nyakale, Nozipho E.; Harry, Lerwine M.; Msomi, Alphonse P. [Inkosi Albert Lithuli Central Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Durban (South Africa); Modiselle, Moshe R. [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); KVNR Nuclear and Molecular Imaging, Pretoria (South Africa); Ankrah, Alfred O. [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Department of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging, Groningen (Netherlands); Wiele, Christophe van de [University of Pretoria and Steve Biko Academic Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Pretoria (South Africa); University Ghent, Department of Radiology and Nuclear Medicine, Ghent (Belgium)

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate the impact of HIV infection on tumor burden and therapy outcome following treatment with chemotherapy in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. A total of 136 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma were studied (mean age ± SD = 32.31 ± 1.39 years, male = 86, female = 50). Advanced disease (stage III and IV) was present in 64% of patients. HIV infection was present in 57 patients while 79 patients were HIV-negative. Baseline F-18 FDG PET/CT was obtained in all patients. SUVmax, MTV and TLG were determined on the baseline scan to evaluate for tumor burden. All patients completed a standard regimen of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD). After a median period of 8 weeks (range = 6 to 17 weeks), a repeat F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was obtained to evaluate response to therapy using Deauville 5-point scoring system. The HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups were similar with regards to age and disease stage. The groups were heterogeneous with respect to gender (p = 0.029). The SUVmax, MTV and TLG of lesions were not significant different between the two groups. Complete response was seen in 72.8% of the study population. Presence of HIV infection was associated with higher rate of treatment failure with 40.4% of the HIV-positive patients having treatment failure while only 17.7% of the HIV-negative patients had treatment failure (p = 0.0034). HIV infection was a significant predictor of response to chemotherapy. Effects of SUVmax, MTV, TLG and Ann Arbor stage of the disease were not statistically significant as predictors of therapy outcome. In a multiple logistic regression, presence of HIV infection still remained an independent predictor of therapy outcome in the presence of other factors such as SUVmax, MTV, TLG and the Ann Arbor stage of the disease. HIV infection is not associated with a higher tumor burden in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. HIV infection is, however, a strong predictor of poor therapy outcome in patients treated with

  13. The role of F-18 FDG PET/CT in evaluating the impact of HIV infection on tumor burden and therapy outcome in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lawal, Ismaheel O.; Mokgoro, Neo P.; Boshomane, Tebatso G.; Sathekge, Mike M.; Nyakale, Nozipho E.; Harry, Lerwine M.; Msomi, Alphonse P.; Modiselle, Moshe R.; Ankrah, Alfred O.; Wiele, Christophe van de

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate the impact of HIV infection on tumor burden and therapy outcome following treatment with chemotherapy in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. A total of 136 patients with classical Hodgkin lymphoma were studied (mean age ± SD = 32.31 ± 1.39 years, male = 86, female = 50). Advanced disease (stage III and IV) was present in 64% of patients. HIV infection was present in 57 patients while 79 patients were HIV-negative. Baseline F-18 FDG PET/CT was obtained in all patients. SUVmax, MTV and TLG were determined on the baseline scan to evaluate for tumor burden. All patients completed a standard regimen of adriamycin, bleomycin, vinblastine and dacarbazine (ABVD). After a median period of 8 weeks (range = 6 to 17 weeks), a repeat F-18 FDG PET/CT scan was obtained to evaluate response to therapy using Deauville 5-point scoring system. The HIV-positive and HIV-negative groups were similar with regards to age and disease stage. The groups were heterogeneous with respect to gender (p = 0.029). The SUVmax, MTV and TLG of lesions were not significant different between the two groups. Complete response was seen in 72.8% of the study population. Presence of HIV infection was associated with higher rate of treatment failure with 40.4% of the HIV-positive patients having treatment failure while only 17.7% of the HIV-negative patients had treatment failure (p = 0.0034). HIV infection was a significant predictor of response to chemotherapy. Effects of SUVmax, MTV, TLG and Ann Arbor stage of the disease were not statistically significant as predictors of therapy outcome. In a multiple logistic regression, presence of HIV infection still remained an independent predictor of therapy outcome in the presence of other factors such as SUVmax, MTV, TLG and the Ann Arbor stage of the disease. HIV infection is not associated with a higher tumor burden in patients with Hodgkin lymphoma. HIV infection is, however, a strong predictor of poor therapy outcome in patients treated with

  14. Non-invasive breast biopsy method using GD-DTPA contrast enhanced MRI series and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magri, Alphonso William

    This study was undertaken to develop a nonsurgical breast biopsy from Gd-DTPA Contrast Enhanced Magnetic Resonance (CE-MR) images and F-18-FDG PET/CT dynamic image series. A five-step process was developed to accomplish this. (1) Dynamic PET series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using a finite element method (FEM) based registration that requires fiducial skin markers to sample the displacement field between image frames. A commercial FEM package (ANSYS) was used for meshing and FEM calculations. Dynamic PET image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements SAVD and NCC. (2) Dynamic CE-MR series were nonrigidly registered to the initial frame using two registration methods: a multi-resolution free-form deformation (FFD) registration driven by normalized mutual information, and a FEM-based registration method. Dynamic CE-MR image series registrations were evaluated using similarity measurements, localization measurements, and qualitative comparison of motion artifacts. FFD registration was found to be superior to FEM-based registration. (3) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the PET/CT volume of activity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartmental Patlak model. Three parameters for this model were fitted; two of them describe the activity levels in the blood and in the cellular compartment, while the third characterizes the washout rate of F-18-FDG from the cellular compartment. (4) Nonlinear curve fitting was performed for each voxel of the MR volume of signal intensity versus time, based on a realistic two-compartment Brix model. Three parameters for this model were fitted: rate of Gd exiting the compartment, representing the extracellular space of a lesion; rate of Gd exiting a blood compartment; and a parameter that characterizes the strength of signal intensities. Curve fitting used for PET/CT and MR series was accomplished by application of the Levenburg-Marquardt nonlinear regression

