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Sample records for eye rotation induced

  1. Mixing processes in the vitreous chamber induced by eye rotations

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    Stocchino, Alessandro [Department of Civil, Environmental and Architectural Engineering, University of Genoa (Italy); Repetto, Rodolfo [Department of Engineering of Structures, Water and Soil, University of L' Aquila (Italy); Siggers, Jennifer H [Department of Bioengineering, Imperial College London, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom)], E-mail: jorma@diam.unige.it

    2010-01-21

    In this paper, we study a model of flow in the vitreous humour in the posterior chamber of the human eye, induced by saccadic eye rotations. We concentrate on the effect of the shape of the chamber upon the mixing properties of the induced flows. We make particle image velocimetry measurements of the fluid velocity in a transparent plastic (Perspex) model of the posterior chamber during sinusoidal torsional oscillations about a vertical axis. We use a Newtonian fluid to model the vitreous humour, which is most realistic when either the vitreous humour is liquefied or has been replaced by purely viscous tamponade fluids. The model of the posterior chamber is a sphere with an indentation, representing the effect of the lens. In spite of the purely periodic forcing, a steady streaming flow is generated, which plays a fundamental role in the mixing processes in the domain. The streaming flow differs markedly from that in a perfect sphere, and its topological characteristics change substantially as the frequency of oscillation varies. We discuss the flow characteristics in detail and show that, for physiological parameter values, the Peclet number (based on a suitable measure of the steady streaming velocity) is large, suggesting that advection strongly dominates over diffusion for mass transport phenomena. We also compute particle trajectories based on the streaming velocity and use these to investigate the stirring properties of the flow.

  2. Mixing processes in the vitreous chamber induced by eye rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocchino, Alessandro; Repetto, Rodolfo; Siggers, Jennifer H

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we study a model of flow in the vitreous humour in the posterior chamber of the human eye, induced by saccadic eye rotations. We concentrate on the effect of the shape of the chamber upon the mixing properties of the induced flows. We make particle image velocimetry measurements of the fluid velocity in a transparent plastic (Perspex) model of the posterior chamber during sinusoidal torsional oscillations about a vertical axis. We use a Newtonian fluid to model the vitreous humour, which is most realistic when either the vitreous humour is liquefied or has been replaced by purely viscous tamponade fluids. The model of the posterior chamber is a sphere with an indentation, representing the effect of the lens. In spite of the purely periodic forcing, a steady streaming flow is generated, which plays a fundamental role in the mixing processes in the domain. The streaming flow differs markedly from that in a perfect sphere, and its topological characteristics change substantially as the frequency of oscillation varies. We discuss the flow characteristics in detail and show that, for physiological parameter values, the Peclet number (based on a suitable measure of the steady streaming velocity) is large, suggesting that advection strongly dominates over diffusion for mass transport phenomena. We also compute particle trajectories based on the streaming velocity and use these to investigate the stirring properties of the flow.

  3. Eye rotation induced dynamics of a Newtonian fluid within the vitreous cavity: the effect of the chamber shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stocchino, Alessandro; Repetto, Rodolfo; Cafferata, Chiara

    2007-01-01

    The dynamics of the vitreous body induced by eye rotations is studied experimentally. In particular, we consider the case in which the vitreous cavity is filled by a Newtonian fluid, either because the vitreous is liquefied or because it has been replaced, after vitrectomy, by a viscous fluid. We employ a rigid Perspex container which models, in a magnified scale, the vitreous cavity of the human eye. The shape of the cavity closely resembles that of the real vitreous chamber; in particular, the anterior part of the container is concave in order to model the presence of the eye lens. The container is filled with glycerol and is mounted on the shaft of a computer-controlled motor which rotates according to a periodic time law. PIV (particle image velocimetry) measurements are taken on the equatorial plane orthogonal to the axis of rotation. The experimental measurements show that the velocity field is strongly influenced by the deformed geometry of the domain. In particular, the formation of a vortex in the vicinity of the lens, which migrates in time towards the core of the domain, is invariably observed. The vortex path is tracked in time by means of a vortex identification technique and it is found that it is significantly influenced by the Womersley number of the flow. Particle trajectories are computed from the PIV measurements. Particles initially located at different positions on the equatorial horizontal plane (perpendicular to the axis of rotation) tend to concentrate in narrow regions adjacent to the lens, thus suggesting the existence, in such regions, of a vertical fluid ejection. Such a strong flow three-dimensionality, which is essentially induced by the irregular shape of the domain, may play a significant role in the mixing processes taking place inside the eye globe. The tangential stresses acting on the rigid boundary of the domain are also computed from the experimental measurements showing that regions subject to particularly intense stresses

  4. Early visual evoked potentials are modulated by eye position in humans induced by whole body rotations

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    Petit Laurent

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To reach and grasp an object in space on the basis of its image cast on the retina requires different coordinate transformations that take into account gaze and limb positioning. Eye position in the orbit influences the image's conversion from retinotopic (eye-centered coordinates to an egocentric frame necessary for guiding action. Neuroimaging studies have revealed eye position-dependent activity in extrastriate visual, parietal and frontal areas that is along the visuo-motor pathway. At the earliest vision stage, the role of the primary visual area (V1 in this process remains unclear. We used an experimental design based on pattern-onset visual evoked potentials (VEP recordings to study the effect of eye position on V1 activity in humans. Results We showed that the amplitude of the initial C1 component of VEP, acknowledged to originate in V1, was modulated by the eye position. We also established that putative spontaneous small saccades related to eccentric fixation, as well as retinal disparity cannot explain the effects of changing C1 amplitude of VEP in the present study. Conclusions The present modulation of the early component of VEP suggests an eye position-dependent activity of the human primary visual area. Our findings also evidence that cortical processes combine information about the position of the stimulus on the retinae with information about the location of the eyes in their orbit as early as the stage of primary visual area.

  5. Vection is the main contributor to motion sickness induced by visual yaw rotation: Implications for conflict and eye movement theories.

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    Suzanne A E Nooij

    Full Text Available This study investigated the role of vection (i.e., a visually induced sense of self-motion, optokinetic nystagmus (OKN, and inadvertent head movements in visually induced motion sickness (VIMS, evoked by yaw rotation of the visual surround. These three elements have all been proposed as contributing factors in VIMS, as they can be linked to different motion sickness theories. However, a full understanding of the role of each factor is still lacking because independent manipulation has proven difficult in the past. We adopted an integrative approach to the problem by obtaining measures of potentially relevant parameters in four experimental conditions and subsequently combining them in a linear mixed regression model. To that end, participants were exposed to visual yaw rotation in four separate sessions. Using a full factorial design, the OKN was manipulated by a fixation target (present/absent, and vection strength by introducing a conflict in the motion direction of the central and peripheral field of view (present/absent. In all conditions, head movements were minimized as much as possible. Measured parameters included vection strength, vection variability, OKN slow phase velocity, OKN frequency, the number of inadvertent head movements, and inadvertent head tilt. Results show that VIMS increases with vection strength, but that this relation varies among participants (R2 = 0.48. Regression parameters for vection variability, head and eye movement parameters were not significant. These results may seem to be in line with the Sensory Conflict theory on motion sickness, but we argue that a more detailed definition of the exact nature of the conflict is required to fully appreciate the relationship between vection and VIMS.

  6. Investigation of the motion of a viscous fluid in the vitreous cavity induced by eye rotations and implications for drug delivery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonfiglio, Andrea; Repetto, Rodolfo; Stocchino, Alessandro; Siggers, Jennifer H

    2013-01-01

    Intravitreal drug delivery is a commonly used treatment for several retinal diseases. The objective of this research is to characterize and quantify the role of the vitreous humor motion, induced by saccadic movements, on drug transport processes in the vitreous chamber. A Perspex model of the human vitreous chamber was created, and filled with a purely viscous fluid, representing eyes with a liquefied vitreous humor or those containing viscous tamponade fluids. Periodic movements were applied to the model and the resulting three-dimensional (3D) flow fields were measured. Drug delivery within the vitreous chamber was investigated by calculating particle trajectories using integration over time of the experimental velocity fields. The motion of the vitreous humor generated by saccadic eye movements is intrinsically 3D. Advective mass transport largely overcomes molecular diffusive transport and is significantly anisotropic, leading to a much faster drug dispersion than in the case of stationary vitreous humor. Disregarding the effects of vitreous humor motion due to eye movements when predicting the efficiency of drug delivery treatments leads to significant underestimation of the drug transport coefficients, and this, in turn, will lead to significantly erroneous predictions of the concentration levels on the retina. (paper)

  7. Rotation of lathe-cut hydrogel lenses on the eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, M G; Harris, K L; Ruddell, D

    1976-01-01

    The rotation lathe-cut HydroCurveTM gel contact lens was measured on six eyes to evaluate the parameters that influence lens rotation and to determine if this lens could be used to correct astigmatism. Of the 72 observations made, 73.6% showed some lens rotation, and 33.4% of the sample rotated more than 5 degrees per 10 blinks. Of the observations in which rotation was noted, 88.7% were encyclorotation. These results are similar to those found for spin-cast hydrogel lenses. None of the lens parameters evaluated seemed to be related to lens rotation, whereas the eye parameters studied were. Lenses were more likely to rotate on eyes with smaller corneal diameters, smaller palpebral apertures, and corneal curvatures steeper than 4 3.00 DK (X2, N =72, p less than 0.05). Our findings indicate that some method of lens stabilization will be needed before lathe-cut hydrogel lenses can be used to effectively correct astigmatism.

  8. Rotational symmetric HMD with eye-tracking capability

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    Liu, Fangfang; Cheng, Dewen; Wang, Qiwei; Wang, Yongtian

    2016-10-01

    As an important auxiliary function of head-mounted displays (HMDs), eye tracking has an important role in the field of intelligent human-machine interaction. In this paper, an eye-tracking HMD system (ET-HMD) is designed based on the rotational symmetric system. The tracking principle in this paper is based on pupil-corneal reflection. The ET-HMD system comprises three optical paths for virtual display, infrared illumination, and eye tracking. The display optics is shared by three optical paths and consists of four spherical lenses. For the eye-tracking path, an extra imaging lens is added to match the image sensor and achieve eye tracking. The display optics provides users a 40° diagonal FOV with a ״ 0.61 OLED, the 19 mm eye clearance, and 10 mm exit pupil diameter. The eye-tracking path can capture 15 mm × 15 mm of the users' eyes. The average MTF is above 0.1 at 26 lp/mm for the display path, and exceeds 0.2 at 46 lp/mm for the eye-tracking path. Eye illumination is simulated using LightTools with an eye model and an 850 nm near-infrared LED (NIR-LED). The results of the simulation show that the illumination of the NIR-LED can cover the area of the eye model with the display optics that is sufficient for eye tracking. The integrated optical system HMDs with eye-tracking feature can help improve the HMD experience of users.

  9. Eye changes induced by radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Shabestari, Lorraine; Angus, Walter; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    This report presents some features of the radium induced eye syndrome observed in beagles, including the prominence of intraocular pigmentary lesions and compares these with the results of rodent studies (Onychomys leucogaster) featuring a heavily pigmented uvea, and with the radiation syndrome reported in humans. (author)

  10. Quantification of vestibular-induced eye movements in zebrafish larvae

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    Mo Weike

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Vestibular reflexes coordinate movements or sensory input with changes in body or head position. Vestibular-evoked responses that involve the extraocular muscles include the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR, a compensatory eye movement to stabilize retinal images. Although an angular VOR attributable to semicircular canal stimulation was reported to be absent in free-swimming zebrafish larvae, recent studies reveal that vestibular-induced eye movements can be evoked in zebrafish larvae by both static tilts and dynamic rotations that tilt the head with respect to gravity. Results We have determined herein the basis of sensitivity of the larval eye movements with respect to vestibular stimulus, developmental stage, and sensory receptors of the inner ear. For our experiments, video recordings of larvae rotated sinusoidally at 0.25 Hz were analyzed to quantitate eye movements under infrared illumination. We observed a robust response that appeared as early as 72 hours post fertilization (hpf, which increased in amplitude over time. Unlike rotation about an earth horizontal axis, rotation about an earth vertical axis at 0.25 Hz did not evoke eye movements. Moreover, vestibular-induced responses were absent in mutant cdh23 larvae and larvae lacking anterior otoliths. Conclusions Our results provide evidence for a functional vestibulo-oculomotor circuit in 72 hpf zebrafish larvae that relies upon sensory input from anterior/utricular otolith organs.

  11. Eye changes induced by radium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.N.; Lloyd, R.D.; Shabestari, L.; Angus, W.; Muggenburg, B.A.

    1989-01-01

    Radium-induced intraocular neoplasia has not been reported in people, nor were the intraocular pigmentary changes observed in the beagles described in the dial painters or the radium 226 iatrogenic cases. However, Spiess (1969) has observed a 25% incidence of multiple pigmented naevi in the iris of the radium 224 German cases and Stefani, Spiess and Mays (1986) have noted an abnormal incidence of cataracts in this same group of patients. The reasons for the absence of the much less severe radium-induced eye changes in man as compared to the dog has not been determined. Reference is also made to the authors radium 226 rodent studies with mouse strain onychomys leucogaster. (author)

  12. Eye position signals modify vestibulo- and cervico-ocular fast phases during passive yaw rotations in humans.

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    Anastasopoulos, D; Mandellos, D; Kostadima, V; Pettorossi, V E

    2002-08-01

    We studied the amplitude, latency, and probability of occurrence of fast phases (FP) in darkness to unpredictable vestibular and/or cervical yaw stimulation in normal human subjects. The rotational stimuli were smoothed trapezoidal motion transients of 14 degrees amplitude and 1.25 s duration. Eye position before stimulus application (initial eye position, IEP) was introduced as a variable by asking the subjects to fixate a spot appearing either straight ahead or at 7 degrees eccentric positions. The recordings demonstrated that the generation of FP during vestibular stimulation was facilitated when the whole-body rotation was directed opposite the eccentric IEP. Conversely, FP were attenuated if the whole-body rotation was directed toward the eccentric IEP; i.e., the FP attenuated if they were made to further eccentric positions. Cervical stimulation-induced FP were small and variable in direction when IEP was directed straight ahead before stimulus onset. Eccentric IEPs resulted in large FP, the direction of which was essentially independent of the neck-proprioceptive stimulus. They tended to move the eye toward the primary position, both when the trunk motion under the stationary head was directed toward or away from the IEP. FP dependence on IEP was evident also during head-on-trunk rotations. No consistent interaction between vestibularly and cervically induced FP was found. We conclude that extraretinal eye position signals are able to modify vestibularly evoked reflexive FP in darkness, aiming at minimizing excursions of the eyes away from the primary position. However, neck-induced FP do not relate to specific tasks of stabilization or visual search. By keeping the eyes near the primary position, FP may permit flexibility of orienting responses to incoming stimuli. This recentering bias for both vestibularly and cervically generated FP may represent a visuomotor optimizing strategy.

  13. Vergence-mediated changes in the axis of eye rotation during the human vestibulo-ocular reflex can occur independent of eye position.

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    Migliaccio, Americo A; Cremer, Phillip D; Aw, Swee T; Halmagyi, G Michael; Curthoys, Ian S; Minor, Lloyd B; Todd, Michael J

    2003-07-01

    The aim of this study was to determine whether vergence-mediated changes in the axis of eye rotation in the human vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) would obey Listing's Law (normally associated with saccadic eye movements) independent of the initial eye position. We devised a paradigm for disassociating the saccadic velocity axis from eye position by presenting near and far targets that were centered with respect to one eye. We measured binocular 3-dimensional eye movements using search coils in ten normal subjects and 3-dimensional linear head acceleration using Optotrak in seven normal subjects. The stimuli consisted of passive, unpredictable, pitch head rotations with peak acceleration of approximately 2000 degrees /s(2 )and amplitude of approximately 20 degrees. During the pitch head rotation, each subject fixated straight ahead with one eye, whereas the other eye was adducted 4 degrees during far viewing (94 cm) and 25 degrees during near viewing (15 cm). Our data showed expected compensatory pitch rotations in both eyes, and a vergence-mediated horizontal rotation only in the adducting eye. In addition, during near viewing we observed torsional eye rotations not only in the adducting eye but also in the eye looking straight ahead. In the straight-ahead eye, the change in torsional eye velocity between near and far viewing, which began approximately 40 ms after the start of head rotation, was 10+/-6 degrees /s (mean +/- SD). This change in torsional eye velocity resulted in a 2.4+/-1.5 degrees axis tilt toward Listing's plane in that eye. In the adducting eye, the change in torsional eye velocity between near and far viewing was 16+/-6 degrees /s (mean +/- SD) and resulted in a 4.1+/-1.4 degrees axis tilt. The torsional eye velocities were conjugate and both eyes partially obeyed Listing's Law. The axis of eye rotation tilted in the direction of the line of sight by approximately one-third of the angle between the line of sight and a line orthogonal to Listing

  14. Eye retraction and rotation during Corvis ST 'air puff' intraocular pressure measurement and its quantitative analysis.

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    Boszczyk, Agnieszka; Kasprzak, Henryk; Jóźwik, Agnieszka

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study was to analyse the indentation and deformation of the corneal surface, as well as eye retraction, which occur during air puff intraocular pressure (IOP) measurement. A group of 10 subjects was examined using a non-contact Corvis ST tonometer, which records image sequences of corneas deformed by an air puff. Obtained images were processed numerically in order to extract information about corneal deformation, indentation and eyeball retraction. The time dependency of the apex deformation/eye retraction ratio and the curve of dependency between apex indentation and eye retraction take characteristic shapes for individual subjects. It was noticed that the eye globes tend to rotate towards the nose in response to the air blast during measurement. This means that the eye globe not only displaces but also rotates during retraction. Some new parameters describing the shape of this curve are introduced. Our data show that intraocular pressure and amplitude of corneal indentation are inversely related (r 8  = -0.83, P = 0.0029), but the correlation between intraocular pressure and amplitude of eye retraction is low and not significant (r 8  = -0.24, P = 0.51). The curves describing corneal behaviour during air puff tonometry were determined and show that the eye globe rotates towards the nose during measurement. In addition, eye retraction amplitudes may be related to elastic or viscoelastic properties of deeper structures in the eye or behind the eye and this should be further investigated. Many of the proposed new parameters present comparable or even higher repeatability than the standard parameters provided by the Corvis ST. © 2017 The Authors Ophthalmic & Physiological Optics © 2017 The College of Optometrists.

  15. Uncovering the cognitive processes underlying mental rotation: an eye-movement study.

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    Xue, Jiguo; Li, Chunyong; Quan, Cheng; Lu, Yiming; Yue, Jingwei; Zhang, Chenggang

    2017-08-30

    Mental rotation is an important paradigm for spatial ability. Mental-rotation tasks are assumed to involve five or three sequential cognitive-processing states, though this has not been demonstrated experimentally. Here, we investigated how processing states alternate during mental-rotation tasks. Inference was carried out using an advanced statistical modelling and data-driven approach - a discriminative hidden Markov model (dHMM) trained using eye-movement data obtained from an experiment consisting of two different strategies: (I) mentally rotate the right-side figure to be aligned with the left-side figure and (II) mentally rotate the left-side figure to be aligned with the right-side figure. Eye movements were found to contain the necessary information for determining the processing strategy, and the dHMM that best fit our data segmented the mental-rotation process into three hidden states, which we termed encoding and searching, comparison, and searching on one-side pair. Additionally, we applied three classification methods, logistic regression, support vector model and dHMM, of which dHMM predicted the strategies with the highest accuracy (76.8%). Our study did confirm that there are differences in processing states between these two of mental-rotation strategies, and were consistent with the previous suggestion that mental rotation is discrete process that is accomplished in a piecemeal fashion.

  16. Surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking-based tissue saving treatment with the Technolas 217z excimer laser.

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    Prakash, Gaurav; Agarwal, Amar; Kumar, Dhivya Ashok; Jacob, Soosan; Agarwal, Athiya; Maity, Amrita

    2011-03-01

    To evaluate the visual and refractive outcomes and expected benefits of Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking. This prospective, interventional case series comprised 122 eyes (70 patients). Pre- and postoperative assessment included uncorrected distance visual acuity (UDVA), corrected distance visual acuity (CDVA), refraction, and higher order aberrations. All patients underwent Tissue Saving Treatment algorithm-guided surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking using the Technolas 217z 100-Hz excimer platform (Technolas Perfect Vision GmbH). Follow-up was performed up to 6 months postoperatively. Theoretical benefit analysis was performed to evaluate the algorithm's outcomes compared to others. Preoperative spherocylindrical power was sphere -3.62 ± 1.60 diopters (D) (range: 0 to -6.75 D), cylinder -1.15 ± 1.00 D (range: 0 to -3.50 D), and spherical equivalent -4.19 ± 1.60 D (range: -7.75 to -2.00 D). At 6 months, 91% (111/122) of eyes were within ± 0.50 D of attempted correction. Postoperative UDVA was comparable to preoperative CDVA at 1 month (P=.47) and progressively improved at 6 months (P=.004). Two eyes lost one line of CDVA at 6 months. Theoretical benefit analysis revealed that of 101 eyes with astigmatism, 29 would have had cyclotorsion-induced astigmatism of ≥ 10% if iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking were not used. Furthermore, the mean percentage decrease in maximum depth of ablation by using the Tissue Saving Treatment was 11.8 ± 2.9% over Aspheric, 17.8 ± 6.2% over Personalized, and 18.2 ± 2.8% over Planoscan algorithms. Tissue saving surface ablation with iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking was safe and effective in this series of eyes. Copyright 2011, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Eye movements in ephedrone-induced parkinsonism.

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    Cecilia Bonnet

    Full Text Available Patients with ephedrone parkinsonism (EP show a complex, rapidly progressive, irreversible, and levodopa non-responsive parkinsonian and dystonic syndrome due to manganese intoxication. Eye movements may help to differentiate parkinsonian syndromes providing insights into which brain networks are affected in the underlying disease, but they have never been systematically studied in EP. Horizontal and vertical eye movements were recorded in 28 EP and compared to 21 Parkinson's disease (PD patients, and 27 age- and gender-matched healthy subjects using standardized oculomotor tasks with infrared videooculography. EP patients showed slow and hypometric horizontal saccades, an increased occurrence of square wave jerks, long latencies of vertical antisaccades, a high error rate in the horizontal antisaccade task, and made more errors than controls when pro- and antisaccades were mixed. Based on oculomotor performance, a direct differentiation between EP and PD was possible only by the velocity of horizontal saccades. All remaining metrics were similar between both patient groups. EP patients present extensive oculomotor disturbances probably due to manganese-induced damage to the basal ganglia, reflecting their role in oculomotor system.

  18. Three-dimensional organization of vestibular related eye movements to rotational motion in pigeons

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    Dickman, J. D.; Beyer, M.; Hess, B. J.

    2000-01-01

    During rotational motions, compensatory eye movement adjustments must continually occur in order to maintain objects of visual interest as stable images on the retina. In the present study, the three-dimensional organization of the vestibulo-ocular reflex in pigeons was quantitatively examined. Rotations about different head axes produced horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye movements, whose component magnitude was dependent upon the cosine of the stimulus axis relative to the animal's visual axis. Thus, the three-dimensional organization of the VOR in pigeons appears to be compensatory for any direction of head rotation. Frequency responses of the horizontal, vertical, and torsional slow phase components exhibited high pass filter properties with dominant time constants of approximately 3 s.

  19. Visually induced eye movements in Wallenberg's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanayama, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ohki, M.; Kimura, Y.; Koike, Y.; Kato, I.

    1991-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Wallenberg's syndrome were investigated concerning visually induced eye movements. All results were analysed quantitatively using a computer. In 16 out of 18 patients, OKN slow-phase velocities were impaired, in the remaining 2 patients they were normal. All patients showed reduced visual suppression of caloric nystagmus during the slow-phase of nystagmus toward the lesion side, except 3 patients who showed normal visual suppression in both directions. CT scan failed to detect either the brainstem or the cerebellar lesions in any cases, but MRI performed on the most recent cases demonstrated the infractions clearly. These findings suggest that infractions are localized in the medulla in the patients of group A, but extend to the cerebellum as well as to the medulla in patients of group B. (au)

  20. Axis of eye rotation changes with head-pitch orientation during head impulses about earth-vertical.

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    Migliaccio, Americo A; Schubert, Michael C; Clendaniel, Richard A; Carey, John P; Della Santina, Charles C; Minor, Lloyd B; Zee, David S

    2006-06-01

    The goal of this study was to assess how the axis of head rotation, Listing's law, and eye position influence the axis of eye rotation during brief, rapid head rotations. We specifically asked how the axis of eye rotation during the initial angular vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) changed when the pitch orientation of the head relative to Earth-vertical was varied, but the initial position of the eye in the orbit and the orientation of Listing's plane with respect to the head were fixed. We measured three-dimensional eye and head rotation axes in eight normal humans using the search coil technique during head-and-trunk (whole-body) and head-on-trunk (head-only) "impulses" about an Earth-vertical axis. The head was initially oriented at one of five pitch angles (30 degrees nose down, 15 degrees nose down, 0 degrees, 15 degrees nose up, 30 degrees nose up). The fixation target was always aligned with the nasooccipital axis. Whole-body impulses were passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 80 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 1000 degrees /s2. Head-only impulses were also passive, unpredictable, manual, rotations with peak-amplitude of approximately 20 degrees , peak-velocity of approximately 150 degrees /s, and peak-acceleration of approximately 3000 degrees /s2. During whole-body impulses, the axis of eye rotation tilted in the same direction, and by an amount proportional (0.51 +/- 0.09), to the starting pitch head orientation (P rotation could be predicted from vectorial summation of the gains (eye velocity/head velocity) obtained for rotations about the pure yaw and roll head axes. Thus, even when the orientation of Listing's plane and eye position in the orbit are fixed, the axis of eye rotation during the VOR reflects a compromise between the requirements of Listing's law and a perfectly compensatory VOR.

  1. [New determinations of the eye rotation center and criteria for the formation of its membrane in terms of the floating eye model and experimental support of the latter].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galoian, V R

    1988-01-01

    It is well known that the eye is a phylogenetically stabilized body with rotation properties. The eye has an elastic cover and is filled with uniform fluid. According to the theory of covers and other concepts on the configuration of turning fluid mass we concluded that the eyeball has an elliptic configuration. Classification of the eyeball is here presented with simultaneous studies of the principles of the eye situation. The parallelism between the state and different types of heterophory and orthophory was studied. To determine normal configuration it is necessary to have in mind some principles of achieving advisable correct situation of the eye in orbit. We determined the centre of the eye rotation and showed that it is impossible to situate it out of the geometrical centre of the eyeball. It was pointed out that for adequate perception the rotation centre must be situated on the visual axis. Using the well known theory of floating we experimentally determined that the centre of the eye rotation lies on the level of the floating eye, just on the point of cross of the visual line with the optical axis. It was shown experimentally on the basis of recording the eye movements in the process of eyelid closing that weakening of the eye movements is of gravitational pattern and proceeds under the action of stability forces, which directly indicates the floating state of the eye. For the first time using the model of the floating eye it was possible to show the formation of extraeye vacuum by straining the back wall. This effect can be obtained without any difficulty, if the face is turned down. The role of negative pressure in the formation of the eye ametropy, as well as new conclusions and prognostications about this new model are discussed.

  2. Optical illusions induced by rotating medium

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    Zang, XiaoFei; Huang, PengCheng; Zhu, YiMing

    2018-03-01

    Different from the traditional single-function electromagnetic wave rotators (rotate the electromagnetic wavefronts), we propose that rotating medium can be extended to optical illusions such as breaking the diffraction limit and overlapping illusion. Furthermore, the homogeneous but anisotropic rotating medium is simplified by homogeneous and isotropic positive-index materials according to the effective medium theory, which is helpful for future device fabrication. Finite element simulations for the two-dimensional case are performed to demonstrate these properties.

  3. Evaluation of the True Wavefront Aberrations in Eyes Implanted With a Rotationally Asymmetric Multifocal Intraocular Lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akondi, Vyas; Pérez-Merino, Pablo; Martinez-Enriquez, Eduardo; Dorronsoro, Carlos; Alejandre, Nicolás; Jiménez-Alfaro, Ignacio; Marcos, Susana

    2017-04-01

    Standard evaluation of aberrations from wavefront slope measurements in patients implanted with a rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL), the Lentis Mplus (Oculentis GmbH, Berlin, Germany), results in large magnitude primary vertical coma, which is attributed to the intrinsic IOL design. The new proposed method analyzes aberrometry data, allowing disentangling the IOL power pupillary distribution from the true higher order aberrations of the eye. The new method of wavefront reconstruction uses retinal spots obtained at both the near and far foci. The method was tested using ray tracing optical simulations in a computer eye model virtually implanted with the Lentis Mplus IOL, with a generic cornea or with anterior segment geometry obtained from custom quantitative spectral-domain optical coherence tomography in a real patient. The method was applied to laser ray tracing aberrometry data at near and far fixation obtained in a patient implanted with the Lentis Mplus IOL. Higher order aberrations evaluated from simulated and real retinal spot diagrams following the new reconstruction approach matched the nominal aberrations (approximately 98%). Previously reported primary vertical coma in patients implanted with this IOL lost significance with the application of the proposed reconstruction. Custom analysis of ray tracing-based retinal spot diagrams allowed decoupling of the true higher order aberrations of the patient's eye from the power pupillary distribution of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL, therefore providing the appropriate phase map to accurately evaluate through-focus optical quality. [J Refract Surg. 2017;33(4):257-265.]. Copyright 2017, SLACK Incorporated.

  4. Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations.

