WorldWideScience

Sample records for eye worm history

  1. A rabbit eye model for in vivo transformation of progenetic metacercariae of Clinostomum complanatum into ovigerous adult worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizvi, A; Zaidi, Z A; Alam, M M; Zafar, A; Shareef, P A A; Saifullah, M K; Saleemuddin, M; Abidi, S M A

    2014-03-01

    Clinostomum complanatum is a digenetic trematode that causes yellow grub disease in some fish species and also shows zoonotic potential by sporadically infecting humans. In this study, progenetic metacercariae of C. complanatum were obtained from the fish Trichogaster fasciatus, and were aseptically placed in conjunctival incisions made in the superior and inferior fornices of the eye of rabbits, which served as the experimental hosts. Worms were harvested without necropsy of the host on days 4 and 8 post infection, to observe in vivo transformation of the progenetic metacercariae into ovigerous adult worms. The worms appeared to cause minimal damage to the host although they were tenaciously attached. In vivo maturation was evident by the development of the vitellaria, enlargement of gonads, the presence of a large number of shelled eggs in a distended uterus and ramifications of the intestinal caeca. Obtaining mature ovigerous worms without sacrificing the host clearly gives the rabbit eye model an advantage over those described previously. Due to the relative advantage of the short time required for maturation and the prolific egg production by C. complanatum, it is suggested that this host-parasite system could be used as an excellent model for classroom teaching of trematode biology and to investigate the cues involved in in vivo transformation and host-parasite interactions.

  2. Photorefraction of eyes: history and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Howard C

    2009-06-01

    A brief history of photorefraction, i.e., the refraction of eyes by photography or computer image capture, is given. The method of photorefraction originated from an optical scheme for secret communication across the Berlin wall. This scheme used a lens whose focus about infinity was modulated by a movable reflecting surface. From this device, it was recognized that the vertebrate eye was such a reflector and that its double-pass pointspread could be used to compute its degree of defocus. Subsequently, a second, totally independent invention, more accurately termed "photoretinoscopy," used an eccentric light source and obtained retinoscopic-like images of the reflex in the pupil of the subject's eyes. Photoretinoscopy has become the preferred method of photorefraction and has been instantiated in a wide variety of devices used in vision screening and research. This has been greatly helped by the parallel development of computer and digital camera technology. It seems likely that photorefractive methods will continue to be refined and may eventually become ubiquitous in clinical practice.

  3. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.Keywords: Loa loa, red eye, Cameroon

  4. The seeds and the worms: Ludwik Fleck and the early history of germ theories

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2006-01-01

    -scientific "proto-ideas." In 1935, Fleck proposed that the history of germ theories could be approached through his thesis on proto-ideas. His proposal, however, remained little more than a vague suggestion and was never developed in further detail. This paper introduces the concept of proto-ideas and discusses...... the central epistemological and historiographical implications of Fleck's thesis. The Fleckian approach offers an attractive alternative to positivist reconstructions of the early history of germ theories and provides a useful framework for a deeper understanding of the sociocultural background......The Polish microbiologist and philosopher of science, Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961), was a pioneer in constructivist history and philosophy of science. Based on studies in the history of syphilis, Fleck hypothesized that many established scientific facts are linked, in their development, to pre...

  5. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  6. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    ) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...... of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct...

  7. [Symbolics of the eye in mythology and history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Aloys

    2005-01-01

    Researches on the creation of Russian ophthalmological terms by Martin Il'ich Shein in 1750 caused semiotic investigations on universal female respectively lunar connotations of the eye as Latin pupilla--puppet, the small picture of an observer's person reflected by the cornea of another one face to face to him/her, Greek (see text)-- kore, which means girl, pupil and globe of the eye. Kore is the Minoan name of a spring goddess, called Greek Persephone as part of a triadic mother-goddess, in summer Demeter in autumn Hekate. Such goddesses are represented by the three enlighted main phases of the moon: full moon and both half moons. Its dark phase, new moon, is the fourth element of compressing 28 or 29 phases of a lunation to its least understandable numerical abstraction 4. Its mythologic meaning dead or underworld takes part in believing in cyclic renewing of life. The universal code 4 for moon contains a 5200 years old precuneiform Sumeric sign NAM2, shaped as 4-stepped ladder, representing Inanna of Uruk, which is phenomenically identic with the to-days Chinese sign mù (see text) for eye. The reason of this identity is founded on 370.000 old astronomic abstractions, drawn on beasts' bones by paleolithic men at Bilzingsleben (Thuringia). We may trace and estimate important facts in history--for example the transfer of the imperial role from the Byzantine emperors to Charles the Great by pope Leo III in 800--by such abstractions as semiotic tools, which have been used in mythological sources as Odyssey or in arts, as Pablo Picasso had done commenting cruel facts of World War II.

  8. Has long-term metal exposure induced changes in life history traits and genetic diversity of the enchytraeid worm Cognettia sphagnetorum (Vejd.)?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haimi, Jari; Knott, Karelyn Emily; Selonen, Salla; Laurikainen, Marjo

    2006-01-01

    We studied whether long-term metal exposure has affected life history traits, population growth patterns and genetic diversity of the asexual enchytraeid worm Cognettia sphagnetorum (Vejd.). Enchytraeids from metal contaminated and uncontaminated forest soil were compared by growing them individually in the laboratory and by following their population development in patchily Cu contaminated microcosms. Genetic differences between the two native populations were studied using allozyme electrophoresis. Individuals from the contaminated site had slower growth rate and they produced fewer fragments of larger size when compared to individuals from the uncontaminated site. In patchily Cu contaminated microcosms, C. sphagnetorum from the contaminated site had a slower population growth rate. Most alleles were shared by the two native populations, but there was greater diversity and more unique genotypes in the population living in the uncontaminated site. Overall, long-term exposure to metals has induced only slight changes in life history properties and clonal diversity of C. sphagnetorum. - Long-term exposure to metals caused only small changes in life histories of two populations of Cognettia sphagnetorum

  9. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  10. The eyes have it: A brief history of crustacean neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Penny M

    2012-02-01

    To help celebrate the 50th anniversary of General and Comparative Endocrinology, the history of only a small portion of crustacean endocrinology is presented here. The field of crustacean endocrinology dates back to the decades prior to the establishment of General and Comparative Endocrinology and the first article about crustacean endocrinology published in this journal was concerned with the anatomy of neurosecretory and neurohemal structures in brachyuran crabs. This review looks at the history of neuroendocrinology in crustaceans during that time and tries to put perspective on the future of this field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Stable isotopes in fish eye lenses as potential recorders of trophic and geographic history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A Wallace

    Full Text Available We evaluated eye lenses as potential recorders of stable isotope histories in fish because they consist of metabolically inert optical proteins that are deposited in successive, concentric circles (laminae much like otolith circuli and tree rings. We conducted four different tests on lenses from red snapper, red grouper, gag, and white grunt. The first test was a low-resolution screening of multiple individuals (4-5 radial groups of laminae per lens, all species except white grunt. Along the radial axis, all individuals exhibited substantial isotopic variability. Red snapper individuals separated into two groups based on δ15N and gag separated into two groups based on δ13C. Two gag with the greatest variation were chosen for high-resolution temporal analysis using individual laminae from their second eye lenses. The first-order patterns from the high-resolution analysis generally mimicked patterns from the low-resolution screening of grouped laminae, yet the high-resolution plots revealed early-life details that were not apparent in the low-resolution screenings. For the third test, left- versus right-eye variation was compared using high-resolution methods. White grunt left- and right-eye radial isotopic patterns were almost identical for both δ13C and δ15N, suggesting the variations observed among individual fish were not artifacts. The final test evaluated intra-laminar variation; multiple samples were analyzed from different parts of the same lamina. Seven laminae from three individuals of two species were analyzed in this manner; variations among laminae were found to be much higher than variations within laminae. However, nominal intra-laminar variations were comparable to nominal differences between left and right lenses, suggesting intra-laminar variation established measurement precision. Eye lens isotopes appear to be useful for reconstructing the isotopic histories of individual fish; these histories can be compared with spatially

  12. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  13. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenaway, Chris

    2004-02-17

    Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) is a parasitic disease that is limited to remote, rural villages in 13 sub-Saharan African countries that do not have access to safe drinking water. It is one the next diseases targeted for eradication by the World Health Organization. Guinea worm disease is transmitted by drinking water containing copepods (water fleas) that are infected with Dracunculiasis medinensis larvae. One year after human ingestion of infected water a female adult worm emerges, typically from a lower extremity, producing painful ulcers that can impair mobility for up to several weeks. This disease occurs annually when agricultural activities are at their peak. Large proportions of economically productive individuals of a village are usually affected simultaneously, resulting in decreased agricultural productivity and economic hardship. Eradication of guinea worm disease depends on prevention, as there is no effective treatment or vaccine. Since 1986, there has been a 98% reduction in guinea worm disease worldwide, achieved primarily through community-based programs. These programs have educated local populations on how to filter drinking water to remove the parasite and how to prevent those with ulcers from infecting drinking-water sources. Complete eradication will require sustained high-level political, financial and community support.

  14. Comparison of Mucin Levels at the Ocular Surface of Postmenopausal Women With and Without a History of Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gipson, Ilene K.; Spurr-Michaud, Sandra J.; Senchyna, Michelle; Ritter, Robert; Schaumberg, Debra

    2011-01-01

    Purpose Determine 1) if levels of the glycocalyx membrane mucins, MUC1 and MUC16, and the secreted goblet cell mucin MUC5AC are altered in conjunctival cells and tears of postmenopausal women presenting with a history of non-Sjögren's dry eye, and 2) if mucin levels correlate with dry eye clinical diagnostic data. Methods Eighty-four postmenopausal women with a history of non-Sjögren's dry eye and 30 normal subjects were recruited for this study. Impression cytology samples were collected for mucin mRNA and protein analysis. Tears were collected for mucin protein assay. qPCR, western blot, and ELISA assays were used to quantitate MUC1, MUC16 and MUC5AC levels. Results Postmenopausal women with a history of dry eye displayed significantly increased MUC1 mRNA expression and cellular protein compared to normal subjects (Pdry eye patients with a history of dry eye may be a compensatory response to irritation and inflammation associated with the disease. Understanding the pattern of mucin expression associated with dry eye pathology may clarify factors involved in the progression of the disease and enhance the development of targeted therapies. PMID:22089171

  15. Life cycle of the oriental compost worm Perionyx excavatus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1989-03-21

    Mar 21, 1989 ... O. Graff of Braunschweig, West Germany, from worms originally obtained .... provides for an alternate life history strategy in Perionyx excavatus. ... illustrated. .... (1984), (eds) Edwards, C.A. & Lofty, J.R. Cambridge,. England.

  16. Extrafoveal Cone Packing in Eyes With a History of Retinopathy of Prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Akula, James D; Soni, Garima; Swanson, Matthew J; Bush, Jennifer N; Moskowitz, Anne; Swanson, Emily A; Favazza, Tara L; Tavormina, Jena L; Mujat, Mircea; Ferguson, R Daniel; Hansen, Ronald M; Fulton, Anne B

    2016-02-01

    To study the density and packing geometry of the extrafoveal cone photoreceptors in eyes with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We used a multimodal combination of adaptive optics (AO) scanning light ophthalmoscopy (SLO) and optical coherence tomography (OCT). Cones were identified in subjects (aged 14-26 years) with a history of ROP that was either severe and treated by laser ablation of avascular peripheral retina (TROP; n = 5) or mild and spontaneously resolved, untreated (UROP; n = 5), and in term-born controls (CT; n = 8). The AO-SLO images were obtained at temporal eccentricities 4.5°, 9°, 13.5°, and 18° using both confocal and offset apertures with simultaneous, colocal OCT images. Effects of group, eccentricity, and aperture were evaluated and the modalities compared. In the SLO images, cone density was lower and the packing pattern less regular in TROP, relative to CT and UROP retinae. Although SLO image quality appeared lower in TROP, root mean square (RMS) wavefront error did not differ among the groups. In TROP eyes, cone discrimination was easier in offset aperture images. There was no evidence of cone loss in the TROP OCT images. Low cone density in TROP confocal SLO images may have resulted from lower image quality. Since AO correction in these eyes was equivalent to that of the control group, and OCT imaging showed no significant cone loss, the optical properties of the inner retina or properties of the cones themselves are likely altered in a way that affects photoreceptor imaging.

  17. Weird and wonderful worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  18. The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffler CT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher T Leffler,1 Stephen G Schwartz,2 Tamer M Hadi,3 Ali Salman,1 Vivek Vasuki1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Naples, FL, USA; 3Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: To the ancient Greeks, glaukos occasionally described diseased eyes, but more typically described healthy irides, which were glaucous (light blue, gray, or green. During the Hippocratic period, a pathologic glaukos pupil indicated a media opacity that was not dark. Although not emphasized by present-day ophthalmologists, the pupil in acute angle closure may appear somewhat green, as the mid-dilated pupil exposes the cataractous lens. The ancient Greeks would probably have described a (normal green iris or (diseased green pupil as glaukos. During the early Common Era, eye pain, a glaucous hue, pupil irregularities, and absence of light perception indicated a poor prognosis with couching. Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides. Ibn Sina (otherwise known as Avicenna wrote that the zarqaa hue could occur due to anterior prominence of the lens and could occur in an acquired manner. The disease defined by the glaucous pupil in antiquity is ultimately indeterminate, as the complete syndrome of acute angle closure was not described. Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Keywords: glaucoma, history of ophthalmology, couching

  19. Task 7c: Worm tank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-01-01

    Worm tank has a unique shape. In the seismic design of a worm tank, it is desirable to clear the behavior of the worm tank under the seismic loading. We assumed that there are two phenomena in the seismic behavior of the worm tank same as the behavior of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. One is a sloshing behavior of the water and another is the dynamic response of the worm tank. In this study, we investigate the dynamic characteristics of the worm tank during the strong earthquakes. We conducted the vibration tests to clarify the seismic behaviors of the worm tanks and obtained the valuable data to verify the analytical method. It was found that the natural frequency can be calculated using the eigenvalue formula of the cylindrical and rectangular tanks. Lower modes of the worm tank are identical with that of the rectangular tank. We can estimate the surface behavior and the impact mode using the data of the rectangular tank. (author)

  20. NEDAC: A WORM COUNTERMEASURE MECHANISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    of network worm propagation has been conducted to test the capabilities of the developed ... sharing of information amongst people, businesses, governments ... has been reported in previously published security research work. However .... To develop and use a worm in experiment, some important metric are required ...

  1. The fascinating early history of optics! Archaeological optics 2009: our knowledge of the early history of lenses, mirrors, and artificial eyes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    2009-08-01

    The early history of optics and vision science (older term: physiological optics) is indeed fascinating. The earliest known true lenses have been found in "eyes" of Egyptian statues which contain superb, complex, and well-polished eye-lens units. The oldest ones known are dated circa 2575 BCE = BC, Dynasty IV, Old Kingdom. These eye-lens units induce a fascinating and powerful visual illusion, but they are just too good to have been the first lenses, or even the first lenses of this design! So saying, no earlier dateable lenses have been found in Egypt or elsewhere. Recently, at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the writer noted a previously undetected lens in this series (a first in the Western Hemisphere). Oddly, dateable simpler magnifying lenses and burning glasses seem to have appeared later in time (?)! Manufactured mirrors are quite a bit older, dating from circa 6000 BCE in atal Hyk, located in south-central modern-day Turkey. Using these ancient mirrors, the image quality obtained is remarkable! Recently discovered ancient artificial eyes, located, in situ, in exhumed corpses, have been dated circa 3000 BCE (one discovered in Iran) 5000 BCE (one found in Spain). On the 3000 BCE artificial eye, there are drawn light rays (the writer believes these to be the oldest known depiction of light rays!) spreading out from (or passing into) the iris/ pupil border! Added interesting aspects associated with the early development of light-rays are considered. Thus, early optics can be readily traced back to the Neolithic era (the new stone age), and in some cases before that time period. We have deep roots indeed!

  2. Dental worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2016-12-01

    During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a "dental worm" could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.

  3. The history of keratoprosthetics in the S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution

    OpenAIRE

    Z.I. Moroz; V.A. Vlasova; E.V. Kovshun

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT The article highlights a 45-year experience in keratoprosthetics at the S. Fyodorov Eye Microsurgery Federal State Institution. During this period, more than 1,000 keratoprostheses of different types has been implanted. The design features, advantages and disadvantages of foreign keratoprosthesis – Choyce-1, Choyce-2, H. Cardona «bolt-nut», which were used in the clinic in the first stages of prosthetics of the cornea, are described. There are presented the...

  4. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  5. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  7. De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    De-worming alone versus de-worming plus iron supplementation: Effect on haemoglobin of primary school children in Aboh-Mbaise. ... Aim: To compare the effect of de-worming alone and de-worming plus iron supplementation on the haemoglobin (Hb) of primary school children. ... Journal of College of Medicine Vol.

  8. U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

  9. Study design and baseline findings from the progression of ocular findings (PROOF) natural history study of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonnell, Peter J; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Stern, Michael E; Hardten, David R; Conway, Taryn; Villanueva, Linda; Hollander, David A

    2017-12-28

    The aim of this research is to initiate a 5-year natural history study of dry eye disease (DED) using objectively assessed and patient-reported outcomes, to explore the hypothesis that DED is a progressive condition that has substantive and measurable impacts not only on the ocular surface, but on quality of life and visual functioning. Our objective for this report is to examine the baseline data. A multicenter, prospective, controlled, observational study of Level 2 (mild-to-moderate) DED patients based on International Task Force Delphi Panel severity grading, and controls, documented baseline measures (including tear film biomarkers and quality of life). Tear cytokine concentrations were also measured in the tear film. Patients were using artificial tears as needed. Two hundred seventeen DED patients and 67 gender- and age-matched controls were enrolled. A majority were females and Caucasian and groups did not differ significantly in terms of gender, race, or age. Differences between DED and matched controls, at baseline, included mean scores for Ocular Surface Disease Index (31.7 vs 4.1, P eye care practitioners in mild to moderate DED patients compared to normal subjects of similar ages and genders. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00833235 on January 30, 2009.

  10. MODELING THE DOUBLE WORM-FACE GEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BOLOŞ Codruţa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The worm-face gear family, invented 60 years ago, contains in its structure several variants which have the following defining elements: tapered worm, reverse tapered worm and cylindrical worm. This type of gear can be realized with a single wheel and also in engagement with the second embodiment of the front worm wheels. This paper presents the matrix - vectorial mathematical model of the double worm-face gear with cylindrical worm and a graphical modeling which is based on the specific geometrical characteristics accomplished by means of the Autodesk Inventor 3D modeling program. The applicability of the study, considering the solutions which it suggests, aims to create opportunities for the use of modern rapid prototyping and analysis of stress FEM technique.

  11. Natural history of drusenoid pigment epithelial detachment in age-related macular degeneration: Age-Related Eye Disease Study Report No. 28.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cukras, Catherine; Agrón, Elvira; Klein, Michael L; Ferris, Frederick L; Chew, Emily Y; Gensler, Gary; Wong, Wai T

    2010-03-01

    To describe the natural history of eyes with drusenoid pigment epithelial detachments (DPEDs) associated with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Multicenter, clinic-based, prospective cohort study. Among 4757 participants enrolled in the Age-Related Eye Disease Study (AREDS), 255 were identified as having DPED in at least 1 eye and having 5 or more years of follow-up after the initial detection of the DPED. Baseline and annual fundus photographs were evaluated for the evolution of the fundus features and the development of advanced AMD in the forms of central geographic atrophy (CGA) or neovascular (NV) AMD. Kaplan-Meier analyses of progression to advanced AMD and of moderate vision loss (> or =15 letters compared with baseline) were performed. Rate of progression to advanced AMD and change in visual acuity from baseline (in terms of mean letters lost and proportion losing > or =15 letters). A total of 311 eyes (from 255 participants) with DPED were followed for a median follow-up time of 8 years subsequent to the initial detection of a DPED. Of the 282 eyes that did not have advanced AMD at baseline, advanced AMD developed within 5 years in 119 eyes (42%) (19% progressing to CGA and 23% progressing to NV-AMD). In the remaining eyes that did not develop advanced AMD (n=163), progressive fundus changes, typified by the development of calcified drusen and pigmentary changes, were detected. Visual decline was prominent among study eyes, with approximately 40% of all eyes decreasing in visual acuity by > or =15 letters at 5 years follow-up. Mean visual acuity decreased from 76 letters ( approximately 20/30) at baseline to 61 letters ( approximately 20/60) at 5 years. Five-year decreases in mean visual acuity averaged 26 letters for eyes progressing to advanced AMD and 8 letters for non-progressing eyes. The natural history of eyes containing DPED is characterized by a high rate of progression to both CGA and NV-AMD. Among eyes not progressing to advanced AMD

  12. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-01-01

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent ...

  13. NEDAC: A worm countermeasure mechanism | Ahmad | Science ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents an Internet worm countermeasure mechanism that uses DNS activities as a behavioural technique to detect worm propagation. The mechanism also uses a data-link containment solution to block traffic from an infected host. The concept has been demonstrated using a developed prototype and tested in ...

  14. Parasitic worms: how many really?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strona, Giovanni; Fattorini, Simone

    2014-04-01

    Accumulation curves are useful tools to estimate species diversity. Here we argue that they can also be used in the study of global parasite species richness. Although this basic idea is not completely new, our approach differs from the previous ones as it treats each host species as an independent sample. We show that randomly resampling host-parasite records from the existing databases makes it possible to empirically model the relationship between the number of investigated host species, and the corresponding number of parasite species retrieved from those hosts. This method was tested on 21 inclusive lists of parasitic worms occurring on vertebrate hosts. All of the obtained models conform well to a power law curve. These curves were then used to estimate global parasite species richness. Results obtained with the new method suggest that current predictions are likely to severely overestimate parasite diversity. Copyright © 2014 Australian Society for Parasitology Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nekovee, Maziar [BT Research, Polaris 134, Adastral Park, Martlesham, Suffolk IP5 3RE (United Kingdom); Centre for Computational Science, University College London, 20 Gordon Street, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2007-06-15

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  16. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  17. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-06-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet.

  18. Worm epidemics in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nekovee, Maziar

    2007-01-01

    A dramatic increase in the number of computing devices with wireless communication capability has resulted in the emergence of a new class of computer worms which specifically target such devices. The most striking feature of these worms is that they do not require Internet connectivity for their propagation but can spread directly from device to device using a short-range radio communication technology, such as WiFi or Bluetooth. In this paper, we develop a new model for epidemic spreading of these worms and investigate their spreading in wireless ad hoc networks via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. Our studies show that the threshold behaviour and dynamics of worm epidemics in these networks are greatly affected by a combination of spatial and temporal correlations which characterize these networks, and are significantly different from the previously studied epidemics in the Internet

  19. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness.Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria parasite infections.These results could have an

  20. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  1. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  2. Community assembly of the worm gut microbiome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Jeff

    It has become increasingly clear that human health is strongly influenced by the bacteria that live within the gut, known collectively as the gut microbiome. This complex community varies tremendously between individuals, but understanding the sources that lead to this heterogeneity is challenging. To address this challenge, we are using a bottom-up approach to develop a predictive understanding of how the microbiome assembles and functions within a simple and experimentally tractable gut, the gut of the worm C. elegans. We have found that stochastic community assembly in the C. elegansintestine is sufficient to produce strong inter-worm heterogeneity in community composition. When worms are fed with two neutrally-competing fluorescently labeled bacterial strains, we observe stochastically-driven bimodality in community composition, where approximately half of the worms are dominated by each bacterial strain. A simple model incorporating stochastic colonization suggests that heterogeneity between worms is driven by the low rate at which bacteria successfully establish new intestinal colonies. We can increase this rate experimentally by feeding worms at high bacterial density; in these conditions the bimodality disappears. We have also characterized all pairwise interspecies competitions among a set of eleven bacterial species, illuminating the rules governing interspecies community assembly. These results demonstrate the potential importance of stochastic processes in bacterial community formation and suggest a role for C. elegans as a model system for ecology of host-associated communities.

  3. Aquatic worms eat sludge: Mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also be considered. This study gives the mass balances for sludge consumed by L. variegatus, showing the fate of the consumed organic material, nutrients and heavy metals associated with the sludge. A distinction is made between conversion into worm biomass, release as dissolved metabolites and what remains in the worm faeces. The results showed that 39% of the nitrogen and 12% of the phosphorus in the sludge digested by the worms are used in the formation of new worm biomass, which has potential for reuse. Experiments showed that settling of the worm faeces leads to a factor 2.5 higher solids concentration, compared to settling of waste sludge. This could lead to a 67% reduction of the volumetric load on thickening equipment. The worm reactor is expected to be most interesting for smaller WWTPs where a decrease on the volumetric load on sludge handling operations will have most impact.

  4. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  5. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  6. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2008-02-22

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax species, out of the eight species presently known from Monterey Bay. The ability of Osedax species to colonize, grow and reproduce on cow bones challenges previous notions that these worms are 'whale-fall specialists.'

  7. Worm Disease Profile of Primary School Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartati; Destriani; Victoria, A. R.

    2018-01-01

    The result of an elementary study of relations between disease symptoms and signs with the wormy occurrence child at Elementary School in Ilir Barat II Subdistrict of Palembang in concerned in this research amount to 200 people from the population of 4200 people of a child in elementary school. The result indicates that the child roommates infested worm marked with a few symptoms like passion eat to Decrease the puking pain in the home of stomach after eating, diarrhea, defecate with the mucus and bleed the purities at the anus before controlled from some worm type of there no difference having a meaning between child roommates worm infested with the child roommates do not infest worm (P > 0.05). Symptom vomit got more amount by having a meaning a child by infested is Trichuris (RO > 2.669, P < 0/005). The result of infested Tricuris generate the more amount of symptoms lust to eat to Decrease by having a meaning of Compared to the which do not infest Trichuris (RO = 3.772; CI 95% = 1.214 to 11.726; P = 0.016) symptoms lust to eat to Decrease and more amount diarrhea got at Infest oxyuris with the special sign of purities at nighttime anus (RO = 0.557; 85% CI = 0.166 to 2.168). The risk of the happening of unfavorable nutrition According to BB / U and Also TB / U growing niche to more amount (having a meaning) at child roommates worm infested by a child Compared to the which do not infest worm.

