WorldWideScience

Sample records for eye worm history

  1. Worm

    CERN Document Server

    Bowden, Mark

    2012-01-01

    Worm is the gripping story of the 'Conficker' computer virus- which, since its introduction in November 2008, has infected millions of computers around the world - and the cyber security elites who have joined forces in a high-tech game of cops and robbers to find its creators and defeat them. This dramatic cybercrime story travels from the Ukraine to the United States (and all parts in between) to explore the next frontier in terrorism. It is the story of a dazzling battle of wits over the future of the Internet. In Worm, Mark Bowden delivers an unputdownable account of the ongoing and large

  2. Here, There and Everywhere: The Radiolar Eyes of Fan Worms (Annelida, Sabellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bok, Michael J; Capa, María; Nilsson, Dan-Eric

    2016-11-01

    Fan worms (Annelida: Sabellidae) possess some of the strangest eyes in nature. Their eponymous fans are composed of two sets of radiolar tentacles that project from the head up out of the worm's protective tube into the water column. Primarily used for respiration and feeding, these radioles are also often involved in photoreception. They display a surprising diversity of eyes of varying levels of sophistication, ranging from scattered single ocelli to compound eyes with up to hundreds of facets. These photoreceptors could represent a relatively recent evolutionary development to cope with a sessile, tube-dwelling lifestyle, and the primary cerebral eyes (haplessly positioned within the tube most of the time) amount to little more than minute pigment cups with scant visual potential. The radiolar eyes on the other hand, appear to function as visual burglar alarms for detecting looming predators and eliciting a startle response for the worm to rapidly retreat within its fortified tube. Despite sometimes resembling arthropod compound eyes, the radiolar photoreceptors have many canonically vertebrate-like physiological characteristics. Considering the unusual and apparently recently evolved nature of the fan worm radiolar photoreceptors, these animals are an excellent case for examining the emergence of novel visual systems, the development of rudimentary visually guided behaviors, and the function of distributed sensory systems. Here, we review over 100 years of investigations into the anatomical diversity of sabellid radiolar photoreceptors and eyes in an evolutionary and functional context. We provide new information on radiolar eye structure in several species of fan worms, and we attempt to organize the various eye types and ocellar structures into meaningful hierarchies. We discuss the developmental, evolutionary, and functional significance of the radiolar eyes and highlight areas of future interest in deciphering their unique nature.

  3. Creating the "History through Deaf Eyes" Documentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hott, Lawrence

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author outlines how a documentary film about the history of deafness in the United States, inspired by the exhibition "History through Deaf Eyes," is going to be created. "History through Deaf Eyes" will have a dual focus. Part of its subject is deafness from the inside: the personal experiences of deaf people (and hearing…

  4. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eballe, André Omgbwa; Epée, Emillienne; Koki, Godefroy; Owono, Didier; Mvogo, Côme Ebana; Bella, Assumpta Lucienne

    2008-12-01

    We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.

  5. Local transmission of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in southern Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magnis, Johannes; Naucke, Thorsten J; Mathis, Alexander; Deplazes, Peter; Schnyder, Manuela

    2010-02-01

    This report describes the first assumed locally transmitted case of the eye worm Thelazia callipaeda in a dog living in southern Germany. A 4-year-old male golden retriever from the town of Bühl in north eastern Baden-Württemberg, about 10 km from the German-French border, showed one sided lacrimation for over 2 weeks. Despite the application of antibiotics, there was no improvement, and the dog additionally showed blepharospasmus, epiphora and red conjunctivas. A deepened eye inspection revealed five whitish filiform parasites that were morphologically identified as T. callipaeda. The partial sequence of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1, 605 bp) from one specimen revealed a novel haplotype, which differs by 1.3% from the only one (haplotype 1) identified in Europe so far. Since the infected dog had never been abroad with the exception of two daytrips to the close Alsace region in France, the transmission of T. callipaeda most probably was domestic. With the presence of end hosts and Phortica flies nourishing on lachrymal secretions acting as intermediate hosts and an increasing number of dogs travelling to and coming from endemic regions in the South, the establishment of T. callipaeda in large parts of Europe cannot be excluded.

  6. Photorefraction of eyes: history and future prospects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howland, Howard C

    2009-06-01

    A brief history of photorefraction, i.e., the refraction of eyes by photography or computer image capture, is given. The method of photorefraction originated from an optical scheme for secret communication across the Berlin wall. This scheme used a lens whose focus about infinity was modulated by a movable reflecting surface. From this device, it was recognized that the vertebrate eye was such a reflector and that its double-pass pointspread could be used to compute its degree of defocus. Subsequently, a second, totally independent invention, more accurately termed "photoretinoscopy," used an eccentric light source and obtained retinoscopic-like images of the reflex in the pupil of the subject's eyes. Photoretinoscopy has become the preferred method of photorefraction and has been instantiated in a wide variety of devices used in vision screening and research. This has been greatly helped by the parallel development of computer and digital camera technology. It seems likely that photorefractive methods will continue to be refined and may eventually become ubiquitous in clinical practice.

  7. History of Neuropsychology Through Epilepsy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W.

    2010-01-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions. PMID:20395259

  8. History of neuropsychology through epilepsy eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loring, David W

    2010-06-01

    In the 19th century, Hughlings Jackson relied on clinical history, seizure semiology, and the neurologic examination as methods for seizure localization to inform the first epilepsy surgeries. In the 20th century, psychological and neuropsychological tests were first employed as both diagnostic and prognostic measures. The contemporary practice of epilepsy evaluation and management includes neuropsychology as a critical component of epilepsy care and research, and epilepsy and neuropsychology have enjoyed a very special and synergistic relationship. This paper reviews how epilepsy has shaped the practice of neuropsychology as a clinical service by asking critical questions that only neuropsychologists were in a position to answer, and how clinical care of epilepsy patients has been significantly improved based on neuropsychology's unique contributions.

  9. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Omgbwa Eballe

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomnia. Examination revealed a living and active adult Loa loa worm in the anterior chamber of the left eye. The worm was extracted under general anesthetic.Keywords: Loa loa, red eye, Cameroon

  10. Programmed Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piele, Donald T.

    1982-01-01

    A hungry worm is looking for something to eat according to very specific rules, and the path he takes is a graph. The problem is detailed in Applesoft BASIC using low resolution graphics for worms that turn 90 degrees and high resolution for worms that can turn 45 degrees. (MP)

  11. The seeds and the worms: Ludwik Fleck and the early history of germ theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brorson, Stig

    2006-01-01

    The Polish microbiologist and philosopher of science, Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961), was a pioneer in constructivist history and philosophy of science. Based on studies in the history of syphilis, Fleck hypothesized that many established scientific facts are linked, in their development, to pre-scientific "proto-ideas." In 1935, Fleck proposed that the history of germ theories could be approached through his thesis on proto-ideas. His proposal, however, remained little more than a vague suggestion and was never developed in further detail. This paper introduces the concept of proto-ideas and discusses the central epistemological and historiographical implications of Fleck's thesis. The Fleckian approach offers an attractive alternative to positivist reconstructions of the early history of germ theories and provides a useful framework for a deeper understanding of the sociocultural background of the development of modern knowledge of infection.

  12. [Symbolics of the eye in mythology and history].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, Aloys

    2005-01-01

    Researches on the creation of Russian ophthalmological terms by Martin Il'ich Shein in 1750 caused semiotic investigations on universal female respectively lunar connotations of the eye as Latin pupilla--puppet, the small picture of an observer's person reflected by the cornea of another one face to face to him/her, Greek (see text)-- kore, which means girl, pupil and globe of the eye. Kore is the Minoan name of a spring goddess, called Greek Persephone as part of a triadic mother-goddess, in summer Demeter in autumn Hekate. Such goddesses are represented by the three enlighted main phases of the moon: full moon and both half moons. Its dark phase, new moon, is the fourth element of compressing 28 or 29 phases of a lunation to its least understandable numerical abstraction 4. Its mythologic meaning dead or underworld takes part in believing in cyclic renewing of life. The universal code 4 for moon contains a 5200 years old precuneiform Sumeric sign NAM2, shaped as 4-stepped ladder, representing Inanna of Uruk, which is phenomenically identic with the to-days Chinese sign mù (see text) for eye. The reason of this identity is founded on 370.000 old astronomic abstractions, drawn on beasts' bones by paleolithic men at Bilzingsleben (Thuringia). We may trace and estimate important facts in history--for example the transfer of the imperial role from the Byzantine emperors to Charles the Great by pope Leo III in 800--by such abstractions as semiotic tools, which have been used in mythological sources as Odyssey or in arts, as Pablo Picasso had done commenting cruel facts of World War II.

  13. Vision problems, eye care history, and ocular protection among migrant farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quandt, Sara A; Feldman, Steven R; Vallejos, Quirina M; Schulz, Mark R; Verma, Amit; Fleischer, Alan B; Arcury, Thomas A

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe the self-reported eye conditions, eyecare history, and eye safety practices of migrant farmworkers in eastern North Carolina. The authors administered interviews to 79 farmworkers recruited at migrant clinics. Data collected included eye-related complaints and diagnoses, self-assessed visual acuity, eye symptoms, use of protective gear during work, and attitudes toward eye protection gear. Fair or poor eyesight was reported by 21.3%. Only 4 (5.1%) reported wearing glasses or contact lenses. More than 11% reported difficulty in recognizing a friend across the street, and 19.5% reported difficulty in reading. About 20% reported each of several eye symptoms. Fewer than 1 in 10 wore eye protection at work. Of all, 38% reported never having visited any eyecare professional. Farmworkers have a high level of unmet need for both routine preventive eye care and treatment or correction of vision problems.

  14. From the "Eye of History" to "A Second Gaze": The Visual Archive and the Marginalized in the History of Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grosvenor, Ian

    2007-01-01

    This paper has several concerns. It is about both the stories we tell and the images we place with those stories; it is also about historical practice and the power of the image to generate new research approaches. The paper is organized into three sections: the "eye of history" and historians and the visual archive; histories of black…

  15. Eye size at birth in prosimian primates: life history correlates and growth patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua R Cummings

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Primates have large eyes relative to head size, which profoundly influence the ontogenetic emergence of facial form. However, growth of the primate eye is only understood in a narrow taxonomic perspective, with information biased toward anthropoids. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: We measured eye and bony orbit size in perinatal prosimian primates (17 strepsirrhine taxa and Tarsius syrichta to infer the extent of prenatal as compared to postnatal eye growth. In addition, multiple linear regression was used to detect relationships of relative eye and orbit diameter to life history variables. ANOVA was used to determine if eye size differed according to activity pattern. In most of the species, eye diameter at birth measures more than half of that for adults. Two exceptions include Nycticebus and Tarsius, in which more than half of eye diameter growth occurs postnatally. Ratios of neonate/adult eye and orbit diameters indicate prenatal growth of the eye is actually more rapid than that of the orbit. For example, mean neonatal transverse eye diameter is 57.5% of the adult value (excluding Nycticebus and Tarsius, compared to 50.8% for orbital diameter. If Nycticebus is excluded, relative gestation age has a significant positive correlation with relative eye diameter in strepsirrhines, explaining 59% of the variance in relative transverse eye diameter. No significant differences were found among species with different activity patterns. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The primate developmental strategy of relatively long gestations is probably tied to an extended period of neural development, and this principle appears to apply to eye growth as well. Our findings indicate that growth rates of the eye and bony orbit are disassociated, with eyes growing faster prenatally, and the growth rate of the bony orbit exceeding that of the eyes after birth. Some well-documented patterns of orbital morphology in adult primates, such as the enlarged orbits

  16. Evolution of Scale Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gonzalez, Brett Christopher

    of adaptability and convergent evolution between relatively closely related scale worms. While some morphological and behavioral modifications in cave polynoids reflected troglomorphism, other modifications like eye loss were found to stem from a common ancestor inhabiting the deep sea, further corroborating...... the deep sea ancestry of scale worm cave fauna. In conclusion, while morphological characterization across Aphroditiformia appears deceptively easy due to the presence of elytra, convergent evolution during multiple early radiations across wide ranging habitats have confounded our ability to reconstruct......) caves, and the interstitium, recovering six monophyletic clades within Aphroditiformia: Acoetidae, Aphroditidae, Eulepethidae, Iphionidae, Polynoidae, and Sigalionidae (inclusive of the former ‘Pisionidae’ and ‘Pholoidae’), respectively. Tracing of morphological character evolution showed a high degree...

  17. The eyes have it: A brief history of crustacean neuroendocrinology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hopkins, Penny M

    2012-02-01

    To help celebrate the 50th anniversary of General and Comparative Endocrinology, the history of only a small portion of crustacean endocrinology is presented here. The field of crustacean endocrinology dates back to the decades prior to the establishment of General and Comparative Endocrinology and the first article about crustacean endocrinology published in this journal was concerned with the anatomy of neurosecretory and neurohemal structures in brachyuran crabs. This review looks at the history of neuroendocrinology in crustaceans during that time and tries to put perspective on the future of this field.

  18. What Does the Eye See? Reading Online Primary Source Photographs in History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levesque, Stephane; Ng-A-Fook, Nicholas; Corrigan, Julie

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study looks at how a sample of preservice teachers and historians read visuals in the context of school history. The participants used eye tracking technology and think-aloud protocol, as they examined a series of online primary source photographs from a virtual exhibit. Voluntary participants (6 students and 2 professional…

  19. Environmental complexity and biodiversity: the multi-layered evolutionary history of a log-dwelling velvet worm in Montane Temperate Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, James K; Sands, Chester J; Garrick, Ryan C; Gardner, Michael G; Tait, Noel N; Briscoe, David A; Rowell, David M; Sunnucks, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Phylogeographic studies provide a framework for understanding the importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors in shaping patterns of biodiversity through identifying past and present microevolutionary processes that contributed to lineage divergence. Here we investigate population structure and diversity of the Onychophoran (velvet worm) Euperipatoides rowelli in southeastern Australian montane forests that were not subject to Pleistocene glaciations, and thus likely retained more forest cover than systems under glaciation. Over a ~100 km transect of structurally-connected forest, we found marked nuclear and mitochondrial (mt) DNA genetic structuring, with spatially-localised groups. Patterns from mtDNA and nuclear data broadly corresponded with previously defined geographic regions, consistent with repeated isolation in refuges during Pleistocene climatic cycling. Nevertheless, some E. rowelli genetic contact zones were displaced relative to hypothesized influential landscape structures, implying more recent processes overlying impacts of past environmental history. Major impacts at different timescales were seen in the phylogenetic relationships among mtDNA sequences, which matched geographic relationships and nuclear data only at recent timescales, indicating historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Five major E. rowelli phylogeographic groups were identified, showing substantial but incomplete reproductive isolation despite continuous habitat. Regional distinctiveness, in the face of lineages abutting within forest habitat, could indicate pre- and/or postzygotic gene flow limitation. A potentially functional phenotypic character, colour pattern variation, reflected the geographic patterns in the molecular data. Spatial-genetic patterns broadly match those in previously-studied, co-occurring low-mobility organisms, despite a variety of life histories. We suggest that for E. rowelli, the complex topography and history of the region has led to

  20. Environmental complexity and biodiversity: the multi-layered evolutionary history of a log-dwelling velvet worm in Montane Temperate Australia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James K Bull

    Full Text Available Phylogeographic studies provide a framework for understanding the importance of intrinsic versus extrinsic factors in shaping patterns of biodiversity through identifying past and present microevolutionary processes that contributed to lineage divergence. Here we investigate population structure and diversity of the Onychophoran (velvet worm Euperipatoides rowelli in southeastern Australian montane forests that were not subject to Pleistocene glaciations, and thus likely retained more forest cover than systems under glaciation. Over a ~100 km transect of structurally-connected forest, we found marked nuclear and mitochondrial (mt DNA genetic structuring, with spatially-localised groups. Patterns from mtDNA and nuclear data broadly corresponded with previously defined geographic regions, consistent with repeated isolation in refuges during Pleistocene climatic cycling. Nevertheless, some E. rowelli genetic contact zones were displaced relative to hypothesized influential landscape structures, implying more recent processes overlying impacts of past environmental history. Major impacts at different timescales were seen in the phylogenetic relationships among mtDNA sequences, which matched geographic relationships and nuclear data only at recent timescales, indicating historical gene flow and/or incomplete lineage sorting. Five major E. rowelli phylogeographic groups were identified, showing substantial but incomplete reproductive isolation despite continuous habitat. Regional distinctiveness, in the face of lineages abutting within forest habitat, could indicate pre- and/or postzygotic gene flow limitation. A potentially functional phenotypic character, colour pattern variation, reflected the geographic patterns in the molecular data. Spatial-genetic patterns broadly match those in previously-studied, co-occurring low-mobility organisms, despite a variety of life histories. We suggest that for E. rowelli, the complex topography and history of the

  1. Stable Isotopes in Fish Eye Lenses as Potential Recorders of Trophic and Geographic History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Amy A.; Hollander, David J.; Peebles, Ernst B.

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated eye lenses as potential recorders of stable isotope histories in fish because they consist of metabolically inert optical proteins that are deposited in successive, concentric circles (laminae) much like otolith circuli and tree rings. We conducted four different tests on lenses from red snapper, red grouper, gag, and white grunt. The first test was a low-resolution screening of multiple individuals (4–5 radial groups of laminae per lens, all species except white grunt). Along the radial axis, all individuals exhibited substantial isotopic variability. Red snapper individuals separated into two groups based on δ15N and gag separated into two groups based on δ13C. Two gag with the greatest variation were chosen for high-resolution temporal analysis using individual laminae from their second eye lenses. The first-order patterns from the high-resolution analysis generally mimicked patterns from the low-resolution screening of grouped laminae, yet the high-resolution plots revealed early-life details that were not apparent in the low-resolution screenings. For the third test, left- versus right-eye variation was compared using high-resolution methods. White grunt left- and right-eye radial isotopic patterns were almost identical for both δ13C and δ15N, suggesting the variations observed among individual fish were not artifacts. The final test evaluated intra-laminar variation; multiple samples were analyzed from different parts of the same lamina. Seven laminae from three individuals of two species were analyzed in this manner; variations among laminae were found to be much higher than variations within laminae. However, nominal intra-laminar variations were comparable to nominal differences between left and right lenses, suggesting intra-laminar variation established measurement precision. Eye lens isotopes appear to be useful for reconstructing the isotopic histories of individual fish; these histories can be compared with spatially

  2. Stable isotopes in fish eye lenses as potential recorders of trophic and geographic history.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy A Wallace

    Full Text Available We evaluated eye lenses as potential recorders of stable isotope histories in fish because they consist of metabolically inert optical proteins that are deposited in successive, concentric circles (laminae much like otolith circuli and tree rings. We conducted four different tests on lenses from red snapper, red grouper, gag, and white grunt. The first test was a low-resolution screening of multiple individuals (4-5 radial groups of laminae per lens, all species except white grunt. Along the radial axis, all individuals exhibited substantial isotopic variability. Red snapper individuals separated into two groups based on δ15N and gag separated into two groups based on δ13C. Two gag with the greatest variation were chosen for high-resolution temporal analysis using individual laminae from their second eye lenses. The first-order patterns from the high-resolution analysis generally mimicked patterns from the low-resolution screening of grouped laminae, yet the high-resolution plots revealed early-life details that were not apparent in the low-resolution screenings. For the third test, left- versus right-eye variation was compared using high-resolution methods. White grunt left- and right-eye radial isotopic patterns were almost identical for both δ13C and δ15N, suggesting the variations observed among individual fish were not artifacts. The final test evaluated intra-laminar variation; multiple samples were analyzed from different parts of the same lamina. Seven laminae from three individuals of two species were analyzed in this manner; variations among laminae were found to be much higher than variations within laminae. However, nominal intra-laminar variations were comparable to nominal differences between left and right lenses, suggesting intra-laminar variation established measurement precision. Eye lens isotopes appear to be useful for reconstructing the isotopic histories of individual fish; these histories can be compared with spatially

  3. Living with Worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertoni, Filippo

    2016-01-01

    The thesis explores what living together can offer in rethinking political theory and in creating a space in which "politics" is not just a matter between people, but also with nature. These lessons about living together emerge from fieldwork around practices in which worms are central. Thus......, the work focuses on ecologists who, in turn, examine worms; and worms amateurs who learn to collect and identify them in the field. Composting, and the waste-eating of earthworms are also experimented with. The "living together " that worms unearth is about eating and being eaten - a set of relations...

  4. The early history of glaucoma: the glaucous eye (800 BC to 1050 AD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leffler CT

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Christopher T Leffler,1 Stephen G Schwartz,2 Tamer M Hadi,3 Ali Salman,1 Vivek Vasuki1 1Department of Ophthalmology, Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, VA, USA; 2Bascom Palmer Eye Institute, University of Miami Miller School of Medicine, Naples, FL, USA; 3Graduate School of Medicine, University of Tennessee Medical Center at Knoxville, TN, USA Abstract: To the ancient Greeks, glaukos occasionally described diseased eyes, but more typically described healthy irides, which were glaucous (light blue, gray, or green. During the Hippocratic period, a pathologic glaukos pupil indicated a media opacity that was not dark. Although not emphasized by present-day ophthalmologists, the pupil in acute angle closure may appear somewhat green, as the mid-dilated pupil exposes the cataractous lens. The ancient Greeks would probably have described a (normal green iris or (diseased green pupil as glaukos. During the early Common Era, eye pain, a glaucous hue, pupil irregularities, and absence of light perception indicated a poor prognosis with couching. Galen associated the glaucous hue with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Medieval Arabic authors translated glaukos as zarqaa, which also commonly described light irides. Ibn Sina (otherwise known as Avicenna wrote that the zarqaa hue could occur due to anterior prominence of the lens and could occur in an acquired manner. The disease defined by the glaucous pupil in antiquity is ultimately indeterminate, as the complete syndrome of acute angle closure was not described. Nonetheless, it is intriguing that the glaucous pupil connoted a poor prognosis, and came to be associated with a large, anterior, or hard crystalline lens. Keywords: glaucoma, history of ophthalmology, couching

  5. WormBase

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — WormBase is an international consortium of biologists and computer scientists dedicated to providing the research community with accurate, current, accessible...

  6. Immunity Based Worm Detection System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG Zheng; WU Li-fa; WANG Yuan-yuan

    2007-01-01

    Current worm detection methods are unable to detect multi-vector polymorphic worms effectively.Based on negative selection mechanism of the immune system,a local network worm detection system that detects worms was proposed.Normal network service requests were represented by self-strings,and the detection system used self-strings to monitor the network for anomaly.According to the properties of worm propagation,a control center correlated the anomalies detected in the form of binary trees to ensure the accuracy of worm detection.Experiments show the system to be effective in detecting the traditional as well as multi-vector polymorphic worms.

  7. Worms, Worms, and Even More Worms: A Vermicomposting Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide is designed to help teachers gain a better understanding of how to get a worm vermicomposting system started. It provides reference curricula materials for using worms in the classroom. Chapters include: (1) "Why Worm Vermicomposting;" (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting;" (3) "Worm Facts;" (4) "Classroom Activities;" (5) "Lab Activities;"…

  8. The history of the evil eye and its influence on ophthalmology, medicine and social customs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bohigian, G H

    1997-01-01

    Belief in the evil eye is one of the oldest and most widespread superstitions in the world. The concept of the evil eye has influenced present day ophthalmology, medicine, and social customs. Oculus sinister (OS), the serpent and the staff of Asclepius, the symbol of RX, and many social customs are historically related to the evil eye.

  9. Worm Infections in Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weatherhead, Jill E; Hotez, Peter J

    2015-08-01

    • On the basis of research evidence, worm infections are important global child health conditions causing chronic disability that lasts from childhood into adulthood (Table 1). (2)(3) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, the major worm infections found in developing countries include ascariasis, trichuriasis, hookworm infection, and schistosomiasis; toxocariasis, enterobiasis, and cysticercosis are also found in poor regions of North America and Europe. (4)(9)(13) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of expert consensus, children and adolescents are often vulnerable to acquiring large numbers of worms, ie, high-intensity infections (Fig 1)(21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: D • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, moderate and heavy worm burdens cause increased morbidity because of growth and intellectual stunting in children and adolescents. Many of these effects may result from helminth-induced malnutrition. (21)(22)(23) Evidence Quality: C • On the basis of expert consensus and research evidence, worm infections are also commonly associated with eosinophilia. (48) (49) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence as well as consensus, helminthes can cause inflammation in the lung (asthma), gastrointestinal tract (enteritis and colitis), liver (hepatitis and fibrosis), and urogenital tract. (7)(21)(22)(23)(27)(28)(40)(41)(43) Evidence Quality: B • On the basis of research evidence, microscopy techniques for diagnosis of worm infections in children often exhibit suboptimal sensitivities and specificities, necessitating new or improved diagnostic modalities such as polymerase chain reaction. (54)(55) Evidence Quality: A • On the basis of research evidence and expert consensus, mass drug administration (“preventive chemotherapy”) has becomea standard practice for ministries of health in low- and middle-income countries to control intestinal helminth infections and schistosomiasis. (67)(68) Evidence

  10. Weird and wonderful worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wassink, J.

    2015-01-01

    In the WaterLab, biotechnologist Steef de Valk is carrying out experiments with tubifex worms. These threadlike creatures are capable of reducing by half the quantity of sewage sludge from water treatment. No-one really understands how this works.

  11. A Can of Sea Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinn, Donald J.

    1977-01-01

    A comprehensive discussion of the free-living worms that inhabit the beaches and subtidal bottoms of the Cape Cod shoreline is presented. Methods for the location, collection, preservation, and identification of sea worms are identified. (BT)

  12. The Australian Space Eye: studying the history of galaxy formation with a CubeSat

    CERN Document Server

    Horton, Anthony; Mathers, Naomi; Pektovic, Michael; Griffin, Douglas; Barraclough, Simon; Benson, Craig; Dimitrijevic, Igor; Lambert, Andrew; Previte, Anthony; Bowen, John; Westerman, Solomon; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Reisenfeld, Sam; Lawrence, Jon; Zhelem, Ross; Colless, Matthew; Boyce, Russell

    2016-01-01

    The Australian Space Eye is a proposed astronomical telescope based on a 6U CubeSat platform. The Space Eye will exploit the low level of systematic errors achievable with a small space based telescope to enable high accuracy measurements of the optical extragalactic background light and low surface brightness emission around nearby galaxies. This project is also a demonstrator for several technologies with general applicability to astronomical observations from nanosatellites. Space Eye is based around a 90 mm aperture clear aperture all refractive telescope for broadband wide field imaging in the i and z bands.

  13. The Australian Space Eye: studying the history of galaxy formation with a CubeSat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horton, Anthony; Spitler, Lee; Mathers, Naomi; Petkovic, Michael; Griffin, Douglas; Barraclough, Simon; Benson, Craig; Dimitrijevic, Igor; Lambert, Andrew; Previte, Anthony; Bowen, John; Westerman, Solomon; Puig-Suari, Jordi; Reisenfeld, Sam; Lawrence, Jon; Zhelem, Ross; Colless, Matthew; Boyce, Russell

    2016-07-01

    The Australian Space Eye is a proposed astronomical telescope based on a 6U CubeSat platform. The Space Eye will exploit the low level of systematic errors achievable with a small space based telescope to enable high accuracy measurements of the optical extragalactic background light and low surface brightness emission around nearby galaxies. This project is also a demonstrator for several technologies with general applicability to astronomical observations from nanosatellites. Space Eye is based around a 90 mm aperture clear aperture all refractive telescope for broadband wide field imaging in the i' and z' bands.

  14. Intelligent System for Worm Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tarek S. Sobh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Worms are on the top of malware threats attacking computer system although of the evolution of worms detectiontechniques. Early detection of unknown worms is still a problem. This paper produce a method for detecting unknown wormsbased on local victim information. The proposed system uses Artificial Neural Network (ANN for classifying worm/ nonwormtraffic and predicting the percentage of infection in the infected network. This prediction can be used to support decisionmaking process for network administrator to respond quickly to worm propagation in an accurate procedure.

  15. Worm attack detection and response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bo; YU Xiangzhan; FANG Binxing; YUN Xiaochun

    2007-01-01

    There appear many Internet-scale worm incidents in recent years,which have caused severe damage to the society.It is clear that a simple self-propagation worm can quickly spread across the Internet.Therefore,it is necessary to implement automatic mitigation which can detect worm and drop its packet.In this paper,the worm's framework was first analyzed and its two characteristies were detected.Based on the two characteristics,a defending algorithm was presented to protect network.Experimental results verify that our algorithm is very effective to constrain the worm propagation and meanwhile it almost does not interfere in normal activity.

  16. The fascinating early history of optics! Archaeological optics 2009: our knowledge of the early history of lenses, mirrors, and artificial eyes!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enoch, Jay M.

    2009-08-01

    The early history of optics and vision science (older term: physiological optics) is indeed fascinating. The earliest known true lenses have been found in "eyes" of Egyptian statues which contain superb, complex, and well-polished eye-lens units. The oldest ones known are dated circa 2575 BCE = BC, Dynasty IV, Old Kingdom. These eye-lens units induce a fascinating and powerful visual illusion, but they are just too good to have been the first lenses, or even the first lenses of this design! So saying, no earlier dateable lenses have been found in Egypt or elsewhere. Recently, at the Boston Museum of Fine Arts, the writer noted a previously undetected lens in this series (a first in the Western Hemisphere). Oddly, dateable simpler magnifying lenses and burning glasses seem to have appeared later in time (?)! Manufactured mirrors are quite a bit older, dating from circa 6000 BCE in atal Hyk, located in south-central modern-day Turkey. Using these ancient mirrors, the image quality obtained is remarkable! Recently discovered ancient artificial eyes, located, in situ, in exhumed corpses, have been dated circa 3000 BCE (one discovered in Iran) 5000 BCE (one found in Spain). On the 3000 BCE artificial eye, there are drawn light rays (the writer believes these to be the oldest known depiction of light rays!) spreading out from (or passing into) the iris/ pupil border! Added interesting aspects associated with the early development of light-rays are considered. Thus, early optics can be readily traced back to the Neolithic era (the new stone age), and in some cases before that time period. We have deep roots indeed!

  17. Galactic worms. I - Catalog of worm candidates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, Bon-Chul; Heiles, Carl; Reach, William T.

    1992-01-01

    A catalog of candidates for the Galactic worms that are possibly the walls surrounding the superbubbles is compiled; 118 isolated structures that appear both in H I and in IR (60 and 100 microns). Fifty-two are possibly associated with H II regions. It is found that the 100-micron emissivity increases systematically toward the Galactic interior, which is consistent with the increase of the general interstellar radiation field. The 100-micron emissivity of the structures associated with the H II regions is larger than that of the structures without associated H II regions. The 60-100-micron ratio is large, 0.28 +/- 0.03, which may indicate that the grains associated with the atomic gas have a relatively large population of small grains. Thirty-five structures appear in the 408-MHz continuum. The IR and the radio continuum properties suggest that the 408-MHz continuum emission in those structures is very likely thermal. The implications of these results on the ionization of gas far from the Galactic plane are discussed.

  18. Evolutionary history inferred from the de novo assembly of a nonmodel organism, the blue-eyed black lemur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer, Wynn K; Venkat, Aarti; Kermany, Amir R; van de Geijn, Bryce; Zhang, Sidi; Przeworski, Molly

    2015-09-01

    Lemurs, the living primates most distantly related to humans, demonstrate incredible diversity in behaviour, life history patterns and adaptive traits. Although many lemur species are endangered within their native Madagascar, there is no high-quality genome assembly from this taxon, limiting population and conservation genetic studies. One critically endangered lemur is the blue-eyed black lemur Eulemur flavifrons. This species is fixed for blue irises, a convergent trait that evolved at least four times in primates and was subject to positive selection in humans, where 5' regulatory variation of OCA2 explains most of the brown/blue eye colour differences. We built a de novo genome assembly for E. flavifrons, providing the most complete lemur genome to date, and a high confidence consensus sequence for close sister species E. macaco, the (brown-eyed) black lemur. From diversity and divergence patterns across the genomes, we estimated a recent split time of the two species (160 Kya) and temporal fluctuations in effective population sizes that accord with known environmental changes. By looking for regions of unusually low diversity, we identified potential signals of directional selection in E. flavifrons at MITF, a melanocyte development gene that regulates OCA2 and has previously been associated with variation in human iris colour, as well as at several other genes involved in melanin biosynthesis in mammals. Our study thus illustrates how whole-genome sequencing of a few individuals can illuminate the demographic and selection history of nonmodel species.

  19. Viewing American History through Native Eyes: Ideas for Sharing a Different Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Carol C.

    2006-01-01

    A common criticism of American history curricula is that the content mostly relates the activities and accomplishments of Anglo males. The stories and contributions of women and people of color are frequently missing from history textbooks. While authors and publishers have worked in recent times to rectify these omissions, the voice of Native…

  20. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  1. Modal Analysis of Worm and Worm Gear Based on ANSYS Workbench

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liu Yichang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the three-dimensional model of the worm and worm gear by using SolidWorks. On the worm and worm gear modal analysis is carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. Obtain the first 6 order natural frequency and vibration mode characteristics of worm and worm gear. Modal analysis laid the foundation for further study on dynamics analysis, Also for the worm and worm gear structure optimization design provides a reference.

  2. Ordinary Americans: U.S. History through the Eyes of Everyday People [and] Teacher's Guide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monk, Linda R., Ed.

    "Ordinary Americans" covers 500 years of U.S. history, from 1492 to 1992, in almost 200 readings, plus scores of archival photographs. The book relates the traditional events of U.S. history, but as an ordinary person lived it. Thus, the story of the Boston Tea Party is told not by Samuel Adams, but by George Hewes, a cobbler. The story of the…

  3. The Eye or Chemistry? Connoisseurship and Technical Art History for Authentication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wadum, Jørgen; Haack Christensen, Anne; Vila, Anna Espuna

    2014-01-01

    in paintings and eventually the employment of technological (non-invasive or micro invasive) investigative analyses. By engaging the extensive range of tools available within technical art history to the valuation of paintings, we will not only foster mutual understanding between related fields within...... the cultural sector, the work of collectors and the appreciation of collections at large will also benefit greatly from this. CATS has experience in offering short 3-4 day courses in technical art history where art historians, auctioneers and additional fields of interest can experience the full range...

  4. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... emotional support is important. When to Contact a Medical Professional Call your health care provider if: You have bulging eyes and the cause has not yet been diagnosed. Bulging eyes are accompanied by other symptoms. ... The provider will ask about your medical history and do a physical exam. Some questions ...

  5. U.S. History through the Eyes of South Korean Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    An, Sohyun; Kim, Myung Jung; Delacruz, Stacy

    2014-01-01

    The study begins with the premise of the critical need of increased understanding of others in our global times. Given the intensive and extensive, and often complicated and controversial relations between the United States and South Korea in its modern history, it is critical for South Korean youth to build a more accurate understanding of their…

  6. Characterizing Internet Worm Infection Structure

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm infection continues to be one of top security threats. Moreover, worm infection has been widely used by botnets to recruit new bots and construct P2P-based botnets. In this work, we attempt to characterize the network structure of Internet worm infection and shed light on the micro-level information of "who infects whom." Our work quantifies the infection ability of individual hosts and reveals the key characteristics of the underlying topologies formed by worm infection, i.e., the number of children and the generation of the Internet worm infection family tree. Specifically, we first analyze the infection tree of a wide class of worms, for which a new victim is compromised by each existing infected host with equal probability. We find that the number of children has asymptotically a geometric distribution with parameter 0.5. We also discover that the generation follows closely a Poisson distribution and the average path length of the worm infection family tree increases approximately logarithmi...

  7. Worms by number.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glasby, C J; Glasby, S P; Pleijel, F

    2008-09-22

    This paper investigates alternation patterns in length, shape and orientation of dorsal cirri (fleshy segmental appendages) of phyllodocidans, a large group of polychaete worms (Annelida). We document the alternation patterns in several families of Phyllodocida (Syllidae, Hesionidae, Sigalionidae, Polynoidae, Aphroditidae and Acoetidae) and identify the simple mathematical rule bases that describe the progression of these sequences. Two fundamentally different binary alternation patterns were found on the first four segments: 1011 for nereidiform families and 1010 for aphroditiform families. The alternation pattern in all aphroditiform families matches a simple one-dimensional cellular automaton and that for Syllidae (nereidiform) matches the Fibonacci string sequence. Hesionidae (nereidiform) showed the greatest variation in alternation patterns, but all corresponded to various known substitution rules. Comparison of binary patterns of the first 22 segments using a distance measure supports the current ideas on phylogeny within Phyllodocida. These results suggest that gene(s) involved in post-larval segmental growth employ a switching sequence that corresponds to simple mathematical substitution rules.

  8. NEDAC: A WORM COUNTERMEASURE MECHANISM

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr A.B.Ahmed

    disruption of services and significant financial losses to government, transportation ... A vulnerability can be exploited by a worm if it is network reachable, provides .... of the detection and containment systems across of local network across two ...

  9. Internet worm early detection and response mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    In recent years, fast spreading worm has become one of the major threats to the security of the Internet and has an increasingly fierce tendency.In view of the insufficiency that based on Kalman filter worm detection algorithm is sensitive to interval, this article presents a new data collection plan and an improved worm early detection method which has some deferent intervals according to the epidemic worm propagation model, then proposes a worm response mechanism for slowing the wide and fast worm propagation effectively.Simulation results show that our methods are able to detect worms accurately and early.

  10. Phylogeographic model selection leads to insight into the evolutionary history of four-eyed frogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomé, Maria Tereza C.; Carstens, Bryan C.

    2016-01-01

    Phylogeographic research investigates biodiversity at the interface between populations and species, in a temporal and geographic context. Phylogeography has benefited from analytical approaches that allow empiricists to estimate parameters of interest from the genetic data (e.g., θ = 4Neμ, population divergence, gene flow), and the widespread availability of genomic data allow such parameters to be estimated with greater precision. However, the actual inferences made by phylogeographers remain dependent on qualitative interpretations derived from these parameters’ values and as such may be subject to overinterpretation and confirmation bias. Here we argue in favor of using an objective approach to phylogeographic inference that proceeds by calculating the probability of multiple demographic models given the data and the subsequent ranking of these models using information theory. We illustrate this approach by investigating the diversification of two sister species of four-eyed frogs of northeastern Brazil using single nucleotide polymorphisms obtained via restriction-associated digest sequencing. We estimate the composite likelihood of the observed data given nine demographic models and then rank these models using Akaike information criterion. We demonstrate that estimating parameters under a model that is a poor fit to the data is likely to produce values that lead to spurious phylogeographic inferences. Our results strongly imply that identifying which parameters to estimate from a given system is a key step in the process of phylogeographic inference and is at least as important as being able to generate precise estimates of these parameters. They also illustrate that the incorporation of model uncertainty should be a component of phylogeographic hypothesis tests. PMID:27432969

  11. Encounter-based worms: Analysis and Defense

    CERN Document Server

    Tanachaiwiwat, Sapon

    2007-01-01

    Encounter-based network is a frequently-disconnected wireless ad-hoc network requiring immediate neighbors to store and forward aggregated data for information disseminations. Using traditional approaches such as gateways or firewalls for deterring worm propagation in encounter-based networks is inappropriate. We propose the worm interaction approach that relies upon automated beneficial worm generation aiming to alleviate problems of worm propagations in such networks. To understand the dynamic of worm interactions and its performance, we mathematically model worm interactions based on major worm interaction factors including worm interaction types, network characteristics, and node characteristics using ordinary differential equations and analyze their effects on our proposed metrics. We validate our proposed model using extensive synthetic and trace-driven simulations. We find that, all worm interaction factors significantly affect the pattern of worm propagations. For example, immunization linearly decrea...

  12. Dental worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbatani, Sergio; Fiorino, Sirio

    2016-12-01

    During human evolution, the period in which groups of humans stopped harvesting fruits and seeds growing wild and introduced the cultivation of cereals as well as the domestication of animals represents a very important event. This circumstance had a considerable impact on human pathocenosis, increasing the risk of infectious diseases of animal origin. The aim of this review was to summarise the archaeological and palaeo-pathological evidence in the literature concerning this topic. Starting from early prehistory (about 1.5 million years ago) up to the historical period, several authors have described the changes in human habits and the consequent changes in food supply, leading to the transition from a protein- to a carbohydrate-rich diet across a broad interval of time. This led to additional problems for human health. The increased accumulation of carbohydrate debris in the odonto-stomatological apparatus, without the appropriate use of hygiene in the oral cavity, increased the risk of infectious disease involving the mouth. Therefore, since the Neolithic period there has been a higher risk of tooth caries, abscesses, deep infection of the teeth roots, reaching also the mandibular and maxillary bone. Several hypotheses have been proposed by the distinct civilizations, which have alternated in the different ages, to explain the cause of these human health problems, including the idea that a "dental worm" could be involved in this process, such as in the Sumerian period. We describe and discuss further modifications of this theory, developed in Egypt, Assyria, Babylon, China, Greece, in Etruscan cities and in Rome in ancient times as well as in the Middle Ages, and the evolution of scientific thought on this topic in the past 300 years. In addition, the results of some palaeo-pathological studies, which were performed on human remains, such as the maxillary bone and teeth, mainly in different geographical areas in Italy, are examined and reported.