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    Thurtell, M J; Black, R A; Halmagyi, G M; Curthoys, I S; Aw, S T

    1999-05-01

    Vertical eye position-dependence of the human vestibuloocular reflex during passive and active yaw head rotations. The effect of vertical eye-in-head position on the compensatory eye rotation response to passive and active high acceleration yaw head rotations was examined in eight normal human subjects. The stimuli consisted of brief, low amplitude (15-25 degrees ), high acceleration (4,000-6,000 degrees /s2) yaw head rotations with respect to the trunk (peak velocity was 150-350 degrees /s). Eye and head rotations were recorded in three-dimensional space using the magnetic search coil technique. The input-output kinematics of the three-dimensional vestibuloocular reflex (VOR) were assessed by finding the difference between the inverted eye velocity vector and the head velocity vector (both referenced to a head-fixed coordinate system) as a time series. During passive head impulses, the head and eye velocity axes aligned well with each other for the first 47 ms after the onset of the stimulus, regardless of vertical eye-in-head position. After the initial 47-ms period, the degree of alignment of the eye and head velocity axes was modulated by vertical eye-in-head position. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye and head velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. However, when fixation was on targets at 0 and 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward relative to the head velocity axis. During active head impulses, the axis tilt became apparent within 5 ms of the onset of the stimulus. When fixation was on a target at 0 degrees, the velocity axes remained well aligned with each other. When fixation was on a target 20 degrees up, the eye velocity axis tilted backward, when fixation was on a target 20 degrees down, the eye velocity axis tilted forward. The findings show that the VOR compensates very well for head motion in the early part of the response to unpredictable high acceleration stimuli-the eye position- dependence of the

  5. Wave induced supersonic rotation in mirrors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetterman, Abraham

    2010-11-01

    Wave-particle interactions in ExB supersonically rotating plasmas feature an unusual effect: particles are diffused by waves in both potential energy and kinetic energy [1]. This wave-particle interaction generalizes the alpha channeling effect, in which radio frequency waves are used to remove alpha particles collisionlessly at low energy. In rotating plasmas, the alpha particles may be removed at low energy through the loss cone, and the energy lost may be transferred to the radial electric field. This eliminates the need for electrodes in the mirror throat, which have presented serious technical issues in past rotating plasma devices. A particularly simple way to achieve this effect is to use a high azimuthal mode number perturbation on the magnetic field [2]. In the rotating frame, this perturbation is seen as a wave near the alpha particle cyclotron harmonic, and can break the azimuthal symmetry and magnetic moment conservation without changing the particle's total energy. The particle may exit if it reduces its kinetic energy and becomes more trapped if it gains kinetic energy, leading to a steady state current that maintains the field. Simulations of single particles in rotating mirrors show that a stationary wave can extract enough energy from alpha particles for a reactor to be self-sustaining. Rotation can also be sustained by waves in plasmas without a kinetic energy source. This type of wave has been considered for plasma centrifuges used for isotope separation [3]. [4pt] [1] A. J. Fetterman and N. J. Fisch, Phys Rev Lett 101, 205003 (2008). [0pt] [2] A. J. Fetterman and N. J. Fisch, Phys. Plasmas 17, 042112 (2010). [0pt] [3] A. J. Fetterman and N. J. Fisch, Plasma Sources Sci. Tech. 18, 045003 (2009).

  6. Comparison of corneal measurements in keratoconic eyes using rotating Scheimpflug camera and scanning-slit topography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Naderan

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To compare the anterior segment measurements obtained by rotating Scheimpflug camera (Pentacam and Scanning-slit topography (Orbscan IIz in keratoconic eyes. METHODS: A total of 121 patients, 71 males (58.7% and 50 females (41.3% (214 eyes with the diagnosis of keratoconus (KC were enrolled in this study. Following diagnosis of KC by slit-lamp biomicroscopic examination, central corneal thickness (CCT, thinnest corneal thickness (TCT, anterior chamber depth (ACD, and pupil diameter (PD were measured by a single examiner using successive instrumentation by Pentacam and Orbscan. RESULTS: There was no significant difference between the two instruments for the measurement of CCT and TCT. In contrast, scanning-slit topography measured ACD (3.46±0.40 mm vs. 3.38±0.33 mm, P=0.019 and PD (4.97±1.26 mm vs 4.08±1.19 mm, P<0.001 significantly larger than rotating Scheimpflug camera. The two devices made similar measurements for CCT (95% CI: -2.94 to 5.06, P=0.602. However, the mean difference for TCT was -6.28 (95% CI: -10.51 to -2.06, P=0.004 showing a thinner measurement by Orbscan than by Pentacam. In terms of the ACD, the mean difference was 0.08 mm (95% CI: 0.04 to 0.12, P<0.001 with Orbscan giving a slightly larger value than Pentacam. Similarly, Orbscan measurement for PD was longer than Pentacam (95% CI: 0.68 to 1.08, P<0.001. CONCLUSION: A good agreement was found between Pentacam and Orbscan concerning CCT measurement while comparing scanning-slit topography and rotating Scheimpflug camera there was an underestimation for TCT and overestimation for ACD and PD.

  7. Ethanol induces rotational behavior in 6-hydroxydopamine lesioned mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silverman, P.B.

    1987-03-09

    Mice with unilateal striatal lesions created by 6-hydroxydopamine (6HDA) injection were screened for rotational (circling) behavior in response to injection of amphetamine and apomorphine. Those that rotated ipsilaterally in response to amphetamine and contralaterally in response to apomorphine were subsequently challenged with 1 to 3 g/kg (i.p.) ethanol. Surprisingly, ethanol induced dose related contralateral (apomorphine-like) rotation which, despite gross intoxication, was quite marked in most animals. No significant correlation was found between the number of turns made following ethanol and made after apomorphine or amphetamine. 14 references, 2 figures, 1 table.

  8. An Interactive Method for Teaching Anatomy of the Human Eye for Medical Students in Ophthalmology Clinical Rotations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kivell, Tracy L.; Doyle, Sara K.; Madden, Richard H.; Mitchell, Terry L.; Sims, Ershela L.

    2009-01-01

    Much research has shown the benefits of additional anatomical learning and dissection beyond the first year of medical school human gross anatomy, all the way through postgraduate medical training. We have developed an interactive method for teaching eye and orbit anatomy to medical students in their ophthalmology rotation at Duke University…

  9. Some aspects of an induced electric dipole moment in rotating and non-rotating frames.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Abinael B; Bakke, Knut

    2017-06-01

    Quantum effects on a neutral particle (atom or molecule) with an induced electric dipole moment are investigated when it is subject to the Kratzer potential and a scalar potential proportional to the radial distance. In addition, this neutral is placed in a region with electric and magnetic fields. This system is analysed in both non-rotating and rotating reference frames. Then, it is shown that bound state solutions to the Schrödinger equation can be achieved and, in the search for polynomial solutions to the radial wave function, a restriction on the values of the cyclotron frequency is analysed in both reference frames.

  10. Predictive factor analysis for successful performance of iris recognition-assisted dynamic rotational eye tracking during laser in situ keratomileusis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prakash, Gaurav; Ashok Kumar, Dhivya; Agarwal, Amar; Jacob, Soosan; Sarvanan, Yoga; Agarwal, Athiya

    2010-02-01

    To analyze the predictive factors associated with success of iris recognition and dynamic rotational eye tracking on a laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) platform with active assessment and correction of intraoperative cyclotorsion. Interventional case series. Two hundred seventy-five eyes of 142 consecutive candidates underwent LASIK with attempted iris recognition and dynamic rotational tracking on the Technolas 217z100 platform (Techolas Perfect Vision, St Louis, Missouri, USA) at a tertiary care ophthalmic hospital. The main outcome measures were age, gender, flap creation method (femtosecond, microkeratome, epi-LASIK), success of static rotational tracking, ablation algorithm, pulses, and depth; preablation and intraablation rotational activity were analyzed and evaluated using regression models. Preablation static iris recognition was successful in 247 eyes, without difference in flap creation methods (P = .6). Age (partial correlation, -0.16; P = .014), amount of pulses (partial correlation, 0.39; P = 1.6 x 10(-8)), and gender (P = .02) were significant predictive factors for the amount of intraoperative cyclodeviation. Tracking difficulties leading to linking the ablation with a new intraoperatively acquired iris image were more with femtosecond-assisted flaps (P = 2.8 x 10(-7)) and the amount of intraoperative cyclotorsion (P = .02). However, the number of cases having nonresolvable failure of intraoperative rotational tracking was similar in the 3 flap creation methods (P = .22). Intraoperative cyclotorsional activity depends on the age, gender, and duration of ablation (pulses delivered). Femtosecond flaps do not seem to have a disadvantage over microkeratome flaps as far as iris recognition and success of intraoperative dynamic rotational tracking is concerned. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Seeing emotions in the eyes – Inverse priming effects induced by eyes expressing mental states

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline eWagenbreth

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available ObjectiveAutomatic emotional processing of faces and facial expressions gain more and more of relevance in terms of social communication. Among a variety of different primes, targets and tasks, whole face images and facial expressions have been used to affectively prime emotional responses. This study investigates whether emotional information provided solely in eye regions that display mental states can also trigger affective priming.MethodsSixteen subjects answered a lexical decision task (LDT coupled with an affective priming paradigm. Emotion-associated eye regions were extracted from photographs of faces and acted as primes, whereas targets were either words or pseudo-words. Participants had to decide whether the targets were real German words or generated pseudo-words. Primes and targets belonged to the emotional categories fear, disgust, happiness and neutral.ResultsA general valence effect for positive words was observed: Responses in the LDT were faster for target words of the emotional category happiness when compared to other categories. Importantly, pictures of emotional eye regions preceding the target words affected their subsequent classification. While we show a classical priming effect for neutral target words - with shorter RT for congruent compared to incongruent prime-target pairs- , we observed an inverse priming effect for fearful and happy target words - with shorter RT for incongruent compared to congruent prime-target pairs. These inverse priming effects were driven exclusively by specific prime-target pairs.ConclusionReduced facial emotional information is sufficient to induce automatic implicit emotional processing. The emotional-associated eye regions were processed with respect to their emotional valence and affected the performance on the LDT.

  12. Hydrodynamic interaction induced spontaneous rotation of coupled active filaments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Huijun; Hou, Zhonghuai

    2014-12-14

    We investigate the coupled dynamics of active filaments with long range hydrodynamic interactions (HI). Remarkably, we find that filaments can rotate spontaneously under the same conditions in which a single filament alone can only move in translation. Detailed analysis reveals that the emergence of coupled rotation originates from an asymmetric flow field associated with HI which breaks the symmetry of translational motion when filaments approach. The breaking is then further stabilized by HI to form self-sustained coupled rotation. Intensive simulations show that coupled rotation forms easily when one filament tends to collide with the front-half of the other. For head-to-tail approaching, we observe another interesting HI-induced coupled motion, where filaments move together in the form of one following the other. Moreover, the radius of coupled rotation increases exponentially as the rigidity of the filament increases, which suggests that HI are also important for the alignment of rigid-rod-like filaments which has been assumed to be solely a consequence of direct collisions.

  13. Gram negative bacteria and contact lens induced acute red eye

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sankaridurg Padmaja

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Two patients using hydrogel contact lenses on a daily wear schedule slept overnight with the lenses and woke up with a Contact Lens Induced Acute Red Eye (CLARE. The contact lenses recovered aseptically at the time of the event grew significant colonies of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Aeromonas hydrophila in patient A and Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Serratia liquefaciens from patient B. Similar organisams from the contact lenses were recovered from the lens case and lens care solutions of patient B. In both the patients the condition resolved on discontinuation of lens wear. Patient compliance as a requirement for successful contact lens wear is highlighted with the illustration of these cases.

  14. Recent VLA Measurements of CME-Induced Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kooi, Jason; Thomas, Najma; Guy, Michael; Spangler, Steven R.

    2018-01-01

    Observations of Faraday rotation, the change in polarization position angle of linearly polarized radiation as it propagates through a magnetized plasma, have been used for decades to determine the strength and structure of the coronal magnetic field and plasma density. Similarly, observations of Faraday rotation through a coronal mass ejection (CME) have the potential to improve our understanding of the CME’s plasma structure. We report recent results from simultaneous white-light coronagraph and radio observations made of a CME in July 2015. We made radio observations using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 1 - 2 GHz frequencies of a set of cosmic radio sources through the solar corona at heliocentric distances that ranged between 8 - 23 solar radii. A unique aspect of these observations is that the CME occulted several of these radio sources and, therefore, our Faraday rotation measurements provide information on the plasma structure in different regions of the CME. We successfully measured CME-induced Faraday rotation along multiple lines of sight because we made special arrangements with the staff at the National Radio Astronomy Observatory to trigger VLA observations when a candidate CME appeared low in the corona in near real-time images from the Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph (LASCO) C2 instrument.

  15. A case of acute psychosis induced by topical cyclopentolate eye drops in an elderly patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neha Rajappa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A 75-year-old female patient was operated for cataract in her left eye. Cyclopentolate eye drops were started due to intraoperative handling of the iris. After the second dose of the eye drops, irrational behavior was observed. Psychiatrist′s opinion was taken and drug-induced psychosis was suspected. Thereafter, eye drops were withdrawn and the patient′s behaviour reverted to normal within 48 h.

  16. Radiation induced dry eye: problem and potential remedies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vemuganti, Geeta K.; Tiwari, Shubha

    2016-01-01

    Advances in orbital radiotherapy have significantly increased therapeutic efficiency and reduced the side effects but a significant proportion of patients are still seen with ophthalmic complication like dry eye syndrome (DES). The treatment of DES involves temporary palliative therapies like ocular surface lubrication and rehydration. We aimed at establishing the human lacrimal gland cultures and evaluating for the presence of stem cells and secretory potential. Using human lacrimal gland tissues obtained from samples of therapeutic exenteration post-radiotherapy, we established a monolayer as well as 3D lacrispheres that show evidence of stem cells, secretory acinar cells, duct like formation and other cells like myoepithelial cells and duct like cells. The stem cells were identified as CD 117 positive that co-segregated with G0/G1 phase, ALDH high, label retaining cells and high clone forming ability. The most promising evidence of its secretory function was seen in the presence of tear substances like lysosymes, lactiferrin, and scIg A in the conditioned media of the lacrimal gland cultures. This novel development would pave way for development of a functionally competent 3D construct for potential clinical application in severe cases of radiation induced dry eye. (author)

  17. Visually induced eye movements in Wallenberg's syndrome

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanayama, R.; Nakamura, T.; Ohki, M.; Kimura, Y.; Koike, Y. (Dept. of Otolaryngology, Yamagata Univ. School of Medicine (Japan)); Kato, I. (Dept. of Otolaryngology, St. Marianna Univ. School of Medicine, Kawasaki (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    Eighteen patients with Wallenberg's syndrome were investigated concerning visually induced eye movements. All results were analysed quantitatively using a computer. In 16 out of 18 patients, OKN slow-phase velocities were impaired, in the remaining 2 patients they were normal. All patients showed reduced visual suppression of caloric nystagmus during the slow-phase of nystagmus toward the lesion side, except 3 patients who showed normal visual suppression in both directions. CT scan failed to detect either the brainstem or the cerebellar lesions in any cases, but MRI performed on the most recent cases demonstrated the infractions clearly. These findings suggest that infractions are localized in the medulla in the patients of group A, but extend to the cerebellum as well as to the medulla in patients of group B. (au).

  18. Capture of fixation by rotational flow; a deterministic hypothesis regarding scaling and stochasticity in fixational eye movements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Mansel Wilkinson

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Visual scan paths exhibit complex, stochastic dynamics. Even during visual fixation, the eye is in constant motion. Fixational drift and tremor are thought to reflect fluctuations in the persistent neural activity of neural integrators in the oculomotor brainstem, which integrate sequences of transient saccadic velocity signals into a short term memory of eye position. Despite intensive research and much progress, the precise mechanisms by which oculomotor posture is maintained remain elusive. Drift exhibits a stochastic statistical profile which has been modelled using random walk formalisms. Tremor is widely dismissed as noise. Here we focus on the dynamical profile of fixational tremor, and argue that tremor may be a signal which usefully reflects the workings of the oculomotor postural control. We identify signatures reminiscent of a certain flavour of transient neurodynamics; toric travelling waves which rotate around a central phase singularity. Spiral waves play an organisational role in dynamical systems at many scales throughout nature, though their potential functional role in brain activity remains a matter of educated speculation. Spiral waves have a repertoire of functionally interesting dynamical properties, including persistence, which suggest that they could in theory contribute to persistent neural activity in the oculomotor postural control system. Whilst speculative, the singularity hypothesis of oculomotor postural control implies testable predictions, and could provide the beginnings of an integrated dynamical framework for eye movements across scales.

  19. Flurbiprofen in rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induced hyperalgesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürel, Elif Ezgi; Ural, Keremcan; Öztürk, Gülnur; Öztürk, Levent

    2014-04-10

    Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep deprivation induces hyperalgesia in healthy rats. Here, we evaluated the effects of flurbiprofen, an anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective agent, on the increased thermal responses observed in REM sleep deprived rats. Forty female rats were divided into four groups following 96-hour REM sleep deprivation: intraperitoneal injections of placebo, and flurbiprofen 5 mg/kg, 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg were made in CONT (n=10), FBP5, FBP15 and FBP40 groups respectively. Pain threshold measurements were performed three times at baseline (0.hour), at the end of REM sleep deprivation (96.hour) and at 1 h after injections (97.hour) by hot plate and tail-flick tests. REM sleep deprivation induced a significant decrease in pain thresholds of all rats (hotplate: 0.hour vs 96.hour, 9.75±2.85 vs 5.10±2.02, pFlurbiprofen in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses significantly improved pain tolerance measured by tail flick test (tail flick in FBP15 and FBP40 groups: 96.hour vs 97.hour, 7.01±4.97 vs 8.34±3.61 and 5.06±1.57 vs 7.04±2.49, pFlurbiprofen was used for the first time in a rat model of REM sleep deprivation, and it provided anti-nociceptive effects in 15 mg/kg and 40 mg/kg doses. Flurbiprofen may have the potential for treatment of painful syndromes accompanying insomnia or sleep loss. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Salivation induced better lacrimal gland function in dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pramanik, T; Ghising, R

    2009-12-01

    The dry eye syndrome is a common eye symptom causing blurry vision. To meet the demand of the modem world students and professionals are compelled to expose themselves to the computer screen for long stretch of time, which is one of the causes of dry eye. It is not always feasible to instil eyes with artificial tears time to time to protect them from dryness. Rather to adopt any simple physiological process associated with optimum lacrimation is a better option to keep eyes moist during computer works. Volunteers (n = 22) having mild dry eyes participated in this study. Tear production was assessed by Schirmer test by keeping Schirmer strip on ocular surface for 5 minutes and recording the length of the moistened area. Then the subject was allowed to keep a piece of lopsy candy (a sour fruit pulp mixed with sugar that is sweet and sour in taste) in mouth for 5 minutes that caused salivation. During salivation, again tear production was assessed. [It was standardized in such a way that, the length of the moistened strip will be 25 - 30 mm for normal eyes, 15 - 10 mm for dry eye, 06 - 10 mm for mild dry eye, 02 - 05 mm for moderate dryness and 00 - 01 mm for severe dry eye.] Tear production was found to be increased significantly (supported by increased length of moistened area of Schirmer strip) during salivation especially in dry eye in all volunteers. The lacrimal gland is the major contributor to the aqueous layer of the tear film which consists of water, electrolytes and proteins; secretion of which are under tight neural control. Anticholinergic agents play an important role in ocular dryness because of hypo-secretion. The sensory root of facial nucleus contains efferent preganglionic parasympathetic fibers for submandibular and sublingual salivary gland and lacrimal gland. The sensory root conveys gustatory fibers from the presulcul area (anterior two-third) of the tongue via the chorda tympani and via the palatine and greater petrosal nerve, taste fibers from

  1. Potential of mechanical metamaterials to induce their own global rotational motion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dudek, K. K.; Wojciechowski, K. W.; Dudek, M. R.; Gatt, R.; Mizzi, L.; Grima, J. N.

    2018-05-01

    The potential of several classes of mechanical metamaterials to induce their own overall rotational motion through the individual rotation of their subunits is examined. Using a theoretical approach, we confirm that for various rotating rigid unit systems, if by design the sum of angular momentum of subunits rotating in different directions is made to be unequal, then the system will experience an overall rotation, the extent of which may be controlled through careful choice of the geometric parameters defining these systems. This phenomenon of self-induced rotation is also confirmed experimentally. Furthermore, we discuss how these systems can be designed in a special way so as to permit extended rotations which allows them to overcome geometric lockage and the relevance of this concept in applications ranging from satellites to spacecraft and telescopes employed in space.

  2. The Effect of Pseudoexfoliation and Pseudoexfoliation Induced Dry Eye on Central Corneal Thickness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akdemir, M Orcun; Kirgiz, Ahmet; Ayar, Orhan; Kaldirim, Havva; Mert, Metin; Cabuk, Kubra Serefoglu; Taskapili, Muhittin

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of pseudoexfoliation (PEX) and PEX-induced dry eye on central corneal thickness (CCT). This cross-sectional study consists of total 270 eyes of 135 patients (67 females, 68 males) in total. After excluding the PEX (-) 32 eyes with PEX in the other eye, totally 130 eyes in PEX (-) group and 108 eyes in the PEX (+) group were included in the study. The PEX (+) group was regrouped as PEX syndrome (80 eyes of 50 patients) and PEX glaucoma (28 eyes of 20 patients). In the PEX (-) group, the mean Schirmer test result was 12 ± 4 mm (4-25 mm), in the PEX syndrome group 10 ± 4 mm (4-22 mm), in the PEX glaucoma group 9 ± 3 mm (4-15 mm). The difference among the PEX (-) group, the PEX syndrome and the PEX glaucoma groups was statistically significant (p eyes with PEX (r = 0.307, p = 0.001). However, there was no statistically significant correlation between CCT, Schirmer and tear break up time tests in the eyes with PEX. PEX material can cause decrease in tear film secretion and disturb tear film stability. There is no effect of PEX-induced dry eye on CCT. Lower CCT values in the eyes with PEX material may be a result of decrease in corneal stromal cell density. Moreover, higher CCT values may be because of decreased endothelial cells in PEX glaucoma patients.

  3. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    OpenAIRE

    Bindu Madhavi; Soumya

    2016-01-01

    PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified) secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour) for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye). Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and rig...

  4. Internal structure changes of eyelash induced by eye makeup.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukami, Ken-Ichi; Inoue, Takafumi; Kawai, Tomomitsu; Takeuchi, Akihisa; Uesugi, Kentaro; Suzuki, Yoshio

    2014-01-01

    To investigate how eye makeup affects eyelash structure, internal structure of eyelashes were observed with a scanning X-ray microscopic tomography system using synchrotron radiation light source. Eyelash samples were obtained from 36 Japanese women aged 20-70 years and whose use of eye makeup differed. Reconstructed cross-sectional images showed that the structure of the eyelash closely resembled that of scalp hair. The eyelash structure is changed by use of eye makeup. There was a positive correlation between the frequency of mascara use and the degree of cracking in cuticle. The positive correlation was also found between the frequency of mascara use and the porosity of the cortex. By contrast, the use of eyelash curler did not affect the eyelash structure with statistical significance.

  5. Nonadiabatic Response Model of Laser-Induced Ultrafast π-Electron Rotations in Chiral Aromatic Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanno, Manabu; Kono, Hirohiko; Fujimura, Yuichi; Lin, Sheng H.

    2010-01-01

    We theoretically investigated the nonadiabatic couplings between optically induced π-electron rotations and molecular vibrations in a chiral aromatic molecule irradiated by a nonhelical, linearly polarized laser pulse. The results of wave packet dynamics simulation show that the vibrational amplitudes strongly depend on the initial rotation direction, clockwise or counterclockwise, which is controlled by the polarization direction of the incident pulse. This suggests that attosecond π-electron rotations can be observed by spectroscopic detection of femtosecond molecular vibrations.

  6. Large Eddy Simulation of turbulence induced secondary flows in stationary and rotating straight square ducts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudjai, W.; Juntasaro, V.; Juttijudata, V.

    2018-01-01

    The accuracy of predicting turbulence induced secondary flows is crucially important in many industrial applications such as turbine blade internal cooling passages in a gas turbine and fuel rod bundles in a nuclear reactor. A straight square duct is popularly used to reveal the characteristic of turbulence induced secondary flows which consists of two counter rotating vortices distributed in each corner of the duct. For a rotating duct, the flow can be divided into the pressure side and the suction side. The turbulence induced secondary flows are converted to the Coriolis force driven two large circulations with a pair of additional vortices on the pressure wall due to the rotational effect. In this paper, the Large Eddy Simulation (LES) of turbulence induced secondary flows in a straight square duct is performed using the ANSYS FLUENT CFD software. A dynamic kinetic energy subgrid-scale model is used to describe the three-dimensional incompressible turbulent flows in the stationary and the rotating straight square ducts. The Reynolds number based on the friction velocity and the hydraulic diameter is 300 with the various rotation numbers for the rotating cases. The flow is assumed fully developed by imposing the constant pressure gradient in the streamwise direction. For the rotating cases, the rotational axis is placed perpendicular to the streamwise direction. The simulation results on the secondary flows and the turbulent statistics are found to be in good agreement with the available Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS) data. Finally, the details of the Coriolis effects are discussed.

  7. Effective radiation dose and eye lens dose in dental cone beam CT: effect of field of view and angle of rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, R; Zhang, G; Theodorakou, C; Walker, A; Bosmans, H; Jacobs, R; Bogaerts, R; Horner, K

    2014-10-01

    To quantify the effect of field of view (FOV) and angle of rotation on radiation dose in dental cone beam CT (CBCT) and to define a preliminary volume-dose model. Organ and effective doses were estimated using 148 thermoluminescent dosemeters placed in an anthropomorphic phantom. Dose measurements were undertaken on a 3D Accuitomo 170 dental CBCT unit (J. Morita, Kyoto, Japan) using six FOVs as well as full-rotation (360°) and half-rotation (180°) protocols. For the 360° rotation protocols, effective dose ranged between 54 µSv (4 × 4 cm, upper canine) and 303 µSv (17 × 12 cm, maxillofacial). An empirical relationship between FOV dimension and effective dose was derived. The use of a 180° rotation resulted in an average dose reduction of 45% compared with a 360° rotation. Eye lens doses ranged between 95 and 6861 µGy. Significant dose reduction can be achieved by reducing the FOV size, particularly the FOV height, of CBCT examinations to the actual region of interest. In some cases, a 180° rotation can be preferred, as it has the added value of reducing the scan time. Eye lens doses should be reduced by decreasing the height of the FOV rather than using inferior FOV positioning, as the latter would increase the effective dose considerably. The effect of the FOV and rotation angle on the effective dose in dental CBCT was quantified. The dominant effect of FOV height was demonstrated. A preliminary model has been proposed, which could be used to predict effective dose as a function of FOV size and position.

  8. Amniotic membrane extract ameliorates benzalkonium chloride-induced dry eye in a murine model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xinye; Luo, Pingping; Zhao, Hui; Chen, Jingyao; He, Hui; Xu, Yuxue; Lin, Zhirong; Zhou, Yueping; Xu, Jianjiang; Liu, Zuguo

    2013-10-01

    Human amniotic membrane (AM) is avascular but contains various beneficial bioactive factors, its extract (AE) is also effective in treating many ocular surface disorders. In this study, we for the first time evaluated the therapeutic effects of AE on dry eye induced by benzalkonium chloride in a BALB/c mouse model. Topical application of AE (1.5 and 3 μg/eye/day) resulted in significantly longer tear break-up time on Day 3 and 6, lower fluorescein staining scores on Day 3, and lower inflammatory index on Day 6. AE reduced corneal epithelial K10 expression, inflammatory infiltration, and levels of TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 in BAC treated mice than that in the control mice. Moreover, decreased TUNEL positive cells in cornea and increased goblet cells in conjunctiva were also observed in AE treated corneas. Finally, AE induced more Ki-67 positive cells in corneal epithelium of dry eye mouse. Taken together, our data provide further support for BAC induced dry eye model as a valuable for dry eye study and suggest a great potential for AE as a therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Contribution to the study of rotating disc induced MHD flows

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Herve, P.

    1983-01-01

    Influence of a magnetic field on electroconductor viscous fluid flow generated by disks in rotation is studied here. Flow in rectilinear conduct is first studied, together with velocity, force and current line repartition. Then a case more general is dealt with a toroidal conduct with disk drive. The influence of electric conductivity and of the thickness of the mobile disk are detailed. Couple study leads to think to a transmission by fluid variable by magnetic field variations. At last, a radial flow with a source in the middle of it is studied with a disk rotation. Analysis of velocity and pressure evolution shows a pump effect [fr

  10. AC electric field induced dipole-based on-chip 3D cell rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhal, Prateek; Chase, J Geoffrey; Gaynor, Paul; Oback, Björn; Wang, Wenhui

    2014-08-07

    The precise rotation of suspended cells is one of the many fundamental manipulations used in a wide range of biotechnological applications such as cell injection and enucleation in nuclear transfer (NT) cloning. Noticeably scarce among the existing rotation techniques is the three-dimensional (3D) rotation of cells on a single chip. Here we present an alternating current (ac) induced electric field-based biochip platform, which has an open-top sub-mm square chamber enclosed by four sidewall electrodes and two bottom electrodes, to achieve rotation about the two axes, thus 3D cell rotation. By applying an ac potential to the four sidewall electrodes, an in-plane (yaw) rotating electric field is generated and in-plane rotation is achieved. Similarly, by applying an ac potential to two opposite sidewall electrodes and the two bottom electrodes, an out-of-plane (pitch) rotating electric field is generated and rolling rotation is achieved. As a prompt proof-of-concept, bottom electrodes were constructed with transparent indium tin oxide (ITO) using the standard lift-off process and the sidewall electrodes were constructed using a low-cost micro-milling process and then assembled to form the chip. Through experiments, we demonstrate rotation of bovine oocytes of ~120 μm diameter about two axes, with the capability of controlling the rotation direction and the rate for each axis through control of the ac potential amplitude, frequency, and phase shift, and cell medium conductivity. The maximum observed rotation rate reached nearly 140° s⁻¹, while a consistent rotation rate reached up to 40° s⁻¹. Rotation rate spectra for zona pellucida-intact and zona pellucida-free oocytes were further compared and found to have no effective difference. This simple, transparent, cheap-to-manufacture, and open-top platform allows additional functional modules to be integrated to become a more powerful cell manipulation system.