  15. Dietary alpha-cyclodextrin lowers LDL-C and alters plasma fatty acid profile in LDLr-KO mice on a high-fat diet

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner, Elke M.; Catherine Jen, K-L; Artiss, Joseph D.; Remaley, Alan T.

    2008-01-01

    High dietary intake of saturated fat and cholesterol, and elevated low-density-lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels are some of the modifiable risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Alpha-cyclodextrin (α-CD) when given orally has been shown in rats to increase fecal saturated fat excretion, and to reduce blood total cholesterol levels in obese hypertriglyceridemic subjects with type 2 diabetes. In this study, the effects of dietary α-CD on lipid metabolism in LDL receptor knock-out (L...

  16. Production of enzymatically active recombinant full-length barley high pI alpha-glucosidase of glycoside family 31 by high cell-density fermentation of Pichia pastoris and affinity purification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Næsted, Henrik; Kramhøft, Birte; Lok, F.

    2006-01-01

    Recombinant barley high pI alpha-glucosidase was produced by high cell-density fermentation of Pichia pastoris expressing the cloned full-length gene. The gene was amplified from a genomic clone and exons (coding regions) were assembled by overlap PCR. The resulting cDNA was expressed under contr...... nM x s(-1), and 85 s(-1) using maltose as substrate. This work presents the first production of fully active recombinant alpha-glucosidase of glycoside hydrolase family 31 from higher plants. (c) 2005 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved....

  17. Alpha particle emitters in medicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fisher, D.R.

    1989-09-01

    Radiation-induced cancer of bone, liver and lung has been a prominent harmful side-effect of medical applications of alpha emitters. In recent years, however, the potential use of antibodies labeled with alpha emitting radionuclides against cancer has seemed promising because alpha particles are highly effective in cell killing. High dose rates at high LET, effectiveness under hypoxic conditions, and minimal expectancy of repair are additional advantages of alpha emitters over antibodies labeled with beta emitting radionuclides for cancer therapy. Cyclotron-produced astatine-211 ( 211 At) and natural bismuth-212 ( 212 Bi) have been proposed and are under extensive study in the United States and Europe. Radium-223 ( 223 Ra) also has favorable properties as a potential alpha emitting label, including a short-lived daughter chain with four alpha emissions. The radiation dosimetry of internal alpha emitters is complex due to nonuniformly distributed sources, short particle tracks, and high relative specific ionization. The variations in dose at the cellular level may be extreme. Alpha-particle radiation dosimetry, therefore, must involve analysis of statistical energy deposition probabilities for cellular level targets. It must also account fully for nonuniform distributions of sources in tissues, source-target geometries, and particle-track physics. 18 refs., 4 figs

  18. Proteinaceous alpha-araylase inhibitors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Svensson, Birte; Fukuda, Kenji; Nielsen, P.K.

    2004-01-01

    -amylase inhibitors belong to seven different protein structural families, most of which also contain evolutionary related proteins without inhibitory activity. Two families include bifunctional inhibitors acting both on alpha-amylases and proteases. High-resolution structures are available of target alpha...

  19. F-18 Sodium Fluoride Positron Emission Tomography/Computed Tomography for Detection of Thyroid Cancer Bone Metastasis Compared with Bone Scintigraphy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Hyunjong; Lee, Won Woo; Park, So Yeon; Kim, Sang Eun

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the diagnostic performances of F-18 sodium fluoride positron emission tomography/computed tomography (bone PET/CT) and bone scintigraphy (BS) for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis. We retrospectively enrolled 6 thyroid cancer patients (age = 44.7 ± 9.8 years, M:F = 1:5, papillary:follicular = 2:4) with suspected bone metastatic lesions in the whole body iodine scintigraphy or BS, who subsequently underwent bone PET/CT. Pathologic diagnosis was conducted for 4 lesions of 4 patients. Of the 17 suspected bone lesions, 10 were metastatic and 7 benign. Compared to BS, bone PET/CT exhibited superior sensitivity (10/10 = 100% vs. 2/10 = 20%, p = 0.008), and accuracy (14/17 = 82.4% vs. 7/17 = 41.2%, p 0.05). Bone PET/CT may be more sensitive and accurate than BS for the detection of thyroid cancer bone metastasis.