  8. Marine worms (genus Osedax) colonize cow bones

    OpenAIRE

    Jones, William J; Johnson, Shannon B; Rouse, Greg W; Vrijenhoek, Robert C

    2007-01-01

    Bone-eating worms of the genus Osedax colonized and grew on cow bones deployed at depths ranging from 385 to 2893 m in Monterey Bay, California. Colonization occurred as rapidly as two months following deployment of the cow bones, similar to the time it takes to colonize exposed whalebones. Some Osedax females found on the cow bones were producing eggs and some hosted dwarf males in their tubes. Morphological and molecular examinations of these worms confirmed the presence of six Osedax speci...

  9. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  10. Using the human eye to image space radiation or the history and status of the light flash phenomena

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuglesang, C [European Astronaut Centre, ESA, Cologne, Germany and Royal Institute of Technolgy (KTH), Stockholm (Sweden)], E-mail: Christer.fuglesang@esa.int

    2007-10-01

    About 80% of people who travel in space experience sudden phosphenes, commonly called light flashes (LF). Although the detailed physiological process is still not known, the LFs are caused by particles in the cosmic radiation field. Indeed, by counting LFs one can even make a crude image of the radiation environment around the Earth. Studies on the space station Mir with the SilEye experiment correlated LFs with charged particles traversing the eye. It was found that a nucleus in the radiation environment has roughly a 1% probability of causing a light flash, whereas the proton's probability is almost three orders of magnitude less. As a function of linear energy transfer (LET), the probability increased with ionization above 10 keV/{mu}m, reaching about 5% at 50 keV/{mu}m. The investigations are continuing on the International Space Station (ISS) with the Alteino/SileEye-3 detector, which is also a precursor to the large Anomalous Long Term Effects on Astronauts (ALTEA) facility. These detectors are also measuring-imaging-the radiation environment inside the ISS, which will be compared to Geant4 simulations from the DESIRE project. To further the understanding of the LF phenomena, a survey among current NASA and ESA astronauts was recently conducted. The LFs are predominantly noticed before sleep and some respondents even thought it disturbed their sleep. The LFs appear white, have elongated shapes, and most interestingly, often come with a sense of motion. Comparing the shapes quoted from space observations with ground experiments done by researchers in the 1970s, it seems likely that some 5-10% of the LFs in space are due to Cherenkov light in the eye. However, the majority is most likely caused by some direct interaction in the retina.

  11. Adaptations of an avian supertramp: distribution, ecology, and life history of the pearly-eyed thrasher (Margarops fuscatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wayne J. Arendt

    2006-01-01

    Part B The pearly-eyed thrasher is a major nest predator and competitor for nest sites of the endangered Puerto Rican Parrot. In all aspects of its distribution and ecology, Margarops fuscatus is a classic example of an avian “supertramp.” It is a pugnacious, highly vagile species, i.e., a good disperser, with a propensity to fill vacant or underexploited niches at all...

  12. END THE OF HORROR WORM: Dracunculus medinensis.

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dracunculus medinensis is a nematode that causes dracunculiasis. It is also known as the guinea worm disease and is caused by the large female nematode which is the longest nematode infecting humans. The adult female is longer than the male and can grow up to about 1m in length inside the body of the human host.

  13. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  14. The wondrous eyes of a new technology : A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts

  15. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  16. Lack of effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Issaka-Tinorgah, A.; Magnussen, P.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    The effect of ivermectin on prepatent guinea-worm was tested in a single-blind placebo-controlled trial; 400 adults were randomly allocated to a single dose of ivermectin (150 µg/kg) or placebo. Fifty-four of the 385 participants who were followed for 15 months developed a total of 69 emergent...... guinea-worms. There was no significant differencein the proportion of persons with emergent guinea-worms between the 2 treatment groups; 58% appeared in males. 80% of emergent guinea-worms were located below the knee. Migration of guinea-worms in the tissues was not affected. It is concluded...

  17. Giant kidney worms in a patient with renal cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuehn, Jemima; Lombardo, Lindsay; Janda, William M; Hollowell, Courtney M P

    2016-03-07

    Dioctophyma renale (D. renale), or giant kidney worms, are the largest nematodes that infect mammals. Approximately 20 cases of human infection have been reported. We present a case of a 71-year-old man with a recent history of unintentional weight loss and painless haematuria, passing elongated erythematous tissue via his urethra. CT revealed a left renal mass with pulmonary nodules and hepatic lesions. On microscopy, the erythematous tissue passed was identified as D. renale. On subsequent renal biopsy, pathology was consistent with renal cell carcinoma. This is the first reported case of concomitant D. renale infection and renal cell carcinoma, and the second reported case of D. renale infection of the left kidney alone. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  18. Distributed Software-Attestation Defense against Sensor Worm Propagation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Wireless sensor networks are vulnerable to sensor worm attacks in which the attacker compromises a few nodes and makes these compromised nodes initiate worm spread over the network, targeting the worm infection of the whole nodes in the network. Several defense mechanisms have been proposed to prevent worm propagation in wireless sensor networks. Although these proposed schemes use software diversity technique for worm propagation prevention under the belief that different software versions do not have common vulnerability, they have fundamental drawback in which it is difficult to realize the aforementioned belief in sensor motes. To resolve this problem, we propose on-demand software-attestation based scheme to defend against worm propagation in sensor network. The main idea of our proposed scheme is to perform software attestations against sensor nodes in on-demand manner and detect the infected nodes by worm, resulting in worm propagation block in the network. Through analysis, we show that our proposed scheme defends against worm propagation in efficient and robust manner. Through simulation, we demonstrate that our proposed scheme stops worm propagation at the reasonable overhead while preventing a majority of sensor nodes from being infected by worm.

  19. WormBase: Annotating many nematode genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin; Davis, Paul; Paulini, Michael; Tuli, Mary Ann; Williams, Gary; Yook, Karen; Durbin, Richard; Kersey, Paul; Sternberg, Paul W

    2012-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) has been serving the scientific community for over 11 years as the central repository for genomic and genetic information for the soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The resource has evolved from its beginnings as a database housing the genomic sequence and genetic and physical maps of a single species, and now represents the breadth and diversity of nematode research, currently serving genome sequence and annotation for around 20 nematodes. In this article, we focus on WormBase's role of genome sequence annotation, describing how we annotate and integrate data from a growing collection of nematode species and strains. We also review our approaches to sequence curation, and discuss the impact on annotation quality of large functional genomics projects such as modENCODE.

  20. TORQUE MEASUREMENT IN WORM AGLOMERATION MACHINE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian DUDZIAK

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the operating characteristics of the worm agglomeration machine. The paper indicates the need for continuous monitoring of the value of the torque due to the efficiency of the machine. An original structure of torque meter which is built in the standard drive system of briquetting machine was presented. A number of benefits arising from the application of the proposed solution were presented. Exemplary measurement results obtained by means of this torque meter were presented.

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  2. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  3. The wondrous eyes of a new technology – A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eSchirmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging – the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality – and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  4. "The wondrous eyes of a new technology"-a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging-the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality-and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  5. Plutonium isotope ratios in polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beasley, T.M.; Fowler, S.W.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to recent reports that suggest that terrestrial and aquatic organisms may preferentially take up 238 Pu compared with sup(239+240)Pu. It is stated that although kinetic isotope effects are known to occur in biological systems for low mass number elements, such as H, C and N, such effects are generally discounted with higher mass numbers, and differences in the biological 'uptake' of isotopes of high mass number elements, such as those of Pu, are normally attributable to differences in the chemical or physical forms of the isotopes or to different quantities of isotopes available to organisms. This has been applied to explain differential Pu isotope behaviour in animals under controlled laboratory conditions, but it is not certain that it can be applied to explain anomalies of Pu isotope behaviour in organisms contaminated by nuclear test debris or by wastes from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants. Geochemical weathering may also have an effect. Described here are experiments in which it was found that deposit feeding marine worms living in sediments contaminated in different ways with Pu isotopes did not show preferential accumulation of 238 Pu. The worms had been exposed to different chemical and physical forms of the isotopes, including exposure to laboratory-labelled sediment, sediment collected from a former weapons test site, and sediment contaminated by wastes from a nuclear fuel reprocessing plant. The worms were allowed to accumulate Pu for times of 5 to 40 days. Isotope ratios were determined by α-spectrometric techniques. It is considered that the results are important for environmental samples where Pu activity levels are low. (U.K.)

  6. Do We Need Worms to Promote Immune Health?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstock, Joel V

    2015-10-01

    Many immune-mediated diseases like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis, type 1 diabetes, asthma, and food allergy appeared to have increased in frequency in developed countries in the latter part of the twentieth century. Reports from less developed countries suggest that the "epidemic" of immune-mediated diseases now is spreading into these regions as well. The "hygiene hypothesis" was developed to partly explain this phenomenon. It has been proposed that modern-day sanitary living has altered our exposure to organisms that provided protection from these diseases in the past. Alternations in the composition of our intestinal flora and fauna could play a role. Helminths are a group of worm-like parasitic organisms that have adapted to live in various regions of their hosts. Epidemiological and some clinical data suggest that these organisms can protect people from developing immune-mediated diseases. Animal experimentation has shown that helminths stimulate the production of regulatory cytokines, activate regulatory T cells, and induce regulatory dendritic cells and macrophages. This could be the mechanism by which they protect the host from these diseases. Early clinical studies also suggest that helminths may prove useful for treating immunological diseases. More sophisticated clinical studies are underway, testing live helminth agents as therapeutic agents. Also, a strong effort is ongoing to discover the agents produced by helminths that modulate host immune responses with an eye on developing new, highly effective immune modulatory therapeutic agent.

  7. Worm-it: converting organic wastes into sustainable fish feed by using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Laarhoven, B.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2015-01-01

    Due to overfishing and the use of one-third of wild fish catches for feeding farmed fish and livestock, there is a strong need for alternative sources of suitable proteins and lipids in fish feeds. Small freshwater worms of the species Lumbriculus variegatus can be such a source based on their high

  8. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  9. Eye movement desensitization and reprocessing therapy versus supportive therapy in affective relapse prevention in bipolar patients with a history of trauma: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Alcázar, Ana; Radua, Joaquim; Landín-Romero, Ramon; Blanco, Laura; Madre, Mercè; Reinares, Maria; Comes, Mercè; Jiménez, Esther; Crespo, Jose Manuel; Vieta, Eduard; Pérez, Victor; Novo, Patricia; Doñate, Marta; Cortizo, Romina; Valiente-Gómez, Alicia; Lupo, Walter; McKenna, Peter J; Pomarol-Clotet, Edith; Amann, Benedikt L

    2017-04-04

    Up to 60% of patients with bipolar disorder (BD) have a history of traumatic events, which is associated with greater episode severity, higher risk of comorbidity and higher relapse rates. Trauma-focused treatment strategies for BD are thus necessary but studies are currently scarce. The aim of this study is to examine whether Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR) therapy focusing on adherence, insight, de-idealisation of manic symptoms, prodromal symptoms and mood stabilization can reduce episode severity and relapse rates and increase cognitive performance and functioning in patients with BD. This is a single-blind, randomized controlled, multicentre trial in which 82 patients with BD and a history of traumatic events will be recruited and randomly allocated to one of two treatment arms: EMDR therapy or supportive therapy. Patients in both groups will receive 20 psychotherapeutic sessions, 60 min each, during 6 months. The primary outcome is a reduction of affective episodes after 12 and 24 months in favour of the EMDR group. As secondary outcome we postulate a greater reduction in affective symptoms in the EMDR group (as measured by the Bipolar Depression Rating Scale, the Young Mania Rating Scale and the Clinical Global Impression Scale modified for BD), and a better performance in cognitive state, social cognition and functioning (as measured by the Screen for Cognitive Impairment in Psychiatry, The Mayer-Salovey-Caruso Emotional Intelligence Test and the Functioning Assessment Short Test, respectively). Traumatic events will be evaluated by The Holmes-Rahe Life Stress Inventory, the Clinician-administered PTSD Scale and the Impact of Event Scale. The results of this study will provide evidence whether a specific EMDR protocol for patients with BD is effective in reducing affective episodes, affective symptoms and functional, cognitive and trauma symptoms. The trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, identifier: NCT02634372 . Registered on

  10. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J P [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1998-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  11. Network protection against worms and cascading failures using modularity partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Hernandez, J.M.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are prone to virus and worms spreading and cascading failures. Recently, a number of social networking worms have spread over public Web sites. Another example is error propagation in routing tables, such as in BGP tables. The immunization and error curing applied to these

  12. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  13. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  14. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  15. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  16. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L.G.; Elissen, Hellen; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J.N.; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-01-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30 °C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm

  17. An Analysis Of Guinea Worm Infection On Yam Productivity In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Guinea worm infection has been reported to be one of the external diseconomies factors that limit agricultural productivity of the rural farm households. The study examined the determinants of farmers' vulnerability to guineaworm infection and the effect of guinea worm infection on yam yield in the study area. A stratified ...

  18. Intestinal Worm Infestation and Anaemia in Pregnant Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishna Bahadur Raut

    2016-03-01

    Conclusions: Aanaemia is prevalent in pregnant women of PHCRC, chapagaun and there was a significant correlation between anaemia and worm infestation. However, the relation among the haemoglobin level, iron, folic acid and albendazole was not significant. Keywords: anaemia; infestation; pregnant women; worm. | PubMed

  19. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  20. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  1. A New Eye on History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Two years after the opening of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, the $110 million center, opened with exhibits on how enslaved African-Americans risked their lives to make the northward trek to freedom. Today, however, the center is shifting its focus while serving as an educational focal point, research asset and change agent.…

  2. A calibration mechanism based on worm drive for space telescope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chong, Yaqin; Li, Chuang; Xia, Siyu; Zhong, Peifeng; Lei, Wang

    2017-08-01

    In this paper, a new type of calibration mechanism based on worm drive is presented for a space telescope. This calibration mechanism based on worm drive has the advantages of compact size and self-lock. The mechanism mainly consists of thirty-six LEDs as the light source for flat calibration, a diffuse plate, a step motor, a worm gear reducer and a potentiometer. As the main part of the diffuse plate, a PTFE tablet is mounted in an aluminum alloy frame. The frame is fixed on the shaft of the worm gear, which is driven by the step motor through the worm. The shaft of the potentiometer is connected to that of the worm gear to measure the rotation angle of the diffuse plate through a flexible coupler. Firstly, the calibration mechanism is designed, which includes the LEDs assembly design, the worm gear reducer design and the diffuse plate assembly design. The counterweight blocks and two end stops are also designed for the diffuse plate assembly. Then a modal analysis with finite element method for the diffuse plate assembly is completed.

  3. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  4. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  5. Mobile agents affect worm spreading in wireless ad hoc networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, Zi-Gang; Sun, Jin-Tu; Wang, Ying-Hai; Wang, Sheng-Jun; Xu, Xin-Jian

    2009-01-01

    Considering the dynamic nature of portable computing devices with wireless communication capability, an extended model is introduced for worm spreading in the wireless ad hoc network, with a population of mobile agents in a planar distribution, starting from an initial infected seed. The effect of agents' mobility on worm spreading is investigated via extensive Monte Carlo simulations. The threshold behavior and the dynamics of worm epidemics in the wireless networks are greatly affected by both agents' mobility and spatial and temporal correlations. The medium access control mechanism for the wireless communication promotes the sensitivity of the spreading dynamics to agents' mobility

  6. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa. © 2015 The Authors.

  7. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Guevara López

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  8. Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental and genetic factors affecting faecal worm egg counts in Merinos divergently selected for reproduction. ... The fixed effect of birth year x sex interaction was significant, with rams showing higher mean values for FWEC than ewes ...

  9. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  10. Mathematical model for spreading dynamics of social network worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sun, Xin; Liu, Yan-Heng; Han, Jia-Wei; Liu, Xue-Jie; Li, Bin; Li, Jin

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, a mathematical model for social network worm spreading is presented from the viewpoint of social engineering. This model consists of two submodels. Firstly, a human behavior model based on game theory is suggested for modeling and predicting the expected behaviors of a network user encountering malicious messages. The game situation models the actions of a user under the condition that the system may be infected at the time of opening a malicious message. Secondly, a social network accessing model is proposed to characterize the dynamics of network users, by which the number of online susceptible users can be determined at each time step. Several simulation experiments are carried out on artificial social networks. The results show that (1) the proposed mathematical model can well describe the spreading dynamics of social network worms; (2) weighted network topology greatly affects the spread of worms; (3) worms spread even faster on hybrid social networks

  11. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  12. Is Host-Based Anomaly Detection + Temporal Correlation = Worm Causality

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Sekar, Vyas; Xie, Yinglian; Reiter, Michael K; Zhang, Hui

    2007-01-01

    Epidemic-spreading attacks (e.g., worm and botnet propagation) have a natural notion of attack causality - a single network flow causes a victim host to get infected and subsequently spread the attack...

  13. Aquatic worm reactor for improved sludge processing and resource recovery

    OpenAIRE

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.

    2009-01-01

    Municipal waste water treatment is mainly achieved by biological processes. These processes produce huge volumes of waste sludge (up 1.5 million m3/year in the Netherlands). Further processing of the waste sludge involves transportation, thickening and incineration. A decrease in the amount of waste sludge would be both environmentally and economically attractive. Aquatic worms can be used to reduce the amount of waste sludge. After predation by the worms, the amount of final sludge is lower....

  14. Hybrid Epidemics - A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2014-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore ...

  15. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages. © 2016 The Author(s).

  16. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  17. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  18. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  19. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  20. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  1. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  2. Mathematical description of tooth flank surface of globoidal worm gear with straight axial tooth profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Połowniak, Piotr; Sobolak, Mariusz

    2017-12-01

    In this article, a mathematical description of tooth flank surface of the globoidal worm and worm wheel generated by the hourglass worm hob with straight tooth axial profile is presented. The kinematic system of globoidal worm gear is shown. The equation of globoid helix and tooth axial profile of worm is derived to determine worm tooth surface. Based on the equation of meshing the contact lines are obtained. The mathematical description of globoidal worm wheel tooth flank is performed on the basis of contact lines and generating the tooth side by the extreme cutting edge of worm hob. The presented mathematical model of tooth flank of TA worm and worm wheel can be used e.g. to analyse the contact pattern of the gear.

  3. Arrow injuries to the eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    There was positive history of application of traditional eye medicine and an unsuccessful attempt was made ... in the dry season in the northern parts of Nigeria, ... Hematocrit, serum urea and electrolytes were within normal limits. Treatment.

  4. Loa loa in the anterior chamber of the eye: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barua P

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available An unusual case of loiasis from Assam is reported here. Loa loa is a subcutaneous filarial parasite of man and is transmitted to humans by chrysops flies. The patient presented with foreign body sensation and visual disturbances of the right eye. Examination revealed a white coiled structure in the cornea.. Routine blood and other investigations were within normal limits. A live adult worm was extracted and identity was confirmed by microscopy to be Loa loa. Patient was treated with diethylcarbamazine and steroid. We found this case interesting as the worm was present in the anterior chamber - an unusual site and there were no other positive findings besides the lone worm.

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to the NEI Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part ...

  6. The Learned Eye

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doel, van den Marieke; Eck, van Natasja; Korevaar, Gerbrand; Tummers, Anna; Weststeijn, Thijs

    2005-01-01

    The 'learned eye' or oculus eruditus was a concept used by seventeenth-century writers on painting. It illustrated their view that the ideal artist was not only skilled in painting techniques, but also had knowledge of the history of art and an interest in poetry and literature.In this book,

  7. Skull osteology of the Eocene amphisbaenian Spathorhynchus fossorium (Reptilia, Squamata) suggests convergent evolution and reversals of fossorial adaptations in worm lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Maisano, Jessica A

    2016-11-01

    The fossorial amphisbaenians, or worm lizards, are characterized by a suite of specialized characters in the skull and postcranium, however fossil evidence suggests that at least some of these shared derived traits evolved convergently. Unfortunately the lack of detailed knowledge of many fossil taxa has rendered a more precise interpretation difficult. Here we describe the cranial anatomy of the oldest-known well-preserved amphisbaenian, Spathorhynchus fossorium, from the Eocene Green River Formation, Wyoming, USA, using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT). This taxon possesses one of the most strongly reinforced crania known among amphisbaenians, with many dermal bones overlapping each other internally. In contrast to modern taxa, S. fossorium has a paired orbitosphenoid, lacks a true compound bone in the mandible, and possesses a fully enclosed orbital rim. The last feature represents a highly derived structure in that the jugal establishes contact with the frontal internally, reinforcing the posterior orbital margin. S. fossorium also possesses a strongly modified Vidian canal with a previously unknown connection to the ventral surface of the parabasisphenoid. Comparison with the closely related fossil taxon Dyticonastis rensbergeri reveals that these derived traits are also shared by the latter species and potentially represent synapopmorphies of an extinct Paleogene clade of amphisbaenians. The presence of a reinforced orbital rim suggests selection against the loss of a functional eye and indicates an ecology potentially different from modern taxa. Given the currently accepted phylogenetic position of Spathorhynchus and Dyticonastis, we predict that supposedly 'unique' cranial traits traditionally linked to fossoriality such as a fused orbitosphenoid and the reduction of the eye show a more complex character history than previously assumed, including both parallel evolution and reversals to superficially primitive conditions. © 2016

  8. Refleksion - Worms kabinet og renæssancen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Udstilling om Ole Worms liv og videnskab. Ole Worm var læge og videnskabsmand i renæssancen. Ud over at være medicinsk professor ved Københavns Universitet interesserede han sig indgående for Danmarks fortidsminder og runeskrift. Ole Worm skabte sit eget museum, det såkaldte  Museum Wormianum, som...... alt indhold. Ikke med originale genstande, men med dyr, sten, metal og artefakter, der kom så tæt på det originale som muligt.  Denne installation samt portrætgalleriet af Ole Worms forfædre og efterkommere udgør udstillingens hovedelementer. Dertil kommer eksempler på de naturobjekter, der indgik i hans...... medicinske behandlinger og et udvalg af Ole Worms originale videnskabelige publikationer. Til udstillingen er opbygget et moderne "skab dit eget museum" til brug for de besøgendes egne medbragte genstande, som de opfordres til at forsøge at systematisere og udstille efter behag....

  9. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  10. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  11. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changwang Zhang

    Full Text Available Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  12. Hybrid epidemics--a case study on computer worm conficker.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm's spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm's effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols.

  13. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  14. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  15. Prevalence Of Intestinal Worm Infections Among Primary School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Methods: A cross-sectional descriptive study was used to determine the status of intestinal worm infections whose subjects were drawn from eight city administrative divisions. Proportional random sampling method to select forty five (45) schools out of 320 public, private and non-formal schools was used. Using the school ...

  16. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...

  17. Dracunculus medinensis (Guinea worm disease): a rare cause of calcification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gospos, C.

    1980-01-01

    Tangled whorly calcifications were seen in the abdominal subcutaneous tissues of a negro patient from Africa. The differential diagnosis of such calcifications - rarely observed in Europe - includes a variety of parasites. In this patient, Dracunculus medinensis (guinea worm disease) was the cause.

  18. Evaluation of community-based surveillance for Guinea worm, South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2012-08-03

    Aug 3, 2012 ... deleted at the Data Manager Level in Loki. Conclusion. Community-based surveillance for guinea worm is a good example of a surveillance system on which an integrated disease surveillance system can be based in countries with poor surveillance like South Sudan. This makes its potential value to ...

  19. Effects on Packed Cell Volume and Parasitic Worm Load from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Their packed cell volumes were estimated with centrifuge hematocrit and stool examined for parasitic worms with saline wet prep microscopy. A dose of Albendazole was administered to the study group. The data presented in Microsoft Excel spread sheet, were then analysed using SPSS version 17, T-test and Chi Square ...

  20. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  1. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  2. Allozyme variation in two populations of the Mopane worm, Imbrasia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aims of this study were to determine whether the limited flight ability of moths has an effect on gene flow between two geographically distant I. belina populations, whether there are gene expression differences between moths, worms and pupae and whether staggered generations have different genotypic expressions.

  3. Genetic parameters and relationships of faecal worm egg count with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The costs of internal parasite control and treatment are potentially very high in grazing sheep. Faecal worm egg count (FEC) has been suggested as a suitable criterion for selection for resistance to nematode infestation in livestock. Genetic parameter estimates for FEC and its relationship with wool traits were assessed in ...

  4. Guinea worm eradication program in Borno state: The need for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study is to update the status of Guinea worm and Eradication Program in Borno State and to demonstrate the effectiveness of adopting appropriate intervention strategies. The assessment of the prevalence of Dracunculus medinensis was carried out by active case search. Three hundred and ten ...

  5. Genetic variation in the Critically Endangered velvet worm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the present study the genetic variation of the Critically Endangered velvet worm species Opisthopatus roseus is examined. This species is endemic to the Ngele mistbelt forest in the KwaZulu-Natal province of South Africa. In recent years the forest has been severely impacted by anthropogenic activities such as logging of ...

  6. Prevalence And Disabilities Caused By Guinea-Worm Disease ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A survey was carried out in 2001 to ascertain the status of Guinea worm disease infection among farm households in Ebonyi Local Government Area (LGA) of Ebonyi State. A total of 3,777 respondents were randomly sampled from 15 communities that comprised the LGA. The sample respondents were clinically examined ...

  7. Worm Infestation And Anaemia Among Pre-school Children Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Design: Cross sectional. Method: Three hundred and ...

  8. The relationships between faecal worm egg count and subjectively ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits form part of the selection objective in wool sheep enterprises. The present study investigated the genetic, phenotypic and environmental correlations for nematode resistance (using faecal worm egg count (FEC)) with subjectively assessed wool and conformation traits.

  9. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential of this species in vermiculture. The development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at 25°C on urine-free cattle manure with a moisture content of 80% over a period of 200 days. It was found that cocoons are produced at a ...