  13. LUBRICATION BASIS THEORY OF WORM PAIR AND TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION ON WORM GEAR SURFACE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    The lubrication basis theory of worm pair is given. The lubrication state of worm gear is analyzed. It is found that the temperature distribution on the tooth surface of worm gear is closely related with the lubrication state and that the temperature on the tooth surface of worm gear is consistent with the characteristic term of mesh and motion of worm pair.

  14. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    OpenAIRE

    Robiah, Y.; Rahayu, S. Siti; Shahrin , S.; M. FAIZAL A.; Zaki, M. Mohd; Marliza, R.

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. Fo...

  15. Ascariasis-associated worm encephalopathy in a young child.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jat, Kana Ram; Marwaha, R K; Panigrahi, Inusha; Gupta, Kunal

    2009-04-01

    Infestation with Ascaris lumbricoides in children has a varied manifestation, but encephalopathy is a very rare presentation. This report describes a case of ascariasis-associated encephalopathy in a child. An 18-month-old boy was admitted with altered sensorium. He had a history of vomiting and was passing Ascaris worms in the vomitus. The cerebrospinal fluid analysis did not reveal any abnormality. The patient was treated with an antihelminthic drug and he recovered completely. Worm encephalopathy should be considered as a differential diagnosis for unexplained encephalopathy in tropical areas.

  16. Brocade SilkWorm 3250

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张越

    2004-01-01

    Brocade SilkWorm 3250是一款8端口的入门级光纤交换机产品。它采用1U设计,主要被设计用来简化SAN存储系统的部署和监控管理。作为基于Brocade第三代通信技术的产品之一.SilkWorm 3250能够提供2Gbps的光纤通道吞吐量.可大幅度改善交换机的运行状况。

  17. Zoology: War of the Worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Telford, Maximilian J; Copley, Richard R

    2016-04-25

    The phylogenetic affinities of Xenacoelomorpha - the phylum comprising Xenoturbella bocki and acoelomorph worms - are debated. Two recent studies conclude they represent the earliest branching bilaterally symmetrical animals, but additional tests may be needed to confirm this notion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Guinea Worm in a Frog

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-03-09

    Dr. Mark Eberhard, a retired parasitologist and CDC guest researcher, discusses Guinea worm infection in a wild-caught frog.  Created: 3/9/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 3/9/2017.

  19. Defense and detection strategies against Internet worms

    CERN Document Server

    Nazario, José

    2004-01-01

    This is the first book focused exclusively on Internet worms, offering you solid worm detection and mitigation strategies for your work in the field. This ground-breaking volume enables you to put rising worm trends into perspective with practical information in detection and defense techniques utilizing data from live networks, real IP addresses, and commercial tools. The book helps you understand the classifications and groupings of worms, and offers a deeper understanding of how they threaten network and system security.

  20. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  1. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Written by: David Turbert Reviewed by: Brenda Pagan- ...

  2. The eye and its diseases in Ancient Egypt

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, S. Ry

    1997-01-01

    Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification......Ophthalmology, History of ophthalmology, eyes in the Ancient Egypt, eye disease in Ancient Egypt, porotic hyperostosis, mummification...

  3. Historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Jens Aage

    Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler......Historie i serien handler om læreplaner og læremidler og deres brug i skolefaget historie. Bogen indeholder nyttige redskaber til at analysere og vurdere læremidler...

  4. New Multi-step Worm Attack Model

    CERN Document Server

    Robiah, Y; Shahrin, S; Faizal, M A; Zaki, M Mohd; Marliza, R

    2010-01-01

    The traditional worms such as Blaster, Code Red, Slammer and Sasser, are still infecting vulnerable machines on the internet. They will remain as significant threats due to their fast spreading nature on the internet. Various traditional worms attack pattern has been analyzed from various logs at different OSI layers such as victim logs, attacker logs and IDS alert log. These worms attack pattern can be abstracted to form worms' attack model which describes the process of worms' infection. For the purpose of this paper, only Blaster variants were used during the experiment. This paper proposes a multi-step worm attack model which can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  5. Low dimensional worm-holes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samardzija, Nikola

    1995-01-01

    A simple three dimensional physical model is proposed to qualitatively address a particular type of dynamics evolving on toroidal structures. In the phase space this dynamics creates appearance of a worm-hole through which a chaotic, quasiperiodic and periodic behaviors are formed. An intriguing topological property of such a system is that it possesses no steady state solutions. As such, it opens some interesting questions in the bifurcation theory. The model also offers a novel qualitative tool for explaining some recently reported experimental and simulation results observed in physics, chemistry and biology.

  6. [The stele of the eye doctor in the Museum of Bar and the logo of the French Language Society for the History of Ophthalmology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raspiller, A

    2015-02-01

    The objectives are to: recall the circumstances of discovery of two corner pillars 45 years apart and other objects belonging to a circa second century Gallo-Roman temple; analyze the sculptures, of which the best known is the "stele of the eye doctor", which the French Language Society for the History of Ophthalmology took as inspiration for its logo; discuss the significance of instruments and procedures within a markedly religious context at a time when the mystery cults appeared; provide elements for discussion on the interpretation of the scenes depicted on the two pillars.

  7. Worms--a "license to kill".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaminsky, Ronald; Rufener, Lucien; Bouvier, Jacques; Lizundia, Regina; Schorderet Weber, Sandra; Sager, Heinz

    2013-08-01

    Worm infections can cause severe harm and death to both humans and numerous domestic and wild animals. Despite the fact that there are many beneficial worm species, veterinarians, physicians and parasitologists have multiple reasons to combat parasitic worms. The pros and cons of various approaches for the discovery of new control methods are discussed, including novel anthelmintics, vaccines and genetic approaches to identify novel drug and vaccine targets. Currently, the mainstay of worm control remains chemotherapy and prophylaxis. The importance of knowledgeable and wise use of the available anthelmintics is highlighted.

  8. With an Eye on "We": A Teacher Research Study of Students Using Narrative Inquiry to Critique Mexican American History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this teacher research study was to examine narrative inquiry as a method for student engagement with course material and the local community. This study sought to understand how students perceived themselves within Mexican American history. While a number of studies have used oral history and narrative effectively, these studies…

  9. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  10. From Flowers to Worms: Understanding Nature's Cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Child Care, 1995

    1995-01-01

    Gardening helps children learn how plants sprout, grow, bloom, and then wither away, leaving seeds behind. Participating in this natural process allows children to experience the stages of life. Suggested gardening activities include studying dandelions, focusing on culture for garden plant selection, and constructing a worm box or worm terrarium…

  11. Worms and Humans: A Happy Divorce?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akuffo, Hannah; Britton, Sven; Schön, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Chronic asymptomatic worm infection, often in combination with tuberculosis (TB), is common in low-income countries. Indeed, a life without worm infestation, as is now the case in most high-income countries, is a recent condition for humankind. Worms and Mycobacterium tuberculosis give rise to different immune response patterns (Th2 vs. Th1 driven), and we have studied whether chronic worm infection affects the susceptibility to and control of TB in the low income country of Ethiopia. Our results, as well of those in the general literature, are inconclusive, although we have some rather strong data in support of adult deworming in relation to vaccination with bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) against TB. In addition, we discuss briefly the putative relationship between chronic worm infestation and autoimmunity/allergy.

  12. Eye redness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloodshot eyes; Red eyes; Scleral injection; Conjunctival injection ... There are many causes of a red eye or eyes. Some are medical emergencies. Others are a cause for concern, but not an emergency. Many are nothing to worry about. Eye ...

  13. Intraocular live male filarial Loa loa worm

    OpenAIRE

    André Omgbwa Eballe; Emillienne Epée; Godefroy Koki; Didier Owono; Côme Ebana Mvogo; Assumpta Lucienne Bella

    2008-01-01

    André Omgbwa Eballe1, Emillienne Epée2, Godefroy Koki2, Didier Owono2, Côme Ebana Mvogo2, Assumpta Lucienne Bella21Gynaeco Obstetric and Paediatric Hospital of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, Cameroon; 2Faculty of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, University of Yaoundé, Yaoundé, CameroonAbstract: We report a case of Loa loa filariasis in an 8-month-old child who presented with a 3-month history of irritated acute red eye and insomn...

  14. Method of accurate grinding for single enveloping TI worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN; Yuehai; ZHENG; Huijiang; BI; Qingzhen; WANG; Shuren

    2005-01-01

    TI worm drive consists of involute helical gear and its enveloping Hourglass worm. Accurate grinding for TI worm is the key manufacture technology for TI worm gearing being popularized and applied. According to the theory of gear mesh, the equations of tooth surface of worm drive are gained, and the equation of the axial section profile of grinding wheel that can accurately grind TI worm is extracted. Simultaneously,the relation of position and motion between TI worm and grinding wheel are expounded.The method for precisely grinding single enveloping TI worm is obtained.

  15. An introduction to worm lab: from culturing worms to mutagenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhuri, Jyotiska; Parihar, Manish; Pires-daSilva, Andre

    2011-01-11

    This protocol describes procedures to maintain nematodes in the laboratory and how to mutagenize them using two alternative methods: ethyl methane sulfonate (EMS) and 4, 5', 8-trimethylpsoralen combined with ultraviolet light (TMP/UV). Nematodes are powerful biological systems for genetics studies because of their simple body plan and mating system, which is composed of self-fertilizing hermaphrodites and males that can generate hundreds of progeny per animal. Nematodes are maintained in agar plates containing a lawn of bacteria and can be easily transferred from one plate to another using a pick. EMS is an alkylating agent commonly used to induce point mutations and small deletions, while TMP/UV mainly induces deletions. Depending on the species of nematode being used, concentrations of EMS and TMP will have to be optimized. To isolate recessive mutations of the nematode Pristionchus pacificus, animals of the F2 generation were visually screened for phenotypes. To illustrate these methods, we mutagenized worms and looked for Uncoordinated (Unc), Dumpy (Dpy) and Transformer (Tra) mutants.

  16. The wondrous eyes of a new technology : A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explo

  17. WDDD: Worm Developmental Dynamics Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyoda, Koji; Adachi, Eru; Masuda, Eriko; Nagai, Yoko; Suzuki, Yoko; Oguro, Taeko; Urai, Mitsuru; Arai, Ryoko; Furukawa, Mari; Shimada, Kumiko; Kuramochi, Junko; Nagai, Eriko; Onami, Shuichi

    2013-01-01

    During animal development, cells undergo dynamic changes in position and gene expression. A collection of quantitative information about morphological dynamics under a wide variety of gene perturbations would provide a rich resource for understanding the molecular mechanisms of development. Here, we created a database, the Worm Developmental Dynamics Database (http://so.qbic.riken.jp/wddd/), which stores a collection of quantitative information about cell division dynamics in early Caenorhabditis elegans embryos with single genes silenced by RNA-mediated interference. The information contains the three-dimensional coordinate values of the outlines of nuclear regions and the dynamics of the outlines over time. The database provides free access to 50 sets of quantitative data for wild-type embryos and 136 sets of quantitative data for RNA-mediated interference embryos corresponding to 72 of the 97 essential embryonic genes on chromosome III. The database also provides sets of four-dimensional differential interference contrast microscopy images on which the quantitative data were based. The database will provide a novel opportunity for the development of computational methods to obtain fresh insights into the mechanisms of development. The quantitative information and microscopy images can be synchronously viewed through a web browser, which is designed for easy access by experimental biologists. PMID:23172286

  18. Linguatula serrata in the anterior chamber of the eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muna Bhende

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of intraocular Linguatula in healthy young female who presented with a history of trivial trauma, dislocated lens, inflammation and secondary glaucoma. A mobile worm was seen in the anterior chamber. Pars plana lensectomy and vitrectomy was planned to remove both the cataractous lens and the parasite during which the worm disappeared from view but was later recovered from the cassette fluid. It was identified as the nymphal form of Linguatula serrata (tongue worm.

  19. Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163902.html Do 'Early Birds' Get the Healthier Worm? Late-to-bed types ... 2017 FRIDAY, March 3, 2017 (HealthDay News) -- Early birds may have a leg up over night owls ...

  20. Scenario Based Worm Trace Pattern Identification Technique

    CERN Document Server

    Rahayu, S Siti; Shahrin, S; Zaki, Mohd M; Irda, R; Faizal, M A

    2010-01-01

    The number of malware variants is growing tremendously and the study of malware attacks on the Internet is still a demanding research domain. In this research, various logs from different OSI layer are explore to identify the traces leave on the attacker and victim logs, and the attack worm trace pattern are establish in order to reveal true attacker or victim. For the purpose of this paper, it will only concentrate on cybercrime that caused by malware network intrusion and used the traditional worm namely blaster worm variants. This research creates the concept of trace pattern by fusing the attackers and victims perspective. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to propose on attackers, victims and multistep, attacker or victim, trace patterns by combining both perspectives. These three proposed worm trace patterns can be extended into research areas in alert correlation and computer forensic investigation.

  1. The self-organizing worm algorithm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    A new multi-modal optimization algorithm called the self-organizing worm algorithm (SOWA) is presented for optimization of multi-modal functions.The main idea of this algorithm can be described as follows:disperse some worms equably in the domain;the worms exchange the information each other and creep toward the nearest high point;at last they will stop on the nearest high point.All peaks of multi-modal function can be found rapidly through studying and chasing among the worms.In contrast with the classical multi-modal optimization algorithms,SOWA is provided with a simple calculation,strong convergence,high precision,and does not need any prior knowledge.Several simulation experiments for SOWA are performed,and the complexity of SOWA is analyzed amply.The results show that SOWA is very effective in optimization of multi-modal functions.

  2. Detecting Internet Worms Using Data Mining Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muazzam Siddiqui

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Internet worms pose a serious threat to computer security. Traditional approaches using signatures to detect worms pose little danger to the zero day attacks. The focus of malware research is shifting from using signature patterns to identifying the malicious behavior displayed by the malwares. This paper presents a novel idea of extracting variable length instruction sequences that can identify worms from clean programs using data mining techniques. The analysis is facilitated by the program control flow information contained in the instruction sequences. Based upon general statistics gathered from these instruction sequences we formulated the problem as a binary classification problem and built tree based classifiers including decision tree, bagging and random forest. Our approach showed 95.6% detection rate on novel worms whose data was not used in the model building process.

  3. Optimal design for an end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm-wheel meshing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Xingqiao; Zhu, Weibing; Chen, Yonghong; Chen, Shouan; Wang, Jinge

    2017-01-01

    To solve the problem for lacking a special mechanical transmission that could provide multiple outputs with high transmission efficiency and good lubrication in the modern industrial, a novel worm gear, named end face engagement worm gear, with multiple worm-wheel meshing is proposed for the first time. The essential parameters for the worm gear are optimized to enhance lubrication and meshing properties. Moreover, analysis of variance(ANOVA) is applied to determine the optimum levels and to determine the influence of parameters. The ANOVA results show that the novel end face engagement worm gear with multiple worm wheels provides high lubrication(the lubrication angle is more than 89°) and meshing performance(the induce normal curvature is less than 0.0002 mm-1). The interaction between center distance and roller slant distance most strongly influences the lubrication angle(contributed 51.6%), followed by the parameters of center distance(contributed 25.0%), roller slant distance(contributed 16.4%), tooth angle of gear, gear ratio, and roller radius. In addition, roller radius most strongly influences the induced normal curvature(contributed 39.4%), followed by roller slant distance(contributed 15.2%), tooth angle of the gear(contributed 9.0%), center distance, and gear ratio. The proposed worm gear helps to enrich the no-backlash high precision worm drive and the optimal design method can provide a useful reference on performance improvement of other worm gear.

  4. Design parameters for sludge reduction in an aquatic worm reactor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction and compaction of biological waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus. In our reactor concept for a worm reactor, the worms are immobilised in a carrier material. The size of a worm reactor will therefore mainly be

  5. The seeds and the worms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brorson, Stig

    2006-01-01

    The Polish microbiologist and philosopher of science, Ludwik Fleck (1896-1961), was a pioneer in constructivist history and philosophy of science. Based on studies in the history of syphilis, Fleck hypothesized that many established scientific facts are linked, in their development, to pre......-scientific "proto-ideas." In 1935, Fleck proposed that the history of germ theories could be approached through his thesis on proto-ideas. His proposal, however, remained little more than a vague suggestion and was never developed in further detail. This paper introduces the concept of proto-ideas and discusses...... the central epistemological and historiographical implications of Fleck's thesis. The Fleckian approach offers an attractive alternative to positivist reconstructions of the early history of germ theories and provides a useful framework for a deeper understanding of the sociocultural background...

  6. Healthy Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... los Ojos Cómo hablarle a su oculista Healthy Eyes Having a comprehensive dilated eye exam is one ... or contact lenses. What is a comprehensive dilated eye exam? A comprehensive dilated eye exam is a ...

  7. Research of internet worm warning system based on system identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tao ZHOU; Guanzhong DAI; Huimin YE

    2006-01-01

    The frequent explosion of Internet worms has been one of the most serious problems in cyberspace security.In this paper, by analyzing the worm's propagation model, we propose a new worm warning system based on the method of system identification, and use recursive least squares algorithm to estimate the worm's infection rate. The simulation result shows the method we adopted is an efficient way to conduct Internet worm warning.

  8. Aquatic worms eat sludge: mass balances and processing of worm faeces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2010-01-01

    Reduction of the amount of waste sludge from waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) can be achieved with the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus in a new reactor concept. In addition to reducing the amount of waste sludge, further processing of produced worm faeces and released nutrients should also

  9. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas J Wade

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Pictorial images are icons as well as eye-cons: they provide distillations of objects or ideas into simpler shapes. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimensions of depth and motion are missing from icons, and these alone introduce all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as exploring the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons can also be illusions—tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is physically presented. Pictorial images can be spatialised or stylised; spatialised images generally share some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons, but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional. Icons as stylised words and spatialised images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte in a series of pipe paintings, and this theme is here alluded to. Most of visual science is now concerned with icons—two-dimensional displays on computer monitors. Is vision now the science of eye-cons?

  10. Modeling and Detection of Camouflaging Worm using IP Traceback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Preetha

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Active worms pose major security threats to the Internet. This is due to the ability of active worms to propagate in an automated fashion as they continuously compromise computers on the Internet. Active worms evolve during their propagation, and thus, pose great challenges to defend against them. A new class of active worms, referred to as Camouflaging Worm (C-Worm in short. The C-Worm is different from traditional worms because of its ability to intelligently manipulate its scan traffic volume over time. Thereby, the C-Worm camouflages its propagation from existing worm detection systems based on analyzing the propagation traffic generated by worms. The characteristics of the C-Worm and conduct a comprehensive comparison between its traffic and non-worm traffic (background traffic. The two types of traffic are barely distinguishable in the time domain. However, their distinction is clear in the frequency domain, due to the recurring manipulative nature of the C-Worm. Motivated by observations, designed a novel spectrum-based scheme to detect the C-Worm. The Power Spectral Density (PSD distribution of the scan traffic volume and its corresponding Spectral Flatness Measure (SFM to distinguish the C-Worm traffic from background traffic. Using a comprehensive set of detection metrics and real-world traces as background traffic, the extensive performance evaluations on proposed spectrum-based detection scheme. The performance data clearly demonstrates that our scheme can effectively detect the C-Worm propagation. Furthermore, show the generality of spectrum-based scheme in effectively detecting not only y the C-Worm, but traditional worms as well

  11. "The wondrous eyes of a new technology"-a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schirmann, Felix

    2014-01-01

    This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG) of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging-the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality-and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  12. The wondrous eyes of a new technology – A history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix eSchirmann

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This article presents a history of the early electroencephalography (EEG of psychopathy, delinquency, and immorality in Great Britain and the United States in the 1940s and 1950s. Then, EEG was a novel research tool that promised ground-breaking insights in psychiatry and criminology. Experts explored its potential regarding the diagnosis, classification, etiology, and treatment of unethical and unlawful persons. This line of research yielded tentative and inconsistent findings, which the experts attributed to methodological and theoretical shortcomings. Accordingly, the scientific community discussed the reliability, validity, and utility of EEG, and launched initiatives to calibrate and standardize the novel tool. The analysis shows that knowledge production, gauging of the research tool, and attempts to establish credibility for EEG in the study of immoral persons occurred simultaneously. The paper concludes with a reflection on the similarities between EEG and neuroimaging – the prime research tool in the current neuroscience of morality – and calls for a critical assessment of their potentials and limitations in the study of immorality and crime.

  13. Mopane worm allergy in a 36-year-old woman: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letswiti Mavis M

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction The increasing incidence of new diseases as well as changing features of known diseases has partly been attributed to the impact of environmental changes. As a result, there have been calls from health experts for proper surveillance and monitoring of these changes. This is a report of mopane worm allergy in a 36 year old female from the Tswana tribe in Botswana. Mopane worm, the caterpillar stage of Gonimbrasia belina moths, is a seasonal delicacy to people in many communities in southern Africa. As a result, by adulthood, many residents of these communities have had substantial exposure to the worm. Gonimbrasia belina moths belong to the Lepidoptera order of insects. Though some members of this order are known to induce contact allergy, there is no reported incidence of ingestion allergy from mopane worm. Therefore, it is important to track this case for its epidemiological significance and to alert both clinicians and the vulnerable public on the incidence of mopane worm allergy in this region. Case presentation This is a case of a 36 year old woman from the Tswana ethnic group in Botswana, who was diagnosed with food allergy. She presented with itchy skin rash, facial swelling, and mild hypotension after eating mopane worm. She had no previous history of allergic reaction following contact or ingestion of mopane worm and had no atopic illness in the past. She was treated and her symptoms resolved after 4 days. Conclusion The proper management of allergy involves patients' avoidance and clinicians' predictability. Though hypothetical, this report is expected to sensitize clinicians to anticipate and properly manage subsequent occurrence, as well as educate the public in these communities. In addition, tracking new disease patterns, with relationship to environmental changes, will compliment existing evidence in validating the importance of proper environmental surveillance and management.

  14. P2P worm detection based on application identification

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Chunhe; SHI Yunping; LI Xiaojian; GAO Wei

    2007-01-01

    P2P worm exploits common vulnerabilities and spreads through peer-to-peer networks.Despite being recognized as a potential and deadly threat to the Internet recently,few relevant countermeasures are found in extant literature.Once it breaks out,a P2P worm could result in unpredictable losses.Based on propagation characteristics of the worm,this paper presents a detection method called PWD (P2P Worm Detection),which is designed based on application identification and unknown worm detection.Simulation result and LAN-environment experiment result both indicate that PWD is an effective method to detect and block P2P worms.

  15. Detection and location algorithm against local-worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG XinYu; SHI Yi; ZHU Huidun

    2008-01-01

    The spread of the worm causes great harm to the computer network. It has recently become the focus of the network security research. This paper presents a local-worm detection algorithm by analyzing the characteristics of traffic generated by the TCP-based worm. Moreover, we adjust the worm location algorithm, aiming at the differences between the high-speed and the low-speed worm scanning methods. This adjustment can make the location algorithm detect and locate the worm based on different scanning rate. Finally, we verified the validity and efficiency of the proposed algorithm by simulating it under NS-2,

  16. Live Worms Found Amid STS-107 Debris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Project Manager Fred Ahmay holds a Biological Research in Canisters (BRIC) container in which C. elegans nemotodes (round worms) were found. The container was part of a middeck experiment that was among Columbia's debris recovered in East Texas. The worms were found alive after flying on Columbia's last mission, STS-107. The experiment was designed to verify a new synthetic nutrient solution for an International Space Station 'model' specimen planned to be used extensively for ISS gene expression studies and was sponsored by the NASA Ames Research Center. For more information on STS-107, please see GRIN Columbia General Explanation

  17. Filarial worms reduce Plasmodium infectivity in mosquitoes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew T Aliota

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Co-occurrence of malaria and filarial worm parasites has been reported, but little is known about the interaction between filarial worm and malaria parasites with the same Anopheles vector. Herein, we present data evaluating the interaction between Wuchereria bancrofti and Anopheles punctulatus in Papua New Guinea (PNG. Our field studies in PNG demonstrated that An. punctulatus utilizes the melanization immune response as a natural mechanism of filarial worm resistance against invading W. bancrofti microfilariae. We then conducted laboratory studies utilizing the mosquitoes Armigeres subalbatus and Aedes aegypti and the parasites Brugia malayi, Brugia pahangi, Dirofilaria immitis, and Plasmodium gallinaceum to evaluate the hypothesis that immune activation and/or development by filarial worms negatively impact Plasmodium development in co-infected mosquitoes. Ar. subalbatus used in this study are natural vectors of P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi and they are naturally refractory to B. malayi (melanization-based refractoriness. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Mosquitoes were dissected and Plasmodium development was analyzed six days after blood feeding on either P. gallinaceum alone or after taking a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. malayi or a bloodmeal containing both P. gallinaceum and B. pahangi. There was a significant reduction in the prevalence and mean intensity of Plasmodium infections in two species of mosquito that had dual infections as compared to those mosquitoes that were infected with Plasmodium alone, and was independent of whether the mosquito had a melanization immune response to the filarial worm or not. However, there was no reduction in Plasmodium development when filarial worms were present in the bloodmeal (D. immitis but midgut penetration was absent, suggesting that factors associated with penetration of the midgut by filarial worms likely are responsible for the observed reduction in malaria

  18. Modeling and analyzing of the interaction between worms and antiworms during network worm propagation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Feng; DUAN Haixin; LI Xing

    2005-01-01

    Interaction of antiworms with a worm population of e.g. hosts of worm infected and hosts of antiworm infected must be considered as a dynamic process. This study is an attempt for the first time to understand how introduction of antiworm affects the dynamic of network worm propagation. In this paper, we create a mathematical model (SIAR model) using ordinary differential equations to describe the interaction of worms and antiworms. Although idealized, the model demonstrates how the combination of a few proposed nonlinear interaction rules between antiworms and worms is able to generate a considerable variety of different kinds of responses. Taking the Blaster and Nachi worms as an example, we give a brief analysis for designing a practical antiworm system. To the best of our knowledge, there is no model for the spread of an antiworm that employs the passive scan and the finite lifetime and we believe that this is the first attempt on understanding the interaction between worms and antiworms.

  19. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The structure of your face helps protect your eyes from injury. Still, injuries can damage your eye, sometimes severely enough that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or ...

  20. Eye Wear

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eye wear protects or corrects your vision. Examples are Sunglasses Safety goggles Glasses (also called eyeglasses) Contact ... jobs and some sports carry a risk of eye injury. Thousands of children and adults get eye ...

  1. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... adults are melanoma and lymphoma. The most common eye cancer in children is retinoblastoma, which starts in ...

  2. Eye Diseases

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the back of the eye Macular degeneration - a disease that destroys sharp, central vision Diabetic eye problems ... defense is to have regular checkups, because eye diseases do not always have symptoms. Early detection and ...

  3. Facing Two Rapidly Spreading Internet Worms

    CERN Multimedia

    IT Department

    2009-01-01

    The Internet is currently facing a growing number of computer infections due to two rapidly spreading worms. The "Conficker" and "Downadup" worms have infected an estimated 1.1 million PCs in a 24-hour period, bringing the total number of infected computers to 3.5 million [1]. Via a single USB stick, these worms were also responsible for the infection of about 40 laptops at the last EGEE conference in Istanbul. In order to reduce the impact of these worms on CERN Windows computers, the Computer Security Team has suggested several preventive measures described here. Disabling the Windows AutoRun and AutoPlay Features The Computer Security Team and the IT/IS group have decided to disable the "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" functionality on all centrally-managed Windows computers at CERN. When inserting CDs, DVDs or USB sticks into a PC, "AutoRun" and "AutoPlay" are responsible for automatically playing music or films stored on these media, or ...

  4. Elastic mesh braided worm robot for locomotive endoscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manwell, Thomas; Vítek, Tomáš; Ranzani, Tommaso; Menciassi, Arianna; Althoefer, Kaspar; Liu, Hongbin

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a new design of worm robot whose body is constructed using a novel crimped elastic mesh braid inspired by the earthworm. The proposed worm robot is intended for inspection within the human body via natural orifices. The design and fabrication procedure of the worm robot are given in the paper. The imitation of peristalsis, used by natural worms, is used to control the worm robot for the purpose of producing motion while causing minimal trauma to biological tissue. The forward locomotive function of the worm robot has been tested on both a flat surface and in a rubber tube. It is shown that the worm robot is capable of propagating forwards for both test conditions in a form similar to the earthworm. The test results indicate the proposed worm robot design has promising application for natural tube inspection, like the colon and the esophagus.

  5. Darknet-Based Inference of Internet Worm Temporal Characteristics

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Qian; Chen, Chao

    2010-01-01

    Internet worm attacks pose a significant threat to network security and management. In this work, we coin the term Internet worm tomography as inferring the characteristics of Internet worms from the observations of Darknet or network telescopes that monitor a routable but unused IP address space. Under the framework of Internet worm tomography, we attempt to infer Internet worm temporal behaviors, i.e., the host infection time and the worm infection sequence, and thus pinpoint patient zero or initially infected hosts. Specifically, we introduce statistical estimation techniques and propose method of moments, maximum likelihood, and linear regression estimators. We show analytically and empirically that our proposed estimators can better infer worm temporal characteristics than a naive estimator that has been used in the previous work. We also demonstrate that our estimators can be applied to worms using different scanning strategies such as random scanning and localized scanning.

  6. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; Åkerlund, Oscar; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator , but also more general correlators such as or , as well as condensates like , can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  7. Sampling of General Correlators in Worm Algorithm-based Simulations

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Using the complex $\\phi^4$-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a (bosonic) worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator $$, but also more general correlators such as $$ or $$ as well as condensates like $$ can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by (bosonic) worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  8. Ascariasis: challenges in the diagnosis of single worm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lakshmi, S Poongodi Alias; Palaniappan, N; Arunagiri, A

    2013-09-01

    One of the most common parasitic infections in humans is ascariasis. While most infectionsare asymptomatic, mild to moderate symptoms may occur due to migration of adult worms. The frequency of single worm infection seems to be increasing. Ascaris eggs are not found in the faeces of most cases infected with a single worm because it is an immature male or female. Diagnosis of such single worm infection is challenging.

  9. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  10. A New Eye on History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Two years after the opening of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, the $110 million center, opened with exhibits on how enslaved African-Americans risked their lives to make the northward trek to freedom. Today, however, the center is shifting its focus while serving as an educational focal point, research asset and change agent.…

  11. A New Eye on History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galuszka, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Two years after the opening of the National Underground Railroad Freedom Center, the $110 million center, opened with exhibits on how enslaved African-Americans risked their lives to make the northward trek to freedom. Today, however, the center is shifting its focus while serving as an educational focal point, research asset and change agent.…

  12. Worms, wisdom, and wealth: why deworming can make economic sense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bundy, Donald A P; Walson, Judd L; Watkins, Kristie L

    2013-03-01

    For those of us who have had worms, getting rid of them seems a good idea, and multiple studies demonstrate the simplicity and benefit of deworming children. In the past decade or so, there has been a dramatic increase in efforts to provide inexpensive deworming medications, but at the same time there have been calls to re-evaluate the impact of deworming programs. In this review, we examine the history of deworming and explore the evidence for effects of deworming on health, on child development, and on economic returns. Important policy conclusions include that a paucity of randomized trial data suggesting benefit does not equate to a lack of benefit and that a greater emphasis on documenting such benefit should be pursued.

  13. Worms,Your Unlikely Allies etc

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Back in the Stone Age,humans had to put up with all sorts of creepy crawlies.Parasites - organisms that live on or in another organism - lingered inside our bodies,living off of our blood.Because internal parasites go mostly unnoticed,they were able to keep living with humans.People can survive a long time with tiny parasitic worms in their intestines.

  14. Parametric Analysis of the End Face Engagement Worm Gear

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DENG Xingqiao; WANG Jueling; WANG Jinge; CHEN Shouan; YANG Jie

    2015-01-01

    A novel specific type of worm drive, so-called end face engagement worm gear(EFEWD), is originally presented to minimize or overcome the gear backlash. Different factors, including the three different types, contact curves, tooth profile, lubrication angle and the induced normal curvature are taken into account to investigate the meshing characteristics and create the profile of a novel specific type of worm drive through mathematical models and theoretical analysis. The tooth of the worm wheel is very specific with the sine-shaped tooth which is located at the alveolus of the worm and the tooth profile of a worm is generated by the meshing movement of the worm wheel with the sine-shaped tooth, but just the end face of the worm(with three different typical meshing types) is adapted to meshing, and therefore an extraordinary manufacturing methods is used to generate the profile of the end face engagement worm. The research results indicates that the bearing contacts of the generated conjugate hourglass worm gear set are in line contacts, with certain advantages of no-backlash, high precision and high operating efficiency over other gears and gear systems besides the end face engagement worm gear drive may improve bearing contact, reduce the level of transmission errors and lessen the sensitivity to errors of alignment. Also, the end face engagement worm can be easily made with superior meshing and lubrication performance compared with the conventional techniques. In particular, the meshing and lubrication performance of the end face engagement worm gear by using the end face to meshing can be increased over 10% and 7%, respectively. This investigate is expect to provide a new insight on the design of the future no-backlash worm drive for industry.

  15. Worm algorithm for the CPN−1 model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The CPN−1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CPN−1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CPN−1 model for N>2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CPN−1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CPN−1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  16. High Rates of Self-Fertilization in a Marine Ribbon Worm (Nemertea).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caplins, Serena A; Turbeville, James M

    2015-12-01

    Organisms capable of self-fertilization ("selfing") typically exhibit two evolutionary syndromes: uniting high inbreeding depression with low levels of selfing, or low inbreeding depression with high levels of selfing. We examined the effect of inbreeding on fecundity and time to first reproduction in an apparently self-compatible, simultaneously hermaphroditic marine nemertean worm Prosorhochmus americanus. Adult and juvenile worms were raised in isolation or in pairs. Isolated worms produced significantly more offspring than paired worms (in the adult experiment), and did not exhibit inbreeding avoidance (in the juvenile experiment). The selfing rate of six natural populations was evaluated using 17 species-specific, microsatellite markers, and was consistent with preferential selfing (mean: 0.843, SD: 0.027). Our results showed that P. americanus exhibited an interesting suite of life-history traits, uniting high colonization potential through self-fertilization and high fecundity, with no dispersive larval stage, and with moderate levels of gene flow. We believe that P. americanus is an ideal model system for studies of mating system evolution, inbreeding, and sex allocation. © 2015 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  17. WormBook: the online review of Caenorhabditis elegans biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, Lisa R; Fiedler, Tristan J; Harris, Todd W; Carvalho, Felicia; Antoshechkin, Igor; Han, Michael; Sternberg, Paul W; Stein, Lincoln D; Chalfie, Martin

    2007-01-01

    WormBook (www.wormbook.org) is an open-access, online collection of original, peer-reviewed chapters on the biology of Caenorhabditis elegans and related nematodes. Since WormBook was launched in June 2005 with 12 chapters, it has grown to over 100 chapters, covering nearly every aspect of C.elegans research, from Cell Biology and Neurobiology to Evolution and Ecology. WormBook also serves as the text companion to WormBase, the C.elegans model organism database. Objects such as genes, proteins and cells are linked to the relevant pages in WormBase, providing easily accessible background information. Additionally, WormBook chapters contain links to other relevant topics in WormBook, and the in-text citations are linked to their abstracts in PubMed and full-text references, if available. Since WormBook is online, its chapters are able to contain movies and complex images that would not be possible in a print version. WormBook is designed to keep up with the rapid pace of discovery in the field of C.elegans research and continues to grow. WormBook represents a generic publishing infrastructure that is easily adaptable to other research communities to facilitate the dissemination of knowledge in the field.

  18. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  19. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. ... protect the eye with a pad or shield, give tetanus prophylaxis and refer. ... A study on penetrating eye injuries in South African children found.

  20. Running worms: C. elegans self-sorting by electrotaxis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xavier Manière

    Full Text Available The nematode C. elegans displays complex dynamical behaviors that are commonly used to identify relevant phenotypes. Although its maintenance is straightforward, sorting large populations of worms when looking for a behavioral phenotype is difficult, time consuming and hardly quantitative when done manually. Interestingly, when submitted to a moderate electric field, worms move steadily along straight trajectories. Here, we report an inexpensive method to measure worms crawling velocities and sort them within a few minutes by taking advantage of their electrotactic skills. This method allows to quantitatively measure the effect of mutations and aging on worm's crawling velocity. We also show that worms with different locomotory phenotypes can be spatially sorted, fast worms traveling away from slow ones. Group of nematodes with comparable locomotory fitness could then be isolated for further analysis. C. elegans is a growing model for neurodegenerative diseases and using electrotaxis for self-sorting can improve the high-throughput search of therapeutic bio-molecules.

  1. Endoscopy in a rare presentation of worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mallikarjun Patil

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Upper gastrointestinal bleeding can be a life threatening complication. Hookworms infestation usually causes chronic blood loss resulting in anemia. A 52 year old male presented to us with massive gastrointestinal blood loss and hemodynamic instability. On examination he had anemia, which on evaluation was iron deficient microcytic hypochromic anemia with eosinophilia. On evaluation of small bowel mucosa showed multiple hookworms moving on the surface. He improved with anthelmintics, blood transfusion and supportive management. The repeat evaluation showed eradication of worms. Hookworms presenting as a massive gastrointestinal bleeding is a rare entity. Enteroscopy plays an important role in diagnosing hookworm infestation.

  2. Mini-hemoglobins from nemertean worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandergon, Thomas L; Riggs, Austen F

    2008-01-01

    Hemoglobins (Hbs) found in members of the phylum Nemertea are smaller than any other known Hb molecules. These mini-Hbs have been of great interest because of their unique three-dimensional structure and their stable ligand-binding properties. Also of interest is the expression of mini-Hb in neural tissue, body wall muscle tissue, and red blood cells. This chapter outlines methods that may be used to isolate and purify functional mini-Hbs from all three tissue types in nemertean worms.

  3. NSME: a framework for network worm modeling and simulation

    OpenAIRE

    Lin, Siming; Cheng, Xueqi

    2006-01-01

    Various worms have a devastating impact on Internet. Packet level network modeling and simulation has become an approach to find effective countermeasures against worm threat. However, current alternatives are not fit enough for this purpose. For instance, they mostly focus on the details of lower layers of the network so that the abstraction of application layer is very coarse. In our work, we propose a formal description of network and worm models, and define network virtualization level...

  4. Worms Eat My Garbage. How To Set Up and Maintain a Worm Composting System. First Edition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appelhof, Mary

    This book is a resource for parents and teachers who want to teach about recycling and composting by setting up and maintaining a worm composting system. It is designed to be a detailed yet simple manual of vermicomposting. The manual covers the basics of vermicomposting and answers such questions as where to store a composting container, what…

  5. Sampling of general correlators in worm-algorithm based simulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias Rindlisbacher

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Using the complex ϕ4-model as a prototype for a system which is simulated by a worm algorithm, we show that not only the charged correlator 〈ϕ⁎(xϕ(y〉, but also more general correlators such as 〈|ϕ(x||ϕ(y|〉 or 〈arg⁡(ϕ(xarg⁡(ϕ(y〉, as well as condensates like 〈|ϕ|〉, can be measured at every step of the Monte Carlo evolution of the worm instead of on closed-worm configurations only. The method generalizes straightforwardly to other systems simulated by worms, such as spin or sigma models.

  6. Eye Symptom Questionnaire to Evaluate Anterior Eye Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woodward, Maria A; Valikodath, Nita G; Newman-Casey, Paula Anne; Niziol, Leslie M; Musch, David C; Lee, Paul P

    2017-06-14

    Ophthalmologists assess eye complaints with a careful history and eye examination; however, other types of physicians have limited tools to evaluate anterior segment (AS) eye diseases. We identified the eye symptom questions that providers should ask to help determine the presence and urgency of AS eye diseases. Persons with and without AS disease completed a self-report eye symptom questionnaire (ESQ) based on the National Institutes of Health Toolbox symptom items in an academic center's corneal and comprehensive eye clinics. Gold standard ophthalmic examination determined the presence and urgency of AS disease. The association between reported symptom severity and the probability of AS disease, or urgent AS disease, was evaluated using logistic regression models, and sensitivity and specificity of the ESQ were also calculated. A total of 324 eyes of 162 subjects were included in the study. Of these, AS disease was present in 255 eyes (79%); of which, 111 eyes showed urgent disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (odds ratio [OR]=2.58; P<0.001), glare (OR=2.61; P=0.001), and blurry vision (OR=1.98; P<0.001) were associated with increased odds of AS disease. Increasing symptom severity for eye pain (OR=2.02; P<0.001), eye redness (OR=1.69; P=0.02), and blurry vision (OR=1.41, P=0.01) were associated with increased odds of urgent AS disease. For the primary analysis with mild symptoms considered relevant, the sensitivity of the ESQ to detect AS disease was 83% and to detect urgent AS disease was 92%. Symptoms of eye pain, glare, redness, and blurry vision indicate the presence and urgency of AS disease.

  7. Local structure of numerically generated worm hole spacetime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siino, M.

    The author investigates the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, he interprets the evolution of the worm hole structure.

  8. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime

    OpenAIRE

    Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  9. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  10. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how

  11. Dual-worm screw compressors; Compresseurs bi-vis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baleydier, J.P. [Bitzer France, 69 - Lyon (France)

    1997-12-31

    Low power worm-screw moto-compressors are used in any king of refrigerating machineries and more and more in air conditioning systems. This paper presents the principle of dual-screw moto-compressors: worm-screw technology, role of oil (lubrication, tightness, cooling), compression, internal pressure, power reduction, lubrication, economizer, operation, model selection and accessories. (J.S.)