  20. Effects of fluoxetine on the rat brain in the forced swimming test: a [F-18]FDG micro-PET imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Dong-Pyo; Lee, So-Hee; Park, Chan-Woong; Lee, Sang-Yoon; Kim, Young-Bo; Cho, Zang-Hee

    2009-02-13

    We used the [F-18]FDG micro-PET neuroimaging to examine the effects of fluoxetine on brain activity in rats and on their behavioral response in the forced swimming test (FST). In the first experiment, the rats were administered doses of fluoxetine (10 or 20mg/kg) 24, 19 and 1h before the rat brains were scanned. Fluoxetine induced strong activation of the dorsal hippocampus and the deactivation of the inferior colliculus, medulla oblongata, and prelimbic cortex in a dose-dependent manner. These results seemed to be related with the changes in 5-HT (5-hydroxytryptamine, serotonin) levels after selective serotonin reuptake-inhibitor treatments. In the second experiment, the changes in glucose metabolism in the test session were measured after fluoxetine was given between pre-test and test sessions of the FST. Fluoxetine administration significantly decreased immobility behavior compared with saline administration. At the same time, the activity of the insular/piriform cortex decreased significantly. In contrast, the extent of cerebellar activation increased. The glucose metabolism of the dorsal hippocampus also increased, which suggests that post-stress changes in the facilitation of hippocampal serotonergic neurotransmission lead to decreased immobilization in the FST.

  1. Effects of Tianmagouteng particles on brain cognitive function in spontaneously hypertensive rats with hyperactivity of liver-yang: A [F-18] FDG micro-PET imaging study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiu-Jing; Sun, Tian-Cai; Liu, Zi-Wang; Wang, Feng-Jiao; Wang, Yong-De; Liu, Jing

    2017-11-01

    To collect visualized proof of Tianmagouteng particles (TMGTP) in alleviating cognitive dysfunction and to explore its effects on brain activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with hyperactivity of liver-yang (Gan Yang Shang Kang, GYSK). Sixteen SHRs were randomized into treatment group and non-treatment. The SHR with GYSK was induced by gavaging aconite decoction (10mL/kg at 0.2g/mL). After the SHR models were prepared, the rats in the treatment group were administered TMGTP (10mL/kg) once a day for 14days.The rats in the non-treatment group or normal rats (control group) received an equivalent volume of saline. Morris water maze test was conducted before and after the treatment to observe cognitive function. Fluorine 18-deoxy glucose [F-18]FDG micro-PET brain imaging scans was performed after treatment. Data were analyzed with two-sample t-test (Pfunctions, TMGTP induced strong brain activity in the following sites: right dorsolateral nucleus and ventrolateral nucleus of thalamus, amygdala, left met thalamus, cerebellum leaflets, original crack, front cone crack, loop-shaped leaflets; but deactivation of right medial frontal gyrus, bilateral corpus callosum, hippocampus, and left dentate gyrus. TMGTP could alleviate cognitive dysfunction in SHRs with GYSK, which was possibly by inducing alteration of glucose metabolism in different brain regions with corresponding functions. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  2. [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for targeting radiation dose escalation for patients with glioblastoma multiforme: Clinical outcomes and patterns of failure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Douglas, James G.; Stelzer, Keith J.; Mankoff, David A.; Tralins, Kevin S.; Krohn, Kenneth A.; Muzi, Mark; Silbergeld, Daniel L.; Rostomily, Robert C.; Scharnhorst, Jeffrey B.S.; Spence, Alexander M.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) imaging for brain tumors has been shown to identify areas of active disease. Radiation dose escalation in the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme may lead to improved disease control. Based on these premises, we initiated a prospective study of FDG-PET for the treatment planning of radiation dose escalation for the treatment of glioblastoma multiforme. Methods and Materials: Forty patients were enrolled. Patients were treated with standard conformal fractionated radiotherapy with volumes defined by MRI imaging. When patients reached a dose of 45-50.4 Gy, they underwent FDG-PET imaging for boost target delineation, for an additional 20 Gy (2 Gy per fraction) to a total dose of 79.4 Gy (n = 30). Results: The estimated 1-year and 2-year overall survival (OS) for the entire group was 70% and 17%, respectively, with a median overall survival of 70 weeks. The estimated 1-year and 2-year progression-free survival (PFS) was 18% and 3%, respectively, with a median of 24 weeks. No significant improvements in OS or PFS were observed for the study group in comparison to institutional historical controls. Conclusions: Radiation dose escalation to 79.4 Gy based on FDG-PET imaging demonstrated no improvement in OS or PFS. This study establishes the feasibility of integrating PET metabolic imaging into radiotherapy treatment planning

  3. Hypoxia imaging with [F-18] FMISO-PET in head and neck cancer: Potential for guiding intensity modulated radiation therapy in overcoming hypoxia-induced treatment resistance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickson, Kristi; Phillips, Mark; Smith, Wade; Peterson, Lanell; Krohn, Kenneth; Rajendran, Joseph

    2011-01-01

    Background and purpose: Positron emission tomography (PET) imaging with [F-18] fluoromisonidazole (FMISO) has been validated as a hypoxic tracer . Head and neck cancer exhibits hypoxia, inducing aggressive biologic traits that impart resistance to treatment. Delivery of modestly higher radiation doses to tumors with stable areas of chronic hypoxia can improve tumor control . Advanced radiation treatment planning (RTP) and delivery techniques such as intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) can deliver higher doses to a small volume without increasing morbidity. We investigated the utility of co-registered FMISO-PET and CT images to develop clinically feasible RTPs with higher tumor control probabilities (TCP). Materials and methods: FMISO-PET images were used to determine hypoxic sub-volumes for boost planning. Example plans were generated for 10 of the patients in the study who exhibited significant hypoxia. We created an IMRT plan for each patient with a simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the hypoxic sub-volumes. We also varied the boost for two patients. Result: A significant (mean 17%, median 15%) improvement in TCP is predicted when the modest additional boost dose to the hypoxic sub-volume is included. Conclusion: Combined FMISO-PET imaging and IMRT planning permit delivery of higher doses to hypoxic regions, increasing the predicted TCP (mean 17%) without increasing expected complications.