  10. Aquatic worms eating waste sludge in a continuous system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Aquatic worms are a biological approach to decrease the amount of biological waste sludge produced at waste water treatment plants. A new reactor concept was recently introduced in which the aquatic oligochaete Lumbriculus variegatus is immobilised in a carrier material. The current paper describes

  11. Faeco-histological Method of Studying Worm Endemicity with the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Worms are endemic in various parts of the world, the patterns varying from community to community, even in the same country. A rough index of those common among Nigerians of the Igbo ethnic group has been obtained using a histological study of the ova present in the luminal faeces of the vermiform appendix in 559 ...

  12. WORM: A general-purpose input deck specification language

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, T.

    1999-01-01

    Using computer codes to perform criticality safety calculations has become common practice in the industry. The vast majority of these codes use simple text-based input decks to represent the geometry, materials, and other parameters that describe the problem. However, the data specified in input files are usually processed results themselves. For example, input decks tend to require the geometry specification in linear dimensions and materials in atom or weight fractions, while the parameter of interest might be mass or concentration. The calculations needed to convert from the item of interest to the required parameter in the input deck are usually performed separately and then incorporated into the input deck. This process of calculating, editing, and renaming files to perform a simple parameter study is tedious at best. In addition, most computer codes require dimensions to be specified in centimeters, while drawings or other materials used to create the input decks might be in other units. This also requires additional calculation or conversion prior to composition of the input deck. These additional calculations, while extremely simple, introduce a source for error in both the calculations and transcriptions. To overcome these difficulties, WORM (Write One, Run Many) was created. It is an easy-to-use programming language to describe input decks and can be used with any computer code that uses standard text files for input. WORM is available, via the Internet, at worm.lanl.gov. A user's guide, tutorials, example models, and other WORM-related materials are also available at this Web site. Questions regarding WORM should be directed to wormatlanl.gov

  13. Screw-worm eradication in the Americas - Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wyss, John H.

    2000-01-01

    Screw-worms (Cochliomyia hominivorax, Coquerel) are found only in the Americas, and are known, therefore, as the New World Screw-worm (NWS). The larval stages of the fly feed on the living flesh of their host. A screw-worm infestation can kill an adult animal in 7-10 days if not treated. All warm-blooded animals are affected including man. Although screw-worms had long been recognised as a severe pest of animals in the southwestern United States, they had never been detected east of the Mississippi River before 1933. In July 1933, screw-worms were transported on infested cattle to Georgia and became established east of the Mississippi River. Screw-worms spread quickly in the southeastern United States and were able to overwinter in southern Florida. Being new to the region, they were quickly recognised as a severe pest with a tremendous economic impact on livestock production. The livestock owners in the southeastern United States immediately noticed an increase in the number of animal deaths and increased costs of insecticides, veterinary medicines, veterinary services, inspection and handling. At the same time, they observed a decrease in animal weights and in milk production. Due to these observations, the livestock industry in the southeastern United States requested help in controlling screw-worms. Because of these requests, the research community became interested in control and eradication measures for this pest. Early work by Crushing and Patton in 1933 recognised that C. hominivorax was an obligatory animal parasite and different from the secondary blowfly, Cochliomyia macellaria. In 1934, the US Department of Agriculture (USDA), Agricultural Research Service (ARS) opened a research station in Valdosa, Georgia, and E.W. Laake and E.F. Knipling were assigned to work there. In September 1935, R.C. Bushland was hired by ARS to do research related to screw-worms at an ARS Research Laboratory in Dallas, Texas. Melvin and Bushland in 1936 developed artificial

  14. The effect of operating conditions on aquatic worms eating waste sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, H.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2009-01-01

    Several techniques are available for dealing with the waste sludge produced in biological waste water treatment. A biological approach uses aquatic worms to consume and partially digest the waste sludge. In our concept for a worm reactor, the worms (Lumbriculus variegatus) are immobilised in a

  15. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  16. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  19. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kyu Jung

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  20. SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-05-04

    Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are

  1. Spread and Control of Mobile Benign Worm Based on Two-Stage Repairing Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Wang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Both in traditional social network and in mobile network environment, the worm is a serious threat, and this threat is growing all the time. Mobile smartphones generally promote the development of mobile network. The traditional antivirus technologies have become powerless when facing mobile networks. The development of benign worms, especially active benign worms and passive benign worms, has become a new network security measure. In this paper, we focused on the spread of worm in mobile environment and proposed the benign worm control and repair mechanism. The control process of mobile benign worms is divided into two stages: the first stage is rapid repair control, which uses active benign worm to deal with malicious worm in the mobile network; when the network is relatively stable, it enters the second stage of postrepair and uses passive mode to optimize the environment for the purpose of controlling the mobile network. Considering whether the existence of benign worm, we simplified the model and analyzed the four situations. Finally, we use simulation to verify the model. This control mechanism for benign worm propagation is of guiding significance to control the network security.

  2. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  3. Worm gearing for valve automation; Schneckengetriebe fuer die Armaturenautomatisierung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbstritt, Michael [AUMA Riester GmbH und Co. KG, Muellheim (Germany)

    2010-11-15

    Part-turn gearboxes are indispensable for exertion of the torques necessary for large part-turn valves. Torque demand has increased in the past decade, as a result, for example, of the use of pipelines of ever greater diameters in large conurbations, and of the operation of such pipelines at ever higher pressures. The design principle of a worm gear is useful in this context. Worm gearing systems with initial torques of up to 675,000 Nm are now available. The design of gearing systems capable of handling forces of this magnitude necessitates great know-how and experience. The very maximum of reliability is a basic requirement for actuator systems for applications involving such dimensions, since a failure may have catastrophic consequences. (orig.)

  4. Hi shells, supershells, shell-like objects, and ''worms''

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heiles, C.

    1984-01-01

    We present photographic representations of the combination of two Hi surveys, so as to eliminate the survey boundaries at Vertical BarbVertical Bar = 10 0 . We also present high-contrast photographs for particular velocities to exhibit weak Hi features. All of these photographs were used to prepare a new list of Hi shells, supershells, and shell-like objects. We discuss the structure of three shell-like objects that are associated with high-velocity gas, and with gas at all velocities that is associated with radio continuum loops I, II, and III. We use spatial filtering to find wiggly gas filaments: ''worms'': crawling away from the galactic plane in the inner Galaxy. The ''worms'' are probably parts of shells that are open at the top; such shells should be good sources of hot gas for the galactic halo

  5. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Ralf; Wennberg, Sofia A; Budd, Graham E

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid developmen...

  6. Hybrid epidemic spreading - from Internet worms to HIV infection

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, C.

    2015-01-01

    Epidemic phenomena are ubiquitous, ranging from infectious diseases, computer viruses, to information dissemination. Epidemics have traditionally been studied as a single spreading process, either in a fully mixed population or on a network. Many epidemics, however, are hybrid, employing more than one spreading mechanism. For example, the Internet worm Conficker spreads locally targeting neighbouring computers in local networks as well as globally by randomly probing any computer on the Inter...

  7. THE HISTORY AND THE PRESENT OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE XVI – XVIII CENTURIES ON THE TERRITORY OF DNIPROPETROVSK IN THE EYES OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYSENKO G. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Statement of the problem. With the enactment of the Law of Ukraine "About the condemnation of the Communist and national socialist (Nazi totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbolism", by minimum historical counting, about 800 localities of which at least 24 cities including Dnipropetrovs’k need to be renamed. But the views of residents of the city are divided: some support to keep the old name of the city, changing its semantic load, and there are a lot of people willing to rename the city in Sicheslav, Dniproslav, Kodak and the like. Now it is important to know the opinion of young people in the city and region who create their future and that of their children. The analysis of the research. The history of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on the territory of the future Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k became the subject of study of many scientists since the nineteenth century. In the years of independence more and more historians declare the necessity of the revision of the chronology of the history of our city, taking into account the earlier settlements, which undoubtedly influenced both the development of the region and the future provincial city. The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of influence of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on later (including modern history of Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k in the minds of the youth of the city. Conclusion. The analysis of the settlements of the XVI-XVIII centuries testifies to the active urban processes that took place in our region in the Cossack-Hetman days. This important stage in the history of our city enriches us, its current inhabitants, with facts about the distant past which we should not only remember and pass on to our descendants, but also recover through the reconstruction of the defining architectural features. The results of a survey among students to determine their views regarding the

  8. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  9. Polyanhydride Nanoparticle Delivery Platform Dramatically Enhances Killing of Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea M Binnebose

    Full Text Available Filarial diseases represent a significant social and economic burden to over 120 million people worldwide and are caused by endoparasites that require the presence of symbiotic bacteria of the genus Wolbachia for fertility and viability of the host parasite. Targeting Wolbachia for elimination is a therapeutic approach that shows promise in the treatment of onchocerciasis and lymphatic filariasis. Here we demonstrate the use of a biodegradable polyanhydride nanoparticle-based platform for the co-delivery of the antibiotic doxycycline with the antiparasitic drug, ivermectin, to reduce microfilarial burden and rapidly kill adult worms. When doxycycline and ivermectin were co-delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles, effective killing of adult female Brugia malayi filarial worms was achieved with approximately 4,000-fold reduction in the amount of drug used. Additionally the time to death of the macrofilaria was also significantly reduced (five-fold when the anti-filarial drug cocktail was delivered within polyanhydride nanoparticles. We hypothesize that the mechanism behind this dramatically enhanced killing of the macrofilaria is the ability of the polyanhydride nanoparticles to behave as a Trojan horse and penetrate the cuticle, bypassing excretory pumps of B. malayi, and effectively deliver drug directly to both the worm and Wolbachia at high enough microenvironmental concentrations to cause death. These provocative findings may have significant consequences for the reduction in the amount of drug and the length of treatment required for filarial infections in terms of patient compliance and reduced cost of treatment.

  10. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L; Bolt, Bruce J; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W

    2016-01-04

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. © The Author(s) 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  11. Discussion and Future Directions for Eye Tracker Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Mulvey, Fiona; Mardanbegi, Diako

    2011-01-01

    Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking.......Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking....

  12. Correlation between discharged worms and fecal egg counts in human clonorchiasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jae-Hwan Kim

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Stool examination by counting eggs per gram of feces (EPGs is the best method to estimate worm burden of Clonorchis sinensis in infected humans. The present study investigated a correlation between EPGs and worm burden in human clonorchiasis. METHODS AND FINDINGS: A total of 60 residents, 50 egg-positive and 10 egg-negative, in Sancheong-gun, Korea, participated in this worm collection trial in 2006-2009. They were diagnosed by egg positivity in feces using the Kato-Katz method. After administration of praziquantel, they were purged with cathartics on the next day, and then discharged adult worms were collected from their feces. Their EPGs ranged from 0 to 65,544. Adult worms of C. sinensis were collected from 17 egg-positive cases, and the number of worms ranged from 1 to 114 in each individual. A positive correlation between EPGs and numbers of worms was demonstrated (r = 0.681, P<0.001. Worm recovery rates were 9.7% in cases of EPGs 1-1,000 and 73.7% in those of EPGs over 1,000. No worms were detected from egg-negative subjects. Maximum egg count per worm per day was roughly estimated 3,770 in a subject with EPGs 2,664 and 106 collected worms. CONCLUSIONS: The numbers of the worms are significantly correlated with the egg counts in human clonorchiasis. It is estimated that at least 110 worms are infected in a human body with EPGs around 3,000, and egg productivity of a worm per day is around 4,000.

  13. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  14. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  15. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  16. Worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Kim

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study proposes a worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment in electric power steering systems. A worm gear is used in Column type Electric Power Steering (C-EPS systems and an Anti-Rattle Spring (ARS is employed in C-EPS systems in order to prevent rattling when the vehicle goes on a bumpy road. This ARS plays a role of preventing rattling by applying preload to one end of the worm shaft but it also generates undesirable friction by causing misalignment of the worm shaft. In order to propose the worm gear efficiency model considering misalignment, geometrical and tribological analyses were performed in this study. For geometrical analysis, normal load on gear teeth was calculated using output torque, pitch diameter of worm wheel, lead angle and normal pressure angle and this normal load was converted to normal pressure at the contact point. Contact points between the tooth flanks of the worm and worm wheel were obtained by mathematically analyzing the geometry, and Hertz's theory was employed in order to calculate contact area at the contact point. Finally, misalignment by an ARS was also considered into the geometry. Friction coefficients between the tooth flanks were also researched in this study. A pin-on-disk type tribometer was set up to measure friction coefficients and friction coefficients at all conditions were measured by the tribometer. In order to validate the worm gear efficiency model, a worm gear was prepared and the efficiency of the worm gear was predicted by the model. As the final procedure of the study, a worm gear efficiency measurement system was set and the efficiency of the worm gear was measured and the results were compared with the predicted results. The efficiency considering misalignment gives more accurate results than the efficiency without misalignment.

  17. “The wondrous eyes of a new technology”—a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging—the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality—and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime. PMID:24860464

  18. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  20. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  2. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  3. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  4. : acquired resistance in mice by implantation of young irradiated worms into the portal system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marcos Z. Coelho

    1989-02-01

    Full Text Available In two distinct experiments, immature S. mansoni worms (LE strain, Belo Horizonte, Brazil, aged 20 days, obtained from the portal system of white outbred mice, were irradiated with 14 and 4 Krad, respectively. Afterwards, the worms were directly inoculated into the portal vein of normal mice. Inoculation was performed with 20 irradiated worms per animal. Fifty days after inoculation, the mice that received 4 and 14 Krad-irradiated worms and their respective controls were infected with S. mansoni cercariae (LE strain, by transcutaneous route. Twenty days after this challenge infection, the animals were sacrificed and perfused for mature irradiated (90-day-old and immature (20-day-old worm counts. Analysis of the results showed that statistically significant protection against cercariae occurred in both groups with irradiated worms.

  5. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Taxonomy Icon Data: Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available Ptychodera flava Eschscholtz (Acorn worm) Ptychodera flava Hemichordata Ptychodera_flava_L.png Ptycho...dera_flava_NL.png Ptychodera_flava_S.png Ptychodera_flava_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/t...axonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+fla...va&t=NL http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=S htt...p://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Ptychodera+flava&t=NS http://togodb.biosciencedbc.jp/togodb/view/taxonomy_icon_comment_en?species_id=161 ...

  7. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budd Graham E

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid development. These findings may further help unravelling the phylogenetic position of the Priapulida within the Scalidophora and hence contribute to the elucidation of the nature of the ecdysozoan ancestor.

  8. The hatching larva of the priapulid worm Halicryptus spinulosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, Ralf; Wennberg, Sofia A; Budd, Graham E

    2009-05-26

    Despite their increasing evolutionary importance, basic knowledge about the priapulid worms remains limited. In particular, priapulid development has only been partially documented. Following previous description of hatching and the earliest larval stages of Priapulus caudatus, we here describe the hatching larva of Halicryptus spinulosus. Comparison of the P. caudatus and the H. spinulosus hatching larvae allows us to attempt to reconstruct the ground pattern of priapulid development. These findings may further help unravelling the phylogenetic position of the Priapulida within the Scalidophora and hence contribute to the elucidation of the nature of the ecdysozoan ancestor.

  9. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  13. Towards global Guinea worm eradication in 2015: the experience of South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awofeso, Niyi

    2013-08-01

    For centuries, the Guinea worm parasite (Dracunculus medinensis) has caused disabling misery, infecting people who drink stagnant water contaminated with the worm's larvae. In 2012, there were 542 cases of Guinea worm reported globally, of which 521 (96.1%) were reported in South Sudan. Protracted civil wars, an inadequate workforce, neglect of potable water provision programs, suboptimal Guinea worm surveillance and case containment, and fragmented health systems account for many of the structural and operational factors encumbering South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication efforts. This article reviews the impacts of six established Guinea worm control strategies in South Sudan: (1) surveillance to determine actual caseload distribution and trends in response to control measures; (2) educating community members from whom worms are emerging to avoid immersing affected parts in sources of drinking water; (3) filtering potentially contaminated drinking water using cloth filters or filtered drinking straws; (4) treating potentially contaminated surface water with the copepod larvicide temephos (Abate); (5) providing safe drinking water from boreholes or hand-dug wells; and (6) containment of transmission through voluntary isolation of each patient to prevent contamination of drinking water sources, provision of first aid, and manual extraction of the worm. Surveillance, community education, potable water provision, and case containment remain weak facets of the program. Abate pesticide is not a viable option for Guinea worm control in South Sudan. In light of current case detection and containment trends, as well as capacity building efforts for Guinea worm eradication, South Sudan is more likely to eradicate Guinea worm by 2020, rather than by 2015. The author highlights areas in which substantial improvements are required in South Sudan's Guinea worm eradication program, and suggests improvement strategies. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Infectious

  14. Opsins in onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Lars; Henze, Miriam J; Kohler, Martin; Kelber, Almut; Bleidorn, Christoph; Leschke, Maren; Nickel, Birgit; Meyer, Matthias; Kircher, Martin; Sunnucks, Paul; Mayer, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue-green light. In our phylogenetic analyses, the onychopsins represent the sister group to the monophyletic clade of visual r-opsins of arthropods. These results concur with phylogenomic support for the sister-group status of the Onychophora and Arthropoda and provide evidence for monochromatic vision in velvet worms and in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. We conclude that the diversification of visual pigments and color vision evolved in arthropods, along with the evolution of compound eyes-one of the most sophisticated visual systems known.

  15. Spatial and temporal differences in giant kidney worm, dictophyma renale, prevalence in Minnesota Mink, Mustela vison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L.D.

    2008-01-01

    Examination of 110 Mink (Mustela vison) carcasses from 1998 through 2007 indicated that the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale, occurred in Pine and Kanabec Counties of eastern Minnesota with annual prevalences of 0-92%. Worm prevalence increased from 20% in 1999 to 92% in 2001 and decreased to 6% in 2005. During 2000 to 2007, no worms were found in Mink from Anoka and Chisago Counties (n = 54), and in 2000, none in 107 Mink from LeSeur, Freeborn, Redwood, Brown and Watonwan Counties. Changes in kidney worm prevalence were positively related to trapping success, considered an index of Mink density.

  16. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  17. Infection levels of the eyeworm Oxyspirura petrowi and caecal worm Aulonocephalus pennula in the northern bobwhite and scaled quail from the Rolling Plains of Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunham, N R; Peper, S T; Downing, C; Brake, E; Rollins, D; Kendall, R J

    2017-09-01

    Northern bobwhite (Colinus virginianus) and scaled quail (Callipepla squamata) have experienced chronic declines within the Rolling Plains ecoregion of Texas. Parasitic infection, which has long been dismissed as a problem in quail, has not been studied thoroughly until recently. A total of 219 northern bobwhite and 101 scaled quail from Mitchell County, Texas were captured and donated from 2014 to 2015, and examined for eyeworm (Oxyspirura petrowi) and caecal worm (Aulonocephalus pennula) infections. In 2014, bobwhites averaged 19.6 ± 1.8 eyeworms and 98.6 ± 8.2 caecal worms, and 23.5 ± 2.1 eyeworms and 129.9 ± 10.7 caecal worms in 2015. Scaled quail averaged 4.8 ± 1.0 eyeworms and 50 ± 6.8 caecal worms in 2014, and 5.7 ± 1.3 eyeworms and 38.1 ± 7.1 caecal worms in 2015. This study expands the knowledge of parasitic infection in quail inhabiting the Rolling Plains of Texas. A significant difference was documented in O. petrowi infection between species but there was no significant difference in A. pennula between quail species. No significant difference was detected in parasite infection between the sexes of both northern bobwhite and scaled quail. This study also documented the highest reported O. petrowi infection in both species of quail. Additional research is needed on the life history and infection dynamics of O. petrowi and A. pennula infections to determine if there are individual- and/or population-level implications due to parasitic infection.

  18. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  19.  Grunting for worms: reactions of Diplocardia to seismic vibrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    M.A. Callaham

    2009-01-01

    Harvesting earthworms by a practice called 'worm grunting' is a widespread and profitable business in the southeastern USA. Although a variety of techniques are used, most involve rhythmically scraping a wooden stake driven into the ground, with a fiat metal object. A common assumption is that vibrations cause the worms to surface, but this phenomenon has not...

  20. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    161. The life-cycle of the compost worm Eisenia ietida (Oligochaeta). J.M. Venter* and A.J. Reinecke. Department of Zoology, Potchefstroom University for CHE, Potchefstroom, 2520 Republic of South Africa. Received 29 January, 1987; accepted 29 January 1988. To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia ...

  1. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate

  2. Operation of an aquatic worm reactor suitable for sludge reduction at large scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2011-01-01

    Treatment of domestic waste water results in the production of waste sludge, which requires costly further processing. A biological method to reduce the amount of waste sludge and its volume is treatment in an aquatic worm reactor. The potential of such a worm reactor with the oligochaete

  3. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  4. Influence of the enchytraeid worm Buchholzia appendiculata on aggregate formation and organic matter decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Didden, W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Enchytraeid worms were kept in <0.3 mm sieved sandy loam subsoil mixed with ground wheat, for 6 weeks at 16°C. Sieved soil with organic matter but without worms was also incubated. The soil was then allowed to air-dry slowly during 6 weeks. Enchytraeid casts were collected from the surface of the

  5. The effect of chloroquine on the male worms of Onchocerca volvulus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroqunie is a well-known anti-malaria drug commonly used in the tropics. Chloroquine was in this study, tested on adult male worms of Onchocerca volvulus to assess its possible effect. Male worms were mechanically isolated from nodules of untreated onchocerciasis patients. After 24hours incubation in a drug-free ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  8. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  10. Survey of eye practitioners' preference of diagnostic tests and treatment modalities for dry eye in Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asiedu, Kofi; Kyei, Samuel; Ayobi, Benedict; Agyemang, Frank Okyere; Ablordeppey, Reynolds Kwame

    2016-12-01

    This study sought to provide an evidence-based profile of the diagnosis, treatment and knowledge or opinions on dry eye among optometrists and ophthalmologists in Ghana. This was a cross-sectional survey RESULTS: The responses of 162 participants are included in the analysis. The most commonly used test to diagnosed dry eye disease was tear break-up time followed by patient history. The most common symptom doctors heard from dry eye patients were burning sensation followed by foreign body sensation. The most often prescribed first- line treatment for dry eye was aqueous-based artificial tears followed by lipid-based artificial tears. Most practitioners considered meibomian gland dysfunction as the most common cause of dry eye followed by pterygium. The most often used test to guide or gauge therapeutic effect is patient history followed closely by tear break-up time. Most practitioners reported that 10%-20% of all their patients they see in a day are diagnosed of dry eye. This study showed tear break up time was the main test majority of practitioners in Ghana used to diagnose dry eye but patient history was the main test used to gauge therapeutic effect over time. Burning sensation was the commonest symptom practitioners heard from dry eye patients whilst artificial tears was their main and first-line treatment for dry eye. Copyright © 2016 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infection mimicking retroperitoneal neoplasm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, T; Turnbull, A; Lieberman, P H; Sternberg, S S

    1986-07-01

    A 50-year-old Chinese man was found by ultrasound and computed tomography to have a retroperitoneal mass in the right upper quadrant of the abdomen. At operation, a hemorrhagic cyst was detected at the upper pole of the right kidney adjacent to the adrenal gland. Microscopic examination revealed that the cyst wall was composed of granulomatous tissue loaded with eggs and cross-sections of parasites, identified as Dioctophyma renale. The eggs were characterized by a birefringent striated double wall. The presence of cross sections of adult worms of D. renale in human tissue has not been previously described. Another unique feature of this case was that the right kidney was intact, as examined grossly at laparotomy and by intravenous pyelography. Eggs were not detected in the urine.

  12. Hybrid Epidemics—A Case Study on Computer Worm Conficker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Changwang; Zhou, Shi; Chain, Benjamin M.

    2015-01-01

    Conficker is a computer worm that erupted on the Internet in 2008. It is unique in combining three different spreading strategies: local probing, neighbourhood probing, and global probing. We propose a mathematical model that combines three modes of spreading: local, neighbourhood, and global, to capture the worm’s spreading behaviour. The parameters of the model are inferred directly from network data obtained during the first day of the Conficker epidemic. The model is then used to explore the tradeoff between spreading modes in determining the worm’s effectiveness. Our results show that the Conficker epidemic is an example of a critically hybrid epidemic, in which the different modes of spreading in isolation do not lead to successful epidemics. Such hybrid spreading strategies may be used beneficially to provide the most effective strategies for promulgating information across a large population. When used maliciously, however, they can present a dangerous challenge to current internet security protocols. PMID:25978309

  13. Worm Control in Livestock: Bringing Science to the Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenyon, Fiona; Hutchings, Fiona; Morgan-Davies, Claire; van Dijk, Jan; Bartley, Dave J

    2017-09-01

    Parasitic roundworm infections are ubiquitous in grazing livestock. Chemical control through the frequent 'blanket' administration of anthelmintics (wormers) has been, and remains, the cornerstone in controlling these infections, but this practice is unsustainable. Alternative strategies are available but, even with the plethora of best practice advice available, have yet to be integrated into routine farming practice. This is probably due to a range of factors, including contradictory advice from different sources, changes to advice following increased scientific understanding, and top-down knowledge exchange patterns. In this article, we discuss the worm control options available, the translation of new best practice advice from science bench to field, and ideas for future work and directions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Helminthic therapy: using worms to treat immune-mediated disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, David E; Weinstock, Joel V

    2009-01-01

    There is an epidemic of immune-mediated disease in highly-developed industrialized countries. Such diseases, like inflammatory bowel disease, multiple sclerosis and asthma increase in prevalence as populations adopt modern hygienic practices. These practices prevent exposure to parasitic worms (helminths). Epidemiologic studies suggest that people who carry helminths have less immune-mediated disease. Mice colonized with helminths are protected from disease in models of colitis, encephalitis, Type 1 diabetes and asthma. Clinical trials show that exposure to helminths reduce disease activity in patients with ulcerative colitis or Crohn's disease. This chapter reviews some of the work showing that colonization with helminths alters immune responses, against dysregulated inflammation. These helminth-host immune interactions have potentially important implications for the treatment of immune-mediated diseases.