  12. Local Structure of Numerically Generated Worm Hole Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Nambu, Y; Nambu, Yasusada; Siino, Masaru

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the evolution of the apparent horizons in a numerically gererated worm hole spacetime. The behavior of the apparent horizons is affected by the dynamics of the matter field. By using the local mass of the system, we interpret the evolution of the worm hole structure. Figures are available by mail to author.

  13. Network protection against worms and cascading failures using modularity partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Omic, J.; Hernandez, J.M.; Van Mieghem, P.

    2010-01-01

    Communication networks are prone to virus and worms spreading and cascading failures. Recently, a number of social networking worms have spread over public Web sites. Another example is error propagation in routing tables, such as in BGP tables. The immunization and error curing applied to these sce

  14. Ole Worm-Liv og videnskabTidstavle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One......hæftet indeholder syv artikler om Ole Worms liv, videnskab, museum, slægtsportrætter, antikvariske arbejder og om installationen Room One...

  15. Worm plot to diagnose fit in quantile regression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buuren, S. van

    2007-01-01

    The worm plot is a series of detrended Q-Q plots, split by covariate levels. The worm plot is a diagnostic tool for visualizing how well a statistical model fits the data, for finding locations at which the fit can be improved, and for comparing the fit of different models. This paper shows how the

  16. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  18. Facts About Pink Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Information > Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis) > Facts About Pink Eye Facts About Pink Eye Pink eye is one of ... for preventing eye infections. Last Reviewed: November 2015 Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) is ...

  19. Dilating Eye Drops

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ... Corneal Abrasions Dilating Eye Drops Lazy eye (defined) Pink eye (defined) Retinopathy of Prematurity Strabismus Stye (defined) Vision ...

  20. Research and Development of P2P Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li You; Zhi-Guang Qin

    2011-01-01

    With the development and the application of many popular peer-to-peer (P2P) systems such as eMule and BitTorrent,worms probably employ the features of these P2P networks to put them at risk.Some features,such as the local routing table and the application routing mechanism,are helpful to quickly distribute the P2P worms into the networks.This paper aims to give a comprehensive survey of P2P worms.The definition and the classification of P2P worms are discussed firstly.Then,the research and development of P2P worms, including experimental analysis,propagation modeling,and defensive approaches,are addressed and analyzed in detail.

  1. Can aquatic worms enhance methane production from waste activated sludge?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrano, Antonio; Hendrickx, Tim L G; Elissen, Hellen H J; Laarhoven, Bob; Buisman, Cees J N; Temmink, Hardy

    2016-07-01

    Although literature suggests that aquatic worms can help to enhance the methane production from excess activated sludge, clear evidence for this is missing. Therefore, anaerobic digestion tests were performed at 20 and at 30°C with sludge from a high-loaded membrane bioreactor, the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus, feces from these worms and with mixtures of these substrates. A significant synergistic effect of the worms or their feces on methane production from the high-loaded sludge or on its digestion rate was not observed. However, a positive effect on low-loaded activated sludge, which generally has a lower anaerobic biodegradability, cannot be excluded. The results furthermore showed that the high-loaded sludge provides an excellent feed for L. variegatus, which is promising for concepts where worm biomass is considered a resource for technical grade products such as coatings and glues.

  2. Early Cambrian sipunculan worms from southwest China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Di-Ying; Chen, Jun-Yuan; Vannier, Jean; Saiz Salinas, J I

    2004-08-22

    We report the discovery of sipunculan worms from the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale, near Kunming (southwest China). Their sipunculan identity is evidenced by the general morphology of the animals (sausage-shaped body with a slender retractable introvert and a wider trunk) and by other features, both external (e.g. perioral crown of tentacles, and hooks, papillae and wrinkle rings on the body surface) and internal (U-shaped gut, and the anus opening near the introvert-trunk junction). The three fossil forms (Archaeogolfingia caudata gen. et sp. nov., Cambrosipunculus tentaculatus gen. et sp. nov. and Cambrosipunculus sp.) have striking similarities to modern sipunculans, especially the Golfingiidae to which their evolutionary relationships are discussed. This study suggests that most typical features of extant sipunculans have undergone only limited changes since the Early Cambrian, thus indicating a possible evolutionary stasis over the past 520 Myr.

  3. How the velvet worm squirts slime

    CERN Document Server

    Concha, Andrés; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Costa, Cristiano Sampaio; Mahadevan, L; Monge-Nájera, Julián

    2014-01-01

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endows the ancient velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. Here we investigate the fast oscillatory motion of the oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies $f\\sim 30-60$ Hz. Using anatomical images, high speed videography, theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum we show that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. Our results demonstrate how passive strategies can be cleverly harnessed by organisms, while suggesting future oscillating micro-fluidic devices as well as novel ways for micro and nano fiber production using bioinspired strategi...

  4. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eyes to see millions of colors. Helping You See It All Rods and cones process the light to give you the total picture. You're ... get cloudy, causing a cataract . A cataract prevents light from reaching the retina and makes it difficult to see. The eyes you have will be yours forever — ...

  5. On the history of deformation phosphenes and the idea of internal light generated in the eye for the purpose of vision.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grüsser, O J; Hagner, M

    1990-02-01

    Deformation phosphenes are light sensations evoked by deformation of the eyeball in total darkness. They were first reported in Western literature by Alcmaeon of Croton in the fifth century B.C. The phenomenon of deformation phosphenes was instrumental in prompting some pre-Socratic philosophers and Plato to conceive the idea that efferent light is emitted from the eye for the purpose of vision and a 'cone of vision' is formed by interaction with the external light. In the theories of vision this cone of vision played an important role as a signal-transmitting structure and was also used by the Greek opticians as a geometrical construction to explain optical properties of vision. The impact of the deformation phosphene experiment on the ideas of visual sensation can be followed from Greek antiquity through the period of Roman dominance and Galen's medical teaching on to medieval times and up to the late Renaissance when, based on the anatomy of the eye as illustrated by Felix Platter, the image formation on the retina was correctly described for the first time by Johannes Kepler. In the generations following, deformation phosphenes were still employed as an important argument in defence of the theories of vision. However, the idea of physical light generated by eyeball deformation was rejected with increasing frequency during the 17th and 18th centuries. The literature on this topic is discussed, comprising the contributions of the Arabic philosophers and physicians of the 9th and 10th centuries A.D., the Franciscan and Dominican philosophers of the 13th century, Nicolaus Cusanus of the 15th century, several anatomists of the 16th and 17th centuries, Kepler, Plempius, Descartes, Boyle, Newton and others. After Kepler, the mechanical interpretation of the deformation phosphene being caused by direct action of the eyeball deformation onto the retina slowly became dominant, and the idea that physical light is generated in the eye disappeared. The experimentum crucis

  6. The larval nervous system of the penis worm Priapulus caudatus (Ecdysozoa).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín-Durán, José M; Wolff, Gabriella H; Strausfeld, Nicholas J; Hejnol, Andreas

    2016-01-05

    The origin and extreme diversification of the animal nervous system is a central question in biology. While most of the attention has traditionally been paid to those lineages with highly elaborated nervous systems (e.g. arthropods, vertebrates, annelids), only the study of the vast animal diversity can deliver a comprehensive view of the evolutionary history of this organ system. In this regard, the phylogenetic position and apparently conservative molecular, morphological and embryological features of priapulid worms (Priapulida) place this animal lineage as a key to understanding the evolution of the Ecdysozoa (i.e. arthropods and nematodes). In this study, we characterize the nervous system of the hatching larva and first lorica larva of the priapulid worm Priapulus caudatus by immunolabelling against acetylated and tyrosinated tubulin, pCaMKII, serotonin and FMRFamide. Our results show that a circumoral brain and an unpaired ventral nerve with a caudal ganglion characterize the central nervous system of hatching embryos. After the first moult, the larva attains some adult features: a neck ganglion, an introvert plexus, and conspicuous secondary longitudinal neurites. Our study delivers a neuroanatomical framework for future embryological studies in priapulid worms, and helps illuminate the course of nervous system evolution in the Ecdysozoa.

  7. De-worming school children and hygiene intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, T V

    2003-06-01

    Helminths or worm infestations refer to worms that live as parasites in the human body and are a fundamental cause of disease associated with health and nutrition problems beyond gastrointestinal tract disturbances. Globally, over 3.5 billion people are infected with intestinal worms, of which 1.47 billion are with roundworm, 1.3 billion people with hookworm and 1.05 billion with whipworm. School children aged 5 - 15 years suffer the highest infection rate and worm burden that attributes to poor sanitation and hygiene. About 400 million school-age children are infected with roundworm, whipworm and hookworm worldwide, a large proportion of whom are found in the East Asia region (Cambodia, China, Lao PDR, Thailand and Vietnam). These parasites consume nutrients from children they infect, thus retarding their physical development. They destroy tissues and organs, cause abdominal pain, diarrhoea, intestinal obstruction, anaemia, ulcers and other health problems. All of these consequences of infection can slow cognitive development and thus impair learning. De-worming school children by anthelmintic drug treatment is a curative approach for expelling the heavy worm load. However, drug therapy alone is only a short-term measure of reducing worm infection and re-infection is frequent. Control measures through improved sanitation, hygiene and de-worming are needed to prevent infection and re-infection. UNICEF has supported many governments in this (and other) regions to assist in the provision of water supply and sanitary facilities and intensive hygiene education in many schools through the Water, Environment and Sanitation (WES) programme. The UNICEF supported school sanitation and hygiene education (SSHE) programme, and other programmes, could effectively enhance behaviour change in children to break the routes of worm transmission and other waterborne diseases.

  8. The theory and practice of worm gear drives

    CERN Document Server

    Dudás, Ilés

    2005-01-01

    Worm gears are special gears that resemble screws, and can be used to drive other gears. Worm gears, enable two non-touching shafts in a machine to mesh (join) together. This publication, unique in that it combines both theoretical and practical design aspects, including the latest results of research and development, provides detailed treatment of the theory and production of worm drives, as well as the overarching subject of production geometry of helicoidal surfaces.Included are mathematical models for a number of practical applications; a description of dressing equipment r

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  11. Skull osteology of the Eocene amphisbaenian Spathorhynchus fossorium (Reptilia, Squamata) suggests convergent evolution and reversals of fossorial adaptations in worm lizards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Johannes; Hipsley, Christy A; Maisano, Jessica A

    2016-11-01

    The fossorial amphisbaenians, or worm lizards, are characterized by a suite of specialized characters in the skull and postcranium, however fossil evidence suggests that at least some of these shared derived traits evolved convergently. Unfortunately the lack of detailed knowledge of many fossil taxa has rendered a more precise interpretation difficult. Here we describe the cranial anatomy of the oldest-known well-preserved amphisbaenian, Spathorhynchus fossorium, from the Eocene Green River Formation, Wyoming, USA, using high-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRXCT). This taxon possesses one of the most strongly reinforced crania known among amphisbaenians, with many dermal bones overlapping each other internally. In contrast to modern taxa, S. fossorium has a paired orbitosphenoid, lacks a true compound bone in the mandible, and possesses a fully enclosed orbital rim. The last feature represents a highly derived structure in that the jugal establishes contact with the frontal internally, reinforcing the posterior orbital margin. S. fossorium also possesses a strongly modified Vidian canal with a previously unknown connection to the ventral surface of the parabasisphenoid. Comparison with the closely related fossil taxon Dyticonastis rensbergeri reveals that these derived traits are also shared by the latter species and potentially represent synapopmorphies of an extinct Paleogene clade of amphisbaenians. The presence of a reinforced orbital rim suggests selection against the loss of a functional eye and indicates an ecology potentially different from modern taxa. Given the currently accepted phylogenetic position of Spathorhynchus and Dyticonastis, we predict that supposedly 'unique' cranial traits traditionally linked to fossoriality such as a fused orbitosphenoid and the reduction of the eye show a more complex character history than previously assumed, including both parallel evolution and reversals to superficially primitive conditions. © 2016

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  13. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group of ... loss can occur. How does diabetes affect my eyes? Diabetes affects your eyes when your blood glucose, ...

  14. Basic definitions for discrete modeling of computer worms epidemics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Guevara

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The information technologies have evolved in such a way that communication between computers or hosts has become common, so much that the worldwide organization (governments and corporations depends on it; what could happen if these computers stop working for a long time is catastrophic. Unfortunately, networks are attacked by malware such as viruses and worms that could collapse the system. This has served as motivation for the formal study of computer worms and epidemics to develop strategies for prevention and protection; this is why in this paper, before analyzing epidemiological models, a set of formal definitions based on set theory and functions is proposed for describing 21 concepts used in the study of worms. These definitions provide a basis for future qualitative research on the behavior of computer worms, and quantitative for the study of their epidemiological models.

  15. Shrimp aquaculture in low salinity water feeded with worm flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenceslao Valenzuela Quiñónez

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Shrimp aquaculture in Sinaloa is one of the top economic enterprises, generating many jobs and earns significant incomes every year. Shrimp feed is an essential part of maintaining healthy production. In this initial approach of shrimp growth in low salinity water, were tested two formulas of animal protein composed of 40% (APL1 and 20% (APL2 worm protein, a commercial diet, and no supplementary feed. Physicochemical parameters did not have a direct influence in shrimpbehavior. After six weeks of experimentation, shrimp fed with commercial diet had a weight gain 20% higher than those feed with worm protein. There were no significantly differences between sizes with respect to 40% animal protein and 20% animal protein with the commercial diet (P  0.05. However, shrimp fed worm protein had lower mortality. The use of worm protein could be an option to maintain a high quantity of shrimp reared in low salinity waters.

  16. Metagenomic Analysis of Microbial Symbionts in a Gutless Worm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Woyke, Tanja; Teeling, Hanno; Ivanova, Natalia N.; Hunteman, Marcel; Richter, Michael; Gloeckner, Frank Oliver; Boeffelli, Dario; Barry, Kerrie W.; Shapiro, Harris J.; Anderson, Iain J.; Szeto, Ernest; Kyrpides, Nikos C.; Mussmann, Marc; Amann, Rudolf; Bergin, Claudia; Ruehland, Caroline; Rubin, Edward M.; Dubilier, Nicole

    2006-05-01

    Symbioses between bacteria and eukaryotes are ubiquitous, yet our understanding of the interactions driving these associations is hampered by our inability to cultivate most host-associated microbes. Here we use a metagenomic approach to describe four co-occurring symbionts from the marine oligochaete Olavius algarvensis, a worm lacking a mouth, gut and nephridia. Shotgun sequencing and metabolic pathway reconstruction revealed that the symbionts are sulphur-oxidizing and sulphate-reducing bacteria, all of which are capable of carbon fixation, thus providing the host with multiple sources of nutrition. Molecular evidence for the uptake and recycling of worm waste products by the symbionts suggests how the worm could eliminate its excretory system, an adaptation unique among annelid worms. We propose a model that describes how the versatile metabolism within this symbiotic consortium provides the host with an optimal energy supply as it shuttles between the upper oxic and lower anoxic coastal sediments that it inhabits.

  17. Life-cycle of the European compost worm Dendrobaena veneta ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1990-06-05

    Jun 5, 1990 ... The life-cycle of Dendrobaena veneta was studied to assess the potential ... development, growth and reproduction were investigated by rearing worms at ..... systems.Agric. Wmles 2: 43--60. RAMISCH. H. & GRAFF. o. 1985.

  18. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms

    OpenAIRE

    Franks, N. R.; Worley, A.; Grant, K. A. G.; A. R. Gorman; Vizard, V.; Plackett, H.; Doran, C.; Gamble, M. L.; Stumpe, M.; Sendova-Franks, A. B.

    2016-01-01

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to co-ordinate their movements so that even at low densities t...

  19. Discrete Modeling of the Worm Spread with Random Scanning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uchida, Masato

    In this paper, we derive a set of discrete time difference equations that models the spreading process of computer worms such as Code-Red and Slammer, which uses a common strategy called “random scanning” to spread through the Internet. We show that the derived set of discrete time difference equations has an exact relationship with the Kermack and McKendrick susceptible-infectious-removed (SIR) model, which is known as a standard continuous time model for worm spreading.

  20. WormBase: new content and better access

    OpenAIRE

    Bieri, Tamberlyn; Blasiar, Darin; Ozersky, Philip; Antoshechkin, Igor; Bastiani, Carol; Canaran, Payan; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Nansheng; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Fiedler, Tristan J.; Girard, Lisa; Han, Michael; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana

    2006-01-01

    WormBase (http://wormbase.org), a model organism database for Caenorhabditis elegans and other related nematodes, continues to evolve and expand. Over the past year WormBase has added new data on C.elegans, including data on classical genetics, cell biology and functional genomics; expanded the annotation of closely related nematodes with a new genome browser for Caenorhabditis remanei; and deployed new hardware for stronger performance. Several existing datasets including phenotype descripti...

  1. Social behaviour and collective motion in plant-animal worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franks, Nigel R; Worley, Alan; Grant, Katherine A J; Gorman, Alice R; Vizard, Victoria; Plackett, Harriet; Doran, Carolina; Gamble, Margaret L; Stumpe, Martin C; Sendova-Franks, Ana B

    2016-02-24

    Social behaviour may enable organisms to occupy ecological niches that would otherwise be unavailable to them. Here, we test this major evolutionary principle by demonstrating self-organizing social behaviour in the plant-animal, Symsagittifera roscoffensis. These marine aceol flat worms rely for all of their nutrition on the algae within their bodies: hence their common name. We show that individual worms interact with one another to coordinate their movements so that even at low densities they begin to swim in small polarized groups and at increasing densities such flotillas turn into circular mills. We use computer simulations to: (i) determine if real worms interact socially by comparing them with virtual worms that do not interact and (ii) show that the social phase transitions of the real worms can occur based only on local interactions between and among them. We hypothesize that such social behaviour helps the worms to form the dense biofilms or mats observed on certain sun-exposed sandy beaches in the upper intertidal of the East Atlantic and to become in effect a super-organismic seaweed in a habitat where macro-algal seaweeds cannot anchor themselves. Symsagittifera roscoffensis, a model organism in many other areas in biology (including stem cell regeneration), also seems to be an ideal model for understanding how individual behaviours can lead, through collective movement, to social assemblages.

  2. Searching WormBase for information about Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarz, Erich M; Sternberg, Paul W

    2006-07-01

    WormBase is the major public biological database for the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. It is meant to be useful to any biologist who wants to use C. elegans, whatever his or her specialty. WormBase contains information about the genomic sequence of C. elegans, its genes and their products, and its higher-level traits such as gene expression patterns and neuronal connectivity. WormBase also contains genomic sequences and gene structures of C. briggsae and C. remanei, two closely related worms. These data are interconnected, so that a search beginning with one object (such as a gene) can be directed to related objects of a different type (e.g., the DNA sequence of the gene or the cells in which the gene is active). One can also perform searches for complex data sets. The WormBase developers group actively invites suggestions for improvements from the database users. WormBase's source code and underlying database are freely available for local installation and modification.

  3. Development of a WormCAD using Parametric Design Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayinka Oluwole Agboola

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Gears as power transmission devices are capable of changing the speed, torque, and direction of a power source and are considered to be one of the most important devices used in many types of machinery owing to their durability and higher power transmission efficiency. Worm gears as a type of gear are widely used for transmitting power at high velocity ratios between non-intersecting shafts. Worm gears are very useful in machine design but its design requires a lot of design assumptions and calculations. To achieve a rapid design devoid of errors, there is need to have a customized computer program capable of designing worm gears using standardized design equations; and that is what WormCAD stands for. The software was designed using JavaScript programming language and the Node.js platform. The WormCAD was tested to be accurate, faster and convenient hence it will be a viable software to be used by worm gear designers.

  4. Bacterial Microbiota Associated with the Glacier Ice Worm Is Dominated by Both Worm-Specific and Glacier-Derived Facultative Lineages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Takumi; Segawa, Takahiro; Dial, Roman; Takeuchi, Nozomu; Kohshima, Shiro; Hongoh, Yuichi

    2017-01-01

    The community structure of bacteria associated with the glacier ice worm Mesenchytraeus solifugus was analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and their transcripts. Ice worms were collected from two distinct glaciers in Alaska, Harding Icefield and Byron Glacier, and glacier surfaces were also sampled for comparison. Marked differences were observed in bacterial community structures between the ice worm and glacier surface samples. Several bacterial phylotypes were detected almost exclusively in the ice worms, and these bacteria were phylogenetically affiliated with either animal-associated lineages or, interestingly, clades mostly consisting of glacier-indigenous species. The former included bacteria that belong to Mollicutes, Chlamydiae, Rickettsiales, and Lachnospiraceae, while the latter included Arcicella and Herminiimonas phylotypes. Among these bacteria enriched in ice worm samples, Mollicutes, Arcicella, and Herminiimonas phylotypes were abundantly and consistently detected in the ice worm samples; these phylotypes constituted the core microbiota associated with the ice worm. A fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis showed that Arcicella cells specifically colonized the epidermis of the ice worms. Other bacterial phylotypes detected in the ice worm samples were also abundantly recovered from the respective habitat glaciers; these bacteria may be food for ice worms to digest or temporary residents. Nevertheless, some were overrepresented in the ice worm RNA samples; they may also function as facultative gut bacteria. Our results indicate that the community structure of bacteria associated with ice worms is distinct from that in the associated glacier and includes worm-specific and facultative, glacier-indigenous lineages. PMID:28302989

  5. New Geometry of Worm Face Gear Drives with Conical and Cylindrical Worms: Generation, Simulation of Meshing, and Stress Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvin, Faydor L.; Nava, Alessandro; Fan, Qi; Fuentes, Alfonso

    2002-01-01

    New geometry of face worm gear drives with conical and cylindrical worms is proposed. The generation of the face worm-gear is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) instead of application of a hob applied at present. The generation of a conjugated worm is based on application of a tilted head-cutter (grinding tool) as well. The bearing contact of the gear drive is localized and is oriented longitudinally. A predesigned parabolic function of transmission errors for reduction of noise and vibration is provided. The stress analysis of the gear drive is performed using a three-dimensional finite element analysis. The contacting model is automatically generated. The developed theory is illustrated with numerical examples.

  6. Mosquito infection responses to developing filarial worms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara M Erickson

    Full Text Available Human lymphatic filariasis is a mosquito-vectored disease caused by the nematode parasites Wuchereria bancrofti, Brugia malayi and Brugia timori. These are relatively large roundworms that can cause considerable damage in compatible mosquito vectors. In order to assess how mosquitoes respond to infection in compatible mosquito-filarial worm associations, microarray analysis was used to evaluate transcriptome changes in Aedes aegypti at various times during B. malayi development. Changes in transcript abundance in response to the different stages of B. malayi infection were diverse. At the early stages of midgut and thoracic muscle cell penetration, a greater number of genes were repressed compared to those that were induced (20 vs. 8. The non-feeding, intracellular first-stage larvae elicited few differences, with 4 transcripts showing an increased and 9 a decreased abundance relative to controls. Several cecropin transcripts increased in abundance after parasites molted to second-stage larvae. However, the greatest number of transcripts changed in abundance after larvae molted to third-stage larvae and migrated to the head and proboscis (120 induced, 38 repressed, including a large number of putative, immunity-related genes (approximately 13% of genes with predicted functions. To test whether the innate immune system of mosquitoes was capable of modulating permissiveness to the parasite, we activated the Toll and Imd pathway controlled rel family transcription factors Rel1 and Rel2 (by RNA interference knockdown of the pathway's negative regulators Cactus and Caspar during the early stages of infection with B. malayi. The activation of either of these immune signaling pathways, or knockdown of the Toll pathway, did not affect B. malayi in Ae. aegypti. The possibility of LF parasites evading mosquito immune responses during successful development is discussed.

  7. Discussion and Future Directions for Eye Tracker Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Mulvey, Fiona; Mardanbegi, Diako

    2011-01-01

    Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking.......Eye and gaze tracking have a long history but there is still plenty of room for further development. In this concluding chapter for Section 6, we consider future perspectives for the development of eye and gaze tracking....

  8. THE HISTORY AND THE PRESENT OF THE SETTLEMENTS OF THE XVI – XVIII CENTURIES ON THE TERRITORY OF DNIPROPETROVSK IN THE EYES OF STUDENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LYSENKO G. I.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Statement of the problem. With the enactment of the Law of Ukraine "About the condemnation of the Communist and national socialist (Nazi totalitarian regimes in Ukraine and the prohibition of propaganda of their symbolism", by minimum historical counting, about 800 localities of which at least 24 cities including Dnipropetrovs’k need to be renamed. But the views of residents of the city are divided: some support to keep the old name of the city, changing its semantic load, and there are a lot of people willing to rename the city in Sicheslav, Dniproslav, Kodak and the like. Now it is important to know the opinion of young people in the city and region who create their future and that of their children. The analysis of the research. The history of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on the territory of the future Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k became the subject of study of many scientists since the nineteenth century. In the years of independence more and more historians declare the necessity of the revision of the chronology of the history of our city, taking into account the earlier settlements, which undoubtedly influenced both the development of the region and the future provincial city. The purpose of this article is to determine the degree of influence of the settlements of the XVI – XVIII centuries on later (including modern history of Katerynoslav (Dnipropetrovs’k in the minds of the youth of the city. Conclusion. The analysis of the settlements of the XVI-XVIII centuries testifies to the active urban processes that took place in our region in the Cossack-Hetman days. This important stage in the history of our city enriches us, its current inhabitants, with facts about the distant past which we should not only remember and pass on to our descendants, but also recover through the reconstruction of the defining architectural features. The results of a survey among students to determine their views regarding the

  9. Eye evolution and its functional basis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Dan-E

    2013-03-01

    Eye evolution is driven by the evolution of visually guided behavior. Accumulation of gradually more demanding behaviors have continuously increased the performance requirements on the photoreceptor organs. Starting with nondirectional photoreception, I argue for an evolutionary sequence continuing with directional photoreception, low-resolution vision, and finally, high-resolution vision. Calculations of the physical requirements for these four sensory tasks show that they correlate with major innovations in eye evolution and thus work as a relevant classification for a functional analysis of eye evolution. Together with existing molecular and morphological data, the functional analysis suggests that urbilateria had a simple set of rhabdomeric and ciliary receptors used for directional photoreception, and that organ duplications, positional shifts and functional shifts account for the diverse patterns of eyes and photoreceptors seen in extant animals. The analysis also suggests that directional photoreception evolved independently at least twice before the last common ancestor of bilateria and proceeded several times independently to true vision in different bilaterian and cnidarian groups. This scenario is compatible with Pax-gene expression in eye development in the different animal groups. The whole process from the first opsin to high-resolution vision took about 170 million years and was largely completed by the onset of the Cambrian, about 530 million years ago. Evolution from shadow detectors to multiple directional photoreceptors has further led to secondary cases of eye evolution in bivalves, fan worms, and chitons.

  10. Opportunities for Sex Education and Personal and Social Education (PSE) through Science Lessons: The Comments of Primary Pupils When Observing Meal Worms and Brine Shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunnicliffe, Sue Dale; Reiss, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    Presents a characterization of students' comments during observation of meal worms or brine shrimp. Finds that many student comments had to do with sex, reproduction, death, violence, and the life history of the organisms. Significant differences in conversations occurred across age and gender groups. Contains 32 references. (Author/WRM)

  11. MULTI-AGENT SYSTEM FOR WORM DETECTION AND CONTAINMENT IN METROPOLITAN AREA NETWORKS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Active worms can cause widespread damages at so high a speed that effectively precludes human-directed reaction, and patches for the worms are always available after the damages have been caused, whichhas elevated them selfto a first-class security threat to Metropolitan Area Networks (MAN). Multi-agent sys-tem for Worm Detection and Containment in MAN (MWDCM) is presented to provide a first-class auto-matic reaction mechanism that automatically applies containment strategies to block the propagation of theworms and to protect MAN against worm scan that wastes a lot of network bandwidth and crashes therouters. Its user agent is used to detect the known worms. Worm detection agent and worm detection correla-tion agent use two-stage based decision method to detect unknown worms. They adaptively study the access-ing in the whole network and dynamically change the working parameters to detect the unknown worms.MWDCM confines worm infection within a macro-cell or a micro-cell of the metropolitan area networks, therest of the accesses and hosts continue functioning without disruption. MWDCM integrates Worm DetectionSystem (WDS) and network management system. Reaction measures can be taken by using Simple NetworkManagement Protocol (SNMP) interface to control broadband access server as soon as the WDS detect theactive worm. MWDCM is very effective in blocking random scanning worms. Simulation results indicatethat high worm infection rate of epidemics can be avoided to a degree by MWDCM blocking the propagationof the worms.

  12. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... people you know — like your grandparents — probably wear glasses. To the Brain! Think of the optic nerve as the great messenger in the back of your eye. The rods and cones of the retina change the colors and shapes you see into millions of nerve ...

  13. Refleksion - Worms kabinet og renæssancen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Teglhus, Hanne

    2006-01-01

    Udstilling om Ole Worms liv og videnskab. Ole Worm var læge og videnskabsmand i renæssancen. Ud over at være medicinsk professor ved Københavns Universitet interesserede han sig indgående for Danmarks fortidsminder og runeskrift. Ole Worm skabte sit eget museum, det såkaldte  Museum Wormianum, som...... alt indhold. Ikke med originale genstande, men med dyr, sten, metal og artefakter, der kom så tæt på det originale som muligt.  Denne installation samt portrætgalleriet af Ole Worms forfædre og efterkommere udgør udstillingens hovedelementer. Dertil kommer eksempler på de naturobjekter, der indgik i hans...... medicinske behandlinger og et udvalg af Ole Worms originale videnskabelige publikationer. Til udstillingen er opbygget et moderne "skab dit eget museum" til brug for de besøgendes egne medbragte genstande, som de opfordres til at forsøge at systematisere og udstille efter behag....

  14. Research on the Propagation Models and Defense Techniques of Internet Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tian-Yun Huang

    2008-01-01

    Internet worm is harmful to network security, and it has become a research hotspot in recent years. A thorough survey on the propagation models and defense techniques of Internet worm is made in this paper. We first give its strict definition and discuss the working mechanism. We then analyze and compare some repre sentative worm propagation models proposed in recent years, such as K-M model, two-factor model, worm-anti worm model (WAW), firewall-based model, quarantine based model and hybrid benign worm-based model, etc. Some typical defense techniques such as virtual honeypot, active worm prevention and agent-oriented worm defense, etc, are also discussed. The future direction of the worm defense system is pointed out.

  15. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lifesaver Kids Talk About: Coaches Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? Print ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  16. Eye muscle repair - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Lazy eye repair - discharge; Strabismus repair - discharge; Extraocular muscle surgery - discharge ... You or your child had eye muscle repair surgery to correct eye muscle ... term for crossed eyes is strabismus. Children most often ...

  17. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Happens in the Operating Room? Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Do Eyes Water? A ... out of your nose. continue Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  19. Recommended Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  20. Eye Safety at Home

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  1. Eye Safety at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  2. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder in ... the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some eye movement disorders are present at birth. Others develop over time ...

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  4. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that can be embedded on web pages. Conjunctivitis (Pink Eye) One-Page Overview Pink, itchy eyes? Conjunctivitis – ... protect yourself from getting and spreading pink eye . Pink Eye: What To Do Discusses causes and treatment, ...

  5. Eye Disease Simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... USAJobs Home > Eye Health Information > Eye Disease Simulations Eye Disease Simulations Age-Related Macular Degeneration Cataract Diabetic ... information page Back to top Diabetic Retinopathy Diabetic Eye Disease information page Back to top Glaucoma Glaucoma ...

  6. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Privacy Policy Sitemap Learn Engage Donate About TSC Eyes Campbell (1905) first described the eye involvement in ... some form of eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of ...

  7. Eye Complications in IBD

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Home > Resources > Eye Complications in IBD Go Back Eye Complications in IBD Email Print + Share Approximately 10% ... doctor’s attention sooner rather than later. TYPES OF EYE DISORDERS UVEITIS One of the most common eye ...

  8. The impact of various distance between axes of worm gear on torque value. Worm gear test stand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sobek, M.; Baier, A.; Grabowski, Ł.

    2017-08-01

    Transferring both rotational and translational movements in systems used in the automotive industry is a very important and complex issue. In addition, the situation becomes much more difficult and complicated when the design of the transition system requires a high precision of operation as well as a well definite and long operating life. Such requirements are imposed on all components of today’s motor vehicles. However, particular attention is paid to the elements that directly or indirectly affect the safety of persons traveling in the vehicle. Such components are undoubtedly components included as parts of the steering system of the vehicle. Power steering systems have been present in motor vehicles for more than a century. They go through continuous metamorphosis and they are getting better and better. Current power steering systems are based on an electric motor and some kind of transmission. Depending on the position of the drive relative to the steering column, different configurations of the transmission are used. This article will cover issues related to tests of power steering gearing using a worm drive. The worm drive is a very specific example of a propulsion system that uses twisted axles. Normally, in this type of transition you can find two gear units with the axis mounted with a 90° angle between. The components of the worm drive are a worm and a worm gear, also called a worm wheel. In terms of the geometrical form, the worm resembles a helical spur gear. The shape of the worm is similar to the shape of a screw with a trapezoidal thread. A correct matching of these two components ensures proper operation of the entire transmission. Incorrect positioning of the components in relation to each other can significantly reduce the lifetime of the drive unit, and also lead to abnormal work, eg by raising the noise level. This article describes a test method of finding the appropriate distance between the axles of both worm drive units by testing the

  9. Commwarrior worm propagation model for smart phone networks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIA Wei; LI Zhao-hui; CHEN Zeng-qiang; YUAN Zhu-zhi

    2008-01-01

    Commwarrior worm is capable of spreading through both Bluetooth and multimedia messaging service (MMS) in smart phone networks. According to the propagation characteristics of Bluetooth and MMS, we built the susceptible- exposed-infected-recovered-dormancy (SEIRD) model for the Bluetooth and MMS hybrid spread mode and performed the stability analysis. The simulation results show good correlation with our theoretical analysis and demonstrate the effectiveness of this dynamic propagation model. On the basis of the SEIRD model, we further discuss at length the influence of the propagation parameters such as user gather density in groups, moving velocity of smart phone, the time for worm to replicate itself, and other interrelated parameters on the propagation of the virus. On the basis of these analytical and simulation results, some feasible control strategies will be proposed to restrain the spread of mobile worm such as commwarrior on smart phone network.

  10. Continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo using worm sampling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunacker, P.; Wallerberger, M.; Gull, E.; Hausoel, A.; Sangiovanni, G.; Held, K.

    2015-10-01

    We present a worm sampling method for calculating one- and two-particle Green's functions using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo simulations in the hybridization expansion (CT-HYB). Instead of measuring Green's functions by removing hybridization lines from partition function configurations, as in conventional CT-HYB, the worm algorithm directly samples the Green's function. We show that worm sampling is necessary to obtain general two-particle Green's functions which are not of density-density type and that it improves the sampling efficiency when approaching the atomic limit. Such two-particle Green's functions are needed to compute off-diagonal elements of susceptibilities and occur in diagrammatic extensions of the dynamical mean-field theory and in efficient estimators for the single-particle self-energy.

  11. Logistics of Guinea worm disease eradication in South Sudan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Alexander H; Becknell, Steven; Withers, P Craig; Ruiz-Tiben, Ernesto; Hopkins, Donald R; Stobbelaar, David; Makoy, Samuel Yibi

    2014-03-01

    From 2006 to 2012, the South Sudan Guinea Worm Eradication Program reduced new Guinea worm disease (dracunculiasis) cases by over 90%, despite substantial programmatic challenges. Program logistics have played a key role in program achievements to date. The program uses disease surveillance and program performance data and integrated technical-logistical staffing to maintain flexible and effective logistical support for active community-based surveillance and intervention delivery in thousands of remote communities. Lessons learned from logistical design and management can resonate across similar complex surveillance and public health intervention delivery programs, such as mass drug administration for the control of neglected tropical diseases and other disease eradication programs. Logistical challenges in various public health scenarios and the pivotal contribution of logistics to Guinea worm case reductions in South Sudan underscore the need for additional inquiry into the role of logistics in public health programming in low-income countries.

  12. Ascaris lumbricoides: reinfection in children bearing an established worm burden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fausto E. Lima Pereira

    1991-12-01

    Full Text Available To clarify the existance of reinfection in children bearing an established Ascaris lumbricoides infection, the authors evaluated the weight and the length of worms collected from ten cases of ascaridiasis. The worm burden was greater than 27 worms in nine cases. In seven cases the weight and the length of worms showed little variation, with unimodal distribution of values, suggesting that all the worms in each case belong to the same population, originated from a single brood infection or from successive infections over small time intervals. In three cases there was great variation in worm size indicated by the different values for the means and medians and by the high values for the standard deviation and coefficient of variation. In these three cases there was a bimodal distribution of worm's size suggesting the coexistance of two distinct populations: one, less numerous, composed of mature worms and the other, more numerous, composed ofimmature worms, in two cases, and two distinct populations of immature worms in one case. The existance of worms in different stages of maturation indicates that the less mature population was acquired when the mature worms were established in the gut. These results indicate that the reinfection with Ascaris in children bearing an established infection is not rare and resistance induced by a preexisting infection is not the rule.Para tentar esclarecer a existência de reinfecção em crianças portadoras de ascaridíase já estabelecida, foram avaliados o peso e o comprimento dos vermes colhidos em 10 casosde ascaridíase, em nove dos quais a carga parasitária foi maior do que 27 vermes. Em sete casos o peso e o comprimento dos vermes apresentaram pouca variação, com distribuição unimodal dos valores, sugerindo assim pertencerem todos a uma mesma população originada de uma única infecção ou de infecções repetidas com intervalos muito curtos. Em três casos, o peso e o comprimento dos vermes

  13. Preparation of Pickering double emulsions using block copolymer worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kate L; Mable, Charlotte J; Lane, Jacob A; Derry, Mathew J; Fielding, Lee A; Armes, Steven P

    2015-04-14

    The rational formulation of Pickering double emulsions is described using a judicious combination of hydrophilic and hydrophobic block copolymer worms as highly anisotropic emulsifiers. More specifically, RAFT dispersion polymerization was utilized to prepare poly(lauryl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 20% w/w solids in n-dodecane and poly(glycerol monomethacrylate)-poly(2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate)-poly(benzyl methacrylate) worms at 13% w/w solids in water by polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). Water-in-oil-in-water (w/o/w) double emulsions can be readily prepared with mean droplet diameters ranging from 30 to 80 μm using a two-stage approach. First, a w/o precursor emulsion comprising 25 μm aqueous droplets is prepared using the hydrophobic worms, followed by encapsulation within oil droplets stabilized by the hydrophilic worms. The double emulsion droplet diameter and number of encapsulated water droplets can be readily varied by adjusting the stirring rate employed during the second stage. For each stage, the droplet volume fraction is relatively high at 0.50. The double emulsion nature of the final formulation was confirmed by optical and fluorescence microscopy studies. Such double emulsions are highly stable to coalescence, with little or no change in droplet diameter being detected over storage at 20 °C for 10 weeks as judged by laser diffraction. Preliminary experiments indicate that the complementary o/w/o emulsions can also be prepared using the same pair of worms by changing the order of homogenization, although somewhat lower droplet volume fractions were required in this case. Finally, we demonstrate that triple and even quadruple emulsions can be formulated using these new highly anisotropic Pickering emulsifiers.

  14. [Common tropical infections with protozoans, worms and ectoparasites].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schliemann, S

    2014-10-01

    Infectious diseases of the skin have become rarer in industrialized nations, but they still affect a considerable part of the population in tropical regions. Skin diseases induced by protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are among the 17 "neglected tropical diseases" defined by the WHO (leishmaniasis, dracunculiasis, lymphatic filariasis, onchocerciasis). Skin symptoms in travellers returning from the tropics may challenge dermatologists in Germany regarding differential diagnostic assessment and therapy. Among the 12 most frequent skin diseases in travellers are cutaneous larva migrans, leishmaniasis and myiasis. In this review, diagnosis, treatment and prevention of some the most relevant tropical dermatoses due to protozoa, worms and ectoparasites are discussed.

  15. Lagophthalmos in enophthalmic eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yip, C-C; Gonzalez-Candial, M; Jain, A; Goldberg, R A; McCann, J D

    2005-06-01

    To report a case series of enophthalmic patients with lagophthalmos. A retrospective review of the electronic medical records at a tertiary health care centre of all patients with the diagnoses of "enophthalmos" and "lagophthalmos". Patients who had a history of diseases (such as Graves' orbitopathy), trauma or surgery of the orbit and eyelid were excluded. Enophthalmos was defined as exophthalmometric reading of 14 mm or less in both eyes. Seven patients (14 eyes) with bilateral enophthalmos were found to have concomitant lagophthalmos. All patients had deep superior sulci bilaterally. The upper eyelids were seen to be severely retro-placed behind the superior orbital rim. The extraocular motilities were full with no focal neurological deficit. The orbicularis oculi function was normal with no facial paralysis. The orbits were soft on retropulsion and no facial asymmetry was noted. The mean exophthalmolmetry reading measured 12.6 (SD 1.1) mm. The lagophthalmos varied from 1-5 mm. One patient (one eye) with 3 mm lagophthalmos developed a corneal ulcer and was treated with topical antibiotics and gold weight placement in the upper eyelid. Enophthalmic patients with deep superior sulci and retro-placed upper eyelids may present with lagophthalmos and exposure keratopathy.