  4. F-18 FDG PET/CT findings in a patient with bilateral orbital and gastric mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suga, Kazuyoshi; Yasuhiko, Kawakami; Hiyama, Atsuto; Takeda, Koumei; Matsunaga, Naofumi

    2009-09-01

    Orbital mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) lymphoma is an uncommon disease, while the incidence is recently increasing. We describe the F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography computerized tomography (FDG PET/CT) findings in a case of bilateral orbital MALT lymphomas with a coexisting gastric lesion. Although only the lesion in the left orbit was initially identified on MR imaging, FDG PET/CT scan unexpectedly and additionally could identify the tiny lesion of the contralateral orbit and the gastric lesion. This patient received radiotherapy to all these lesions, with a combination of rituximab monoclonal antibody therapy. The follow-up PET/CT studies at 3, 6, and 9 months and 1.5 years after treatment showed regression or disappearance of all these FDG-avid lesions. Accurate localization and staging are crucial to select an adequate treatment in MALT lymphoma at any location. This case indicates the feasibility of FDG PET/CT scan for accurate localization and staging and also for monitoring treatment in patients with orbital MALT lymphoma.

  5. Therapy with high LET Radioisotopes: Can sufficient levels of attractive Auger and alpha emitters be produced to make their use practical?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knapp, F.F. Jr.; Mirzadeh, S.; Stabin, M.; Brill, A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because of localized energy deposition within a very small volume, cellular targeted therapy with high linear energy transfer (LET) Auger-electron and alpha-particle emitting radioisotopes is of great interest. While the energy deposition from alpha particles usually encompasses several cell diameters, the dose from Auger electrons is confined to a single cell. Two major challenges for broader use of Alpha and Auger emitters are the efficient and cost effective routine production of sufficient levels of these radioisotopes, and the availability of targeting molecules to which the radioisotopes can be attached for cellular delivery of sufficient levels of activity for effective therapy. Examples of several Alpha-and Auger-emitting radioisotopes of current interest are presented. Alpha- and Auger electron-emitting radioisotopes can be produced in accelerators (A) and nuclear reactors (R), and several alpha emitter congeners (i.e. thorium-229) can be obtained from uranium decay products. The challenge for reactor production, is the availability and exploitation of methods - other then the usual radiative (n,γ) production route which will provide no-carrier-added (nca) or the high specific activity radioisotopes of interest. The submitted manuscript has been authored by a contractor of the U.S. Government under contract DE-AC05-00OR22725. Accordingly, the U.S. Government retains a nonexclusive, royalty-free license to publish or reproduce the published form of this contribution, or allow others to do so, for U.S. Government purposes High LET radioisotopes of current interest which are in the initial stages of development and/or which demonstrate practical use in clinical trials include several alpha-emitters, in particular bismuth-213 - and also the actinium-225 parent - astatine-211 and bismuth-212. Extensive experimental studies have been reported with Auger iododeoxyuridine (IdUR) radiolabeled with the iodine-125 emitter-labeled. However, development of production

  6. A randomized phase II chemoprevention trial of 13-CIS retinoic acid with or without alpha tocopherol or observation in subjects at high risk for lung cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelly, Karen; Kittelson, John; Franklin, Wilbur A; Kennedy, Timothy C; Klein, Catherine E; Keith, Robert L; Dempsey, Edward C; Lewis, Marina; Jackson, Mary K; Hirsch, Fred R; Bunn, Paul A; Miller, York E

    2009-05-01

    No chemoprevention strategies have been proven effective for lung cancer. We evaluated the effect of 13-cis retinoic acid (13-cis RA), with or without alpha tocopherol, as a lung cancer chemoprevention agent in a phase II randomized controlled clinical trial of adult subjects at high risk for lung cancer as defined by the presence of sputum atypia, history of smoking, and airflow obstruction, or a prior surgically cured nonsmall cell lung cancer (disease free, >3 years). Subjects were randomly assigned to receive either 13-cis RA, 13-cis RA plus alpha tocopherol (13-cis RA/alpha toco) or observation for 12 months. Outcome measures are derived from histologic evaluation of bronchial biopsy specimens obtained by bronchoscopy at baseline and follow-up. The primary outcome measure is treatment "failure" defined as histologic progression (any increase in the maximum histologic score) or failure to return for follow-up bronchoscopy. Seventy-five subjects were randomized (27/22/26 to observations/13-cis RA/13-cis RA/alpha toco); 59 completed the trial; 55 had both baseline and follow-up bronchoscopy. The risk of treatment failure was 55.6% (15 of 27) and 50% (24 of 48) in the observation and combined (13 cis RA plus 13 cis RA/alpha toco) treatment arms, respectively (odds ratio adjusted for baseline histology, 0.97; 95% confidence interval, 0.36-2.66; P = 0.95). Among subjects with complete histology data, maximum histology score in the observation arm increased by 0.37 units and by 0.03 units in the treated arms (difference adjusted for baseline, -0.18; 95% confidence interval, -1.16 to 0.81; P = 0.72). Similar (nonsignificant) results were observed for treatment effects on endobronchial proliferation as assessed by Ki-67 immunolabeling. Twelve-month treatment with 13-cis RA produced nonsignificant changes in bronchial histology, consistent with results in other trials. Agents advancing to phase III randomized trials should produce greater histologic changes. The