  15. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gong Yong-Wang; Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R 0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R 0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R 0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results. (general)

  16. The research of hourglass worm dynamic balancing simulation based on SolidWorks motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhuangzhuang; Yang, Jie; Liu, Pingyi; Zhao, Junpeng

    2018-02-01

    Hourglass worm is extensively used in industry due to its characteristic of heavy-load and a large reduction ratio. Varying sizes of unbalanced mass distribution appeared in the design of a single head worm. With machines developing towards higher speed and precision, the vibration and shock caused by the unbalanced mass distribution of rotating parts must be considered. Therefore, the balance grade of these parts must meet higher requirements. A method based on theoretical analysis and SolidWorks motion software simulation is presented in this paper; the virtual dynamic balance simulation test of the hourglass worm was carried out during the design of the product, so as to ensure that the hourglass worm meet the requirements of dynamic balance in the design process. This can effectively support the structural design of the hourglass worm and provide a way of thinking and designing the same type of products.

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  19. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  3. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  4. Comparison of sup(115m)Cd accumulation from sediments and sea water by polychaete worms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ueda, Taishi; Nakamura, Ryoichi; Suzuki, Yuzuru

    1976-01-01

    To know the role played by marine sediments in influencing the fate of discharged metals, (1) the interaction of metals between sediments and deposit-feeder marine worms (Nereis japonica), and (2) uptake and excretion of metals by worms were examined by laboratory experiments using sup(115m)Cd. Worms directly in contact with sup(115m)Cd-sediments accumulated sup(115m)Cd six times more than worms that were not in contact with the sup(115m)Cd sediments during the 8 days of experimentation and 12% of sup(115m)Cd in sediments were noted to be transfered to worms per unit. Comparing the concentration factor of 22 (from sea water) with accumulation from sediments, it was assumed that sup(115m)Cd in sediments would give the effect of 1/200 to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd by worms in sea water to the accumulation of sup(115m)Cd. Further, to simulate these results close to that occuring in the natural ecosystem, the distribution of sup(115m)Cd in sea water, sediments and alga were also examined by means of a curve analysis of the distribution pattern by a three compartment model. It proved that the activity ratios of sup(115m)Cd were 9 for sediments and 21 for alga, which was similar to 22 for worms. (auth.)

  5. Chemistry and the worm: Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform for integrating chemical and biological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hulme, S Elizabeth; Whitesides, George M

    2011-05-16

    This Review discusses the potential usefulness of the worm Caenorhabditis elegans as a model organism for chemists interested in studying living systems. C. elegans, a 1 mm long roundworm, is a popular model organism in almost all areas of modern biology. The worm has several features that make it attractive for biology: it is small (1000 cells), transparent, and genetically tractable. Despite its simplicity, the worm exhibits complex phenotypes associated with multicellularity: the worm has differentiated cells and organs, it ages and has a well-defined lifespan, and it is capable of learning and remembering. This Review argues that the balance between simplicity and complexity in the worm will make it a useful tool in determining the relationship between molecular-scale phenomena and organism-level phenomena, such as aging, behavior, cognition, and disease. Following an introduction to worm biology, the Review provides examples of current research with C. elegans that is chemically relevant. It also describes tools-biological, chemical, and physical-that are available to researchers studying the worm. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniela de Paula Aguiar

    Full Text Available Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR, a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST, Glutathione reductase (GR, and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them.

  7. The provision of potable water in eradication of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North, Southeastern, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ede, Alison Okorie; Nwaokoro, Joakin Chidozie; Iwuala, C C; Amadi, A N; Akpelu, Ugochinyere Alvana

    2014-10-01

    Guinea worm is a parasite found in unprotected drinking water sources, causes considerable morbidity and loss of agricultural production among rural people. The study was to determine the current status of Guinea worm infection in Ezza North and to evaluate the impact of control measures on guinea worm infection. A total of 200 individuals in Ezza North Southeastern, Nigeria were examined for guinea worm infection. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine the effect of potable water on guinea worm eradication/control, the source of drinking water, information on the knowledge, attitude, symptom management practices, availability of health facilities and boreholes installation status. The instrument for data collection was well constructed, validated and reliable tested questionnaire by an expert. Data obtained was analyzed using Epi-Info model 3.4 versions. Results of a study indicated majority of the respondents 195 (97.5 %) have access to safe drinking water supply which indicated no case of Guinea worm infection. The active use of potable water supply was found among the age group of 20-30 years 71 (35.5 %) and higher in male (57.5 %) than females (42.5 %). The drastic reduction of Guinea worm infection to zero (0) level in Ezza North were due to multiple factors as health education, availability of functional boreholes, presence of health centers for immediate treatment if any case discovered.

  8. Promoting positive health behaviours--'tooth worm' phenomenon and its implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, X L; Hsu, C Y S; Xu, Y C; Loh, T; Koh, D; Hwarng, H B

    2012-03-01

    'Tooth worm' is a traditional belief about the pathogen of dental caries (tooth decay). Nevertheless, in our previous study, parental 'tooth worm' belief was linked to a reduced caries risk of their children. This study aimed to further characterize the impact of parental 'tooth worm' belief on their children's caries experience and its psychobehavioural mechanisms. analytic observational study. Thirteen randomly selected kindergartens in Singapore. 1,782 preschoolers aged 3-6 years. Each child received an oral examination and microbiological tests. Parents completed a self-administered questionnaire on their socio-demographic background, oral health knowledge/attitude and child's oral health habits. Multivariate analysis confirmed a reduced chance of 'high caries rate' (number of affected teeth > 2) among children whose parents held the 'tooth worm' belief (Odds Ratio = 0.41; 95% Confidence Interval = 0.19-0.89). With such perception among parents, children brushed their teeth more frequently (p = 0.042). Since no difference in oral hygiene was observed, the health benefit of the "tooth worm" perception may be acquired through the delivery of fluoride (an agent with proven anti-caries effect) during frequent toothbrushing episodes. This study revealed a 'tooth worm' phenomenon, indicating that parental 'tooth worm' belief is associated with early establishment of regular toothbrushing habit and reduction of dental caries in children. This phenomenon and its psychobehavioural mechanisms, enriching our understanding of oral health behaviours, have implications for effective health education.

  9. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S

    2017-06-01

    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged eating a usual diet, but without sago worms (n=13). Snacks were served once per day (100 g) for 45 days and designed to contain similar amounts of vegetables (carrots and long beans) and other ingredients including rice, sticky rice, cassava, sweet potato, banana, or tofu with or without sago worms. Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  10. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Rinaldi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM. By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  11. Medical image of the week: prozac eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shetty S

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available A 59-year-old man with a past medical history significant for hypertension, obesity and depression underwent an overnight polysomnogram for high clinical suspicion for obstructive sleep apnea. His current medications include doxepin, fluoxetine, bupropion, ambien and amlodipine. A snapshot during NREM sleep is shown (Figure 1. Fluoxetine (Prozac® is a potent selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI.“Omnipause” neurons in the brainstem inhibit saccadic eye movements. NREM eye movements result from the potentiation of serotonergic neurons that inhibit these neurons (1. These eye movements occur during all stages of NREM sleep. These atypical eye movements have been reported to be present with a lower incidence with use of other antidepressants, benzodiazepines and neuroleptics and they tend to persist even after discontinuation of the medication (2. The clinical significance of these eye movements is unknown.

  12. Recurrent cholangitis in the tropics: Worm or cast?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jain P

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of biliary casts is very rare, especially in non-liver transplant patients. The etiology of these casts is uncertain but several factors have been proposed which lead to bile stasis and/or gallbladder hypo-contractility and promote cast formation. Here, we report a 54-year-old male, with diabetes and ischemic heart disease, who presented with recurrent attacks of cholangitis. Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography revealed linear T1 hyperintense and T2 hypointense filling defects in the right and left hepatic ducts extending into the common hepatic duct, and a calculus in the lower common bile duct, raising a suspicion of worm in the biliary tree. In view of failed attempts at extraction on endoscopy, patient underwent surgery. At exploration, biliary casts and stones were extracted from the proximal and the second order bile ducts, with the help of intraoperative choledochoscopy and a bilio-enteric anastomosis was accomplished. Although endoscopic retrieval of the biliary cast can be employed as first-line management, surgery should be considered in case it fails.

  13. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  14. Impact of First Eye versus Second Eye Cataract Surgery on Visual Function and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Nakul S; Stock, Michael V; Baze, Elizabeth F; Daly, Mary K; Vollman, David E; Lawrence, Mary G; Chomsky, Amy S

    2017-10-01

    To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life. Cohort study. A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded. Patients received complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations for first eye and second eye cataract surgeries. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. The NEI-VFQ scores were calculated using a traditional subscale scoring algorithm and a Rasch-refined approach producing visual function and socioemotional subscale scores. Postoperative NEI-VFQ scores and improvement in NEI-VFQ scores comparing first eye versus second eye cataract surgery. Mean age was 70.4 years (±9.6 standard deviation [SD]). Compared with second eyes, first eyes had worse mean preoperative BCVA (0.55 vs. 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), P < 0.001), greater mean BCVA improvement after surgery (-0.50 vs. -0.32 logMAR, P < 0.001), and slightly worse postoperative BCVA (0.06 vs. 0.03 logMAR, P = 0.039). Compared with first eye surgery, second eye surgery resulted in higher postoperative NEI-VFQ scores for nearly all traditional subscales (P < 0.001), visual function subscale (-3.85 vs. -2.91 logits, P < 0.001), and socioemotional subscale (-2.63 vs. -2.10 logits, P < 0.001). First eye surgery improved visual function scores more than second eye surgery (-2.99 vs. -2.67 logits, P = 0.021), but both first and second eye surgeries resulted in similar

  15. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  16. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  17. Kilima-mrota is not a worm: the effect of conservation education and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Kilima-mrota is not a worm: the effect of conservation education and a local naming contest on the perspectives held by the peoples of Sagalla Hill, Kenya toward the Sagalla Caecilian Boulengerula niedeni.

  18. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  19. Worms Expelled With the Urine From a Bosniak Cyst III of the Left Kidney.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jie; Li, Pu; Su, Chuan; Zhang, Jia-Yi; Gu, Min

    2016-07-01

    An old fishman presented with left lumbago and finding worms in his urine. Type-B ultrasonic inspection and computed tomography scan found a Bosniak cyst III, containing several wire-like elements, in the middle of the left kidney. Expelled worms were confirmed to be Dioctophyma renale. After two courses of albendazole, the man was cured. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Survey of Optimal Temperature and Moisture for Worms Growth and Operating Vermicompost Production of Food Wastes

    OpenAIRE

    A Eslami; A Nabaey; R Rostami

    2009-01-01

    "n "nBackground and Objectives:Nowadays vermicompost production of food wastes is posed as one of appropriate methods to food wastes. disposal, its production used in agriculture and gardening. Moreover this process has some by products beside useful fertilizer that one of them is the worms. we can use them in variety of products specially in production of poultry and fish food. So determination of optimal condition for operating vermicompost production process of food wastes and worms. growt...

  1. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    OpenAIRE

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-01-01

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this stud...

  2. Hydrolytic Degradation of Poly (ethylene oxide)-block-Polycaprolactone Worm Micelles

    OpenAIRE

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E.

    2005-01-01

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly (ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by poly...

  3. An Epidemic Model of Computer Worms with Time Delay and Variable Infection Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available With rapid development of Internet, network security issues become increasingly serious. Temporary patches have been put on the infectious hosts, which may lose efficacy on occasions. This leads to a time delay when vaccinated hosts change to susceptible hosts. On the other hand, the worm infection is usually a nonlinear process. Considering the actual situation, a variable infection rate is introduced to describe the spread process of worms. According to above aspects, we propose a time-delayed worm propagation model with variable infection rate. Then the existence condition and the stability of the positive equilibrium are derived. Due to the existence of time delay, the worm propagation system may be unstable and out of control. Moreover, the threshold τ0 of Hopf bifurcation is obtained. The worm propagation system is stable if time delay is less than τ0. When time delay is over τ0, the system will be unstable. In addition, numerical experiments have been performed, which can match the conclusions we deduce. The numerical experiments also show that there exists a threshold in the parameter a, which implies that we should choose appropriate infection rate β(t to constrain worm prevalence. Finally, simulation experiments are carried out to prove the validity of our conclusions.

  4. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Gun-Hee; Lee, Jeong-Won; Seo, Tae-Il

    2013-05-10

    Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE) analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %). The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  5. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  6. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  7. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  11. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... much as it does on your eyes. ... of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  14. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...

  18. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  19. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes ...

  20. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on ...

  2. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  4. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  10. Perceptions of a literate community regarding causation, presentation and treatment practices of intestinal worms among children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mubeen, S.M.; Subhani, A.; Hassan, S.S.

    2007-01-01

    To find out the perceived common causes of intestinal worms, their presentations and treatment options taken by the respondents, among children. A total of 2000 families responded to a self-administered questionnaire that was designed to obtain the study objectives. A single adult individual from each family was asked to respond to the questionnaire. Families having health care workers or health professionals were excluded. Medical students were properly trained to ensure competence in collecting a reliable data. The majority of the total respondents were females (66.3%) and were between 15-25 years of age (mean age = 25.4 years) with 100% literacy rate. A noticeable number of respondents (31%) revealed that overeating of sugar causes intestinal worms and that they mainly presented as altered eating habits / appetite (51.8%), abdominal pain (40.8%) and generalized weakness (26.3%). Regarding perceptions of drug treatment, nearly 2/3 of the respondents felt that the de-worming agent should be given to suspected child only (p < 0.001), whereas 65% of the participants expected to observe worms after de-worming treatment (p < 0.001). Contrary to the common use of self-medication in most other illnesses, self-treatment of worms on suspicion was declared by only 21.5% of the respondents (p < 0.0001). This study confirms that misconceptions about intestinal worms in children were prevalent within the community. In addition to the issue of environmental sanitation, removal of the mistaken beliefs is a prerequisite for an effective and long-lasting parasitic control among children. (author)

  11. Treatment of Schistosoma mansoni with miltefosine in vitro enhances serological recognition of defined worm surface antigens.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marwa H El-Faham

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Miltefosine, an anti-cancer drug that has been successfully repositioned for treatment of Leishmania infections, has recently also shown promising effects against Schistosoma spp targeting all life cycle stages of the parasite. The current study examined the effect of treating Schistosoma mansoni adult worms with miltefosine on exposure of worm surface antigens in vitro.In an indirect immunofluorescence assay, rabbit anti-S.mansoni adult worm homogenate and anti-S. mansoni infection antisera gave strong immunofluorescence of the S. mansoni adult worm surface after treatment with miltefosine, the latter antiserum having previously been shown to synergistically enhance the schistosomicidal activity of praziquantel. Rabbit antibodies that recognised surface antigens exposed on miltefosine-treated worms were recovered by elution off the worm surface in low pH buffer and were used in a western immunoblotting assay to identify antigenic targets in a homogenate extract of adult worms (SmWH. Four proteins reacting with the antibodies in immunoblots were purified and proteomic analysis (MS/MS combined with specific immunoblotting indicated they were the S. mansoni proteins: fructose-1,6 bisphosphate aldolase (SmFBPA, Sm22.6, alkaline phosphatase and malate dehydrogenase. These antibodies were also found to bind to the surface of 3-hour schistosomula and induce immune agglutination of the parasites, suggesting they may have a role in immune protection.This study reveals a novel mode of action of miltefosine as an anti-schistosome agent. The immune-dependent hypothesis we investigated has previously been lent credence with praziquantel (PZQ, whereby treatment unmasks parasite surface antigens not normally exposed to the host during infection. Antigens involved in this molecular mechanism could have potential as intervention targets and antibodies against these antigens may act to increase the drug's anti-parasite efficacy and be involved in the development

  12. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  13. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  15. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  16. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  17. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  18. Causse of Adult Blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano | Olatunji ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aim: To identify the cause of adult blindness at ECWA Eye Hospital, Kano. Materials and methods: It was a hospital-based prospective study. Blindness was defined as vision of <3/60 in the better eye. The history of each patient was taken and a routine ocular examination was conducted using a Snellen or E-chart, a pen ...

  19. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  20. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in reptile faeces: analysis of earthworm consumption by slow worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, David S; Jarman, Simon N; Symondson, William O C

    2012-03-01

    Little quantitative ecological information exists on the diets of most invertebrate feeding reptiles, particularly nocturnal or elusive species that are difficult to observe. In the UK and elsewhere, reptiles are legally required to be relocated before land development can proceed, but without knowledge of their dietary requirements, the suitability of receptor sites cannot be known. Here, we tested the ability of non-invasive DNA-based molecular diagnostics (454 pyrosequencing) to analyse reptile diets, with the specific aims of determining which earthworm species are exploited by slow worms (the legless lizard Anguis fragilis) and whether they feed on the deeper-living earthworm species that only come to the surface at night. Slow worm faecal samples from four different habitats were analysed using earthworm-specific PCR primers. We found that 86% of slow worms (N=80) had eaten earthworms. In lowland heath and marshy/acid grassland, Lumbricus rubellus, a surface-dwelling epigeic species, dominated slow worm diet. In two other habitats, riverside pasture and calciferous coarse grassland, diet was dominated by deeper-living anecic and endogeic species. We conclude that all species of earthworm are exploited by these reptiles and lack of specialization allows slow worms to thrive in a wide variety of habitats. Pyrosequencing of prey DNA in faeces showed promise as a practical, rapid and relatively inexpensive means of obtaining detailed and valuable ecological information on the diets of reptiles. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  1. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K Labocha

    Full Text Available Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86 showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248.

  2. Worm grunting, fiddling, and charming--humans unknowingly mimic a predator to harvest bait.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth C Catania

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: For generations many families in and around Florida's Apalachicola National Forest have supported themselves by collecting the large endemic earthworms (Diplocardia mississippiensis. This is accomplished by vibrating a wooden stake driven into the soil, a practice called "worm grunting". In response to the vibrations, worms emerge to the surface where thousands can be gathered in a few hours. Why do these earthworms suddenly exit their burrows in response to vibrations, exposing themselves to predation? PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here it is shown that a population of eastern American moles (Scalopus aquaticus inhabits the area where worms are collected and that earthworms have a pronounced escape response from moles consisting of rapidly exiting their burrows to flee across the soil surface. Recordings of vibrations generated by bait collectors and moles suggest that "worm grunters" unknowingly mimic digging moles. An alternative possibility, that worms interpret vibrations as rain and surface to avoid drowning is not supported. CONCLUSIONS: Previous investigations have revealed that both wood turtles and herring gulls vibrate the ground to elicit earthworm escapes, indicating that a range of predators may exploit the predator-prey relationship between earthworms and moles. In addition to revealing a novel escape response that may be widespread among soil fauna, the results show that humans have played the role of "rare predators" in exploiting the consequences of a sensory arms race.

  3. Guinea worm infection in northern Nigeria: reflections on a disease approaching eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenwood, Brian; Greenwood, Alice; Bradley, Andrew

    2017-05-01

    Global eradication of the guinea worm (Dracunculus medinensis) is near, although perhaps delayed a little by the discovery of a transmission cycle in dogs. It is therefore an appropriate time to reflect on the severe impact of this infection on the life of the communities where it was endemic prior to the start of the global eradication programme in 1981. From 1971 to 1974, we conducted a series of unpublished studies on guinea worm in a group of villages in Katsina State, northern Nigeria, where the infection was highly endemic. These studies demonstrated the high rate of infection in affected communities, the frequent recurrence of the infection in some subjects and the long-standing disability that remained in some infected individuals. Immunological studies showed a high level of immediate hypersensitivity to adult worm and larval antigens but a downregulation of Th1-type T-cell responses to worm antigens. Freeing communities such as those described in this article from the scourge of guinea worm infection for good will be an important public health triumph. © 2017 The Authors. Tropical Medicine & International Health Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  5. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  6. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy for the analysis of the biochemical composition of C. elegans worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheng, Ming; Gorzsás, András; Tuck, Simon

    2016-01-01

    Changes in intermediary metabolism have profound effects on many aspects of C. elegans biology including growth, development and behavior. However, many traditional biochemical techniques for analyzing chemical composition require relatively large amounts of starting material precluding the analysis of mutants that cannot be grown in large amounts as homozygotes. Here we describe a technique for detecting changes in the chemical compositions of C. elegans worms by Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy. We demonstrate that the technique can be used to detect changes in the relative levels of carbohydrates, proteins and lipids in one and the same worm. We suggest that Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy represents a useful addition to the arsenal of techniques for metabolic studies of C. elegans worms.

  7. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  8. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-01-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency

  9. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  10. Hydrolytic degradation of poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone worm micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geng, Yan; Discher, Dennis E

    2005-09-21

    Spherical micelles and nanoparticles made with degradable polymers have been of great interest for therapeutic application, but degradation-induced changes in a spherical morphology can be subtle and mechanism/kinetics appears poorly understood. Here, we report the first preparation of giant and flexible worm micelles self-assembled from degradable copolymer poly(ethylene oxide)-block-polycaprolactone. Such worm micelles spontaneously shorten to generate spherical micelles, triggered by polycaprolactone hydrolysis, with distinct mechanism and kinetics from that which occurs in bulk material.

  11. Schistosoma mansoni: effects of anesthetics and antimonial drugs on worm shift in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni were injected with sodium thiopental or sodium antimonyl gluconate (Triostib R, or submitted to halothane inhalation, with or without a previous injection of thiopental. Data obtained showed that halothane and thiopental induce worm shift to the liver (99 and 76%, respectively. Sodium gluconate and antimonium (Triostib R shifted 52% of worms towards the liver. These results seem to indicate that the use of antimonium would be unnecessary, when surgical removal of schistosomules is carried out through the extracorporeal filtration technique, in patients with portal hypertension.

  12. Distribution, abundance and trail characteristics of acorn worms at Australian continental margins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, T. J.; Przeslawski, R.; Tran, M.

    2011-04-01

    Acorn worms (Enteropneusta), which were previously thought to be a missing link in understanding the evolution of chordates, are an unusual and potentially important component of many deep-sea benthic environments, particularly for nutrient cycling. Very little is known about their distribution, abundance, or behaviour in deep-sea environments around the world, and almost nothing is known about their distribution within Australian waters. In this study, we take advantage of two large-scale deep-sea mapping surveys along the eastern (northern Lord Howe Rise) and western continental margins of Australia to quantify the distribution, abundance and trail-forming behaviour of this highly unusual taxon. This is the first study to quantify the abundance and trail behaviour of acorn worms within Australian waters and provides the first evidence of strong depth-related distributions. Acorn worm densities and trail activity were concentrated between transect-averaged depths of 1600 and 3000 m in both eastern and western continental margins. The shallow limit of their depth distribution was 1600 m. The deeper limit was less well-defined, as individuals were found in small numbers below 3000 down to 4225 m. This distributional pattern may reflect a preference for these depths, possibly due to higher availability of nutrients, rather than a physiological constraint to greater depths. Sediment characteristics alone were poor predictors of acorn worm densities and trail activity. High densities of acorn worms and trails were associated with sandy-mud sediments, but similar sediment characteristics in either shallower or deeper areas did not support similar densities of acorn worms or trails. Trail shapes varied between eastern and western margins, with proportionally more meandering trails recorded in the east, while spiral and meandering trails were both common in the west. Trail shape varied by depth, with spiral-shaped trails dominant in areas of high acorn worm densities

  13. Worm burden and leukocyte response in Angiostrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats: the influence of testosterone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1992-01-01

    Gonadectomized male albino rats aged 7 weeks were given 1.5 mg/kg testosterone propionate daily and inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Angiostrongylus malaysiensis. The treatment significantly increased the number of larvae and adult worms recovered from the brain and pulmonary arteries, respectively, and the rats exhibited smaller thymus glands. The total numbers of leukocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, and especially eosinophils increased significantly post-infection, but the counts were higher in the untreated infected controls. Presumably, immunosuppressive effects of testosterone may at least partly be responsible for the higher loads of A. malaysiensis worms found in male rats as compared with females in the field.

  14. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  15. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmitz, Lars; Motani, Ryosuke; Oufiero, Christopher E; Martin, Christopher H; McGee, Matthew D; Gamarra, Ashlee R; Lee, Johanna J; Wainwright, Peter C

    2013-02-18

    The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone.

  16. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  17. The effect of antibiotic- and hydrocortisone-containing ointments in preventing secondary infections in guinea worm disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Magnussen, P.; Yakubu, A.; Bloch, P.

    1994-01-01

    A randomized, single-blind, controlled study comparing the efficacy of an ointment containing two antibiotics, one containing one antibiotic plus hydrocortisone, and no treatment in reducing secondary infections in patients with patent Guinea worm was undertaken in the northern region of Ghana. S...... for application at the early stage of patent Guinea worm infection....

  18. [Eye symptoms in office employees working at computer stations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Zejda, Jan E; Bugajska, Joanna; Braczkowska, Bogumiła; Brozek, Grzegorz; Malińska, Marzena

    2011-01-01

    The aim of the study was to measure the prevalence and intensity of eye symptoms in office workers who use computers on a regular basis, and to find out if the symptoms depend on the duration of computer use and other work-related factors. Office workers employed at large social services companies in two cities (Warszawa and Katowice) were invited to fill in a questionnaire (cross-sectional study). The questions included work history and history of last-week eye symptoms and eye-related complains. Altogether 477 men and women returned the completed questionnaires. Between-group symptom differences were tested by the chi-square test and verified by the results of multivariate logistic analysis. The examined effects included the role of daily computer use and lighting conditions at work stations. The examined persons complained of such eye symptoms as eye strain, visual acuity impairment and mucosal dryness or eye burning. The following values of symptom prevalence were found in women and men, respectively: eye strain 50.7% and 32.6%, disturbed visual acuity 38.3% and 21.2%, mucosal dryness and eye burning 46.5% and 24.2%. The results of multivariate analysis confirmed the statistically significant effects of lighting intensity and screen flickering on the occurrence of symptoms. Frequent occurrence of eye symptoms and their associatation with some characteristics of the work environment point to the need of observing ergonomic standards of work stations and of the usage of computers at work.