  11. Measurement of small light absorption in microparticles by means of optically induced rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Angelsky, O. V.; Bekshaev, A. Ya; Maksimyak, P. P.

    2015-01-01

    The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters of the pa......The absorption parameters of micro-particles have been associated with the induced spin exerted upon the particle, when embedded in a circularly polarized coherent field. The induced rotational speed is theoretically analyzed, showing the influence of the beam parameters, the parameters...

  12. Normal temporal binding window but no sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moro, Stefania S; Steeves, Jennifer K E

    2018-04-19

    Integrating vision and hearing is an important way in which we process our rich sensory environment. Partial deprivation of the visual system from the loss of one eye early in life results in adaptive changes in the remaining senses (e.g., Hoover et al. in Exp Brain Res 216:565-74, 2012). The current study investigates whether losing one eye early in life impacts the temporal window in which audiovisual events are integrated and whether there is vulnerability to the sound-induced flash illusion. In Experiment 1, we measured the temporal binding window with a simultaneity judgement task where low-level auditory and visual stimuli were presented at different stimulus onset asynchronies. People with one eye did not differ in the width of their temporal binding window, but they took longer to make judgements compared to binocular viewing controls. In Experiment 2, we measured how many light flashes were perceived when a single flash was paired with multiple auditory beeps in close succession (sound induced flash illusion). Unlike controls, who perceived multiple light flashes with two, three or four beeps, people with one eye were not susceptible to the sound-induced flash illusion. In addition, they took no longer to respond compared to both binocular and monocular (eye-patched) viewing controls. Taken together, these results suggest that the lack of susceptibility to the sound-induced flash illusion in people with one eye cannot be accounted for by the width of the temporal binding window. These results provide evidence for adaptations in audiovisual integration due to the reduction of visual input from the loss of one eye early in life.

  13. Proanthocyanidins Prevent High Glucose-Induced Eye Malformation by Restoring Pax6 Expression in Chick Embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui-Rong Tan

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of offspring malformations, in which eye malformation is an important disease. It has raised demand for therapy to improve fetal outcomes. In this study, we used chick embryo to establish a GDM model to study the protective effects of proanthocyanidins on eye development. Chick embryos were exposed to high glucose (0.2 mmol/egg on embryo development day (EDD 1. Proanthocyanidins (1 and 10 nmol/egg were injected into the air sac on EDD 0. Results showed that both dosages of proanthocyanidins could prevent the eye malformation and rescue the high glucose-induced oxidative stress significantly, which the similar effects were showed in edaravone. However, proanthocyanidins could not decrease the glucose concentration of embryo eye. Moreover, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, was down-regulated by high glucose. Proanthocyanidins could restore the suppressed expression of Pax6. These results indicated proanthocyanidins might be a promising natural agent to prevent high glucose-induced eye malformation by restoring Pax6 expression.

  14. Rotationally induced fragmentation in the prestellar core L1544

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klapp, Jaime; Zavala, Miguel [Departamento de Física, Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ), Km. 36.5, Carretera México-Toluca, La Marquesa 52750, Estado de México (Mexico); Sigalotti, Leonardo Di G.; Peña-Polo, Franklin; Troconis, Jorge [Centro de Física, Instituto Venezolano de Investigaciones Científicas (IVIC), Apartado Postal 20632, Caracas 1020A (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of)

    2014-01-10

    Recent observations indicate that there is no correlation between the level of turbulence and fragmentation in detected protostellar cores, suggesting that turbulence works mainly before gravitationally bound prestellar cores form and that their inner parts are likely to be velocity coherent. Based on this evidence, we simulate the collapse and fragmentation of an isolated, initially centrally condensed, uniformly rotating core of total mass M = 5.4 M {sub ☉}, using the smoothed particle hydrodynamics code GADGET-2 modified with the inclusion of sink particles, in order to compare the statistical properties of the resulting stellar ensembles with previous gravoturbulent fragmentation models. The initial conditions are intended to fit the observed properties of the prestellar core L1544. We find that for ratios of the rotational to the gravitational energy β ≥ 0.05, a massive disk is formed at the core center from which a central primary condenses after ∼50 kyr. Soon thereafter the disk fragments into secondary protostars, consistent with an intermediate mode of star formation in which groups of 10-100 stars form from a single core. The models predict peak accretion rates between ∼10{sup –5} and 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} for all stars and reproduce many of the statistical properties predicted from gravoturbulent fragmentation, suggesting that on the small scales of low-mass, dense cores these are independent of whether the contracting gas is turbulent or purely rotating.

  15. In-beam study of the rotational states in actinides after alpha-induced nuclear reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hardt, K.

    1983-01-01

    In the experiments described in this thesis the ground state rotational bands of a whole series of actinide isotopes has been studied by means of α-induced nuclear reactions. The rotational bands studied in the even isotopes could be identified up to a spin of about 16 (h/2π). With this data it was now possible to establish a broad systematic of the rotational energies up to relatively high angular momenta. Also in the odd isotopes 233 U and 239 Pu it was possible to follow the ground state rotational bands up to higher spins and to compare them with predictions of the rotational model. By means of the (α,α'2n) reaction the nuclei 230 Th and especially 228 Th could by populated. (orig./HSI) [de

  16. Pigment dispersion glaucoma induced by the chafing effect of intraocular lens haptics in Asian eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Ying; Sun, Yan-Xiu; Qi, Hong; Zhou, Ji-Chao; Hao, Yan-Sheng

    2013-03-01

    To study the possible mechanism and treatment for pigment dispersion glaucoma (PDG) caused by single-piece acrylic (SPA) intraocular lens (IOL) ciliary sulcus fixation in Asian eyes. Patients referred for PDG caused by SPA IOL ciliary sulcus fixation to our hospital from April 2005 to June 2011 were included. The patients' general information, IOL type, interval between initial surgery and PDG occurrence, examination findings, antiglaucoma medicine regimen and surgical interventions were recorded. In total, six eyes from five Chinese patients were included in this study. The intraocular pressure (IOP) increased 19-30 days after cataract surgery and was not satisfactorily controlled with antiglaucoma medication. Dense pigmentation was deposited on the IOLs and on the anterior chamber angle. IOL haptic chafing was noted on the rear iris surface. IOL repositioning in the capsular bag was performed in three eyes and was combined with trabeculectomy in two eyes with progressive glaucoma. An IOL exchange with three-piece IOL ciliary sulcus fixation was performed in the other three eyes. Scanning electron microscopy of the explanted IOLs demonstrated a rough edge on the IOL haptics. SPA IOLs were not suitable for ciliary sulcus fixation. The chafing effect of the IOL haptics on the posterior iris pigment epithelium could induce PDG in Asian eyes. IOLs should be positioned in the capsular bag or a three-piece IOL should be used instead.

  17. Multi-peak electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission from bull's-eye-shaped metamaterial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaeyoun; Soref, Richard; Buchwald, Walter R

    2010-08-16

    We investigate the electromagnetic response of the concentric multi-ring, or the bull's eye, structure as an extension of the dual-ring metamaterial which exhibits electromagnetically-induced transparency (EIT)-like transmission characteristics. Our results show that adding inner rings produces additional EIT-like peaks, and widens the metamaterial's spectral range of operation. Analyses of the dispersion characteristics and induced current distribution further confirmed the peak's EIT-like nature. Impacts of structural and dielectric parameters are also investigated.

  18. Evaluation of a novel dry eye model induced by oral administration of finasteride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai; Zhang, Chuanwei; Yang, Zichao; Wang, Yuliang; Si, Haipeng

    2017-12-01

    Dry eye is a common eye disease, and suitable animal models are indispensable for investigating the pathogenesis and developing treatments for dry eye. The present study was conducted to develop an androgen deficiency dry eye model induced by finasteride, and to evaluate ocular surface status and inflammatory cytokine gene expression in the lacrimal gland using a cytokine antibody array system. The results revealed that the antiandrogenic drug finasteride induced significant tear deficiency, and the histopathology results revealed significant inflammatory cell infiltration in the lacrimal gland. The cytokine antibody array system identified increased B7‑2 (also known as cluster of differentiation 86), interleukin (IL)‑1β, IL‑4, IL‑6, IL‑10, matrix metalloproteinase‑8, Fas ligand, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)‑α and metalloproteinase inhibitor 1 levels in the lacrimal gland of the dry eye model. These cytokines were validated as candidate markers through the use of western blot analysis and reverse transcription‑quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Both analyses confirmed a significant increase in proinflammatory cytokines, including IL‑1β, IL‑6 and TNF‑α, and anti‑inflammatory cytokines, including IL‑4 and IL‑10. The aforementioned data suggested that inflammation in antiandrogenic models resulted from a balance between inflammatory and anti‑inflammatory responses. Thus, direct finasteride administration may produce an applicable model for dry eye mediated by androgen deficiency. In addition, there may be a correlation between sex, steroid deficiency and the inflammatory response. The findings of the present study have provided useful information for the pathogenesis and diagnosis of dry eye mediated by androgen deficiency.

  19. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tan, Gang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yahong; Wu, Anhua; Yang, Qichen; Ye, Lei; Shao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ). A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM 10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index. Eye samples were collected on D14 and examined by histologic light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corneal cytokeration 10 (K10) immunnostaining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB Western Blot analysis. At 0d, 7d and 14d, there were no statistical changes in tear volume, BUT after treatment (P>0.05) with PBS in group A. In group B, all items showed statistical differences at each time point (Plevels of K10 and reduced number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix in group B. PM 10 significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB in the cornea. PM 10 can damage the tear film function and cause the destruction of the structural organization of ocular surface in mice. Topical administration of PM 10 in mice induces ocular surface changes that are similar to those of dry eye in humans, representing a novel model of DES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  20. Bingham liquid flow between two cylinders induced by inner ring rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaroslav, Štigler; Simona, Fialová

    2017-09-01

    This paper deals with the fluid flow between two cylinders induced by inner ring rotation. The gap width between the cylinders, in case that they are both concentric, is 1mm, the gap and inner ring radius ratio 0.013 and the radius ratio 0.987. Attention is focused on rotation speed and eccentricity influence on the flow. Calculations were done for both Newtonian liquid and Bingham plastic liquid with the yield stress threshold 50 Pa.

  1. Dynamics of a discrete geotropic sensor subject to rotation-induced gravity compensation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silver, I.L.

    1976-01-01

    A clinostat achieves gravity compensation by providing circular rotation with uniform speed, about a horizontal axis. The dynamics of an assumed, discrete and free-moving subcellular gravity receptor, subject to clinostat rotation, is analyzed. The results imply that there is an optimum rotation rate; higher speeds result in circular motions with diameters more comparable to thermal noise fluctuations, but with greater linear velocities due to increasing centrifugal forces. An optimizing function is proposed. The nucleolus and mitochondrion is chosen as a gravity receptor for illustrating the use of this theory. The characteristics of their clinostat-induced motions are incorporated with experimental results on Avena plant shoots in an illustrative example.

  2. Sideflexion induced lumbar spine conjunct rotation and its influencing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicenzino, G; Twomey, L

    1993-01-01

    Twenty motion segments from four male post mortem subjects with a mean age of 29 years were moved into the lumbar spine test positions of extension/left sideflexion, extension/right sideflexion, flexion/left sideflexion and flexion/right sideflexion Jheconjunct rotation (CR) that occurred was measured from a photographic record. The results indicated that the direction of the CR of the whole lumbar spine (ie between L1 and S1) was significantly different between the flexed and extended lumbar spine position. The direction of the CR was also significantly different between the different intervertebral motion segment levels. There was no relationship between CR and zygapophyseal joint geometry or intervertebral disc degeneration. Copyright © 1993 Australian Physiotherapy Association. Published by . All rights reserved.

  3. Therapeutic effects of topical doxycycline in a benzalkonium chloride-induced mouse dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhen; Yang, Wen-Zhao; Zhu, Zhen-Zhen; Hu, Qian-Qian; Chen, Yan-Feng; He, Hui; Chen, Yong-Xiong; Liu, Zu-Guo

    2014-05-06

    We investigated the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of topical doxycycline in a benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-induced mouse dry eye model. Eye drops containing 0.025%, 0.1% doxycycline or solvent were administered to a BAC-induced dry eye model four times daily. The clinical evaluations, including tear break-up time (BUT), fluorescein staining, inflammatory index, and tear volume, were performed on days 0, 1, 4, 7, and 10. Global specimens were collected on day 10 and processed for immunofluorescent staining, TUNEL, and periodic acid-Schiff assay. The levels of inflammatory mediators in the corneas were determined by real-time PCR. The total and phosphorylated nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) were detected by Western blot. Both 0.025% and 0.1% doxycycline treatments resulted in increased BUT, lower fluorescein staining scores, and inflammatory index on days 4, 7, and 10, while no significant change in tear volume was observed. The 0.1% doxycycline-treated group showed more improvements in decreasing fluorescein staining scores, increasing Ki-67-positive cells, and decreasing TUNEL- and keratin-10-positive cells than other groups. The mucin-filled goblet cells in conjunctivas were increased, and the expression of CD11b and levels of matrix metalloproteinase-9, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, macrophage inflammatory protein-2, and cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant in corneas were decreased in both doxycycline-treated groups. In addition, doxycycline significantly reduced the phosphorylation of NF-κB activated in the BAC-treated corneas. Topical doxycycline showed clinical improvements and alleviated ocular surface inflammation on BAC-induced mouse dry eye, suggesting a potential as an anti-inflammatory agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye.

  4. EGR1 induces tenogenic differentiation of tendon stem cells and promotes rabbit rotator cuff repair.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Xu; Liu, Junpeng; Chen, Lei; Zhou, You; Tang, Kanglai

    2015-01-01

    The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1) in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs) and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs) using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries. © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. EGR1 Induces Tenogenic Differentiation of Tendon Stem Cells and Promotes Rabbit Rotator Cuff Repair

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Tao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aims: The rate of healing failure after surgical repair of chronic rotator cuff tears is considerably high. The aim of this study was to investigate the function of the zinc finger transcription factor early growth response 1 (EGR1 in the differentiation of tendon stem cells (TSCs and in tendon formation, healing, and tendon tear repair using an animal model of rotator cuff repair. Methods: Tenocyte, adipocyte, osteocyte, and chondrocyte differentiation as well as the expression of related genes were determined in EGR1-overexpressing TSCs (EGR1-TSCs using tissue-specific staining, immunofluorescence staining, quantitative PCR, and western blotting. A rabbit rotator cuff repair model was established, and TSCs and EGR1-TSCs in a fibrin glue carrier were applied onto repair sites. The rabbits were sacrificed 8 weeks after repair operation, and tissues were histologically evaluated and tenocyte-related gene expression was determined. Results: EGR1 induced tenogenic differentiation of TSCs and inhibited non-tenocyte differentiation of TSCs. Furthermore, EGR1 promoted tendon repair in a rabbit model of rotator cuff injury. The BMP12/Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway was involved in EGR1-induced tenogenic differentiation and rotator cuff tendon repair. Conclusion: EGR1 plays a key role in tendon formation, healing, and repair through BMP12/Smad1/5/8 pathway. EGR1-TSCs is a promising treatment for rotator cuff tendon repair surgeries.

  6. Analogies between oscillation and rotation of bodies induced or influenced by vortex shedding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lugt, H. J.

    Vortex-induced or vortex-influenced rotation and oscillation of bodies in a parallel flow are discussed. A steady flow occurs if the body axis is parallel to the flow or if the axis of rotation is perpendicular to the flow. Flows around an oscillating body are quasi-steady only if the Strougal number is much smaller than unity. The connection between rotation and oscillation is demonstrated in terms of the autorotation of a Lanchester propeller, and conditions for stable autorotation are defined. The Riabouchinsky curve is shown to be typical of forces and torques on bodies with vortical wakes, including situations with fixed body axes perpendicular to the flow. A differential equation is formulated for rotational and oscillating bodies that shed vortices by extending the pendulum equation to include vortical effects expressed as a fifth-order polynomial.

  7. Amelioration of ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice treated with astaxanthin eye drops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lennikov, Anton; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Fukase, Risa; Murata, Miyuki; Noda, Kousuke; Ando, Ryo; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) acts as low-dose ionizing radiation. Acute UVB exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid, present in seafood, that has potential clinical applications due to its high antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined whether topical administration of AST has preventive and therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. C57BL/6 mice were administered with AST diluted in polyethylene glycol (PEG) in instillation form (15 μl) to the right eye. Left eyes were given vehicle alone as controls. Immediately after the instillation, the mice, under anesthesia, were irradiated with UVB at a dose of 400 mJ/cm². Eyeballs were collected 24 h after irradiation and stained with H&E and TUNEL. In an in vitro study, mouse corneal epithelial (TKE2) cells were cultured with AST before UV exposure to quantify the UV-derived cytotoxicity. UVB exposure induced cell death and thinning of the corneal epithelium. However, the epithelium was morphologically well preserved after irradiation in AST-treated corneas. Irradiated corneal epithelium was significantly thicker in eyes treated with AST eye drops, compared to those treated with vehicles (peyes than controls after irradiation (peffect increased with the dose of AST. Topical AST administration may be a candidate treatment to limit the damages by UV irradiation with wide clinical applications.

  8. Effect of Oral Lactoferrin on Cataract Surgery Induced Dry Eye: A Randomised Controlled Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devendra, Jaya; Singh, Sneha

    2015-10-01

    Cataract surgery is one of the most frequently performed intra-ocular surgeries, of these manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery (SICS) is a time tested technique of cataract removal. Any corneal incisional surgery, including cataract surgery, can induce dry eye postoperatively. Various factors have been implicated, of which oneis the inflammation induced by the surgery. Lactoferrin, a glycoprotein present in tears is said to have anti-inflammatory effects, and promotes cell growth. It has been used orally in patients of immune mediated dry eye to alleviate symptoms. This study was aimed to evaluate the dry eyes induced by manual Small Incision Cataract Surgery, and the effect if any, of oral lactoferrin on the dry eyes. A single centre, prospective randomised controlled trial with a concurrent parallel design. The study was carried out on patients presenting in the OPD of Rohilkhand Medical College hospital for cataract surgery. Sixty four patients of cataract surgery were included in the study. Patients with pre-existing dry eyes, ocular disease or systemic disease predisposing to dry eyes were excluded from the study. The selected patients were assigned into two groups by simple randomisation-Control Group A-32 patients that did not receive oral lactoferrin postoperatively. Group B-32 patients that received oral lactoferrin 350 gm postoperatively from day 1 after SICS. All patients were operated for cataract and their pre and postoperative (on days 7, 14, 30 and 60) dry eye status was assessed using the mean tear film break-up time (tBUT) and Schirmer test 1 (ST 1) as the evaluating parameters. Subjective evaluation of dry eye was done using Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scoring. Data was analysed for 58 patients, as 6 did not complete the follow up. Unpaired t-test was used to calculate the p-values. There was a statistically significant difference between the tBUT values of the Control and Lactoferrin group from day 14 onwards. The tBUT of control group

  9. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Jie Zhang

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation.

  10. A new gestational diabetes mellitus model: hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation via inhibition of Pax6 in the chick embryo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Shi-Jie; Li, Yi-Fang; Tan, Rui-Rong; Tsoi, Bun; Huang, Wen-Shan; Huang, Yi-Hua; Tang, Xiao-Long; Hu, Dan; Yao, Nan; Yang, Xuesong; Kurihara, Hiroshi; Wang, Qi; He, Rong-Rong

    2016-02-01

    Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is one of the leading causes of fetal malformations. However, few models have been developed to study the underlying mechanisms of GDM-induced fetal eye malformation. In this study, a high concentration of glucose (0.2 mmol per egg) was injected into the air sac of chick embryos on embryo development day (EDD) 1 to develop a hyperglycemia model. Results showed that 47.3% of embryonic eye malformation happened on EDD 5. In this model, the key genes regulating eye development, Pax6, Six3 and Otx2, were downregulated by hyperglycemia. Among these genes, the expression of Pax6 was the most vulnerable to hyperglycemia, being suppressed by 70%. A reduction in Pax6 gene expression induced eye malformation in chick embryos. However, increased expression of Pax6 in chick embryos could rescue hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. Hyperglycemia stimulated O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation, which caused oxidative stress in chick embryos. Pax6 was found to be vulnerable to free radicals, but the antioxidant edaravone could restore Pax6 expression and reverse eye malformation. These results illustrated a successful establishment of a new chick embryo model to study the molecular mechanism of hyperglycemia-induced eye malformation. The suppression of the Pax6 gene is probably mediated by oxidative stress and could be a crucial target for the therapy of GDM-induced embryonic eye malformation. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  11. Rod-like microglia are restricted to eyes with laser-induced ocular hypertension but absent from the microglial changes in the contralateral untreated eye.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa de Hoz

    Full Text Available In the mouse model of unilateral laser-induced ocular hypertension (OHT the microglia in both the treated and the normotensive untreated contralateral eye have morphological signs of activation and up-regulation of MHC-II expression in comparison with naïve. In the brain, rod-like microglia align to less-injured neurons in an effort to limit damage. We investigate whether: i microglial activation is secondary to laser injury or to a higher IOP and; ii the presence of rod-like microglia is related to OHT. Three groups of mice were used: age-matched control (naïve, n=15; and two lasered: limbal (OHT, n=15; and non-draining portion of the sclera (scleral, n=3. In the lasered animals, treated eyes as well as contralateral eyes were analysed. Retinal whole-mounts were immunostained with antibodies against, Iba-1, NF-200, MHC-II, CD86, CD68 and Ym1. In the scleral group (normal ocular pressure no microglial signs of activation were found. Similarly to naïve eyes, OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes had ramified microglia in the nerve-fibre layer related to the blood vessel. However, only eyes with OHT had rod-like microglia that aligned end-to-end, coupling to form trains of multiple cells running parallel to axons in the retinal surface. Rod-like microglia were CD68+ and were related to retinal ganglion cells (RGCs showing signs of degeneration (NF-200+RGCs. Although MHC-II expression was up-regulated in the microglia of the NFL both in OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes, no expression of CD86 and Ym1 was detected in ramified or in rod-like microglia. After 15 days of unilateral lasering of the limbal and the non-draining portion of the sclera, activated microglia was restricted to OHT-eyes and their contralateral eyes. However, rod-like microglia were restricted to eyes with OHT and degenerated NF-200+RGCs and were absent from their contralateral eyes. Thus, rod-like microglia seem be related to the neurodegeneration associated with HTO.

  12. Observation of rotational component in digital data of mining induced seismic events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Knejzlík, Jaromír; Lednická, Markéta

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 7, č. 1 (2012), s. 75-85 ISSN 1896-3145. [Ochrona środowiska w górnictwie podziemnym, odkrywkowym i otworowym. Wieliczka - Zakrzow, 16.05.2012-18.05.2012] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z30860518 Keywords : rotational component * mining induced seismic event * field measurement Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure

  13. The rotationally induced quadrupole pair field in the particle-rotor model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Almberger, J.

    1980-04-01

    A formalism is developed which makes it possible to consider the influence of the rotationally induced quadrupole pair field and corresponding quasi-particle residual interactions within the particle-rotor model. The Y 21 pair field renormalizes both the Coriolis and the recoil interactions. (Auth.)

  14. MMP-3 Deficiency Alleviates Endotoxin-Induced Acute Inflammation in the Posterior Eye Segment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inge Van Hove

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3 is known to mediate neuroinflammatory processes by activating microglia, disrupting blood–central nervous system barriers and supporting neutrophil influx into the brain. In addition, the posterior part of the eye, more specifically the retina, the retinal pigment epithelium (RPE and the blood–retinal barrier, is affected upon neuroinflammation, but a role for MMP-3 during ocular inflammation remains elusive. We investigated whether MMP-3 contributes to acute inflammation in the eye using the endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU model. Systemic administration of lipopolysaccharide induced an increase in MMP-3 mRNA and protein expression level in the posterior part of the eye. MMP-3 deficiency or knockdown suppressed retinal leukocyte adhesion and leukocyte infiltration into the vitreous cavity in mice subjected to EIU. Moreover, retinal and RPE mRNA levels of intercellular adhesion molecule 1 (Icam1, interleukin 6 (Il6, cytokine-inducible nitrogen oxide synthase (Nos2 and tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα, which are key molecules involved in EIU, were clearly reduced in MMP-3 deficient mice. In addition, loss of MMP-3 repressed the upregulation of the chemokines monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1 and (C-X-C motif ligand 1 (CXCL1. These findings suggest a contribution of MMP-3 during EIU, and its potential use as a therapeutic drug target in reducing ocular inflammation.

  15. Eyes that bind us: Gaze leading induces an implicit sense of agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, Lisa J; Edwards, S Gareth; Howard, Emma E; Bayliss, Andrew P

    2018-03-01

    Humans feel a sense of agency over the effects their motor system causes. This is the case for manual actions such as pushing buttons, kicking footballs, and all acts that affect the physical environment. We ask whether initiating joint attention - causing another person to follow our eye movement - can elicit an implicit sense of agency over this congruent gaze response. Eye movements themselves cannot directly affect the physical environment, but joint attention is an example of how eye movements can indirectly cause social outcomes. Here we show that leading the gaze of an on-screen face induces an underestimation of the temporal gap between action and consequence (Experiments 1 and 2). This underestimation effect, named 'temporal binding,' is thought to be a measure of an implicit sense of agency. Experiment 3 asked whether merely making an eye movement in a non-agentic, non-social context might also affect temporal estimation, and no reliable effects were detected, implying that inconsequential oculomotor acts do not reliably affect temporal estimations under these conditions. Together, these findings suggest that an implicit sense of agency is generated when initiating joint attention interactions. This is important for understanding how humans can efficiently detect and understand the social consequences of their actions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Poloidal rotation induced by injecting lower hybrid waves in tokamak plasma edge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiao Yiming; Gao Qingdi; Shi Bingren

    2001-01-01

    The poloidal rotation of the magnetized edge plasma in tokamak driven by the ponderomotive force which is generated by injecting lower hybrid wave (LHW) electric field has been studied. The LHW is launched from a waveguide in the plasma edge, and by Brambilla's grill theory, analytic expressions for the wave electric field in the slab model of an inhomogeneous cold plasma have been derived. It is shown that a strong wave electric field will be generated in the plasma edge by injecting LH wave of the power in MW magnitude, and this electric field will induce a poloidal rotation with a sheared poloidal velocity

  17. Damage detection in high-rise buildings using damage-induced rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Seung Hun; Jung, Ho Youn; Lee, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyung Jo

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, a new damage-detection method based on structural vibration is proposed. The essence of the proposed method is the detection of abrupt changes in rotation. Damage-induced rotation (DIR), which is determined from the modal flexibility of the structure, initially occurs only at a specific damaged location. Therefore, damage can be localized by evaluating abrupt changes in rotation. We conducted numerical simulations of two damage scenarios using a 10-story cantilever-type building model. Measurement noise was also considered in the simulation. We compared the sensitivity of the proposed method to localize damage to that of two conventional modal-flexibility-based damage-detection methods, i.e., uniform load surface (ULS) and ULS curvature. The proposed method was able to localize damage in both damage scenarios for cantilever structures, but the conventional methods could not

  18. Damage detection in high-rise buildings using damage-induced rotations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sung, Seung Hoon; Jung, Ho Youn; Lee, Jung Hoon; Jung, Hyung Jo

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, a new damage-detection method based on structural vibration is proposed. The essence of the proposed method is the detection of abrupt changes in rotation. Damage-induced rotation (DIR), which is determined from the modal flexibility of the structure, initially occurs only at a specific damaged location. Therefore, damage can be localized by evaluating abrupt changes in rotation. We conducted numerical simulations of two damage scenarios using a 10-story cantilever-type building model. Measurement noise was also considered in the simulation. We compared the sensitivity of the proposed method to localize damage to that of two conventional modal-flexibility-based damage-detection methods, i.e., uniform load surface (ULS) and ULS curvature. The proposed method was able to localize damage in both damage scenarios for cantilever structures, but the conventional methods could not.

  19. Rotating and propagating LIB stabilized by self-induced magnetic field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murakami, H.; Aoki, T.; Kawata, S.; Niu, K.

    1984-01-01

    Rotating motion of a propagating LIB is analyzed in order to suppress the mixed mode of the Kelvin-Helmholtz instability, the tearing instability and the sausage instability by the action of a self-induced magnetic field in the axial direction. The beams are assumed to be charge-neutralized but not current-neutralized. The steady-state solutions of a propagating LIB with rotation are first obtained numerically. Through the dispersion relation with respect to the ikonal type of perturbations, which are added to the steady-state solutions, the growth rates of instabilities appearing in an LIB are obtained. It is concluded that if the mean rotating velocity of an LIB is comparable to the propagation velocity, the instability disappears in the propagating ion beam. (author)

  20. Oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) modulating radiation-induced oxidative stress on functional and structural performance of eye in male rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Said, U.Z.; Soliman, S.M.; Azab, Kh.Sh.; El-Tahawy, N.A.