  7. Combined adjuvant radiation and interferon-alpha 2B therapy in high-risk melanoma patients: the potential for increased radiation toxicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazard, Lisa J.; Sause, William T.; Noyes, R. Dirk

    2002-01-01

    Purpose: Surgically resected melanoma patients with high-risk features commonly receive adjuvant therapy with interferon-alpha 2b combined with radiation therapy; the purpose of our study was to evaluate the potential enhancement of radiation toxicity by interferon. Methods and Materials: Patients at LDS Hospital and the University of Utah Medical Center in Salt Lake City treated with interferon during radiotherapy or within 1 month of its completion were retrospectively identified, and their charts were reviewed. If possible, the patients were asked to return to the LDS Hospital radiation therapy department for follow-up. Results: Five of 10 patients receiving interferon-alpha 2b therapy during radiation therapy or within 1 month of its completion experienced severe subacute/late complications of therapy. Severe subacute/late complications included two patients with peripheral neuropathy, one patient with radiation necrosis in the brain, and two patients with radiation necrosis in the s.c. tissue. One patient with peripheral neuropathy and one patient with radiation necrosis also developed lymphedema. Conclusions: In vitro studies have identified a radiosensitizing effect by interferon-alpha on certain cell lines, which suggests the possibility that patients treated with interferon and radiation therapy may experience more severe radiation toxicities. We have observed severe subacute/late complications in five of 10 patients treated with interferon-alpha 2b during radiation therapy or within 1 month of its completion. Although an observational study of 10 patients lacks the statistic power to reach conclusions regarding the safety and complication rates of combined interferon and radiation therapy, it is sufficient to raise concerns and suggest the need for prospective studies

  8. Influence of High Aspect Ratio Vessel Cell Culture on TNF-Alpha, Insulin Secretion and Glucose Homeostasis in Pancreatic Islets of Langerhans from Wistar Furth Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobin, Brian W.a; Leeper-Woodford, Sandra K.

    1999-01-01

    The present studies were carried out to determine the influence of a ground based microgravity paradigm, utilizing the High Aspect Ratio Vessel (HARV) cell culture upon lipopolysaccharide (LPS) stimulated tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans. An additional aim was to elucidate alterations in insulin secretion and glucose utilization using the HARV low shear, gravity averaged vector, cell culture technique. Islets were isolated (1726 +/- 117, 150 micron islet equivalent units) from Wistar Furth rats and assigned to four treatment groups: 1) HARV, 2) HARV plus LPS, 3) static culture, 4) static culture plus LPS. Following 48 hours of culture, insulin concentration was increased in both HARV and static cultures (palpha (L929 cytotoxicity assay) and was measured at selected time points for 48 hours. TNF-alpha was significantly increased in LPS-induced HARV and static cultures, yet the increase was more pronounced in the static culture group (palpha is associated with a decreased insulin secretion is intriguing, both as it relates to in-flight investigations, and as it may provide insight into the pathophysiology of Type I and Type 11 diabetes. Glucose concentration in islet medium was lesser throughout the experiment in static cultures, suggesting a decreased reliance upon glucose as a metabolic substrate in the islets cultured in HARVS. In conclusion, the present studies demonstrate alterations in LPS induced TNF-alpha production of pancreatic islets of Langerhans, favoring a lesser TNF production in the microgravity HARV paradigm. Additionally, alterations in fuel homeostasis may be promulgated by HARV culture. The clinical and physiological significance of these observations remains to be determined.

  9. Direct Determination of Lean Body Mass by CT in F-18 FDG PET/CT Studies: Comparison with Estimates Using Predictive Equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chang Guhn; Kim, Woo Hyoung; Kim, Myoung Hyoun; Kim, Dae-Weung

    2013-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to estimate lean body mass (LBM) using CT (LBM CTs) and compare the results with LBM estimates of four different predictive equations (LBM PEs) to assess whether LBM CTs and LBM PEs can be used interchangeably for SUV normalization. Whole-body F-18 FDG PET/CT studies were conducted on 392 patients. LBM CT1 is modified adipose tissue-free body mass, and LBM CT2 is adipose tissue-free body mass. Four different PEs were used for comparison (LBM PE1-4). Agreement between the two measurement methods was assessed by Bland-Altman analysis. We calculated the difference between two methods (bias), the percentage of difference, and the limits of agreement, expressed as a percentage. For LBM CTs vs. LBM PEs, except LBM PE3, the ranges of biases and limits of agreement were -3.77 to 3.81 kg and 26.60-35.05 %, respectively, indicating the wide limits of agreement and differing magnitudes of bias. For LBM CTs vs. LBM PE3, LBM PE3 had wider limits of agreement and greater positive bias (44.28-46.19 % and 10.49 to 14.04 kg, respectively), showing unacceptably large discrepancies between LBM CTs and LBM PE3. This study demonstrated that there are substantial discrepancies between individual LBM CTs and LBM PEs, and this should be taken into account when LBM CTs and LBM PEs are used interchangeably between patients.