  16. The Evil Eye--an ancient superstition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Allan S

    2012-12-01

    This paper describes and discusses the ancient superstition of the Evil Eye. The author describes his own personal childhood introduction to the subject of the Evil Eye which years later instigated his scholarly inquiry. The history of this very geographically widespread folk belief is elaborated upon, along with common manifestations as they appear in a number of different countries and cultures. Some of the methods used to thwart the negative effects of the Evil Eye are enumerated. Relevant psychodynamics and common expressions of the Evil Eye superstition are elucidated upon.

  17. Age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in human populations, as indicated by schistosome circulating antigens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Polman Katja

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, our group determined the relationship between serum CAA levels and fecal egg counts in two foci with very intense Schistosoma mansoni transmission: Maniema (Zaire, an area endemic for S. mansoni since several decades, and Ndombo (Senegal, where transmission has only been established since a few years. The objective was to study and compare age-related worm load and worm fecundity patterns in these two different endemic settings. Here, we will summarize the most important findings and conclusions of this study.

  18. Disturbance, productivity and diversity in deep-sea canyons: A worm's eye view

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Paterson, G.L.J.; Glover, A.G.; Cunha, M.R.; Neal, L.; de Stigter, H.C.; Kiriakoulakis, K.; Billett, D.S.M.; Wolff, G.A.; Tiago, A.; Ravara, A.; Lamont, P.; Tyler, P.

    2011-01-01

    The abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of polychaetes from the Nazare, Setubal and Cascais Canyons along the Iberian Margin were studied as part of the EU project HERMES. A Dynamic Equilibrium Model (DEM) was used to identify the main environmental factors structuring the assemblages. Box

  19. The Worm Process for the Ising Model is Rapidly Mixing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collevecchio, Andrea; Garoni, Timothy M.; Hyndman, Timothy; Tokarev, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    We prove rapid mixing of the worm process for the zero-field ferromagnetic Ising model, on all finite connected graphs, and at all temperatures. As a corollary, we obtain a fully-polynomial randomized approximation scheme for the Ising susceptibility, and for a certain restriction of the two-point correlation function.

  20. Structure and flexibility of worm-like micelles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jerke, G.; Pedersen, J.S.; Egelhaaf, S.U.

    1997-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering and static light scattering experiments have been performed on worm-like micelles formed by soybean lecithin and trace amounts of water in deuterated iso-octane. The structure and flexibility of the aggregates have been investigated as a function of solution...

  1. Round worm in the ear: A clinical rarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidya Bhushan Rangappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Foreign body in otolaryngology practice is a common scenario. There have been very few documentations of a worm entering the ear through the Eustachian tube. We hereby report a very interesting such case and also discuss the possible cause postulated for such events.

  2. Opinion dynamics driven by leaders, media, viruses and worms

    OpenAIRE

    Tuncay, Caglar

    2006-01-01

    A model on the effects of leader, media, viruses, and worms and other agents on the opinion of individuals is developed and utilized to simulate the formation of consensus in society and price in market via excess between supply and demand. Effects of some time varying drives, (harmonic and hyperbolic) are also investigated. Key words: Opinion; Leader; Media; Market; Buyers; Sellers; Excess

  3. The opportunistic transmission of wireless worms between mobile devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhodes, C. J.; Nekovee, M.

    2008-12-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. The model uses straight-line motion to achieve population, though it is recognised that this is a highly simplified representation of human mobility patterns. We show that the contact rate can be derived from the underlying mobility model and, through extensive simulation, that mass-action epidemic models remain applicable to worm spreading in the low density regime studied here. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations of worm spread can be developed and tested.

  4. The Worm Guide: A Vericomposting Guide for Teachers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California Integrated Waste Management Board, Sacramento.

    This guide focuses on vermicomposting of food waste. Contents include: (1) "Integrated Waste Management"; (2) "Basics of Vermicomposting"; (3) "Other Worm Bin Residents"; (4) "The Garden Connection"; (5) "Closing the Food Loop at Your School"; (6) "Fundraising"; (7) "Activities for Classroom"; and (8) "Case Studies". Appendices include educational…

  5. Making sense of genomes of parasitic worms: Tackling bioinformatic challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korhonen, Pasi K; Young, Neil D; Gasser, Robin B

    2016-01-01

    Billions of people and animals are infected with parasitic worms (helminths). Many of these worms cause diseases that have a major socioeconomic impact worldwide, and are challenging to control because existing treatment methods are often inadequate. There is, therefore, a need to work toward developing new intervention methods, built on a sound understanding of parasitic worms at molecular level, the relationships that they have with their animal hosts and/or the diseases that they cause. Decoding the genomes and transcriptomes of these parasites brings us a step closer to this goal. The key focus of this article is to critically review and discuss bioinformatic tools used for the assembly and annotation of these genomes and transcriptomes, as well as various post-genomic analyses of transcription profiles, biological pathways, synteny, phylogeny, biogeography and the prediction and prioritisation of drug target candidates. Bioinformatic pipelines implemented and established recently provide practical and efficient tools for the assembly and annotation of genomes of parasitic worms, and will be applicable to a wide range of other parasites and eukaryotic organisms. Future research will need to assess the utility of long-read sequence data sets for enhanced genomic assemblies, and develop improved algorithms for gene prediction and post-genomic analyses, to enable comprehensive systems biology explorations of parasitic organisms.

  6. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the applica

  7. A new reactor concept for sludge reduction using aquatic worms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elissen, H.J.H.; Hendrickx, T.L.G.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2006-01-01

    Biological waste water treatment results in the production of waste sludge. The final treatment option in The Netherlands for this waste sludge is usually incineration. A biological approach to reduce the amount of waste sludge is through predation by aquatic worms. In this paper we test the

  8. Metagenomics of the Methane Ice Worm, Hesiocaeca methanicola

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, K. D.; Edsall, L.; Xin, W.; Head, S. R.; Gelbart, T.; Wood, A. M.; Gaasterland, T.

    2012-12-01

    The methane ice worm (Hesiocaeca methanicola) is a polychaete found on methane hydrate deposits for which there appears to be no publically available genomic or metagenomic data. Methane ice worms were collected in 2009 by the Johnson-Sea-Link submersible (543m depth; N 27:44.7526 W 91:13.3168). Next-generation sequencing (HiSeq2000) was applied to samples of tissue and gut contents. A subset of the assembled data (40M reads, randomly selected) was run through MG-RAST. Preliminary results for the gut content (1,269,153 sequences, average length 202 bp) indicated that 0.1% of the sequences contained ribosomal RNA genes with the majority (67%) classified as Bacteria, a relatively small per cent (1.4%) as Archae, and 31% as Eukaryota. Campylobacterales was the predominant order (14%), with unclassified (7.5%) and Desulfobacterales (4%) being the next dominant. Preliminary results for the worm tissue (2,716,461 sequences, average length 241 bp) indicated that the majority of sequences were Eukaryota (73%), with 256 sequences classified as phylum Annelida and 58% of those belonging to class Polychaeta. For the bacterial sequences obtained from the tissue samples, the predominant order was Actinomycetales (2.7%). For both the tissue and gut content samples, the majority of proteins were classified as clustering-based subsystems. This preliminary analysis will be compared to an assembly consisting of 40M of the highest quality reads.; methane ice worms on methane hydrate

  9. The Vicious Worm - A One Health cysticercosis advocacy information tool

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saarnak, Christopher; Trevisan, Chiara; Mejer, Helena

    & iTunes app stores for smartphones. The Vicious Worm provides information on how to diagnose and treat the disease in both pigs and humans and its impact on people’s livelihood. Possible control and intervention strategies are provided using different ways of communication according to the audience...

  10. Theoretical study on real tooth surface of novel toroidal worm by the forming method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Xiaoping

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The novel toroidal worm-gearing is a kind of worm transmission with spherical meshing elements, which is made up of worm, steel balls and worm gear, and its loading capacity and adaptability to errors can be improved by the mismatched technology applied to the meshing pair. Based on the directrix of worm surface, the mathematic model of worm surface is established, and the directrix-based forming method for machining worm surface is proposed. Further, the principle error in the machining process is analyzed, and the theoretic and real tooth surfaces of worm are fitted and compared on OpenGL platform. The results show that the tooth profile error can be controlled at the range of 0~1×10-5mm, and it is always 0 at the pressure angle.

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  14. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Computer Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真.%In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid model, putting the changeable parameters design were put in the part 3D model creating procedure. The rapid modeling of worm gear and worm were realized by generating visual variable parameters dialog box. On this basis,the virtual assembly and motion simulation were made for rapid modeling of worm gear and worm.

  15. QuantWorm: a comprehensive software package for Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypic assays.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sang-Kyu Jung

    Full Text Available Phenotypic assays are crucial in genetics; however, traditional methods that rely on human observation are unsuitable for quantitative, large-scale experiments. Furthermore, there is an increasing need for comprehensive analyses of multiple phenotypes to provide multidimensional information. Here we developed an automated, high-throughput computer imaging system for quantifying multiple Caenorhabditis elegans phenotypes. Our imaging system is composed of a microscope equipped with a digital camera and a motorized stage connected to a computer running the QuantWorm software package. Currently, the software package contains one data acquisition module and four image analysis programs: WormLifespan, WormLocomotion, WormLength, and WormEgg. The data acquisition module collects images and videos. The WormLifespan software counts the number of moving worms by using two time-lapse images; the WormLocomotion software computes the velocity of moving worms; the WormLength software measures worm body size; and the WormEgg software counts the number of eggs. To evaluate the performance of our software, we compared the results of our software with manual measurements. We then demonstrated the application of the QuantWorm software in a drug assay and a genetic assay. Overall, the QuantWorm software provided accurate measurements at a high speed. Software source code, executable programs, and sample images are available at www.quantworm.org. Our software package has several advantages over current imaging systems for C. elegans. It is an all-in-one package for quantifying multiple phenotypes. The QuantWorm software is written in Java and its source code is freely available, so it does not require use of commercial software or libraries. It can be run on multiple platforms and easily customized to cope with new methods and requirements.

  16. SCOPS and COWS--'worming it out of UK farmers'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, M A

    2012-05-04

    Infections with gastrointestinal roundworms are an important cause of production losses in sheep and cattle. Worm control is a vital part of health and production management in sheep flocks and cattle herds in the UK, and good control is highly dependent on effective anthelmintics. Unfortunately, a direct and unavoidable consequence of using anthelmintics to control worm populations is selection for individuals that are resistant to the chemicals used. If left unchecked, anthelmintic resistance (AR) could prove to be one of the biggest challenges to sheep and cattle production and animal welfare within the UK. As a consequence of increasing reports of AR in sheep, a working group, "SCOPS" (sustainable control of parasites in sheep) was formed in 2003 with representatives from the UK sheep industry to promote practical guidelines for sheep farmers and their advisors. This led to the production of guidelines for 'sustainable worm control strategies for sheep' intended for veterinarians and sheep advisors, plus ongoing promotional literature aimed at farmers. Whilst there is some evidence of emerging resistance in roundworms of cattle, it appears to still be at a very low level in the UK. However the potential presence of such AR in cattle worms has been seen as a timely warning, which if ignored, could lead to a not dissimilar AR situation to that seen in sheep, and in other cattle areas around the world. Reports of AR in UK cattle nematodes have generally been limited to a small number of anecdotal reports of treatment failure with some macrocyclic lactone (ML) products, especially those formulated as pour-on preparations, and invariably involving the dose-limiting species, Cooperia oncophora. As a consequence of these observations, guidelines have been produced similar to those for sheep, for sustainable worm control strategies for cattle "COWS" (control of worms sustainably), and were launched in May 2010. Uptake and effectiveness of SCOPS recommendations are

  17. Pre-stressed Modal Analysis of Worm and Worm Gear%蜗杆蜗轮有预应力的模态分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘宜敞; 田春林; 刘涛; 王晓军

    2015-01-01

    This paper takes the ordinary cylindrical worm and worm gear as the research object, which is used for transmission mechanism for automatic clutch in automobile. The three-dimensional model of the worm and worm gear is established by using SolidWorks. First of all on the worm and worm gear is static analysis, get the equivalent nephogram and the displacement nephogram of worm and worm gear. In order to prevent resonance, respectively on the worm and worm gear modal analysis is carried out by using finite element analysis software ANSYS Workbench. By modal analysis, the first 6 order natural frequency and vibration mode characteristics of worm and worm gear is gotten. From the analysis of results, resonance did not occur between the worm and worm gear. This result provides a theoretical basis for the structure improvement and later dynamic analysis of the worm and worm gear.%本文以汽车自动离合器传动机构的蜗杆和蜗轮为研究对象,运用SolidWorks建立蜗杆和蜗轮的三维模型,将模型导入到ANSYS Workbench中,再利用ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件分别对蜗杆和蜗轮进行静力学分析,得到蜗杆和蜗轮的等效应力云图和位移云图;然后再利用ANSYS Workbench有限元分析软件分别对蜗杆和蜗轮进行模态分析,通过对模型进行模态分析,获得了蜗杆和蜗轮的前6阶固有频率和振型特征,通过结果分析,发现蜗杆和蜗轮之间不会发生共振,该结果为蜗杆和蜗轮的结构改进设计以及以后的动力学分析提供了理论依据。

  18. Eye Injuries in Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... in Sports Which sports cause the most eye injuries?Sports cause more than 40,000 eye injuries each ... and racquet sports.When it comes to eye injuries, sports can be classified as low risk, high risk ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  1. Eye muscle repair - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100062.htm Eye muscle repair - series—Normal anatomy To use the sharing ... the eyeball to the eye socket. The external muscles of the eye are found behind the conjunctiva. ...

  2. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... you have allergic conjunctivitis. Preventing the spread of pink eye Practice good hygiene to control the spread ... can return to school or child care. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to ...

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  4. About the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  5. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Habits for TV, Video Games, and the Internet Eye Injuries KidsHealth > For Parents > Eye Injuries Print A ... sand, dirt, and other foreign bodies on the eye surface) Wash your hands thoroughly before touching the ...

  6. Hop-by-HopWorm Propagation with Carryover Epidemic Model in Mobile Sensor Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun-Won Ho

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the internet, a worm is usually propagated in a random multi-hop contact manner. However, the attacker will not likely select this random multi-hop propagation approach in a mobile sensor network. This is because multi-hop worm route paths to random vulnerable targets can be often breached due to node mobility, leading to failure of fast worm spread under this strategy. Therefore, an appropriate propagation strategy is needed for mobile sensor worms. To meet this need, we discuss a hop-by-hop worm propagation model in mobile sensor networks. In a hop-by-hop worm propagation model, benign nodes are infected by worm in neighbor-to-neighbor spread manner. Since worm infection occurs in hop-by-hop contact, it is not substantially affected by a route breach incurred by node mobility. We also propose the carryover epidemic model to deal with the worm infection quota deficiency that might occur when employing an epidemic model in a mobile sensor network. We analyze worm infection capability under the carryover epidemic model. Moreover, we simulate hop-by-hop worm propagation with carryover epidemic model by using an ns-2 simulator. The simulation results demonstrate that infection quota carryovers are seldom observed where a node’s maximum speed is no less than 20 m/s.

  7. Laser photocoagulation - eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laser coagulation; Laser eye surgery; Photocoagulation; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic eye disease; Laser photocoagulation - diabetic retinopathy; Focal photocoagulation; Scatter (or pan retinal) photocoagulation; Proliferative ...

  8. Paragonimus worm from a New Guinea native in 1926

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenlin Wang; David Blair; Tian Min; Fang Li; Dianhua Wang

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To reobserve and research the specimen of Paragonimus worm found in the left lung of a New Guinea native in 1926, which was previously identified as Paragonimuswestermani Kerbert or Paragonimus ringeri Cobbold. Methods: Using reconstructive software and microscopy to observe some organs of the worm, and compared with other species of paragonimus. Results: The three dimensional (3D) views of ovary and two testes of New Guinea specimen showed that the ovary was clearly divided into six lobes. These two testes were situated oppositely in the body. One teste was divided into four branches, while another was divided into five. The cuticular spines were arranged in groups over the entire skin covered in a slide, each group was consisted of two to four single spine. Conclusions: Based on 3D views and measurements, we reclassified it as Paragonimus siamensis. This was also the first report of human case infected by Paragonimus siamensis.

  9. Achievements of Study Concerning Worm Face Gear Made in Romania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Boloş

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Worm face gears are a relatively new category of gear failure in 50 years in the USA. They are composed of a conical or cylindrical worm to engage the front wheel of a conical or flat. Geometric configuration to ensure a great contact ratio and lubrication between the flanks favorable conditions which allow their implementation of hardened steel, gray iron, bronze. Also they will produce big rapport of transmission in a single stage. Originally conceived by Illinois Tool Works Company Chicago they were taken and developed at the Institute of Mechanical Izhevsk (Russia. Experimental and theoretical developments were made in Britain, Germany, Hungary, Poland, Bulgaria and Romania. In the present paper is highlighted the concerns and the achievements of researchers from Romania in the period 1980-2009.

  10. The Opportunistic Transmission of Wireless Worms between Mobile Devices

    CERN Document Server

    Rhodes, C J

    2008-01-01

    The ubiquity of portable wireless-enabled computing and communications devices has stimulated the emergence of malicious codes (wireless worms) that are capable of spreading between spatially proximal devices. The potential exists for worms to be opportunistically transmitted between devices as they move around, so human mobility patterns will have an impact on epidemic spread. The scenario we address in this paper is proximity attacks from fleetingly in-contact wireless devices with short-range communication range, such as Bluetooth-enabled smart phones. An individual-based model of mobile devices is introduced and the effect of population characteristics and device behaviour on the outbreak dynamics is investigated. We show through extensive simulations that in the above scenario the resulting mass-action epidemic models remain applicable provided the contact rate is derived consistently from the underlying mobility model. The model gives useful analytical expressions against which more refined simulations ...

  11. An Improved Lower Bound for Moser's Worm Problem

    OpenAIRE

    Khandhawit, Tirasan; Sriswasdi, Sira

    2007-01-01

    We show that any convex region which contains a unit segment, an equilateral triangle of sides 1/2, and a square of side 1/3 always has area at least 0.227498. Using grid-search algorithm, we attempt to find a configuration of these three objects with minimal convex hull area. Consequently, we improve a lower bound for Moser's worm problem from 0.2194 to 0.227498.

  12. Taxonomy Icon Data: hemichordates (Acorn worm) [Taxonomy Icon

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available hemichordates (Acorn worm) Glandiceps hacksi Hemichordata Glandiceps_hacksi_L.png G...landiceps_hacksi_NL.png Glandiceps_hacksi_S.png Glandiceps_hacksi_NS.png http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/ico...n.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=L http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NL ...http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=S http://biosciencedbc.jp/taxonomy_icon/icon.cgi?i=Glandiceps+hacksi&t=NS ...

  13. Multi-worm tracking using superposition of merit functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera, Linda Ivonne; Potsaid, Benjamin; Wen, John Ting-Yung

    2008-11-01

    Traditional solutions for long term imaging of living small biological specimens and microorganisms lack efficiency due to computationally expensive algorithms, and field of view limitations in optical microscopes. This paper describes a new algorithm that allows for real time tracking of multiple 1mm nematodes called Caenorhabditis elegans with a novel optical microscope design called the Adaptive Scanning Optical Microscope (ASOM), developed at the Center for Automation Technologies and Systems (CATS). Based on the real time experimentation, an improved algorithm to track multiple worms in the presence of entanglements is generated. The stages of this development start with an enhanced digital motion controller for the ASOM high speed scanning mirror to suppress undesired vibrations that limit the system capacity to track multiple organisms. The second phase is the integration of the ASOM apparatus, the high speed motion control, and a base tracking algorithm, all which allows for rapid image acquisition to track multiple C. elegans in real time. The base algorithm was developed at CATS and has been proven to track a single C. elegans in real time. Results demonstrating the efficacy of the complete system are presented. Lastly, an enhanced tracking algorithm is described that shows improved accuracy and robustness in tracking worms even when they become entangled. Taking into account the unique ASOM design, individual segments of the worm are tracked throughout an image sequence, and a mosaic pattern covering the entire worm is subsequently created. The algorithm takes advantage of geometric and dynamic knowledge of the C. elegans such as size, and movement patterns. The enhanced algorithm is tested on previously recorded footage. Simulated tracking experiments also illustrate the effectiveness of the enhanced algorithm and are presented.

  14. Worm Algorithm for CP(N-1) Model

    CERN Document Server

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias

    2017-01-01

    The CP(N-1) model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP(N-1) on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP(N-1) model has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP(N-1) model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP(N-1) l...

  15. Worm algorithm for the CP N - 1 model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rindlisbacher, Tobias; de Forcrand, Philippe

    2017-05-01

    The CP N - 1 model in 2D is an interesting toy model for 4D QCD as it possesses confinement, asymptotic freedom and a non-trivial vacuum structure. Due to the lower dimensionality and the absence of fermions, the computational cost for simulating 2D CP N - 1 on the lattice is much lower than that for simulating 4D QCD. However, to our knowledge, no efficient algorithm for simulating the lattice CP N - 1 model for N > 2 has been tested so far, which also works at finite density. To this end we propose a new type of worm algorithm which is appropriate to simulate the lattice CP N - 1 model in a dual, flux-variables based representation, in which the introduction of a chemical potential does not give rise to any complications. In addition to the usual worm moves where a defect is just moved from one lattice site to the next, our algorithm additionally allows for worm-type moves in the internal variable space of single links, which accelerates the Monte Carlo evolution. We use our algorithm to compare the two popular CP N - 1 lattice actions and exhibit marked differences in their approach to the continuum limit.

  16. WormBase 2016: expanding to enable helminth genomic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Kevin L.; Bolt, Bruce J.; Cain, Scott; Chan, Juancarlos; Chen, Wen J.; Davis, Paul; Done, James; Down, Thomas; Gao, Sibyl; Grove, Christian; Harris, Todd W.; Kishore, Ranjana; Lee, Raymond; Lomax, Jane; Li, Yuling; Muller, Hans-Michael; Nakamura, Cecilia; Nuin, Paulo; Paulini, Michael; Raciti, Daniela; Schindelman, Gary; Stanley, Eleanor; Tuli, Mary Ann; Van Auken, Kimberly; Wang, Daniel; Wang, Xiaodong; Williams, Gary; Wright, Adam; Yook, Karen; Berriman, Matthew; Kersey, Paul; Schedl, Tim; Stein, Lincoln; Sternberg, Paul W.

    2016-01-01

    WormBase (www.wormbase.org) is a central repository for research data on the biology, genetics and genomics of Caenorhabditis elegans and other nematodes. The project has evolved from its original remit to collect and integrate all data for a single species, and now extends to numerous nematodes, ranging from evolutionary comparators of C. elegans to parasitic species that threaten plant, animal and human health. Research activity using C. elegans as a model system is as vibrant as ever, and we have created new tools for community curation in response to the ever-increasing volume and complexity of data. To better allow users to navigate their way through these data, we have made a number of improvements to our main website, including new tools for browsing genomic features and ontology annotations. Finally, we have developed a new portal for parasitic worm genomes. WormBase ParaSite (parasite.wormbase.org) contains all publicly available nematode and platyhelminth annotated genome sequences, and is designed specifically to support helminth genomic research. PMID:26578572

  17. The mathematical and computer modeling of the worm tool shaping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panchuk, K. L.; Lyashkov, A. A.; Ayusheev, T. V.

    2017-06-01

    Traditionally mathematical profiling of the worm tool is carried out on the first T. Olivier method, known in the theory of gear gearings, with receiving an intermediate surface of the making lath. It complicates process of profiling and its realization by means of computer 3D-modeling. The purpose of the work is the improvement of mathematical model of profiling and its realization based on the methods of 3D-modeling. Research problems are: receiving of the mathematical model of profiling which excludes the presence of the making lath in it; realization of the received model by means of frame and superficial modeling; development and approbation of technology of solid-state modeling for the solution of the problem of profiling. As the basic, the kinematic method of research of the mutually envelope surfaces is accepted. Computer research is executed by means of CAD based on the methods of 3D-modeling. We have developed mathematical model of profiling of the worm tool; frame, superficial and solid-state models of shaping of the mutually enveloping surfaces of the detail and the tool are received. The offered mathematical models and the technologies of 3D-modeling of shaping represent tools for theoretical and experimental profiling of the worm tool. The results of researches can be used at design of metal-cutting tools.

  18. Th9 Cells Drive Host Immunity against Gastrointestinal Worm Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Licona-Limón, Paula; Henao-Mejia, Jorge; Temann, Angela U; Gagliani, Nicola; Licona-Limón, Ileana; Ishigame, Harumichi; Hao, Liming; Herbert, De'broski R; Flavell, Richard A

    2013-10-17

    Type 2 inflammatory cytokines, including interleukin-4 (IL-4), IL-5, IL-9, and IL-13, drive the characteristic features of immunity against parasitic worms and allergens. Whether IL-9 serves an essential role in the initiation of host-protective responses is controversial, and the importance of IL-9- versus IL-4-producing CD4⁺ effector T cells in type 2 immunity is incompletely defined. Herein, we generated IL-9-deficient and IL-9-fluorescent reporter mice that demonstrated an essential role for this cytokine in the early type 2 immunity against Nippostrongylus brasiliensis. Whereas T helper 9 (Th9) cells and type 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) were major sources of infection-induced IL-9 production, the adoptive transfer of Th9 cells, but not Th2 cells, caused rapid worm expulsion, marked basophilia, and increased mast cell numbers in Rag2-deficient hosts. Taken together, our data show a critical and nonredundant role for Th9 cells and IL-9 in host-protective type 2 immunity against parasitic worm infection. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. 蜗轮蜗杆参数化设计及运动仿真%Parametric Design and Simulation of Worm Gear and Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘其兵; 严红

    2012-01-01

    In Pro/E environment, based on the worm gear and worm 3D solid molding, putting the changeable parameter design in the part 3D model creating procedure. By generating visual variable parameters dialog box, realize the rapid modeling of worm gear and worm. On this basis, finished rapid modeling of worm gear and worm of virtual assembly and motion simulation, laid the foundation for the follow - up study of the worm and worm gear.%在Pro/E环境下,以蜗轮蜗杆零件的三维建模为基础,将变参设计巧妙融入到零件三维实体的创建过程中,通过生成的可视化变参对话框,实现蜗轮蜗杆的快速建模,在此基础上,对快速建模的蜗轮蜗杆进行了虚拟装配和运动仿真,为蜗轮蜗杆机构的后续研究奠定了基础.

  20. From the genetic to the computer program: the historicity of 'data' and 'computation' in the investigations on the nematode worm C. elegans (1963-1998).

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sancho, Miguel

    2012-03-01

    This paper argues that the history of the computer, of the practice of computation and of the notions of 'data' and 'programme' are essential for a critical account of the emergence and implications of data-driven research. In order to show this, I focus on the transition that the investigations on the worm C. elegans experienced in the Laboratory of Molecular Biology of Cambridge (UK). Throughout the 1980s, this research programme evolved from a study of the genetic basis of the worm's development and behaviour to a DNA mapping and sequencing initiative. By examining the changing computing technologies which were used at the Laboratory, I demonstrate that by the time of this transition researchers shifted from modelling the worm's genetic programme on a mainframe apparatus to writing minicomputer programs aimed at providing map and sequence data which was then circulated to other groups working on the genetics of C. elegans. The shift in the worm research should thus not be simply explained in the application of computers which transformed the project from hypothesis-driven to a data-intensive endeavour. The key factor was rather a historically specific technology-in-house and easy programmable minicomputers-which redefined the way of achieving the project's long-standing goal, leading the genetic programme to co-evolve with the practices of data production and distribution.

  1. "Eyes" on the thrones: imperial ophthalmologic nicknames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lascaratos, J

    1999-01-01

    Several Greek and Byzantine sovereigns are known in history by nicknames that are of ophthalmologic origin; the sobriquets derive from characteristics of their eyes or their actions in relation to the eyes. The first was Antigonos I Monophthalmus (the One-eyed), who was the most eminent successor of Alexander the Great and Sovereign of Eastern Mediterranean Asia. He obtained his nickname at an early age when he lost one eye fighting at the seige of Perinthos, as a general of King Philip of Macedon (father of Alexander the Great). Several Byzantine emperors also have a number of similar nicknames, such as Anastasius I Dicoros (with Heterochromia Iridis), Alexius V Ducas Murtzuphlus (with Scowling Eyebrows), and Andronicus I Comnenus Misophaes (Hater of Sunlight, since he blinded a great number of his opponents). To these must be added the Byzantine Empress Zoe Carvounopsina (with Coal-black Eyes).

  2. Eating for Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stastny, Sherri Nordstrom; Garden-Robinson, Julie

    2011-01-01

    An educational program targeting older adults was developed to increase knowledge regarding nutrition and eye health. With age, the chance for eye disease increases, so prevention is critical. The Eating for Your Eyes program has promoted behavior changes regarding eye health among the participants. This program is easily replicated and use is…

  3. Eye Injuries (For Parents)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the eye nausea or vomiting after an eye injury Think Prevention! Kids who play sports should wear protective goggles or unbreakable glasses as needed. Keep chemicals and other potentially dangerous objects out of the reach of children. Reviewed by: Steven Dowshen, ... (Conjunctivitis) Eyes Corneal Abrasions Styes Activity: Eyes ...

  4. Routes of uptake of diclofenac, fluoxetine, and triclosan into sediment-dwelling worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karlsson, Maja V; Marshall, Stuart; Gouin, Todd; Boxall, Alistair B A

    2016-04-01

    The present study investigated the route and degree of uptake of 2 ionizable pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and fluoxetine) and 1 ionizable compound used in personal care products (triclosan) into the sediment-dwelling worm Lumbriculus variegatus. Studies were done on complete worms ("feeding") and worms where the head was absent ("nonfeeding") using (14) C-labeled ingredients. Biota sediment accumulation factors (BSAF), based on uptake of (14) C, for feeding worms increased in the order fluoxetine (0.3) triclosan (9), which is correlated with a corresponding increase in log octanol-water partition coefficient. Biota sediment accumulation factor estimates are representative of maximum values because the degree of biotransformation in the worms was not quantified. Although no significant differences were seen between the uptake of diclofenac and that of fluoxetine in feeding and nonfeeding worms, uptake of the more hydrophobic antimicrobial, triclosan, into the feeding worms was significantly greater than that in the nonfeeding worms, with the 48-h BSAF for feeding worms being 36% higher than that for the nonfeeding worms. The results imply that dietary uptake contributes to the uptake of triclosan, which may be a result of the high hydrophobicity of the compound. Models that estimate exposure of ionizable substances may need to consider uptake from both the water column and food, particularly when assessing risks from dynamic exposures to organic contaminants.

  5. Eye and Orbital Injuries in Sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Micieli, Jonathan A; Easterbrook, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Sports-related eye and orbital injuries continue to occur regularly and may have serious consequences. They are completely preventable when appropriate protection is worn, particularly with polycarbonate lenses. Eye protection is available for most sports and should be worn in accordance with the standards of regional authorities. It is important for first responders to identify red flags in the history and physical examination of an injured athlete for urgent referral to an ophthalmologist. Common sports-related eye injuries include corneal abrasion, subconjunctival hemorrhage, hyphema, vitreous hemorrhage, retinal tears and detachment. The mechanism and treatment of these injuries are discussed in further detail. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of First Eye versus Second Eye Cataract Surgery on Visual Function and Quality of Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekhawat, Nakul S; Stock, Michael V; Baze, Elizabeth F; Daly, Mary K; Vollman, David E; Lawrence, Mary G; Chomsky, Amy S

    2017-05-16

    To compare the impact of first eye versus second eye cataract surgery on visual function and quality of life. Cohort study. A total of 328 patients undergoing separate first eye and second eye phacoemulsification cataract surgeries at 5 veterans affairs centers in the United States. Patients with previous ocular surgery, postoperative endophthalmitis, postoperative retinal detachment, reoperation within 30 days, dementia, anxiety disorder, hearing difficulty, or history of drug abuse were excluded. Patients received complete preoperative and postoperative ophthalmic examinations for first eye and second eye cataract surgeries. Best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) was measured 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. Patients completed the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire (NEI-VFQ) 30 to 90 days preoperatively and postoperatively. The NEI-VFQ scores were calculated using a traditional subscale scoring algorithm and a Rasch-refined approach producing visual function and socioemotional subscale scores. Postoperative NEI-VFQ scores and improvement in NEI-VFQ scores comparing first eye versus second eye cataract surgery. Mean age was 70.4 years (±9.6 standard deviation [SD]). Compared with second eyes, first eyes had worse mean preoperative BCVA (0.55 vs. 0.36 logarithm of the minimum angle of resolution (logMAR), P < 0.001), greater mean BCVA improvement after surgery (-0.50 vs. -0.32 logMAR, P < 0.001), and slightly worse postoperative BCVA (0.06 vs. 0.03 logMAR, P = 0.039). Compared with first eye surgery, second eye surgery resulted in higher postoperative NEI-VFQ scores for nearly all traditional subscales (P < 0.001), visual function subscale (-3.85 vs. -2.91 logits, P < 0.001), and socioemotional subscale (-2.63 vs. -2.10 logits, P < 0.001). First eye surgery improved visual function scores more than second eye surgery (-2.99 vs. -2.67 logits, P = 0.021), but both first and second eye surgeries resulted in similar

  7. Opsins in onychophora (velvet worms) suggest a single origin and subsequent diversification of visual pigments in arthropods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Lars; Henze, Miriam J; Kohler, Martin; Kelber, Almut; Bleidorn, Christoph; Leschke, Maren; Nickel, Birgit; Meyer, Matthias; Kircher, Martin; Sunnucks, Paul; Mayer, Georg

    2012-11-01

    Multiple visual pigments, prerequisites for color vision, are found in arthropods, but the evolutionary origin of their diversity remains obscure. In this study, we explore the opsin genes in five distantly related species of Onychophora, using deep transcriptome sequencing and screening approaches. Surprisingly, our data reveal the presence of only one opsin gene (onychopsin) in each onychophoran species, and our behavioral experiments indicate a maximum sensitivity of onychopsin to blue-green light. In our phylogenetic analyses, the onychopsins represent the sister group to the monophyletic clade of visual r-opsins of arthropods. These results concur with phylogenomic support for the sister-group status of the Onychophora and Arthropoda and provide evidence for monochromatic vision in velvet worms and in the last common ancestor of Onychophora and Arthropoda. We conclude that the diversification of visual pigments and color vision evolved in arthropods, along with the evolution of compound eyes-one of the most sophisticated visual systems known.

  8. Two new species of scale worms (Polychaeta: Aphroditiformia) from deep-sea habitats in the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravara, Ascensão; Cunha, Marina R

    2016-03-31

    Two new species of scale worms are described from the Gulf of Cadiz (NE Atlantic), at depths between 1100 and 2230 m. Australaugeneria iberica sp. nov. (Polynoidae) was obtained from an alcyonarian colony collected at the flank of Carlos Ribeiro mud volcano; it is characterized by the presence of neuropodial hooks only on segment two and by having the first parapodia not enlarged. This is the first report of the genus for the deep sea. The diagnosis of Australaugeneria is emended and a table comparing all species of the genus is provided. Pholoe petersenae sp. nov. (Pholoidae) was collected from the crater of three mud volcanoes (Darwin, Captain Arutyunov and Carlos Ribeiro) in areas of active seepage. This species is characterized by the presence of prostomial peaks and parapodia stylodes and the absence of eyes.

  9. Electro-worming: The Behaviors of Caenorhabditis (C.) elegans in DC and AC Electric Fields

    CERN Document Server

    Chuang, Han-Sheng; Dabbish, Nooreen; Bau, Haim

    2010-01-01

    The video showcases how C. elegans worms respond to DC and AC electrical stimulations. Gabel et al (2007) demonstrated that in the presence of DC and low frequency AC fields, worms of stage L2 and larger propel themselves towards the cathode. Rezai et al (2010) have demonstrated that this phenomenon, dubbed electrotaxis, can be used to control the motion of worms. In the video, we reproduce Rezai's experimental results. Furthermore, we show, for the first time, that worms can be trapped with high frequency, nonuniform electric fields. We studied the effect of the electric field on the nematode as a function of field intensity and frequency and identified a range of electric field intensities and frequencies that trap worms without apparent adverse effect on their viability. Worms tethered by dielectrophoresis (DEP) avoid blue light, indicating that at least some of the nervous system functions remain unimpaired in the presence of the electric field. DEP is useful to dynamically confine nematodes for observati...

  10. A NOVEL METHOD FOR NETWORK WORM DETECTION BASED ON WAVELET PACKET ANALYSIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liao Mingtao; Zhang Deyun; Hou Lin

    2006-01-01

    Objective To detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage. Methods On the basis of characteristics of network worm attack, the concept of failed connection flow (FCT) was defined. Based on wavelet packet analysis of FCT time series, this method computed the energy associated with each wavelet packet of FCT time series, transformed the FCT time series into a series of energy distribution vector on frequency domain, then a trained K-nearest neighbor (KNN) classifier was applied to identify the worm. Results The experiment showed that the method could identify network worm when the worm started to scan. Compared to theoretic value, the identification error ratio was 5.69%. Conclusion The method can detect unknown network worm at its early propagation stage effectively.

  11. Isolation and Characterization of 44.6 kDa Protein from Schistosoma japonicum Male Worm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欲晓; 易新元; 曾宪芳; 袁仕善; 张顺科; LarryMCREYNOLDS

    2004-01-01

    Soluble male worm antigen of Schistosoma japonicurn (Sj) was investigated for development of new vaccine candidate. SDS--PAGE and Western blotting were performed to compare the difference between soluble antigens from worms of different sex. Mice vaccination with the testing purified protein was followed by Sj cereariae challenge to detect the protective effect against Sj. Sixteen bands were seen for the soluble male worm antigen and 12 for the female worm. In addition, a distinct band of 44.6 kDa from the male worm antigen was observed, and its antigenicity was demonstrated by Western blotting. This 44.6 kDa protein could induce significant worm and egg reduction rate in mice (39.31%, 41.98%, P < 0.001). Inthis study a 44.6 kDa protein was isolated and partially characterized. Its antigenicity, immunogenicity and the partial immune protection suggest its potential vaccine candidte against Sj.

  12. THE WORMS COMPOST - EFFECTIVE FERTILIZER FOR IMPROVING DEGRADED SOILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Larisa CREMENEAC

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of organic waste is a difficult, complex and intractable in Moldova, according to international standards. Acute problem of organic matter from livestock sector waste is generated by storing them in unauthorized areas. Organic waste management strategies require different methods. One of them is organic waste bio conversion technology by worm’s cultivation. As the main natural wealth of the Republic of Moldova, soil requires a special care. Agriculture, in particular, should pay attention to the soil’s humus and nutrient status – and restore losses of humus and the nutrients used by crops. This requires measures to improve soil fertility. Land use provides, first of all return losses of humus and nutrients used by plants. Therefore measures required to improve soil fertility. The essence of the research was to highlight the role of worms compost improve the soil. To this end, in ETS "Maximovca" was organized an experiment that included three groups (two - experimental, to fund worms compost and one - control the natural background. Observations on soil fertility have been conducted over three years. The soil samples were collected by usual methods determined values of organic matter and humus. The results of the investigations, to determine the values of organic matter and humus samples collected from surface and depth 15 cm exceeded that of the sample control group to 29,7%; 11,4% and 34,3%; 37,1% in experimental group I and 9,3%; 11,6% and 45,5%; 45,5% in experimental group II. Therefore, worms compost embedded in a dose of 3-4 tons / ha during three years, has improved the fertility of the soil

  13. Photonic crystal fiber in the polychaete worm Pherusa sp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzeciak, Tomasz M; Vukusic, Peter

    2009-12-01

    Setae of the polychaete worm Pherusa exhibit remarkably strong photonic effects, which arise from their two-dimensional-periodic internal structure of hexagonally packed cylindrical channels. The hexagonal order is limited to monocrystalline domains of different orientation, which results in an overall polycrystalline effect. A detailed experimental and theoretical investigation of this structure reveals that the internal photonic structure is carefully tuned with respect to its lattice constant in order to provide an optical response coinciding with the visible wavelength rage. A further optimization is observed for the packing fraction of cylindrical channels in order to maximize the width of photonic band gaps, and hence the reflectance of incident visible light.

  14. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Galactic Worms (Koo+, 1992)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koo, B.-C.; Heiles, C.; Reach, W. T.

    2016-02-01

    118 structures catalogued as "worm candidates" are found on the basis of the maps in HI-21cm, IRAS 100 and 60μm. The 21cm maps of the Galactic Plane (b < 10°) result from available surveys (Kerr et al. 1986A&AS...66..373K; Weaver & Williams 1973A&AS....8....1W, Cat. VIII/11) and from new observations near the Galactic center during 1989 and 1990 using the Hat Creek 26m telescope. (3 data files).

  15. Pet roundworms and hookworms: A continuing need for global worming

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traversa Donato

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Ascarids and ancylostomatids are the most important parasites affecting dogs and cats worldwide, in terms of diffusion and risk for animal and human health. Different misconceptions have led the general public and pet owners to minimize the importance of these intestinal worms. A low grade of interest is also registered among veterinary professions, although there is a significant merit in keeping our guard up against these parasites. This article reviews current knowledge of ascarids and ancylostomatids, with a special focus on pathogenicity, epidemiology and control methods in veterinary and human medicine.