    2005-01-01

    Eye oxidative stress may play a major role in the etiology and pathogenesis of eye disorders such as macular degeneration and photic injury of retinal degeneration that lead to vision loss. Proanthocyanidins derived from pine bark and from grape seeds have various anti pathophysiological functions. This study was performed to evaluate the role of oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPCs) on the radiation-induced changes in rat eye tissues. OPCs were supplemented to rats (100 mg /kg body weight/ day) for 14 successive days before and 7 successive days after exposure to 7 Gy (single dose) of whole body gamma irradiation. The results revealed radiation-induced depletion in the activities of eye endogenous antioxidant enzymes and rise in pro-oxidant levels. Supplementation of OPCs pre- and post-irradiation has significantly reduced the levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, xanthine oxidase, and significantly ameliorated the activities of xanthine dehydrogenase and reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes such as superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in eye tissues. OPCs significantly ameliorated the radiation-induced changes in levels of insulin and glucose in the serum. The oxidative stress induced cellular damage as indicated by retardation in the responses of eye to photo stimulation as well as histopathological changes in the eye tissues. Severe intra-retinal hemorrhages, cornea swelling, disruption of photoreceptor layer of the retina and epithelial necrosis were seen. The eye tissues of rats that received OPCs supplement showed significant less severe histological damage and remarkable improvement in photo stimulation responses when compared to irradiated rats on the 7 T h and 21 s t days after exposure to gamma irradiation. According to the results obtained, it could be concluded that OPCs might protect the eye tissues from the oxidative stress possibly by virtue of its anti oxidative activity through augmentation of antioxidant

  1. Grape Seed Oil Extract Protects Against Radiation-Induced Oxidative Damage in Rats Eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study was carried out to investigate the beneficial effects of grape seed oil on radiation-induced oxidative stress in the irradiated rat eyes. The rats were divided into three groups; control group that received distilled water, irradiated group (R) that exposed to gamma radiation as a single dose of 6.4 Gy and irradiated + grape seed oil group (R+GSO) that administered grape seed oil for seven consecutive days then exposed to the same single gamma radiation dose followed by grape seed oil for seven additional days. Histopathological results revealed protective effect of grape seed oil on the eye tissues of rat. The results lead to the conclusion that administration of GSO prior to radiation exposure may be a promising attempt in attenuating the extent of oxidative damage accompanying radiotherapy

  2. Can walking motions improve visually induced rotational self-motion illusions in virtual reality?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riecke, Bernhard E; Freiberg, Jacob B; Grechkin, Timofey Y

    2015-02-04

    Illusions of self-motion (vection) can provide compelling sensations of moving through virtual environments without the need for complex motion simulators or large tracked physical walking spaces. Here we explore the interaction between biomechanical cues (stepping along a rotating circular treadmill) and visual cues (viewing simulated self-rotation) for providing stationary users a compelling sensation of rotational self-motion (circular vection). When tested individually, biomechanical and visual cues were similarly effective in eliciting self-motion illusions. However, in combination they yielded significantly more intense self-motion illusions. These findings provide the first compelling evidence that walking motions can be used to significantly enhance visually induced rotational self-motion perception in virtual environments (and vice versa) without having to provide for physical self-motion or motion platforms. This is noteworthy, as linear treadmills have been found to actually impair visually induced translational self-motion perception (Ash, Palmisano, Apthorp, & Allison, 2013). Given the predominant focus on linear walking interfaces for virtual-reality locomotion, our findings suggest that investigating circular and curvilinear walking interfaces offers a promising direction for future research and development and can help to enhance self-motion illusions, presence and immersion in virtual-reality systems. © 2015 ARVO.

  3. Intrastriatal methylmalonic acid administration induces rotational behavior and convulsions through glutamatergic mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Mello, C F; Begnini, J; Jiménez-Bernal, R E; Rubin, M A; de Bastiani, J; da Costa, E; Wajner, M

    1996-05-20

    The effect of intrastriatal administration of methylmalonic acid (MMA), a metabolite that accumulates in methylmalonic aciduria, on behavior of adult male Wistar rats was investigated. After cannula placing, rats received unilateral intrastriatal injections of MMA (buffered to pH 7.4 with NaOH) or NaCl. MMA induced rotational behavior toward the contralateral side of injection and clonic convulsions in a dose-dependent manner. Rotational behavior and convulsions were prevented by intrastriatal preadministration of MK-801 and attenuated by preadministration of succinate. This study provides evidence for a participation of NMDA receptors in the MMA-induced behavioral alterations, where succinate dehydrogenase inhibition seems to have a pivotal role.

  4. Optically induced rotation of Rayleigh particles by vortex beams with different states of polarization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Manman; Yan, Shaohui; Yao, Baoli; Liang, Yansheng; Lei, Ming; Yang, Yanlong

    2016-01-01

    Optical vortex beams carry optical orbital angular momentum (OAM) and can induce an orbital motion of trapped particles in optical trapping. We show that the state of polarization (SOP) of vortex beams will affect the details of this optically induced orbital motion to some extent. Numerical results demonstrate that focusing the vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations can induce a uniform orbital motion on a trapped Rayleigh particle, while in the focal field of the vortex beam with linear polarization the particle experiences a non-uniform orbital motion. Among the formers, the vortex beam with circular polarization induces a maximum optical torque on the particle. Furthermore, by varying the topological charge of the vortex beams, the vortex beam with circular polarization gives rise to an optimum torque superior to those given by the other three vortex beams. These facts suggest that the circularly polarized vortex beam is more suitable for rotating particles. - Highlights: • States of polarization of vortex beams affect the optically induced orbital motion of particles. • The dependences of the force and orbital torque on the topological charge, the size and the absorptivity of particles were calculated. • Focused vortex beams with circular, radial or azimuthal polarizations induce a uniform orbital motion on particles. • Particles experience a non-uniform orbital motion in the focused linearly polarized vortex beam. • The circularly polarized vortex beam is a superior candidate for rotating particles.

  5. Movimentos oculares e padrões de busca visual em tarefas de rotação mental Eye movements and scan patterns in mental rotation tasks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscila Covre

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo é identificar as estratégias utilizadas nas tarefas de rotação mental pela análise dos traçados dos movimentos oculares. Foi analisado o desempenho de 40 participantes na comparação de pares de objetos tridimensionais rotacionados no eixo y, com diferenças de angulação de 0o a 180o. Foi utilizado um sistema computacional de rastreamento dos movimentos oculares (eyetracking durante a visualização de figuras. Os resultados mostram que tempo de julgamento, duração média das fixações do olho, número de fixações nos objetos e número de alternâncias entre os dois objetos aumentam em função da diferença de angulação. Análise dos traçados oculares, com base na inspeção visual, indica o uso de dois tipos de estratégias: rotação mental em torno dos eixos padrões e comparação independente da orientação. O uso dessas estratégias é discutido com relação ao desempenho dos participantes e à memória de trabalho.The purpose of this paper is to identify the strategies used on mental rotation tasks by analyzing ocular movements. The performance of 40 participants on comparison of pairs of three-dimensional objects, rotated on the y-axis, from 0o to 180o was analyzed. An eye-tracking computerized system was used to track eye movements during scene visualization. Results showed that judgment time, fixation duration, number of fixations and number of switches between the objects increased with rotation angle. Analysis by visual inspection indicates the use of two kinds of strategies: Mental rotation around the standard axis and comparison of orientation-free descriptions. The use of the strategies is discussed with regard to performance and working memory.

  6. Dynamic Ocular Surface and Lacrimal Gland Changes Induced in Experimental Murine Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing; Wang, Yu; Reinach, Peter S.; Ren, Yueping; Li, Jinyang; Hua, Shanshan; Lu, Huihui; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease can be a consequence of lacrimal gland insufficiency in Sjögren’s Syndrome or increased tear film evaporation despite normal lacrimal gland function. To determine if there is a correlation between severity effects in these models and underlying pathophysiological responses, we compared the time dependent changes in each of these parameters that occur during a 6 week period. Dry eye was induced in 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice by exposing them to an Intelligently Controlled Environmental System (ICES). Sixty mice were housed in ICES for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Twelve were raised in normal environment and received subcutaneous injections of scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP) 3 times daily for 5 days. Another sixty mice were housed in a normal environment and received no treatment. Corneal fluorescein staining along with corneal MMP-9 and caspase-3 level measurements were performed in parallel with the TUNEL assay. Interleukin-17(IL-17), IL-23, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β2 levels were estimated by real-time PCR measurements of conjunctival and lacrimal gland samples (LGs). Immunohistochemistry of excised LGs along with flow cytometry in cervical lymph nodes evaluated immune cell infiltration. Light and transmission electron microscopy studies evaluated LGs cytoarchitectural changes. ICES induced corneal epithelial destruction and apoptosis peaked at 2 weeks and kept stable in the following 4 weeks. In the ICES group, lacrimal gland proinflammatory cytokine level increases were much lower than those in the SCOP group. In accord with the lower proinflammatory cytokine levels, in the ICES group, lacrimal gland cytosolic vesicular density and size exceeded that in the SCOP group. ICES and SCOP induced murine dry eye effects became progressively more severe over a two week period. Subsequently, the disease process stabilized for the next four weeks. ICES induced local effects in the ocular surface, but failed to elicit lacrimal gland

  7. Dynamic ocular surface and lacrimal gland changes induced in experimental murine dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Bing; Wang, Yu; Reinach, Peter S; Ren, Yueping; Li, Jinyang; Hua, Shanshan; Lu, Huihui; Chen, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye disease can be a consequence of lacrimal gland insufficiency in Sjögren's Syndrome or increased tear film evaporation despite normal lacrimal gland function. To determine if there is a correlation between severity effects in these models and underlying pathophysiological responses, we compared the time dependent changes in each of these parameters that occur during a 6 week period. Dry eye was induced in 6-week-old female C57BL/6 mice by exposing them to an Intelligently Controlled Environmental System (ICES). Sixty mice were housed in ICES for 1, 2, 4 and 6 weeks respectively. Twelve were raised in normal environment and received subcutaneous injections of scopolamine hydrobromide (SCOP) 3 times daily for 5 days. Another sixty mice were housed in a normal environment and received no treatment. Corneal fluorescein staining along with corneal MMP-9 and caspase-3 level measurements were performed in parallel with the TUNEL assay. Interleukin-17(IL-17), IL-23, IL-6, IL-1, TNF-α, IFN-γ and TGF-β2 levels were estimated by real-time PCR measurements of conjunctival and lacrimal gland samples (LGs). Immunohistochemistry of excised LGs along with flow cytometry in cervical lymph nodes evaluated immune cell infiltration. Light and transmission electron microscopy studies evaluated LGs cytoarchitectural changes. ICES induced corneal epithelial destruction and apoptosis peaked at 2 weeks and kept stable in the following 4 weeks. In the ICES group, lacrimal gland proinflammatory cytokine level increases were much lower than those in the SCOP group. In accord with the lower proinflammatory cytokine levels, in the ICES group, lacrimal gland cytosolic vesicular density and size exceeded that in the SCOP group. ICES and SCOP induced murine dry eye effects became progressively more severe over a two week period. Subsequently, the disease process stabilized for the next four weeks. ICES induced local effects in the ocular surface, but failed to elicit lacrimal gland

  8. Forced eye closure-induced reflex seizure and non-ketotic hyperglycemia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tiras, Raziye; Mutlu, Aytul; Ozben, Serkan; Aydemir Tuba; Ozerab, Feriha

    2009-01-01

    We report an uncommon case of 53-year-old female patient with partial seizure induced by forced voluntary eye closure due to non-ketotic hyperglycemia. The initial laboratory tests showed an elevated blood glucose level of 550 mg/dL but no evidence of ketosis. Brain magnetic resonance imaging was normal. When the blood glucose levels decreased slowly to about 150 mg/dL in five days, the seizures ended completely. No anticonvulsants were used. Since seizures are generally refractory to antiepileptic medication, control of blood glucose is essential. (author)

  9. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  10. Rotational seismology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, William H K.

    2016-01-01

    Rotational seismology is an emerging study of all aspects of rotational motions induced by earthquakes, explosions, and ambient vibrations. It is of interest to several disciplines, including seismology, earthquake engineering, geodesy, and earth-based detection of Einstein’s gravitation waves.Rotational effects of seismic waves, together with rotations caused by soil–structure interaction, have been observed for centuries (e.g., rotated chimneys, monuments, and tombstones). Figure 1a shows the rotated monument to George Inglis observed after the 1897 Great Shillong earthquake. This monument had the form of an obelisk rising over 19 metres high from a 4 metre base. During the earthquake, the top part broke off and the remnant of some 6 metres rotated about 15° relative to the base. The study of rotational seismology began only recently when sensitive rotational sensors became available due to advances in aeronautical and astronomical instrumentations.

  11. A CASE OF SELF-INDUCED ACUTE HYDROPS IN A PATIENT WITH IMPULSE CONTROL DISORDER ASSOCIATED WITH COMPULSIVE EYE TRAUMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bindu Madhavi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE To describe acute hydrops in a patient with impulse control disorder (not otherwise specified secondary to self-induced repetitive eye trauma. METHODS A 22-year-old male patient was referred from a psychiatrist with a diagnosis of impulse control disorder not otherwise specified (compulsive impulse self-mutilating behaviour for opacity and watering of both eyes (left eye more than right eye. Left eye showed features of acute hydrops with Descemet’s tear and right eye showed corneal opacity with Descemet’s tear (status post hydrops. RESULT The patient was prescribed cycloplegics, hypertonic saline for left eye and was advised against scratching the eye and was given protective goggles and was told for close followup in conjunction with psychiatric management. CONCLUSION Impulse control disorders are relatively common psychiatric conditions, yet are poorly understood by clinicians, patients suffering from the disorder and public. And hence identification of this disorder and close observation of patient allows for avoiding complications such as progression of hydrops, perforation and infection.

  12. Hall magnetohydrodynamics simulations of end-shorting induced rotation in field-reversed configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macnab, A. I. D.; Milroy, R. D.; Kim, C. C.; Sovinec, C. R.

    2007-01-01

    End-shorting of the open field lines that surround a field-reversed configuration (FRC) is believed to contribute to its observed rotation. In this study, nonlinear extended magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulations were performed that detail the end-shorting process and the resulting spin-up of the FRC. The tangential component of the electric field E T is set to zero at the axial boundaries in an extended MHD model that includes the Hall and ∇P e terms. This shorting of the electric field leads to the generation of toroidal fields on the open field lines, which apply a torque leading to a rotation of the ions on the open field lines. The FRC then gains angular momentum through a viscous transfer from the open field line region. In addition, it is shown that spin-up is still induced when insulating boundaries are assumed

  13. Induced fluid rotation and bistable fluidic turn-down valves (a survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesař Václav

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper surveys engineering applications of an unusual fluidic principle — momentum transfer through a relatively small communicating window into a vortex chamber, where the initially stationary fluid is put into rotation. The transfer is often by shear stress acting in the window plane, but may be enhanced and perhaps even dominated by fluid flow crossing the boundary. The case of zero-time-mean fluid transport through the window has found use in experimental fluid mechanics: non-invasive measurement of wall shear stress on objects by evaluating the induced rotation in the vortex chamber. The case with the non-zero flow through the interface became the starting point in development of fluidic valves combining two otherwise mutually incompatible properties: bistability and flow turning down.

  14. Evaluation criterions and establishment of dry eye model of rats induced by BTX-B

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-Feng Zhu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To establish dry eye model of rats induced by botulinum toxin B(BTX-Band provide the basis for the pathogenesis and experimental treatment of dry eye caused by inflammation. METHODS: Thirty-six healthy female SD rats were selected and divided into four groups randomly, and the experimental group included three groups, which were individually injected 0.1mL 1.25, 5, and 10mU BTX-B solution on the right lacrimal gland; the control group was injected 0.1mL normal saline on the right lacrimal gland, then received Schirmer Ⅰ test(SⅠtand examination of corneal fluorescein(FLstaining respectively at the 3, 7, 14 and 28d. The other 32 rats were selected and divided into two groups randomly, the rats in the experimental group were injected 0.1mL 1.25mU BTX-B solution on the right lacrimal gland and then five rats were randomly chosen to be removed lacrimal gland tissue respectively at the 3, 7, 14, 21, 42d. The Lacritin protein was detected in the qualitative and quantitative way by immunofluorescence and Western-blot, and the histopathological test was received by routine HE staining. RESULTS: The three groups in the experimental group during the preparation of the model appeared that tear secretions decreased and corneal epithelium got damaged at 3d, but there was no significant difference for each other of two changes(P>0.05. The change was reached the peak at 7d and improved at 14d. The tear secretions returned to normal level at 28d, but the damage of corneal epithelium was still existed. The expression of Lacritin protein was only observed in acinar cells of both experimental group and control group, and the content of Lacritin protein in the experimental group decreased significantly. The decreasing situation appeared at 3d, reached the peak at 7d, improved at 14d, began to recover at 28d, and returned to the normal level at 42d. CONCLUSION: Dry eye model of SD rats can be successfully established by lacrimal gland injection of 1.25mU BTX

  15. The anatomy of the rat eye with oxygen-induced retinopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akula, James D; Favazza, Tara L; Mocko, Julie A; Benador, Ilan Y; Asturias, Ana L; Kleinman, Michael S; Hansen, Ronald M; Fulton, Anne B

    2010-02-01

    Prior studies have documented the intertwined developmental courses of retinal blood vessel tortuosity (in fundus photographs) and retinal dysfunction (in electroretinographs) in Sprague-Dawley rat models of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP). Two such models, the "50/10 model" and the "75 model," are named after the oxygen regimens used to induce retinopathy and are characterized by distinct neurovascular courses that span a range of disease severity. In this study of 50/10 and 75 model rats, retinal flatmounts were used to study the full vasculature at postnatal day (P) 15, P19 and P30. In addition, the layers of the neural retina were measured in toluidine blue-stained cross sections. Finally, gross anatomic features of the eye, including axial length, retinal surface area, and the ratio of anterior to posterior axial-lengths were evaluated. Both clock hours of neovascularization (NV) and percent avascular retina (AR) peaked at P19 and resolved by P30. Through P19, NV was found in every 50/10 model rat, but in only 60% of 75 model rats. AR was positively related to NV. All inner layers of the retina (outer plexiform layer through ganglion cell layer) were attenuated in 50/10 model rats but, in the 75 model, no layer differed significantly from that in controls. The eyes in both ROP models were smaller than those of age-matched controls. The ratio of anterior to posterior axial-lengths ranged from 0.45 in controls through 0.37 in the 75 model to 0.32 in the 50/10 model. Thus, eye growth is altered in these rat models of ROP.

  16. Effect of chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate in a mouse model of botulinum toxin B-induced dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongyok, Teeravee; Chae, Jemin J; Shin, Young Joo; Na, Daero; Li, Li; Chuck, Roy S

    2009-04-01

    To evaluate the effect of a thiolated polymer lubricant, chitosan-N-acetylcysteine conjugate (C-NAC), in a mouse model of dry eye. Eye drops containing 0.5% C-NAC, 0.3% C-NAC, a vehicle (control group), artificial tears, or fluorometholone were applied in a masked fashion in a mouse model of induced dry eye from 3 days to 4 weeks after botulinum toxin B injection. Corneal fluorescein staining was periodically recorded. Real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and immunofluorescence staining were performed at the end of the study to evaluate inflammatory cytokine expressions. Mice treated with C-NAC, 0.5%, and fluorometholone showed a downward trend that was not statistically significant in corneal staining compared with the other groups. Chitosan-NAC formulations, fluorometholone, and artificial tears significantly decreased IL-1beta (interleukin 1beta), IL-10, IL-12alpha, and tumor necrosis factor alpha expression in ocular surface tissues. The botulinum toxin B-induced dry eye mouse model is potentially useful in evaluating new dry eye treatment. Evaluation of important molecular biomarkers suggests that C-NAC may impart some protective ocular surface properties. However, clinical data did not indicate statistically significant improvement of tear production and corneal staining in any of the groups tested. Topically applied C-NAC might protect the ocular surface in dry eye syndrome, as evidenced by decreased inflammatory cytokine expression.

  17. On the origin of deformation-induced rotation patterns below nanoindents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaafarani, N.; Raabe, D.; Roters, F.; Zaefferer, S.

    2008-01-01

    This study is about the origin of systematic deformation-induced crystallographic orientation patterns around nanoindents (here of single crystalline copper; conical indenter) using the following approach: first, the rotation pattern is investigated in three-dimensions (3D) using a high-resolution 3D electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) technique (EBSD tomography) which works by a serial sectioning and EBSD mapping procedure in a scanning electron microscopy-focused ion beam cross-beam set-up. Second, the problem is modeled using a crystal plasticity finite element method which is based on a dislocation density-based constitutive model. Third, the results were discussed in terms of a geometrical model which simplifies the boundary conditions during indentation in terms of a compressive state normal to the local tangent of the indent shape. This simplification helps to identify the dominant slip systems and the resulting lattice rotations, thereby allowing us to reveal the basic mechanism of the formation of the rotation patterns. The finite element simulations also predict the pile-up patterning around the indents, which can be related to the dislocation density evolution

  18. Matching asteroid population characteristics with a model constructed from the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Seth A.; Marzari, Francesco; Rossi, Alessandro; Scheeres, Daniel J.

    2016-10-01

    From the results of a comprehensive asteroid population evolution model, we conclude that the YORP-induced rotational fission hypothesis is consistent with the observed population statistics of small asteroids in the main belt including binaries and contact binaries. These conclusions rest on the asteroid rotation model of Marzari et al. ([2011]Icarus, 214, 622-631), which incorporates both the YORP effect and collisional evolution. This work adds to that model the rotational fission hypothesis, described in detail within, and the binary evolution model of Jacobson et al. ([2011a] Icarus, 214, 161-178) and Jacobson et al. ([2011b] The Astrophysical Journal Letters, 736, L19). Our complete asteroid population evolution model is highly constrained by these and other previous works, and therefore it has only two significant free parameters: the ratio of low to high mass ratio binaries formed after rotational fission events and the mean strength of the binary YORP (BYORP) effect. We successfully reproduce characteristic statistics of the small asteroid population: the binary fraction, the fast binary fraction, steady-state mass ratio fraction and the contact binary fraction. We find that in order for the model to best match observations, rotational fission produces high mass ratio (> 0.2) binary components with four to eight times the frequency as low mass ratio (<0.2) components, where the mass ratio is the mass of the secondary component divided by the mass of the primary component. This is consistent with post-rotational fission binary system mass ratio being drawn from either a flat or a positive and shallow distribution, since the high mass ratio bin is four times the size of the low mass ratio bin; this is in contrast to the observed steady-state binary mass ratio, which has a negative and steep distribution. This can be understood in the context of the BYORP-tidal equilibrium hypothesis, which predicts that low mass ratio binaries survive for a significantly

  19. Rotating magnetic field induced oscillation of magnetic particles for in vivo mechanical destruction of malignant glioma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Yu; Muroski, Megan E; Petit, Dorothée C M C; Mansell, Rhodri; Vemulkar, Tarun; Morshed, Ramin A; Han, Yu; Balyasnikova, Irina V; Horbinski, Craig M; Huang, Xinlei; Zhang, Lingjiao; Cowburn, Russell P; Lesniak, Maciej S

    2016-02-10

    Magnetic particles that can be precisely controlled under a magnetic field and transduce energy from the applied field open the way for innovative cancer treatment. Although these particles represent an area of active development for drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia, the in vivo anti-tumor effect under a low-frequency magnetic field using magnetic particles has not yet been demonstrated. To-date, induced cancer cell death via the oscillation of nanoparticles under a low-frequency magnetic field has only been observed in vitro. In this report, we demonstrate the successful use of spin-vortex, disk-shaped permalloy magnetic particles in a low-frequency, rotating magnetic field for the in vitro and in vivo destruction of glioma cells. The internalized nanomagnets align themselves to the plane of the rotating magnetic field, creating a strong mechanical force which damages the cancer cell structure inducing programmed cell death. In vivo, the magnetic field treatment successfully reduces brain tumor size and increases the survival rate of mice bearing intracranial glioma xenografts, without adverse side effects. This study demonstrates a novel approach of controlling magnetic particles for treating malignant glioma that should be applicable to treat a wide range of cancers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Measurements on rotating ion cyclotron range of frequencies induced particle fluxes in axisymmetric mirror plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatakeyama, R.; Hershkowitz, N.; Majeski, R.; Wen, Y.J.; Brouchous, D.B.; Proberts, P.; Breun, R.A.; Roberts, D.; Vukovic, M.; Tanaka, T.

    1997-01-01

    A comparison of phenomenological features of plasmas is made with a special emphasis on radio-frequency induced transport, which are maintained when a set of two closely spaced dual half-turn antennas in a central cell of the Phaedrus-B axisymmetric tandem mirror [J. J. Browning et al., Phys. Fluids B 1, 1692 (1989)] is phased to excite electromagnetic fields in the ion cyclotron range of frequencies (ICRF) with m=-1 (rotating with ions) and m=+1 (rotating with electrons) azimuthal modes. Positive and negative electric currents are measured to flow axially to the end walls in the cases of m=-1 and m=+1 excitations, respectively. These parallel nonambipolar ion and electron fluxes are observed to be accompanied by azimuthal ion flows in the same directions as the antenna-excitation modes m. The phenomena are argued in terms of radial particle fluxes due to a nonambipolar transport mechanism [Hojo and Hatori, J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 2510 (1991); Hatakeyama et al., J. Phys. Soc. Jpn. 60, 2815 (1991), and Phys. Rev. E 52, 6664 (1995)], which are induced when azimuthally traveling ICRF waves are absorbed in the magnetized plasma column. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  1. winged eye Induces Transdetermination of Drosophila Imaginal Disc by Acting in Concert with a Histone Methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9

    OpenAIRE

    Keita Masuko; Naoyuki Fuse; Kanae Komaba; Tomonori Katsuyama; Rumi Nakajima; Hirofumi Furuhashi; Shoichiro Kurata

    2018-01-01

    Summary: Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit a remarkable ability to convert cell fates in response to various perturbations, a phenomenon called transdetermination (TD). We previously identified winged eye (wge) as a factor that induces eye-to-wing TD upon overexpression in eye imaginal discs, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TD have remained largely unclear. Here, we found that wge induces various histone modifications and enhances the methylation of Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9), a f...

  2. Beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) planning based on reweighted total-variation minimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hojin; Li, Ruijiang; Lee, Rena; Xing, Lei

    2015-03-01

    Conventional VMAT optimizes aperture shapes and weights at uniformly sampled stations, which is a generalization of the concept of a control point. Recently, rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) has been proposed to improve the plan quality by inserting beams to the regions that demand additional intensity modulations, thus formulating non-uniform beam sampling. This work presents a new rotational SPORT planning strategy based on reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization (min.), using beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided beam selection. The convex programming based reweighted TV min. assures the simplified fluence-map, which facilitates single-aperture selection at each station for single-arc delivery. For the rotational arc treatment planning and non-uniform beam angle setting, the mathematical model needs to be modified by additional penalty term describing the fluence-map similarity and by determination of appropriate angular weighting factors. The proposed algorithm with additional penalty term is capable of achieving more efficient and deliverable plans adaptive to the conventional VMAT and SPORT planning schemes by reducing the dose delivery time about 5 to 10 s in three clinical cases (one prostate and two head-and-neck (HN) cases with a single and multiple targets). The BEVD guided beam selection provides effective and yet easy calculating methodology to select angles for denser, non-uniform angular sampling in SPORT planning. Our BEVD guided SPORT treatment schemes improve the dose sparing to femoral heads in the prostate and brainstem, parotid glands and oral cavity in the two HN cases, where the mean dose reduction of those organs ranges from 0.5 to 2.5 Gy. Also, it increases the conformation number assessing the dose conformity to the target from 0.84, 0.75 and 0.74 to 0.86, 0.79 and 0.80 in the prostate and two HN cases, while preserving the delivery efficiency, relative to conventional single-arc VMAT plans.

  3. Beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) planning based on reweighted total-variation minimization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Hojin; Li, Ruijiang; Xing, Lei; Lee, Rena

    2015-01-01

    Conventional VMAT optimizes aperture shapes and weights at uniformly sampled stations, which is a generalization of the concept of a control point. Recently, rotational station parameter optimized radiation therapy (SPORT) has been proposed to improve the plan quality by inserting beams to the regions that demand additional intensity modulations, thus formulating non-uniform beam sampling. This work presents a new rotational SPORT planning strategy based on reweighted total-variation (TV) minimization (min.), using beam’s-eye-view dosimetrics (BEVD) guided beam selection. The convex programming based reweighted TV min. assures the simplified fluence-map, which facilitates single-aperture selection at each station for single-arc delivery. For the rotational arc treatment planning and non-uniform beam angle setting, the mathematical model needs to be modified by additional penalty term describing the fluence-map similarity and by determination of appropriate angular weighting factors. The proposed algorithm with additional penalty term is capable of achieving more efficient and deliverable plans adaptive to the conventional VMAT and SPORT planning schemes by reducing the dose delivery time about 5 to 10 s in three clinical cases (one prostate and two head-and-neck (HN) cases with a single and multiple targets). The BEVD guided beam selection provides effective and yet easy calculating methodology to select angles for denser, non-uniform angular sampling in SPORT planning. Our BEVD guided SPORT treatment schemes improve the dose sparing to femoral heads in the prostate and brainstem, parotid glands and oral cavity in the two HN cases, where the mean dose reduction of those organs ranges from 0.5 to 2.5 Gy. Also, it increases the conformation number assessing the dose conformity to the target from 0.84, 0.75 and 0.74 to 0.86, 0.79 and 0.80 in the prostate and two HN cases, while preserving the delivery efficiency, relative to conventional single-arc VMAT plans

  4. The leaves of Diospyros kaki exert beneficial effects on a benzalkonium chloride-induced murine dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyung-A; Hyun, Lee Chung; Jung, Sang Hoon; Yang, Sung Jae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the beneficial effects of the oral administration of ethanol extract of Diospyros kaki (EEDK) were tested on a mouse dry eye model induced by benzalkonium chloride (BAC). A solution of 0.2% BAC was administered topically to mouse eyes for 14 days, twice daily, to induce dry eye. Various concentrations of EEDK were administrated daily by oral gavage for 14 days after BAC treatment. Preservative-free eye drops were instilled in the positive-control group. The tear secretion volume (Schirmer's test), tear break-up time (BUT), and fluorescein score were measured on the ocular surface. BAC-induced corneal damage was tested with hematoxylin-eosin staining. Moreover, apoptotic cell death in the corneal epithelial layer was investigated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) staining. The protein expression level of interleukin-1alpha (IL-1α), IL-1β, IL-6, tumor necrosis factor- alpha (TNF-α), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) was determined with western blot analysis. Furthermore, squamous metaplasia in the corneal epithelial layer was detected with immunofluorescent staining for cytokeratine-10. The cellular proliferation in the cornea was examined with immunohistochemical staining for Ki-67. EEDK treatment resulted in prolonged BUT, decreased fluorescein score, increased tear volume, and smoother epithelial cells compared with BAC treatment alone in the cornea. Moreover, EEDK treatment inhibited the inflammatory response and corneal epithelial cell death in a BAC-induced murine dry eye model, and changes in squamous cells were inhibited. Proliferative activity in the corneal epithelium cells was improved with EEDK. EEDK could be a potential therapeutic agent in the clinical treatment of dry eye.