  19. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  20. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  1. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  3. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  5. SIDRE: Symptomatic Improvement of Dry Eye Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    De Paz CJ

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Clarissa J De Paz, Agustin L Gonzalez, Chi Ngo Eye & Vision, Richardson, TX, USA Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of lifitegrast 5% ophthalmic solution in reducing the symptoms of eye dryness using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI questionnaire. Methods: A single-center study was undertaken to evaluate the clinical outcomes. Fourteen subjects (12 female and 2 male with symptoms of dry eye and a positive history of recent use of artificial tears were included in the study. OSDI questionnaire scores on the severity of symptoms, visual functionality, and quality of life related to the condition were recorded pre- and post-therapy. Subsequently, score data were analyzed for statistical significance. Results: The mean age of the 14 subjects was 44.86 (standard deviation [SD] ±3.08 years, with a range of 23–62 years. Mean duration of the evaluation was 28.79 days with a range of 25–34 days. Baseline OSDI mean score was 49.40 (SD ±1.28, and post-therapy mean score was 42.26 (SD ±0.99. Data analysis revealed that the scores were statistically significantly improved post-lifitegrast therapy in comparison to baseline (p=0.00041. Conclusion: Lifitegrast 5% ophthalmic solution may be a beneficial therapeutic option in the management of symptoms associated with dry eye disease. Keywords: dry eye disease, ocular surface disease, dry eye treatment, lifitegrast

  6. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2013-02-22

    We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmetic eye whitening procedure with progressive bilateral necrotizing scleritis and scleral calcification. Chronic conjunctival hyperemia may prompt patients to seek surgical correction with cosmetic eye whitening procedures. However, conjunctival hyperemia secondary to tear deficiency and evaporative dry eye may predispose to poor wound healing. Serious complications including necrotizing scleritis may result from cosmetic eye whitening procedures and the use of topical mitomycin C.

  7. Histamine 1 Receptor Blockade Enhances Eosinophil-Mediated Clearance of Adult Filarial Worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ellen Mueller Fox

    Full Text Available Filariae are tissue-invasive nematodes that cause diseases such as elephantiasis and river blindness. The goal of this study was to characterize the role of histamine during Litomosoides sigmodontis infection of BALB/c mice, a murine model of filariasis. Time course studies demonstrated that while expression of histidine decarboxylase mRNA increases throughout 12 weeks of infection, serum levels of histamine exhibit two peaks-one 30 minutes after primary infection and one 8 weeks later. Interestingly, mice treated with fexofenadine, a histamine receptor 1 inhibitor, demonstrated significantly reduced worm burden in infected mice compared to untreated infected controls. Although fexofenadine-treated mice had decreased antigen-specific IgE levels as well as lower splenocyte IL-5 and IFNγ production, they exhibited a greater than fourfold rise in eosinophil numbers at the tissue site where adult L. sigmodontis worms reside. Fexofenadine-mediated clearance of L. sigmodontis worms was dependent on host eosinophils, as fexofenadine did not decrease worm burdens in eosinophil-deficient dblGATA mice. These findings suggest that histamine release induced by tissue invasive helminths may aid parasite survival by diminishing eosinophilic responses. Further, these results raise the possibility that combining H1 receptor inhibitors with current anthelmintics may improve treatment efficacy for filariae and other tissue-invasive helminths.

  8. A deformable magnetizable worm in a magnetic field-A prototype of a mobile crawling robot

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmermann, Klaus [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany)]. E-mail: klaus.zimmermann@tu-ilmenau.de; Naletova, Vera A. [Department of Mechanics and Mathematics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow 119992 (Russian Federation); Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Zeidis, Igor [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany); Turkov, Vladimir A. [Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Kolev, Emil [Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Technische Universitaet Ilmenau, PF 10 05 65, 98684 (Germany); Lukashevich, Mikhail V. [Institute of Mechanics, Lomonosov Moscow State University, 1, Michurinsky Pr., Moscow 119192 (Russian Federation); Stepanov, Gennadij V. [State Research Institute of Chemistry and Technology of Organoelement Compounds, 38, Shosse Entuziastov, Moscow 111123 (Russian Federation)

    2007-04-15

    The paper deals with the deformation and worm-like motion of a magnetizable elastic body in an alternate magnetic field from an experimental and a theoretically point of view. Theoretically (analytically and numerically) calculated results of the body velocity are compared with the experimental data.

  9. Unravelling the protein preference of aquatic worms during waste activated sludge degradation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Valk, S.L.; Khadem, A.F.; van Lier, J.B.; de Kreuk, M.K.

    2017-01-01

    Worm predation (WP) by Tubifex tubifex was investigated using waste activated sludge (WAS) as the substrate. In order to better understand the sludge degradation mechanisms during WP, the activity of five common hydrolytic enzymes was determined and compared among the initial feed activated

  10. The life-cycle of the compost worm (Oligochaeta) | Venter | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    To determine the full potential of the compost worm Eisenia fetida as waste processor and as source of protein, the life-cycle of this species had to be studied thoroughly. The development, growth and reproduction of Eisenia fetida were studied on cattle manure under favourable conditions of moisture, temperature and ...

  11. Prevalence of giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) in wild mink (Mustela vison) in Minnesota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mech, L. David; Tracy, Shawn P.

    2001-01-01

    Of 138 wild mink (Mustela vison) from eastern Minnesota, 27% contained Dioctophyma renale, primarily in the right kidney. No significant difference between prevalence in adult male and immature male mink was found, nor between the prevalence in males versus female mink. Thirteen worms were found in one male mink, representing the highest documented infection intensity of a single wild mink.

  12. Influence of Parasitic Worm Infections on Allergy Diagnosis in Sub-Saharan Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amoah, Abena S.; Boakye, Daniel A.; Yazdanbakhsh, Maria; van Ree, Ronald

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies from Sub-Saharan Africa indicate that allergies are on the rise in this region especially in urban compared to rural areas. This increase has been linked to improved hygiene, lifestyle changes, and lower exposure to pathogens in childhood. Reduced exposure to parasitic worm

  13. From early lessons to new frontiers: The worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine M. Youngman

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the past twenty years, the tiny soil nematode C. elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNAi pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  14. An analysis on the re-emergence of SQL Slammer worm using network telescope data

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Chindipha, SD

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The SQL Slammer worm is a self propagated computer virus that caused a denial of service on some Internet hosts and dramatically slowed down general Internet traffic. An observation of network traffic captured in the Rhodes University’s network...

  15. Microbial stability of worm castings and sugarcane filter mud compost blended with biochar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Organic amendments such as worm castings and filter mud compost can provide nutrient rich substrates for enhanced plant growth. Physico-chemical and microbial stability of these substrates might be enhanced with the addition of biochar. A series of experiments was carried out to determine the stab...

  16. Assay of old-world screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, labelled with 32P

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lamb, K.P.; Sands, D.P.A.; Spradbery, J.P.

    1978-01-01

    Techniques for 32 P labelling of larvae and adults of the screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana, are described. Egg masses of labelled flies were readily identified. At the doses used for field releases, oviposition activity, fertility and longevity of female flies were not adversely affected. Radioactive egg masses were recovered from sentinel animals following field release of labelled flies. (Auth.)

  17. Some parasitic worms in freshwater fishes and fish-predators from ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This report concerns a collection of parasitic worms from South Africa, and contains a new species of monogenean, Gyrodactylus transvaalensis, six species of adult trematodes, including a new species of Phyllodistomum.P. van der waali, two metacercariae of the Family Clinostomidae and three of the Order Strigeida, ...

  18. Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa l. lapponica eat polychaete worms wherever they winter in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Hidayati, Nur Annis; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Capsule: Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability. Aims: To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their

  19. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  20. From early lessons to new frontiers: the worm as a treasure trove of small RNA biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youngman, Elaine M; Claycomb, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    In the past 20 years, the tiny soil nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has provided critical insights into our understanding of the breadth of small RNA-mediated gene regulatory activities. The first microRNA was identified in C. elegans in 1993, and the understanding that dsRNA was the driving force behind RNA-mediated gene silencing came from experiments performed in C. elegans in 1998. Likewise, early genetic screens in C. elegans for factors involved in RNA interference pointed to conserved mechanisms for small RNA-mediated gene silencing pathways, placing the worm squarely among the founding fathers of a now extensive field of molecular biology. Today, the worm continues to be at the forefront of ground-breaking insight into small RNA-mediated biology. Recent studies have revealed with increasing mechanistic clarity that C. elegans possesses an extensive nuclear small RNA regulatory network that encompasses not only gene silencing but also gene activating roles. Further, a portrait is emerging whereby small RNA pathways play key roles in integrating responses to environmental stimuli and transmitting epigenetic information about such responses from one generation to the next. Here we discuss endogenous small RNA pathways in C. elegans and the insight worm biology has provided into the mechanisms employed by these pathways. We touch on the increasingly spectacular diversity of small RNA biogenesis and function, and discuss the relevance of lessons learned in the worm for human biology.

  1. Sediment-worm interaction: transfer of 65Zn from marine silt by the polychaete, Nereis diversicolor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renfro, W.C.; Benayoun, G.

    1976-01-01

    Marine polychaete worms (Nereis diversicolor) accumulated 65 Zn sorbed to silty marine sediment for 5 days and were then transferred to nonradioactive sediment in the laboratory and in the sea. The mean biological half-life (T/sub B//2/) for the laboratory worms did not differ greatly from that for worms in the sea. Worms living in small flowing seawater systems containing 16 cm 3 of sediment accumulated 65 Zn added to each system in the form of radioactive organic detritus. Higher percentage uptake of 65 Zn was from radioactive detritus particles 0.2 to 2 mm in diameter resting on the sediment surface or mixed with sediment than from finely-ground ( 65 Zn coprecipitated from fresh water with Fe(OH) 3 was accumulated by N. diversicolor when the precipitate was on the sediment surface than when the precipitate was well mixed with the sediment. These experimental results indicate that benthic organisms may take up limited amounts of heavy metals associated with bottom sediments and recycle them to benthic and pelagic food webs

  2. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  3. PCB concentrations in intertidal sipunculan (Phylum Sipuncula) marine worms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spongberg, Alison L.

    2006-01-01

    Specimens of the sipunculans Phascolosoma perlucens, Antillesoma antillarum, and Sipunculus nudus, were collected for PCB analysis in three coastal embayments of the Pacific coast of Costa Rica in October 2005. After collection the worms were kept in cool sea water and transferred to the laboratory for freeze drying. Half of the specimens of S. nudus were purified in filtered sea water for 72 h before freeze drying. The whole worm sample was ground, using a mortar and pestle prior to being extracted with dichloromethane solvent. The extract was cleaned using a florisil column and analyzed using a 6890 Hewlett-Packard gas chromatograph equipped with a mass selective detector. Recovery efficiencies averaged between 72 and 80 %. Data are not corrected for blank or recovery efficiencies. Concentration data were calculated based on comparison with standards for Arochlor 1221, 1242, 1248 and 1254 (Supelco, Inc.). No worm samples were identified with six of more chlorine atoms. However, the higher chlorinated congeners were identified in the standards. Therefore, the lack of chlorination in the worms was not an analytical artifact. The sum of identifiable PCBs ranged from a barely discernible 0.01 ng/g dry wt in an A. antillarum sample from Bahia de Culebra to 67.71 ng/g dry wt in a P. perlucens sample obtained near the Rio Rincon in the inner Golfo Dulce. S. nudus worm samples from the Cocorocas sand flat in the Golfo de Nicoya had relatively high concentrations of PCBs whether they were purified or not. The samples from Costa Rica are low in PCBs, especially compared to the marine sediment samples measured previously in Costa Rica. This was the first attempt to identify and quantify the presence of PCBs in any marine organisms from the Pacific coast of Costa Rica. (author) [es

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ...

  5. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  6. XI. THE WATERING EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause a watering eye; this condition is.called epiphora. Clearly, then, in investigating ... blockage is a common disease in the middle age-groups seen in hospital .... a dry eye, and this is so much worse than a wet one that the procedure is only ...

  7. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  9. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  10. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both ...

  12. LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the front of your eye — to improve vision. Normally, images are clearly focused on the retina in the back of your eye because the ... sharply, light rays focus in front of the retina and blur distant vision. You can see objects that are close fairly ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ...

  17. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ...

  1. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  6. Apoptosis in the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chahory , Sabine; Torriglia , Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Cells die during apoptosis in a controlled, regulated fashion. This form of cell death is very important in eye development as well as in eye pathology. We review in this chapter our current knowledge in this topic.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ...

  8. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Breast Cancer to Avoid Chemo Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early? Experimental Drug Shows 'Modest' Benefit ... often done when bulging affects only one eye. Blood tests to measure how well the thyroid is working are done when ... When bulging leads to severe dry eyes, lubrication with artificial tears is needed to ...

  9. Eye bank procedures: donor selection criteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Sidney Júlio de Faria E; Sousa, Stella Barretto de Faria E

    2018-01-01

    Eye banks use sterile procedures to manipulate the eye, antiseptic measures for ocular surface decontamination, and rigorous criteria for donor selection to minimize the possibility of disease transmission due to corneal grafting. Donor selection focuses on analysis of medical records and specific post-mortem serological tests. To guide and standardize procedures, eye bank associations and government agencies provide lists of absolute and relative contraindications for use of the tissue based on donor health history. These lists are guardians of the Hippocratic principle "primum non nocere." However, each transplantation carries risk of transmission of potentially harmful agents to the recipient. The aim of the procedures is not to eliminate risk, but limit it to a reasonable level. The balance between safety and corneal availability needs to be maintained by exercising prudence without disproportionate rigor.

  10. Identification system by eye retinal pattern

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sunagawa, Takahisa; Shibata, Susumu

    1987-01-01

    Identification system by eye retinal pattern is introduced from the view-point of history of R and D, measurement, apparatus, evaluation tests, safety and application. According to our evaluation tests, enrolling time is approximately less than 1 min, verification time is a few seconds and false accept rate is 0 %. Evaluation tests at Sandia National Laboratories in USA show the comparison data of false accept rates such as 0 % for eye retinal pattern, 10.5 % for finger-print, 5.8 % for signature dynamics and 17.7 % for speaker voice. The identification system by eye retinal pattern has only three applications in Japan, but there has been a number of experience in USA. This fact suggests that the system will become an important means for physical protections not only in nuclear field but also in other industrial fields in Japan. (author)

  11. Pin Worms Presenting as Suspected Crohn’s Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Saffar, Farah; Najjar, Nimeh; Ibrahim, Saif; Clark, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Patient: Female, 24 Final Diagnosis: Pinworms infection Symptoms: Abdominal pain • bloating Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Colonoscopy and biopsy Specialty: Gastroenterology and Hepatology Objective: Rare disease Background: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is well recognized in developed countries and is generally among the differential diagnoses of young patients presenting with refractory diarrhea once other more common etiologies have been excluded. Pinworm infections, on the other hand, are not as common among adults in the United States. Case Report: Based on computed tomography features, a 24-year-old female patient with a history of multiple autoimmune disorders presented with abdominal pain and was diagnosed recently with Crohn’s disease. Colonoscopy was significant for pinworms seen throughout the colon. Colonic biopsy was negative for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD)-related changes. Conclusions: The diagnosis of IBD is a serious label that requires biopsy confirmation before committing to possibly lifelong treatment and possible adverse effects. Even in the most typical patient and when the presentation and imaging are classical, uncommon conditions (like Enterobius infection in this case) may preclude appropriate diagnosis and management. PMID:26471462

  12. Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Anja; Rice, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the Sipuncula fall into the Annelida, although they are morphologically very distinct and lack segmentation. To understand the evolutionary transformations from the annelid to the sipunculan body plan, it is important to reconstruct the ancestral states within the respective clades at all life history stages. Here we reconstruct the ancestral states for the head/introvert retractor muscles and the body wall musculature in the Sipuncula using Bayesian statistics. In addition, we describe the ontogenetic transformations of the two muscle systems in four sipunculan species with different developmental modes, using F-actin staining with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. All four species, which have smooth body wall musculature and less than the full set of four introvert retractor muscles as adults, go through developmental stages with four retractor muscles that are eventually reduced to a lower number in the adult. The circular and sometimes the longitudinal body wall musculature are split into bands that later transform into a smooth sheath. Our ancestral state reconstructions suggest with nearly 100% probability that the ancestral sipunculan had four introvert retractor muscles, longitudinal body wall musculature in bands and circular body wall musculature arranged as a smooth sheath. Species with crawling larvae have more strongly developed body wall musculature than those with swimming larvae. To interpret our findings in the context of annelid evolution, a more solid phylogenetic framework is needed for the entire group and more data on ontogenetic transformations of annelid musculature are desirable.

  13. Cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with Veitchia merrillii betel nuts extract in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balqis, Ummu; Hambal, Muhammad; Rinidar; Athaillah, Farida; Ismail; Azhar; Vanda, Henni; Darmawi

    2017-07-01

    The objective of this research was to in vitro evaluate the cuticular surface damage of Ascaridia galli adult worms treated with ethanolic extract of betel nuts Veitchia merrillii . Phytochemical screening was done using FeCl 3 , Wagner and Dragendorff reagents, NaOH, MgHCl, and Liebermann-Burchard reaction test. Amount of 16 worms were segregated into four groups with three replicates. Four worms of each group submerged into phosphate buffered saline, 25 mg/ml, and 75 mg/ml crude ethanolic extract of V. merrillii , and 15 mg/ml albendazole. The effect of these extract was observed 40 h after incubation as soon as worms death. The worms were sectioned transversally and were explored for any cuticular histopathological changes in their body surface under microscope. We found that the ethanolic extract of V. merrillii betel nuts contains tannins, alkaloids, flavonoids, triterpenoids, and saponins. The ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii induces surface alterations caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms. We concluded that ethanolic extract of betel nuts V. merrillii possess anthelmintic activity caused cuticular damage of A. galli adult worms.

  14. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  15. Intraocular lens calculations in atypical eyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aazim A Siddiqui

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Cataract surgery is the most performed surgical procedure in the field of ophthalmology. The process of intraocular lens (IOL calculations is a critical step to achieving successful outcomes. Many IOL formulae exist to guide surgeons through the difficult process of picking the most appropriate lens to achieve a certain target refraction. However, these formulae reach within 0.50 diopters of the target refraction only 75% of the time, leaving 25% of the eyes with a significant refractive surprise. A literature review was performed to investigate all the relevant published material on the history, progress, and recent advancements of IOL calculations. Based on this review, the appropriate history, evolution, progress, limitations, and recent advancements are analyzed and explained. Although the modern IOL formulae and biometric devices perform well for average eyes, they are suboptimal for eyes with atypical biometric parameters and also those that are postrefractive and keratoconic. There has not been a single, perfect formula that can resolve the complexities of this process. Various methods of formula optimization and newer generation of IOL formulae and devices may hold the key to improving outcomes in both typical and atypical eyes. These solutions minimize refractive error by introducing new input parameters and complex mathematical techniques to better estimate postoperative lens position.

  16. Evaluation of integrated sludge worm and catfish farming with biofloc system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dedi Pardiansyah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTCurrently, supply of sludge worm (Tubifex sp. merely came from wild, so that it could not meet demand for fish hatchery. Additionally, harvest from the wild did not have a quality assurance, due to the possibility of sludge worm becoming an agent of disease. This study was conducted to evaluate the production of sludge worm culture by utilizing catfish culture waste (Clarias sp. in bioflok system. In this system, water from catfish culture media flowed into sludge worm culture media using recirculation systems. This study used a completely randomized design with four treatments and two replications, in which treatment A (addition of catfish culture waste from intensive system, treatment B (addition of catfish culture waste from biofloc system, treatment C (the addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment as negative control, and treatment D (addition of fermented chicken manure at the beginning of experiment and then every five days as positive control. The results showed that the highest production was obtained by treatment B at biomass growth of 0.97 kg/m2 and sludge worm density of 388.000 individu/m2. Keywords: sludge worm, biofloc, chicken manure, catfish, catfish culture waste  ABSTRAK Saat ini pasokan cacing sutra (Tubifex sp. hanya berasal dari alam, sehingga belum mencukupi permintaan untuk kegiatan pembenihan ikan. Selain itu, hasil tangkapan dari alam tidak memiliki jaminan kualitas, karena cacing sutra dapat menjadi agen penyakit. Penelitian ini dilakukan untuk mengevaluasi hasil produksi budidaya cacing sutra dengan memanfaatkan limbah budidaya ikan lele (Clarias sp. sistem bioflok. Pada sistem ini, air dari media budidaya ikan lele dialirkan ke media pemeliharaan cacing sutra menggunakan sistem resirkulasi. Penelitian ini menggunakan rancangan acak lengkap dengan empat perlakuan dan dua ulangan, yaitu perlakuan A (pemberian limbah ikan lele sistem intensif, perlakuan B (pemberian limbah ikan lele

  17. Aquaporins in the Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary...... pressure. In the retina, water is transported into the vitreous body and across the retinal pigment epithelium to regulate the extracellular environment and the hydration of the retina. Aquaporins (AQPs ) take part in the water transport throughout the eye....

  18. Additional file 4: Figure S2. of WorMachine: machine learning-based phenotypic analysis tool for worms

    OpenAIRE

    Hakim, Adam; Mor, Yael; Toker, Itai; Levine, Amir; Neuhof, Moran; Markovitz, Yishai; Rechavi, Oded

    2018-01-01

    Features used to establish worm masculinity. Violin plots show the morphological features (A) and fluorescent features (B) used to determine the masculinity of him-5; [tph-1p::GFP] worms. A total of 545 pre-labeled worms of each sex were used for analysis (****p < 10–4, ***p < 10–3, *p < 0.05, two-tailed t test after α = 0.01 trimming to exclude extreme outliers with false discovery rate (FDR) correction for multiple comparisons). Only features that were significantly distinct and had pl...

  19. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    The protective immune response to larval migration in pigs, with or without adult intestinal worm populations, 10 weeks after 3 weekly Ascaris suum inoculations, was studied in 45 pigs. Controlled adult worm populations were achieved by oral transfer of 10 adult worms to previously immunized pigs...... after anthelmintic drenching. A significant reduction in larval recovery from lungs on day 7, and small intestine on day 14, was observed in immunized pigs compared with previously uninfected control pigs after challenge inoculation. The strong anamnestic response to larval migration was characterized...

  20. Allergic conjunctivitis and dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hom, Milton M; Nguyen, Andrew L; Bielory, Leonard

    2012-03-01

    Allergic conjunctivitis (AC) and dry eye syndrome (DES) are 2 of the most common anterior inflammatory disorders of the ocular surface and one does not preclude the coexistence of the other. To examine the potential overlap between AC and DES as comorbidities. Using the validated questionnaire known as Subjective Evaluation of Symptom of Dryness, we studied self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness. In an outpatient optometric setting, 689 patients treated from January 1, 2007, to January 1, 2011, were surveyed for their ocular history and categorized according to their reported level of discomfort of itchiness, dryness, and redness. Patients ranged in age from 5 to 90 years (median age, 25 years; 39.5% male; 60.5% female). In the studied 689 patients, clinically significant itchiness was found in 194 (28.2%), dry eyes in 247 (35.8%), and redness in 194 (28.2%). Symptom overlap was demonstrated in many of the patients. Of the 194 patients with itchiness, 112 (57.7%) had clinically significant dryness. In the 247 patients with dry eyes, 112 (45.3%) had clinically significant itch. Redness was apparent in 120 of the 194 patients with itch (61.9%) and 122 of the 247 patients with dryness (49.4%). Statistical analysis demonstrated that self-reported itchiness, dryness, and redness were not independent of each other (Peyes" also experiencing dry eyes were 2.11 times and the odds of these patients also experiencing redness were 7.34 times that of patients with nonitchy eyes. Most patients with "itchy eyes" consistent with AC also have dry eyes and redness. These results suggest that some symptomatic patients concomitantly have features of AC and DES. Copyright © 2012 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. About the Eye

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  2. Diabetic Eye Problems

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    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

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  8. Eye Involvement in TSC

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    ... 50% of the individuals with TSC have normal intelligence, and inasmuch as these individuals may become parents, ... of vision may be difficult or impossible. Since growth and change of TSC lesions in the eye ...

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  12. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

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    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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  6. Using Eye Makeup

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    ... harmful chemicals. Before applying makeup, be sure your face and eyelids are very clean. Always apply makeup outside the lash line, away from the eye, to avoid blocking the oil glands of the upper or lower ...

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  12. Eye and orbit ultrasound

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    ... Images Head and eye echoencephalogram References Coleman DJ, Silverman RH, Lloyd HO, Daly S. Evaluation of the posterior ... Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

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  1. Eye Injuries at Home

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    ... by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: ... that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or hammering screws ...

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  4. Unilateral Keratoconus after Chronic Eye Rubbing by the Nondominant Hand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Bral

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: To report the development of unilateral keratoconus in a healthy male after persistent unilateral eye rubbing by the nondominant hand which was not needed for professional activities. Methods: Observational case report. Results: A 60-year-old male was first seen in our clinic due to decreased vision in his left eye. Slit-lamp biomicroscopy of the left eye revealed Vogt’s striae, stromal thinning, and a stromal scar. Corneal topography showed a stage 4 keratoconus. Clinical examination and corneal topography of the right eye were normal. Medical history revealed a habit of chronic eye rubbing only in the left eye because of the right hand being occupied for professional needs. During follow-up of 5 years, Scheimpflug images of the right eye stayed normal while the left eye showed a stable cone. Discussion: This case report supports the hypothesis of mechanical fatigue of the cornea due to repetitive shear stress on the surface caused by eye-rubbing.

  5. Fish eye optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Michalová, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 94-99 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : fish eye optics * lobster eye optics * X-ray monitoring Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  6. Effects of estradiol on worm burden and peripheral leukocytes in Parastrongylus malaysiensis-infected rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamis, A B; Ahmad, R A; Badrul-Munir, M Z

    1994-01-01

    Gonadectomized male laboratory rats were given 0.06 mg/kg estradiol benzoate daily for 14 days before being inoculated with 50 third-stage larvae of Parastrongylus malaysiensis. Hormone treatment was continued until the rats were killed. The numbers of larvae in the brain and of adult worms in the pulmonary area of the rats were determined every 7 days after the inoculation. It was found that the rats treated daily with estradiol benzoate had significantly and consistently higher numbers of larvae and adult worms as compared with the controls. The number of total leukocytes increased significantly after the rats were infected. The results show that estradiol-treated rats become susceptible to P. malaysiensis infection, which may indicate that the immunosuppressive effects of testosterone observed in earlier studies may partly be caused by estradiol that was peripherally aromatized from testosterone.

  7. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.

  8. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena

    2016-01-01

    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...