  16. Cooperative Automated Worm Response and Detection Immune Algorithm

    CERN Document Server

    Kim, Jungwon; Aickelin, Uwe; McLeod, Julie

    2010-01-01

    The role of T-cells within the immune system is to confirm and assess anomalous situations and then either respond to or tolerate the source of the effect. To illustrate how these mechanisms can be harnessed to solve real-world problems, we present the blueprint of a T-cell inspired algorithm for computer security worm detection. We show how the three central T-cell processes, namely T-cell maturation, differentiation and proliferation, naturally map into this domain and further illustrate how such an algorithm fits into a complete immune inspired computer security system and framework.

  17. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor)

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-01-01

    The yellow meal worm(Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were...

  18. Self-Propagating Worms in Wireless Sensor Networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Giannetsos, Thanassis; Dimitriou, Tassos; Prasad, Neeli R.

    2009-01-01

    Malicious code is defined as software designed to execute attacks on software systems. This work demonstrates the possibility of executing malware on wireless sensor nodes that are based on the von Neumann architecture. This is achieved by exploiting a buffer overflow vulnerability to smash...... the call stack, intrude a remote node over the radio channel and, eventually, completely take control of it. Then we show how the malware can be crafted to become a self-replicating worm that broadcasts itself and propagates over the network hop-by-hop, infecting all the nodes....

  19. Free-Living Tube Worm Endosymbionts Found at Deep-Sea Vents▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harmer, Tara L.; Rotjan, Randi D.; Nussbaumer, Andrea D.; Bright, Monika; Ng, Andrew W.; DeChaine, Eric G.; Cavanaugh, Colleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that deep-sea vestimentiferan tube worms acquire their endosymbiotic bacteria from the environment each generation; thus, free-living symbionts should exist. Here, free-living tube worm symbiont phylotypes were detected in vent seawater and in biofilms at multiple deep-sea vent habitats by PCR amplification, DNA sequence analysis, and fluorescence in situ hybridization. These findings support environmental transmission as a means of symbiont acquisition for deep-sea tube worms. PMID:18408062

  20. Fast Multicast on Multistage Interconnection Networks Using Multi-Head Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiaodong; XU Ming; ZHOU Xingming

    1999-01-01

    Abstract This paper proposes a new approach forimplementing fast multicast on multistage interconnection networks (MINs)with multi-head worms. For an MIN with n stages of k×k switches,a singlemulti-head worm can cover an arbitrary set of destinations with asingle communication start-up. Compared with schemes using unicastmessages, this approach reduces multicast latency significantly andperforms better than multi-destination worms.

  1. Comparative study on presentation of biliary ascariasis with dead and living worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alam Shahinul

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim: Ascariasis is a common parasitic infestation in Asia and Latin America. The most serious presentation is biliary and pancreatic ascariasis (BPA. The aim of the present study was to compare the clinical presentation of BPA with dead worms with that with living worms. Materials and Methods: We included 138 consecutive cases of BPA that occured during the period January 2005 to July 2009. All the patients had endoscopically proven BPA consisting of living or dead worms. Comparison was done by chi-square and independent t tests. Results: The age (mean ± SD of the patients was 36.8 ± 16.1 years. Prevalence ratio between male and female patients was 1:5. Ninety eight patients contained living worms and 40 had dead worms. Males were more prone to develop dead worm BPA. The commonest presentation was biliary colic (131; 94.9%; others were acute cholangitis (30; 21.7%, obstructive jaundice (19; 13.8%, choledocholithiasis (20; 14.5%, acute pancreatitis (10; 7.2%, acute cholecystitis (6; 4.3%, liver abscess (2; 1.4%, hepatolithiasis (3; 2.2%, stricture of common bile duct (2; 1.4%, pancreatic abscess (1; 0.7% and cirrhosis of liver (1; 0.7%. Choledocholithiasis, hepatolithiasis, liver abscess and cirrhosis were associated only with dead worms. We could successfully remove all the worms with endoscopic interventions, but 5 patients required surgical intervention as there were strictures and stones within the biliary tree or Ascaris were in gallbladder. Recurrences of stone and cholangitis occurred only in those with dead worms. Conclusion: Biliary ascariasis with dead worms is more dangerous than that with living worms. Endoscopic or surgical intervention may be required repeatedly in those with dead worms.

  2. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  3. The research on the modeling of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LI Shaoxiang

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Up to now there is no specialized,efficient,general-purpose modeling method of dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair.In this paper,based on the spatial meshing theory,a parameterized mathematical model of the dual-cone double enveloping hourglass worm gear pair is established,which is simplified as a digitized modeling method based on six basic parameters of the worm gear pair.Virtual machining modeling plug-in programming is achieved through the solidworks development platform.The results show that this modeling method can make the hourglass worm modeling more convenient,accurate and fast.

  4. Lessons from bloodless worms: heme homeostasis in C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinclair, Jason; Hamza, Iqbal

    2015-06-01

    Heme is an essential cofactor for proteins involved in diverse biological processes such as oxygen transport, electron transport, and microRNA processing. Free heme is hydrophobic and cytotoxic, implying that specific trafficking pathways must exist for the delivery of heme to target hemoproteins which reside in various subcellular locales. Although heme biosynthesis and catabolism have been well characterized, the pathways for trafficking heme within and between cells remain poorly understood. Caenorhabditis elegans serves as a unique animal model for uncovering these pathways because, unlike vertebrates, the worm lacks enzymes to synthesize heme and therefore is crucially dependent on dietary heme for sustenance. Using C. elegans as a genetic animal model, several novel heme trafficking molecules have been identified. Importantly, these proteins have corresponding homologs in vertebrates underscoring the power of using C. elegans, a bloodless worm, in elucidating pathways in heme homeostasis and hematology in humans. Since iron deficiency and anemia are often exacerbated by parasites such as helminths and protozoa which also rely on host heme for survival, C. elegans will be an ideal model to identify anti-parasitic drugs that target heme transport pathways unique to the parasite.

  5. Meandering worms: mechanics of undulatory burrowing in muds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorgan, Kelly M; Law, Chris J; Rouse, Greg W

    2013-04-22

    Recent work has shown that muddy sediments are elastic solids through which animals extend burrows by fracture, whereas non-cohesive granular sands fluidize around some burrowers. These different mechanical responses are reflected in the morphologies and behaviours of their respective inhabitants. However, Armandia brevis, a mud-burrowing opheliid polychaete, lacks an expansible anterior consistent with fracturing mud, and instead uses undulatory movements similar to those of sandfish lizards that fluidize desert sands. Here, we show that A. brevis neither fractures nor fluidizes sediments, but instead uses a third mechanism, plastically rearranging sediment grains to create a burrow. The curvature of the undulating body fits meander geometry used to describe rivers, and changes in curvature driven by muscle contraction are similar for swimming and burrowing worms, indicating that the same gait is used in both sediments and water. Large calculated friction forces for undulatory burrowers suggest that sediment mechanics affect undulatory and peristaltic burrowers differently; undulatory burrowing may be more effective for small worms that live in sediments not compacted or cohesive enough to extend burrows by fracture.

  6. Bio-inspired microfluidics: The case of the velvet worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Concha, Andres; Mellado, Paula; Morera-Brenes, Bernal; Sampaio-Costa, Cristiano; Mahadevan, L.; Monge-Najera, Julian

    The rapid squirt of a proteinaceous slime jet endow velvet worms (Onychophora) with a unique mechanism for defense from predators and for capturing prey by entangling them in a disordered web that immobilizes their target. However, to date neither qualitative nor quantitative descriptions have been provided for this unique adaptation. We have investigated the mechanism that allows velvet worms the fast oscillatory motion of their oral papillae and the exiting liquid jet that oscillates with frequencies f ~ 30 - 60 Hz. Using anatomical images and high speed videography, we show that even without fast muscular action of the papilla, a strong contraction of the slime reservoir and the geometry of the reservoir-papilla system suffices to accelerate the slime to speeds up to v ~ 5 m /s in about Δt ~ 60 ms. A theoretical analysis and a physical simulacrum allow us to infer that this fast oscillatory motion is the result of an elastohydrodynamic instability driven by the interplay between the elasticity of oral papillae and the fast unsteady flow during squirting. We propose several applications that can be implemented using this instability, ranging from high-throughput droplet production, printing, and micro-nanofiber production among others. A.C was partially supported by Fondecyt Grant 11130075.

  7. Complete mitochondrial genome of yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li-Na; Wang, Cheng-Ye

    2014-11-18

    The yellow meal worm (Tenebrio molitor L.) is an important resource insect typically used as animal feed additive. It is also widely used for biological research. The first complete mitochondrial genome of T. molitor was determined for the first time by long PCR and conserved primer walking approaches. The results showed that the entire mitogenome of T. molitor was 15 785 bp long, with 72.35% A+T content [deposited in GenBank with accession number KF418153]. The gene order and orientation were the same as the most common type suggested as ancestral for insects. Two protein-coding genes used atypical start codons (CTA in ND2 and AAT in COX1), and the remaining 11 protein-coding genes started with a typical insect initiation codon ATN. All tRNAs showed standard clover-leaf structure, except for tRNA(Ser) (AGN), which lacked a dihydrouridine (DHU) arm. The newly added T. molitor mitogenome could provide information for future studies on yellow meal worm.

  8. Eye Drop Tips

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Drop Tips en Español email Send this article ... the reach of children. Steps For Putting In Eye Drops: Start by tilting your head backward while ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears. How do tears work? ... you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... tissue covering the white of your eye and inside your eyelids. Normally, our eyes constantly make tears ... Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  13. TUBERCULOSIS AND THE EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key words: Mycobacteria; Tuberculosis; Eye ... of tuberculous eye disease or ocular tuberculosis has also been raised. Ocular ... patients with ocular complaints, compiled in an area ..... tuberculomas are usually solitary and may measure up.

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... you see. Check out the diagrams below to learn about each part of your eye and what ... the optic nerve to the brain. Watch now! Learn how the different parts of your eye work ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  17. Preventing eye injuries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daksha Patel

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenge in developing a strategy to prevent eye injuries is that there are so many different causes and situations that can lead to eye injuries, each requiring a different approach.

  18. Common Eye Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... www.cdc.gov/emailupdates/">What's this? Submit Button Common Eye Disorders Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir ... macular degeneration, cataract, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma. Other common eye disorders include amblyopia and strabismus. For a ...

  19. Design and analysis of SEIQR worm propagation model in mobile internet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xi; Fu, Peng; Dou, Changsheng; Li, Qing; Hu, Guangwu; Xia, Shutao

    2017-02-01

    The mobile Internet has considerably facilitated daily life in recent years. However, it has become the breeding ground for lots of new worms, including the Bluetooth-based worm, the SMS/MMS-based worm and the Wi-Fi-based worm. At present, Wi-Fi is widely used for mobile devices to connect to the Internet. But it exposes these devices to the dangerous environment. Most current worm propagation models aim to solve the problems of computer worms. They cannot be used directly in the mobile environment, particularly in the Wi-Fi scenario, because of the differences between computers and mobile devices. In this paper, we propose a worm propagation model in the Wi-Fi environment, called SEIQR (Susceptible-Exposed-Infectious- Quarantined-Recovered). In the model, infected nodes can be quarantined by the Wi-Fi base station, and a new state named the Quarantined state (Q) is established to represent these infected nodes. Based on this model, we present an effective method to inhibit the spread of the Wi-Fi-based worms. Furthermore, related stabilities of the worm-free and endemic equilibriums are studied based on the basic reproduction number R0. The worm-free equilibrium is locally and globally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1, whereas the endemic equilibrium is locally asymptotically stable if R0 < 1. Finally, we evaluate the performance of our model by comprehensive experiments with different infection rates and quarantine rates. The results indicate that our mechanism can combat the worms propagated via Wi-Fi.

  20. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists re

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  4. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/070864543

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  5. Epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by military personnel in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Jian-He; Zhang, Mao-Nian; Jiang, Cai-Hui; Zhang, Ying; Qiu, Huai-Yu

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the epidemiological characteristics of eye injuries sustained by military personnel in Chinese army. Eleven military evacuation hospitals located in different regions were selected for this study. We reviewed all the medical records of eye injuries sustained by military personnel between January 2005 and December 2009. Patients'information was collected. All data were put into database and analyzed statistically. Totally there were 415 inpatients with eye injuries (442 eyes) and their mean age was 24.40 years. Eye injury accounts for 13.51% of all eye diseases in this study. From 2006 to 2009, the number of eye injury increased gradually. Among them, 175 (42.17%) were injured in leisure time, and 145 (34.94%) in working time. Twenty-two (5.30%) patients had an eye surgery or history of eye disease before injury. In all, 246 patients (59.28%) were sent to evacuation hospital within 24 hours and 64 (56.64%) underwent surgeries in 24 hours after injury. There were 389 patients (93.73%) hospitalized for 1 time. Visual acuities of 187 eyes (42.31%) were grade 1 (larger than or equal to 20/40) after injury. When discharge, 349 eyes (78.96%) obtained a visual acuity of grade 1. Eye injury has a very frequent incidence in Chinese army and much more attention should be paid to prevent it.

  6. Medicare Benefits and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Subscribe to eNews Close Donate Medicare Benefits & Your Eyes Eye Health is Important! As you age, your risk ... that you need. Ask about eye exams! Routine Eye Exams Medicare does not generally cover the costs ...

  7. Prevent Eye Injuries from Fireworks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  8. Worms in the College Classroom: More than Just a Composting Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Rebecca L.

    2010-01-01

    Although worm bins have been used by K-12 and nonformal educators for decades, there is little evidence of their use in postsecondary education. The ease of use, maintenance, affordability, portability, and diversity of scientific concepts that can be demonstrated with a worm bin make it a valuable tool in college science classrooms. The purpose…

  9. Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of Zn(II) deposition in soil on mulberry-silk worm food chain. ... African Journal of Biotechnology ... The present study was conducted to evaluate the entrance of Zn(II) into the food chain of Bombyx mori (silk worm) from mulberry plants ...

  10. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate munici

  11. Influence of the enchytraeid worm Buchholzia appendiculata on aggregate formation and organic matter decomposition.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marinissen, J.C.Y.; Didden, W.A.M.

    1997-01-01

    Enchytraeid worms were kept in <0.3 mm sieved sandy loam subsoil mixed with ground wheat, for 6 weeks at 16°C. Sieved soil with organic matter but without worms was also incubated. The soil was then allowed to air-dry slowly during 6 weeks. Enchytraeid casts were collected from the surface of the so

  12. Performance Analysis of Cell-Phone Worm Spreading in Cellular Networks through Opportunistic Communications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YAHUI, W.

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Worms spreading directly between cell-phones over short-range radio (Bluetooth, WiFi, etc. are increasing rapidly. Communication by these technologies is opportunistic and has very close relation with the social characteristics of the phone carriers. In this paper, we try to evaluate the impact of different characteristics on the spreading performance of worms. On the other hand, the behaviors of worms may have certain impact, too. For example, worms may make phones be completely dysfunctional and these phones can be seen as killed. We study the impact of the killing speed. Using the Markov model, we propose some theoretical models to evaluate the spreading performance in different cases. Simulation results show the accuracy of our models. Numerical results show that if users do not believe the data coming from others easily, the worms may bring less damage. Surprisingly, if the users are more willing to install the anti-virus software, the worms may bring bigger damage when the software becomes to be outdated with high probability. Though the worms can bring big damage on the network temporarily by killing phones rapidly, numerical results show that this behavior may decrease the total damage in the long time. Therefore, killing nodes more rapidly may be not optimal for worms.

  13. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Gong Yong-Wang; Song Yu-Rong; Jiang Guo-Ping

    2013-01-01

    In this paper,we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems.A novel multigroup SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure.Then,the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established.It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1,the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually,whereas,if R0 is greater than 1,one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable,thus the worm persists in the network.Finally,numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  14. A Potential Approach of Internet Worm Propagation Based on P2P

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO Yu; LUO Xingrui; GAO Fuxiang; YU Ge

    2006-01-01

    Various kinds of active worms have been plunging into the network flows, which make the Internet security problem more serious. Our research on a potential propagation approach of active worms, P2P-based propagation approach, is given in this paper. To measure the propagating performance of our approach, the SEI (Susceptible-Exposed- Infected) propagation model is presented. It proves that with the idea of pure P2P architecture, worms can be hidden in the early stage of propagation, and then infect most of the hosts in a shorter period. By comparing our SEI propagation model with the Simple Epidemic Model, we observe that the size of a worm is a significant parameter which can affect the propagating performance. When the size of the worm becomes large, our approach can still show an excellent propagating performance.

  15. DIRECT DIGITAL DESIGN AND SIMULATION OF MESHING IN WORM-GEAR DRIVE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wujiao; QIN Datong; SHI Wankai

    2006-01-01

    A direct digital design method (DDDM) of worm-gear drive is proposed. It is directly based on the simulation of manufacturing process and completely different from the conventional modeling method. The loaded tooth contact analysis (LTCA) method is analyzed, in which the advanced surface to surface searching technique is included. The influence of misalignment errors and contact deformations on contact zone and transmission error (TE) is discussed. Combined modification approach on worm tooth surface is presented. By means of DDDM and LTCA, it is very convenient to verify the effect of worm-gear drive's modification approach. The analysis results show that,the modification in profile direction reduces the sensitivity of worm-gear drive to misalignment errors and the modification in longitudinal direction decreases the TE. Thus the optimization design of worm-gear drive can be achieved prior to the actual manufacturing process.

  16. Global dynamics of a novel multi-group model for computer worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Yong-Wang; Song, Yu-Rong; Jiang, Guo-Ping

    2013-04-01

    In this paper, we study worm dynamics in computer networks composed of many autonomous systems. A novel multi-group SIQR (susceptible-infected-quarantined-removed) model is proposed for computer worms by explicitly considering anti-virus measures and the network infrastructure. Then, the basic reproduction number of worm R0 is derived and the global dynamics of the model are established. It is shown that if R0 is less than or equal to 1, the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable and the worm dies out eventually, whereas, if R0 is greater than 1, one unique endemic equilibrium exists and it is globally asymptotically stable, thus the worm persists in the network. Finally, numerical simulations are given to illustrate the theoretical results.

  17. Ethnophysiology and herbal treatments of intestinal worms in Dominica, West Indies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Marsha B; Quinlan, Robert J; Nolan, Justin M

    2002-04-01

    In rural Dominican ethnophysiology worms reside in a human organ called the 'worm bag'. Unchecked, worms can cause illness by growing in size and number, spreading out of the worm bag and into other organs. In this study of 'bush medicine', we use a measure of cognitive salience in free-listing tasks, which reveals five plants commonly used to treat intestinal worms. These were Ambrosia hispida (Asteraceae), Aristolochia trilobata (Aristlochiaceae), Chenopodium ambrosioides (Chenopodiaceae), Portulaca oleracea (Portulacaceae), and Artemisia absinthium (Asteraceae). Bioactive compounds appear to be present in all of these plants. The cognitive salience of these plant remedies coupled with evidence of biochemical properties suggest that they provide efficacious treatments for controlling intestinal parasite loads.

  18. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  19. Worm-like instability of a vibrated sessile drop

    CERN Document Server

    Hemmerle, Arnaud; Bergeron, Vance; Charitat, Thierry; Farago, Jean

    2016-01-01

    We study the effects of vertical sinusoidal vibrations on a liquid droplet with a low surface tension (ethanol) deposited on a solid substrate. In a precise range of amplitudes and frequencies, the drop exhibits a dramatic worm-like shape instability with a strong symmetry breaking, comparable to the one observed by Pucci et al. (Phys. Rev. Lett., 106 (2011) 024503) on a vibrated floating lens. However, the geometry of our system is much simpler since it does not involve the oscillation and deformation of a liquid-liquid-air contact line. We show that the Faraday waves appearing on the surface of the droplet control its shape and we draw a systematic phase diagram of the instability. A simple theoretical model allows us to derive a relation between the elongation of the droplet and the amplitude of the Faraday wave, in good agreement with measurements of both quantities.

  20. A GENERATIVE CAD MODEL OF A WORM GEAR MESHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angelika WRONKOWICZ

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces the term of a generative CAD model, its origins and, thus, a need of creating such a type of models. A process of generative model creation as well as specific forms of knowledge recording applied in the implementation phase in various CAD systems are briefly discussed. The example of a worm gear meshing realized by the CATIA software encapsulates the methodology of generative model construction. Sources and types of knowledge for design and construction required for development of the aforementioned model as well as the UML language as a method of formal knowledge recording are presented. The concept of model creation, i.e. assumptions and the structure as well as logic of the model operation are described. Also, the paper addresses selected elements of the project that present the manner in which the model was constructed.

  1. Graphical method for profiling hob mill that generate cycloid worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teodor, V.; Berbinschi, S.; Baroiu, N.; Oancea, N.

    2015-11-01

    The hob mill for generating ordered curls of cycloid surface with non involute profiles may be profiled based on the fundamental theorems of surface enveloping - Olivier - as surface reciprocally enveloping with point like contact. In this paper, is proposed a methodology based on a complementary theorem of the surface enveloping in a graphical expression developed in a graphical design environment - CATIA. The graphical method presented in this paper is developed in two stages: determining of the rack gear model based on the solid model of the surface to be generated, using an original algorithm, following this, based on 3D modelling is determined the solid model of the primary peripheral surface of the hob mill. An application for a cycloid worm is presented - a central screw of helical pumps. In order to prove the quality of method, the analytical and graphical solutions are comparatively presented.

  2. Structure-Property Relationships for Branched Worm-Like Micelles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beaucage, Gregory; Rai, Durgesh

    2013-03-01

    Micellar solutions can display a wide range of phase structure as a function of counter ion content, surfactant concentration, and the presence of ternary components. Under some conditions, common to consumer products, extended cylindrical structures that display persistence and other chain features of polymers are produced. These worm-like micelles (WLMs) can form branched structures that dynamically change under shear and even in quiescent conditions. The rheology of these branched WLMs is strongly dependent on migration of the branch points, and the dynamics of branch formation and removal. Persistence and other polymer-based descriptions are also of importance. We have recently developed a scattering model for branched polyolefins and other topologically complex materials that can quantify the branching density, branch length, branch functionality and the hyperbranch (branch-on-branch) content of polymers. This work is being extended to study branching in WLMs in work coupled with Ron Larson at UMich to predict rheological properties.

  3. Microplastic ingestion decreases energy reserves in marine worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L; Rowe, Darren; Thompson, Richard C; Galloway, Tamara S

    2013-12-02

    The indiscriminate disposal of plastic to the environment is of concern. Microscopic plastic litter (microplastic') is increasing in abundance in the marine environment, originating from the fragmentation of plastic items and from industry and personal-care products [1]. On highly impacted beaches, microplastic concentrations (Microplastics are a novel substrate for the adherence of hydrophobic contaminants [1], deposition of eggs [3], and colonization by unique bacterial assemblages [4]. Ingestion by indiscriminate deposit-feeders has been reported, yet physical impacts remain understudied [1]. Here, we show that deposit-feeding marine worms maintained in sediments spiked with microscopic unplasticised polyvinylchloride (UPVC) at concentrations overlapping those in the environment had significantly depleted energy reserves by up to 50% (Figure 1). Our results suggest that depleted energy reserves arise from a combination of reduced feeding activity, longer gut residence times of ingested material and inflammation.

  4. Nonvolatile WORM memory devices based on polymethacrylate with azoanthraquinone group

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    A novel polymethacrylate containing azoanthraquinone chromophore in the side chain(PMAzoaq6) was synthesized and characterized.An electronic memory device having the indium-tin oxide(ITO)/PMAzoaq6/Al sandwich structure was fabricated and its electrical bistability was investigated.The as-fabricated device was initially found to be at the OFF state and the switching threshold voltage was 1.5 V.After undergoing the OFF-to-ON transition,the device maintains the high conducting state(ON state) even after turning off the electrical power and applying a reverse bias.The device exhibits a write-once-read-many-times(WORM) memory effect with a high ON/OFF current ratio of up to 105 and a long retention time in both ON and OFF states,which demonstrated that the synthetic azoanthraquinone-containing polymer possesses a high potential to become polymeric memory devices.

  5. Malignant worms: what cancer research can learn from C. elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saito, R Mako; van den Heuvel, Sander

    2002-01-01

    Developmental processes in the nematode C. elegans are controlled by pathways of gene functions that are analogous to those used in mammals. Hence, genetic studies in C. elegans have helped build the frameworks for these regulatory pathways. Many homologs of human genes that are targets for mutation in cancer have been found to function at distinct steps within such genetic pathways. This way, studies in C. elegans have provided important clues about the functions of human oncogenes and tumor suppressors. Understanding how human cancer genes function and act in signaling cascades is of great importance. This information reveals what kind of molecular changes contribute to the process of cell transformation. Moreover, additional candidate oncogenes and tumor suppressors may be revealed by identifying the functional partners of genes with an established role in cancer. Furthermore, identifying a cascade of gene functions increases the number of potential targets for therapeutic intervention, as blocking either one of multiple genes may interfere with signal transduction through the pathway. Simultaneous approaches in a number of different model systems act synergistically in solving pathways of gene functions. By using multiple models, the field takes advantage of the strengths of each system and circumvents its limitations. As one of the most powerful genetic animal systems, C. elegans will continue to reveal new mammalian signaling components. In addition, now that the C. elegans genome sequence has been completed, an increasing number of researchers are likely to discover homologs of human disease genes in the nematode and to analyze gene function in the worm model. Combined with the great potential of this animal in drug screens, it is simple to predict that C. elegans will worm its way deeper and deeper into cancer research.

  6. Immunization of mice with cells from juvenile worms of Schistosoma japonicum provides immunoprotection against schistosomiasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To validate the protective efficacy against schistosomiasis by immunization with cells from juvenile Schistosoma japonicum in a murine model and to analyze possible factors related to protection, in this study, two independent repeated vaccination trials were performed. After three subcutaneous vaccinations, in trial one, in the absence of adjuvant, primary juvenile worm cells (pJCs) from S. japonicum induced remarkable average reductions in worm burden (54.3%), liver eggs per gram (LEPG) load (59.8%) as well as egg granulomas size (66.5%) compared to PBS control group (P<0.01), which were significantly higher than those elicited by fractions of juvenile worm cells (JCFs) or fractions of juvenile worms (JWFs) (P<0.05). Non-cell components of worms (WNCs) showed no significant protection. In trial two, compared to PBS control group, significant protective effect was also observed for cultured juvenile worm cells (cJCs) from S. japonicum with 58.4% worm reduction and 68.1% LEPG reduction (P<0.01). However, cultured adult worms cells (cACs) showed significantly higher worm burden (P<0.05) and egg burden (P<0.01) when compared to cJCs. Immunological analysis of trial two revealed that cJCs engendered a Th1-biased mixed Th1/Th2 type of immune response while cACs elicited a Th2-type response. Our data indicated that immunization with both primary and cultured cells from S. japonicum juvenile worms provided high immunoprotection, for which the physical character of immunogens, stage-specific parasite and the type of immune response induced might be responsible, suggesting that vaccination with whole cells from S. japonicum larvae is a promising approach to produce protective immunity against schistosomiasis.

  7. 网络蠕虫的演化%Evolution of Internet Worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋礼鹏

    2011-01-01

    To study the evolutionary selection of intemet worms on the spreading rate under the complex ecological environment, a worms spreading model was presented. Firstly, the model's equilibria and their stability conditions were obtained mathematically and then verified by simulations. Based on the analysis, a random algorithm was used to simulate the spreading of worms at different spreading rates. Simulation results show that the complex ecology favors the worms with low spreading rate. Then, the impacts of anti-worm methods on the worms with low spreading rate were studied. Results show that the worms can be contained by enhancing the detecting ability of anti-worm system or introducing other anti-worm worms.%针对复杂生态环境中网络蠕虫对传播率的演化选择问题,给出了一个蠕虫传播模型.运用动力学分析方法得到了模型的平衡态及其稳定性条件,并进行了仿真验证.在理论分析的基础上,利用随机算法仿真了不同传播率对蠕虫传播的影响.仿真结果表明,复杂生态环境更有利于具有小传播率的蠕虫.对该类蠕虫,进一步仿真了防病毒技术对其影响.结果表明,加强杀毒系统对小传播率蠕虫的查杀能力和引入竞争性蠕虫能有效遏制该类蠕虫的传播.

  8. Worm burden-dependent disruption of the porcine colon microbiota by Trichuris suis infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitao Wu

    Full Text Available Helminth infection in pigs serves as an excellent model for the study of the interaction between human malnutrition and parasitic infection and could have important implications in human health. We had observed that pigs infected with Trichuris suis for 21 days showed significant changes in the proximal colon microbiota. In this study, interactions between worm burden and severity of disruptions to the microbial composition and metabolic potentials in the porcine proximal colon microbiota were investigated using metagenomic tools. Pigs were infected by a single dose of T. suis eggs for 53 days. Among infected pigs, two cohorts were differentiated that either had adult worms or were worm-free. Infection resulted in a significant change in the abundance of approximately 13% of genera detected in the proximal colon microbiota regardless of worm status, suggesting a relatively persistent change over time in the microbiota due to the initial infection. A significant reduction in the abundance of Fibrobacter and Ruminococcus indicated a change in the fibrolytic capacity of the colon microbiota in T. suis infected pigs. In addition, ∼10% of identified KEGG pathways were affected by infection, including ABC transporters, peptidoglycan biosynthesis, and lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis as well as α-linolenic acid metabolism. Trichuris suis infection modulated host immunity to Campylobacter because there was a 3-fold increase in the relative abundance in the colon microbiota of infected pigs with worms compared to naïve controls, but a 3-fold reduction in worm-free infected pigs compared to controls. The level of pathology observed in infected pigs with worms compared to worm-free infected pigs may relate to the local host response because expression of several Th2-related genes were enhanced in infected pigs with worms versus those worm-free. Our findings provided insight into the dynamics of the proximal colon microbiota in pigs in response to T

  9. Two Leucobacter strains exert complementary virulence on Caenorhabditis including death by worm-star formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodgkin, Jonathan; Félix, Marie-Anne; Clark, Laura C; Stroud, Dave; Gravato-Nobre, Maria J

    2013-11-04

    The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been much studied as a host for microbial infection. Some pathogens can infect its intestine, while others attack via its external surface. Cultures of Caenorhabditis isolated from natural environments have yielded new nematode pathogens, such as microsporidia and viruses. We report here a novel mechanism for bacterial attack on worms, discovered during investigation of a diseased and coinfected natural isolate of Caenorhabditis from Cape Verde. Two related coryneform pathogens (genus Leucobacter) were obtained from this isolate, which had complementary effects on C. elegans and related nematodes. One pathogen, Verde1, was able to cause swimming worms to stick together irreversibly by their tails, leading to the rapid formation of aggregated "worm-stars." Adult worms trapped in these aggregates were immobilized and subsequently died, with concomitant growth of bacteria. Trapped larval worms were sometimes able to escape from worm-stars by undergoing autotomy, separating their bodies into two parts. The other pathogen, Verde2, killed worms after rectal invasion, in a more virulent version of a previously studied infection. Resistance to killing by Verde2, by means of alterations in host surface glycosylation, resulted in hypersensitivity to Verde1, revealing a trade-off in bacterial susceptibility. Conversely, a sublethal surface infection of worms with Verde1 conferred partial protection against Verde2. The formation of worm-stars by Verde1 occurred only when worms were swimming in liquid but provides a striking example of asymmetric warfare as well as a bacterial equivalent to the trapping strategies used by nematophagous fungi.

  10. COMPARISON OF DRY EYES IN POST- MENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH AND WITHOUT SYMPTOMS OF DRY EYES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohana

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available : PURPOSE: This study was done to evaluate the relationship between menopause and dry eyes, to assess the severity of dry eyes in symptomatic post-menopausal women and to validate Ocular Surface Disease Index. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In our study, cross sectional group comprised of 293 postmenopausal patients attending the postmenopausal clinic in Gynecology Out Patient Department and fulfilling our selection criteria. After noting the detailed history and demography, the Allergan Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI score was done. Visual acuity was assessed on Snellen’s chart and anterior segment evaluation was done with slit lamp biomicroscope. Dry eye evaluation was done with Schirmer and Tear film Break-Up Time (tBUT tests. RESULTS: The important ocular findings in postmenopausal women were foreign-body sensation and grittiness, hyperaemia, mucoid discharge and fluctuating or blurry vision. The overall prevalence of dry eye in symptomatic post-menopausal women was 82.97% which was statistically significant. (p<0.00 CONCLUSION: Results from the present study reveal that dry eye symptoms are common problems in postmenopausal women. The prevalence of dry eye in post-menopausal women with symptoms has significant association. Hence, examination for dry eye should be an integral part of the postmenopausal women especially those having dry eye symptoms.

  11. New culvert under the Rhine near Worms assures energy and water supplies; Neuer Rheindueker bei Worms sichert Energie- und Wasserversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rink, W. [Buderus Giesserei Wetzlar, Wetzlar (Germany); Schoepwinkel, R.; Maue, T. [EWR Netz GmbH, Worms (Germany); Muenster, V.; Vranjes, S. [Sax und Klee GmbH, Mannheim (Germany)

    2008-03-15

    In 2007, EWR Netz GmbH awarded a contract for a new culvert under the Rhine for long-term assurance of energy and water supplies for Worms, the city of the ancient German Nibelungen saga, and for the South Hessian municipalities of Lampertheim and Buerstadt. 'Direct Pipe', a new trenchless construction method, was used for the first time anywhere in the world for the bore under the Rhine. This involved installation of a 464 m long DN 1200 protective steel casing pipe under the bed of the Rhine, traversing silt, sand and gravel. An innovative clamp system was then used to draw a DN 600 drinking-water pipeline and twelve cable conduits into this casing pipe. (orig.)

  12. The Tehran Eye Study: research design and eye examination protocol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fotouhi Akbar

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Visual impairment has a profound impact on society. The majority of visually impaired people live in developing countries, and since most disorders leading to visual impairment are preventable or curable, their control is a priority in these countries. Considering the complicated epidemiology of visual impairment and the wide variety of factors involved, region specific intervention strategies are required for every community. Therefore, providing appropriate data is one of the first steps in these communities, as it is in Iran. The objectives of this study are to describe the prevalence and causes of visual impairment in the population of Tehran city; the prevalence of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness in this population, and also the familial aggregation of refractive errors, lens opacity, ocular hypertension, and color blindness within the study sample. Methods Design Through a population-based, cross-sectional study, a total of 5300 Tehran citizens will be selected from 160 clusters using a stratified cluster random sampling strategy. The eligible people will be enumerated through a door-to-door household survey in the selected clusters and will be invited. All participants will be transferred to a clinic for measurements of uncorrected, best corrected and presenting visual acuity; manifest, subjective and cycloplegic refraction; color vision test; Goldmann applanation tonometry; examination of the external eye, anterior segment, media, and fundus; and an interview about demographic characteristics and history of eye diseases, eye trauma, diabetes mellitus, high blood pressure, and ophthalmologic cares. The study design and eye examination protocol are described. Conclusion We expect that findings from the TES will show the status of visual problems and their causes in the community. This study can highlight the people who should be targeted by visual impairment prevention programs.

  13. Mesh theory of angle modified dual tori double-enveloping toroidal worm drive

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, the meshing theory of the angle modified hourglass worm drive is enriched and developed. The ordinary condition of the angle modification is derived and the physical significance of the modification is interpreted. A normal section methodology is proposed for meshing analysis, which can be used to compute the normal distance near a singular meshing point of a conjugate surface couple. By means of the method and after analyzing the normal transversals, it is specified that the worm helicoid, the nominal former contact zone and the new contact zone intersect each other along the locus of singular points of the instantaneous contact lines of an angle-modified worm pair. As a result, it is explained clearly that those three osculate each other but the osculations are different in degree. Moreover, the mechanism of removing the twice-contacted zone from the worm gear tooth surface is clarified and the reason of shortening the worm working length is also elucidated. With the help of the theory described in the present paper and the thorough and systematic research on the relevant meshing characteristics, the angle modified dual tori double-enveloping toroidal worm drive has been shown to be an excellent new-fashioned hourglass worm set.

  14. In vitro effects of antibiotics on Brugia malayi worm survival and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, R; Well, Gary J

    2002-06-01

    Recent studies have suggested that intracellular Wolbachia spp. endobacteria are necessary for the reproduction and survival of filarial nematodes. The effects of antibiotics that are active against related bacteria on adult worms and microfilariae (Mf) of Brugia malayi in vitro were investigated. Antibiotics tested were doxycycline (Doxy), tetracycline (Tet), rifampicin (Rif), azithromycin (Azith), and chloramphenicol (Chlor). Doxy, Tet, Rif, and Azith reduced release of Mf by adult female worms. The minimum effective concentrations that reduced Mf release by 50% were 5 microg/ml for Doxy, 20 microg/ml for Tet, 40 microg/ml for Rif, and 100 microg/ml for Azith. The same drugs (at higher concentrations) killed adult worms and Mf. Embryograms showed that Tets blocked embryogenesis in female worms. Electron microscopy (EM) showed that the Tets, Rif, and Azith cleared Wolbachia spp. from adult worms and damaged developing embryos. These studies show that antibiotics active against Rickettsiaceae affect adult B. malayi worms and Mf in vitro. Additional studies will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms of action of these antibiotics on Wolbachia and filarial worms.

  15. Curcumin Generates Oxidative Stress and Induces Apoptosis in Adult Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paula Aguiar, Daniela; Brunetto Moreira Moscardini, Mayara; Rezende Morais, Enyara; Graciano de Paula, Renato; Ferreira, Pedro Manuel; Afonso, Ana; Belo, Silvana; Tomie Ouchida, Amanda; Curti, Carlos; Cunha, Wilson Roberto; Rodrigues, Vanderlei

    2016-01-01

    Inducing apoptosis is an interesting therapeutic approach to develop drugs that act against helminthic parasites. Researchers have investigated how curcumin (CUR), a biologically active compound extracted from rhizomes of Curcuma longa, affects Schistosoma mansoni and several cancer cell lines. This study evaluates how CUR influences the induction of apoptosis and oxidative stress in couples of adult S. mansoni worms. CUR decreased the viability of adult worms and killed them. The tegument of the parasite suffered morphological changes, the mitochondria underwent alterations, and chromatin condensed. Different apoptotic parameters were determined in an attempt to understand how CUR affected adult S. mansoni worms. CUR induced DNA damage and fragmentation and increased the expression of SmCASP3/7 transcripts and the activity of Caspase 3 in female and male worms. However, CUR did not intensify the activity of Caspase 8 in female or male worms. Evaluation of the superoxide anion and different antioxidant enzymes helped to explore the mechanism of parasite death further. The level of superoxide anion and the activity of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) increased, whereas the activity of Glutathione-S-Transferase (GST), Glutathione reductase (GR), and Glutathione peroxidase (GPX) decreased, which culminated in the oxidation of proteins in adult female and male worms incubated with CUR. In conclusion, CUR generated oxidative stress followed by apoptotic-like-events in both adult female and male S. mansoni worms, ultimately killing them. PMID:27875592

  16. Teamwork for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Babar Qureshi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Human resource development (HRD – the development of the people who deliver health care – has been identified as one of the key pillars of eye health delivery. HRD is one of the essential building blocks of the World Health Organization (WHO Global Action Plan: ‘Towards universal eye health’. The importance of HRD is also recognised beyond eye care, as can be seen in the WHO Health Systems approach.

  17. Personal Identification by Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Marinović, Dunja; Čoklo, Miran; Njirić, Sanja; Mužić, Vedrana

    2011-01-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems usi...

  18. Infrared Eye: Prototype 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-07

    within the wide field and slaved to the operator’s line of sight by means of an eye- tracking system. The images from both cameras are fused and shown...simultaneously on a high resolution CRT display unit, interfaced with the eye- tracking unit in order to optimize the human-machine interface. The IR Eye...system was flight tested using the Advanced system Research Aircraft (Bell 412 helicopter) from the Flight Research Laboratory of the National Research

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  1. Viability of developmental stages of Schistosoma mansoni quantified with xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rinaldi, Gabriel; Loukas, Alex; Brindley, Paul J; Irelan, Jeff T; Smout, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    Infection with helminth parasites causes morbidity and mortality in billions of people and livestock worldwide. Where anthelmintic drugs are available, drug resistance is a major problem in livestock parasites, and a looming threat to public health. Monitoring the efficacy of these medicines and screening for new drugs has been hindered by the lack of objective, high-throughput approaches. Several cell monitoring technologies have been adapted for parasitic worms, including video-, fluorescence-, metabolism enzyme- and impedance-based tools that minimize the screening bottleneck. Using the xCELLigence impedance-based system we previously developed a motility-viability assay that is applicable for a range of helminth parasites. Here we have improved substantially the assay by using diverse frequency settings, and have named it the xCELLigence worm real-time motility assay (xWORM). By utilizing strictly standardized mean difference analysis we compared the xWORM output measured with 10, 25 and 50 kHz frequencies to quantify the motility of schistosome adults (human blood flukes) and hatching of schistosome eggs. Furthermore, we have described a novel application of xWORM to monitor movement of schistosome cercariae, the developmental stage that is infectious to humans. For all three stages, 25 kHz was either optimal or near-optimal for monitoring and quantifying schistosome motility. These improvements in methodology sensitivity should enhance the capacity to screen small compound libraries for new drugs both for schistosomes and other helminth pathogens at large.