  5. Protective role of acetylsalicylic acid (Aspirin) against gamma irradiation-induced ophthalmic and histological changes in rat's eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N. I.; Abd El Maguid, A.

    2007-01-01

    Radiation generates a variety of free radicals during the exposure of biological tissues through radiolysis of water. These free radicals are highly reactive and cause oxidative damage to biological molecules. This study examined the protective ability of aspirin against radiation-induced ophthalmic and histological disorders in the eye of rats exposed to 6.5 Gy single dose of gamma irradiation, Acetylsalicylic acid was given daily to rats in drinking water (2.5 g/ L) 1 week pre-irradiation, during irradiation and 9 weeks post-irradiation. Experimental investigations showed that irradiation caused cataract formation. Irradiation also caused histopathological changes in the retina of the eyes described as focal degeneration and necrosis of the inner and outer nuclear layers, vacuolation of ganglionic cell layer as well as necrosis of retinal inner and outer segments of the rods and cones. The cornea revealed vacuolation of stratified epithelial layer, edema in substantia propria with dispersion of the connective tissue as well as presence of extravasated red blood cells as a result of exposure to radiation. The lens became homogenous and oesinophilic due to radiation exposure. The eye tissues of rats .that received acetylsalicylic acid supplement showed slight improvement of radiation-induced histological damage in the eyes and it also delayed the onset of cataract formation. According to the results obtained it could be concluded that oral administration of aspirin gave only a slight, nonsignificant reduction of eye radiation injury after exposure to single dose of gamma irradiation (6.5 Gy). The anatomy, physiology and biochemistry of the visual system make the eye uniquely vulnerable to damage from injurious agents, physical and chemical. Although many studies were conducted on a broad range of agents, the majority of all efforts are directed at deleterious effect of radiation on the eye tissues, and

  6. Solution of magnetic field and eddy current problem induced by rotating magnetic poles (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Z. J.; Low, T. S.

    1996-04-01

    The magnetic field and eddy current problems induced by rotating permanent magnet poles occur in electromagnetic dampers, magnetic couplings, and many other devices. Whereas numerical techniques, for example, finite element methods can be exploited to study various features of these problems, such as heat generation and drag torque development, etc., the analytical solution is always of interest to the designers since it helps them to gain the insight into the interdependence of the parameters involved and provides an efficient tool for designing. Some of the previous work showed that the solution of the eddy current problem due to the linearly moving magnet poles can give satisfactory approximation for the eddy current problem due to rotating fields. However, in many practical cases, especially when the number of magnet poles is small, there is significant effect of flux focusing due to the geometry. The above approximation can therefore lead to marked errors in the theoretical predictions of the device performance. Bernot et al. recently described an analytical solution in a polar coordinate system where the radial field is excited by a time-varying source. A discussion of an analytical solution of the magnetic field and eddy current problems induced by moving magnet poles in radial field machines will be given in this article. The theoretical predictions obtained from this method is compared with the results obtained from finite element calculations. The validity of the method is also checked by the comparison of the theoretical predictions and the measurements from a test machine. It is shown that the introduced solution leads to a significant improvement in the air gap field prediction as compared with the results obtained from the analytical solution that models the eddy current problems induced by linearly moving magnet poles.

  7. Characteristics of retinal reflectance changes induced by transcorneal electrical stimulation in cat eyes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takeshi Morimoto

    Full Text Available Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES activates retinal neurons leading to visual sensations. How the retinal cells are activated by TES has not been definitively determined. Investigating the reflectance changes of the retina is an established technique and has been used to determine the mechanism of retinal activation. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reflectance changes elicited by TES in cat eyes. Eight eyes of Eight cats were studied under general anesthesia. Biphasic electrical pulses were delivered transcornealy. The fundus images observed with near-infrared light (800-880 nm were recorded every 25 ms for 26 s. To improve the signal-to-noise ratio, the images of 10 consecutive recordings were averaged. Two-dimensional topographic maps of the reflective changes were constructed by subtracting images before from those after the TES. The effects of different stimulus parameters, e.g., current intensity, pulse duration, frequency, and stimulus duration, on the reflective changes were studied. Our results showed that after TES, the reflective changes appeared on the retinal vessels and optic disc. The intensity of reflectance changes increased as the current intensity, pulse duration, and stimulation duration increased (P<0.05 for all. The maximum intensity of the reflective change was obtained when the stimulus frequency was 20 Hz. The time course of the reflectance changes was also altered by the stimulation parameters. The response started earlier and returned to the baseline later with higher current intensities, longer pulse durations, but the time of the peak of the response was not changed. These results showed that the reflective changes were due to the activation of retinal neurons by TES and might involve the vascular changes induced by an activation of the retinal neurons.

  8. Performance Analysis of Wind-Induced Piezoelectric Vibration Bimorph Cantilever for Rotating Machinery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongbo Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Harvesting the energy contained in the running environment of rotating machinery would be a good way to supplement energy to the wireless sensor. In this paper, we take piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam with parallel connection mode as energy collector and analyze the factors which can influence the generation performance. First, a modal response theory model is built. Second, the static analysis, modal analysis, and piezoelectric harmonic response analysis of the wind-induced piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam are given in detail. Finally, an experiment is also conducted. The results show that wind-induced piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam has low resonant frequency and stable output under the first modal mode and can achieve the maximum output voltage under the resonant condition. The output voltage increases with the increase of the length and width of wind-induced piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam, but the latter increasing amplitude is relatively smaller. In addition, the output voltage decreases with the increase of the thickness and the ratio of metal substrate to piezoelectric patches thickness. The experiment showed that the voltage amplitude generated by the piezoelectric bimorph cantilever beam can reach the value simulated in ANSYS, which is suitable for actual working conditions.

  9. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin; Wang, Xianfeng; Ikeo, Kazuho; Hirose, Susumu; Gehring, Walter Jakob; Gojobori, Takashi

    2014-01-01

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  10. Evolutionarily conserved transcription factor Apontic controls the G1/S progression by inducing cyclin e during eye development

    KAUST Repository

    Liu, Qingxin

    2014-06-16

    During Drosophila eye development, differentiation initiates in the posterior region of the eye disk and progresses anteriorly as a wave marked by the morphogenetic furrow (MF), which demarcates the boundary between anterior undifferentiated cells and posterior differentiated photoreceptors. However, the mechanism underlying the regulation of gene expression immediately before the onset of differentiation remains unclear. Here, we show that Apontic (Apt), which is an evolutionarily conserved transcription factor, is expressed in the differentiating cells posterior to the MF. Moreover, it directly induces the expression of cyclin E and is also required for the G1-to-S phase transition, which is known to be essential for the initiation of cell differentiation at the MF. These observations identify a pathway crucial for eye development, governed by a mechanism in which Cyclin E promotes the G1-to-S phase transition when regulated by Apt.

  11. Microfabricated ommatidia using a laser induced self-writing process for high resolution artificial compound eye optical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Hyukjin; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2009-08-17

    A microfabricated compound eye, comparable to a natural compound eye shows a spherical arrangement of integrated optical units called artificial ommatidia. Each consists of a self-aligned microlens and waveguide. The increase of waveguide length is imperative to obtain high resolution images through an artificial compound eye for wide field-of - view imaging as well as fast motion detection. This work presents an effective method for increasing the waveguide length of artificial ommatidium using a laser induced self-writing process in a photosensitive polymer resin. The numerical and experimental results show the uniform formation of waveguides and the increment of waveguide length over 850 microm. (c) 2009 Optical Society of America

  12. Egg clutch dehydration induces early hatching in red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María José Salica

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Terrestrial eggs have evolved repeatedly in tropical anurans exposing embryos to the new threat of dehydration. Red-eyed treefrogs, Agalychnis callidryas, lay eggs on plants over water. Maternally provided water allows shaded eggs in humid sites to develop to hatching without rainfall, but unshaded eggs and those in less humid sites can die from dehydration. Hatching responses of amphibian eggs to dry conditions are known from two lineages with independent origins of terrestrial eggs. Here, we experimentally tested for dehydration-induced early hatching in another lineage (Agalychnis callidryas, Phyllomedusidae, representing a third independent origin of terrestrial eggs. We also investigated how dehydration affected egg and clutch structure, and egg mortality. We collected clutches from a pond in Gamboa, Panama, and randomly allocated them to wet or dry treatments at age 1 day. Embryos hatched earlier from dry clutches than from wet clutches, accelerating hatching by ∼11%. Clutch thickness and egg diameter were affected by dehydration, diverging between treatments over time. Meanwhile, mortality in dry clutches was six-fold higher than in control clutches. With this study, early hatching responses to escape mortality from egg dehydration are now known from three anuran lineages with independent origins of terrestrial eggs, suggesting they may be widespread. Further studies are needed to understand how terrestrial amphibian eggs can respond to, or will be affected by, rapid changes in climate over the next decades.

  13. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  14. Protective effects of carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, against chemical induced dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Na, Yoon-Ju; Choi, Kyoung-Jin; Park, Sung Bum; Sung, Hye-Rim; Jung, Won Hoon; Kim, Hee Youn; Rhee, Sang Dal; Kim, Ki Young

    2017-11-01

    Dry eye syndrome (DES) is a disorder of the eye due to tear deficiency or excessive evaporation that causes damage to the eye and is associated with discomfort and dryness. 11β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase 1 (11β-HSD1) is an enzyme that converts inactive cortisone to active cortisol. Recently, 11β-HSD1 has been expressed in human and rodent eyes and has been recognized as a target of glaucoma. In this study, the therapeutic effects and underlying mechanisms of topical carbenoxolone, an 11β-HSD1 inhibitor, were investigated in benzalkonium chloride (BAC)-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells and a rat DES model. In the in vitro study, carbenoxolone dose-dependently inhibited cell death and 11β-HSD1 activity in BAC-treated human conjunctival epithelial cells. For the in vivo study, carbenoxolone or a solvent was administered to the BAC-induced DES model twice daily. BAC-treated rat eyes showed significant increases in ocular surface damage, a reduction of tears, decrease corneal thickness, corneal basement membrane destruction, apoptosis in the conjunctival epithelium, and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-6) and 11β-HSD1. These effects of BAC were reversed by topical carbenoxolone treatment. These results demonstrate that carbenoxolone can prevent DES by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokine expression and cell death of the corneal and conjunctival epithelium via inhibition of both 11β-HSD1 activity and expression in the eyes of BAC-treated rats. It is suggested that topical 11β-HSD1 inhibitors may provide a new therapeutic window in the prevention and/or treatment of DES.

  15. Rotations in a Vertebrate Setting

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCollum, Gin

    2003-05-01

    Rotational movements of the head are often considered to be measured in a single three dimensional coordinate system implemented by the semicircular canals of the vestibular system of the inner ear. However, the vertebrate body -- including the nervous system -- obeys rectangular symmetries alien to rotation groups. At best, nervous systems mimic the physical rotation group in a fragmented way, only partially reintegrating physical movements in whole organism responses. The vestibular canal reference frame is widely used in nervous systems, for example by eye movements. It is used to some extent even in the cerebrum, as evidenced by the remission of hemineglect -- in which half of space is ignored -- when the vestibular system is stimulated. However, reintegration of space by the organism remains incomplete. For example, compensatory eye movements (which in most cases aid visual fixation) may disagree with conscious self-motion perception. In addition, movement-induced nausea, illusions, and cue-free perceptions demonstrate symmetry breaking or incomplete spatial symmetries. As part of a long-term project to investigate rotation groups in nervous systems, we have analyzed the symmetry group of a primary vestibulo-spinal projection.

  16. Rotation of a Spherical Particle with Electrical Dipole Moment Induced by Steady Irradiation in a Static Electric Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. I.

    2018-04-01

    Rotation of a spherical particle in a static electric field and under steady irradiation that induces an electric dipole moment in the particle is studied for the first time. Along with the general treatment of the phenomenon, we analyze possible mechanisms underlying the photoinduction of dipole moment in the particle. Estimations of the angular velocity and the power expended by the rotating particle are provided. The indicated characteristics reach their maximum values if the size of particles is within the range of 10 nm to 10 μm.

  17. Seed coat color, weight and eye pattern inheritance in gamma-rays induced cowpea M2-mutant line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reda M. Gaafar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Gamma radiation is a very effective tool for inducing genetic variation in characters of many plants. Black seeds of M2 mutant were obtained after exposure of an Egyptian cowpea cultivar (Kaha 1 to a low dose of gamma rays. Segregation of seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and seed eye pattern of the black seeds of this mutant line were further examined in this study. Four colors were observed for seed coat in the M3 plants ranging from cream to reddish brown and three eye patterns were distinguished from each other. SDS–PAGE of the seed storage proteins showed 18 protein bands; five of these bands disappeared in the seeds of M3 plants compared to M2 and M0 controls while other 5 protein bands were specifically observed in seeds of M3 plants. PCR analysis using twelve ISSR primers showed 47 polymorphic and 8 unique amplicons. The eight unique amplicons were characteristic of the cream coat color and brown wide eye pattern (M03-G10 while the polymorphic bands were shared by 6 coat-color groups. A PCR fragment of 850 bp was amplified, using primer HB-12, in M3-G04 which showed high-100 seed weight. These results demonstrated the mutagenic effects of gamma rays on seed coat color, weight of 100 seeds and eye pattern of cowpea M3 mutant plants.

  18. Sensing Passive Eye Response to Impact Induced Head Acceleration Using MEMS IMUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Yuan; Bottenfield, Brent; Bolding, Mark; Liu, Lei; Adams, Mark L

    2018-02-01

    The eye may act as a surrogate for the brain in response to head acceleration during an impact. Passive eye movements in a dynamic system are sensed by microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) inertial measurement units (IMU) in this paper. The technique is validated using a three-dimensional printed scaled human skull model and on human volunteers by performing drop-and-impact experiments with ribbon-style flexible printed circuit board IMUs inserted in the eyes and reference IMUs on the heads. Data are captured by a microcontroller unit and processed using data fusion. Displacements are thus estimated and match the measured parameters. Relative accelerations and displacements of the eye to the head are computed indicating the influence of the concussion causing impacts.

  19. Rapid eye movement sleep deprivation induces an increase in acetylcholinesterase activity in discrete rat brain regions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito M.A.C.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Some upper brainstem cholinergic neurons (pedunculopontine and laterodorsal tegmental nuclei are involved in the generation of rapid eye movement (REM sleep and project rostrally to the thalamus and caudally to the medulla oblongata. A previous report showed that 96 h of REM sleep deprivation in rats induced an increase in the activity of brainstem acetylcholinesterase (Achase, the enzyme which inactivates acetylcholine (Ach in the synaptic cleft. There was no change in the enzyme's activity in the whole brain and cerebrum. The components of the cholinergic synaptic endings (for example, Achase are not uniformly distributed throughout the discrete regions of the brain. In order to detect possible regional changes we measured Achase activity in several discrete rat brain regions (medulla oblongata, pons, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex after 96 h of REM sleep deprivation. Naive adult male Wistar rats were deprived of REM sleep using the flower-pot technique, while control rats were left in their home cages. Total, membrane-bound and soluble Achase activities (nmol of thiocholine formed min-1 mg protein-1 were assayed photometrically. The results (mean ± SD obtained showed a statistically significant (Student t-test increase in total Achase activity in the pons (control: 147.8 ± 12.8, REM sleep-deprived: 169.3 ± 17.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.025 and thalamus (control: 167.4 ± 29.0, REM sleep-deprived: 191.9 ± 15.4, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05. Increases in membrane-bound Achase activity in the pons (control: 171.0 ± 14.7, REM sleep-deprived: 189.5 ± 19.5, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 and soluble enzyme activity in the medulla oblongata (control: 147.6 ± 16.3, REM sleep-deprived: 163.8 ± 8.3, N = 6 for both groups, P<0.05 were also observed. There were no statistically significant differences in the enzyme's activity in the other brain regions assayed. The present findings show that the increase in Achase activity

  20. Visible light induced changes in the immune response through an eye-brain mechanism (photoneuroimmunology).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, J E

    1995-07-01

    The immune system is susceptible to a variety of stresses. Recent work in neuroimmunology has begun to define how mood alteration, stress, the seasons, and daily rhythms can have a profound effect on immune response through hormonal modifications. Central to these factors may be light through an eye-brain hormonal modulation. In adult primates, only visible light (400-700 nm) is received by the retina. This photic energy is then transduced and delivered to the visual cortex and by an alternative pathway to the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). The SCN is a part of the hypothalamic region in the brain believed to direct circadian rhythm. Visible light exposure also modulates the pituitary and pineal gland which leads to neuroendocrine changes. Melatonin, norepinephrine and acetylcholine decrease with light activation, while cortisol, serotonin, gaba and dopamine levels increase. The synthesis of vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP), gastrin releasing peptide (GRP) and neuropeptide Y (NPY) in rat SCN has been shown to be modified by light. These induced neuroendocrine changes can lead to alterations in mood and circadian rhythm. All of these neuroendocrine changes can lead to immune modulation. An alternative pathway for immune modulation by light is through the skin. Visible light (400-700 nm) can penetrate epidermal and dermal layers of the skin and may directly interact with circulating lymphocytes to modulate immune function. However, even in the presence of phototoxic agents such as eosin and rose bengal, visible light did not produce suppression of contact hypersensitivity with suppresser cells. In contrast to visible light, in vivo exposure to UV-B (280-320 nm) and UV-A (320-400 nm) radiation can only alter normal human immune function by a skin mediated response. Each UV subgroup (B, A) induces an immunosuppressive response but by differing mechanisms involving the regulation of differing interleukins and growth factors. Some effects observed in humans are

  1. Time course of ocular surface and lacrimal gland changes in a new scopolamine-induced dry eye model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viau, Sabrina; Maire, Marie-Annick; Pasquis, Bruno; Grégoire, Stéphane; Fourgeux, Cynthia; Acar, Niyazi; Bretillon, Lionel; Creuzot-Garcher, Catherine P; Joffre, Corinne

    2008-06-01

    The aim of this study was to set up an animal model of dry eye showing disturbance in several components of the lacrimal functional unit, and to describe the time course of the appearance of clinical signs and inflammatory markers. Dry eye was induced in 6-week-old female Lewis rats by a systemic and continuous delivery of scopolamine via osmotic pumps implanted subcutaneously. We first determined the appropriate dose of scopolamine (6, 12.5, or 25 mg/day) for 28 days. In a second set of experiments, we determined markers after 1, 2, 3, 7, 10, 17, or 28 days of a 12.5-mg/day dose. Clinical signs of corneal dryness were evaluated in vivo using fluorescein staining. MHC II expression and mucin Muc5AC production were detected on the conjunctival epithelium using immunostaining. The level of IL-1beta, IL-6, TNF-alpha, and IFN-gamma mRNA was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction in conjunctiva and exorbital lacrimal gland (LG). Lipids were extracted from the exorbital LG for fatty acid analysis. Daily scopolamine doses of 12.5 mg and 25 mg applied for a 28-day period induced keratitis, a decrease in Muc5AC immunostaining density in the conjunctival epithelium, and modifications in the fatty acid composition of the exorbital LG. Animals treated with a 12.5-mg/day dose of scopolamine exhibited an increase in corneal fluorescein staining after 2, 10, and 28 days. All animals exhibited unilateral or bilateral keratitis after 17 days. In the conjunctival epithelium, a significant decrease in Muc5AC immunostaining density was observed at early and late time points, and MHC II expression tended to be increased after 1, 7, 10, and 28 days, without reaching statistical significance. The levels of TNF-alpha, IL-1beta and IL-6 mRNA were increased with scopolamine treatment in both conjunctiva and exorbital LG. Arachidonic acid and the Delta5 desaturase index were significantly increased in the exorbital LG of dry eye animals at each time point. This systemic and

  2. Shear-induced autorotation of freely rotatable cylinder in a channel flow at moderate Reynolds number

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Yi; Lin, Jianzhong; Ku, Xiaoke; Chan, Tatleung

    2018-04-01

    Flow past a center-pinned freely rotatable cylinder asymmetrically confined in a two-dimensional channel is simulated with the lattice Boltzmann method for a range of Reynolds number 0.1 ≤ Re ≤ 200, eccentricity ratio 0/8 ≤ ɛ ≤ 7/8, and blockage ratio 0.1 ≤ β ≤ 0.5. It is found that the inertia tends to facilitate the anomalous clockwise rotation of the cylinder. As the eccentricity ratio increases, the cylinder rotates faster in the counterclockwise direction and then slows down at a range of Re 40, there exists an anomalous clockwise rotation for the cylinder at a low eccentricity ratio and the domain where the cylinder rotates anomalously becomes larger with the increase in the Reynolds number. In a channel with a higher blockage ratio, the rotation of the cylinder is more sensitive to the change of cylinder lateral position, and the separatrix at which the cylinder remains a state of rest moves upward generally. The cylinder is more likely to rotate counterclockwise and the rotating velocity is larger. At a lower blockage ratio, the anomalous clockwise rotation is more likely to occur, and the largest rotating velocity occurs when the blockage ratio is equal to 0.3. The mechanism of distinct rotational behavior of the cylinder is attributed to the transformation of distribution of shear stress which is resulted from the variation of pressure drop, the shift of maximum or minimum pressure zones along the upper and lower semi-cylinder surface, and the movement of stagnant point and separate point. Finally, the effects of the cylinder rotation on the flow structure and hydrodynamic force exerted on the cylinder surface are analyzed as well.

  3. First measurement of poloidal-field-induced Faraday rotation in a tokamak plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kunz, W.; Association Euratom-CEA sur la Fusion, Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Fontenay-aux-Roses, 92

    1978-01-01

    Faraday rotation measurements using a ferrite modulation technique were performed on one channel of the 337 μm-interferometer on TFR. The experiment is intended as a preparatory step towards poloidal-field determination on the basis of the Faraday effect in a multi-channel configuration. The technical feasibility of precise Faraday rotation measurements under machine conditions is demonstrated. The measured rotation is unambiguously due to the poloidal magnetic field and agrees fairly with what can be estimated. (author)

  4. Seismic induced nonlinear rotor-bearing-casing interaction of rotating nuclear components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Choy, F.K.; Padovan, J.; Li, W.H.

    1989-01-01

    The study of the dynamics of turbomachinery during seismic events has been of continuous interest to both researchers and designers of large rotating equipment. Failure in such equipment, especially those associated with nuclear power generation, can lead to catastrophic consequences. Hence, there is a general trend for corporations to overdesign the equipment without any indepth understanding of the dynamical performance of the machine under extreme operating conditions. The overall objective of this paper are fourfold, namely: (1) To study the nonlinear dynamics of rotor-bearing casing system during rub interactions; (2) To examine the effects of suddenly induced imbalance and base motion in the global dynamical behavior of the system; (3) To develop engineering insights through the modal parameters in both time and frequency domain; (4) To generate signature analysis on rub forces for pattern recognition. These goals are achieved through the development of a modal impact model. Accuracy and efficiency of this transient model are maintained using a self-adaptive integration scheme

  5. Neural basis of stereotype-induced shifts in women's mental rotation performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wraga, Maryjane; Helt, Molly; Jacobs, Emily; Sullivan, Kerry

    2007-03-01

    Recent negative focus on women's academic abilities has fueled disputes over gender disparities in the sciences. The controversy derives, in part, from women's relatively poorer performance in aptitude tests, many of which require skills of spatial reasoning. We used functional magnetic imaging to examine the neural structure underlying shifts in women's performance of a spatial reasoning task induced by positive and negative stereotypes. Three groups of participants performed a task involving imagined rotations of the self. Prior to scanning, the positive stereotype group was exposed to a false but plausible stereotype of women's superior perspective-taking abilities; the negative stereotype group was exposed to the pervasive stereotype that men outperform women on spatial tasks; and the control group received neutral information. The significantly poorer performance we found in the negative stereotype group corresponded to increased activation in brain regions associated with increased emotional load. In contrast, the significantly improved performance we found in the positive stereotype group was associated with increased activation in visual processing areas and, to a lesser degree, complex working memory processes. These findings suggest that stereotype messages affect the brain selectively, with positive messages producing relatively more efficient neural strategies than negative messages.

  6. Effects of Toroidal Rotation Sshear on Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podesta, M; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Heidbrink, W W; Crocker, N A; Kubota, S

    2010-08-19

    The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)]. The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.

  7. Effects of Toroidal Rotation Shear on Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Crocker, N.A.; Kubota, S.; Yuh, H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) (M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)). The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.

  8. Elution of Artificial Sputum from Swab by Rotating Magnetic Field-Induced Mechanical Impingement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shubham Banik

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Cotton-tipped applicator swabs are used as a collection device for many biological samples and its complete elution is a desired step for clinical and forensic diagnostics. Swabs are used to collect infectious body fluids, where the concentration of pathogens can range from 1 × 104 CFU/mL (colony forming units/mL in respiratory-tract infections and 1 × 105 in urinary-tract infections, to up to 1 × 109 CFU/mL in salivary samples. These samples are then eluted and lysed, prior to DNA (De-oxy Ribonucleic Acid analysis. The recovery of micro-organisms from a matrix of swab fibres depends on the nature of the body fluid, the type of the swab fibres, and the process of elution. Various methods to elute samples from swab include chemical digestion of fibres (~20% recovery, centrifugation (~58% recovery, piezoelectric vibration, or pressurized fluid-flow (~60% recovery. This study reports a magnetically-actuated physical impingement method for elution and recovery of artificial sputum samples from cotton fibres. A device has been fabricated to induce a rotating magnetic field on smaller magnetic particles in a vial that strikes the swab within a confined gap. Elution from the swab in this device was characterized using 2% Methyl cellulose in deionised water, loaded with fluorescent-tagged polystyrene beads and E. coli at various concentrations. The recovery efficiency was found to increase with both rotational speed and elution time, but plateaus after 400 RPM (Revolutions per minute and 120 s, respectively. At a higher concentration of polystyrene beads (5 × 108 particles/mL, a maximum recovery of ~85% was achieved. With lower concentration, (1 × 105 particles/mL the maximum efficiency (~92.8% was found to be almost twice of passive elution (46.7%. In the case of E. coli, the corresponding recovery efficiency at 3.35 × 105 CFU/mL is 90.4% at 500 RPM and 120 s. This elution method is expected to have a wide applicability in clinical diagnostics.

  9. Gender-Specific Effects of Artificially Induced Gender Beliefs in Mental Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heil, Martin; Jansen, Petra; Quaiser-Pohl, Claudia; Neuburger, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Men outperform women in the Mental Rotation Test (MRT) by about one standard deviation. The present study replicated a gender belief account [Moe, A., & Pazzaglia, F. (2006). Following the instructions! Effects of gender beliefs in mental rotation. Learning and Individual Differences, 16, 369-377.] for (part of) this effect. A sample of 300…

  10. [Association between eye absent homolog 4 gene polymorphisms and occupational noise-induced hearing loss].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Q Y; Xu, X R; Jiao, J; Zheng, Y X; He, L H; Yu, S F; Gu, G Z; Chen, G S; Zhou, W H; Wu, H; Li, Y H; Zhang, H L; Zhang, Z R

    2017-01-06

    Objective: To identify the association between genetic polymorphisms in the eye absent homolog 4 (EYA4) gene and noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL). Method: A nested case control study was conducted based on a cohort of noise-exposed subjects. In total, 292 cases were selected from a steel factory from 6 297 subjects during Jan 1, 2006 to Dec 12, 2015,who had an average hearing threshold of more than 40 dB(A); 584 matched control subjects for each case were designated on the basis of matched criteria including same gender, age (±5 years) and duration of exposure to noise (±2 years). What's more, the control group had an average hearing threshold of less than 35 dB(A) in high frequency and less than 25 dB(A) in speech frequency. Four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of the EYA4 gene were genotyped using a SNPscan TM multiplex SNP genotyping kit. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium tests were performed using a χ 2 test for goodness-of-fit for each SNP among the control group, and the effects of genotypes of the EYA4 gene on NIHL were analyzed by logistic regression. The haplotypes were established and their frequencies in the two groups were assessed using Haploview 4.2 and Phase 2.1 software, and interactive effects between haplotypes and cumulative noise exposure were analyzed. Results: The average age of the subjects was (40.1±8.4) years and the average number of noise-exposed working years was 20.3 (8.4, 27.3) years. The range of noise exposure levels and the cumulative noise exposure were 80.2- 98.8 dB (A) and 86.6- 111.2 dB(A) · year, respectively. After adjustment for covariates including height, blood pressure, drinking status and smoking status, in the noise intensity>85 dB (A) group, subjects carrying the rs3813346 TT genotype had a higher NIHL risk than those carrying the GG genotype, and the adjusted OR (95% CI ) value was 2.12 (1.21- 3.69). In the cumulative noise exposure>98 dB (A) · year group, compared with haplotype TGC, haplotype CGT showed a

  11. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vankan, P.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.; Schram, D.C.; Doebele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has a bandwith of 0.15 cm -1 . The wavelength of the laser radiation is calibrated by simultaneous recording of the two-photon laser induced fluorescence spectrum of nitric oxide. The excited hydrogen populations are calibrated on the basis of coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering measurements. A population distribution is measured in the shock region of a pure hydrogen plasma expansion. The higher rotational levels (J>5) show overpopulation compared to a Boltzmann distribution determined from the lower rotational levels (J≤5)

  12. Determination of enoxaparin with rotational thrombelastometry using the prothrombinase-induced clotting time reagent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaden, Eva; Schober, Andreas; Hacker, Stefan; Spiss, Christian; Chiari, Astrid; Kozek-Langenecker, Sibylle

    2010-04-01

    Drug monitoring of low molecular weight heparin is generally not recommended, but could be reasonable in critically ill patients, whose risk for bleeding or thrombosis shows a high interpatient variability. Anti-Xa assays are not available around the clock even in central hospitals, whereas rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) becomes increasingly used at the bedside. Prothrombinase-induced clotting time (PiCT) reagent allows determination of factor Xa-inhibition in plasma. The aim of our study was to evaluate enoxaparin determination in whole blood with the ROTEM using specific test modifications, including PiCT. After ethics committee's approval, citrated whole blood obtained from overall 16 healthy volunteers was incubated with enoxaparin at 16 different anti-Xa concentrations. Main endpoint was the clotting time (CT) in ROTEM representing initial activation of clot formation. CT was determined in the new PiCT-ROTEM test, in a low-tissue factor-activated modification (LowTF-ROTEM) as well as in the commercially available heparin-sensitive ROTEM assays (HEPTEM and INTEM). In the absence of enoxaparin, CT values were 168.6 +/- 6.1 s (PiCT-ROTEM), 247.3 +/- 18.6 s (LowTF-ROTEM), and -6.2 +/- 7.9 s (INTEM-HEPTEM). A linear dependency (P anti-Xa concentration and CT was found for PiCT-ROTEM, LowTF-ROTEM, and for INTEM-HEPTEM with correlation coefficients of 0.93 for PiCT-ROTEM, 0.94 for LowTF-ROTEM, and 0.81 for INTEM-HEPTEM. This in-vitro experiment demonstrates a strong correlation between enoxaparin anti-Xa concentrations and specific ROTEM tests. These promising assays should be further evaluated for monitoring anticoagulation in high-risk patients in clinical studies.