  9. Anthelmintic activity in vivo of epiisopiloturine against juvenile and adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria A Guimarães

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Schistosomiasis is a serious disease currently estimated to affect more that 207 million people worldwide. Due to the intensive use of praziquantel, there is increasing concern about the development of drug-resistant strains. Therefore, it is necessary to search for and investigate new potential schistosomicidal compounds. This work reports the in vivo effect of the alkaloid epiisopiloturine (EPI against adults and juvenile worms of Schistosoma mansoni. EPI was first purified its thermal behavior and theoretical solubility parameters charaterised. In the experiment, mice were treated with EPI over the 21 days post-infection with the doses of 40 and 200 mg/kg, and 45 days post-infection with single doses of 40, 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with EPI at 40 mg/kg was more effective in adult worms when compared with doses of 100 and 300 mg/kg. The treatment with 40 mg/kg in adult worms reduced parasite burden significantly, lead to reduction in hepatosplenomegaly, reduced the egg burden in faeces, and decreased granuloma diameter. Scanning electron microscopy revealed morphological changes to the parasite tegument after treatment, including the loss of important features. Additionally, the in vivo treatment against juvenile with 40 mg/kg showed a reduction of the total worm burden of 50.2%. Histopathological studies were performed on liver, spleen, lung, kidney and brain and EPI was shown to have a DL50 of 8000 mg/kg. Therefore EPI shows potential to be used in schistosomiasis treatment. This is the first time that schistosomicidal in vivo activity of EPI has been reported.

  10. Smart worm-like micelles responsive to CO2/N2 and light dual stimuli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Jianzhong; Wang, Guozheng; Ma, Yuxuan; Cui, Zhenggang; Binks, Bernard P

    2017-04-12

    CO 2 /N 2 and light dual stimuli-responsive worm-like micelles (WLMs) were obtained by addition of a relatively small amount of a switchable surfactant, 4-butyl-4'-(4-N,N-dimethylhexyloxy-amine) azobenzene bicarbonate (AZO-B6-CO 2 ), sensitive to the same triggers to a binary aqueous solution of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and sodium salicylate (NaSal).

  11. Valorisation of waste streams from by-product to worm biomass

    OpenAIRE

    Laarhoven, Bob

    2017-01-01

    There is a global demand for more feed resources to keep up with the increasing production of livestock. The hunger for resources is most urgent in the aquaculture sector, which to a large degree depends on the non-sustainable use of fish oil/ meal from wild fish. Aquatic macro invertebrates such as the freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Oligochaeta, Lumbriculidae, common name blackworms, further abbreviated as Lv) are rich in proteins, lipids, vitamins and minerals. When cultivated on s...

  12. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salathé Rahel M

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m. Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host

  13. Temporal variation and lack of host specificity among bacterial endosymbionts of Osedax bone worms (Polychaeta: Siboglinidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Osedax worms use a proliferative root system to extract nutrients from the bones of sunken vertebrate carcasses. The roots contain bacterial endosymbionts that contribute to the nutrition of these mouthless and gutless worms. The worms acquire these essential endosymbionts locally from the environment in which their larvae settle. Here we report on the temporal dynamics of endosymbiont diversity hosted by nine Osedax species sampled during a three-year investigation of an experimental whale fall at 1820-m depth in the Monterey Bay, California. The host species were identified by their unique mitochondrial COI haplotypes. The endosymbionts were identified by ribotyping with PCR primers specifically designed to target Oceanospirillales. Results Thirty-two endosymbiont ribotypes associated with these worms clustered into two distinct bacterial ribospecies that together comprise a monophyletic group, mostly restricted to deep waters (>1000 m). Statistical analyses confirmed significant changes in the relative abundances of host species and the two dominant endosymbiont ribospecies during the three-year sampling period. Bone type (whale vs. cow) also had a significant effect on host species, but not on the two dominant symbiont ribospecies. No statistically significant association existed between the host species and endosymbiont ribospecies. Conclusions Standard PCR and direct sequencing proved to be an efficient method for ribotyping the numerically dominant endosymbiont strains infecting a large sample of host individuals; however, this method did not adequately represent the frequency of mixed infections, which appears to be the rule rather than an exception for Osedax individuals. Through cloning and the use of experimental dilution series, we determined that minority ribotypes constituting less than 30% of a mixture would not likely be detected, leading to underestimates of the frequency of multiple infections in host individuals. PMID:23006795

  14. Online decision trees to support the control of gastrointestinal worms in ruminants

    OpenAIRE

    Koopmann, Regine; Dämmrich, Michaela; Ploeger, Harm

    2014-01-01

    Control of gastrointestinal worms is crucial to any pasture system for ruminants. To support the farmer's foresighted planning of pasturage and to avoid excessive deworm-ing in Germany we created four decision trees and put them online. They are freely accessible at www.weide-parasiten.de. There is one decision tree for young first season cattle in intensive dairy husbandry, one decision tree for young cattle in suckling-cow management and one decision tree for sheep and goats, respectively.

  15. Liesegang rings in tissue. How to distinguish Liesegang rings from the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuur, S M; Nelson, A M; Gibson, D W; Neafie, R C; Johnson, F B; Mostofi, F K; Connor, D H

    1987-08-01

    Liesegang rings (LRs) are periodic precipitation zones from supersaturated solutions in colloidal systems. They are formed by a process that involves an interplay of diffusion, nucleation, flocculation or precipitation, and supersaturation. Examples include LRs of calcium carbonate in oölitic limestone (in nature), LRs of silver chromate in gelatin (in vitro), and LRs of glycoprotein in pulmonary corpora amylacea (in vivo). Here we describe LRs in lesions from 29 patients--mostly lesions of the kidney, synovium, conjunctiva, and eyelid. The LRs formed in cysts, or in fibrotic, inflamed, or necrotic tissue. The LRs in this study varied greatly in shape and size, measuring 7-800 microns. Special stains and energy-dispersive radiographic analysis or scanning electron microscopy revealed that some LRs contained calcium, iron (hemosiderin), silicon, and sulfur. Some pathologists have mistaken LRs for eggs, larvae, or adults of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyma renale. D. renale is a large blood-red nematode that infects a variety of fish-eating mammals, especially mink. Fourteen documented infections of humans have been recorded, usually with adult worms expelled from the urethra. The adult worms are probably the largest helminth to parasitize humans. Eggs of D. renale are constant in size (60-80 microns X 39-47 microns), contain an embryo, and have characteristic sculpturing of the shell. Liesegang rings should not be mistaken for eggs, larvae, or adults of D. renale, or for any other helminth.

  16. Chemical Composition and Nutrient Digestibility of Super Worm Meal in Red Tilapia Juvenile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. D. Abd Rahman Jabir*, S. A. Razak and S. Vikineswary

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and nutrient digestibility of super worm (Zophobas morio meal were determined for fish feed formulations. Experiments were conducted to compare super worm meal (SWM with fish meal (FM as main protein sources for fish diets. Super worm had lower protein content (42.83% compared to fish meal (52.64%. SWM contained high percentage (40.01% of lipids along with quality protein and this made it a suitable replacement for FM. SWM contained seventeen amino acids including the essential amino acids. All eight essential amino acids present were similar in values except for methionine which showed a large difference with 5.75 (mg/g crude protein and 21.17 (mg/g crude protein for SWM and FM respectively. SWM contained higher percentage of arginine and glutamic acid while the rest of the essential amino acids were lower than those present in FM. The fatty acid profile of SWM also showed a good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio (0.87. Apparent digestibility coefficients (ADC of protein in SWM diet was lowest (50.53±6.08% and significantly different (P<0.05 from that of FM diet (77.48±0.53%. Lipid digestibility of SWM based diet was significantly lower (69.76±3.72% than that of FM value (91.51±0.21%. However, SWM-based diets fulfilled the requirements of fish recommended by FAO.

  17. Bacterial endosymbioses of gutless tube-dwelling worms in nonhydrothermal vent habitats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naganuma, Takeshi; Elsaied, Hosam E; Hoshii, Daiki; Kimura, Hiroyuki

    2005-01-01

    Gutless tube-dwelling worms of pogonophorans (also known as frenulates) and vestimentiferans depend on primary production of endosymbiotic bacteria. The endosymbionts include thiotrophs that oxidize sulfur for autotrophic production and methanotrophs that oxidize and assimilate methane. Although most of the pogonophoran and vestimentiferan tube worms possess single thiotrophic 16S rRNA genes (16S rDNA) related to gamma-proteobacteria, some pogonohorans are known to bear single methanotroph species or even dual symbionts of thiotrophs and methanotrophs. The vestimentiferan Lamellibrachia sp. L1 shows symbiotic 16S rDNA sequences of alpha-, beta-, gamma-, and epsilon-proteobacteria, varying among specimens, with RuBisCO form II gene (cbbM) sequences related to beta-proteobacteria. An unidentified pogonophoran from the world's deepest cold seep, 7326-m deep in the Japan Trench, hosts a symbiotic thiotroph based on 16S rDNA with the RuBisCO form I gene (cbbL). In contrast, a shallow-water pogonophoran (Oligobrachia mashikoi) in coastal Japan Sea has a methanotrophic 16S rDNA and thiotrophic cbbL, which may suggest the feature of type X methanotrophs. These observations demonstrate that pogonophoran and vestimentiferan worms have higher plasticity in bacterial symbioses than previously suspected.

  18. Potential Test of Irradiated Vaccine for Haemonchus Contortus Worm and Food Supplement on Sheep

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sukardji Partodiharjo; Arifin, M.; Endang Yuliawati; Enuh Rahardjo

    2004-01-01

    An experiment of vaccines was carried out is one of Nematoda worm present in abomasums or stomach of sheep or goat. The case in the field was high enough, may teach 60% the aim of this study is on observe the effect of gastric worm vaccination irradiated 5000 L 3 post challenge wild strain 5000 L 3 , The parameter of observe were clinic, blood twice description number of adult worms, with 3 treatments as follows; control (K), V 2 = twice vaccinations without challenge V 1 twice vaccinations with challenge. The result of the study the average of gain (gram); V 1 =97, V 2 =91 and K=31.20 (P 6 ), V 1 =6.50, V 2 =5.90 and K=6.10 (P 1 =29.30, V 2 =35.30 and K=27.50 (P 3 ), V 1 =9.30, V 2 =9.00 and K=7.40 (P 1 =8.30, V 2 =9.50 and K=6.20 (P 1 immunity respond of weight gain, erythrocyte and leucocyte to have immunity which is better than the respond of other treatments. (author)

  19. Edible peanut worm ( Sipunculus nudus) in the Beibu Gulf: Resource, aquaculture, ecological impact and counterplan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Junwei; Xie, Xiaoyong; Zhu, Changbo; Guo, Yongjian; Chen, Suwen

    2017-10-01

    Sipunculus nudus is an important economic species because of its high nutritional and medicinal values. The exploitation and utilization of S. nudus primarily occur in the coastal regions of the Beibu Gulf. However, wild resource of S. nudus is rapidly decreasing because of the overexploitation, which has led to considerable developments of artificial breeding techniques. The cultivation scale of S. nudus has increased in response to successful artificial breeding; however, methods for culturing S. nudus in tidal flats or ponds require further study. Most studies have focused on the breeding, nutrition, medical value and ecological impact of these worms. Studies on the distribution, sediment requirements, nutrition characteristics, breeding techniques and aquaculture ecology of this species are summarized in this paper to promote the development of the aquaculture industry for S. nudus. The high biomass of S. nudus in the Beibu Gulf is positively correlated with the sediment characteristics and water quality of the region. The production of peanut worm has improved to some extent through culturing; however, the nutrient value and ecological environment problems have been observed, which reflect the over exploitation of trace elements and the sediment. These problems will worsen unless they are resolved, and the release of organic materials, nitrogen and phosphorus during harvesting impacts the coastal environment. Moreover, genetic erosion is a potential risk for larvae in artificial breeding programs in tidal flats. Therefore, culturing and collecting methods should be improved and the wild resource conservation should be implemented to promote the sustainable development of the peanut worm.

  20. Packet Payload Monitoring for Internet Worm Content Detection Using Deterministic Finite Automaton with Delayed Dictionary Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Divya Selvaraj

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Packet content scanning is one of the crucial threats to network security and network monitoring applications. In monitoring applications, payload of packets in a network is matched against the set of patterns in order to detect attacks like worms, viruses, and protocol definitions. During network transfer, incoming and outgoing packets are monitored in depth to inspect the packet payload. In this paper, the regular expressions that are basically string patterns are analyzed for packet payloads in detecting worms. Then the grouping scheme for regular expression matching is rewritten using Deterministic Finite Automaton (DFA. DFA achieves better processing speed during regular expression matching. DFA requires more memory space for each state. In order to reduce memory utilization, decompression technique is used. Delayed Dictionary Compression (DDC is applied for achieving better speeds in the communication links. DDC achieves decoding latency during compression of payload packets in the network. Experimental results show that the proposed approach provides better time consumption and memory utilization during detection of Internet worm attacks.

  1. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.

  2. Necrotizing scleritis as a complication of cosmetic eye whitening procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Leung, Theresa G; Dunn, James P; Akpek, Esen K; Thorne, Jennifer E

    2013-01-01

    Background We report necrotizing scleritis as a serious complication of a cosmetic eye whitening procedure that involves the use of intraoperative and postoperative topical mitomycin C. Findings This is a single case report. A 59-year-old Caucasian male with a history of blepharitis status post uncomplicated LASIK refractive surgery reported chronic conjunctival hyperemia for 15 years prior to undergoing a cosmetic eye whitening procedure. He presented to our clinic 12 months after the cosmet...

  3. AFSC/RACE/FBEP/Laurel: Effects of natural and anthropogenic disturbance on polychaete worm tubes and age-0 flatfish distribution

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This dataset is from a field experiment that examined how juvenile flatfish distribution changed with worm tube heterogeneity, i.e. density and patchiness.

  4. Macular hemorrhage after roller coaster riding in a single-eyed patient with congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Guven

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 21-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her only functional eye (right eye, OD. She had a history of multiple ocular surgeries in both eyes because of congenital glaucoma and had lost light perception in her left eye several years prior. Ophthalmological examination revealed 0.15 Snellen visual acuity, and fundoscopy revealed nearly total cupping and pallor of the optic disc and multiple retinal hemorrhagic foci in the macula in OD. Lesions spontaneously resolved over a few months. Gravitational forces during a roller coaster ride may have caused this macular hemorrhage.

  5. NASA's "Eyes" Focus on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's "Eyes on…" suite of products continues to grow in capability and popularity. The "Eyes on the Earth", "Eyes on the Solar System" and "Eyes on Exoplanets" real-time, 3D interactive visualization products have proven themselves as highly effective demonstration and communication tools for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. This presentation will give a quick look at the latest updates to the "Eyes" suite plus what is being done to make them tools for STEM Education.

  6. Perceptions of dry eye disease management in current clinical practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Jennifer F; Huynh, Kyle; Weaver, Mark A; Davis, Richard M

    2014-03-01

    To assess the perceptions of eye care providers regarding the clinical management of dry eye. Invitations to complete a 17-question online survey were mailed to 400 members of the North Carolina Ophthalmology and Optometry Associations including community optometrists, comprehensive ophthalmologists, and cornea specialists. The survey was completed by 100 eye care providers (25% response rate). Providers reported burning (46.5%) as the most frequent symptom described by patients, followed by foreign body sensation (30.3%) and tearing (17.2%). Most respondents (80.8%) listed artificial tears as the recommended first-line treatment, even though providers reported high failure rates for both artificial tears and cyclosporine A (Restasis). Rheumatoid arthritis, Sjögren syndrome, affective disorders such as anxiety and depression, history of photorefractive surgery, smoking, and thyroid disease were acknowledged as common comorbid conditions. The survey provided an informative snapshot into the preferences of eye care providers concerning the diagnosis and management of dry eye disease. Overall, burning was the most common symptom reported by patients. Providers relied more on patient history in guiding their clinical decisions than objective signs. The survey underscores the incongruence when comparing subjective symptoms with objective signs, thereby highlighting the urgent need for the development of reliable metrics to better quantify dry eye symptoms and also the development of a more sensitive and specific test that can be used as the gold standard to diagnose dry eye.

  7. Effects of Doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and Brugia malayi adult female worms in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rao Ramakrishna U

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Most filarial nematodes contain Wolbachia symbionts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of doxycycline on gene expression in Wolbachia and adult female Brugia malayi. Methods Brugia malayi infected gerbils were treated with doxycycline for 6-weeks. This treatment largely cleared Wolbachia and arrested worm reproduction. RNA recovered from treated and control female worms was labeled by random priming and hybridized to the Version 2- filarial microarray to obtain expression profiles. Results and discussion Results showed significant changes in expression for 200 Wolbachia (29% of Wolbachia genes with expression signals in untreated worms and 546 B. malayi array elements after treatment. These elements correspond to known genes and also to novel genes with unknown biological functions. Most differentially expressed Wolbachia genes were down-regulated after treatment (98.5%. In contrast, doxycycline had a mixed effect on B. malayi gene expression with many more genes being significantly up-regulated after treatment (85% of differentially expressed genes. Genes and processes involved in reproduction (gender-regulated genes, collagen, amino acid metabolism, ribosomal processes, and cytoskeleton were down-regulated after doxycycline while up-regulated genes and pathways suggest adaptations for survival in response to stress (energy metabolism, electron transport, anti-oxidants, nutrient transport, bacterial signaling pathways, and immune evasion. Conclusions Doxycycline reduced Wolbachia and significantly decreased bacterial gene expression. Wolbachia ribosomes are believed to be the primary biological target for doxycycline in filarial worms. B. malayi genes essential for reproduction, growth and development were also down-regulated; these changes are consistent with doxycycline effects on embryo development and reproduction. On the other hand, many B. malayi genes involved in energy production, electron

  8. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    Background Theoretically, autologous serum eye drops (AS) offer a potential advantage over traditional therapies on the assumption that AS not only serve as a lacrimal substitute to provide lubrication but contain other biochemical components that allow them to mimic natural tears more closely. Application of AS has gained popularity as second-line therapy for patients with dry eye. Published studies on this subject indicate that autologous serum could be an effective treatment for dry eye. Objectives We conducted this review to evaluate the efficacy and safety of AS given alone or in combination with artificial tears as compared with artificial tears alone, saline, placebo, or no treatment for adults with dry eye. Search methods We searched CENTRAL (which contains the Cochrane Eyes and Vision Trials Register) (2016, Issue 5), Ovid MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE In-Process and Other Non-Indexed Citations, Ovid MEDLINE Daily, Ovid OLDMEDLINE (January 1946 to July 2016), Embase (January 1980 to July 2016), Latin American and Caribbean Literature on Health Sciences (LILACS) (January 1982 to July 2016), the ISRCTN registry (www.isrctn.com/editAdvancedSearch), ClinicalTrials.gov (www.clinicaltrials.gov) and the World Health Organization (WHO) International Clinical Trials Registry Platform (ICTRP) (www.who.int/ictrp/search/en). We also searched the Science Citation Index Expanded database (December 2016) and reference lists of included studies. We did not use any date or language restrictions in the electronic searches for trials. We last searched the electronic databases on 5 July 2016. Selection criteria We included randomized controlled trials (RCTs) that compared AS versus artificial tears for treatment of adults with dry eye. Data collection and analysis Two review authors independently screened all titles and abstracts and assessed full-text reports of potentially eligible trials. Two review authors extracted data and assessed risk of bias and characteristics of included

  9. Palpebral slant - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... be diagnosed based on a family history, medical history, and a physical exam. Tests to confirm a disorder may include: Chromosome studies Enzyme assays Metabolic studies X-rays Alternative Names Mongolian ...

  10. Bohmian histories and decoherent histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartle, James B.

    2004-01-01

    The predictions of the Bohmian and the decoherent (or consistent) histories formulations of the quantum mechanics of a closed system are compared for histories--sequences of alternatives at a series of times. For certain kinds of histories, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories may both be formulated in the same mathematical framework within which they can be compared. In that framework, Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories represent a given history by different operators. Their predictions for the probabilities of histories of a closed system therefore generally differ. However, in an idealized model of measurement, the predictions of Bohmian mechanics and decoherent histories coincide for the probabilities of records of measurement outcomes. The formulations are thus difficult to distinguish experimentally. They may differ in their accounts of the past history of the Universe in quantum cosmology

  11. In vitro effects of amodiaquine on paired Schistosoma mansoni adult worms at concentrations of less than 5 µg/mL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kentaro Kato

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the in vitro effects of amodiaquine (AQ monotherapy on the egg output of paired adult Schistosoma mansoni worms and their survival during in vitro culture were assessed. In addition, the gross morphological alterations of male and female worms caused by AQ were visually observed under a dissecting microscope. AQ significantly reduced the daily egg output of paired adult S. mansoni worms following incubation for 14 days at 1-5 µg/mL, but not at 0.5 µg/mL, compared with the control group. AQ also reduced the survival of male and female worms at concentrations of 2 and 5 µg/mL, respectively. Moreover, exposure to 5 µg/mL AQ caused severe swelling and/or localisation of black content in the body of all male and female worms within one or two days of incubation; subsequently, shrinkage in the male worms and elongation in the female worms were observed. The initial morphological alterations caused by AQ occurred along the intestinal tract of the male and female worms. To our knowledge, this is the first study to report not only the efficacy of AQ at concentrations lower than 5 µg/mL on paired adult S. mansoni worms, but also the effects of AQ on the intestinal tracts of worms in in vitro culture.

  12. Parasiticidal and brine shrimp cytotoxicity potential of crude methanolic extract of rind of Punica granatum Linn against round worms and tape worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Niaz; Jamil, Ayesha; Shah, Syed Wadood Ali; Shah, Ismail; Ahmed, Ghayour; Junaid, Muhammad; Ahmed, Zahoor

    2015-05-01

    Rind of Punica granatum is traditionally used for anthelmintic purposes. The current work describes the possible anthelmintic activity of crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum (Pg. Cr) against round worms (Ascaridia galli) and the tape worms (Raillietina spiralis). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity is also performed. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activity was tested using different concentrations (1000 μg/mL, 100 μg/mL and 10 μg/mL) of Pg.Cr. In vitro anthelmintic activity of Pg. Cr was determined against the parasites using albendazole and piperazine citrate as standard anthelmintic drugs in concentration 10 mg/ml. LC50 value for Brine shrimp cytotoxicity was 189.44 ±28 μg/mL. In test concentration of 40mg/ml of the Pg. Cr, Raillietina spiralis was paralyzed in 23 minutes. However, for parasiticidal activity (death of the parasite), it took less time (40 minutes) as compared to standard Albendazole. Time taken for death of the parasite Raillietina spiralis, in concentration 40 mg /ml, is 40 min. While standard drugs took more time to kill the Raillietina spiralis. Pg. Cr took 19 minutes to paralyze the Ascaridia galli at concentration 40 mg/ml whereas; it took 48 minutes for to kill the parasite Ascaridia galli. The current work confirms the traditional use of rind of Punica granatum as anthelmintic against Raillietina spiralis and Ascaridia galli. Results of brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay warrant for the isolation of cytotoxic compounds. List of abbreviation- Pg. Cr = Crude methanolic extract of Punica granatum.

  13. History Matters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2017-01-01

    In 2002, she began working as alecturer at Minzu University of China.Now, she teaches English, historicalliterature, ancient Chinese history,historical theory and method, ancientsocial history of China, ancient palacepolitical history of China and the historyof the Sui and Tang dynasties and thePeriod of Five Dynasties.

  14. Metastasis of Ciliary Body Melanoma to the Contralateral Eye: A Case Report and Review of Uveal Melanoma Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouritza M. Torossian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many types of cancers metastasize to the eye. However, uveal melanoma metastasizing to the contralateral choroid is very rare. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with history of treated uveal melanoma of the right eye that developed metastasis to the liver and the choroid of the left eye. Ten years earlier, he was diagnosed to have uveal melanoma of the right eye and was initially treated with plaque radiotherapy. Two years later, upon progression of the disease in the right eye he had enucleation of the eye. We describe the patient’s clinical history, the diagnosis of recurrent disease in the contralateral eye, therapy of the left eye, and systemic metastasis. In addition, we reviewed the published medical literature and described the recent advances in the management of uveal melanoma.

  15. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization...... devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  16. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  17. Histories electromagnetism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, Aidan

    2004-01-01

    Working within the HPO (History Projection Operator) Consistent Histories formalism, we follow the work of Savvidou on (scalar) field theory [J. Math. Phys. 43, 3053 (2002)] and that of Savvidou and Anastopoulos on (first-class) constrained systems [Class. Quantum Gravt. 17, 2463 (2000)] to write a histories theory (both classical and quantum) of Electromagnetism. We focus particularly on the foliation-dependence of the histories phase space/Hilbert space and the action thereon of the two Poincare groups that arise in histories field theory. We quantize in the spirit of the Dirac scheme for constrained systems

  18. Contrasting evolutionary histories of the legless lizards slow worms (Anguis) shaped by the topography of the Balkan Peninsula

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jablonski, D.; Jandzik, D.; Mikulíček, P.; Džukić, G.; Ljubisavljević, K.; Tzankov, N.; Jelić, D.; Thanou, E.; Moravec, J.; Gvoždík, Václav

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 16, č. 1 (2016), č. článku 99. ISSN 1471-2148 Institutional support: RVO:68081766 Keywords : Anguidae * Squamata * phylogeography * biogeography * speciation * contact zones * microrefugia * Balkan mountains Subject RIV: EG - Zoology Impact factor: 3.221, year: 2016

  19. La sanguijuela, un gusano en la historia de la salud The leeches, a worm in the history of health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Pilar Manrique Sáez

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El uso de sanguijuelas ha sido una terapia que ha venido usándose desde las antiguas civilizaciones hasta principios del siglo XX como tratamiento indispensable para diversas dolencias, cayendo en desuso como consecuencia del gran avance científico y considerándose un tratamiento sin valor, atrasado y decadente. El presente articulo pretende dar a conocer la terapia con sanguijuelas, su auge desde la antigüedad, su decadencia y el nuevo renacer actual en el postoperatorio de la microcirugía plástica reconstructiva para prevenir el éxtasis venoso, así como en traumatología en el tratamiento de las artrosis. Dicha terapia se está aplicando en numerosos países, incluyendo España en donde su uso es una realidad en Hospitales y servicios muy concretos.The use of leeches is a medical therapy which has been used since ancient civilizations until the first decades of the XXth century. It is an irreplaceable remedy to treat many types of illness, however, it fell into disuse due to the increasing confidence in scientific development and because it became considered old-fashioned, obsolete and valueless. The present paper tries to release the therapy with leeches, its peak in the ancient times, its later disuse and the recent reappearance in the post-operative of plastic microsurgical reconstruction in order to prevent the poisoning ecstasy and also in the degenerative osteoarthritis treatment. This therapy is being applied to numerous countries, Spain included, where it is being used at hospitals in particular medical services.