  10. [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography after limb salvage surgery: post-surgical appearance, attenuation correction and local complications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E. [Cincinnati Children' s Hospital Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Nuclear Medicine Division, Cincinnati, OH (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Metal endoprostheses and internal fixation devices cause significant artifacts on CT after limb salvage surgery; positron emission tomography (PET) images should be evaluated for artifacts. (1) To describe [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET uptake patterns after limb salvage surgery. (2) To determine whether metal endoprostheses and fixation hardware cause significant artifacts on CT attenuation-corrected PET that interfere with diagnostic use of PET/CT after limb salvage surgery. We reviewed 92 studies from 18 patients ages 5-21 years. Diagnoses were osteogenic sarcoma in 14, Ewing sarcoma in 3, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor originating in bone in 1. Nine patients had distal femur/knee endoprostheses, five had lower-extremity bone allografts secured by large metal plates and four had upper-extremity limb salvage procedures. Maximum standardized uptake value was calculated at lower-extremity soft-tissue-endoprosthesis interfaces. In 15 patients with PET/CT imaging, the first PET/CT scan after limb salvage surgery was reviewed for metal artifacts on CT images and for artifacts at locations on PET corresponding to the CT metal artifacts. Increased FDG uptake was consistently present at soft-tissue interfaces with endoprostheses, allografts and internal fixation devices, with little or no FDG uptake at cemented endoprosthesis-bone interfaces. Maximum standardized uptake value at margins of femur/knee endoprostheses ranged from 1.4 to 5.7. In four patients with distal femur/knee endoprostheses, minimal artifact was noted on attenuation-corrected PET images, but image interpretation was not affected. In the other 11 patients who had CT attenuation correction, we detected no artifacts caused by the attenuation correction. CT attenuation correction did not cause artifacts that affected interpretation of attenuation-corrected PET images. (orig.)

  11. F-18 FDG PET/CT in 26 patients with SAPHO syndrome: a new vision of clinical and bone scintigraphy correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaochuan; Li, Chen; Cao, Yihan; Shi, Ximin; Li, Li; Zhang, Weihong; Wu, Xia; Wu, Nan; Jing, Hongli; Zhang, Wen

    2018-05-22

    Whole-body bone scintigraphy (WBBS) and MRI are widely used in assessment of patients with synovitis, acne, pustulosis, hyperostosis, and osteitis (SAPHO) syndrome. However, the value of F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography/computed tomography ( 18 F-FDG PET/CT) in SAPHO syndrome was unclear. The aim of this study was to characterize the manifestation of SAPHO syndrome on 18 F-FDG PET/CT and explore its relationship with clinical symptoms and WBBS. Twenty-six patients who suffered from SAPHO syndrome and had undergone whole-body 18 F-FDG PET/CT were recruited in Peking Union Medical College Hospital from 2004 to 2016. Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings were recorded for all patients. Imaging data on 18F-FDG PET/CT and WBBS were collected and analyzed retrospectively. All the 26 patients (20 females and 6 males) exhibited skeletal abnormalities on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. Multiple skeletal lesions affecting the anterior chest wall or spine with low to moderate 18 F-FDG uptake and coexistence of osteolysis and osteosclerosis presented as the typical features of SAPHO syndrome. Sixteen (61.5%) patients had abnormal 18 F-FDG uptake outside the osteoarticular system. PET scan had moderate to substantial agreement with CT and WBBS in revealing lesions in the anterior chest wall and axial skeleton. Nonetheless, the correlation between increased 18 F-FDG uptake and clinical symptoms was weak. SAPHO syndrome exhibits characteristic features on 18 F-FDG PET/CT. It showed comparable capacity in revealing skeletal lesions with bone scintigraphy.

  12. Correlation of F-18 FDG PET with morphometric tumor response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation in locally advanced (stage III) non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baum, R.P.; Schmuecking, M.; Bonnet, R.; Presselt, N.; Przetak, C.; Junker, K.; Schneider, C.P.; Hoeffken, K.; Wendt, T.G.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: To determine the role of 2-[(18)F] fluoro-2- deoxy-D-glucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in morphometric tumor response after neoadjuvant chemoradiation, findings in 32 patients were analyzed prospectively in an ongoing multicenter trial (LUCAS-MD, Germany). Material and Methods: Inclusion criteria was histologically confirmed NSCLC stage IIIA/IIIB. For staging all patients received a PET scan in addition to a spiral CT and/or MRI before therapy. Neoadjuvant treatment consisted of 2-3 cycles of chemotherapy with paclitaxel (225 mg/m 2 ) and carboplatin (AUC 6), each d1 q22 and a block of chemoradiation (45Gy, 1.5Gy b.i.d., concomitant with paclitaxel (50 mg/m 2 ) and carboplatin (AUC = 2), each d1, d8, d15) followed by surgery. All patients received a second PET after completion of neoadjuvant therapy prior to surgery. Whole-body PET (ECAT Exact 47) studies (attenuation corrected, iteratively reconstructed) were obtained 60 min. after injection of 6 MBq/kg body weight F-18 FDG. For semi-quantitative analysis, the tumor standardized uptake values (SUV), the tumor to background SUV ratio (T/B ratio), the metabolic tumor diameter (MTD) and the metabolic tumor index (MTI = SUV x MTD) were assessed in all primary tumors and in metastatic lymph nodes. Additionally, image fusion of PET with CT data was applied (using a HERMES Computer, Nuclear Diagnostics, Sweden). Results: So far, all patients (7/32) with complete metabolic response in lymph node metastases detected by PET, had no vital tumor cells (morphometric regression grade III). In primary tumors showing complete metabolic response, the regression grade was IIB (less than 10% vital tumor cells) or III. Conclusion: Morphometric tumor response after neoadjuvant therapy correlates strongly with metabolic remission by FDG-PET. PET precedes the tumor response as measured by CT after neoadjuvant treatment and may predict the long term therapeutic outcome in stage III NSCLC