  13. Rotator cuff tear reduces muscle fiber specific force production and induces macrophage accumulation and autophagy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumucio, Jonathan P; Davis, Max E; Bradley, Joshua R; Stafford, Patrick L; Schiffman, Corey J; Lynch, Evan B; Claflin, Dennis R; Bedi, Asheesh; Mendias, Christopher L

    2012-12-01

    Full-thickness tears to the rotator cuff can cause severe pain and disability. Untreated tears progress in size and are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as "fatty degeneration." To improve the treatment of rotator cuff tears, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential. Using a rat model of rotator cuff injury, we measured the force generating capacity of individual muscle fibers and determined changes in muscle fiber type distribution that develop after a full thickness rotator cuff tear. We also measured the expression of mRNA and miRNA transcripts involved in muscle atrophy, lipid accumulation, and matrix synthesis. We hypothesized that a decrease in specific force of rotator cuff muscle fibers, an accumulation of type IIb fibers, and an upregulation in fibrogenic, adipogenic, and inflammatory gene expression occur in torn rotator cuff muscles. Thirty days following rotator cuff tear, we observed a reduction in muscle fiber force production, an induction of fibrogenic, adipogenic, and autophagocytic mRNA and miRNA molecules, and a dramatic accumulation of macrophages in areas of fat accumulation. Copyright © 2012 Orthopaedic Research Society.

  14. NASA supporting studies for microgravity research on eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Bernard

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the work on this project was to provide support for ground-based studies on the effects of gravity on eye movements. The effects of microgravity on the optokinetic eye movements of humans are investigated. OKN was induced by having subjects watch 3.3 deg stripes moving at 35 deg/s for 45 s in a binocular, head-fixed apparatus. The field (hor., 88 deg; vert., 72 deg), was rotated about axes that were upright or tilted 45 deg or 90 deg. The head was upright or tilted 45 deg on the body. Head-horizontal (yaw axis) and head-vertical (pitch axis) components of OKN were recorded with electro-oculography (EOG). Slow phase velocity vectors were determined relative to gravity. With the head upright, the axis of eye rotation during yaw axis OKN was coincident with the stimulus axis and the spatial vertical. With the head tilted 45 deg on the body, a persistent vertical component of eye velocity developed during yaw axis stimulation, and there was an average shift of the axis of eye rotation toward the spatial vertical of approximately 18 deg in six subjects. During oblique optokinetic stimulation with the head upright, the axis of eye rotation shifted 12 deg toward the spatial vertical. When the head was tilted, the axis of eye rotation rotated to the other side of the spatial vertical by 5.4 deg during the same oblique stimulation. This counter-rotation of the axis of eye rotation is similar to the 'Muller (E) effect', in which the perception of the upright counter-rotates to the opposite side of the spatial vertical when subjects are tilted in darkness. The data were simulated by a model of OKN. Despite the short OKAN time constants, strong horizontal to vertical cross-coupling was produced if the horizontal and vertical time constants were in proper ratio, and there was no suppression of nystagmus orthogonal to the stimulus direction. This shows that the spatial orientation of OKN can be due to a restructuring of the system matrix of velocity storage as a

  15. Radiation-induced eye lens changes and risk for cataract in interventional cardiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciraj-Bjelac, O; Rehani, M; Minamoto, A; Sim, K H; Liew, H B; Vano, E

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have reported a significant increase in eye lens opacities among staff in the cardiac catheterization laboratory but indicated further studies are needed to confirm the findings. To evaluate the prevalence of opacities in eyes of cardiologists, radiographers and nurses working in interventional cardiology. The eyes of 52 staff in interventional cardiology facilities and 34 age- and sex-matched unexposed controls were screened in a cardiology conference held in Kuala Lumpur by dilated slit-lamp examination, and posterior lens changes were graded. Individual cumulative lens X-ray exposures were calculated from responses to a questionnaire in terms of workload and working practice. The prevalence of posterior lens opacities among interventional cardiologists was 53%, while in nurses and radiographers it was 45%. Corresponding relative risks were 2.6 (95% CI: 1.2-5.4) and 2.2 (95% CI: 0.98-4.9), for interventional cardiologists and support staff, respectively. This study confirms a statistically significant increase in radiation-associated posterior lens changes in the eyes of interventional cardiology staff. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  16. Bifurcation and stability analysis of rotating chemical spirals in circular domains: Boundary-induced meandering and stabilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bär, Markus; Bangia, Anil K.; Kevrekidis, Ioannis G.

    2003-05-01

    Recent experimental and model studies have revealed that the domain size may strongly influence the dynamics of rotating spirals in two-dimensional pattern forming chemical reactions. Hartmann et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 76, 1384 (1996)], report a frequency increase of spirals in circular domains with diameters substantially smaller than the spiral wavelength in a large domain for the catalytic NO+CO reaction on a microstructured platinum surface. Accompanying simulations with a simple reaction-diffusion system reproduced the behavior. Here, we supplement these studies by a numerical bifurcation and stability analysis of rotating spirals in a simple activator-inhibitor model. The problem is solved in a corotating frame of reference. No-flux conditions are imposed at the boundary of the circular domain. At large domain sizes, eigenvalues and eigenvectors very close to those corresponding to infinite medium translational invariance are observed. Upon decrease of domain size, we observe a simultaneous change in the rotation frequency and a deviation of these eigenvalues from being neutrally stable (zero real part). The latter phenomenon indicates that the translation symmetry of the spiral solution is appreciably broken due to the interaction with the (now nearby) wall. Various dynamical regimes are found: first, the spiral simply tries to avoid the boundary and its tip moves towards the center of the circular domain corresponding to a negative real part of the “translational” eigenvalues. This effect is noticeable at a domain radius of Rinduced spiral meandering. A systematic study of the spiral rotation as a function of a control parameter and the domain size reveals that the meandering instability in large domains becomes suppressed, and the spiral rotation becomes rigid, at a critical radius Rcr,0. Boundary-induced

  17. The inhibitory effect of different concentrations of KH902 eye drops on corneal neovascularization induced by alkali burn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect of different concentrations of KH902 eye drops on rabbit corneal neovascularization (CNV induced by alkali burn. Methods: Forty-eight adult rabbits were randomized into four groups after alkali burning: Group A (2.5 mg/ml, Group B (5 mg/ml, and Group C (10 mg/ml by different concentrations of KH902 eye drops and Group D by saline solution as control with three times a day for 2 weeks. At days 7, 14, and 28, the anterior segment photographs, confocal microscopy, and histopathology were performed to evaluate corneal opacity, neovascularization, inflammatory cell density, vessel size, and edema. Immunohistochemistry was applied to analyze the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF level. Results: (1 The CNV in the medicine-treated groups showed a reduction without obvious corneal side effects histologically. (2 Compared to the control group, the three medicine-treated groups showed a reduction in the VEGF levels and CNV areas on days 7, 14, and 28 and in the inflammatory cell density on days 14 and 28 (P 0.05. Conclusion: KH902 eye drops in lower concentration showed an obvious reduction of the CNV growing for rabbit corneal alkali burn without side effects.

  18. Eye Allergies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Eye Allergies Sections What Are Eye Allergies? Eye Allergy Symptoms ... allergy diagnosis Eye allergy treatment What Are Eye Allergies? Leer en Español: ¿Qué son las alergias de ...

  19. Rotation induced flow suppression around two tandem circular cylinders at low Reynolds number

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chatterjee, Dipankar [Advanced Design and Analysis Group, CSIR—Central Mechanical Engineering Research Institute, Durgapur-713209 (India); Gupta, Krishan [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Sardar Vallabhai National Institute of Technology Surat, Surat-395007 (India); Kumar, Virendra [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Patna, Patna-800013 (India); Varghese, Sachin Abraham, E-mail: d_chatterjee@cmeri.res.in [Department of Mechanical Engineering, National Institute of Technology Durgapur, Durgapur-713209 (India)

    2017-08-15

    The rotation to a bluff object is known to have a stabilizing effect on the fluid dynamic transport around the body. An unsteady periodic flow can be degenerated into a steady flow pattern depending on the rate of rotation imparted to the body. On the other hand, multiple bodies placed in tandem arrangement with respect to an incoming flow can cause destabilization to the flow as a result of the complicated wake interaction between the bodies. Accordingly, the spacing between the bodies and the rate of rotation have significant impact on the overall fluid dynamic transport around them. The present work aims to understand how these two competing factors are actually influencing the fluidic transport across a pair of identical rotating circular cylinders kept in tandem arrangement in an unconfined medium. The cylinders are subjected to a uniform free stream flow and the gaps between the cylinders are varied as 0.2, 0.7, 1.5 and 3.0. Both the cylinders are made to rotate in the clockwise sense. The Reynolds number based on the free stream flow is taken as 100. A two-dimensional finite volume based transient computation is performed for a range of dimensionless rotational speeds of the cylinders (0 ≤ Ω ≤ 2.75). The results show that the shedding phenomena can be observed up to a critical rate of rotation (Ω{sub cr}) depending on the gap spacing. Beyond Ω{sub cr}, the flow becomes stabilized and finally completely steady as Ω increases further. Increasing the gap initially causes a slight decrease in the critical rotational speed, however, it increases at a rapid rate for larger gap spacing. (paper)

  20. Experimental occlusal interferences. Part IV. Mandibular rotations induced by a pliable interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, L V; Rassouli, N M

    1995-11-01

    In 12 subjects, a pliable, yet unbreakable, intercuspal interference (aluminum shim onlay splint; uniform height of 0.25 mm) was placed between either the right or left maxillary and mandibular second premolars and first molars. During brief and forceful biting (dynamic chewing stroke of about 20 kg force) the interference emulated a semisoft food bolus, and at the end of biting (subsequent static clenching stroke of about 20 kg force) it emulated a rigid metal interference. During dynamic/static biting, rotational electrognathography measured maximum frontal and horizontal plane torque of the right and left mandibular condyles. Eleven subjects (92%) showed frontal plane upward rotation (mean of 1.0 degree) of the condyle contralateral to the interference, and one subject (8%) showed frontal plane upward rotation (0.4 degree) of the condyle ipsilateral to the interference. Two subjects (17%) showed no horizontal plane rotation; seven subjects (58%) showed backward rotation (mean of 0.4 degree) of the condyle contralateral to the interference; and three subjects (25%) showed backward rotation (mean of 0.3 degree) of the condyle ipsilateral to the interference. It is suggested that, in the presence of an occlusal interference, mastication may have both short- and long-term detrimental effects.

  1. Tranexamic acid suppresses ultraviolet B eye irradiation-induced melanocyte activation by decreasing the levels of prohormone convertase 2 and alpha-melanocyte-stimulating hormone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Yamate, Yurika; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2014-12-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medicinal amino acid used in skin whitening care. This study examined the effects of tranexamic acid on the melanocyte activation of the skin induced by an ultraviolet (UV) B eye irradiation. The eye or ear was locally exposed to UVB at a dose of 1.0 kJ/m(2) using a 20SE sunlamp after covering the remaining body surface with aluminum foil. UVB eye irradiation induced melanocyte activation of the skin, similar to that observed following UVB ear irradiation, which was suppressed by the administration of tranexamic acid treatment. The plasma α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) content was increased by UVB irradiation of the eye; however, the increase in α-MSH was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, UVB eye irradiation induced the up-regulation of prohormone convertase (PC) 2 in the pituitary gland. Meanwhile, the increase in PC2 induced by UVB eye irradiation was suppressed by tranexamic acid treatment. These results clearly indicate that tranexamic acid decreases the expression of PC2, which cleavages from proopiomelanocortin to α-MSH in the pituitary gland, thereby suppressing melanocyte activation. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  2. Recovery in stroke rehabilitation through the rotation of preferred directions induced by bimanual movements: a computational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ken Takiyama

    Full Text Available Stroke patients recover more effectively when they are rehabilitated with bimanual movement rather than with unimanual movement; however, it remains unclear why bimanual movement is more effective for stroke recovery. Using a computational model of stroke recovery, this study suggests that bimanual movement facilitates the reorganization of a damaged motor cortex because this movement induces rotations in the preferred directions (PDs of motor cortex neurons. Although the tuning curves of these neurons differ during unimanual and bimanual movement, changes in PD, but not changes in modulation depth, facilitate such reorganization. In addition, this reorganization was facilitated only when encoding PDs are rotated, but decoding PDs are not rotated. Bimanual movement facilitates reorganization because this movement changes neural activities through inter-hemispheric inhibition without changing cortical-spinal-muscle connections. Furthermore, stronger inter-hemispheric inhibition between motor cortices results in more effective reorganization. Thus, this study suggests that bimanual movement is effective for stroke rehabilitation because this movement rotates the encoding PDs of motor cortex neurons.

  3. Long-term evolution and gravitational wave radiation of neutron stars with differential rotation induced by r-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Yunwei; Cao Xiaofeng; Zheng Xiaoping

    2009-01-01

    In a second-order r-mode theory, Sa and Tome found that the r-mode oscillation in neutron stars (NSs) could induce stellar differential rotation, which naturally leads to a saturated state of the oscillation. Based on a consideration of the coupling of the r-modes and the stellar spin and thermal evolution, we carefully investigate the influences of the differential rotation on the long-term evolution of isolated NSs and NSs in low-mass X-ray binaries, where the viscous damping of the r-modes and its resultant effects are taken into account. The numerical results show that, for both kinds of NSs, the differential rotation can significantly prolong the duration of the r-modes. As a result, the stars can keep nearly a constant temperature and constant angular velocity for over a thousand years. Moreover, the persistent radiation of a quasi-monochromatic gravitational wave would also be predicted due to the long-term steady r-mode oscillation and stellar rotation. This increases the detectability of gravitational waves from both young isolated and old accreting NSs. (research papers)

  4. Changes induced to eye lens membrane characterization after treatments with beta radiation from Sr90

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Refaei, F.M.; Morris, M.; Gamal, M.M.; Fadel, M.A.

    1994-12-01

    The effect of β-particles on Na + and k + content, Na + -k + ATPase and histopathological changes of cell membrane were studied in the present work. One of the two eyes of New Zealand rabbits from both sexes were irradiated with β-particles from Sr 90 source to 10, 20, 40 and 60 Gy. The effect of β-particles on lens membrane after 3 months of exposure to 20 and 60 Gy was also studied. The results indicated that the treated and untreated eyes suffered pronounced injuries which deduced from the distribution of ATPase in comparison with the normal control which showed a decrease (reached 52%). As well as uncontrolled transport of the Na + and k + through the membrane and injuries appeared in the histopathological studies. (author). 12 refs, 15 figs, 4 tabs

  5. Air exposure induced characteristics of dry eye in conjunctival tissue culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Lin

    Full Text Available There are several animal models illustrating dry eye pathophysiology. Current study would like to establish an ex vivo tissue culture model for characterizing dry eye. Human conjunctival explants were cultured under airlift or submerged conditions for up to 2 weeks, and only airlifted conjunctival cultures underwent increased epithelial stratification. Starting on day 4, the suprabasal cells displayed decreased K19 expression whereas K10 keratin became evident in airlift group. Pax6 nuclear expression attenuated already at 2 days, while its perinuclear and cytoplasmic expression gradually increased. MUC5AC and MUC19 expression dramatically decreased whereas the full thickness MUC4 and MUC16 expression pattern disappeared soon after initiating the airlift condition. Real time PCR showed K16, K10 and MUC16 gene up-regulated while K19, MUC5AC, MUC19 and MUC4 down-regulated on day 8 and day 14. On day 2 was the appearance of apoptotic epithelial and stromal cells appeared. The Wnt signaling pathway was transiently activated from day 2 to day 10. The inflammatory mediators IL-1β, TNF-α, and MMP-9 were detected in the conditioned media after 6 to 8 days. In conclusion, airlifted conjunctival tissue cultures demonstrated Wnt signaling pathway activation, coupled with squamous metaplasia, mucin pattern alteration, apoptosis and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine expression. These changes mimic the pathohistological alterations described in dry eye. This correspondence suggests that insight into the pathophysiology of dry eye may be aided through the use of airlifted conjunctival tissue cultures.

  6. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-01-01

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10−4 μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH’s protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH’s protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED. PMID:26685899

  7. α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone ameliorates ocular surface dysfunctions and lesions in a scopolamine-induced dry eye model via PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ru, Yusha; Huang, Yue; Liu, Huijuan; Du, Juan; Meng, Zhu; Dou, Zexia; Liu, Xun; Wei, Rui Hua; Zhang, Yan; Zhao, Shaozhen

    2015-12-21

    Dry eye is a highly prevalent, chronic, and multifactorial disease that compromises quality of life and generates socioeconomic burdens. The pathogenic factors of dry eye disease (DED) include tear secretion abnormalities, tear film instability, and ocular surface inflammation. An effective intervention targeting the pathogenic factors is needed to control this disease. Here we applied α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) twice a day to the ocular surface of a scopolamine-induced dry eye rat model. The results showed that α-MSH at different doses ameliorated tear secretion, tear film stability, and corneal integrity, and corrected overexpression of proinflammatory factors, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IFN-γ, in ocular surface of the dry eye rats. Moreover, α-MSH, at 10(-4) μg/μl, maintained corneal morphology, inhibited apoptosis, and restored the number and size of conjunctival goblet cells in the dry eye rats. Mechanistically, α-MSH activated both PKA-CREB and MEK-Erk pathways in the dry eye corneas and conjunctivas; pharmacological blockade of either pathway abolished α-MSH's protective effects, suggesting that both pathways are necessary for α-MSH's protection under dry eye condition. The peliotropic protective functions and explicit signaling mechanism of α-MSH warrant translation of the α-MSH-containing eye drop into a novel and effective intervention to DED.

  8. Accretion-induced luminosity spreads in young clusters: evidence from stellar rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Littlefair, S. P.; Naylor, Tim; Mayne, N. J.; Saunders, Eric; Jeffries, R. D.

    2011-05-01

    We present an analysis of the rotation of young stars in the associations Cepheus OB3b, NGC 2264, 2362 and the Orion Nebula Cluster (ONC). We discover a correlation between rotation rate and position in a colour-magnitude diagram (CMD) such that stars which lie above an empirically determined median pre-main sequence rotate more rapidly than stars which lie below this sequence. The same correlation is seen, with a high degree of statistical significance, in each association studied here. If position within the CMD is interpreted as being due to genuine age spreads within a cluster, then the stars above the median pre-main sequence would be the youngest stars. This would in turn imply that the most rapidly rotating stars in an association are the youngest, and hence those with the largest moments of inertia and highest likelihood of ongoing accretion. Such a result does not fit naturally into the existing picture of angular momentum evolution in young stars, where the stars are braked effectively by their accretion discs until the disc disperses. Instead, we argue that, for a given association of young stars, position within the CMD is not primarily a function of age, but of accretion history. We show that this hypothesis could explain the correlation we observe between rotation rate and position within the CMD.

  9. Experimental occlusal interferences. Part III. Mandibular rotations induced by a rigid interference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rassouli, N M; Christensen, L V

    1995-10-01

    A rigid intercuspal interference (minimum mean height of 0.24 mm) was placed on either the right or left mandibular second premolar and first molar of 12 subjects. During brisk and forceful biting on the interference, rotational electrognathography measured maximum torque of the right and left mandibular condyles in the frontal and horizontal planes of orientation. All subjects showed frontal plan upward rotation (mean of 0.7 degrees) of the mandibular condyle contralateral to the interference. In 33% of the subjects there was no horizontal plane backward rotation. In 58% of the subjects there was horizontal plane backward rotation (mean of 0.5 degrees) of the mandibular condyle ipsilateral to the interference, and in one subject (8%) there was backward horizontal plane rotation (0.1 degree) of the mandibular condyle contralateral to the interference. It was inferred that the masseter muscle, ipsilateral to the interference, generated negative work in order to decelerate frontal plane 'unseating' of the mandibular condyle ipsilateral to the interference. It was inferred that the masseter muscle, contralateral to the interference, produced positive work in order to accelerate frontal plane 'seating' of the mandibular condyle contralateral to the interference. Finally, it was speculated that the impact forces of frontal plane 'seating' of the mandibular condyle, contralateral to the interference, might lead to 'vacuum sticking' of the temporomandibular joint disc because of the formation of negative hydrostatic pressures.

  10. Unique sensitivity of the rabbit eye to X-ray-induced ocular inflammation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bito, L Z; Klein, E M [Columbia Univ., New York (USA). Coll. of Physicians and Surgeons

    1981-10-01

    The effects of X-irradiation of the eye on ocular parameters known to be altered during the inflammatory process were studied on albino and pigmented rabbits, guinea pigs, owl monkeys, cats ducks and pigeons. Within 1.5-3.0 hr after exposure to 10 Gy (1000 rads), all irradiated eyes of either albino or pigmented rabbits showed a significant increase in intraocular pressure, iridial hyperemia, and development of flare and presence of cells in the anterior chamber. Four hours after exposure, the concentration of soluble proteins in the aqueous humor was increased, while that of ascorbic acid was decreased. In contrast, eyes of owl monkeys, cats guinea pigs, ducks and pigeons, exposed to the same or, in some cases, up to eight times higher doses of X-rays, showed no hypertension or development of other parameters of intraocular inflammation. These and previous findings suggest that rabbits, or possibly Lagomorphs in general, are unique among vertebrates in their sensitivity to the early intraocular inflammatory effects of X-rays. In addition, these results seriously question the use of this species as the primary, and frequently sole model for the study of ocular inflammation, its mediation and therapeutics.

  11. The unique sensitivity of the rabbit eye to X-ray-induced ocular inflammation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bito, L.Z.; Klein, E.M.

    1981-01-01

    The effects of X-irradiation of the eye on ocular parameters known to be altered during the inflammatory process were studied on albino and pigmented rabbits, guinea pigs, owl monkeys, cats ducks and pigeons. Within 1.5-3.0 hr after exposure to 10 Gy (1000 rads), all irradiated eyes of either albino or pigmented rabbits showed a significant increase in intraocular pressure, iridial hyperemia, and development of flare and presence of cells in the anterior chamber. Four hours after exposure, the concentration of soluble proteins in the aqueous humor was increased, while that of ascorbic acid was decreased. In contrast, eyes of owl monkeys, cats guinea pigs, ducks and pigeons, exposed to the same or, in some cases, up to eight times higher doses of X-rays, showed no hypertension or development of other parameters of intraocular inflammation. These and previous findings suggest that rabbits, or possibly Lagomorphs in general, are unique among vertebrates in their sensitivity to the early intraocular inflammatory effects of X-rays. In addition, these results seriously question the use of this species as the primary, and frequently sole model for the study of ocular inflammation, its mediation and therapeutics. (author)

  12. Radioprotective effect of septilin on radiation- induced histological and biochemical changes of rat eyes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naguib, N.I.; Abd El Maguid, A.; Fahmy, N.

    2006-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of an herbal formulation septilin as a radioprotector on the histopathological changes of the eye and some biochemical changes of blood in irradiated rats. Male albino rats (120-140 g) were subjected to whole body gamma irradiation (4 Gy or 6 Gy) with or without septilin treatment (100 mg/kg, i.p.) daily for one week before exposure to gamma irradiation. Samples of eye and blood were taken 1, 5 and 10 days post-irradiation. The data showed that radiation exposure caused histopathological changes in the eye manifested by marked degeneration, necrosis and atrophy of inner and outer nuclear cell layers and vacuolation of segments of rods and cones in the retina, lens coagulation and on the other hand, the cornea showed edema in the lamina propria. Radiation exposure also caused blood biochemical alterations exerted by increased levels of lipid peroxides accompanied by decreased levels of protein content and catalase activity. Pre-treatment of rats with septilin exerted a noticeable protection against these radiation effects. The present study demonstrated septilin as a good radioprotective agent and it could be concluded that septilin may be considered as a promising radioprotector drug

  13. winged eye Induces Transdetermination of Drosophila Imaginal Disc by Acting in Concert with a Histone Methyltransferase, Su(var3-9

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keita Masuko

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary: Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit a remarkable ability to convert cell fates in response to various perturbations, a phenomenon called transdetermination (TD. We previously identified winged eye (wge as a factor that induces eye-to-wing TD upon overexpression in eye imaginal discs, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TD have remained largely unclear. Here, we found that wge induces various histone modifications and enhances the methylation of Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9, a feature of heterochromatin. A histone methyltransferase, Su(var3-9, is required for wge-mediated H3K9 methylation and eye-to-wing TD. Su(var3-9 is also required for classical wound-induced TD but not for normal development, suggesting its involvement in several types of imaginal disc TDs. Transcriptome analysis revealed that wge represses eye identity genes independently of Su(var3-9 and activates TD-related genes by acting together with Su(var3-9. These findings provide new insights into diverse types of chromatin regulation at progressive steps of cell-fate conversions. : Drosophila imaginal discs switch disc identity by a process known as transdetermination. Masuko et al. demonstrate that expression of the winged eye gene induces transdetermination through histone modifications such as H3K9-methylation. winged eye regulates expression of transdetermination-related genes via a histone methyltransferase, Su(var3-9. Keywords: Drosophila, imaginal disc, transdetermination, heterochromatin, cell fate, winged eye, reprogramming, Su(var3-9

  14. Preventive and therapeutic effects of SkQ1-containing Visomitin eye drops against light-induced retinal degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novikova, Yu P; Gancharova, O S; Eichler, O V; Philippov, P P; Grigoryan, E N

    2014-10-01

    The human retina is constantly affected by light of varying intensity, this being especially true for photoreceptor cells and retinal pigment epithelium. Traditionally, photoinduced damages of the retina are induced by visible light of high intensity in albino rats using the LIRD (light-induced retinal degeneration) model. This model allows study of pathological processes in the retina and the search for retinoprotectors preventing retinal photodamage. In addition, the etiology and mechanisms of retina damage in the LIRD model have much in common with the mechanisms of the development of age-related retinal disorders, in particular, with age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We have studied preventive and therapeutic effects of Visomitin eye drops (based on the mitochondria-targeted antioxidant SkQ1) on albino rat retinas damaged by bright light. In the first series of experiments, rats receiving Visomitin for two weeks prior to illumination demonstrated significantly less expressed atrophic and degenerative changes in the retina compared to animals receiving similar drops with no SkQ1. In the second series, the illuminated rats were treated for two weeks with Visomitin or similar drops without SkQ1. The damaged retinas of the experimental animals were repaired much more effectively than those of the control animals. Therefore, we conclude that Visomitin SkQ1-containing eye drops have pronounced preventive and therapeutic effects on the photodamaged retina and might be recommended as a photoprotector and a pharmaceutical preparation for the treatment of AMD in combination with conventional medicines.

  15. [The protection of hydrogen-rich saline on a rat dry eye model induced by scopolamine hydrobromide].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Y Y; Hua, N; Ru, Y S; Zhao, S Z

    2017-05-11

    Objective: To evaluate the effect of hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) on dry eye rats induced by subcutaneous injection of scopolamine hydrobromide. Methods: Experiment research. Thirty female Wistar rats at about six weeks old were randomly divided into the normal group, dry eye group, HRS eyedrops group, normal saline eyedrops group (NS), HRS intraperitoneal injection group and NS intraperitoneal injection group, with 5 rats in each group. The dry eye was induced by subcutaneous injection of scopolamine hydrobromide in the latter five groups. The clinical signs of dry eye such as tear volume (SⅠt), tear break-up time (BUT) and corneal epithelial fluorescein staining scores were evaluated on day 7, 14, 21 and 28. On the 28th day, ten eyes in each group were enucleated and processed for paraffin sections for HE, PAS and immunohistochemistry stainings. Analysis of variance was used to test the data, and independent samples t -test was used for comparison between the two groups. Two-way repeated measure ANOVA was used to compare the difference among groups at different time points, one-way ANOVA was used to test the comparisons of the clinical signs at one time, and LSD was used to for comparison between two groups. Results: Before and after the experiment of the day 7, 14, 21, 28, the values of SIt in HRS eyedrops group and HRS intraperitoneal injection group were respectively:(3.625±1.157),(3.313±0.704),(3.250±0.535),(3.313±0.372), (3.375±0.582)mm and (3.500±1.019), (2.893±0.656), (3.321±0.668), (3.179±0.575), (3.214±0.871)mm. The values of BUT were respectively: (2.750±0.707), (2.688±0.594), (2.813±0.753), (3.000±0.756), (2.750±0.707)s and (3.000±0.679), (2.321±0.464), (2.750±0.753), (3.214±0.699), (2.679±0.608)s. The values of fluorescein staining score were respectively: (6.250±0.707), (8.875±0.641), (8.750±0.707), (9.250±0.463), (8.250±1.282) and (6.000±0.679), (9.143±1.027), (8.857±0.770), (9.143±0.949), (8.500±0.760). The difference

  16. Determination of the Three-Dimensional Rate of Cancer Cell Rotation in an Optically-Induced Electrokinetics Chip Using an Optical Flow Algorithm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuliang Zhao

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Our group has reported that Melan-A cells and lymphocytes undergo self-rotation in a homogeneous AC electric field, and found that the rotation velocity of these cells is a key indicator to characterize their physical properties. However, the determination of the rotation properties of a cell by human eyes is both gruesome and time consuming, and not always accurate. In this paper, a method is presented to more accurately determine the 3D cell rotation velocity and axis from a 2D image sequence captured by a single camera. Using the optical flow method, we obtained the 2D motion field data from the image sequence and back-project it onto a 3D sphere model, and then the rotation axis and velocity of the cell were calculated. After testing the algorithm on animated image sequences, experiments were also performed on image sequences of real rotating cells. All of these results indicate that this method is accurate, practical, and useful. Furthermore, the method presented there can also be used to determine the 3D rotation velocity of other types of spherical objects that are commonly used in microfluidic applications, such as beads and microparticles.