  2. Automatic defense against zero-day polymorphic worms in communication networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammed, Mohssen

    2013-01-01

    Able to propagate quickly and change their payload with each infection, polymorphic worms have been able to evade even the most advanced intrusion detection systems (IDS). And, because zero-day worms require only seconds to launch flooding attacks on your servers, using traditional methods such as manually creating and storing signatures to defend against these threats is just too slow. Bringing together critical knowledge and research on the subject, Automatic Defense Against Zero-day Polymorphic Worms in Communication Networks details a new approach for generating automated signatures for un

  3. EarthWorm at INGV: monitoring the Italian seismicity and some more

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, M.

    2006-12-01

    Since March 2005 we started testing EarthWorm as an auxiliar acquisition system at INGV (Istituto Nazionale di Geofisica e Vulcanologia, Roma). This was mainly dedicated to the acquisition of real-time seismic signal, to the data processing with a primary objective to locate earthquakes in the Italian Region. We also explored the capability of EarthWorm to be a robust and reliable system for automatically dissiminate parametric information and seismic data to the other routine activities of the network as magnitude estimation, moment tensor and Shakemap computation. We will present some preliminar results together with the technical improvements set up to integrate EarthWorm in the existing system.

  4. Gallbladder ascariasis with uneventful worm migration back to the duodenum: A case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mushtaque, Majid; Khan, Parwez Sajad; Mir, Mohammad Farooq; Khanday, Samina Ali

    2012-04-01

    Ascariasis, a worldwide parasitic disease, is regarded by some authorities as the most common parasitic infection in humans. The causative organism is Ascaris lumbricoides, which normally lives in the lumen of the small intestine. From the intestine, the worm can invade the bile duct or pancreatic duct, but invasion into the gallbladder is quite rare because of the anatomical features of the cystic duct, which is narrow and tortuous. Once it enters the gallbladder, it is exceedingly rare for the worm to migrate back to the intestine. We report a case of gallbladder ascariasis with worm migration back into the intestine, in view of its rare presentation.

  5. Discussion on the systematic position of the Early Cambrian priapulomorph worms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Diying; CHEN Junyuan; J. VANNIER

    2006-01-01

    @@ Priapulid worms form a small marine phylum in present-day environments with only 18 described species, but they were the most abundant animals in the endobenthic communities of the Cambrian. They are particularly well represented in the Lower Cambrian Maotianshan Shale of China [1-3] and the Middle Cambrian Burgess Shale of Canada [4]. The priapulid worms from the 530 Ma old Maotianshan Shale 5 be placed within 6 basic groups: selkirkiid, corynetid, anningid, palaeoscolecidan, tylotitid and priapuliid [5]. In addition, another important endobenthic worm phylum, the Sipuncula has been also reported from the Maotianshan Shale [6].

  6. How algae influence sessile marine organisms: The tube worms case of study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casoli, Edoardo; Bonifazi, Andrea; Ardizzone, Giandomenico; Gravina, Maria Flavia

    2016-09-01

    Tube worms and phytobenthic assemblages in three infralittoral and shallow circalittoral Mediterranean benthic communities developed between 5 and 35 m depth at Punta del Lazzaretto (Giglio Island, Central Thyrrenian sea) were investigated. Despite being three algae-dominated habitats, these displayed different covering both in terms of algal layers and algal morphologies, reflecting different structural organizations. Twenty-eight serpulid taxa have been reported, increasing both diversity and density values from most photophilic to most sciaphilous habitats. Multivariate analyses showed how algal thalli and tube worm assemblages were strongly correlated; substrata are influenced both physically and biologically, providing different conditions for tube worm settlement.

  7. Simulation of worms transmission in computer network based on SIRS fuzzy epidemic model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darti, I.; Suryanto, A.; Yustianingsih, M.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper we study numerically the behavior of worms transmission in a computer network. The model of worms transmission is derived by modifying a SIRS epidemic model. In this case, we consider that the transmission rate, recovery rate and rate of susceptible after recovery follows fuzzy membership functions, rather than constants. To study the transmission of worms in a computer network, we solve the model using the fourth order Runge-Kutta method. Our numerical results show that the fuzzy transmission rate and fuzzy recovery rate may lead to a changing of basic reproduction number which therefore also changes the stability properties of equilibrium points.

  8. Phagocytes: A Holistic Defense and Protection Against Active P2P Worms

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Ruichuan; Lua, Eng Keong; Crowcroft, Jon; Tang, Liyong; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Active Peer-to-Peer (P2P) worms present serious threats to the global Internet by exploiting popular P2P applications to perform rapid topological self-propagation. Active P2P worms pose more deadly threats than normal scanning worms because they do not exhibit easily detectable anomalies, thus many existing defenses are no longer effective. We propose an immunity system with Phagocytes --- a small subset of elected P2P hosts that are immune with high probability and specialized in finding an...

  9. Worm control practices on sheep farms in the Slovak Republic.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernanská, Dana; Várady, Marián; Cudeková, Patrícia; Corba, Július

    2008-07-04

    A questionnaire to obtain information on worm control practices and sheep management was performed on 49 sheep farms in 2003 and 2004. The majority of Slovak farms kept native breeds Tsigai (22 farms) and Improved Valachian (14 farms). Farms were divided according to their altitude to lowland, upland and lower highland farms. Sizes of pastures and stocking rates for lowland, upland and lower highland farms were 81.5, 269.2, and 316.7 ha and 6.3, 2.6, and 2.9 sheep/ha, respectively. One third of farmers (33.3%) used permanent pastures and two thirds of breeders (66.7%) rotated sheep between pastures. Mean drenching rate for lambs and yearlings/adults was 1.76 and 1.70, respectively. The most frequently used drugs during period from 1999 to 2004 were albendazole and ivermectin. On 13 farms benzimidazole drugs were applied in spring before turn out and macrocyclic lactones in autumn before turn in. Benzimidazoles and macrocyclic lactones were used almost exclusively on 7 and 9 farms, respectively. Visual appraisal was the most common practice to determine weight of animals (87.8% of farmers). Weights of the heaviest animals were used for determination of anthelmintic doses only on 16.7% of farms. Coprological examinations were performed on 47.9% of farms, usually in frequency once per year (75%).

  10. Bioaccumulation and biological effects of cigarette litter in marine worms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Stephanie L.; Rowe, Darren; Reid, Malcolm J.; Thomas, Kevin V.; Galloway, Tamara S.

    2015-01-01

    Marine debris is a global environmental issue. Smoked cigarette filters are the predominant coastal litter item; 4.5 trillion are littered annually, presenting a source of bioplastic microfibres (cellulose acetate) and harmful toxicants to marine environments. Despite the human health risks associated with smoking, little is known of the hazards cigarette filters present to marine life. Here we studied the impacts of smoked cigarette filter toxicants and microfibres on the polychaete worm Hediste diversicolor (ragworm), a widespread inhabitant of coastal sediments. Ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter toxicants in seawater at concentrations 60 fold lower than those reported for urban run-off exhibited significantly longer burrowing times, >30% weight loss, and >2-fold increase in DNA damage compared to ragworms maintained in control conditions. In contrast, ragworms exposed to smoked cigarette filter microfibres in marine sediment showed no significant effects. Bioconcentration factors for nicotine were 500 fold higher from seawater than from sediment. Our results illustrate the vulnerability of organisms in the water column to smoking debris and associated toxicants, and highlight the risks posed by smoked cigarette filter debris to aquatic life. PMID:26369692

  11. Serological screening of the Schistosoma mansoni adult worm proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Ludolf

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: New interventions tools are a priority for schistosomiasis control and elimination, as the disease is still highly prevalent. The identification of proteins associated with active infection and protective immune response may constitute the basis for the development of a successful vaccine and could also indicate new diagnostic candidates. In this context, post-genomic technologies have been progressing, resulting in a more rational discovery of new biomarkers of resistance and antigens for diagnosis. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Two-dimensional electrophoresed Schistosoma mansoni adult worm protein extracts were probed with pooled sera of infected and non-infected (naturally resistant individuals from a S. mansoni endemic area. A total of 47 different immunoreactive proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Although the different pooled sera shared most of the immunoreactive protein spots, nine protein spots reacted exclusively with the serum pool of infected individuals, which correspond to annexin, major egg antigen, troponin T, filamin, disulphide-isomerase ER-60 precursor, actin and reticulocalbin. One protein spot, corresponding to eukaryotic translation elongation factor, reacted exclusively with the pooled sera of non-infected individuals living in the endemic area. Western blotting of two selected recombinant proteins, major egg antigen and hemoglobinase, showed a similar recognition pattern of that of the native protein. CONCLUDING/SIGNIFICANCE: Using a serological proteome analysis, a group of antigens related to the different infection status of the endemic area residents was identified and may be related to susceptibility or resistance to infection.

  12. Eye proprioception may provide real time eye position information.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Pan, Yujun

    2013-03-01

    Because of the frequency of eye movements, online knowledge of eye position is crucial for the accurate spatial perception and behavioral navigation. Both the internal monitoring signal (corollary discharge) of eye movements and the eye proprioception signal are thought to contribute to the localization of the eye position in the orbit. However, the functional role of these two eye position signals in spatial cognition has been disputed for more than a century. The predominant view proposes that the online analysis of eye position is exclusively provided by the corollary discharge signal, while the eye proprioception signal only plays a role in the long-term calibration of the oculomotor system. However, increasing evidence from recent behavioral and physiological studies suggests that the eye proprioception signal may play a role in the online monitoring of eye position. The purpose of this review is to discuss the feasibility and possible function of the eye proprioceptive signal for online monitoring of eye position.

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/ ... Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive Surgery Museum of Vision Subspecialties Cataract/ ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our ... Emergency Relief EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Ophthalmology Job Center Our ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work ... Media Information in Spanish (Información en español) Website, ... Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  18. Eye-Tracking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela GROSSECK

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Eye-tracking: one of the newest and most efficient methods of improving on-line marketing communication is called eye-tracking. Marketers have borrowed this technique, usually used in psychological and medical research, in order to study web users with the help of a video camera incorporated in the monitor.

  19. Perception of eye positions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorteije, J.A.M.; Wezel, R.J.A. van; Lankheet, M.J.M.

    2002-01-01

    In a two-alternative forced-choice psychophysical test human subjects were tested for their ability to perceive their own viewing direction. A small red flash was presented at different horizontal positions left or right from the subjects' eye position on the screen. Eye positions were recorded with

  20. Understanding pink eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pink eye (PE) is a physiological tuber disorder that can result in serious processing complications and storage losses. The earliest external symptoms consist of an ephemeral pinkish discoloration around tuber eyes, predominately at the bud end of the tuber. These pinkish areas can then develop into...

  1. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  2. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  3. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  4. A SEM study of the reindeer sinus worm (Linguatula arctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sven Nikander

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Pentastomids are a group of peculiar parasitic arthropods, often referred to as tongue worms due to the resemblance of some species to a tongue. Linguatula arctica is the sinus worm of the reindeer (Rangifer tarandus, being the only pentastomid to have a direct life cycle and an ungulate as a definite host. Here, the surface structures and internal anatomy of adult L. arctica are described as seen by scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Sinus worms were collected in the winter 1991-92 in Finnish Lapland. Paranasal cavities of about 80 reindeer were examined and 30 sinus worms were found. The sinus worms had typical Linguatula sp. morphology, being paddle-shaped, transparent, pale yellow, dorsoventrally flattened and pseudosegmented with a long tapering end. Present at the anteroventral part of the cephalothorax was an oral opening with a large, conspicuous, head-like papillar structure. Bilaterally, on both sides of this opening, was a pair of strong curved hooks. The cephalothorax and abdomen had a segmented appearance, as they showed distinct annulation. There was a small cup-shaped sensory organ present at the lateral margin on each annula. The posterior edge of each annula was roughened by tiny spines projecting backwards. Throughout the cuticular surface, small, circular depressions that represented the apical portion of chloride cells. The genital opening of the male was located medioventrally between the tips of the posterior pair of hooks, and that of the female posteroventrally and subterminally. In both sexes, the genital opening was bilaterally flanked by papillar (in males or leaf-like (in females structures. One copulating couple was present, with the male attached to the posteroventral part of the female with its anteroventral hooks and papillae. Several structures typical of arthropods and other pentastomids were identified. Because SEM allows only surfaces to be studied, the morphology and especially the sense organs of L. arctica

  5. Eye growth in term- and preterm-born eyes modeled from magnetic resonance images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munro, Robert J; Fulton, Anne B; Chui, Toco Y P; Moskowitz, Anne; Ramamirtham, Ramkumar; Hansen, Ronald M; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Akula, James D

    2015-05-01

    We generated a model of eye growth and tested it against an eye known to develop abnormally, one with a history of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). We reviewed extant magnetic resonance images (MRIs) from term and preterm-born patients for suitable images (n = 129). We binned subjects for analysis based upon postmenstrual age at birth (in weeks) and ROP history ("Term" ≥ 37, "Premature" ≤ 32 with no ROP, "ROP" ≤ 32 with ROP). We measured the axial positions and curvatures of the cornea, anterior and posterior lens, and inner retinal surface. We fit anterior chamber depth (ACD), posterior segment depth (PSD), axial length (AL), and corneal and lenticular curvatures with logistic growth curves that we then evaluated for significant differences. We also measured the length of rays from the centroid to the surface of the eye at 5° intervals, and described the length versus age relationship of each ray, L(ray)(x), using the same logistic growth curve. We determined the rate of ray elongation, E(ray)(x), from L(ray)dy/dx. Then, we estimated the scleral growth that accounted for E(ray)(x), G(x), at every age and position. Relative to Term, development of ACD, PSD, AL, and corneal and lenticular curvatures was delayed in ROP eyes, but not Premature eyes. In Term infants, G(x) was fast and predominantly equatorial; in age-matched ROP eyes, maximal G(x) was offset by approximately 90°. We produced a model of normal eye growth in term-born subjects. Relative to normal, the ROP eye is characterized by delayed, abnormal growth.

  6. CHRONIC EFFECTS OF THE HERBICIDE DIURON ON FRESHWATER CLADOCERANS,AMPHIPODS,MIDGES,MINNOWS,WORMS, AND SNAILS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The chronic effects of the herbicide diuron on survival and reproduction of Daphnia pulex, and survival and growth of the amphipod Hyalella azteca, the midge Chironomus tentans, juvenile and embro/larval fathead minnows, Pimephales promelas, annelid worms, Lumbriculus variegatus,...

  7. Modeling and Stability Analysis of Worm Propagation in Wireless Sensor Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liping Feng

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An improved SIRS model considering communication radius and distributed density of nodes is proposed. The proposed model captures both the spatial and temporal dynamics of worms spread process. Using differential dynamical theories, we investigate dynamics of worm propagation to time in wireless sensor networks (WSNs. Reproductive number which determines global dynamics of worm propagation in WSNs is obtained. Equilibriums and their stabilities are also found. If reproductive number is less than one, the infected fraction of the sensor nodes disappears and if the reproduction number is greater than one, the infected fraction asymptotically stabilizes at the endemic equilibrium. Based on the reproduction number, we discuss the threshold of worm propagation about communication radius and distributed density of nodes in WSNs. Finally, numerical simulations verify the correctness of theoretical analysis.

  8. Eye screening in the elderly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keane, E M; O'Connor, M; Coakley, D; Walsh, J B

    1997-01-01

    Poor vision is considered to be a common unreported illness in the elderly population. To determine its prevalence we carried out an eye screen on 150 randomly selected co-operative elderly subjects attending St James's Hospital. A database [mean age 78.2 years (range 65 to 97)], medical history, mini-mental test score [mean score 9.1 (range 2 to 10)], mobility assessment and history of eye problems was gathered. A visual test of both eyes together (standard N6 and N8), inspection of the eyes, tonometry (Perkin's handheld tonometer) and fundoscopy were performed on each subject and the need and reason for referral to an optician or an ophthalmologist was documented. Results show that 64% of subjects could read N6 or N8. Tonometry revealed no subject with raised intraocular pressure, including 4 subjects who were currently on treatment for glaucoma. Fundoscopy showed that 57.3% of subjects had some evidence of cataracts, 16.6% moderate and 3% severe. The retina appeared normal in 58.6% of subjects, 20.6% of the population had hypertensive changes, 4.6% had diabetic changes, 3% had optic atrophy, 1.3% had macular degeneration and a further 10% could not be clearly visualised due to cataracts. 90% of subjects wore glasses and the average duration since the glasses were last changed was 3.7 years (range 2 weeks to 20 years). No glasses examined were in need of cleaning or repair. 36% of subjects could not read N8 (28 of these had forgotten their glasses and were advised to visit their optician if they could not read newsprint). 7.3% of subjects were referred to an optician for new glasses, 1.3% were referred to an ophthalmologist for newly diagnosed cataracts and 6.6% were regular attenders to an ophthalmologist. We conclude that the rate of new referrals for the occurrence of correctable undetected visual acuity deficit was lower than expected at 8.6% of subjects screened.

  9. Worm-hole run-time reconfigurable processor field programmable gate array (FPGA)

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    Higher performance is gained through a new architecture which implements a new method of computational resource allocation, utilization and programming based on the concept of Worm-hole Run-Time Reconfiguration (RTR). A stream-driven Worm-hole RTR methodology extends contemporary data-flow paradigms to utilize the dynamic creation of operators and pathways, based upon stream processing in which parcels of data move through custom created pathways and interact with other parcels to achieve the...

  10. Round worm in common bile duct, a rare pathology: Review of 15 cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biswaranjan Nayak

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Round worm or Ascaris lumbricoides has a worldwide distribution but is more prevalent in the developing countries like India and other South Asian countries. In human beings, round worms are commonly found in the small intestine, particularly the jejunum. If the pathogen load is very high, it may migrate to other sites and manifest different symptoms. In this paper, we share our experience of biliary ascariasis with regards to its clinical presentation, diagnosis, conservative and surgical management.

  11. Dynamics of Infected Snails and Mated Schistosoma Worms within the Human Host

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Besigye-Bafaki

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Male and female worms are independently distributed within a human host each with a Poisson probability distribution mass function. Mating takes place immediately when partners are available. It was found that the mated worm function is non-linear near the origin and becomes almost linear as the worms increase. They increase with increase in the worm load due to aggregation of worms. This also increases the infection of snails which are secondary hosts. On the analysis of the model, three equilibrium states were found, two of which were stable and one unstable. A stable endemic equilibrium within a community is very much undesirable. So the main objective of the model was to have the point O(0,0 as the only equilibrium point. This is a situation where there are no worms within the human host and the environment is free of infected snails. A critical point, above which the disease would be chronic and below which the disease would be eradicated, was found and analyzed. The parameters indicated that to achieve a disease free environment, the death rate of worms within the human host should be much greater than the cercariae that penetrate the human. Also the death rate of infected snails should be much higher than the contact rate between the miracidia and the snails. It was concluded that de-worming and killing of snails should be emphasized for disease control and educating the masses on the modes of disease transmission is quite necessary for prevention of the disease.

  12. Red worm behavior (Eisenia spp. in vermicomposting systems of organic residues

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mamani-Mamani Gladys

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This work evaluates the behavior of the vermicomposting red worm (Eisenia spp. in two environments (greenhouse and unsheltered and with two solid organic substrates (cow manure=CM and kitchen waste=KW in the zone of Carmen Pampa, Nor Yungas Province, Department of La Paz – Bolivia, using a factorial design with two factors and three repetitions (ANOVA analysis. The largest number of cocoons was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 64 in CM and 41 in KW. Cocoon viability was also greatest in the greenhouse treatment, at 100% for CM and 96% for KW. Similarly, the greatest number of worms hatched from cocoons was in the greenhouse treatment, with 2 immature worms for CM and 3.5 for KW, and the greatest number of immature worms was registered in the greenhouse treatment with 123 individuals in CM and 16 in KW. The lowest mortality rate due to environment was in the greenhouse treatment, with 3.90% mortality with CM and 88.64% with KW. The greatest number of mature worms (with clitella was in the unsheltered treatment, with 15 in CM and 21 in KW. The greatest biomass of immature worms was found in the greenhouse treatment, with 1.41 g of worms for CM and 0.185 g for KW; however, the greatest biomass of mature worms was in the KW treatment, with 7.98 g for the greenhouse treatment and 6.93 g for the unsheltered treatment. The phytotoxicity from CM vermicompost in the two environments was lowest, exhibiting a 66.6% rate of germination, and the opposite was true for KW, which was the most toxic in both environments. Macronutrient content in vermicompost obtained was: nitrogen at 2.45% and 2.31%, phosphorus at 500 mg kg-1 and 220 mg kg-1 and potassium at 27.43 and 2.76 cmol(+ kg-1 of dry substrate in KW and CM respectively.

  13. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-01

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator’s mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost. PMID:28098748

  14. Flavonoids and Sesquiterpene Lactones from Artemisia absinthium and Tanacetum parthenium against Schistosoma mansoni Worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luísa Maria Silveira de Almeida

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Human schistosomiasis, caused by trematode worms of the genus Schistosoma, is one of the most significant neglected tropical diseases, affecting more than 200 million individuals worldwide and praziquantel is the only available drug to treat this disease. Artemisia absinthium L. and Tanacetum parthenium L. are species popularly used as anthelmintics. We investigated the in vitro schistosomicidal activity of crude extracts of A. absinthium (AA and T. parthenium (TP and their isolated compounds. AA and TP, at 200 μg/mL, were active, causing 100% mortality of all adult worms. Chromatographic fractionation of AA leads to isolation of artemetin and hydroxypelenolide, while santin, apigenin, and parthenolide were isolated from TP. Artemetin, hydroxypelenolide, santin, and apigenin, at 100 μM, were inactive against adult worms. Parthenolide (12.5 to 100 μM caused 100% mortality, tegumental alterations, and reduction of motor activity of all adult worms of S. mansoni, without affecting mammalian cells. Confocal laser scanning microscopy showed tegumental morphological alterations and changes on the numbers of tubercles of S. mansoni worms. This report provides the first evidence for the in vitro activity of parthenolide against adult worms of S. mansoni, opening the route to further schistosomicidal studies with this compound.

  15. Durability Characteristics Analysis of Plastic Worm Wheel with Glass Fiber Reinforced Polyamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tae-Il Seo

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Plastic worm wheel is widely used in the vehicle manufacturing field because it is favorable for weight lightening, vibration and noise reduction, as well as corrosion resistance. However, it is very difficult for general plastics to secure the mechanical properties that are required for vehicle gears. If the plastic resin is reinforced by glass fiber in the fabrication process of plastic worm wheel, it is possible to achieve the mechanical properties of metallic material levels. In this study, the mechanical characteristic analysis of the glass-reinforced plastic worm wheel, according to the contents of glass fiber, is performed by analytic and experimental methods. In the case of the glass fiber-reinforced resin, the orientation and contents of glass fibers can influence the mechanical properties. For the characteristic prediction of plastic worm wheel, computer-aided engineering (CAE analysis processes such as structural and injection molding analysis were executed with the polyamide resin reinforcement glass fiber (25 wt %, 50 wt %. The injection mold for fabricating the prototype plastic worm wheel was designed and made to reflect the CAE analysis results. Finally, the durability of prototype plastic worm wheel fabricated by the injection molding process was evaluated by the experimental method and the characteristics according to the glass fiber contents.

  16. Viscoelastic properties of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, a self-similar, shear-thinning worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Backholm, Matilda; Ryu, William S; Dalnoki-Veress, Kari

    2013-03-19

    Undulatory motion is common to many creatures across many scales, from sperm to snakes. These organisms must push off against their external environment, such as a viscous medium, grains of sand, or a high-friction surface; additionally they must work to bend their own body. A full understanding of undulatory motion, and locomotion in general, requires the characterization of the material properties of the animal itself. The material properties of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans were studied with a micromechanical experiment used to carry out a three-point bending measurement of the worm. Worms at various developmental stages (including dauer) were measured and different positions along the worm were probed. From these experiments we calculated the viscoelastic properties of the worm, including the effective spring constant and damping coefficient of bending. C. elegans moves by propagating sinusoidal waves along its body. Whereas previous viscoelastic approaches to describe the undulatory motion have used a Kelvin-Voigt model, where the elastic and viscous components are connected in parallel, our measurements show that the Maxwell model, where the elastic and viscous components are in series, is more appropriate. The viscous component of the worm was shown to be consistent with a non-Newtonian, shear-thinning fluid. We find that as the worm matures it is well described as a self-similar elastic object with a shear-thinning damping term and a stiffness that becomes smaller as one approaches the tail.

  17. Influence of ecological factors on prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis infection in South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Grovenburg, Troy W.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2015-01-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a nematode parasite that commonly infects white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus; WTD) throughout the deciduous forest biome and deciduous-coniferous ecotone of eastern and central North America; the species is not known to occur west of the grassland biome of central North America. We used county-specific prevalence data to evaluate potential effects of landscape and climatologic factors on the spatial distribution of meningeal worm infection in South Dakota, US. Probability of infection increased 4-fold between eastern and western South Dakota and 1.3-fold for each 1-cm increase in summer precipitation. Sixty-three percent of WTD had only a single worm in the cranium. Expansion of meningeal worm infection across western South Dakota may be inherently low due to the combined effects of arid climate and potential attributes of the Missouri River that limit regional movements by infected WTD. Use of landscape genetic analyses to identify potential relationships between landscape features and population genetic structure of infected deer and parasites may contribute to a greater understanding of regional heterogeneity in meningeal worm infection rates across South Dakota, particularly in counties adjacent to the Missouri River. Future research evaluating heterogeneity in prevalence and intensity of infection between fawn and yearling deer, and the potential role of yearling male deer as dispersal agents of meningeal worms across the Missouri River, also is warranted.

  18. Propagation Modeling and Defending of a Mobile Sensor Worm in Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tian; Wu, Qun; Wen, Sheng; Cai, Yiqiao; Tian, Hui; Chen, Yonghong; Wang, Baowei

    2017-01-13

    WSANs (Wireless Sensor and Actuator Networks) are derived from traditional wireless sensor networks by introducing mobile actuator elements. Previous studies indicated that mobile actuators can improve network performance in terms of data collection, energy supplementation, etc. However, according to our experimental simulations, the actuator's mobility also causes the sensor worm to spread faster if an attacker launches worm attacks on an actuator and compromises it successfully. Traditional worm propagation models and defense strategies did not consider the diffusion with a mobile worm carrier. To address this new problem, we first propose a microscopic mathematical model to describe the propagation dynamics of the sensor worm. Then, a two-step local defending strategy (LDS) with a mobile patcher (a mobile element which can distribute patches) is designed to recover the network. In LDS, all recovering operations are only taken in a restricted region to minimize the cost. Extensive experimental results demonstrate that our model estimations are rather accurate and consistent with the actual spreading scenario of the mobile sensor worm. Moreover, on average, the LDS outperforms other algorithms by approximately 50% in terms of the cost.

  19. 基于刚柔耦合的蜗轮蜗杆疲劳寿命分析%Fatigue Life Analysis of Worm and Worm Wheel Based on FAMFAT

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史亮; 范久臣; 冯增铭; 乔晗

    2016-01-01

    Focus on the mechanical transmission mechanism of worm and worm wheel in the load fatigue failure under the action of the problem , by Recurdyn the coupled analysis of worm gear and worm, obtained the worm gear and worm in the load stress distribution. Based on the coupling analysis results, through FAMFAT analysis the fatigue life of the worm gear and worm, obtained the worm gear and worm fatigue life and the safety factor, determines the load stress concentration is the main cause of fatigue damage, the results of the analysis have important significance for further structural optimization.%针对机械传动机构中蜗轮蜗杆在正常载荷作用下发生疲劳破坏的问题,通过Recurdyn对蜗轮蜗杆进行刚柔耦合分析,得出了蜗轮蜗杆的载荷应力应变云图。基于耦合分析结果,通过FAMFAT对蜗轮蜗杆的疲劳寿命分析,得出了蜗轮蜗杆疲劳寿命与安全系数,确定了载荷应力集中是引起疲劳破坏的主要原因,分析结果为进一步结构优化有重要意义。

  20. Personal identification by eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marinović, Dunja; Njirić, Sanja; Coklo, Miran; Muzić, Vedrana

    2011-09-01

    Identification of persons through the eyes is in the field of biometrical science. Many security systems are based on biometric methods of personal identification, to determine whether a person is presenting itself truly. The human eye contains an extremely large number of individual characteristics that make it particularly suitable for the process of identifying a person. Today, the eye is considered to be one of the most reliable body parts for human identification. Systems using iris recognition are among the most secure biometric systems.

  1. An anatomical description of a miniaturized acorn worm (hemichordata, enteropneusta) with asexual reproduction by paratomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worsaae, Katrine; Sterrer, Wolfgang; Kaul-Strehlow, Sabrina; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Giribet, Gonzalo

    2012-01-01

    The interstitial environment of marine sandy bottoms is a nutrient-rich, sheltered habitat whilst at the same time also often a turbulent, space-limited, and ecologically challenging environment dominated by meiofauna. The interstitial fauna is one of the most diverse on earth and accommodates miniaturized representatives from many macrofaunal groups as well as several exclusively meiofaunal phyla. The colonization process of this environment, with the restrictions imposed by limited space and low Reynolds numbers, has selected for great morphological and behavioral changes as well as new life history strategies.Here we describe a new enteropneust species inhabiting the interstices among sand grains in shallow tropical waters of the West Atlantic. With a maximum body length of 0.6 mm, it is the first microscopic adult enteropneust known, a group otherwise ranging from 2 cm to 250 cm in adult size. Asexual reproduction by paratomy has been observed in this new species, a reproductive mode not previously reported among enteropneusts. Morphologically, Meioglossus psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. shows closest resemblance to an early juvenile stage of the acorn worm family Harrimaniidae, a result congruent with its phylogenetic placement based on molecular data. Its position, clearly nested within the larger macrofaunal hemichordates, suggests that this represents an extreme case of miniaturization. The evolutionary pathway to this simple or juvenile appearance, as chiefly demonstrated by its small size, dense ciliation, and single pair of gill pores, may be explained by progenesis. The finding of M. psammophilus gen. et sp. nov. underscores the notion that meiofauna may constitute a rich source of undiscovered metazoan diversity, possibly disguised as juveniles of other species.

  2. Magnetic eye tracking in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Hannah L; Raymond, Jennifer L

    2017-09-05

    Eye movements provide insights about a wide range of brain functions, from sensorimotor integration to cognition; hence, the measurement of eye movements is an important tool in neuroscience research. We describe a method, based on magnetic sensing, for measuring eye movements in head-fixed and freely moving mice. A small magnet was surgically implanted on the eye, and changes in the magnet angle as the eye rotated were detected by a magnetic field sensor. Systematic testing demonstrated high resolution measurements of eye position of eye tracking offers several advantages over the well-established eye coil and video-oculography methods. Most notably, it provides the first method for reliable, high-resolution measurement of eye movements in freely moving mice, revealing increased eye movements and altered binocular coordination compared to head-fixed mice. Overall, magnetic eye tracking provides a lightweight, inexpensive, easily implemented, and high-resolution method suitable for a wide range of applications.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vision in the morning? Jun 12, 2017 Can lupus affect my vision? May 27, 2017 Is stopping ... Answers Free Newsletter Get ophthalmologist-reviewed tips and information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy ...

  4. Anatomy of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Conditions Frequently Asked Questions Español Condiciones Chinese Conditions Anatomy of the Eye En Español Read in Chinese External (Extraocular) Anatomy Extraocular Muscles: There are six muscles that are ...

  5. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...... are robust to the inclusion of an extensive set of climate and geography controls. Moreover, using a global data set on economic activity for all terrestrial grid cells we show that the link between UVB-R and economic development survives the inclusion of country fixed effect....

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., Scientific Director David ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  9. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a disorder causing overactivity of the thyroid gland ( hyperthyroidism ). Bulging eyes are not the same as prominent ... or pain Whether the person has symptoms of hyperthyroidism, such as inability to tolerate heat, increased sweating, ...

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips ... addressed to the NEI Website Manager . Department of Health and Human Services | The National Institutes of Health | ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  13. What Is Eye Cancer?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... melanomas. Melanomas develop from pigment-making cells called melanocytes . When melanoma develops in the eye, it is ... cells make the same kind of pigment as melanocytes in the skin, so it’s not surprising that ...

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for ...

  16. Sports and Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may put you at high risk for eye injuries. Baseball Basketball Water Sports Boxing Hockey Paintball Racquetball Softball Squash Fencing Lacrosse Wrestling Football Golf Badminton Soccer Tennis Fishing Bicycling Gymnastics Track ...

  17. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses ...

  19. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to ... Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye May 03, 2012 Follow The Academy Professionals: Education Guidelines News Multimedia Public & Patients: Contact Us About the Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical ...

  1. The ageing eye

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2007-10-11

    Oct 11, 2007 ... With an increasing elderly population, age-related eye diseases are becoming the leading causes of ... and social health and overall quality of life. Enormous strides are ..... hip fractures, accidents and depression. Conclusion.

  2. Multimodal eye recognition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhi; Du, Yingzi; Thomas, N. L.; Delp, Edward J., III

    2010-04-01

    Multimodal biometrics use more than one means of biometric identification to achieve higher recognition accuracy, since sometimes a unimodal biometric is not good enough used to do identification and classification. In this paper, we proposed a multimodal eye recognition system, which can obtain both iris and sclera patterns from one color eye image. Gabor filter and 1-D Log-Gabor filter algorithms have been applied as the iris recognition algorithms. In sclera recognition, we introduced automatic sclera segmentation, sclera pattern enhancement, sclera pattern template generation, and sclera pattern matching. We applied kernelbased matching score fusion to improve the performance of the eye recognition system. The experimental results show that the proposed eye recognition method can achieve better performance compared to unimodal biometric identification, and the accuracy of our proposed kernel-based matching score fusion method is higher than two classic linear matching score fusion methods: Principal Component Analysis (PCA) and Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA).

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  4. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If your eye is cut or punctured : • ... CIO: CPWR, Suite 1000, 8484 Georgia Ave., Silver Spring, MD 20910. (Edward C. Sullivan is president of ...

  5. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ...

  7. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  8. Toxoplasmosis (and the Eye)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cat litter boxes, cat feces, sandboxes, and any insects exposed to cat feces (cockroaches, flies, etc.). Immunocompromised ... rash. Eye symptoms vary, but may include blurred vision or floaters during active disease. The diagnosis can ...

  9. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... Health Information Frequently asked questions ...

  10. Applied eye tracking research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jarodzka, Halszka

    2011-01-01

    Jarodzka, H. (2010, 12 November). Applied eye tracking research. Presentation and Labtour for Vereniging Gewone Leden in oprichting (VGL i.o.), Heerlen, The Netherlands: Open University of the Netherlands.

  11. Cohort profile: Shahroud Eye Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fotouhi, Akbar; Hashemi, Hassan; Shariati, Mohammad; Emamian, Mohammad Hassan; Yazdani, Kamran; Jafarzadehpur, Ebrahim; Koohian, Hassan; Khademi, Mohammad Reza; Hodjatjalali, Kamran; Kheirkhah, Ahmad; Chaman, Reza; Malihi, Sarvenaz; Mirzaii, Mehdi; Khabazkhoob, Mehdi

    2013-10-01

    The Shahroud Eye Cohort Study was set up to determine the prevalence and incidence of visual impairment and major eye conditions in the 40-64-year-old population of Shahroud as a Middle Eastern population. The first phase of the study was conducted in 2009-10. Using random cluster sampling, 6311 Shahroud inhabitants were invited for ophthalmologic examinations; of these, 5190 participants completed phase 1 (participation rate of 82.2%). All participants were interviewed to collect data on participants' demographics, occupation status, socioeconomic status, history of smoking, and medical and ophthalmic history, as well as history of medication, and the quality and duration of their insurance. DNA and plasma samples, as well as four dots of whole blood were collected from participants. Extensive optometric and ophthalmologic examinations were performed for each participant, including lensometry of current glasses, testing near and far visual acuity; determining objective and subjective refraction; eye motility; cycloplegic refraction; colour vision test; slit-lamp biomicroscopy and intraocular pressure measurement; direct and indirect fundoscopy; perimetry test; ocular biometry; corneal topography; lens and fundus photography; and the Schirmer's (1008 participants) and tear breakup time tests (1013 participants). The study data are available for collaborative research at Noor Ophthalmology Research Center, Tehran, Iran.

  12. Drugs affecting the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, F

    1985-08-01

    This discussion reviews drugs that affect the eye, including antihyperglycemic agents; corticosteroids; antirheumatic drugs (quinolines, indomethacin, and allopurinol); psychiatric drugs (phenothiazine, thioridazine, and chlorpromazine); drugs used in cardiology (practolol, amiodarone, and digitalis gylcosides); drugs implicated in optic neuritis and atrophy, drugs with an anticholinergic action; oral contraceptives (OCs); and topical drugs and systemic effects. Refractive changes, either myopic or hypermetropic, can occur as a result of hyperglycemia, and variation in vision is sometimes a presenting symptom in diabetes mellitus. If it causes a change in the refraction, treatment of hyperglycemia almost always produces a temporary hypermetropia. A return to the original refractive state often takes weeks, sometimes months. There is some evidence that patients adequately treated with insulin improve more rapidly than those taking oral medication. Such patients always should be referred for opthalmological evaluation as other factors might be responsible, but it might not be possible to order the appropriate spectacle correction for some time. The most important ocular side effect of the systemic adiministration of corticosteroids is the formation of a posterior subcapsular cataract. Glaucoma also can result from corticosteroids, most often when they are applied topically. Corticosteroids have been implicated in the production of benign intracranial hypertension, which is paradoxical because they also are used in its treatment. The most important side effect of drugs such as chloroquine and hydroxychloroquine is an almost always irreversible maculopathy with resultant loss of central vision. Corneal and retinal changes similar to those caused by the quinolines have been reported with indomethacin, but there is some question about a cause and effect relationship. The National Registry of Drug Induced Ocular Side Effects in the US published 30 case histories of

  13. In vitro and in vivo effects of hesperidin treatment on adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allam, G; Abuelsaad, A S A

    2014-09-01

    Hesperidin has been reported to exert a wide range of pharmacological effects, including antifungal, antiviral, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticarcinogenic activities. Herein, the schistosomicidal activity of this compound was evaluated in vitro and in vivo. Using an in vitro assay, a concentration of 200 μg/ml of hesperidin resulted in the mortality of 100% adult worms of Schistosoma (S.) mansoni within 72 h and a partial tegumental alteration in 10% of worms. However, after 144 h incubation, 50 and 100 μg/ml concentrations showed 0% and 10% mortality in adult worms, respectively, without any changes to the tegument. Sublethal doses did not influence egg output nor the development of eggs deposited by pairs of adult worms. In an in vivo study, mice infected with S. mansoni and treated with 600 mg hesperidin/kg body weight showed a respective reduction of 50, 45.2, 50 and 47.5% of males, females, worm pairs and total worm burden. In addition, a respective reduction, based on the number of eggs/g tissue, of 41.5, 63.7 and 58.6% was observed in the liver, intestine and liver/intestinal tissue combined. Furthermore, S. mansoni-specific IgG level significantly increased with hesperidin treatment, whereas IgA and IgE levels were not significantly changed. IgM levels decreased in response to cercarial antigen preparation but were not altered in response to soluble worm or soluble egg antigen. As in hesperidin-treated mice, praziquantel-treated mice showed a similar pattern of specific antibody response to S. mansoni antigens. The present study represents the first report on the effects of the schistosomicidal activity of hesperidin.

  14. Modern sports eye injuries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capão Filipe, J A; Rocha-Sousa, A; Falcão-Reis, F; Castro-Correia, J

    2003-11-01

    To determine the severity and long term sequelae of eye injuries caused by modern sports that could be responsible for significant ocular trauma in the future. Prospective observational study of 24 (25 eyes) athletes with sports related ocular injuries from health clubs, war games, adventure, radical and new types of soccer, presenting to an eye emergency department between 1992 and 2002 (10 years). Modern sports were responsible for 8.3% of the 288 total sports eye injuries reported. Squash (29.2%) was the most common cause, followed by paintball (20.8%) and motocross (16.6%). The most common diagnosis during the follow up period was retinal breaks (20%). 18 (75%) patients sustained a severe injury. The final visual acuity remained <20/100 in two paintball players. Ocular injuries resulting from modern sports are often severe. Adequate instruction of the participants in the games, proper use of eye protectors, and a routine complete ophthalmological examination after an eye trauma should be mandatory.

  15. Development of the compound eyes of dragonflies (Odonata). III. Adult compound eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherk, T E

    1978-01-01

    The distribution of ommatidial diameters and interommatidial angles, as determined by measuring the angles between the optic axes of adjacent ommatidia, are mapped across the surface of the compound eyes of a variety of species selected for different adult behaviors, developmental histories, and taxonomic positions. The size of the visual fields, prey capture foveas, foveas composed of large dorsal ommatidia, and other specializations in the numbers of ommatidia that view various directions in the visual field are discussed in relation to adult behavior. Advanced species have less resemblance between their larval and adult eyes than primitive species. In contrast to their larvae, adults increase the monocular resolution of each eye at the expense of binocular vision. Most species have foveas which view in approximately the anterior direction, instead of in a region of binocular overlap, and many species have foveal bands which view along the horizon. Some advanced perching species, which approach their prey and other odonates from below, have an additional vertical foveal band that views along a vertical plane from the anterior direction to a more dorsal direction. The most unusual foveal band is seen in active flying species. The large dorsal ommatidia of the migratory Anax junius, which cover approximately one third of the eye surface, view a narrow region of the visual field that extends along a plane from the most lateral direction of one eye to a dorsal direction, and continues without interruption to the most lateral direction of the other eye.