  13. Multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media concentrations in combined F-18-FDG PET/CT: Effect on quantitative and clinical assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rebiere, Marilou, E-mail: Marilou.Rebiere@rwth-aachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Verburg, Frederik A., E-mail: fverburg@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P. Debeylaan 25, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Palmowski, Moritz, E-mail: mpalmowski@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Radiology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Experimental Molecular Imaging, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Krohn, Thomas, E-mail: tkrohn@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Pietsch, Hubertus, E-mail: hubertus.pietsch@bayer.com [Contrast Media Research, Bayer Pharma AG, Muellerstr. 178, 13353 Berlin (Germany); Kuhl, Christiane K., E-mail: ckuhl@ukaachen.de [Department of Radiology, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Mottaghy, Felix M., E-mail: fmottaghy@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany); Department of Nuclear Medicine, Maastricht University Medical Center, P. Debeylaan 25, 6202 AZ Maastricht (Netherlands); Behrendt, Florian F., E-mail: fbehrendt@ukaachen.de [Department of Nuclear Medicine, University Hospital RWTH Aachen, Pauwelsstrasse 30, 52057 Aachen (Germany)

    2012-08-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the influence of multiphase CT scanning and different intravenous contrast media on contrast enhancement, attenuation correction and image quality in combined PET/CT. Material and methods: 140 patients were prospectively enrolled for F-18-FDG-PET/CT including a low-dose unenhanced, arterial and venous contrast enhanced CT. The first (second) 70 patients, received contrast medium with 370 (300) mg iodine/ml. The iodine delivery rate (1.3 mg/s) and total iodine load (44.4 g) were identical for both groups. Contrast enhancement and maximum and mean standardized FDG uptake values (SUVmax and SUVmean) were determined for the un-enhanced, arterial and venous PET/CT at multiple anatomic sites and PET reconstructions were visually evaluated. Results: Arterial contrast enhancement was significantly higher for the 300 mg/ml contrast medium compared to 370 mg I/ml at all anatomic sites. Venous enhancement was not different between the two contrast media. SUVmean and SUVmax were significantly higher for the contrast enhanced compared to the non-enhanced PET/CT at all anatomic sites (all P < 0.001). Tracer uptake was significantly higher in the arterial than in the venous PET/CT in the arteries using both contrast media (all P < 0.001). No differences in tracer uptake were found between the contrast media (all P > 0.05). Visual assessment revealed no relevant differences between the different PET reconstructions. Conclusions: There is no relevant qualitative influence on the PET scan from the use of different intravenous contrast media in its various phases in combined multiphase PET/CT. For quantitative analysis of tracer uptake it is required to use an identical PET/CT protocol.

  14. [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography after limb salvage surgery: post-surgical appearance, attenuation correction and local complications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gelfand, Michael J.; Sharp, Susan E.

    2015-01-01

    Metal endoprostheses and internal fixation devices cause significant artifacts on CT after limb salvage surgery; positron emission tomography (PET) images should be evaluated for artifacts. (1) To describe [F-18]2-fluoro-2-deoxyglucose (FDG) PET uptake patterns after limb salvage surgery. (2) To determine whether metal endoprostheses and fixation hardware cause significant artifacts on CT attenuation-corrected PET that interfere with diagnostic use of PET/CT after limb salvage surgery. We reviewed 92 studies from 18 patients ages 5-21 years. Diagnoses were osteogenic sarcoma in 14, Ewing sarcoma in 3, and malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumor originating in bone in 1. Nine patients had distal femur/knee endoprostheses, five had lower-extremity bone allografts secured by large metal plates and four had upper-extremity limb salvage procedures. Maximum standardized uptake value was calculated at lower-extremity soft-tissue-endoprosthesis interfaces. In 15 patients with PET/CT imaging, the first PET/CT scan after limb salvage surgery was reviewed for metal artifacts on CT images and for artifacts at locations on PET corresponding to the CT metal artifacts. Increased FDG uptake was consistently present at soft-tissue interfaces with endoprostheses, allografts and internal fixation devices, with little or no FDG uptake at cemented endoprosthesis-bone interfaces. Maximum standardized uptake value at margins of femur/knee endoprostheses ranged from 1.4 to 5.7. In four patients with distal femur/knee endoprostheses, minimal artifact was noted on attenuation-corrected PET images, but image interpretation was not affected. In the other 11 patients who had CT attenuation correction, we detected no artifacts caused by the attenuation correction. CT attenuation correction did not cause artifacts that affected interpretation of attenuation-corrected PET images. (orig.)