  17. Further Study of Λ-Related Quantum Interference of Π-State Diatomic on Collision-Induced Rotational Energy Transfer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Yongqing; Song Peng; Chen Yuehui; Wang Weili; Ma Fengcai

    2005-01-01

    In our previous theoretical studies [Meng-Tao Sun, Yong-Qing Lee, and Feng-Cai Ma, Chem. Phys. Lett. 371 (2003) 342], we have reported the quantum interference on collision-induced rotational energy transfer on CO (A 1 Π, v = 3) with inert gases, which originates from the difference between the two Λ-related collision potential energy surfaces. The interference angle, which measures the degree of coherence, is presented in this paper. Based on the time-dependent first order Born approximation, taking into account the anisotropic Lennard-Jones interaction potentials, the relation of the interference angle with the factors, including experimental temperature, partner, and rotational quantum number, are obtained. The changing tendencies with them are discussed. This theoretical model is important to understanding and performing this kind of experiment.

  18. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-01-01

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines

  19. In-situ study of electromigration-induced grain rotation in Pb-free solder joint by synchrotron microdiffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Kai; Tamura, Nobumichi; Tu, King-Ning

    2008-10-31

    The rotation of Sn grains in Pb-free flip chip solder joints hasn't been reported in literature so far although it has been observed in Sn strips. In this letter, we report the detailed study of the grain orientation evolution induced by electromigration by synchrotron based white beam X-ray microdiffraction. It is found that the grains in solder joint rotate more slowly than in Sn strip even under higher current density. On the other hand, based on our estimation, the reorientation of the grains in solder joints also results in the reduction of electric resistivity, similar to the case of Sn strip. We will also discuss the reason why the electric resistance decreases much more in strips than in the Sn-based solders, and the different driving force for the grain growth in solder joint and in thin film interconnect lines.

  20. Plane of polarization rotation induced by a non-Minkowskian spacetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evangelidis, E.A.

    1979-01-01

    Fermat's principle has been used to derive expressions for the curvature and torsion of the path of the electromagnetic radiation in a medium of refractive index n (= function of space coordinates). Levi-Civita's notion of parallelism further, in conjunction with Brill's results have enabled the derivation (1) of Einstein's formula for the deflection of light, and (2) an expression for the rotation of the plane of polarization, an entirely general relativistic effect, unaccountable in Newtonian physics. Finally, the idea is put forward that the observed rotation of polarization in pulsars might be a purely general relativistic effect due to the non-Minkowskian geometry around them. (Auth.)

  1. Connecting eye to eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dau, Susanne; Rask, Anders Bindslev

    2017-01-01

    Computer Supported Collaborative Learning (CSCL) is used a frame for supporting online and blended learning in educations. The online communication and collaboration are afforded by the social collaboration. However, the social collaboration is based on the establishment of direct eye contact...... (Khalid, Deska & Hugenberg, 2016), but direct eye contact is challenged by the position of the digital devices and thus CSCL. Lack of eye contact is the chief contributor to the negative effects of online disinhibition (Lapidot-Lefler & Barak, 2012) and the problem is the location of the web camera...... at the computer. Eye contact is challenged by the displacement between the senders´ and receivers´ focus on the screen picture and the camera's location at the top or bottom of screens on all digital devices. The aim of this paper is accordingly to investigate the influence of the displacement in eye contact...

  2. Anomalous Ion Heating, Intrinsic and Induced Rotation in the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burke, M. G.; Barr, J. L.; Bongard, M. W.; Fonck, R. J.; Hinson, E. T.; Perry, J. M.; Redd, A. J.; Thome, K. E.

    2014-10-01

    Pegasus plasmas are initiated through either standard, MHD stable, inductive current drive or non-solenoidal local helicity injection (LHI) current drive with strong reconnection activity, providing a rich environment to study ion dynamics. During LHI discharges, a large amount of anomalous impurity ion heating has been observed, with Ti ~ 800 eV but Te < 100 eV. The ion heating is hypothesized to be a result of large-scale magnetic reconnection activity, as the amount of heating scales with increasing fluctuation amplitude of the dominant, edge localized, n = 1 MHD mode. Chordal Ti spatial profiles indicate centrally peaked temperatures, suggesting a region of good confinement near the plasma core surrounded by a stochastic region. LHI plasmas are observed to rotate, perhaps due to an inward radial current generated by the stochastization of the plasma edge by the injected current streams. H-mode plasmas are initiated using a combination of high-field side fueling and Ohmic current drive. This regime shows a significant increase in rotation shear compared to L-mode plasmas. In addition, these plasmas have been observed to rotate in the counter-Ip direction without any external momentum sources. The intrinsic rotation direction is consistent with predictions from the saturated Ohmic confinement regime. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  3. Coherence spectra of rotational and translational components of mining induced seismic events

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Lyubushin, Alexei A.; Kaláb, Zdeněk; Lednická, Markéta; Knejzlík, Jaromír

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 4 (2015), s. 391-402 ISSN 2213-5812 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : rotational component * squared Morlet wavelet coefficient * coherence spectrum * S-5-SR seismometer Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.528, year: 2015 http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s40328-015-0099-3

  4. Femtosecond laser-induced cavitations in the lens of the human eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kessel, Line; Nymand, Jose; Harbst, Michael

    2007-01-01

    attempted to define the cavitation threshold in the human lens in vitro using multiphoton effects base d on radiation from a femtosecond 800 nm Ti:Sapphire laser. Cavitations were observed from pulse energy densities exceeding 16 mJ/cm2, but only after several minutes of exposure and not as a result...... laser effects in the len s that have a potential for therapeutic application and treatment of eye dis ease though further studies are needed to shed light on the nature of the formation of delayed cavitations....

  5. Role descriptions induce gender mismatch effects in eye movements during reading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chiara eReali

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The present eye-tracking study investigates the effect of gender typicality on the resolution of anaphoric personal pronouns in English. Participants read descriptions of a person performing a typically male, typically female or gender-neutral occupational activity. The description was followed by an anaphoric reference (he or she which revealed the referent's gender. The first experiment presented roles which were highly typical for men (e.g., blacksmith or for women (e.g., beautician, the second experiment presented role descriptions with a moderate degree of gender typicality (e.g., psychologist, lawyer. Results revealed a gender mismatch effect in early and late measures in the first experiment and in an early measure in the second experiment. Moreover, eye-movement data for highly typical roles correlated with explicit typicality ratings. The results are discussed from a cross-linguistic perspective, comparing natural gender languages and grammatical gender languages. An interpretation of the cognitive representation of typicality beliefs is proposed.

  6. Pharmacological activities of an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts in UVB-induced oxidative stress and inflammation of human corneal cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigagli, Elisabetta; Cinci, Lorenzo; D'Ambrosio, Mario; Luceri, Cristina

    2017-08-01

    Ultraviolet B (UVB) exposure is a risk factor for corneal damage resulting in oxidative stress, inflammation and cell death. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential protective effects of a commercial eye drop (Dacriovis™) containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts on human corneal epithelial cells (HCEC-12) against UVB radiation-induced oxidative stress and inflammation as well as the underlying mechanisms. The antioxidant potential of the eye drops was evaluated by measuring the ferric reducing antioxidant power and the total phenolic content by Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. HCEC-12 cells were exposed to UVB radiation and treated with the eye drops at various concentrations. Cell viability, wound healing assay, reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, protein and lipid oxidative damage and COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS, SOD-2, HO-1 and GSS gene expression, were assessed. Eye drops were able to protect corneal epithelial cells from UVB-induced cell death and ameliorated the wound healing; the eye drops exhibited a strong antioxidant activity, decreasing ROS levels and protein and lipid oxidative damage. Eye drops also exerted anti-inflammatory activities by decreasing COX-2, IL-1β, iNOS expression, counteracted UVB-induced GSS and SOD-2 expression and restored HO-1 expression to control levels. These findings suggest that an eye drop containing Matricaria chamomilla and Euphrasia officinalis extracts exerts positive effects against UVB induced oxidative stress and inflammation and may be useful in protecting corneal epithelial cells from UVB exposure. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. A Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain isolated from a contact lens-induced acute red eye (CLARE) is protease-deficient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estrellas, P S; Alionte, L G; Hobden, J A

    2000-03-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa proteases are thought to be important virulence factors in the pathogenesis of corneal disease. This study examined protease production from two strains of P. aeruginosa responsible for two very distinct clinical diseases: strain Paer1, isolated from a Contact Lens-induced Acute Red Eye (CLARE), and strain KEI 1025, isolated from a corneal ulcer. Strains were compared to a laboratory strain (ATCC 19660) known to produce severe keratitis in experimentally infected mice for protease production and for ocular virulence. Protease production was examined with colorimetric assays, gelatin zymography and western blots. Elastase A activity was quantitated with a staphylolytic assay. Ocular virulence was examined using a mouse scratch model of keratitis. In contrast to strains KEI 1025 or ATCC 19660, Paer1 was unable to produce enzymatically active elastase A, elastase, and protease IV. All three strains produced active alkaline protease. Strains KEI 1025 and ATCC 19660 produced a fulminant keratitis in mice whereas Paer1 produced a mild transient infection. Restoration of elastase activity in Paer1 via genetic complementation did not result in a virulent phenotype. Co-infection of mouse eyes with strains Paer1 and ATCC 19660 resulted in the eventual loss of Paer1 from corneal tissue. These studies suggest that P. aeruginosa elastase A and/or protease IV, but not alkaline protease or elastase, contribute to the ocular virulence of this organism.

  8. Topological spin excitations induced by an external magnetic field coupled to a surface with rotational symmetry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho-Santos, Vagson L.; Dandoloff, Rossen

    2013-01-01

    We study the Heisenberg model in an external magnetic field on curved surfaces with rotational symmetry. The Euler-Lagrange static equations, derived from the Hamiltonian, lead to the inhomogeneous double sine-Gordon equation. Nonetheless, if the magnetic field is coupled to the metric elements of the surface, and consequently to its curvature, the homogeneous double sine-Gordon equation emerges and a 2π-soliton solution is obtained. In order to satisfy the self-dual equations, surface deformations are predicted to appear at the sector where the spin direction is opposite to the magnetic field. On the basis of the model, we find the characteristic length of the 2π-soliton for three specific rotationally symmetric surfaces: the cylinder, the catenoid, and the hyperboloid. On finite surfaces, such as the sphere, torus, and barrels, fractional 2π-solitons are predicted to appear. (author)

  9. Comparison of MHD-induced rotation damping with NTV predictions on MAST

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hua, M-D; Chapman, I T; Field, A R; Hastie, R J; Pinches, S D

    2010-01-01

    Plasma rotation in tokamaks is of special interest for its potential stabilizing effect on micro- and macro-instabilities, leading to increased confinement. In MAST, the torque from neutral beam injection can spin the plasma to a core velocity ∼300 km s -1 (Alfven Mach number ∼0.3). Low density plasmas often exhibit a weakly non-monotonic safety factor profile just above unity. Theory predicts that such equilibria are prone to magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) instabilities, which was confirmed by recent observations. The appearance of the mode is accompanied by strong damping of core rotation on a timescale much faster than the momentum confinement time. The mode's saturated structure is estimated using the CASTOR code together with soft x-ray measurements, enabling the calculation of the plasma braking by the MHD mode according to neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) theory. The latter exhibits strong similarities with the torque measured experimentally.

  10. Hyperthermia with rotating magnetic nanowires inducing heat into tumor by fluid friction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Egolf, Peter W.; Pawlowski, Anne-Gabrielle; Tsague, Paulin; Marco, Bastien de; Bovy, William; Tucev, Sinisa [Institute of Thermal Sciences and Engineering, University of Applied Sciences of Western Switzerland, CH 1401 Yverdon-les-Bains (Switzerland); Shamsudhin, Naveen, E-mail: snaveen@ethz.ch; Pané, Salvador; Pokki, Juho; Ansari, M. H. D.; Nelson, Bradley J. [Multi-Scale Robotics Lab, Institute of Robotics and Intelligent Systems, ETH Zurich, CH 8092 Zurich (Switzerland); Vuarnoz, Didier [Ecole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL), EPFL Fribourg, CH 1701 Fribourg (Switzerland)

    2016-08-14

    A magnetic hyperthermia cancer treatment strategy that does not operate by means of conventional heating mechanisms is presented. The proposed approach consists of injecting a gel with homogeneously distributed magnetic nanowires into a tumor. Upon the application of a low-frequency rotating or circularly polarized magnetic field, nanowires spin around their center of viscous drag due to torque generated by shape anisotropy. As a result of external rotational forcing and fluid friction in the nanoparticle's boundary layer, heating occurs. The nanowire dynamics is theoretically and experimentally investigated, and different feasibility proofs of the principle by physical modeling, which adhere to medical guidelines, are presented. The magnetic nanorotors exhibit rotations and oscillations with quite a steady center of gravity, which proves an immobile behavior and guarantees a time-independent homogeneity of the spatial particle distribution in the tumor. Furthermore, a fluid dynamic and thermodynamic heating model is briefly introduced. This model is a generalization of Penne's model that for this method reveals theoretic heating rates that are sufficiently high, and fits well into medical limits defined by present standards.

  11. winged eye Induces Transdetermination of Drosophila Imaginal Disc by Acting in Concert with a Histone Methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masuko, Keita; Fuse, Naoyuki; Komaba, Kanae; Katsuyama, Tomonori; Nakajima, Rumi; Furuhashi, Hirofumi; Kurata, Shoichiro

    2018-01-02

    Drosophila imaginal disc cells exhibit a remarkable ability to convert cell fates in response to various perturbations, a phenomenon called transdetermination (TD). We previously identified winged eye (wge) as a factor that induces eye-to-wing TD upon overexpression in eye imaginal discs, but the molecular mechanisms underlying TD have remained largely unclear. Here, we found that wge induces various histone modifications and enhances the methylation of Lys9 on histone H3 (H3K9), a feature of heterochromatin. A histone methyltransferase, Su(var)3-9, is required for wge-mediated H3K9 methylation and eye-to-wing TD. Su(var)3-9 is also required for classical wound-induced TD but not for normal development, suggesting its involvement in several types of imaginal disc TDs. Transcriptome analysis revealed that wge represses eye identity genes independently of Su(var)3-9 and activates TD-related genes by acting together with Su(var)3-9. These findings provide new insights into diverse types of chromatin regulation at progressive steps of cell-fate conversions. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Rotation of a piston pin in the small connecting rod eye during engine operation; Drehung eines Kolbenbolzens im kleinen Pleuelauge waehrend des Motorbetriebs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wachtmeister, Georg; Hubert, Andreas [Technische Univ. Muenchen (DE). Lehrstuhl fuer Verbrennungskraftmaschinen (LVK)

    2008-12-15

    A constant increase of powerful combustion engines has lead to higher loads on the crankshaft drive and piston pin. To ensure a robust design the effective forces and movements at the piston pin have to be known. At the Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Chair of Internal Combustion Engines, a research project looked into the piston pins movement during engine operation. The main goal was to determine the rotary movements of the piston pin by measurement at a 4-l gas SI engine as a function of the engine load and speed and to clarify the mechanisms that cause the rotary movement of the piston pin especially in the small connecting rod eye. (orig.)

  13. The role of the arachidonic acid cascade in the species-specific X-ray-induced inflammation of the rabbit eye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bito, L.Z.; Klein, E.M.

    1982-01-01

    To identify the mediator(s) of the apparently species-specific X-ray-induced inflammation of the rabbit eye, inhibitors of the synthesis and/or release of known or putative mediators of ocular inflammation were administered prior to irradiation. The X-ray-induced ocular inflammation, particularly the rise in intraocular pressure, was found to be inhibited by intravenous pretreatment of rabbits with flurbiprofen, indomethacin, or imidazole (1, 10, and 100 mg/kg i.v., respectively), or by combined intravitreal and topical administration of flurbiprofen. Systemic, intravitreal, and/or topical pretreatment with prednisolone or disodium cromoglycate or the retrobulbar injection of ethyl alcohol or capsaicin failed to block the inflammatory response, whereas vitamin E apparently exerted some protective effect. These findings show that the X-ray-induced inflammation of the rabbit eye is mediated, at least in part, by prostaglandins (PGs) and/or related autacoids. In addition, these results suggest that the unique sensitivity of the rabbit eye to X-ray-induced inflammation is due either to the presence in this species of a unique or uniquely effective triggering mechanism for the release of PG precursors or to the greater sensitivity of this species to the ocular inflammatory effects of PGs. Thus the rabbit eye may provide a unique model for studying some aspects of arachidonic acid release or ocular PG effects, but extreme caution must be exercised in generalizing such findings to other species

  14. Laser induced photoreceptor damage and recovery in the high numerical aperture eye of the garter snake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zwick, H; Edsall, P; Stuck, B E; Wood, E; Elliott, R; Cheramie, R; Hacker, H

    2008-02-01

    The garter snake provides a unique model for in-vivo imaging of photoreceptor damage induced by laser retinal exposure. Laser thermal/mechanical retinal injury induced alterations in photoreceptor structure and leukocyte cellular behavior. Photoreceptors turned white, lost mode structure, and swelled; leukocyte activity was observed in the vicinity of photoreceptor cells. Non-thermal alterations were identified with a bio-tag for oxidative stress. Mechanisms of photoreceptor recovery and replacement were observed and evaluated for active cytoskeletal systems by using an anti-actin tag that could detect the presence of active cytoskeletal systems resident in photoreceptors as well as other retinal systems.

  15. In situ synchrotron analysis of lattice rotations in individual grains during stress-induced martensitic transformations in a polycrystalline CuAlBe shape memory alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berveiller, S.; Malard, B.; Wright, J.; Patoor, E.; Geandier, G.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → 3DXRD, Laue microdiffraction measurements of grain rotation in a shape memory alloy. → During stress-induced martensitic transformation, the austenite grains rotate. → This rotation reverses with the reverse transformation. → The austenite grains splits into various orientations with martensite formation. - Abstract: Two synchrotron diffraction techniques, three-dimensional X-ray diffraction and Laue microdiffraction, are applied to studying the deformation behaviour of individual grains embedded in a Cu 74 Al 23 Be 3 superelastic shape memory alloy. The average lattice rotation and the intragranular heterogeneity of orientations are measured during in situ tensile tests at room temperature for four grains of mean size ∼1 mm. During mechanical loading, all four grains rotate and the mean rotation angle increases with austenite deformation. As the martensitic transformation occurs, the rotation becomes more pronounced, and the grain orientation splits into several sub-domains: the austenite orientation varies on both sides of the martensite variant. The mean disorientation is ∼1 o . Upon unloading, the sub-domains collapse and reverse rotation is observed.

  16. Apnea-induced rapid eye movement sleep disruption impairs human spatial navigational memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varga, Andrew W; Kishi, Akifumi; Mantua, Janna; Lim, Jason; Koushyk, Viachaslau; Leibert, David P; Osorio, Ricardo S; Rapoport, David M; Ayappa, Indu

    2014-10-29

    Hippocampal electrophysiology and behavioral evidence support a role for sleep in spatial navigational memory, but the role of particular sleep stages is less clear. Although rodent models suggest the importance of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep in spatial navigational memory, a similar role for REM sleep has never been examined in humans. We recruited subjects with severe obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) who were well treated and adherent with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP). Restricting CPAP withdrawal to REM through real-time monitoring of the polysomnogram provides a novel way of addressing the role of REM sleep in spatial navigational memory with a physiologically relevant stimulus. Individuals spent two different nights in the laboratory, during which subjects performed timed trials before and after sleep on one of two unique 3D spatial mazes. One night of sleep was normally consolidated with use of therapeutic CPAP throughout, whereas on the other night, CPAP was reduced only in REM sleep, allowing REM OSA to recur. REM disruption via this method caused REM sleep reduction and significantly fragmented any remaining REM sleep without affecting total sleep time, sleep efficiency, or slow-wave sleep. We observed improvements in maze performance after a night of normal sleep that were significantly attenuated after a night of REM disruption without changes in psychomotor vigilance. Furthermore, the improvement in maze completion time significantly positively correlated with the mean REM run duration across both sleep conditions. In conclusion, we demonstrate a novel role for REM sleep in human memory formation and highlight a significant cognitive consequence of OSA. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3414571-07$15.00/0.

  17. Performance enhancement of a rotational energy harvester utilizing wind-induced vibration of an inclined stay cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, In-Ho; Jung, Hyung-Jo; Jang, Seon-Jun

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, an innovative strategy for improving the performance of a recently developed rotational energy harvester is proposed. Its performance can be considerably enhanced by replacing the electromagnetic induction part, consisting of moving permanent magnets and a fixed solenoid coil, with a moving mass and a rotational generator (i.e., an electric motor). The proposed system is easily tuned to the natural frequency of a target structure using the position change of a proof mass. Owing to the high efficiency of the rotational generator, the device can more effectively harness electrical energy from the wind-induced vibration of a stay cable. Also, this new configuration makes the device more compact and geometrically tunable. In order to validate the effectiveness of the new configuration, a series of laboratory and field tests are carried out with the prototype of the proposed device, which is designed and fabricated based on the dynamic characteristics of the vibration of a stay cable installed in an in-service cable-stayed bridge. From the field test, it is observed that the normalized output power of the proposed system is 35.67 mW (m s −2 ) −2 , while that of the original device is just 5.47 mW (m s −2 ) −2 . These results show that the proposed device generates much more electrical energy than the original device. Moreover, it is verified that the proposed device can generate sufficient electricity to power a wireless sensor node placed on a cable under gentle–moderate wind conditions. (paper)

  18. Attention Induced Gain Stabilization in Broad and Narrow-Spiking Cells in the Frontal Eye-Field of Macaque Monkeys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandt, Christian; Dasilva, Miguel; Gotthardt, Sascha; Chicharro, Daniel; Panzeri, Stefano; Distler, Claudia

    2016-01-01

    Top-down attention increases coding abilities by altering firing rates and rate variability. In the frontal eye field (FEF), a key area enabling top-down attention, attention induced firing rate changes are profound, but its effect on different cell types is unknown. Moreover, FEF is the only cortical area investigated in which attention does not affect rate variability, as assessed by the Fano factor, suggesting that task engagement affects cortical state nonuniformly. We show that putative interneurons in FEF of Macaca mulatta show stronger attentional rate modulation than putative pyramidal cells. Partitioning rate variability reveals that both cell types reduce rate variability with attention, but more strongly so in narrow-spiking cells. The effects are captured by a model in which attention stabilizes neuronal excitability, thereby reducing the expansive nonlinearity that links firing rate and variance. These results show that the effect of attention on different cell classes and different coding properties are consistent across the cortical hierarchy, acting through increased and stabilized neuronal excitability. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Cortical processing is critically modulated by attention. A key feature of this influence is a modulation of “cortical state,” resulting in increased neuronal excitability and resilience of the network against perturbations, lower rate variability, and an increased signal-to-noise ratio. In the frontal eye field (FEF), an area assumed to control spatial attention in human and nonhuman primates, firing rate changes with attention occur, but rate variability, quantified by the Fano factor, appears to be unaffected by attention. Using recently developed analysis tools and models to quantify attention effects on narrow- and broad-spiking cell activity, we show that attention alters cortical state strongly in the FEF, demonstrating that its effect on the neuronal network is consistent across the cortical hierarchy. PMID

  19. Induced Gamma-Band Activity and Fixational Eye Movements are Differentially Influenced by Low-and High-Level Factors in a Visual Object Classification Task

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Martinovic

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Until recently induced high frequency oscillatory activity (gamma-band activity; >30 Hz was considered a neural marker of cortical object representation. However, Yuval-Greenberg et al (2008; Neuron demonstrated that induced gamma-band activity (GBA in the elecetroencephalogram (EEG is susceptible to artifacts caused by miniature eye movements, which account for the major part of the signal in the crucial time window of 200-400 ms after stimulus onset. Is there an underlying cortical-induced gamma-band response that is obscured by ocular artifacts but can still be recorded with EEG? Furthermore, if object-specific modulations of induced GBA in previous studies were caused by ocular artifacts, should we instead study fixational eye movements as a response that can reflect higher-level representational processes in vision? In order to investigate this, we conducted an eye tracking experiment and an EEG experiment using the same design. Participants were asked to classify line drawings of objects or non-objects. To introduce low-level differences, their contours were defined along different directions in cardinal colour space: 1 S-cone-isolating (S, or 2 intermediate isoluminant (S and L-M, or 3 a full-colour stimulus, containing an additional achromatic component (S; L-M; L+M+S. In both experiments, behavioural performance was optimal for full-colour stimuli. In the eye tracking experiment, fixational eye movement rates 200-400 ms after stimulus onset depended on low-level factors, with no difference between objects and non-objects. In the EEG experiment, miniature eye movements were identified and removed using the saccadic filter approach. The artifact-free induced GBA exhibited a lateralised distribution, with enhancements at left and right posterior sites. Activity was higher for full-colour objects on the left, with the opposite effect observed on the right. We conclude that induced GBA can be observed in the EEG. While it showed high

  20. Amelioration of ultraviolet-induced photokeratitis in mice treated with astaxanthin eye drops.

    OpenAIRE

    Lennikov, Anton; Kitaichi, Nobuyoshi; Fukase, Risa; Murata, Miyuki; Noda, Kousuke; Ando, Ryo; Ohguchi, Takeshi; Kawakita, Tetsuya; Ohno, Shigeaki; Ishida, Susumu

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Ultraviolet (UV) acts as low-dose ionizing radiation. Acute UVB exposure causes photokeratitis and induces apoptosis in corneal cells. Astaxanthin (AST) is a carotenoid, present in seafood, that has potential clinical applications due to its high antioxidant activity. In the present study, we examined whether topical administration of AST has preventive and therapeutic effects on UV-photokeratitis in mice. Methods: C57BL/6 mice were administered with AST diluted in polyethylene glyco...

  1. Periodic rotation noise induced by the crosstalk between two beat-frequency signals in multi-oscillator ring laser gyros

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu, Guangfeng; Wang, Zhiguo; Fan, Zhenfang; Luo, Hui

    2014-01-01

    Periodic rotation noise in the outputs of multi-oscillator ring laser gyros (MRLGs) is investigated in this paper for the first time. It is proved theoretically and experimentally that noise is induced by the crosstalk between two beat-frequency signals, which are combined from the left and right circularly polarized counter-propagating beams in MRLGs. Theoretical analysis and experimental results also indicate that the fundamental frequency of this noise is equal to the frequency difference between the two beat-frequency signals and the amplitude of the fundamental component is proportional to the crosstalk ratio between the two beat-frequency signals. Further, the amplitude of the nth-order component is proportional to the nth power of the crosstalk ratio. (paper)

  2. Targeted energy transfer in laminar vortex-induced vibration of a sprung cylinder with a nonlinear dissipative rotator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Antoine; Bergman, Lawrence A.; Vakakis, Alexander F.

    2017-07-01

    We computationally investigate the dynamics of a linearly-sprung circular cylinder immersed in an incompressible flow and undergoing transverse vortex-induced vibration (VIV), to which is attached a rotational nonlinear energy sink (NES) consisting of a mass that freely rotates at constant radius about the cylinder axis, and whose motion is restrained by a rotational linear viscous damper. The inertial coupling between the rotational motion of the attached mass and the rectilinear motion of the cylinder is ;essentially nonlinear;, which, in conjunction with dissipation, allows for one-way, nearly irreversible targeted energy transfer (TET) from the oscillating cylinder to the nonlinear dissipative attachment. At the intermediate Reynolds number Re = 100, the NES-equipped sprung cylinder undergoes repetitive cycles of slowly decaying oscillations punctuated by intervals of chaotic instabilities. During the slowly decaying portion of each cycle, the dynamics of the cylinder is regular and, for large enough values of the ratio ε of the NES mass to the total mass (i.e., NES mass plus cylinder mass), can lead to significant vortex street elongation with partial stabilization of the wake. As ε approaches zero, no such vortex elongation is observed and the wake patterns appear similar to that for a sprung cylinder with no NES. We apply proper orthogonal decomposition (POD) to the velocity flow field during a slowly decaying portion of the solution and show that, in situations where vortex elongation occurs, the NES, though not in direct contact with the surrounding fluid, has a drastic effect on the underlying flow structures, imparting significant and continuous passive redistribution of energy among POD modes. We construct a POD-based reduced-order model for the lift coefficient to characterize energy transactions between the fluid and the cylinder throughout the slowly decaying cycle. We introduce a quantitative signed measure of the work done by the fluid on the

  3. Eye Protection

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1986-01-01

    Eye injuries frequently occur in the home, at work and at play. Many result in legally blind eyes, and most are preventable. Awareness of potential hazards is essential to preventing eye injuries, particularly in children. In addition, protective devices must be used appropriately. We have developed eye protectors that have proved effective in reducing both the overall incidence and the severity of sports eye injuries.