  20. Worm peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Husson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they orchestrate diverse functions. In the last decade, high-throughput approaches based on mass spectrometry helped the identification of endogenously occurring peptides in different species. We here review biochemical strategies to obtain sequence information of natural (non-tryptic peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the related nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Ascaris suum with particular attention for sample preparation and methodology. In addition, we describe seven new C. elegans neuropeptides that we recently discovered by sequencing additional peptides. Finally, we explain how differential peptidomics approaches were used to characterize key neuropeptide processing enzymes.

  1. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  2. Track-a-worm, an open-source system for quantitative assessment of C. elegans locomotory and bending behavior.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sijie Jason Wang

    Full Text Available A major challenge of neuroscience is to understand the circuit and gene bases of behavior. C. elegans is commonly used as a model system to investigate how various gene products function at specific tissue, cellular, and synaptic foci to produce complicated locomotory and bending behavior. The investigation generally requires quantitative behavioral analyses using an automated single-worm tracker, which constantly records and analyzes the position and body shape of a freely moving worm at a high magnification. Many single-worm trackers have been developed to meet lab-specific needs, but none has been widely implemented for various reasons, such as hardware difficult to assemble, and software lacking sufficient functionality, having closed source code, or using a programming language that is not broadly accessible. The lack of a versatile system convenient for wide implementation makes data comparisons difficult and compels other labs to develop new worm trackers. Here we describe Track-A-Worm, a system rich in functionality, open in source code, and easy to use. The system includes plug-and-play hardware (a stereomicroscope, a digital camera and a motorized stage, custom software written to run with Matlab in Windows 7, and a detailed user manual. Grayscale images are automatically converted to binary images followed by head identification and placement of 13 markers along a deduced spline. The software can extract and quantify a variety of parameters, including distance traveled, average speed, distance/time/speed of forward and backward locomotion, frequency and amplitude of dominant bends, overall bending activities measured as root mean square, and sum of all bends. It also plots worm travel path, bend trace, and bend frequency spectrum. All functionality is performed through graphical user interfaces and data is exported to clearly-annotated and documented Excel files. These features make Track-A-Worm a good candidate for implementation in

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 ...

  4. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold helps keep down pain and swelling. If pain continues or your vision is blurry, get to a doctor right away. ! If you get hit in the eye with flying metal, wood, or material from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If ...

  5. Robustifying eye interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a gaze typing system based on consumer hardware. Eye tracking based on consumer hardware is subject to several unknown factors. We propose methods using robust statistical principles to accommodate uncertainties in image data as well as in gaze estimates to improve accuracy. We...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear ...

  9. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Refractive Surgery Procedures What Is Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)? LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Leer en Español: LASIK—Cirugía ocular con láser ... loss of close-up focusing power. How the LASIK procedure works LASIK is performed while the patient ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... Employee Emergency Information NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. ...

  12. Eyes on the Road

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    One of the first lessons new drivers learn is to keep their eyes on the road. Unfortunately, cell phones and other electronic devices are causing many drivers to lose their focus, and sometimes their lives. In this podcast, Rebecca Naumann discusses the dangers of distracted driving.

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... NEI Intranet (Employees Only) *PDF files require the free Adobe® Reader® software for viewing. This website is ...

  14. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... an eye disorder that slowly destroys sharp, central vision A tear in the retina A blockage of the small veins that carry ... Since parts of the retina are burned, you may develop: Mild loss ... vision If not treated, diabetic retinopathy can cause permanent ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ... Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on Social Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  17. Eye Cosmetic Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you're wearing? In the United States, the use of color additives is strictly regulated. A number of color ... to color additives that are not approved for use in the area of the eye. Avoid color additives that are not approved for use in ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Pressroom Contacts Dustin Hays - Chief, Science Communication dustin.hays@nih.gov Kathryn DeMott, Media Relations ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” ... DeMott, Media Relations Kathryn.DeMott@nih.gov NEI Office of Communications ( ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the white outer coating of the eye. Vitreous humor (VIT-ree-us HYOO-mer) is the clear ... in Spanish (Información en español) Website, Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information ...

  1. The effects of chronic radiation on reproductive success of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harrison, F.L.; Anderson, S.L.

    1988-12-01

    The effects of lifetime exposure to chronic irradiation on reproductive success were assessed for laboratory populations of the polychaete worm Neanthes arenaceodentata. Lifetime exposure was initiated upon the spawning of the P 1 female and was terminated upon spawning of the F 1 female. Groups of experimental worms received either no radiation (controls) or 0.19, 2.1, or 17 mGy/h. The total dose received by the worms was either background or approximately 0.55, 6.5, or 54 Gy, respectively. The broods from the F 1 mated pairs were sacrificed before hatching occurred, and information was obtained on brood size, on the number of normal and abnormal embryos, and on the number of embryos that were living, dying, and dead. The mean number of embryos in the broods from the F 1 females exposed to lifetime radiation of 0.19 and 2.1 mGy/h was not significantly different from the mean number of embryos from control females; however, the mean number of embryos was different from those F 1 females exposed to 17 mGy/h. There was a significant reduction in the number of live embryos in the broods from the F 1 mated pairs that were exposed to the lowest dose rate given, 0.19 mGy/h, as well as those exposed to 2.1 and 17 mGy/h. Also, increased percentages of abnormal embryos were determined in the broods of all the radiation-exposed groups. 39 refs., 10 figs., 15 tabs

  2. Facile Synthesis of Worm-like Micelles by Visible Light Mediated Dispersion Polymerization Using Photoredox Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeow, Jonathan; Xu, Jiangtao; Boyer, Cyrille

    2016-06-08

    Presented herein is a protocol for the facile synthesis of worm-like micelles by visible light mediated dispersion polymerization. This approach begins with the synthesis of a hydrophilic poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (POEGMA) homopolymer using reversible addition-fragmentation chain-transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Under mild visible light irradiation (λ = 460 nm, 0.7 mW/cm(2)), this macro-chain transfer agent (macro-CTA) in the presence of a ruthenium based photoredox catalyst, Ru(bpy)3Cl2 can be chain extended with a second monomer to form a well-defined block copolymer in a process known as Photoinduced Electron Transfer RAFT (PET-RAFT). When PET-RAFT is used to chain extend POEGMA with benzyl methacrylate (BzMA) in ethanol (EtOH), polymeric nanoparticles with different morphologies are formed in situ according to a polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA) mechanism. Self-assembly into nanoparticles presenting POEGMA chains at the corona and poly(benzyl methacrylate) (PBzMA) chains in the core occurs in situ due to the growing insolubility of the PBzMA block in ethanol. Interestingly, the formation of highly pure worm-like micelles can be readily monitored by observing the onset of a highly viscous gel in situ due to nanoparticle entanglements occurring during the polymerization. This process thereby allows for a more reproducible synthesis of worm-like micelles simply by monitoring the solution viscosity during the course of the polymerization. In addition, the light stimulus can be intermittently applied in an ON/OFF manner demonstrating temporal control over the nanoparticle morphology.

  3. Animal-sediment interactions: the effect of ingestion and excretion by worms on mineralogy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. J. Needham

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available By controlled experiments that simulate marine depositional environments, it is shown that accelerated weathering and clay mineral authigenesis occur during the combined process of ingestion, digestion and excretion of fine-grained sediment by two species of annelid worms. Previously characterized synthetic mud was created using finely ground, low-grade metamorphic slate (temperature approximately 300°C containing highly crystalline chlorite and muscovite. This was added to experiment and control tanks along with clean, wind-blown sand. Faecal casts were collected at regular intervals from the experimental tanks and, less frequently, from the control tanks. Over a period of many months the synthetic mud (slate proved to be unchanged in the control tanks, but was significantly different in faecal casts from the experimental tanks that contained the worms Arenicola marina and Lumbricus terrestris. Chlorite was preferentially destroyed during digestion in the gut of A. marina. Both chlorite and muscovite underwent XRD peak broadening with a skew developing towards higher lattice spacing, characteristic of smectite formation. A neoformed Fe-Mg-rich clay mineral (possibly berthierine and as-yet undefined clay minerals with very high d-spacing were detected in both A. marina and L. terrestris cast samples. We postulate that a combination of the low pH and bacteria-rich microenvironment in the guts of annelid worms may radically accelerate mineral dissolution and clay mineral precipitation processes during digestion. These results show that macrobiotic activity significantly accelerates weathering and mineral degradation as well as mineral authigenesis. The combined processes of sediment ingestion and digestion thus lead to early diagenetic growth of clay minerals in clastic sediments.

  4. WormScan: a technique for high-throughput phenotypic analysis of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark D Mathew

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: There are four main phenotypes that are assessed in whole organism studies of Caenorhabditis elegans; mortality, movement, fecundity and size. Procedures have been developed that focus on the digital analysis of some, but not all of these phenotypes and may be limited by expense and limited throughput. We have developed WormScan, an automated image acquisition system that allows quantitative analysis of each of these four phenotypes on standard NGM plates seeded with E. coli. This system is very easy to implement and has the capacity to be used in high-throughput analysis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Our system employs a readily available consumer grade flatbed scanner. The method uses light stimulus from the scanner rather than physical stimulus to induce movement. With two sequential scans it is possible to quantify the induced phototactic response. To demonstrate the utility of the method, we measured the phenotypic response of C. elegans to phosphine gas exposure. We found that stimulation of movement by the light of the scanner was equivalent to physical stimulation for the determination of mortality. WormScan also provided a quantitative assessment of health for the survivors. Habituation from light stimulation of continuous scans was similar to habituation caused by physical stimulus. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: There are existing systems for the automated phenotypic data collection of C. elegans. The specific advantages of our method over existing systems are high-throughput assessment of a greater range of phenotypic endpoints including determination of mortality and quantification of the mobility of survivors. Our system is also inexpensive and very easy to implement. Even though we have focused on demonstrating the usefulness of WormScan in toxicology, it can be used in a wide range of additional C. elegans studies including lifespan determination, development, pathology and behavior. Moreover, we have even adapted the

  5. Insurance against an Old World screw-worm fly invasion of Australia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tweddle, Neil; Mahon, Rod J.

    2000-01-01

    Australia is fortunate that neither the New World screw-worm fly Cochliomyia hominivorax (Coquerel) (NWSWF) nor the Old World screw-worm fly, Chrysomya bezziana Villeneuve (OWSWF), have become established within our country, although much of the northern areas are environmentally suitable (Suthurst et al. 1989). The OWSWF is a substantial threat as it is prevalent in the neighbouring countries of Papua New Guinea and Indonesia. Perhaps more importantly, it is also present in many of our trading partners in Southeast Asia. The export of live cattle from northern Australian ports to Southeast Asian nations has become an important and rapidly expanding trade. The fly is also present near ports in the Middle East which receive considerable numbers of live sheep exported from various Australian ports. In both situations, there is the ever-present opportunity for the screw-worm fly (SWF) to return to Australia as larvae, pupae or adults on stock carrying vessels. While this means of transport probably represents the most likely route for the pest to gain access to Australia, accidental transport on aircraft and active myiases on humans or companion animals remain possibilities. The introduction of the NWSWF into Australia is considered unlikely, but not impossible. Indeed, in 1992, an Australian tourist returning from South America carried live NWSWF larvae into Australia in a neck wound. Fortunately, the diagnosis was made early and the wound was treated, preventing any larvae evacuating. This was in southern Australia in May, where climatic conditions are unlikely to favour survival at that time of the year, but it demonstrates the potential for inadvertent introduction. Models of the impact of the OWSWF indicate that the cost of an invasion would be high. It has been estimated by Anaman et al. (1993), that the annual cost in an average climate year to beef cattle, sheep and dairy producers of an endemic establishment would be A$281 million. These costs would be

  6. Using an eye tracker for accurate eye movement artifact correction

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kierkels, J.J.M.; Riani, J.; Bergmans, J.W.M.; Boxtel, van G.J.M.

    2007-01-01

    We present a new method to correct eye movement artifacts in electroencephalogram (EEG) data. By using an eye tracker, whose data cannot be corrupted by any electrophysiological signals, an accurate method for correction is developed. The eye-tracker data is used in a Kalman filter to estimate which

  7. Production and characterization of monospecific adult worm infections of Strongylus vulgaris and Strongylus edentatus in ponies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClure, J R; Chapman, M R; Klei, T R

    1994-02-01

    Since 1978, 20 surgical implantations of either Strongylus vulgaris or Strongylus edentatus have been performed in our laboratory for the purpose of obtaining single species cultures of these parasites. Following surgical implantation peak EPG values of 13-327 (S. vulgaris) and 363-1284 (S. edentatus) generally occurred during the first 3 weeks post-implantation. Duration of infections was as long as 5 years. Successful outcome of such surgeries appears to be related to the total number of parasites used (> or = 38) and the ratio of female to male worms implanted (1:1 or 2:1).

  8. Expression of five acetylcholine receptor subunit genes in Brugia malayi adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Acetylcholine receptors (AChRs are required for body movement in parasitic nematodes and are targets of “classical” anthelmintic drugs such as levamisole and pyrantel and of newer drugs such as tribendimidine and derquantel. While neurotransmission explains the effects of these drugs on nematode movement, their effects on parasite reproduction are unexplained. The levamisole AChR type (L-AChRs in Caenorhabditis elegans is comprised of five subunits: Cel-UNC-29, Cel-UNC-38, Cel-UNC-63, Cel-LEV-1 and Cel-LEV-8. The genome of the filarial parasite Brugia malayi contains nine AChRs subunits including orthologues of Cel-unc-29, Cel-unc-38, and Cel-unc-63. We performed in situ hybridization with RNA probes to localize the expression of five AChR genes (Bm1_35890-Bma-unc-29, Bm1_20330-Bma-unc-38, Bm1_38195-Bma-unc-63, Bm1_48815-Bma-acr-26 and Bm1_40515-Bma-acr-12 in B. malayi adult worms. Four of these genes had similar expression patterns with signals in body muscle, developing embryos, spermatogonia, uterine wall adjacent to stretched microfilariae, wall of Vas deferens, and lateral cord. Three L-AChR subunit genes (Bma-unc-29, Bma-unc-38 and Bma-unc-63 were expressed in body muscle, which is a known target of levamisole. Bma-acr-12 was co-expressed with these levamisole subunit genes in muscle, and this suggests that its protein product may form receptors with other alpha subunits. Bma-acr-26 was expressed in male muscle but not in female muscle. Strong expression signals of these genes in early embryos and gametes in uterus and testis suggest that AChRs may have a role in nervous system development of embryogenesis and spermatogenesis. This would be consistent with embryotoxic effects of drugs that target these receptors in filarial worms. Our data show that the expression of these receptor genes is tightly regulated with regard to localization in adult worms and developmental stage in embryos and gametes. These results may help to explain the

  9. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp.) in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    OpenAIRE

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys; Mamani-Pati Francisco; Sainz-Mendoza Humberto; Villca-Huanaco René

    2012-01-01

    This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp.) in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered) and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW) in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis). The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greate...

  10. First record of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 in the Mediterranean Sea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.M. FERRERO-VICENTE

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Specimens of the sipunculan worm Phascolion (Phascolion caupo Hendrix, 1975 have been collected for the first time in the Mediterranean Sea, thus increasing the number of known sipunculan species of up to 36 in this area. They were encountered on soft bottoms from the coast of San Pedro del Pinatar (Western Mediterranean. Thirty specimens were collected at a depth ranging from 32.6 to 37.2 m, mainly in sandy substrata with high load of silt and clays. 80% of the individuals were found inhabiting empty shells of gastropods or empty tubes of serpulid polychaetes.

  11. Analysis and testing of model worm type tanks on shaking table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, D.

    1996-01-01

    This report contains the summary of the lectures, notes and discussions at the IAEA workshop on Benchmark studies for seismic analysis of WWER NPPs, held in 1995 at St. Petersburg. The specific subject of main interest at the meeting was the testing of unanchored worm-type tanks in the emergency cooling systems of WWER-440/213 NPPs such as Paks and Bohunice. Seismic forces were not considered in the original design, therefore this is one of the important tasks in the assessment of seismic vulnerabilities of the WWER NPPs

  12. Delay Induced Hopf Bifurcation of an Epidemic Model with Graded Infection Rates for Internet Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Zhao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A delayed SEIQRS worm propagation model with different infection rates for the exposed computers and the infectious computers is investigated in this paper. The results are given in terms of the local stability and Hopf bifurcation. Sufficient conditions for the local stability and the existence of Hopf bifurcation are obtained by using eigenvalue method and choosing the delay as the bifurcation parameter. In particular, the direction and the stability of the Hopf bifurcation are investigated by means of the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, a numerical example is also presented to support the obtained theoretical results.

  13. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) in Newborns

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... as well as the sexually transmitted infection called gonorrhea. Women with untreated gonorrhea can pass the bacteria to her baby during ... conjunctivitis is less common than conjunctivitis caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia. Symptoms usually include red eye(s) and ...

  14. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  15. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  16. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Schistosoma mansoni: quantitative aspects of the fertility and survival of worms obtained from irradiated cercariae (3 Krad), in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sa Cardoso, G. de; Coelho, P.M.Z.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation on the fertility of female mice, as well as the survival of worms in their portal system, have been observed in four groups of outbred albino mice (Mus musculus), experimentally infected with ca 450 cercariae of Schistosoma mansoni (LE and SJ strains), by transcutaneous route. The cercariae used were a) non-irradiated (control groups), and b) irradiated with 3 Krad of gamma irradiation (Co-60). From the 33 rd day on, some stability in the population of surviving worm could be observed. This population remained constant till the end of the observation period (90 th day), notedly in relation to the LE strain . Thus, it was concluded that gamma irradiation (at the dose of 3 Krad) is able to hinder the worm egg production in 98.1% of the infected mice. Further, it was observed that the few detected eggs were dead. Females were found to be more resistant to irradiation. The irradiation effect on the mortality of male worms was statistically significant scarcely from the 61 st day on. The long period of permanence of the sterile adult irradiated worms in the portal system of mice and their probable involvement in the development of immuno-protection (the so-called concomitant immunity, without the immuno-pathological involvements for the host) are here discussed. (author)

  18. Approach to the resistance of exportation tebo worms when irradiated with gamma ray through a quarantine treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva R, Samy; Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina; Aburto, Patricio

    2009-01-01

    The tebo worms or butterworms (Chilecomadia moorei) are widely used in Chile in fishing, and so are in the international markets although there are some countries, that use these species, to a less extent for preparing food reptiles. Some foreign countries requirements demand, from the exporters, to carry out quarantine treatments related to the sterilization by ionizing energy, however customers need to make sure about their products safety and that is why it is compulsory to establish limits in connection with worms' irradiation resistance. The irradiation effect on a worms sample using doses of 0.3; 0.45; 0.6 and 0.9 kGy was studied macroscopically, after 1 hour, and then 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. One of the equipment utilized had a Cobalt 60 source, where as the other one had Cesium 137 irradiators, with a dose rate of 42.7 Gy minute (min) -1 and 37.1 Gy min -1 , respectively. The results concluded that tebo worms can resist more than 3 times the doses suggested by the meta countries without reducing the population drastically, nevertheless it is required to increase the number of worms to be analyzed in order to validate the findings. (author)

  19. Approach to the resistance of exportation tebo worms when irradiated with gamma ray through a quarantine treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva R, Samy; Zarate S, Herman; Aguirre H, Paulina [Comision Chilena de Energia Nuclear, Santiago (Chile)], e-mail: hzarate@cchen.cl, e-mail: paguirre@cchen.cl, e-mail: ssilva@cchen.cl; Aburto, Patricio [Expo Agro (Chile)], e-mail: expoag@expoag.cl

    2009-07-01

    The tebo worms or butterworms (Chilecomadia moorei) are widely used in Chile in fishing, and so are in the international markets although there are some countries, that use these species, to a less extent for preparing food reptiles. Some foreign countries requirements demand, from the exporters, to carry out quarantine treatments related to the sterilization by ionizing energy, however customers need to make sure about their products safety and that is why it is compulsory to establish limits in connection with worms' irradiation resistance. The irradiation effect on a worms sample using doses of 0.3; 0.45; 0.6 and 0.9 kGy was studied macroscopically, after 1 hour, and then 30, 60 and 90 days after the treatment. One of the equipment utilized had a Cobalt 60 source, where as the other one had Cesium 137 irradiators, with a dose rate of 42.7 Gy minute (min){sup -1} and 37.1 Gy min{sup -1}, respectively. The results concluded that tebo worms can resist more than 3 times the doses suggested by the meta countries without reducing the population drastically, nevertheless it is required to increase the number of worms to be analyzed in order to validate the findings. (author)

  20. Effect of gamma-rays on some technologic properties of cocoon and filament of the silk worm (Bombyx mori L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binkh, T.T.; Petkov, N.; Malinova, K.

    1993-01-01

    The effect of irradiation of silk worm eggs with 1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00, 5.00, 6.00 and 7.00 Gy gamma-rays on some major technologic properties of cocoons and filament of the mulbery silk worm was studied. Single irradiation of silk worm during the phase of highest lengthening of nucleus development causes both stimulating and inhibitory effect on the technologic properties of the cocoons and the filament. The degree of stimulation or inhibition is dependent on the irradiation dose, the specificity of technologic processes and biologic characteristics of silk worm species and hybrids. Gamma-irradiation with doses 2.00 and 3.00 Gy stimulates the increase in weight of silk covering by 2.07-8.28%, raw cocoon silkness by 0.38-3.21 points and length of cocoon filament by 40-151 m. Irradiation of silk worm eggs with 2.00-4.00 Gy gamma-rays decreases by 1.4-2.3 kg (12.61-21.91%) the quantity of raw cocoons, required for production of 1 kg grege. 9 refs., 4 tabs. (author)

  1. Petri Net and Probabilistic Model Checking Based Approach for the Modelling, Simulation and Verification of Internet Worm Propagation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misbah Razzaq

    Full Text Available Internet worms are analogous to biological viruses since they can infect a host and have the ability to propagate through a chosen medium. To prevent the spread of a worm or to grasp how to regulate a prevailing worm, compartmental models are commonly used as a means to examine and understand the patterns and mechanisms of a worm spread. However, one of the greatest challenge is to produce methods to verify and validate the behavioural properties of a compartmental model. This is why in this study we suggest a framework based on Petri Nets and Model Checking through which we can meticulously examine and validate these models. We investigate Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered (SEIR model and propose a new model Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious-Recovered-Delayed-Quarantined (Susceptible/Recovered (SEIDQR(S/I along with hybrid quarantine strategy, which is then constructed and analysed using Stochastic Petri Nets and Continuous Time Markov Chain. The analysis shows that the hybrid quarantine strategy is extremely effective in reducing the risk of propagating the worm. Through Model Checking, we gained insight into the functionality of compartmental models. Model Checking results validate simulation ones well, which fully support the proposed framework.

  2. Moving eyes and naming objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meulen, F.F. van der

    2001-01-01

    The coordination between eye movements and speech was examined while speakers were naming objects. Earlier research has shown that eye movements reflect on the underlying visual attention. Also, eye movements were found to reflect upon not only the visual and conceptual processing of an object, but

  3. LIMNOLOGICAL OPTOMETRY: EXAMINING EARTH'S EYE

    Science.gov (United States)

    In Thoreau's Walden, a lake is described as the landscape's most expressive feature and the earth's eye. Collectively, scientists are charged by society to assess, monitor, and remedy maladies of earth's eye in the same way optometrists maintain the health of the human eye. This ...

  4. Eye Protection in Kansas Schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hay, Kenneth M.; And Others

    A law passed by a state legislature requires that students in industrial arts shops and science laboratories must wear eye protective devices. Explanatory material presents the text of the bill and guidelines for implementation, including--(1) types of eye hazards, (2) types of protective devices, (3) administrating eye safety equipment, (4)…

  5. Entangled histories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-01-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time. (paper)

  6. Prevalence and phenomenology of eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M; Orth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Eye tics seem to be common in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of eye tics in 212 GTS patients. Of the 212 patients, 201 (94.8 %) reported eye tics in their life-time; 166 (78.3 %) reported eye movement tics (rolling eyes up/down, eyes looking sideways, staring), and 194 (91.5 %) eyelid/eyebrow movement tics (frowning, raising eyebrows, blinking or winking). Patients with eye movement tics were younger at age of GTS onset (7.1 ± 4 years) than those without (8.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.024). Tic severity positively correlated to lifetime history of eye and/or eyelid/eyebrow movement tics. Our data confirm that eye and eyelid/eyebrow movement tics are very common in GTS, and most patients have several types of eye tics over time. Eye tic phenomenology was similar in patients with or without co-morbidity. Eye tics are therefore likely to be a core feature of GTS and should be routinely evaluated in order to strengthen the clinician's confidence in diagnosing GTS.

  7. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  8. Antischistosomal activity of a calcium channel antagonist on schistosomula and adult Schistosoma mansoni worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Silva-Moraes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Current schistosomiasis control strategies are largely based on chemotherapeutic agents and a limited number of drugs are available today. Praziquantel (PZQ is the only drug currently used in schistosomiasis control programs. Unfortunately, this drug shows poor efficacy in patients during the earliest infection phases. The effects of PZQ appear to operate on the voltage-operated Ca2+channels, which are located on the external Schistosoma mansoni membrane. Because some Ca2+channels have dihydropyridine drug class (a class that includes nifedipine sensitivity, an in vitro analysis using a calcium channel antagonist (clinically used for cardiovascular hypertension was performed to determine the antischistosomal effects of nifedipine on schistosomula and adult worm cultures. Nifedipine demonstrated antischistosomal activity against schistosomula and significantly reduced viability at all of the concentrations used alone or in combination with PZQ. In contrast, PZQ did not show significant efficacy when used alone. Adult worms were also affected by nifedipine after a 24 h incubation and exhibited impaired motility, several lesions on the tegument and intense contractility. These data support the idea of Ca2+channels subunits as drug targets and favour alternative therapeutic schemes when drug resistance has been reported. In this paper, strong arguments encouraging drug research are presented, with a focus on exploring schistosomal Ca2+channels.