  15. Is [F-18]-fluorodeoxyglucose FDG-PET/CT better than CT alone for the preoperative lymph node staging of muscle invasive bladder cancer?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Uttam, Mete; Pravin, Nayak; Anish, Bhattacharya; Nandita, Kakkar; Arup, Mandal, E-mail: uttam_mete@yahoo.com [PGIMER, Chandigarh, (India)

    2016-03-15

    Objective: To evaluate whether the use of [F-18]-FDG-PET/CT can accurately predict pelvic lymph node metastasis in patients with muscle invasive TCC of the bladder undergoing radical cystectomy. Materials and methods: Fifteen patients with muscle invasive bladder cancer had undergone FDG-PET/CT scan from the skull base to the mid-thighs after IV injection of 6.5MBq (Mega-Becquerel)/Kg of FDG. After intravenous hydration IV furosemide was given to overcome the difficulties posed by urinary excretion of {sup 18}F-FDG. PET/ CT data were analyzed as PET and CT images studied separately as well as fused PET/ CT images. The imaging findings were correlated with the histopathology of the nodes (gold standard). Results: CT and FDG-PET had demonstrated positive lymph nodes in 9 & 8 patients respectively. Among the 15 patients 3 had documented metastasis on histopathology. Both CT and PET could detect the nodes in all these 3 patients (100% sensitivity). Nodes were histologically negative amongst 6&5 patients who had node involvement by CT and PET respectively. Therefore, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV) & negative predictive value (NPV) for CT and PET/CT were 50%, 33.3%, 100% and 58.3%, 37.5%, 100% respectively. Conclusion: The theoretical advantage of this cutting edge technology for whole body imaging has not been translated into clinical practice as we found minimal advantage of combined FDG-PET/CT over CT alone for nodal staging of muscle invasive bladder cancer. This may be due to substantial overlap between standardized uptake values (SUVs) from active inflammatory processes with those of malignant lesion. (author)

  16. The role of F-18 FDG-PET for 3-D radiation treatment planning of non-small cell lung cancer - first results of a prospective study; Einsatz der F-18-FDG-PET in der 3-D-Bestrahlungsplanung des nichtkleinzelligen Bronchialkarzinoms: erste Ergebnisse einer prospektiven Studie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmuecking, M.; Baum, R.P.; Przetak, C.; Niesen, A. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Klinik fuer Nuklearmedizin/PET-Zentrum; Lopatta, E.C.; Wendt, T.G. [Jena Univ. (Germany). Klinik fuer Radiologie, Abt. Strahlentherapie; Plichta, K.; Leonhardi, J. [Zentralklinik Bad Berka (Germany). Inst. fuer Bildgebende Diagnostik

    2001-04-01

    To determine the role of F-18 FDG-PET in 3-D-radiation therapy planning, findings in 27 patients, studied by both, PET and CT, were analyzed prospectively. All patients were first examined by helical CT and F-18 FDG-PET. The PET data were iteratively reconstructed into 3-D images and image fusion with CT data was applied. First, based on CT data, the planning target volumes (PTV) and the volumes of organs at risk were generated. In a second step, the transversal slices of CT and PET were matched. Then, based on PET data, new target volumes were generated. Treatment plans for radiation therapy were calculated on CT-based and PET-based planning target volumes. If PET results were used additionally for the 3-D-planning procedure of radiation therapy, the planning target volume could be reduced in a range of 3-21% as compared with conventional imaging methods, e.g., PET allowed differentiation between tumor and atelectasis resulting in smaller PTV. The dose volume histograms of the PET-based treatment plans showed a reduction of dose to the organs at risk, e.g., V{sub lung} (20 Gy) could be reduced by 5% to 17%. In 2 patients, the boost volume based on PET findings was larger than the one based on CT, since PET detected lymph node metastases being of normal size in CT (<1 cm). PET can provide important complementary metabolic information to morphological imaging modalities for an exact localization of nodal involvement and the extent of the primary tumor. Due to smaller PTV, radiation therapy could be delivered with less toxicity in most patients. Using metabolic tumor localization by PET additionally to anatomic delineation by CT scan, a better tumor control may be achieved. Further studies are required to proof this concept. (orig.) [German] Es sollte in einer prospektiven Studie der Einfluss der metabolischen Zusatzinformation durch PET auf die Generierung der Zielvolumina (PTV) und der Dosis-Volumen-Histogramme (DVH) untersucht werden. Alle Patienten erhielten eine

  17. Case Study - Alpha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Leybourne

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available This case study was developed from an actual scenario by Dr. Steve Leybourne of Boston University.  The case documents the historical evolution of an organization, and has been used successfully in courses dealing with organizational and cultural change, and the utilization of ‘soft skills’ in project-based management. This is a short case, ideal for classroom use and discussion.  The issues are easily accessible to students, and there is a single wide ranging question that allows for the inclusion of many issues surrounding strategic decision-making, and behavioural and cultural change. Alpha was one of the earlier companies in the USA to invest in large, edge-of-town superstores, with plentiful free vehicle parking, selling food and related household products. Alpha was created in the 1950s as a subsidiary of a major publicly quoted retail group.  It started business by opening a string of very large discount stores in converted industrial and warehouse premises in the south of the United States. In the early days shoppers were offered a limited range of very competitively priced products. When Alpha went public in 1981 it was the fourth largest food retailer in the US, selling an ever-widening range of food and non-food products.  Its success continued to be based on high volume, low margins and good value for money, under the slogan of ‘Alpha Price.’

  18. Predicting neo-adjuvant chemotherapy response and progression-free survival of locally advanced breast cancer using textural features of intratumoral heterogeneity on F-18 FDG PET/CT and diffusion-weighted MR imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Hai-Jeon; Kim, Yemi; Chung, Jin; Kim, Bom Sahn

    2018-03-30

    Predicting response to neo-adjuvant chemotherapy (NAC) and survival in locally advanced breast cancer (LABC) is important. This study investigated the prognosti