  16. Clinical, histopathological, and ultrasonographic examination of the bovine eye

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    925 cattles from three farms in Brandenburg and the patients of the clinic for ruminants (FU Berlin) were available for this study. The animals were divided into three groups of different ages: unweaned calves, weaning calves, and dairy cows. The farms had different housing conditions and even different histories in regard of eye diseases. The animals were submitted to a general and an ophthalmological examination. Pathological findings could be made in the eyes of 41,8 % of the examinated an...

  17. Epidemiology of eye injuries sustained by military personnel in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jian-he; ZHANG Mao-nian; JIANG Cai-hui; ZHANG Ying; QIU Huai-yu

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the epidemiological characteristcs of eye injuries sustained by military personnel in Chinese army.Methods:Eleven military evacuation hospitals located in different regions were selected for this study.We reviewed all the medical records of eye injuries sustained by military personnel between January 2005 and December 2009.Patients' information was collected.All data were put into database and analyzed statistically.Results:Totally there were 415 inpatients with eye injuries (442 eyes) and their mean age was 24.40 years.Eye injury accounts for 13.51% of all eye diseases in this study.From 2006 to 2009,the number of eye injury increased gradually.Among them,175 (42.17%) were injured in leisure time,and 145 (34.94%) in working time.Twenty-two (5.30%)patients had an eye surgery or history of eye disease before injury.In all,246 patients (59.28%) were sent to evacuation hospital within 24 hours and 64 (56.64%) underwent surgeries in 24 hours after injury.There were 389 patients (93.73%)hospitalized for 1 time.Visual acuities of 187 eyes (42.31%)were grade 1 (≥ 20/40) after injury.When discharge,349eyes (78.96%) obtained a visual acuity of grade 1.Conclusion:Eye injury has a very frequent incidence in Chinese army and much more attention should be paid to prevent it.

  18. Mathematical Model and Geometrical Model of Double Pitch ZN-type Worm Gear Set Based on Generation Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHU Linsen; CAO Huajun; LI Xianchong; ZHANG Chenglong; LI Yuxia

    2015-01-01

    The current researches on the tooth surface mathematical equations and the theory of gearing malnly pay attention to the ordinary type worm gear set (e.g., ZN, ZA, or ZK). The research of forming mechanism and three-dimensional modeling method for the double pitch worm gear set is not enough. So there are some difficulties in mathematical model deducing and geometry modeling of double pitch ZN-type worm gear set based on generation mechanism. In order to establish the mathematical model and the precise geometric model of double pitch ZN-type worm gear set, the structural characteristics and generation mechanism of the double pitch ZN-type worm gear set are investigated. Mathematical model of the ZN-type worm gear set is derived based on its generation mechanism and the theory of gearing. According to the mathematical model of the worm gear set which has been developed, a geometry modeling method of the double pitch ZN-type worm and worm gear is presented. Furthermore, a geometrical precision calculate method is proposed to evaluate the geometrical quality of the double pitch worm gear set. As a result, the maximum error is less than 6´10–4 mm in magnitude, thus the model of the double pitch ZN-type worm gear set is avallable to meet the requirements of finite element analysis and engineering application. The derived mathematical model and the proposed geometrical modeling method are helpful to guiding the design, manufacture and contact analysis of the worm gear set.

  19. Macular hemorrhage after roller coaster riding in a single-eyed patient with congenital glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Guven

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT A 21-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her only functional eye (right eye, OD. She had a history of multiple ocular surgeries in both eyes because of congenital glaucoma and had lost light perception in her left eye several years prior. Ophthalmological examination revealed 0.15 Snellen visual acuity, and fundoscopy revealed nearly total cupping and pallor of the optic disc and multiple retinal hemorrhagic foci in the macula in OD. Lesions spontaneously resolved over a few months. Gravitational forces during a roller coaster ride may have caused this macular hemorrhage.

  20. Macular hemorrhage after roller coaster riding in a single-eyed patient with congenital glaucoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guven, Dilek; Acar, Zeynep; Demir, Mehmet; Sendul, Yekta; Demir, Atilla Gokce; Ergen, Erdem

    2016-01-01

    A 21-year-old female presented with a 4-day history of decreased vision in her only functional eye (right eye, OD). She had a history of multiple ocular surgeries in both eyes because of congenital glaucoma and had lost light perception in her left eye several years prior. Ophthalmological examination revealed 0.15 Snellen visual acuity, and fundoscopy revealed nearly total cupping and pallor of the optic disc and multiple retinal hemorrhagic foci in the macula in OD. Lesions spontaneously resolved over a few months. Gravitational forces during a roller coaster ride may have caused this macular hemorrhage.

  1. Sago worms as a nutritious traditional and alternative food for rural children in Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Intan R; Trees; Suwarni; Pramono, Mochammad S

    2017-06-01

    The sago worm Rhynchophorus ferrugineus is a nutritious food source found in the remaining parts of a sago palm trunk after the removal of sago starch by farmers. The effort to increase sago worm consumption is investigated in an intervention study among children aged Food preference was ascertained by interview. Anthropometric measurements were taken at baseline and the endpoint. After mixing all food stuffs into one product for instance nasi gurih, protein and fat content in the intervention group was higher compared to control group (8.8 g and 7.3 g vs 4.7 g and 0.5 g respectively). In the intervention group receiving complementary feeding with sago worms, children's height changed minimally as did the control group (0.3 vs 0.2 cm); no difference was observed between the groups regarding weight or height. Sago worm consumption can diversify the diet through usage in various dishes, so improving its overall nutritional quality. Worm addition in an intervention program does not compromise, but maintains nutritional value. Local use adds affordability and sustainability to the food and health systems in a sago-consuming culture, so contributing to food security.

  2. Associations among habitat characteristics and meningeal worm prevalence in eastern South Dakota, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacques, Christopher N.; Jenks, Jonathan A.; Klaver, Robert W.; Dubay, Shelli A.

    2017-01-01

    Few studies have evaluated how wetland and forest characteristics influence the prevalence of meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) infection of deer throughout the grassland biome of central North America. We used previously collected, county-level prevalence data to evaluate associations between habitat characteristics and probability of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) across eastern South Dakota, US. The highest-ranked binomial regression model for detecting probability of meningeal worm infection was spring temperature + summer precipitation + percent wetland; weight of evidence (wi=0.71) favored this model over alternative models, though predictive capability was low (Receiver operating characteristic=0.62). Probability of meningeal worm infection increased by 1.3- and 1.6-fold for each 1-cm and 1-C increase in summer precipitation and spring temperature, respectively. Similarly, probability of infection increased 1.2-fold for each 1% increase in wetland habitat. Our findings highlight the importance of wetland habitat in predicting meningeal worm infection across eastern South Dakota. Future research is warranted to evaluate the relationships between climatic conditions (e.g., drought, wet cycles) and deer habitat selection in maintaining P. tenuis along the western boundary of the parasite.

  3. WormQTL--public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snoek, L Basten; Van der Velde, K Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O; Poulin, Gino B; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C; Kammenga, Jan E; Swertz, Morris A

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the systems biology of natural variation. These efforts have resulted in a valuable amount of phenotypic, high-throughput molecular and genotypic data across different developmental worm stages and environments in hundreds of C. elegans strains. WormQTL provides a workbench of analysis tools for genotype-phenotype linkage and association mapping based on but not limited to R/qtl (http://www.rqtl.org). All data can be uploaded and downloaded using simple delimited text or Excel formats and are accessible via a public web user interface for biologists and R statistic and web service interfaces for bioinformaticians, based on open source MOLGENIS and xQTL workbench software. WormQTL welcomes data submissions from other worm researchers.

  4. WormGender - Open-Source Software for Automatic Caenorhabditis elegans Sex Ratio Measurement.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta K Labocha

    Full Text Available Fast and quantitative analysis of animal phenotypes is one of the major challenges of current biology. Here we report the WormGender open-source software, which is designed for accurate quantification of sex ratio in Caenorhabditis elegans. The software functions include, i automatic recognition and counting of adult hermaphrodites and males, ii a manual inspection feature that enables manual correction of errors, and iii flexibility to use new training images to optimize the software for different imaging conditions. We evaluated the performance of our software by comparing manual and automated assessment of sex ratio. Our data showed that the WormGender software provided overall accurate sex ratio measurements. We further demonstrated the usage of WormGender by quantifying the high incidence of male (him phenotype in 27 mutant strains. Mutants of nine genes (brc-1, C30G12.6, cep-1, coh-3, him-3, him-5, him-8, skr-1, unc-86 showed significant him phenotype. The WormGender is written in Java and can be installed and run on both Windows and Mac platforms. The source code is freely available together with a user manual and sample data at http://www.QuantWorm.org/. The source code and sample data are also available at http://dx.doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.1541248.

  5. Phagocytes: A Holistic Defense and Protection Against Active P2P Worms

    CERN Document Server

    Chen, Ruichuan; Crowcroft, Jon; Tang, Liyong; Chen, Zhong

    2011-01-01

    Active Peer-to-Peer (P2P) worms present serious threats to the global Internet by exploiting popular P2P applications to perform rapid topological self-propagation. Active P2P worms pose more deadly threats than normal scanning worms because they do not exhibit easily detectable anomalies, thus many existing defenses are no longer effective. We propose an immunity system with Phagocytes --- a small subset of elected P2P hosts that are immune with high probability and specialized in finding and "eating" worms in the P2P overlay. The Phagocytes will monitor their managed P2P hosts' connection patterns and traffic volume in an attempt to detect active P2P worm attacks. Once detected, local isolation, alert propagation and software patching will take place for containment. The Phagocytes further provide the access control and filtering mechanisms for communication establishment between the internal P2P overlay and the external hosts. We design a novel adaptive and interaction-based computational puzzle scheme at ...

  6. Ectopic Human Fasciola hepatica Infection by an Adult Worm in the Mesocolon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ah Jin; Choi, Chang Hwan; Choi, Sun Keun; Shin, Yong Woon; Park, Yun-Kyu; Kim, Lucia; Choi, Suk Jin; Han, Jee Young; Kim, Joon Mee; Chu, Young Chae; Park, In Suh

    2015-12-01

    We report here an ectopic case of Fasciola hepatica infection confirmed by recovery of an adult worm in the mesocolon. A 56-year-old female was admitted to our hospital with discomfort and pain in the left lower quadrant of the abdomen. Abdominal CT showed 3 abscesses in the left upper quadrant, mesentery, and pelvic cavity. On surgical exploration, abscess pockets were found in the mesocolon of the sigmoid colon and transverse colon. A leaf-like worm found in the abscess pocket of the mesocolon of the left colon was diagnosed as an adult fluke of F. hepatica. Histologically, numerous eggs of F. hepatica were noted with acute and chronic granulomatous inflammations in the subserosa and pericolic adipose tissues. Conclusively, a rare case of ectopic fascioliasis has been confirmed in this study by the adult worm recovery of F. hepatica in the mesocolon.

  7. Morphological characterization of the asexual reproduction in the acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Norio; Saito, Yasunori

    2010-09-01

    The acorn worm Balanoglossus simodensis reproduces asexually by fragmentation and subsequent regeneration from the body fragments. We examined the morphogenesis of its asexual reproduction. At first, we collected asexually reproducing specimens and observed their morphogenesis. Then, we succeeded in inducing the asexual reproduction artificially by cutting the worm at the end of the genital region. The process of morphogenesis is completely the same between naturally collected and artificially induced specimens. The stages during morphogenesis were established on the basis of the external features of the asexually reproducing fragments. The internal features of the fragments were also examined at each stage. In a separate phase of the study, the capacity for regeneration of some body parts was also examined by dividing intact worms into about 10 fragments. Although the capacity for regeneration varied among the different body parts, some fragments regenerated into complete individuals in 1 month. The process of regeneration was the same as that in the asexually produced fragments.

  8. Metastasis of Ciliary Body Melanoma to the Contralateral Eye: A Case Report and Review of Uveal Melanoma Literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouritza M. Torossian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Many types of cancers metastasize to the eye. However, uveal melanoma metastasizing to the contralateral choroid is very rare. We report the case of a 68-year-old man with history of treated uveal melanoma of the right eye that developed metastasis to the liver and the choroid of the left eye. Ten years earlier, he was diagnosed to have uveal melanoma of the right eye and was initially treated with plaque radiotherapy. Two years later, upon progression of the disease in the right eye he had enucleation of the eye. We describe the patient’s clinical history, the diagnosis of recurrent disease in the contralateral eye, therapy of the left eye, and systemic metastasis. In addition, we reviewed the published medical literature and described the recent advances in the management of uveal melanoma.

  9. Mortality of rocky mountain elk in Michigan due to meningeal worm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bender, L.C.; Schmitt, S.M.; Carlson, E.; Haufler, J.B.; Beyer, D.E.

    2005-01-01

    Mortality from cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis caused by the meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) has been hypothesized to limit elk (Cervus elaphus nelsoni) populations in areas where elk are conspecific with white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Elk were reintroduced into Michigan (USA) in the early 1900s and subsequently greatly increased population size and distribution despite sympatric high-density (???12/km2) white-tailed deer populations. We monitored 100 radio-collared elk of all age and sex classes from 1981-94, during which time we documented 76 mortalities. Meningeal worm was a minor mortality factor for elk in Michigan and accounted for only 3% of mortalities, fewer than legal harvest (58%), illegal kills (22%), other diseases (7%), and malnutrition (4%). Across years, annual cause-specific mortality rates due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis were 0.033 (SE=0.006), 0.029 (SE=0.005), 0.000 (SE=0.001), and 0.000 (SE=0.000) for calves, 1-yr-old, 2-yr-old, and ???3-yr-old, respectively. The overall population-level mortality rate due to cerebrospinal parelaphostrongylosis was 0.009 (SE=0.001). Thus, meningeal worm had little impact on elk in Michigan during our study despite greater than normal precipitation (favoring gastropods) and record (???14 km2) deer densities. Further, elk in Michigan have shown sustained population rates-of-increase of ???18%/yr and among the highest levels of juvenile production and survival recorded for elk in North America, indicating that elk can persist in areas with meningeal worm at high levels of population productivity. it is likely that local ecologic characteristics among elk, white-tailed deer, and gastropods, and degree of exposure, age of elk, individual and population experience with meningeal worm, overall population vigor, and moisture determine the effects of meningeal worm on elk populations. ?? Wildlife Disease Association 2005.

  10. Highly Toxic Ribbon Worm Cephalothrix simula Containing Tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manabu Asakawa

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX was 25,590 mouse units (MU per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC-fluorescent detection (FLD (HPLC-FLD, electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS, infrared (IR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS. The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as “strongly toxic” (≥1000 MU/g. Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665–5300 MU/g (n = 10. These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  11. Highly toxic ribbon worm Cephalothrix simula containing tetrodotoxin in Hiroshima Bay, Hiroshima Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asakawa, Manabu; Ito, Katsutoshi; Kajihara, Hiroshi

    2013-02-20

    In 1998, during a toxicological surveillance of various marine fouling organisms in Hiroshima Bay, Japan, specimens of the ribbon worm, Cephalothrix simula (Nemertea: Palaeonemertea) were found. These ribbon worms contained toxins with extremely strong paralytic activity. The maximum toxicity in terms of tetrodotoxin (TTX) was 25,590 mouse units (MU) per gram for the whole worm throughout the monitoring period. The main toxic component was isolated and recrystallized from an acidified methanolic solution. The crystalline with a specific toxicity of 3520 MU/mg was obtained and identified as TTX by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC)-fluorescent detection (FLD) (HPLC-FLD), electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (ESI-MS), infrared (IR), nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The highest toxicity of C. simula exceeded the human lethal dose per a single worm. A toxicological surveillance of C. simula from 1998 to 2005 indicated approximately 80% of the individuals were ranked as "strongly toxic" (≥1000 MU/g). Forty-eight percent of the specimens possessed toxicity scores of more than 2000 MU/g. Seasonal variations were observed in the lethal potency of C. simula. Specimens collected on January 13, 2000 to December 26, 2000 showed mean toxicities of 665-5300 MU/g (n = 10). These data prompted a toxicological surveillance of ribbon worms from other localities with different habitats in Japan, including Akkeshi Bay (Hokkaido) under stones on rocky intertidal beaches, as well as Otsuchi (Iwate) among calcareous tubes of serpulid polychaetes on rocky shores. Within twelve species of ribbon worms examined, only C. simula possessed extremely high toxicity. Therefore, C. simula appears to show generally high toxicity irrespective of their locality and habitat.

  12. Eradicating guinea worm without wells: unrealized hopes of the Water Decade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brieger, W R; Otusanya, S; Adeniyi, J D; Tijani, J; Banjoko, M

    1997-12-01

    At the start of the United Nations International Drinking Water Supply and Sanitation Decade in the 1980s, guinea worm disease was targeted as the major indicator of the success of the Decade's efforts to promote safe water. By the late 1980s, most of the guinea worm endemic countries in Africa and South Asia had established guinea worm eradication programmes that included water supply as one of their main technical strategies. By surveying the water supply situation in Ifeloju Local Government Area (LGA) in Oyo State, Nigeria, in June 1996, as a case study, it was possible to determine the role that water supply has played in the eradication effort. Although two major agencies, the former Directorate for Food, Roads and Rural Infrastructure and UNICEF, provided hand dug and bore-hole wells respectively in many parts of the LGA, coverage of the smaller farm hamlets has been minor compared to efforts in the larger towns. This is ironic because the farm hamlets served as a reservoir for the disease in the 1980s, such that when the piped water system in the towns broke down, guinea worm was easily reintroduced into the towns. The survey of 188 ever-endemic hamlets with an estimated population of 23,556 found that 74.3% of the people still drink only pond water. Another 11.3% have wells that have become dysfunctional. Only 14.4% of this rural population has access' to functioning wells. Guinea worm was eliminated from 107 of the hamlets mainly by the use of cloth filters and chemical treatment of ponds. While this proves that it is possible to eradicate guinea worm, it fails to leave behind the legacy of reliable, safe water supplies that was the hope of the Water Decade.

  13. Evaluation of existing EPRI and INEL test data to determine the worm to worm gear coefficient of friction in Limitorque actuators

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garza, I.A.

    1996-12-01

    About the last sizing parameter for motor operated valves which has not been determined by utility or NRC sponsored testing is actuator efficiency. A by-product of EPRI testing for valve factors is the measurement of the actuator efficiencies. Motor sizing in this testing provides efficiency testing for motors running near synchronous speed. INEL testing, sponsored by the NRC, for stem factors and rate of loading provides complimentary data for motors loaded down to zero speed. This paper analyzes the data from these two test programs to determine the coefficient of friction for the worm to worm gear interface. This allowed the development of an algorithm for determining the efficiency of actuators which have not been tested. This paper compares the results of this algorithm to the test data to provide a measure of the accuracy of this method for calculating actuator efficiency.

  14. Shells, holes, worms, high-velocity gas and the z-distribution of gas in galaxies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rand, R. J.

    The author gives an overview of the current observational understanding of vertically extended gas components in spiral galaxies and the various phenomena which come under such names as shells, holes, worms, and high-velocity gas. For the most part, the focus is on recent high-resolution interferometric studies. The author concentrates on cold gas, and briefly on warm ionized gas, in the Milky Way and a few nearby spirals. Along the way, it is seen how phenomena such as worms and shells may be related to the formation and maintenance of the vertically extended components.

  15. SQL/JavaScript Hybrid Worms As Two-stage Quines

    CERN Document Server

    Orlicki, José I

    2009-01-01

    Delving into present trends and anticipating future malware trends, a hybrid, SQL on the server-side, JavaScript on the client-side, self-replicating worm based on two-stage quines was designed and implemented on an ad-hoc scenario instantiating a very common software pattern. The proof of concept code combines techniques seen in the wild, in the form of SQL injections leading to cross-site scripting JavaScript inclusion, and seen in the laboratory, in the form of SQL quines propa- gated via RFIDs, resulting in a hybrid code injection. General features of hybrid worms are also discussed.

  16. In vitro antifilarial effects of three plant species against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaridah, M Z; Idid, S Z; Omar, A W; Khozirah, S

    2001-11-01

    Five aqueous extracts from three plant species, i.e., dried husks (HX), dried seeds (SX) and dried leaves (LX) of Xylocarpus granatum (Meliaceae), dried stems (ST) of Tinospora crispa (Menispermaceae) and dried leaves (LA) of Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) were tested in vitro against adult worms of subperiodic Brugia malayi. The relative movability (RM) value of the adult worms over the 24-h observation period was used as a measure of the antifilarial activity of the aqueous extracts. SX extract of X. granatum demonstrated the strongest activity, followed by the LA extract of A. paniculata, ST extract of T. crispa, HX extract and LX extract of X. granatum.

  17. Evaluation of Echinostoma liei worm, metacercaria and redia antigens for schistosomiasis control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Monaem, G; Farid, A; Rabia, I; El-Amir, A

    2015-10-01

    While chemotherepeutic drugs, such as praziquantel, oxamniquine and metrifonate, are currently considered safe and effective drugs for schistosomiasis treatment, reinfection occurs frequently after drug treatment. Thus, a vaccine is sought to provide long-term treatment. Antigens from worm, metacercaria and redia of Echinostoma liei (E. liei) were purified using CNBr-activated Sepharose column, then used for immunization of mice prior to infection with Schistosomiasis mansoni. Worm burden, hepatic and intestinal eggs and oogram count was significantly reduced and that was reflected in normalization of liver architecture. This referred to a significant increase in the tested immunoglobulin level (IgM, IgG1 and IgG2).

  18. Filament theory based WORM memory devices using aluminum/poly(9-vinylcarbazole)/aluminum structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suresh, Aswin; Krishnakumar, Govind; Namboothiry, Manoj A G

    2014-07-14

    Spin coated poly(N-vinylcarbazole) (PVK) sandwiched between thermally evaporated aluminum (Al) electrodes on a glass substrate showed unipolar Write Once Read Many times (WORM) characteristics. The pristine devices were in the low resistance ON state exhibiting ohmic behavior and at a voltage near -2 V, they switched abruptly to the high resistance OFF state showing space charge limited current (SCLC). We suggest that the rupturing of metallic filaments due to Joule heating may explain the effect. The WORM devices exhibited an ON/OFF ratio of 10(8), a retention of 1000 s and an endurance of ∼10(6) cycles in both ON and OFF states.

  19. THE EXPERIMENTAL INFECTION OF NECATOR AMERICANUS (HOOK WORM IN GOLDEN HAMSTER, MESOCRICETUS AURATUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Khazan

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Hook worm (Necator americanus is one of the major pathogenic parasites in the north of Iran. Neonatal hamsters 1-3 days old showed a high degree of susceptibility to Necator americanus infection and the parasite reached to sexually mature stages in six weeks following skin exposure. This method could be used for production of egg, larvae and adult worms. In this study neonatal hamsters were infected each with 70 third – stage larvae percutaneously and 50% of larvae were developed to sexual maturity.

  20. Schistosoma mansoni: effects of anesthetics and antimonial drugs on worm shift in the mouse

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Renan da Cunha-Melo

    1986-08-01

    Full Text Available Mice experimentally infected with Schistosoma mansoni were injected with sodium thiopental or sodium antimonyl gluconate (Triostib R, or submitted to halothane inhalation, with or without a previous injection of thiopental. Data obtained showed that halothane and thiopental induce worm shift to the liver (99 and 76%, respectively. Sodium gluconate and antimonium (Triostib R shifted 52% of worms towards the liver. These results seem to indicate that the use of antimonium would be unnecessary, when surgical removal of schistosomules is carried out through the extracorporeal filtration technique, in patients with portal hypertension.

  1. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  2. Community History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Helen M.

    1997-01-01

    Recounts the experience of researching community history in Ivanhoe, Virginia, between 1987 and 1990. The Ivanhoe History Project involved community members in collecting photographs, memorabilia, and oral histories of their town. Subsequent published volumes won the W. D. Weatherford Award and inspired a quilt exhibit and a theatrical production.…

  3. Through the creator's eyes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glaveanu, Vlad Petre; Lahlou, Saadi

    2012-01-01

    of an adapted Subjective Evidence-Based Ethnography (SEBE). This methodology combines (a) obtaining first person audio-visual recordings of creative action with a miniature video-camera worn at eye-level, (b) accessing the subjective experience of the participant through a confrontation interview based...

  4. The Aging Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and Tips Watch, Listen, and Learn Social Media ¡Ojo con su visión! ¡Ojo con su visión! Learn About Eye Disease Among Hispanics/Latinos ¡Ojo con su visión! Toolkits Resources Outreach Tools and ...

  5. An eye for inspiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-11-01

    The discovery that the eye of a particular mantis shrimp has an achromatic quarter-waveplate that is superior to modern-day devices could be a source of inspiration to those designing optical components. Nature Photonics spoke to Nicholas Roberts, one of the researchers involved in the study.

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Health (NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information ... and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed ...

  7. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  8. [Eye and the pregnacy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dima, Anne Marie

    2012-01-01

    Pregnancy is associated with changes in many organs and systems including the eyes. Sometimes in pregnancy may appear physiological and pathological ocular changes that may be associated with pre-existing problems. In such cases it is very important interdisciplinary collaboration gynecologist, ophthalmologist.

  9. Eyes for Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orfield, Antonia

    2008-01-01

    Vision is the dominant sense, and the eyes are connected with almost every other part of the brain. If the vision system is poorly developed, children trying to learn suffer. Without good up close vision, students are handicapped even if no one knows or suspects it--they may not even know it themselves. Students do not know that the way they see…

  10. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and ... carry visual messages from the retina to the brain. Retina (REH-tin-uh) is the light-sensitive ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...

  12. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water qu

  13. Experimental estimation of an opportunity of use of steel interfaces in worm pairs at non-adhesion friction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    О.У. Стельмах

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available  In article the brief review of problems of Ukraine manufactures of reductors and the description of opportunities of increasing of the twisting moment of worm gears in result of by using steels as materials of worm pair and the phenomenon of non-adhesion friction.

  14. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water

  15. Botanical Compounds: Effects on Major Eye Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuan-Phat Huynh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Botanical compounds have been widely used throughout history as cures for various diseases and ailments. Many of these compounds exhibit strong antioxidative, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic properties. These are also common damaging mechanisms apparent in several ocular diseases, including age-related macular degeneration (AMD, glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, cataract, and retinitis pigmentosa. In recent years, there have been many epidemiological and clinical studies that have demonstrated the beneficial effects of plant-derived compounds, such as curcumin, lutein and zeaxanthin, danshen, ginseng, and many more, on these ocular pathologies. Studies in cell cultures and animal models showed promising results for their uses in eye diseases. While there are many apparent significant correlations, further investigation is needed to uncover the mechanistic pathways of these botanical compounds in order to reach widespread pharmaceutical use and provide noninvasive alternatives for prevention and treatments of the major eye diseases.

  16. Disability: recommendations for eye programmes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In 2012, CBM’s Medical Eye Care Advisory Working Group met in Hyderabad, India to discuss the inclusion of people with disabilities in eye care.As a result of these discussions, recommendations were made.

  17. The central retinal artery occlusion in the right eye followed by a branch retinal artery occlusion in the left eye four days later

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cagatay Caglar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A 65-year-old woman was admitted to our clinic with complaints of sudden, painless, decrease in vision, and sectoral visual field defect in the left eye and later presented to our clinic again with a history of sudden loss of vision in her right eye. In this case study we reported that the patient had branch retinal artery occlusion (BRAO in the left eye and at the same time progressing central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO in the right eye.

  18. Unilateral Amblyopia Affects Two Eyes: Fellow Eye Deficits in Amblyopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Kimberly; Giaschi, Deborah

    2017-03-01

    Unilateral amblyopia is a visual disorder that arises after selective disruption of visual input to one eye during critical periods of development. In the clinic, amblyopia is understood as poor visual acuity in an eye that was deprived of pattern vision early in life. By its nature, however, amblyopia has an adverse effect on the development of a binocular visual system and the interactions between signals from two eyes. Visual functions aside from visual acuity are impacted, and many studies have indicated compromised sensitivity in the fellow eye even though it demonstrates normal visual acuity. While these fellow eye deficits have been noted, no overarching theory has been proposed to describe why and under what conditions the fellow eye is impacted by amblyopia. Here, we consider four explanations that may account for decreased fellow eye sensitivity: the fellow eye is adversely impacted by treatment for amblyopia; the maturation of the fellow eye is delayed by amblyopia; fellow eye sensitivity is impacted for visual functions that rely on binocular cortex; and fellow eye deficits reflect an adaptive mechanism that works to equalize the sensitivity of the two eyes. To evaluate these ideas, we describe five visual functions that are commonly reported to be deficient in the amblyopic eye (hyperacuity, contrast sensitivity, spatial integration, global motion, and motion-defined form), and unify the current evidence for fellow eye deficits. Further research targeted at exploring fellow eye deficits in amblyopia will provide us with a broader understanding of normal visual development and how amblyopia impacts the developing visual system.

  19. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2010-10-12

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.  Created: 10/12/2010 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/13/2010.

  20. Molecular insights on the evolution of the lateral and head lantern luciferases and bioluminescence colors in Mastinocerini railroad-worms (Coleoptera: Phengodidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldi, Frederico G C; da Silva Neto, Antonio Joaquim; Viviani, Vadim R

    2010-01-01

    Among bioluminescent beetles of Elateroidea superfamily, railroad-worms (Phengodidae) produce the widest range of colors, from green to red, using the same luciferin-luciferase system. Members of the Mastinocerini tribe display additional unique cephalic organs that emit red-shifted light, with Phrixothrix railroad-worms being the most dramatic cases with head lanterns emitting red light. Although the luciferases from the head lanterns of Phrixothrix hirtus and from the lateral lanterns of P. vivianii were previously cloned, the luciferases from both lanterns of the same species were not cloned yet. Therefore the origin and evolution of head and lateral lanterns luciferases in Phengodidae remains unknown. In the present work, we cloned by PCR the cDNA for lateral lantern luciferases of three Mastinocerini species: Phrixothrix hirtus, Brasilocerus sp(3). and Taximastioncerus sp. The results suggest that the head and lateral lanterns luciferases in Mastinocerini are coded by paralogous genes, and that the ancestral luciferase in the Phengodinae subfamily produced green bioluminescence. The evolutionary history of bioluminescence colors within Phengodinae is discussed.

  1. Worms under stress: C. elegans stress response and its relevance to complex human disease and aging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Snoek, L.B.; Bono, de M.; Kammenga, J.E.

    2013-01-01

    Many organisms have stress response pathways, components of which share homology with players in complex human disease pathways. Research on stress response in the nematode worm Caenorhabditis elegans has provided detailed insights into the genetic and molecular mechanisms underlying complex human d

  2. Worm Algorithm simulations of the hole dynamics in the t-J model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prokof'ev, Nikolai; Ruebenacker, Oliver

    2001-03-01

    In the limit of small J 0.4t there is an ongoing argument that at smaller J spin-charge separation is still possible. Worm algorithm Monte Carlo simulations of the hole Green function for 0.1 hole spectral function in the thermodynamic limit.

  3. Worm infestation and anaemia among pre-school children of peasant farmers in Calabar, Nigeria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anah, M U; Ikpeme, O E; Etuk, I S; Yong, K E; Ibanga, I; Asuquo, B E

    2008-09-01

    Worm infection and anaemia are common childhood conditions in Nigeria. We assessed the status of helminthiasis and associated anaemia among pre school children of peasant farmers aged 1-5 years living in a rubber plantation near Calabar, Nigeria. Cross sectional. Three hundred and fifty children were selected by multi-stage cluster sampling technique. Freshly passed stool was examined using Kato-Katz method while anaemia was estimated using haematocrit technique. Of the 350 children, 174 (49.7%) had intestinal helminths: Ascaris lumbricoides 64.4%, hookworms 10.9% and Trichuris trichuria 1.1%. There were 41(23.6%) children with polyparasitism, 33 of them were due to Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworms. The worm load was generally light in intensity with egg per gram of stool ranging from 24-60,960. Males (28.9%) were infected more than females (20.8%). The frequency of infection increases with age. The prevalence of anaemia among the entire study population and in those infected with worms was 56.6% and 56.9% respectively. With polyparasitism there was a relative increase in the frequency of anaemia females > males. Worm infections and anaemia are common in our children. A comprehensive control strategy involving good sanitation, sinking of bore hole for clean water supply and regular deworming exercises are recommended.

  4. Bore holes and the vanishing of guinea worm disease in Ghana's upper region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, J M

    1997-07-01

    Ghana's Upper Region provides an excellent example of the beneficial effects of improved water security provided by hand-pump tube wells. Following a Ghana-Canada bilateral development project that installed some 2500 pumps, protection rates against guinea worm disease may be estimated as 88% in the west, and 96% in the east. Survey comparisons between ca 1960 and 1990 show that dracunculiasis declined in 32 of a total of 38 areas. The shadow of guinea worm has been lifted from the land and, in many areas, a true "vanishing" has occurred. The few areas of disease increase are characterized by the lowest population densities, pioneer settlement for cotton farming, and an absence of bore holes. Vagaries of development have inadvertently produced disease transformations or "metamorphoses" from dracunculiasis to elephantiasis (lymphatic filariasis) in one area, and to red water disease (schistosomiasis hematobium) in other areas. Correlative associations between pump densities and guinea worm disease are weakened by the large size of areas for which disease is reported in 1990. One preliminary finding is that geographical distance to the pump is a stronger influence than demographic pressure on pumps, regarding dracunculiasis. Diminishing returns on higher pump densities in many areas support the idea of making fuller, safer use of supplementary non-pump water. Despite crises of fee payment and pump maintenance, the rural bore hole project has struck a mortal blow against guinea worm, and permanently raised the quality of life in the Upper Region.

  5. WormBase: network access to the genome and biology of Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, L; Sternberg, P; Durbin, R; Thierry-Mieg, J; Spieth, J

    2001-01-01

    WormBase (http://www.wormbase.org) is a web-based resource for the Caenorhabditis elegans genome and its biology. It builds upon the existing ACeDB database of the C.elegans genome by providing data curation services, a significantly expanded range of subject areas and a user-friendly front end.

  6. Molecular phylogeny of echiuran worms (Phylum: Annelida reveals evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryutaro Goto

    Full Text Available The Echiura, or spoon worms, are a group of marine worms, most of which live in burrows in soft sediments. This annelid-like animal group was once considered as a separate phylum because of the absence of segmentation, although recent molecular analyses have placed it within the annelids. In this study, we elucidate the interfamily relationships of echiuran worms and their evolutionary pattern of feeding mode and sexual dimorphism, by performing molecular phylogenetic analyses using four genes (18S, 28S, H3, and COI of representatives of all extant echiuran families. Our results suggest that Echiura is monophyletic and comprises two unexpected groups: [Echiuridae+Urechidae+Thalassematidae] and [Bonelliidae+Ikedidae]. This grouping agrees with the presence/absence of marked sexual dimorphism involving dwarf males and the paired/non-paired configuration of the gonoducts (genital sacs. Furthermore, the data supports the sister group relationship of Echiuridae and Urechidae. These two families share the character of having anal chaetae rings around the posterior trunk as a synapomorphy. The analyses also suggest that deposit feeding is a basal feeding mode in echiurans and that filter feeding originated once in the common ancestor of Urechidae. Overall, our results contradict the currently accepted order-level classification, especially in that Echiuroinea is polyphyletic, and provide novel insights into the evolution of echiuran worms.

  7. Intestinal epithelial cell secretion of RELM-beta protects against gastrointestinal worm infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    IL-4 and IL-13 protect against parasitic helminths, but little is known about the mechanism of host protection. We show that IL-4/IL-13 confer immunity against worms by inducing intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) to differentiate into goblet cells that secrete resistin-like molecule beta (RELMB). R...

  8. Dracunculiasis (guinea worm disease) in the Bume (Nyangaton) people of South Omo, Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jemaneh, L; Taticheff, S

    1993-07-01

    A village-to-village search for active dracunculiasis cases was carried out in an endemic area of the Bume (Nyangaton) tribe of South Omo Region, Ethiopia. A total of 21 cases, of which 6, 5, and 10 had pre-emergent, emergent and complicated Guinea worm disease, respectively, were identified. Twenty-two worms, ranging from 1-3 per patient, were removed mainly from the lower limbs; worm appearance seems to be associated more with the right limb. Adults between the ages of 20-30 years are highly affected and infection appears to be sex-related as 14/21 (66.7%) of the cases are females. Water procured from water-holes drug in dry river beds provides an ideal situation for the transmission of dracunculiasis amongst the tribesmen. The knowledge, attitudes and perceptions of the Bume people towards the disease and the public health significance of dracunculiasis are discussed in relation to the current goal of the national and global Guinea worm eradication programme.

  9. A case of Fasciola hepatica infection mimicking cholangiocarcinoma and ITS-1 sequencing of the worm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Bong Kyun; Jung, Bong-Kwang; Lee, Yoon Suk; Hwang, In Kyeom; Lim, Hyemi; Cho, Jaeeun; Hwang, Jin-Hyeok; Chai, Jong-Yil

    2014-04-01

    Fascioliasis is a zoonotic infection caused by Fasciola hepatica or Fasciola gigantica. We report an 87-year-old Korean male patient with postprandial abdominal pain and discomfort due to F. hepatica infection who was diagnosed and managed by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP) with extraction of 2 worms. At his first visit to the hospital, a gallbladder stone was suspected. CT and magnetic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (MRCP) showed an intraductal mass in the common bile duct (CBD) without proximal duct dilatation. Based on radiological findings, the presumed diagnosis was intraductal cholangiocarcinoma. However, in ERCP which was performed for biliary decompression and tissue diagnosis, movable materials were detected in the CBD. Using a basket, 2 living leaf-like parasites were removed. The worms were morphologically compatible with F. hepatica. To rule out the possibility of the worms to be another morphologically close species, in particular F. gigantica, 1 specimen was processed for genetic analysis of its ITS-1 region. The results showed that the present worms were genetically identical (100%) with F. hepatica but different from F. gigantica.

  10. Correlates of Anaemia and Worm Infestation among Rural Pregnant Women: A Cross Sectional Study from Bengal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinjita Dutta, Sita Chatterjee, Debasish Sinha, Bobby Pal, Mausumi Basu, Aparajita Dasgupta

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: To find out the preva-lence of worm infestation and anaemia among pregnant women along with their socio-demographic characteristics, dietary habits and state of personal hygiene and elicit the association, if any, with anemia and worm infestation Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among pregnant mothers attending the antenatal clinic at Nasibpur Union Health Center. All antenatal mothers who came for antenatal checkup for the first time to the health centre on two prefixed days of the week during the study period were interviewed. The reports of their stool and haemoglobin examination were followed up. Results: 82% of the pregnant women were suffering from anemia.25% of the study population had worm infestation. Age at marriage, green leafy vegetable, fruit and flesh food intake of at least 4 days a week, use of lemon with food most of the time, avoiding the practice of eating last in the family, handwashing with soap and water before eating and use of footwear outside the house were statically significant with hemoglobin concentration. Only religion and handwashing practice with soap and water before eating had statistically significant association with worm infestation. Conclusion: The study showed that certain protective factors like diet and personal hygiene if addressed at the time of antenatal checkup can reduce the number of cases of anemia significantly.

  11. Host-induced morphological changes of Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907 male worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Roberto Machado-Silva

    1994-09-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the permissiveness of Nectomys squamipes to Schistosoma mansoni and the influence of the albino mice on the morphological aspects of adult worms derived from a population isolated from N. squamipes, the morphology of adult S. mansoni Sambon, 1907 male worms was studied using a digital image analyser (MOP VIDEOPLAN and light microscopy. Their sources were as follows: (1 recovered from the wild rodent N. squamipes Brants naturally infected from Sumidouro, RJ, Brazil; (2 recovered from albino mice experimentally infected with the strain derived from N. squamipes; (3 recovered after the isolation of a strain derived from aboriginal human infections in Sumidouro. Worms recovered from N. squamipes (group 1 showed body lenght and distance between suckers significantly bigger than those of the specimens maintained in mice (groups 2 and 3. The number of tests in group 1 was statistically less than of groups 2 and 3. Group 2 strains which were maintained in mice, presented the lenght of the worms as the only significant different character. Data show that: (1 N. squamipes is a more suitable host for the development of S. mansoni when compared to the albino mice; (2 a strain of S. mansoni isolated from a natural host undergoes morphological changes after its passage in the white mouse.