  9. Histological changes in the testes of gamma irradiated cotton leaf worm Spodoptera Littoralis (Boisd.). Vol. 4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sallam, H A; Ibrahim, S M; El-Naggar, S M [Department of biological applications, Nuclear Research Center, Atomic Energy Authority, Cairo (Egypt); Abel--Gawad, A A; Assar, M M [Plant protection Department, Faculty of Africulture Moshtohor, Zagazig University cairo (Egypt)

    1996-03-01

    Male adults, less than 24 hours, of cotton leaf worm, S. Littoralis (Boisd.) were gamma irradiated with 100, 150 and 200 Gy and mated with normal females. The resulting males of each generation were used for mating normal females throughout three successive generations. Dissection of adult male parents immediately after irradiation showed no histological effects on testes. The volumes of testes of F{sub 1}, F{sub 2} and F{sub 3} generations of cotton leaf worm male moths were significantly affected by the radiation doses applied to parental males. The effects on internal anatomy and histology of the male reproductive system confirm that Gy had minimal effect on the volume and the structure of the testes among the three successive generations. Most of the sperm bundles appeared normal and the individual sperm was fully formed indicating normal metamorphosis. However, a dose of 150 Gy showed morphological abnormalities and retardation in sperm maturation. At 200 Gy the volume and structure of the testes were severely affected. Damage in the testes was highest among F{sub 1}, and was minimized in the other generations. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  10. Biogeography of worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) driven by end-Cretaceous mass extinction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longrich, Nicholas R; Vinther, Jakob; Pyron, R Alexander; Pisani, Davide; Gauthier, Jacques A

    2015-05-07

    Worm lizards (Amphisbaenia) are burrowing squamates that live as subterranean predators. Their underground existence should limit dispersal, yet they are widespread throughout the Americas, Europe and Africa. This pattern was traditionally explained by continental drift, but molecular clocks suggest a Cenozoic diversification, long after the break-up of Pangaea, implying dispersal. Here, we describe primitive amphisbaenians from the North American Palaeocene, including the oldest known amphisbaenian, and provide new and older molecular divergence estimates for the clade, showing that worm lizards originated in North America, then radiated and dispersed in the Palaeogene following the Cretaceous-Palaeogene (K-Pg) extinction. This scenario implies at least three trans-oceanic dispersals: from North America to Europe, from North America to Africa and from Africa to South America. Amphisbaenians provide a striking case study in biogeography, suggesting that the role of continental drift in biogeography may be overstated. Instead, these patterns support Darwin and Wallace's hypothesis that the geographical ranges of modern clades result from dispersal, including oceanic rafting. Mass extinctions may facilitate dispersal events by eliminating competitors and predators that would otherwise hinder establishment of dispersing populations, removing biotic barriers to dispersal. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  11. Microplastic moves pollutants and additives to worms, reducing functions linked to health and biodiversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, Mark Anthony; Niven, Stewart J; Galloway, Tamara S; Rowland, Steve J; Thompson, Richard C

    2013-12-02

    Inadequate products, waste management, and policy are struggling to prevent plastic waste from infiltrating ecosystems [1, 2]. Disintegration into smaller pieces means that the abundance of micrometer-sized plastic (microplastic) in habitats has increased [3] and outnumbers larger debris [2, 4]. When ingested by animals, plastic provides a feasible pathway to transfer attached pollutants and additive chemicals into their tissues [5-15]. Despite positive correlations between concentrations of ingested plastic and pollutants in tissues of animals, few, if any, controlled experiments have examined whether ingested plastic transfers pollutants and additives to animals. We exposed lugworms (Arenicola marina) to sand with 5% microplastic that was presorbed with pollutants (nonylphenol and phenanthrene) and additive chemicals (Triclosan and PBDE-47). Microplastic transferred pollutants and additive chemicals into gut tissues of lugworms, causing some biological effects, although clean sand transferred larger concentrations of pollutants into their tissues. Uptake of nonylphenol from PVC or sand reduced the ability of coelomocytes to remove pathogenic bacteria by >60%. Uptake of Triclosan from PVC diminished the ability of worms to engineer sediments and caused mortality, each by >55%, while PVC alone made worms >30% more susceptible to oxidative stress. As global microplastic contamination accelerates, our findings indicate that large concentrations of microplastic and additives can harm ecophysiological functions performed by organisms. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Radiation sensitivity and gene expression in Enchytraeus japonensis, a species of earth worm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Yoshihisa

    2011-01-01

    The importance of radiological protection of the environment based on scientific principles is gaining international recognition as environment issues garner more attention. Earthworm (annelids) is a ubiquitous soil invertebrate known to play an important role in the maintenance of the soil ecosystem and thus selected as one of 12 kinds of reference animals and plants by the ICRP. In the present study, radiation sensitivity and gene expression in a recently described terrestrial oligochaete, Enchytraeus japonensis (E. japonensis) were studied. E. japonensis worms were acutely irradiated at increasing doses of gamma radiation, and the number of worms after 30 days of radiation was examined. The dose effectively inhibiting 50% of proliferation was approximately 22 Gy, which was comparable to the dose required to elicit growth inhibition in other earthworm species. In order to seek other biological endpoints for more sensitive and/or quicker assessment of radiation effects, gene expression profiling in E. japonensis was also performed, and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase I (PARP I) was identified as a radiation-responsive gene. PARP I transcript level increased dose-dependently. (author)

  13. Comparison of various extraction techniques for the determination of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mooibroek, D; Hoogerbrugge, R; Stoffelsen, B H G; Dijkman, E; Berkhoff, C J; Hogendoorn, E A

    2002-10-25

    Two less laborious extraction methods, viz. (i) a simplified liquid extraction using light petroleum or (ii) microwave-assisted solvent extraction (MASE), for the analysis of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in samples of the compost worm Eisenia andrei, were compared with a reference method. After extraction and concentration, analytical methodology consisted of a cleanup of (part) of the extract with high-performance gel permeation chromatography (HPGPC) and instrumental analysis of 15 PAHs with reversed-phase liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection (RPLC-FLD). Comparison of the methods was done by analysing samples with incurred residues (n=15, each method) originating from an experiment in which worms were exposed to a soil contaminated with PAHs. Simultaneously, the performance of the total lipid determination of each method was established. Evaluation of the data by means of principal component analysis (PCA) and analysis of variance (ANOVA) revealed that the performance of the light petroleum method for both the extraction of PAHs (concentration range 1-30 ng/g) and lipid content corresponds very well with the reference method. Compared to the reference method, the MASE method yielded somewhat lower concentrations for the less volatile PAHs, e.g., dibenzo[ah]anthracene and benzo[ghi]perylene and provided a significant higher amount of co-extracted material.

  14. The landscape of human genes involved in the immune response to parasitic worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fumagalli Matteo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background More than 2 billion individuals worldwide suffer from helminth infections. The highest parasite burdens occur in children and helminth infection during pregnancy is a risk factor for preterm delivery and reduced birth weight. Therefore, helminth infections can be regarded as a strong selective pressure. Results Here we propose that candidate susceptibility genes for parasitic worm infections can be identified by searching for SNPs that display a strong correlation with the diversity of helminth species/genera transmitted in different geographic areas. By a genome-wide search we identified 3478 variants that correlate with helminth diversity. These SNPs map to 810 distinct human genes including loci involved in regulatory T cell function and in macrophage activation, as well as leukocyte integrins and co-inhibitory molecules. Analysis of functional relationships among these genes identified complex interaction networks centred around Th2 cytokines. Finally, several genes carrying candidate targets for helminth-driven selective pressure also harbour susceptibility alleles for asthma/allergy or are involved in airway hyper-responsiveness, therefore expanding the known parallelism between these conditions and parasitic infections. Conclusions Our data provide a landscape of human genes that modulate susceptibility to helminths and indicate parasitic worms as one of the major selective forces in humans.

  15. Nutrition and the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Congdon, N G; West, K P

    1999-12-01

    The topic "nutrition and the eye" cannot adequately be covered in a single review article; indeed, dozens of books and hundreds of articles have been written on the subject. This review concentrates on three areas in which specific nutrients are known or theorized to have a major impact on vision and the visual system: vitamin A deficiency; antioxidants and their proposed role in the prevention of age-related cataract and macular degeneration; and nutritional optic neuropathies, including those of the recent Cuban epidemic. In addition, this article touches on nutritional treatments that have been suggested for several less common eye diseases and, finally, considers several less prevalent conditions in which deficiency of or excess exposure to a particular nutrient has been associated with ocular pathology.

  16. Managing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorothy Mutie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on what you found during the eye examination, classify the injury as a non-mechanical injury (chemical or thermal injury, a non-globe injury (orbital or adnexal injury or as a mechanical globe injury. In the case of mechanical globe injuries, it is important to classify the injury according to the Birmingham Eye Trauma Terminology System (BETTS and write it down in the patient’s notes; this will help to ensure that everyone involved in caring for the patient will have a consistent understanding of the type of injury. The resulting uniformity of terminology also helps with research, making it possible to compare data and do audits of injuries – which is essential for prevention.

  17. Awareness and practices on eye effects among people with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Village Health Nurse ( VHN) (3%). Awareness on ex- amination of eye was significantly less among elderly and those with lesser education level [Table 3]. African Health Sciences Vol 16 Issue 1, March 2016. Table 1: Details regarding history of Diabetes Mellitus among study population (n=105). CHARACTERISTICS.

  18. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  19. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based...... of creativity at both process and content levels. The benefits, limitations, and possible applications of the method are considered in the broader context of creativity studies....

  20. Christoph Scheiner's eye studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daxecker, F

    1992-01-01

    Christoph Scheiner was born in 1573 or 1575. In 1595 he entered into the Order of the Jesuits; he died in 1650. In 1619 his book Oculus, dealing with the optics of the eye, appeared in Innsbruck. The invention of the telescope was of utmost importance for progress in astronomical and physical research. Scheiner himself built telescopes and discovered the sunspots. As a result, an unpleasant priority dispute with Galilei ensued. From 1624 onwards, Scheiner was in Rome, where his main work Rosa Ursina was published in 1630. A part of this book deals with the physiological optics of the eye as well. Some of his discoveries and experiments are taken from these two books: determination of the radius of curvature of the cornea, discovery of the nasal exit of the optic nerve, increase in the radius of curvature of the lens in case of accommodation, Scheiner's procedure (double images with ametropia), refractive indices of various parts of the eye, Scheiner's experiment. Without any doubt, Christoph Scheiner belongs to the foremost scientists of the first half of the 17th century.

  1. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  2. Longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study: rationale, study design and research methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanna, Rohit C; Murthy, Gudlavalleti Vs; Marmamula, Srinivas; Mettla, Asha Latha; Giridhar, Pyda; Banerjee, Seema; Shekhar, Konegari; Chakrabarti, Subhabrata; Gilbert, Clare; Rao, Gullapalli N

    2016-03-01

    The rationale, objectives, study design and procedures for the longitudinal Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study are described. A longitudinal cohort study was carried out. Participants include surviving cohort from the rural component of Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study. During 1996-2000, Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Survey was conducted in three rural (n = 7771) and one urban (n = 2522) areas (now called Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1). In 2009-2010, a feasibility exercise (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2) for a longitudinal study (Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3) was undertaken in the rural clusters only, as urban clusters no longer existed. In Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3, a detailed interview will be carried out to collect data on sociodemographic factors, ocular and systemic history, risk factors, visual function, knowledge of eye diseases and barriers to accessing services. All participants will also undergo a comprehensive eye examination including photography of lens, optic disc and retina, Optic Coherence Tomography of the posterior segment, anthropometry, blood pressure and frailty measures. Measures include estimates of the incidence of visual impairment and age-related eye disease (lens opacities, glaucoma and age-related macular degeneration) and the progression of eye disease (lens opacities and myopia) and associated risk factors. Of the 7771 respondents examined in rural areas in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 1, 5447 (70.1%) participants were traced in Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 2. These participants will be re-examined. Andhra Pradesh Eye Disease Study 3 will provide data on the incidence and progression of visual impairment and major eye diseases and their associated risk factors in India. The study will provide further evidence to aid planning eye care services. © 2015 Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Ophthalmologists.

  3. Eye movement perimetry in glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trope, G E; Eizenman, M; Coyle, E

    1989-08-01

    Present-day computerized perimetry is often inaccurate and unreliable owing to the need to maintain central fixation over long periods while repressing the normal response to presentation of peripheral stimuli. We tested a new method of perimetry that does not require prolonged central fixation. During this test eye movements were encouraged on presentation of a peripheral target. Twenty-three eyes were studied with an Octopus perimeter, with a technician monitoring eye movements. The sensitivity was 100% and the specificity 23%. The low specificity was due to the technician's inability to accurately monitor small eye movements in the central 6 degrees field. If small eye movements are monitored accurately with an eye tracker, eye movement perimetry could become an alternative method to standard perimetry.

  4. Bifurcation Analysis for an SEIRS-V Model with Delays on the Transmission of Worms in a Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zizhen Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Hopf bifurcation for an SEIRS-V model with delays on the transmission of worms in a wireless sensor network is investigated. We focus on existence of the Hopf bifurcation by regarding the diverse delay as a bifurcation parameter. The results show that propagation of worms in the wireless sensor network can be controlled when the delay is suitably small under some certain conditions. Then, we study properties of the Hopf bifurcation by using the normal form theory and center manifold theorem. Finally, we give a numerical example to support the theoretical results.

  5. Study on the effect of gamma-radiation on the development of silk worm (Bombyx mori L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grekov, D.

    1995-01-01

    These investigations are of special interest to the breeding practice considering the lack of profound research activity. The main purpose was to find out possibilities of using gamma-rays as a mutagenic factor in sericulture. The results obtained show that the irradiation of silk worm eggs at b 2 stage of embryo development with 5 Gy stimulates the biological development. The irradiation doses of 10-25 Gy inhibit mulberry silk worm development. The different species react in different way. Probably mutation forms are to be sought within 10-25 Gy doses. 10 refs., 3 tabs. (author)

  6. System and Method for Eye Tracking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    A method and system for monitoring the motion of one or both eyes, includes capturing a sequence of overlapping images of a subject's face including an eye and the corresponding non-eye region; identifying a plurality of keypoints in each image; mapping corresponding keypoints in two or more images...... of the sequence; assigning the keypoints to the eye and to the corresponding non-eye region; calculating individual velocities of the corresponding keypoints in the eye and the corresponding non-eye region to obtain a distribution of velocities; extracting at least one velocity measured for the eye and at least...... one velocity measured for the corresponding non-eye region; calculating the eye-in-head velocity for the eye based upon the measured velocity for the eye and the measured velocity for the corresponding non-eye region; and calculating the eye-in-head position based upon the eye- in-head velocity....

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ...

  8. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pennafirme, Simone F.; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T.

    2013-01-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles within the

  9. Viability of microcomputed tomography to study tropical marine worm galleries in humid muddy sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennafirme, Simone F., E-mail: sipennafirme@gmail.com [Universidade Federal Fluminense (UFF), Niteroi, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biologia Marinha; Machado, Alessandra S.; Lima, Inaya; Suzuki, Katia N.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: machado@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: inaya@lin.ufrj.br, E-mail: norisuzuki6@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: ricardo@lin.ufj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Instrumentacao Nuclear

    2013-07-01

    Bioturbation is an ecological process driven by organisms, which transports nutrients and gases from air/water to sediment through their galleries, by the time they feed, burrow and/or construct galleries. This exchange is vital to the maintenance of micro and macrobenthic organisms, mainly in muddy flat environments. Species with distinct galleries could create levels of bioturbation, affecting the benthic interactions. In this sense, it is fundamental developing a non-destructive method that permits identifying/quantifying the properties of these galleries. The recent advances in micro-computed tomography are allowing the high resolution 3D images generation. However, once muddy sediments are rich in organic matter and interstitial water, these would lead to motion artifacts which could, in turn, decrease the accuracy of galleries identification/quantification. In this context, the aim of this study was to develop a protocol which combines laboratory experiments and microtomography analysis in order to generate accurate 3D images of the small marine worm's galleries within humid muddy sediments. The sediment was collected at both muddy flats of Surui's and Itaipu lagoon's mangroves (RJ-Brazil), sieved (0.5mm mesh) and introduced with one individual of the marine worm Laeonereis acuta (Nereididae, Polychaeta) in each acrylic corer holders (4.4cm of internal diameter). High energy microtomography scanner was used to obtain 3D images and the setup calibration was 130 kV and 61 mA. Each acquisition image time was among 4h and 6h. Several procedures of drying remained water inside the cores were performed aiming obtaining images without movement artifacts due to circulating water, and this issue was one of the main studied parameter. In order to investigate possible chemical effects, 2ml of formalin (35%) with menthol were added to the surface of the cores. The results show that although the drying time was appropriated, the chemicals created bubbles

  10. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR), representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3%) and 238 goat flocks (52.6%) were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6%) and goat (85.1%) flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year) in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007), whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of anthelmintic resistance

  11. Worm control practice against gastro-intestinal parasites in Norwegian sheep and goat flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vatn Synnøve

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Anthelmintic treatment is the most common way of controlling nematode infections in ruminants. However, several countries have reported anthelmintic resistance (AR, representing a limitation for sustainable small ruminant production. The knowledge regarding worm control management represents a baseline to develop a guideline for preventing AR. The aim of the present study was therefore to improve our knowledge about the worm control practices in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Methods A questionnaire survey regarding worm control practices was performed in small ruminant flocks in Norway. Flocks were selected from the three main areas of small ruminant farming, i.e. the coastal, inland and northern areas. A total of 825 questionnaires, comprising 587 sheep flocks (return rate of 51.3% and 238 goat flocks (52.6% were included. Results The results indicated that visual appraisal of individual weight was the most common means of estimating the anthelmintic dose used in sheep (78.6% and goat (85.1% flocks. The mean yearly drenching rate in lambs and ewes were 2.5 ± 1.7 and 1.9 ± 1.1, respectively, whereas it was 1.0 (once a year in goats. However, these figures were higher in sheep in the coastal area with a rate of 3.4 and 2.2 in lambs and ewes, respectively. Benzimidazoles were the predominant anthelmintic class used in sheep flocks (64.9% in 2007, whereas benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were both equally used in dairy goat flocks. In the period of 2005-2007, 46.3% of the sheep flocks never changed the anthelmintic class. The dose and move strategy was practiced in 33.2% of the sheep flocks. Conclusions The present study showed that inaccurate weight calculation gives a risk of under-dosing in over 90% of the sheep and goat flocks in Norway. Taken together with a high treatment frequency in lambs, a lack of anthelmintic class rotation and the common use of a dose-and-move strategy, a real danger for development of

  12. Dry eye syndrome: A rising occupational hazard in tropical countries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavita R Bhatnagar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim : The aim of this study was to find out the prevalence of dry eye and evaluate personal and environmental risk factors attributable to dry eye in a hospital-based population. Materials and Methods : In this cross-sectional study, 1890 patients above 15 years of age were screened randomly for dry eye. McMonnies Dry Eye Questionnaire, Schirmer′s test, tear film breakup time (TBUT, presence of conjunctival injection, punctate epithelial erosions (PEE, and meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD were used to diagnose dry eye. Patient demographics including age, sex, smoking, and occupation and working environment were also recorded. Correlation of dry eye signs with symptoms and TFBUT and Schirmer′s tests was also assessed. Results : The prevalence of dry eye was 10.58%. The prevalence was higher in outdoor workers (17.77%. The male: female ratio was 2.33:1. The number of males was highest in the 56-60 (13% and 60-65 (14% years age groups while that of females was highest in the 46-50 (16.67% years age group. A total of 10% of the patients were smokers, while 8% were tobacco chewers. A 2.15-fold increase was found in the odds for dry eye in those exposed to excessive wind, 1.91-fold to sunlight exposure, and 2.04 for air pollution. Abnormally low TBUT and Schirmer′s tests were significantly associated with dry eye signs (P=0.009 and 0.014, respectively. Conclusion : Dry eye is a leading cause of ocular discomfort in OPD patients. Excessive exposure to wind, sunlight, high temperature, and air pollution was significantly related to dry eyes. There was a significant correlation between patient′s history, symptoms, dry eye signs and objective tests for tear film. The rural people and those with outdoor occupation are more exposed to extraneous influences of environmental factors in tropical climate. These factors affect the tear film and ocular surface causing the dry eye syndrome.

  13. Family History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your family history includes health information about you and your close relatives. Families have many factors in common, including their genes, ... as heart disease, stroke, and cancer. Having a family member with a disease raises your risk, but ...

  14. Phytoplankton reduction in near-bottom water caused by filter-feeding Nereis diversicolor - Implications for worm growth and population grazing impact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Poul Scheel; Riisgård, H. U.; Poulsen, L.

    1996-01-01

    reduced specific growth rate of worms at the sea floor (0.2 ± 1.1% d-1), compared to worms elevated just 10 cm above the sediment surface (2.5 ± 0.8% d-1), indicates that extremely meagre food conditions may be prevailing at the bottom. Experimental laboratory data on the development of vertical algal...

  15. With eyes wide open

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frølunde, Lisbeth; Pedersen, Chistina Hee

    2013-01-01

    and that vulnerability and discomfort are often overlooked as transformative forces. The analysis draws on data from a classroom context in which university students tested methods for facilitating creative thinking in a course on data production and creativity. The data stem from a session on the method “Lego Serious...... in constructions of group identity when an external facilitator disrupts a context. We argue that the facilitation of creative methods calls for keeping our eyes wide open for tensions, for they are the mulch that improves the soil....

  16. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  17. Low temperature industrial waste heat utilization in the area 'Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal-Worms'

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nunold, K.; Krebs, A.

    1982-01-01

    The aim of the study is the elaboration of reliable facts whether and under which conditions low temperature industrial waste heat systems can be economically utilized for heating purposes. The source of the waste heat are power- and industrial plants. In order to obtain reliable results, investigations have been carried out in the area Speyer-Ludwigshafen-Frankenthal and Worms. These investigations showed a number of application possibilities for heat pumps and it became moreover evident that there is a high variaiton of the heat requirement due to social components and the different type of building structures of the consumers. The economic results showed that the application of this heating system can under certain conditions supplement resp. replace other heating systems. (orig.) [de

  18. Economic impact of eradicating the New World screw-worm (Cochliomyia hominivorax) from Jamaica

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vo, Trang T.

    2000-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to assess the economic feasibility of eradicating the New World screw-worm (NWS), Cochliomyia hominivorax Coquerel, from Jamaica. The endemic presence of the NWS in Jamaica has caused the livestock sector to incur recurrent economic costs and losses. Eradication of the pest utilising the environmentally-benign sterile insect technique (SIT) has proved technologically feasible on other islands and other parts of the world. Based on these successful experiences, the proposed project to eradicate the NWS from Jamaica is expected to be similarly effective in eliminating the pest from Jamaica in a relatively short period of time. The elimination of the pest from the Caribbean would lessen the significant risk of re-infestation of eradicated areas and pest-free countries in the region

  19. WormGUIDES: an interactive single cell developmental atlas and tool for collaborative multidimensional data exploration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santella, Anthony; Catena, Raúl; Kovacevic, Ismar; Shah, Pavak; Yu, Zidong; Marquina-Solis, Javier; Kumar, Abhishek; Wu, Yicong; Schaff, James; Colón-Ramos, Daniel; Shroff, Hari; Mohler, William A; Bao, Zhirong

    2015-06-09

    Imaging and image analysis advances are yielding increasingly complete and complicated records of cellular events in tissues and whole embryos. The ability to follow hundreds to thousands of cells at the individual level demands a spatio-temporal data infrastructure: tools to assemble and collate knowledge about development spatially in a manner analogous to geographic information systems (GIS). Just as GIS indexes items or events based on their spatio-temporal or 4D location on the Earth these tools would organize knowledge based on location within the tissues or embryos. Developmental processes are highly context-specific, but the complexity of the 4D environment in which they unfold is a barrier to assembling an understanding of any particular process from diverse sources of information. In the same way that GIS aids the understanding and use of geo-located large data sets, software can, with a proper frame of reference, allow large biological data sets to be understood spatially. Intuitive tools are needed to navigate the spatial structure of complex tissue, collate large data sets and existing knowledge with this spatial structure and help users derive hypotheses about developmental mechanisms. Toward this goal we have developed WormGUIDES, a mobile application that presents a 4D developmental atlas for Caenorhabditis elegans. The WormGUIDES mobile app enables users to navigate a 3D model depicting the nuclear positions of all cells in the developing embryo. The identity of each cell can be queried with a tap, and community databases searched for available information about that cell. Information about ancestry, fate and gene expression can be used to label cells and craft customized visualizations that highlight cells as potential players in an event of interest. Scenes are easily saved, shared and published to other WormGUIDES users. The mobile app is available for Android and iOS platforms. WormGUIDES provides an important tool for examining developmental

  20. Giant kidney worm (Dioctophyma renale) infections in dogs from Northern Paraná, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakagawa, Tizianne Larissa Duim Ribeiro; Bracarense, Ana Paula Frederico Rodrigues Loureiro; dos Reis, Antônio Carlos Faria; Yamamura, Milton Hissashi; Headley, Selwyn Arlington

    2007-04-30

    This article describes the pathological observations of Dioctophyma renale in dogs from the northern region of the State of Paraná, Brazil. A female, 6-year-old dog, Fila Brasileiro breed and a 16-year-old, male Poodle were diagnosed positive for D. renale during routine necropsy. Clinically, both dogs demonstrated hematuria, and the Poodle had a radiographic diagnosis of prostatic tumor, but neither had a clinical diagnosis of this infection prior to necropsy. Three giant worms were observed in the urinary bladder of the first case and one within the renal pelvis of the other dog. Histological findings were similar in both cases and represented compressive atrophy due to the presence of the nematode. Additionally, aspects of the life cycle, pathogenesis and epidemiology associated with this parasitism in Brazil are also discussed.