  12. Morphometric study of Schistosoma mansoni adult worms recovered from undernourished infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheilla A Oliveira

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available Some unfavourable effects of malnutrition of the host on Schistosoma mansoni worm biology and structure have been reported based upon brigthfield microscopy. This paper aims to study by morphometric techniques, some morphological parameters in male and female adult worms recovered from undernourished albino mice in comparison with parasites recovered from well-fed infected mice. Undernourished animals were fed a multideficient and essentially low protein diet (RBD diet and compared to well-fed control mice fed with the commercial diet NUVILAB. Seventy-five days post-infection with 80 cercarie (BL strain animals were sacrificed. All adult worms were fixed in 10% formalin and stained with carmine chloride. One hundred male and 60 female specimens from each group (undernourished and control were examined using an image system analysis Leica Quantimet 500C and the Sigma Scan Measurement System. The following morphometrical parameters were studied: body length and width, oral and ventral suckers, number and area of testicular lobes, length and width of ovary and uterine egg. For statistical analysis, the Student's t test for unpaired samples was applied. Significant differences (p < 0.05 were detected in body length and width, in parameters of suckers, uterine egg width, ovary length and area of testicular lobes, with lower values for specimens from undernourished mice. The nutritional status of the host has negative influence on S. mansoni adult worms, probably through unavailability of essential nutrients to the parasites.

  13. Development of Schistosoma mansoni worms in mice analyzed by bright field and confocal microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla de Lamare Biolchini

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available The blood flukes of mammals (Digenea: Schistosomatidae are among trematodes unique whose adult worms have separeted sexes which are dissimilar in appearance. The developmental features, growth and organogenesis of Schistosoma mansoni were studied in Swiss Webster mice by a digital system for image analysis and confocal microscopy. Data so far obtained showed two phases with significative morphological changes at 3-4 weeks post-infection, and a gradual similar development onwards in the reproductive system and tegument. Our male-dependent phase demonstrated that mating occurs before sexual maturing. At week three, the majority of male worms (59% had formed the gynaecophoric canal although testicular lobes and tegumental tubercles were absent. By this time, 33% females had an incipient ovary (without cellular differentiation. At week four, 77.2% males presented testicular lobes with few germinative cells while 26% had developing tegumental tubercles. The immature ovary was observed in 69% females. Suckers followed different pattern of growth between male and females. The size of oral and ventral suckers from six-week-old male worms grew abruptly (3.0 fold more than that of three-week-old. In female worms, maximum growth was attained at week four, reducing in size thereafter. From sixth week onwards, all specimens showed the fully developed reproductive system. Probably, these features are morphological traits which schistosome has experienced from hermaphrodite to dioecy.

  14. In-vitro antihelmintic effects of two Kenyan plant extracts against Heamonchus contortus adult worms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick Gachoki Kareru

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was on evidence based information that Entada leptostachya Harms and Rapanea rhododendroides (Gil Mez were used by the herbalists in Mbeere County, Kenya, for the treatment of gastrointestinal worms. The plants’ aqueous and solvent extracts were tested for their in-vitro antihelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus adult worms. Of the eight plant extracts investigated, four extracts exhibited adult worm mortality greater than 50% while the other four afforded mortality ranging between 60-77%. E. leptostachya methanol extract was the most active (77%. Albendazole was used as a positive control drug while Goodwin’s physiological solution was used as negative control. Methanol extracts for both plants exhibited the highest anthelmintic activity at the test concentrations of 25mg/ml. Although R. rhododendroides was ranked third in general usage by the herbalists, E. leptostachya was solely used for the treatment of intestinal worms. The present results demonstrated that E. leptostachya and R. rhododendroides plant extracts had antihelmintic agents, and justified their traditional use as alternative drugs for the treatment of heamonchosis in ruminants.

  15. Isoforms of Hsp70-binding human LDL in adult Schistosoma mansoni worms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Adriana S A; Cavalcanti, Marília G S; Zingali, Russolina B; Lima-Filho, José L; Chaves, Maria E C

    2015-03-01

    Schistosoma mansoni is one of the most common parasites infecting humans. They are well adapted to the host, and this parasite's longevity is a consequence of effective escape from the host immune system. In the blood circulation, lipoproteins not only help to conceal the worm from attack by host antibodies but also act as a source of lipids for S. mansoni. Previous SEM studies showed that the low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles present on the surface of adult S. mansoni worms decreased in size when the incubation time increased. In this study, immunocytochemical and proteomic analyses were used to locate and identify S. mansoni binding proteins to human plasma LDL. Ultrathin sections of adult worms were cut transversely from the anterior, medial and posterior regions of the parasite. Immunocytochemical experiments revealed particles of gold in the tegument, muscle region and spine in male worms and around vitelline cells in females. Immunoblotting and 2D-electrophoresis using incubations with human serum, anti-LDL antibodies and anti-chicken IgG peroxidase conjugate were performed to identify LDL-binding proteins in S. mansoni. Analysis of the binding proteins using LC-MS identified two isoforms of the Hsp70 chaperone in S. mansoni. Hsp70 is involved in the interaction with apoB in the cytoplasm and its transport to the endoplasmic reticulum. However, further studies are needed to clarify the functional role of Hsp70 in S. mansoni, mainly related to the interaction with human LDL.

  16. "Kill the Army Worms! Let Them Live!:" Facing an Ecological Dilemma in a Democratic Classroom Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wister, Pam; Beaton, Kathy; Nason, Pam

    2000-01-01

    Describes how a primary teacher handled an argument among her students over what to do about army worms defoliating an apple tree, thereby illustrating how she cultivates a classroom community that nurtures democracy. Such stories of morally coherent practices counter the bureaucratic insistence on a narrowly construed outcomes-based education.…

  17. A New Method for Machining Concave Profile of the Worms' Thread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tareq Abu Shreehah

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Research and development of wormgear drives have significantly focused on their geometrical accuracy, loadability tests, and their wear resistance and efficiency. The research has been going on in several directions. Individual method of problem solving is development new worm-gear sets and tools for their manufacturing. In the present study, worms with concave profile of their thread have been considered. To avoid the technological difficulties relevant to the application of special cutting tools for machining such gear sets, a rigid incongruent generating pair consisting of a standard hob and toroidal tool has been developed for processing the concave worm profile. The generating surface of the developed toroidal tool, which is essential for the tool manufacturing, was modeled on the basis of hob-toroidal tool interaction. The proposed method of modeling w as divided into three steps: first, the common surface for both hobbing and toroidal tools has been found in terms of hyperboloid of revolution of one sheet, then, the matrix method of transforming the coordinates, from the hob-axis reference frame to the toroidal tool-axis reference frame, has been utilized, and finally, an equation described the generating surface of the toroidal tool has been derived and presented. By using the proposed model and the obtained final equation the worm thread surface machined by the mentioned tool can be defined and experimented.

  18. Glycogen metabolism in Schistosoma mansoni worms after their isolation from the host

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tiolens, A.G.M.; Bergh, S.G. van den

    1987-01-01

    Adult Schistosoma mansoni worms rapidly degrade their endogenous glycogen stores immediately after isolation from the host. In NCTC 109 or in a diphasic culture medium the glycogen levels slowly recovered again after the initial decrease. The rapid degradation of glycogen could be prevented, even in

  19. Integrated CD-ROM and WORM Optical Disk Systems on the Navy's Paperless Ship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiel, Thomas J.

    1992-01-01

    The integration of optical disk systems employing WORM (Write Once Read Many) technology with CD-ROM systems can enhance information management. Two integrated system applications are the Paperless Ship Project of the U.S. Navy and the FEDLOG (Federal Logistics Data on CD-ROM) of the Defense Logistics Agency. These initiatives are described and…

  20. Impact of worm predation on pseudo-steady-state of the circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ming; Nakhla, George; Zhu, Jesse

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies integrated simultaneous carbon and nitrogen removal as well as worm predation, in a circulating fluidized bed biofilm reactor (CFBBR) operated with an anoxic-aerobic bioparticle recirculation. A lab-scale CFBBR with a 8.5-liter reaction zone comprising 2L anoxic and 6.5L aerobic compartments was designed to evaluate the aquatic Oligochaete worm effect. Long-term (200 days) performance showed that stable and high-rate chemical oxygen demand (COD) with sodium acetate as the carbon source and total nitrogen (NH(4)Cl as nitrogen source) conversions were achieved simultaneously, with low sludge production of 0.082 g VSS (volatile suspended solids) g COD(-1) at pseudo-steady-state. Worm predation, which causes considerable sludge reduction of the bioparticle process, was studied. The results proved that the worm predation has a significant impact on the pseudo-steady-state performance of the CFBBR, decreasing biomass yield, decreasing oxygen concentration and increasing expanded bed height.

  1. Pileolaria berkeleyana, a spirorbin polychaete worm introduced to the Netherlands (Polychaeta: Serpulidae: Spirorbinae)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Faasse, M.A.

    2011-01-01

    The spirorbin polychaete worm Pileolaria berkeleyana, new for the fauna of the Netherlands, was found at different localities in the Oosterschelde area in the province of Zeeland. They were found on empty shells and on boulders, which confirms their preference for hard substrates. The introduction

  2. WormQTL—public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, L.B.; Velde, van der K.J.; Arends, D.; Li, Y.; Beyer, A.; Elvin, M.; Fisher, J.; Hajnal, A.; Hengartner, M.; Poulin, G.; Rodriguez Sanchez, M.; Schmid, T.; Schrimpf, S.; Xue, F.; Jansen, R.C.; Kammenga, J.E.; Swertz, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the sy

  3. WormQTL-public archive and analysis web portal for natural variation data in Caenorhabditis spp

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Snoek, L. Basten; Van der Velde, K. Joeri; Arends, Danny; Li, Yang; Beyer, Antje; Elvin, Mark; Fisher, Jasmin; Hajnal, Alex; Hengartner, Michael O.; Poulin, Gino B.; Rodriguez, Miriam; Schmid, Tobias; Schrimpf, Sabine; Xue, Feng; Jansen, Ritsert C.; Kammenga, Jan E.; Swertz, Morris A.

    2013-01-01

    Here, we present WormQTL (http://www.wormqtl.org), an easily accessible database enabling search, comparative analysis and meta-analysis of all data on variation in Caenorhabditis spp. Over the past decade, Caenorhabditis elegans has become instrumental for molecular quantitative genetics and the sy

  4. Persistent corneal edema secondary to presumed dead adult filarial worm in the anterior chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basak Samar

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We present three cases of persistent corneal edema secondary to presumed dead adult filarial worms lying in the anterior chamber with their attachment to the endothelium. Two of them were initially diagnosed as descemet′s fold with corneal edema. Two patients underwent penetrating keratoplasty and in one case, surgical removal was partly possible with clearing of cornea.

  5. Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa l. lapponica eat polychaete worms wherever they winter in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duijns, Sjoerd; Hidayati, Nur Annis; Piersma, Theunis

    2013-01-01

    Capsule: Across the European wintering range Bar-tailed Godwits Limosa lapponica lapponica selected polychaete worms and especially Ragworms Hediste diversicolor, with differences between areas due to variations in prey availability. Aims: To determine the diet of Bar-tailed Godwits across their win

  6. Comparative growth of black spruce container seedlings grown in worm-casting-amended soilless media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menes, P.A.; Colombo, S.J.

    1992-01-01

    This study compared the morphology of containerized black spruce seedlings grown in fertilized and non-fertilized worm- casting-amended media to seedlings grown in a non-amended fertilized peat-vermiculite mix. The comparison was made to determine if various media amended with castings could produce seedlings equivalent to those produced using a standard nursery growing medium.

  7. CLIMATE AND HABITAT INFLUENCE PREVALENCE OF MENINGEAL WORM INFECTION IN NORTH DAKOTA, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maskey, James J; Sweitzer, Rick A; Goodwin, Brett J

    2015-07-01

    The meningeal worm (Parelaphostrongylus tenuis) is a parasite of white-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus) and is also a significant pathogen of moose (Alces alces) and other ungulates. Changes in climate or habitat may facilitate range expansion or increase the prevalence of meningeal worm infection in white-tailed deer, resulting in increased exposure to susceptible ungulates. We examined 3,730 white-tailed deer during 2002-05 to determine the prevalence and range of meningeal worm infection in North Dakota, US, and investigated whether these had changed since earlier surveys. We used multiple logistic regression to model potential effects of habitat and climate on prevalence in white-tailed deer. We also examined how habitat influences intermediate hosts by comparing gastropod abundance and microclimate among habitat types. Prevalence in deer was 14% statewide, and prevalence and geographic range had increased since the early 1990 s. Natural woodlands provided the best habitat for intermediate hosts, and increases in prevalence of infection in deer may be due to recent patterns in growing-season precipitation. This study has redefined the geographic distribution of meningeal worm infection and increased understanding of how climate and habitat influence the prevalence and distribution of this parasite.

  8. Maximum likelihood inference of the evolutionary history of a PPI network from the duplication history of its proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Si; Choi, Kwok Pui; Wu, Taoyang; Zhang, Louxin

    2013-01-01

    Evolutionary history of protein-protein interaction (PPI) networks provides valuable insight into molecular mechanisms of network growth. In this paper, we study how to infer the evolutionary history of a PPI network from its protein duplication relationship. We show that for a plausible evolutionary history of a PPI network, its relative quality, measured by the so-called loss number, is independent of the growth parameters of the network and can be computed efficiently. This finding leads us to propose two fast maximum likelihood algorithms to infer the evolutionary history of a PPI network given the duplication history of its proteins. Simulation studies demonstrated that our approach, which takes advantage of protein duplication information, outperforms NetArch, the first maximum likelihood algorithm for PPI network history reconstruction. Using the proposed method, we studied the topological change of the PPI networks of the yeast, fruitfly, and worm.

  9. Eye-based head gestures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mardanbegi, Diako; Witzner Hansen, Dan; Pederson, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    A novel method for video-based head gesture recognition using eye information by an eye tracker has been proposed. The method uses a combination of gaze and eye movement to infer head gestures. Compared to other gesture-based methods a major advantage of the method is that the user keeps the gaze...

  10. [Formation, development and changes of the eye acupunture region-dividing acupoint location program].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Che, Jian; Tian, Wei-zhu

    2005-04-01

    Eye acupuncture, a micro-needling therapy, has been widely applied in clinical treatment for over 30 years. Its theoretic system, especially, the eye acupuncture region-dividing point location program has been revised for 2 times, and the third program with reasonability of acupoint distribution, strictness of angle of acupoint region is easily accepted by clinical workers. In the paper, the theoretical basis of professor Peng Jingshan's inspection of the eye for recognition of diseases, diagnosis of diseases and eye acupuncture therapy were explained, and the information, development and change of the eye acupuncture region-dividing acupoint location program were analyzed and the history of development of eye acupuncture were introduced so as to direct clinical application of eye acupuncture.

  11. Prevalence and phenomenology of eye tics in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martino, Davide; Cavanna, Andrea E; Robertson, Mary M; Orth, Michael

    2012-10-01

    Eye tics seem to be common in Gilles de la Tourette syndrome (GTS). We analyzed the frequency and clinical characteristics of eye tics in 212 GTS patients. Of the 212 patients, 201 (94.8 %) reported eye tics in their life-time; 166 (78.3 %) reported eye movement tics (rolling eyes up/down, eyes looking sideways, staring), and 194 (91.5 %) eyelid/eyebrow movement tics (frowning, raising eyebrows, blinking or winking). Patients with eye movement tics were younger at age of GTS onset (7.1 ± 4 years) than those without (8.9 ± 6.8; p = 0.024). Tic severity positively correlated to lifetime history of eye and/or eyelid/eyebrow movement tics. Our data confirm that eye and eyelid/eyebrow movement tics are very common in GTS, and most patients have several types of eye tics over time. Eye tic phenomenology was similar in patients with or without co-morbidity. Eye tics are therefore likely to be a core feature of GTS and should be routinely evaluated in order to strengthen the clinician's confidence in diagnosing GTS.

  12. Relationship between pulmonary arterial pressure and pulmonary thromboembolism associated with dead worms in canine heartworm disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirano, Y; Kitagawa, H; Sasaki, Y

    1992-10-01

    To examine effects of thromboemboli due to dead worms on pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP), 20 to 50 dead heartworms were inserted into the pulmonary arteries of 4 heartworm uninfected dogs (uninfected group) and 11 dogs infected with heartworms (infected group). In the uninfected group, the mean PAP rose 1 week after worm insertion (10.9 to 166. mmHg), but it recovered by the 4th week. Clinical signs, hemodynamics and blood gas findings also deteriorated at the 1st week, but recovered at the 4th week. Angiographic and pathological findings indicated that blood flow recovered through the spaces between thromboemboli and vessel walls at the 4th week. The infected dogs were divided into three groups. In the infected-I group (5 dogs), the intimal lesions of the pulmonary arteries were slight, and clinical and laboratory findings showed changes similar to those of the uninfected group. In the infected-II group (4 dogs), the pulmonary arterial lesions were severe and the mean PAP was higher (25.7 mmHg) than in the uninfected group before worm insertion. An increase in PAP (34.1 mmHg) and worsening of clinical and laboratory findings were noticed till the 4th week. Thromboemboli adhered extensively to the vessel walls. Two dogs in the infected-III group died of severe dyspnea on the 9th and 10th day, and the mean PAP rose remarkably at the 1st week (from 19.4 to 28.2 mmHg). Severe pulmonary parenchymal lesions with edema or perforation were observed. From the above results, it was clarified that effects of dead worms on PAP and clinical signs depended on the severity of pulmonary arterial lesions before worm insertion.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. The further application of MTT-formazan colorimetry to studies on filarial worm viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Comley, J C; Townson, S; Rees, M J; Dobinson, A

    1989-09-01

    Experiments have confirmed that MTT-formazan colorimetry in its simplest form (incubation of intact worms with MTT and direct visualisation of any formazan formed) can be readily applied to several species of filariae including Onchocerca volvulus. Data is presented which will assist the development of quantitative MTT reduction viability tests for a selection of the smaller filarial species. Assays of pieces of Onchocerca gutturosa and O. volvulus females have led us to tentatively conclude that the tips of filariae, particularly the anterior ends, may well be metabolically the most active part of the worm. Selective sampling of these regions for Onchocerca might therefore be a useful indicator for the viability of the parasite. An example of how MTT-formazan colorimetry has been applied to yield additional data to support motility observations on the in vitro survival of male O. gutturosa is also given. The in vitro timecourse of worm death caused by 10 microM CGP 20376 on Acanthocheilonema viteae females has been examined by MTT reduction and compared with 6 other non-subjective parameters. The results suggests that the parameters examined could be divided into two groups according to the time taken for CGP 20376 to cause 50% inhibition (t50) of the parameter. Fast response parameters had t50's between 1 and 6 h (motility indices, 14CO2 evolution, adenine uptake and leucine uptake), they are more sensitive measures of viability and indicate possible worm damage which may or may not be reversible. Slow response parameters had t50's between 34 and 48.5 h (lactate output, MTT reduction and adenine leakage), and are probably linked with severe degenerative changes and are indicative of worm death.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  14. WormSizer: high-throughput analysis of nematode size and shape.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brad T Moore

    Full Text Available The fundamental phenotypes of growth rate, size and morphology are the result of complex interactions between genotype and environment. We developed a high-throughput software application, WormSizer, which computes size and shape of nematodes from brightfield images. Existing methods for estimating volume either coarsely model the nematode as a cylinder or assume the worm shape or opacity is invariant. Our estimate is more robust to changes in morphology or optical density as it only assumes radial symmetry. This open source software is written as a plugin for the well-known image-processing framework Fiji/ImageJ. It may therefore be extended easily. We evaluated the technical performance of this framework, and we used it to analyze growth and shape of several canonical Caenorhabditis elegans mutants in a developmental time series. We confirm quantitatively that a Dumpy (Dpy mutant is short and fat and that a Long (Lon mutant is long and thin. We show that daf-2 insulin-like receptor mutants are larger than wild-type upon hatching but grow slow, and WormSizer can distinguish dauer larvae from normal larvae. We also show that a Small (Sma mutant is actually smaller than wild-type at all stages of larval development. WormSizer works with Uncoordinated (Unc and Roller (Rol mutants as well, indicating that it can be used with mutants despite behavioral phenotypes. We used our complete data set to perform a power analysis, giving users a sense of how many images are needed to detect different effect sizes. Our analysis confirms and extends on existing phenotypic characterization of well-characterized mutants, demonstrating the utility and robustness of WormSizer.

  15. Tips for Buying Sports Eye Protectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  16. Checklist for Your Eye Doctor Appointment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Financial Assistance Information Vision Screening and Eye Exams Zika Virus and Vision Eye Problems Eye Problems Amblyopia ( ... Eye Health Report Reports and External Resources The Cost of Vision Problems The Future of Vision Vision ...

  17. CORELATION OF DRY EYE STATUS WITH SEVERITY OF DIABETIC RETINOPATHY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanushree

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To study the correlation of dry eye status with severity of diabetic retinopathy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: SETTINGS AND DESIGN: Prospective study. One hundred patients with diabetes mellitus attending the outpatient and in-patient department, Department of Ophthalmology, K. R. Hospital, Mysore, were included under the study, between the periods from January 2014 to July 2014 (6 months. Informed and written consent was taken from all the patients. After detailed history, all necessary ocular and systemic examination was done. All diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed for dry eye status and presence of diabetic retinopathy changes. Dry eye status was evaluated with Schirmer’s test, Tear film break up time and conjunctival impression cytology. Retinal status evaluation was done by direct ophthalmoscopy, indirect ophthalmoscopy and Slit lamp Biomicroscopy using 78D lens after pupillary dilation. Diabetic retinopathy was graded accordingly to ETDRS classification. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS: All data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Chi square test and contingency coefficient analysis was applied. RESULTS: A total of 100 diabetes mellitus patients were analyzed. 56 (56% patients had Diabetic retinopathy and 44(44% had normal fundus picture. Out of the 100 diabetes mellitus patients, 36 (36% patients had dry eye. Significant association (P – 0.001 between dry eye and diabetes mellitus was seen. CONCLUSION: Dry eye and diabetes mellitus have a common association. Dry eye is more frequent in diabetes mellitus patients with longer duration and in patients with Diabetic retinopathy.

  18. "Eye Science" in 2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian Ge

    2011-01-01

    @@ 2011 is an opportune time for Yanke Xuebao (Eye Science) to launch its bilingual edition as a platform for cooperation between Chinese and international vision researchers.The yearly research output of Chinese investigators in all fields of science, but particularly biomedicine, has been growing recently by leaps and bounds.As an example, the American Journal of Ophthalmology (AJO), one of the most prestigious clinical journals in our field,received more submissions from East Asian authors (Japan, China and Korea alone)than they did from the United States in 2010.Chinese investigators ranked third on the list, climbing rapidly, only after the US and Japan.Top vision research centers in China, such as Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, where Eye Science is published, now rank alongside Moorfields and Johns Hopkins as among the most prolific institutions in the world, measured by articles appearing annually in peer-reviewed SCI journals.

  19. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  20. Risk Factors and Clinical Outcomes of Bacterial and Fungal Scleritis at a Tertiary Eye Care Hospital

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jagadesh C.; Murthy, Somasheila I.; Reddy, Ashok K.; Garg, Prashant

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The aim was to analyze demographics, risk factors, pathogenic organisms, and clinical outcome in cases with microbiologically proven bacterial or fungal scleritis. Materials and Methods: Retrospective review of all the medical records of patients with microbiologically proven infectious scleritis examined from March 2005 to December 2009 in the cornea services of L. V. Prasad Eye Institute, Hyderabad, India was done. Results: Forty-two eyes of 42 patients were included in this study. The mean age at presentation was 48.52 ± 14.10 years (range: 12-70). Surgery was the major risk factor seen in 24 eyes (58.5%). Scleral infection was noted after vitreoretinal surgery (with scleral buckle) in 15 eyes, cataract surgery in 3 eyes, pterygium surgery in 3 eyes, corneoscleral tear repair and scleral buckle surgery in 3 eyes. Sixteen eyes (39%) were on systemic or topical steroids at the time of presentation. History of injury was noted in 9 eyes (22%) and diabetes mellitus in 7 patients (17%). Associated keratitis was noted in 9 eyes (21.4%). The scleral abscess was unifocal in 33 eyes (78.5%), multifocal in 6 eyes (14.2%) and diffuse in 3 eyes (7.14%). The final follow-up ranged from 24 days to 37 months. The final visual acuity was better in 18 eyes (42.8%), stable in 13 (30.9%), and deteriorated in 7 eyes (16.6%). Recurrence was seen in 4 eyes (9.5%). Conclusions: Surgery is a major risk factor for infectious scleritis in our series. Fungus was the most common organism isolated. Thorough debridement and intensive use of medications have improved the outcome. PMID:25949079

  1. Entangled histories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotler, Jordan; Wilczek, Frank

    2016-12-01

    We introduce quantum history states and their mathematical framework, thereby reinterpreting and extending the consistent histories approach to quantum theory. Through thought experiments, we demonstrate that our formalism allows us to analyze a quantum version of history in which we reconstruct the past by observations. In particular, we can pass from measurements to inferences about ‘what happened’ in a way that is sensible and free of paradox. Our framework allows for a richer understanding of the temporal structure of quantum theory, and we construct history states that embody peculiar, non-classical correlations in time.

  2. Comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agurto, C.; Nemeth, S.; Zamora, G.; Vahtel, M.; Soliz, P.; Barriga, S.

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, several research groups have developed automatic algorithms to detect diabetic retinopathy (DR) in individuals with diabetes (DM), using digital retinal images. Studies have indicated that diabetics have 1.5 times the annual risk of developing primary open angle glaucoma (POAG) as do people without DM. Moreover, DM patients have 1.8 times the risk for age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Although numerous investigators are developing automatic DR detection algorithms, there have been few successful efforts to create an automatic algorithm that can detect other ocular diseases, such as POAG and AMD. Consequently, our aim in the current study was to develop a comprehensive eye evaluation algorithm that not only detects DR in retinal images, but also automatically identifies glaucoma suspects and AMD by integrating other personal medical information with the retinal features. The proposed system is fully automatic and provides the likelihood of each of the three eye disease. The system was evaluated in two datasets of 104 and 88 diabetic cases. For each eye, we used two non-mydriatic digital color fundus photographs (macula and optic disc centered) and, when available, information about age, duration of diabetes, cataracts, hypertension, gender, and laboratory data. Our results show that the combination of multimodal features can increase the AUC by up to 5%, 7%, and 8% in the detection of AMD, DR, and glaucoma respectively. Marked improvement was achieved when laboratory results were combined with retinal image features.

  3. Musculature in sipunculan worms: ontogeny and ancestral states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulze, Anja; Rice, Mary E

    2009-01-01

    Molecular phylogenetics suggests that the Sipuncula fall into the Annelida, although they are morphologically very distinct and lack segmentation. To understand the evolutionary transformations from the annelid to the sipunculan body plan, it is important to reconstruct the ancestral states within the respective clades at all life history stages. Here we reconstruct the ancestral states for the head/introvert retractor muscles and the body wall musculature in the Sipuncula using Bayesian statistics. In addition, we describe the ontogenetic transformations of the two muscle systems in four sipunculan species with different developmental modes, using F-actin staining with fluorescent-labeled phalloidin in conjunction with confocal laser scanning microscopy. All four species, which have smooth body wall musculature and less than the full set of four introvert retractor muscles as adults, go through developmental stages with four retractor muscles that are eventually reduced to a lower number in the adult. The circular and sometimes the longitudinal body wall musculature are split into bands that later transform into a smooth sheath. Our ancestral state reconstructions suggest with nearly 100% probability that the ancestral sipunculan had four introvert retractor muscles, longitudinal body wall musculature in bands and circular body wall musculature arranged as a smooth sheath. Species with crawling larvae have more strongly developed body wall musculature than those with swimming larvae. To interpret our findings in the context of annelid evolution, a more solid phylogenetic framework is needed for the entire group and more data on ontogenetic transformations of annelid musculature are desirable.

  4. The mathematics of early diagenesis: From worms to waves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boudreau, Bernard P.

    2000-08-01

    The changes that sediments undergo after deposition are collectively known as diagenesis. Diagenesis is not widely recognized as a source for mathematical ideas; however, the myriad processes responsible for these changes lead to a wide variety of mathematical models. In fact, most of the classical models and methods of applied mathematics emerge naturally from quantification of diagenesis. For example, small-scale sediment mixing by bottom-dwelling animals can be described by the diffusion equation; the dissolution of biogenic opal in sediments leads to sets of coupled, nonlinear, ordinary differential equations; and modeling organisms that eat at depth in the sediment and defecate at the surface suggests the one-dimensional wave equation, while the effect of waves on pore waters is governed by the two- or three-dimensional wave equation. Diagenetic modeling, however, is not restricted to classical methods. Diagenetic problems of concern to modern mathematics exist in abundance; these include free-boundary problems that predict the depth of biological mixing or the penetration of O2 into sediments, algebraic-differential equations that result from the fast-reversible reactions that regulate pH in pore waters, inverse calculations of input functions (histories), and the determination of the optimum choice in a hierarchy of possible diagenetic models. This review highlights and explores these topics with the hope of encouraging further modeling and analysis of diagenetic phenomena.

  5. Gravity worms in the prospecting of epigenetic gold deposits: Example from the Northern Fennoscandian Shield

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahti, Ilkka; Nykänen, Vesa; Niiranen, Tero

    2010-05-01

    Mapping of mineralized geologic structures using geophysical potential field datasets has become an essential part of present-day exploration projects. Various geophysical processing and semiautomatic interpretation techniques have provided new tools into the field of conventional exploration process. Such is the multiscale edge detection or "worming-technique" introduced by Hornby et al., (1999). Worms are representations of the maxima of potential field horizontal gradients. They are calculated at different upward continuation levels providing an alternative view into potential field anomalies and geometry of the anomaly sources. In this work we use the worming-technique on the regional gravity dataset collected by the Geological Survey of Finland during the last four decades in the northern Finland. The dataset consists of more than 19 000 ground gravity observations covering an area of about 15000 km2 with an average site separation of 0.5 - 1 km. The study area covers the central part of the 2.4-2.0 Ga Central Lapland Greenstone belt (CLGB) which is one of the largest Proterozoic greenstone terrains in the world. The CLGB hosts numerous gold occurrences of varying type and size. The majority of the gold occurrences fall into the orogenic gold category but also Iron Oxide-Copper-Gold (IOCG) and paleoplacer types are known within the region (e.g. Eilu et al., 2007). Currently the largest known deposit in the area is the Suurikuusikko orogenic gold deposit with current resources exceeding 5 million ounces Au. The largest known gold resources in IOCG type deposit is in the Hannukainen deposit with ca. 200 000 ounces of gold. All the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits in the CLGB show intimate spatial correlation to shear zones of varying scale. Processed gravity worms display striking spatial correlation with the known orogenic gold and IOCG deposits. In some cases the gold hosting shear zones are outlined by gravity worms either completely (Sirkka shear zone

  6. A Robust Cross-Linking Strategy for Block Copolymer Worms Prepared via Polymerization-Induced Self-Assembly

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    A poly(glycerol monomethacrylate) (PGMA) chain transfer agent is chain-extended by reversible addition–fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) statistical copolymerization of 2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA) with glycidyl methacrylate (GlyMA) in concentrated aqueous solution via polymerization-induced self-assembly (PISA). A series of five free-standing worm gels is prepared by fixing the overall degree of polymerization of the core-forming block at 144 while varying its GlyMA content from 0 to 20 mol %. 1H NMR kinetics indicated that GlyMA is consumed much faster than HPMA, producing a GlyMA-rich sequence close to the PGMA stabilizer block. Temperature-dependent oscillatory rheological studies indicate that increasing the GlyMA content leads to progressively less thermoresponsive worm gels, with no degelation on cooling being observed for worms containing 20 mol % GlyMA. The epoxy groups in the GlyMA residues can be ring-opened using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) in order to prepare core cross-linked worms via hydrolysis-condensation with the siloxane groups and/or hydroxyl groups on the HPMA residues. Perhaps surprisingly, 1H NMR analysis indicates that the epoxy–amine reaction and the intermolecular cross-linking occur on similar time scales. Cross-linking leads to stiffer worm gels that do not undergo degelation upon cooling. Dynamic light scattering studies and TEM analyses conducted on linear worms exposed to either methanol (a good solvent for both blocks) or anionic surfactant result in immediate worm dissociation. In contrast, cross-linked worms remain intact under such conditions, provided that the worm cores comprise at least 10 mol % GlyMA. PMID:27134311

  7. Phylogeography of the Cape velvet worm (Onychophora: Peripatopsis capensis) reveals the impact of Pliocene/Pleistocene climatic oscillations on Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McDonald, D E; Daniels, S R

    2012-05-01

    Habitat specialists such as soft-bodied invertebrates characterized by low dispersal capability and sensitivity to dehydration can be employed to examine biome histories. In this study, the Cape velvet worm (Peripatopsis capensis) was used to examine the impacts of climatic oscillations on historical Afromontane forest in the Western Cape, South Africa. Divergence time estimates suggest that the P. capensis species complex diverged during the Pliocene epoch. This period was characterized by dramatic climatic and topographical change. Subsequently, forest expansion and contraction cycles led to diversification within P. capensis. Increased levels of genetic differentiation were observed along a west-to-south-easterly trajectory because the south-eastern parts of the Cape Fold Mountain chain harbour larger, more stable fragments of forest patches, have more pronounced habitat heterogeneity and have historically received higher levels of rainfall. These results suggest the presence of three putative species within P. capensis, which are geographically discreet and genetically distinct.

  8. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  9. Intellectual History

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    In the 5 Questions book series, this volume presents a range of leading scholars in Intellectual History and the History of Ideas through their answers to a brief questionnaire. Respondents include Michael Friedman, Jacques le Goff, Hans Ulrich Gumbrecht, Jonathan Israel, Phiip Pettit, John Pocock...

  10. Romerrigets historie

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Erik

    Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t.......Romerrigets historie fra Roms legendariske grundlæggelse i 753 f.v.t. til Heraklios' tronbestigelse i 610 e.v.t....

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women ... Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division of Extramural Activities Extramural Contacts NEI ...

  12. Healthy Eyes, Healthy Body

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the ophthalmic profession, and contributions made toward preventing blindness. The museum is the only institution in the United States whose sole purpose is to preserve the history of ophthalmology and ...

  13. Quantum Histories

    CERN Document Server

    Kent, A

    1998-01-01

    There are good motivations for considering some type of quantum histories formalism. Several possible formalisms are known, defined by different definitions of event and by different selection criteria for sets of histories. These formalisms have a natural interpretation, according to which nature somehow chooses one set of histories from among those allowed, and then randomly chooses to realise one history from that set; other interpretations are possible, but their scientific implications are essentially the same. The selection criteria proposed to date are reasonably natural, and certainly raise new questions. For example, the validity of ordering inferences which we normally take for granted --- such as that a particle in one region is necessarily in a larger region containing it --- depends on whether or not our history respects the criterion of ordered consistency, or merely consistency. However, the known selection criteria, including consistency and medium decoherence, are very weak. It is not possibl...

  14. Paroxysmal eye-head movements in Glut1 deficiency syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, Toni S; Pons, Roser; Engelstad, Kristin; Kane, Steven A; Goldberg, Michael E; De Vivo, Darryl C

    2017-04-25

    To describe a characteristic paroxysmal eye-head movement disorder that occurs in infants with Glut1 deficiency syndrome (Glut1 DS). We retrospectively reviewed the medical charts of 101 patients with Glut1 DS to obtain clinical data about episodic abnormal eye movements and analyzed video recordings of 18 eye movement episodes from 10 patients. A documented history of paroxysmal abnormal eye movements was found in 32/101 patients (32%), and a detailed description was available in 18 patients, presented here. Episodes started before age 6 months in 15/18 patients (83%), and preceded the onset of seizures in 10/16 patients (63%) who experienced both types of episodes. Eye movement episodes resolved, with or without treatment, by 6 years of age in 7/8 patients with documented long-term course. Episodes were brief (usually <5 minutes). Video analysis revealed that the eye movements were rapid, multidirectional, and often accompanied by a head movement in the same direction. Eye movements were separated by clear intervals of fixation, usually ranging from 200 to 800 ms. The movements were consistent with eye-head gaze saccades. These movements can be distinguished from opsoclonus by the presence of a clear intermovement fixation interval and the association of a same-direction head movement. Paroxysmal eye-head movements, for which we suggest the term aberrant gaze saccades, are an early symptom of Glut1 DS in infancy. Recognition of the episodes will facilitate prompt diagnosis of this treatable neurodevelopmental disorder. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. on behalf of the American Academy of Neurology.

  15. From the worm to the pill, the parasitic worm product ES-62 raises new horizons in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineda, M A; Eason, R J; Harnett, M M; Harnett, W

    2015-04-01

    Evidence from human studies suggests that parasitic worm infection can protect humans against rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and this idea is strengthened by data generated in model systems. Although therapeutic use of parasitic worms is currently being explored, there are obvious benefits in pursuing drug development through identification and isolation of the 'active ingredients'. ES-62 is a secreted glycoprotein of the filarial nematode Acanthocheilonema viteae, which we have found to protect against the development of collagen-induced arthritis (CIA) in mice. ES-62 activity is dependent on the inflammatory phenotype of the local environment and protection arises via inhibition of Th17- and γδT cell-dependent IL-17 production. At the same time, NK and NK T cell IL-17 production is left intact, and such selectivity suggests that ES-62 might make a particularly attractive therapeutic for RA. However, as a potentially immunogenic protein, ES-62 is unsuitable for development as a drug. Nevertheless, ES-62 activity is dependent on covalently attached phosphorylcholine (PC) residues and we have therefore produced a library of PC-based drug-like ES-62 small-molecule analogues (SMAs) as an alternative therapeutic strategy. Screening this library, we have found an ES-62 SMA that mirrors ES-62 in protecting against CIA and by the same IL-17-dependent mechanism of action.

  16. Through Einstein's Eyes

    CERN Document Server

    Searle, A C; Altin, P A; Bennet, F H; Hush, M R; Searle, Antony C.; Savage, Craig M.; Altin, Paul A.; Bennet, Francis H.; Hush, Michael R.

    2005-01-01

    We have developed a relativistically-accurate computer graphics code and have used it to produce photo-realistic images and videos of scenes where special relativistic effects dominate, either in astrophysical contexts or in imaginary worlds where the speed of light is only a few metres per second. The videos have been integrated into our under-graduate teaching programme for several years. Recently we took the next step, encouraging undergraduate students to use the code to explore relativity, develop their own videos, and eventually package them together into Through Einstein's Eyes, a multimedia CD.

  17. Eye trauma in boxing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corrales, Gustavo; Curreri, Anthony

    2009-10-01

    In boxing, along with a few other sports, trauma is inherent to the nature of the sport; therefore it is considered a high-risk sport for ocular injuries. The long-term morbidity of ocular injuries suffered by boxers is difficult to estimate due to the lack of structured long-term follow-up of these athletes. Complications of blunt ocular trauma may develop years after the athlete has retired from the ring and is no longer considered to be at risk for boxing-related injuries. This article describes the wide range of eye injuries a boxer can sustain, and their immediate and long-term clinical management.

  18. Effects of Boundary Condition and Helix Angle On Meshing Performance of TI Worm Gearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Yue-hai; DUAN Lu-qian; WANG Shu-ren; ZHANG Ce

    2006-01-01

    To exactly describe the contact state and contact area oftooth surface oftoroidalinvolute(TI) worm gearing.the authors introduced boundary condition into contact line analysis.With helix angle chosen as parameter,the criterion for the existence of meshing boundary line on the surface of TI worm gearing is derived.Results show that there can be four situations for meshing boundary line on the tooth surface of gear.namely,inexistence of meshing boundary line.a unique line,two lines,and two coincident lines.If the helix angle is equal to or slightly smaller than the bigger angle,which makes two meshing boundary lines superpose,a preferable meshing performance is obtained.Computer simulation proves the validity Of the above conclusion.

  19. Hooking some stem-group "worms": fossil lophotrochozoans in the Burgess Shale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butterfield, Nicholas J

    2006-12-01

    The fossil record plays a key role in reconstructing deep evolutionary relationships through its documentation of the early diverging stem groups leading to extant phyla. In the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale, two famously problematic worms, Odontogriphus and Wiwaxia, have recently been reinterpreted as stem-group molluscs based on their shared expression of a putative radula and putative ctenidia in Odontogriphus. More detailed analysis of these fossil structures, however, reveals pronounced anatomical and histological discrepancies with molluscan analogues, such that they are more reliably interpreted as primitive features of the superphylum Lophotrochozoa. In the absence of any obviously derived characters, Odontogriphus could be placed in the stem group of the Lophotrochozoa or on the stem of any of its constituent phyla, whereas the dorsal covering of chaetae in Wiwaxia identifies it as a stem-group polychaete. Despite their close relationship, these two jawed, segmented worms could conceivably represent the early stages of two separate phyla.

  20. Tongue worm (Pentastomida) infection in ball pythons (Python regius) – a case report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gałęcki, Remigiusz; Sokół, Rajmund; Dudek, Agnieszka

    Tongue worms (Pentastomida) are endoparasites causing pentastomiasis, an invasive disease representing a threat to exotic animals and humans. Animals acquire infection via the alimentary tract. In reptiles, the parasite is present in the lungs, resulting in symptoms from the respiratory system. Pentastomiasis may be asymptomatic, but nonspecific symptoms may occur at high parasite concentrations. Due to the harmful effects of many antiparasitic substances, tongue worm invasion in reptiles remains not fully treatable. Although pentasomiasis is rarely diagnosed in Poland, pentastomids were diagnosed in two ball pythons, who were patients of the “Poliklinika Weterynaryjna” veterinary clinic. They demonstrated problems with the respiratory system and a significant deterioration of health. Fenbendazole at a dose of 100 mg/kg b.w., repeated after 7 days was shown to be effective.