  4. Neural basis of stereotype-induced shifts in women's mental rotation performance

    OpenAIRE

    Wraga, Maryjane; Helt, Molly; Jacobs, Emily; Sullivan, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    Recent negative focus on women's academic abilities has fueled disputes over gender disparities in the sciences. The controversy derives, in part, from women's relatively poorer performance in aptitude tests, many of which require skills of spatial reasoning. We used functional magnetic imaging to examine the neural structure underlying shifts in women's performance of a spatial reasoning task induced by positive and negative stereotypes. Three groups of participants performed a task involvin...

  5. Numerical analysis of the thermally induced flow in a strongly rotating gas centrifuge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Novelli, P.

    1982-04-01

    The present work is concerned with the numerical analysis of the thermally induced flow in a rapidly gas centrifuge. The primary purpose for this work is to investigate the dependence of the flow field on the thermal boundary conditions, angular speed, aspect ratio of the cylinder, holdup. Some of our results are compared with the predictions of asymptotic theories, particularly those of Sakurai-Mtsuda and Brouwers, and with the numerical results of Dickinson-Jones.

  6. Spontaneous and radiation-induced leukemogenesis of the mouse small eye mutant, Pax6Sey3H

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Satoh, Kenichi; Yoshida, Kazuko; Senba, Kei; Nakagata, Naomi; Peters, J.; Cattanach, B.M.

    2004-01-01

    Allelic loss on the chromosome 2 is associated with radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia. However, the gene, which contributes mainly to the leukemogenesis has not yet been identified. Expecting any predisposition to acute myeloid leukemia, we performed a radiation leukemogenesis experiment with Pax6 SeY3H , one of the small eye mutants carrying a congenital hemizygosity of the chromosome 2 middle region. A deletion mapping of Pax6 SeY3H with 50 sequence-tagged site (STS) markers indicated that the deleted segment extended between the 106.00 and 111.47 Mb site from the centromere with a length of 5.47 Mb. In the deleted segment, 6 known and 17 novel genes were located. Pax6 SeY3H mutants that crossed back into C3H/He did not develop myeloid leukemia spontaneously, but they did when exposed to gamma-rays. The final incidence of myeloid leukemia in mutants (25.8%) was as high as that in normal sibs (21.4%). Survival curves of leukemia-bearing mutants shifted toward the left (p=0.043 by the Log rank test). F1 hybrids of Pax6 SeY3H with JF1 were less susceptible to radiation than Pax6 SeY3H onto C3H/He in regard to survival (p=0.003 and p<0.00001 for mutants and normal sibs, respectively, by a test of the difference between two proportions). Congenital deletion of the 5.47 Mb segment at the middle region on chromosome 2 alone did not trigger myeloid stem cells to expand clonally in vivo; however, the deletion shortcut the latency of radiation-induced myeloid leukemia. (author)

  7. Electromagnetically Induced Absorption (EIA) and a ``Twist'' on Nonlinear Magneto-optical Rotation (NMOR) with Cold Atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kunz, Paul; Meyer, David; Quraishi, Qudsia

    2015-05-01

    Within the class of nonlinear optical effects that exhibit sub-natural linewidth features, electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) and nonlinear magneto-optical rotation (NMOR) stand out as having made dramatic impacts on various applications including atomic clocks, magnetometry, and single photon storage. A related effect, known as electromagnetically induced absorption (EIA), has received less attention in the literature. Here, we report on the first observation of EIA in cold atoms using the Hanle configuration, where a single laser beam is used to both pump and probe the atoms while sweeping a magnetic field through zero along the beam direction. We find that, associated with the EIA peak, a ``twist'' appears in the corresponding NMOR signal. A similar twist has been previously noted by Budker et al., in the context of warm vapor optical magnetometry, and was ascribed to optical pumping through nearby hyperfine levels. By studying this feature through numerical simulations and cold atom experiments, thus rendering the hyperfine levels well resolved, we enhance the understanding of the optical pumping mechanism behind it, and elucidate its relation to EIA. Finally, we demonstrate a useful application of these studies through a simple and rapid method for nulling background magnetic fields within our atom chip apparatus.

  8. A finite element perturbation method for computing fluid-induced forces on a certrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jonker, Jan B.; van Essen, T.G.; van Essen, T.G.

    1997-01-01

    A finite element based method has been developed for computing time-averaged fluid-induced radial excitation forces and rotor dynamic forces on a two-dimensional centrifugal impeller rotating and whirling in a volute casing. In this method potential flow theory is used, which implies the assumption

  9. Infrared rotational light curves on Jupiter induced by wave activities and cloud patterns andimplications on brown dwarfs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ge, Huazhi; Zhang, Xi; Fletcher, Leigh; Orton, Glenn S.; Sinclair, James Andrew; Fernandes,, Joshua; Momary, Thomas W.; Warren, Ari; Kasaba, Yasumasa; Sato, Takao M.; Fujiyoshi, Takuya

    2017-10-01

    Many brown dwarfs exhibit infrared rotational light curves with amplitude varying from a fewpercent to twenty percent (Artigau et al. 2009, ApJ, 701, 1534; Radigan et al. 2012, ApJ, 750,105). Recently, it was claimed that weather patterns, especially planetary-scale waves in thebelts and cloud spots, are responsible for the light curves and their evolutions on brown dwarfs(Apai et al. 2017, Science, 357, 683). Here we present a clear relationship between the direct IRemission maps and light curves of Jupiter at multiple wavelengths, which might be similar withthat on cold brown dwarfs. Based on infrared disk maps from Subaru/COMICS and VLT/VISIR,we constructed full maps of Jupiter and rotational light curves at different wavelengths in thethermal infrared. We discovered a strong relationship between the light curves and weatherpatterns on Jupiter. The light curves also exhibit strong multi-bands phase shifts and temporalvariations, similar to that detected on brown dwarfs. Together with the spectra fromTEXES/IRTF, our observations further provide detailed information of the spatial variations oftemperature, ammonia clouds and aerosols in the troposphere of Jupiter (Fletcher et al. 2016,Icarus, 2016 128) and their influences on the shapes of the light curves. We conclude that waveactivities in Jupiter’s belts (Fletcher et al. 2017, GRL, 44, 7140), cloud holes, and long-livedvortices such as the Great Red Spot and ovals control the shapes of IR light curves and multi-wavelength phase shifts on Jupiter. Our finding supports the hypothesis that observed lightcurves on brown dwarfs are induced by planetary-scale waves and cloud spots.

  10. Tonic cervical influences on eye nystagmus following hemilabyrinthectomy: immediate and plastic effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Petrosini, L

    1984-12-17

    In intact guinea pigs a passive horizontal rotation of the body about the fixed head induces compensatory ocular movements (cervico-ocular reflex). When the static neck deviation is maintained, a significant ocular displacement is observed. In acutely hemilabyrinthectomized animals, static body deviation towards the lesion side tonically alters eye nystagmus. It affects slow phase eye velocity and quick phase amplitude and frequency causing the eye to reach a less eccentric orbital position. Apart from such immediate influences, a plastic effect on eye nystagmus abatement is induced. In the animals restrained with no body-on-head deviation, abatement of nystagmus is delayed with respect to the animals restrained with 35 degrees body deviation towards the lesion side. Thus the head position signal is not only a contributing factor for the correction of postural deficits but also influences the time course of the ocular balancing process following unilateral vestibular damage.

  11. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnoldussen, D. M.; Goossens, J.; van den Berg, A. V.

    2013-01-01

    Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. (1) Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit. We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow's rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals. (2) Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semi-circular canals (SCC)? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those Blood oxygenated level-dependent (BOLD) signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes. (3) We investigated if subject's sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is

  12. Visual perception of axes of head rotation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Mattijs Arnoldussen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Registration of ego-motion is important to accurately navigate through space. Movements of the head and eye relative to space are registered through the vestibular system and optical flow, respectively. Here, we address three questions concerning the visual registration of self-rotation. 1. Eye-in-head movements provide a link between the motion signals received by sensors in the moving eye and sensors in the moving head. How are these signals combined into an ego-rotation percept? We combined optic flow of simulated forward and rotational motion of the eye with different levels of eye-in-head rotation for a stationary head. We dissociated simulated gaze rotation and head rotation by different levels of eye-in-head pursuit.We found that perceived rotation matches simulated head- not gaze-rotation. This rejects a model for perceived self-rotation that relies on the rotation of the gaze line. Rather, eye-in-head signals serve to transform the optic flow’s rotation information, that specifies rotation of the scene relative to the eye, into a rotation relative to the head. This suggests that transformed visual self-rotation signals may combine with vestibular signals.2. Do transformed visual self-rotation signals reflect the arrangement of the semicircular canals (SCC? Previously, we found sub-regions within MST and V6+ that respond to the speed of the simulated head rotation. Here, we re-analyzed those BOLD signals for the presence of a spatial dissociation related to the axes of visually simulated head rotation, such as have been found in sub-cortical regions of various animals. Contrary, we found a rather uniform BOLD response to simulated rotation along the three SCC axes.3. We investigated if subject’s sensitivity to the direction of the head rotation axis shows SCC axes specifcity. We found that sensitivity to head rotation is rather uniformly distributed, suggesting that in human cortex, visuo-vestibular integration is not arranged into

  13. Eye Absence Does Not Regulate Planarian Stem Cells during Eye Regeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoCascio, Samuel A; Lapan, Sylvain W; Reddien, Peter W

    2017-02-27

    Dividing cells called neoblasts contain pluripotent stem cells and drive planarian flatworm regeneration from diverse injuries. A long-standing question is whether neoblasts directly sense and respond to the identity of missing tissues during regeneration. We used the eye to investigate this question. Surprisingly, eye removal was neither sufficient nor necessary for neoblasts to increase eye progenitor production. Neoblasts normally increase eye progenitor production following decapitation, facilitating regeneration. Eye removal alone, however, did not induce this response. Eye regeneration following eye-specific resection resulted from homeostatic rates of eye progenitor production and less cell death in the regenerating eye. Conversely, large head injuries that left eyes intact increased eye progenitor production. Large injuries also non-specifically increased progenitor production for multiple uninjured tissues. We propose a model for eye regeneration in which eye tissue production by planarian stem cells is not directly regulated by the absence of the eye itself. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effects of mental rotation on acalculia: differences in the direction of mental rotation account for the differing characteristics of acalculia induced by right and left hemispheric brain injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asada, Tomohiko; Takayama, Yoshihiro; Oita, Jiro; Fukuyama, Hidenao

    2014-04-01

    We observed a 59-year-old right-handed man with an infarction in his right-middle cerebral artery that included the parietal lobe, who abnormally manipulated mental images in the horizontal direction, resulting in calculation disturbances. Three years later, the patient suffered an infarction in the left parietal lobe and displayed abnormalities during the creation of mental images; i.e., he rotated them in the vertical direction, which again resulted in calculation disturbances. These mental imagery disturbances might indicate that a common acalculia mechanism exists between the right and left hemispheres.

  15. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer of the eye is uncommon. It can affect the outer parts of the eye, such as the eyelid, which are made up ... and nerves. If the cancer starts inside the eyeball it's called intraocular cancer. The most common intraocular ...

  16. Black Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  17. Eye Anatomy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Eye Anatomy en Español email Send this article to a ... You at Risk For Glaucoma? Childhood Glaucoma Eye Anatomy Five Common Glaucoma Tests Glaucoma Facts and Stats ...

  18. Eye Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... The Marfan Foundation Marfan & Related Disorders What is Marfan Syndrome? What are Related Disorders? What are the Signs? ... Emergencies Eye Emergencies Lung Emergencies Surgeries Eye Emergencies Marfan syndrome significantly increases your risk of retinal detachment, a ...

  19. The effect of radiation and cystamine on the ability of the eye to induce the cornea in the intact skin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Popov, D.V.; Starodubov, S.M.

    1975-01-01

    Common frog tadpoles (with and without cystamine protection) were subjected to whole-body irradiation (700 R) and skin transplanted from the back of donors to the site of the outer cornea of the right eye of the recipients. Secondary cornea induction in non-irradiated skin transplanted to the eye was then studied. It was found that a dose of 700 R completely suppresses the induction capacity of the eye, while cystamine protects it to 47.8%. It was also shown that the irradiation of tadpoles with X-rays slows down their general development, but that, with cystamine protection, their development rate remains normal. (V.A.P.)

  20. Range verification for eye proton therapy based on proton-induced x-ray emissions from implanted metal markers

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Rosa, Vanessa; Kacperek, Andrzej; Royle, Gary; Gibson, Adam

    2014-06-01

    Metal fiducial markers are often implanted on the back of the eye before proton therapy to improve target localization and reduce patient setup errors. We aim to detect characteristic x-ray emissions from metal targets during proton therapy to verify the treatment range accuracy. Initially gold was chosen for its biocompatibility properties. Proton-induced x-ray emissions (PIXE) from a 15 mm diameter gold marker were detected at different penetration depths of a 59 MeV proton beam at the CATANA proton facility at INFN-LNS (Italy). The Monte Carlo code Geant4 was used to reproduce the experiment and to investigate the effect of different size markers, materials, and the response to both mono-energetic and fully modulated beams. The intensity of the emitted x-rays decreases with decreasing proton energy and thus decreases with depth. If we assume the range to be the depth at which the dose is reduced to 10% of its maximum value and we define the residual range as the distance between the marker and the range of the beam, then the minimum residual range which can be detected with 95% confidence level is the depth at which the PIXE peak is equal to 1.96 σbkg, which is the standard variation of the background noise. With our system and experimental setup this value is 3 mm, when 20 GyE are delivered to a gold marker of 15 mm diameter. Results from silver are more promising. Even when a 5 mm diameter silver marker is placed at a depth equal to the range, the PIXE peak is 2.1 σbkg. Although these quantitative results are dependent on the experimental setup used in this research study, they demonstrate that the real-time analysis of the PIXE emitted by fiducial metal markers can be used to derive beam range. Further analysis are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique in a clinical setup.

  1. Your Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... away? If you guessed the eye, you're right! Your eyes are at work from the moment you wake up to the ... the eye is seeing. A Muscle Makes It Work The lens is suspended in ... of the lens. That's right — the lens actually changes shape right inside your ...

  2. Application of Newly Developed Rotational Sensor for Monitoring of Mining Induced Seismic Events in The Karvina region

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kaláb, Zdeněk; Knejzlík, Jaromír; Lednická, Markéta

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 2 (2013), s. 197-205 ISSN 1214-9705 Institutional support: RVO:68145535 Keywords : rotational ground motion * rotational sensor * seismic monitoring Subject RIV: DC - Siesmology, Volcanology, Earth Structure Impact factor: 0.667, year: 2013 http://www.irsm.cas.cz/materialy/acta_content/2013_02/acta_170_09_Kalab_197-205.pdf

  3. Stromal demarcation line induced by corneal cross-linking in eyes with keratoconus and nonkeratoconic asymmetric topography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malta, João B N; Renesto, Adimara C; Moscovici, Bernardo K; Soong, H K; Campos, Mauro

    2015-02-01

    To evaluate stromal demarcation lines following corneal cross-linking (CXL) using anterior segment optical coherence tomography in patients with keratoconus and nonkeratoconic asymmetric topography. Fifth-nine eyes of 59 patients were enrolled in a retrospective comparative case series, of which 19 eyes had keratoconus and 40 eyes had asymmetric topography. Eyes with asymmetric topography were treated in preparation for photorefractive keratectomy. One month after CXL, a stromal demarcation line was evaluated at 5 standardized corneal points using anterior segment optical coherence tomography. Mean stromal demarcation line depths were measured at 5 points on the cornea, namely, centrally, 3.0 mm temporally, 1.5 mm temporally, 3.0 mm nasally, and 1.5 mm nasally. For the keratoconus group, the values were 178 ± 47, 123 ± 15, 152 ± 47, 125 ± 23, and 160 ± 43 μm, respectively. For the asymmetric corneal topography group (without keratoconus), they were 305 ± 64, 235 ± 57, 294 ± 50, 214 ± 54, and 285 ± 58 μm, respectively. There was no correlation between central corneal pachymetry and stromal demarcation line depth in all 5 measured corneal points in both groups. CXL treatment profiles are similar in keratoconic and nonkeratoconic eyes with asymmetric topography.

  4. Adaptive optics for reduced threshold energy in femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in water based eye model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Krueger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-03-01

    In ophthalmic microsurgery tissue dissection is achieved using femtosecond laser pulses to create an optical breakdown. For vitreo-retinal applications the irradiance distribution in the focal volume is distorted by the anterior components of the eye causing a raised threshold energy for breakdown. In this work, an adaptive optics system enables spatial beam shaping for compensation of aberrations and investigation of wave front influence on optical breakdown. An eye model was designed to allow for aberration correction as well as detection of optical breakdown. The eye model consists of an achromatic lens for modeling the eye's refractive power, a water chamber for modeling the tissue properties, and a PTFE sample for modeling the retina's scattering properties. Aberration correction was performed using a deformable mirror in combination with a Hartmann-Shack-sensor. The influence of an adaptive optics aberration correction on the pulse energy required for photodisruption was investigated using transmission measurements for determination of the breakdown threshold and video imaging of the focal region for study of the gas bubble dynamics. The threshold energy is considerably reduced when correcting for the aberrations of the system and the model eye. Also, a raise in irradiance at constant pulse energy was shown for the aberration corrected case. The reduced pulse energy lowers the potential risk of collateral damage which is especially important for retinal safety. This offers new possibilities for vitreo-retinal surgery using femtosecond laser pulses.

  5. Range verification for eye proton therapy based on proton-induced x-ray emissions from implanted metal markers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosa, Vanessa La; Royle, Gary; Gibson, Adam; Kacperek, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Metal fiducial markers are often implanted on the back of the eye before proton therapy to improve target localization and reduce patient setup errors. We aim to detect characteristic x-ray emissions from metal targets during proton therapy to verify the treatment range accuracy. Initially gold was chosen for its biocompatibility properties. Proton-induced x-ray emissions (PIXE) from a 15 mm diameter gold marker were detected at different penetration depths of a 59 MeV proton beam at the CATANA proton facility at INFN-LNS (Italy). The Monte Carlo code Geant4 was used to reproduce the experiment and to investigate the effect of different size markers, materials, and the response to both mono-energetic and fully modulated beams. The intensity of the emitted x-rays decreases with decreasing proton energy and thus decreases with depth. If we assume the range to be the depth at which the dose is reduced to 10% of its maximum value and we define the residual range as the distance between the marker and the range of the beam, then the minimum residual range which can be detected with 95% confidence level is the depth at which the PIXE peak is equal to 1.96 σ bkg , which is the standard variation of the background noise. With our system and experimental setup this value is 3 mm, when 20 GyE are delivered to a gold marker of 15 mm diameter. Results from silver are more promising. Even when a 5 mm diameter silver marker is placed at a depth equal to the range, the PIXE peak is 2.1 σ bkg . Although these quantitative results are dependent on the experimental setup used in this research study, they demonstrate that the real-time analysis of the PIXE emitted by fiducial metal markers can be used to derive beam range. Further analysis are needed to demonstrate the feasibility of the technique in a clinical setup. (paper)

  6. A study on the annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. 1st report. Stability for translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Dong-Wei; Kaneko, Shigehiko; Hayama, Shinji

    1999-01-01

    This study reports the stability of annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. The pressure distribution of fluid between a fixed outer cylinder and a vibrating inner cylinder was obtained in the case of a translationally and rotationally coupled motion of the inner cylinder. The unsteady fluid force acting on the inner cylinder in the case of translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom vibrations was then expressed in terms proportional to the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. Then the critical flow rate (at which stability was lost) was determined for an annular leakage-flow-induced vibration. Finally, the stability was investigated theoretically. It is known that instability will occur in the case of a divergent passage, but the critical flow rate depends on the passage increment in a limited range: the eccentricity of the passage and the pressure loss factor at the inlet of the passage lower the stability. (author)

  7. Influence of gravity on the spatial orientation of eye nystagmus induced by unilateral lesion of horizontal semicircular canal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ermanno, M; Pierangelo, E; Silvarosa, G

    2000-03-01

    The influence of gravity in the orientation and slow phase eye velocity of the ocular nystagmus following unilateral damage of the cupula in the ampulla of the horizontal semicircular canal (UHCD) was investigated. The nystagmus was analysed at different sagittal head positions using the x-y infrared eye monitor technique. The nystagmus was almost horizontal at 0 degrees head pitch angle and remained partially fixed in space when the head was pitched upward or downward. The reorientation gain of the slow and quick phases was high (about 0.75) within +/- 45 degrees of head pitch angle, but beyond this range, it decreased greatly. The gain value depended on the lesion extension to otolithic receptors. The absolute value of the slow phase eye velocity of UHCD nystagmus was also modified systematically by the head pitch, showing a reduction in the upward and an increase in the downward.

  8. Effect of treatment duration on surface nanocrystallization induced by fast multiple rotation rolling and its thermal stability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chui Pengfei; Liu Yi; Liang Yanjie; Li Yang [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structure Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Fan Suhua [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structure Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China); Shandong Women' s University, Jinan 250300 (China); Sun Kangning, E-mail: sunkangning@sdu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory for Liquid-Solid Structure Evolution and Processing of Materials (Ministry of Education), Shandong University, Jinan 250061 (China)

    2012-12-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Effect of treatment time on surface nanocrystallization of a low carbon steel. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The grain size decreases gradually with the increase of treatment duration. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The microhardness of FMRR treated sample reaches 284 HV. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The nanocrystalline layer is stable during annealing treatment up to 400 Degree-Sign C. - Abstract: A nanocrystalline surface layer of low carbon steel induced by fast multiple rotation rolling (FMRR) was determined by optical microscopy and transmission electron microscopy. The results show that the grain size decreases gradually with the increase of treatment duration. Equiaxed nanocrystalline with the average grain size about 20 nm is obtained in the top surface layer after FMRR treatment for 30 min. With the increase of treatment duration (60 min), the average grain size further reduces to about 9 nm. At the same time, the microhardness of surface layer for treated sample is improved correspondingly owing to grain refinement and work-hardening. Compared with original sample, the microhardness of FMRR treated sample is increased by more than 200%. After annealing treatment, the investigation of thermal stability of nanocrystalline layer indicates that the grains begin to grow obviously at annealing for 400 Degree-Sign C, and abnormal grain growth also occurs in individual grains. Due to grain growth and stress relaxation during annealing, the microhardness slightly decreases at 400 Degree-Sign C. In spite of this, the majority of grains are still nanocrystalline, ranging from about 30 to 60 nm. It demonstrates that the nanocrystalline layer has high thermal stability.

  9. Galvanic vestibular stimulation combines with Earth-horizontal rotation in roll to induce the illusion of translation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Erich; Bartl, Klaus; Glasauer, Stefan

    2009-05-01

    Human head rotation in roll around an earth-horizontal axis constitutes a vestibular stimulus that, by its rotational component, acts on the semicircular canals (SCC) and that, by its tilt of the gravity vector, also acts on the otoliths. Galvanic vestibular stimulation (GVS) is thought to resemble mainly a rotation in roll. A superposition of sinusoidal GVS with a natural earth-horizontal roll movement was therefore applied in order to cancel the rotation effects and to isolate the otolith activation. By self-adjusting the amplitude and phase of GVS, subjects were able to minimize their sensation of rotation and to generate the perception of a linear translation. The final adjustments are in the range of a model that predicts SCC activation during natural rotations and GVS. This indicates that the tilt-translation ambiguity of the otoliths is resolved by SCC-otolith interaction. It is concluded that GVS might be able to cancel rotations in roll and that the residual tilt of the gravitoinertial force is possibly interpreted as a linear translation.

  10. Effects of Aging in Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye affects millions of people worldwide and causes eye well recognized risk factors for dry eye. Anatomical and inflammation-induced age-related changes affect all components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, inclusive of lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, meibomian gland and compromise ocular surface health. There is increased evidence that inflammation plays a role in dry eye. This review will summarize the current knowledge about aging and dry eye, inclusive of lessons learned from animal models and promising therapies. PMID:28282314

  11. Rotating flow

    CERN Document Server

    Childs, Peter R N

    2010-01-01

    Rotating flow is critically important across a wide range of scientific, engineering and product applications, providing design and modeling capability for diverse products such as jet engines, pumps and vacuum cleaners, as well as geophysical flows. Developed over the course of 20 years' research into rotating fluids and associated heat transfer at the University of Sussex Thermo-Fluid Mechanics Research Centre (TFMRC), Rotating Flow is an indispensable reference and resource for all those working within the gas turbine and rotating machinery industries. Traditional fluid and flow dynamics titles offer the essential background but generally include very sparse coverage of rotating flows-which is where this book comes in. Beginning with an accessible introduction to rotating flow, recognized expert Peter Childs takes you through fundamental equations, vorticity and vortices, rotating disc flow, flow around rotating cylinders and flow in rotating cavities, with an introduction to atmospheric and oceanic circul...

  12. EFFECTS OF ROTATIONALLY INDUCED MIXING IN COMPACT BINARY SYSTEMS WITH LOW-MASS SECONDARIES AND IN SINGLE SOLAR-TYPE STARS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chatzopoulos, E.; Robinson, Edward L.; Wheeler, J. Craig

    2012-01-01

    Many population synthesis and stellar evolution studies have addressed the evolution of close binary systems in which the primary is a compact remnant and the secondary is filling its Roche lobe, thus triggering mass transfer. Although tidal locking is expected in such systems, most studies have neglected the rotationally induced mixing that may occur. Here we study the possible effects of mixing in mass-losing stars for a range of secondary star masses and metallicities. We find that tidal locking can induce rotational mixing prior to contact and thus affect the evolution of the secondary star if the effects of the Spruit-Tayler dynamo are included both for angular momentum and chemical transport. Once contact is made, the effect of mass transfer tends to be more rapid than the evolutionary timescale, so the effects of mixing are no longer directly important, but the mass-transfer strips matter to inner layers that may have been affected by the mixing. These effects are enhanced for secondaries of 1-1.2 M ☉ and for lower metallicities. We discuss the possible implications for the paucity of carbon in the secondaries of the cataclysmic variable SS Cyg and the black hole candidate XTE J1118+480 and for the progenitor evolution of Type Ia supernovae. We also address the issue of the origin of blue straggler stars in globular and open clusters. We find that for models that include rotation consistent with that observed for some blue straggler stars, evolution is chemically homogeneous. This leads to tracks in the H-R diagram that are brighter and bluer than the non-rotating main-sequence turn-off point. Rotational mixing could thus be one of the factors that contribute to the formation of blue stragglers.

  13. Diabetes eye exams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diabetic retinopathy - eye exams; Diabetes - eye exams; Glaucoma - diabetic eye exam; Macular edema - diabetic eye exam ... if the doctor who takes care of your diabetes checks your eyes, you need an eye exam ...

  14. Tracking Eyes using Shape and Appearance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Nielsen, Mads; Hansen, John Paulin

    2002-01-01

    to infer the state of the eye such as eye corners and the pupil location under scale and rotational changes. We use a Gaussian Process interpolation method for gaze determination, which facilitates stability feedback from the system. The use of a learning method for gaze estimation gives more flexibility...

  15. Chemistry at molecular junctions: Rotation and dissociation of O2 on the Ag(110) surface induced by a scanning tunneling microscope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Sharani; Mujica, Vladimiro; Ratner, Mark A

    2013-08-21

    The scanning tunneling microscope (STM) is a fascinating tool used to perform chemical processes at the single-molecule level, including bond formation, bond breaking, and even chemical reactions. Hahn and Ho [J. Chem. Phys. 123, 214702 (2005)] performed controlled rotations and dissociations of single O2 molecules chemisorbed on the Ag(110) surface at precise bias voltages using STM. These threshold voltages were dependent on the direction of the bias voltage and the initial orientation of the chemisorbed molecule. They also observed an interesting voltage-direction-dependent and orientation-dependent pathway selectivity suggestive of mode-selective chemistry at molecular junctions, such that in one case the molecule underwent direct dissociation, whereas in the other case it underwent rotation-mediated dissociation. We present a detailed, first-principles-based theoretical study to investigate the mechanism of the tunneling-induced O2 dynamics, including the origin of the observed threshold voltages, the pathway dependence, and the rate of O2 dissociation. Results show a direct correspondence between the observed threshold voltage for a process and the activation energy for that process. The pathway selectivity arises from a competition between the voltage-modified barrier heights for rotation and dissociation, and the coupling strength of the tunneling electrons to the rotational and vibrational modes of the adsorbed molecule. Finally, we explore the "dipole" and "resonance" mechanisms of inelastic electron tunneling to elucidate the energy transfer between the tunneling electrons and chemisorbed O2.

  16. Competing Structural Instabilities in the Ruddlesden–Popper Derivatives HRTiO4 (R = Rare Earths): Oxygen Octahedral Rotations Inducing Noncentrosymmetricity and Layer Sliding Retaining Centrosymmetricity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sen Gupta, Arnab; Akamatsu, Hirofumi; Brown, Forrest G.; Nguyen, Minh An T.

    2016-01-01

    We report the discovery of noncentrosymmetry in the family of HRTiO 4 (R = Eu, Gd, Dy) layered oxides possessing a Ruddlesden-Popper derivative structure, by second harmonic generation and synchrotron x-ray diffraction with the support of density functional theory calculations. These oxides were previously thought to possess inversion symmetry. Here, inversion symmetry is broken by oxygen octahedral rotations, a mechanism that is not active in simple perovskites. We discover a competition between oxygen octahedral rotations and sliding of the octahedral perovskite blocks at the OH layers. For the smaller rare earth ions, R = Eu, Gd, Dy, which favor the octahedral rotations, noncentrosymmetry is present but the sliding at the OH layer is absent. For the larger rare earth ions, R = Nd and Sm, the octahe-dral rotations are absent, but sliding of the octahedral blocks at the OH layer is present, likely to optimize the hydrogen bond length arising from the directional nature of these bonds in the crystal structure. The study reveals a new mechanism for inducing noncentrosymmetry in layered oxides, and chemical-structural effects related to rare earth ion size and hydrogen bonding that can turn this mechanism on and off. In conclusion, we construct a complete phase diagram of temperature versus rare earth ionic radius for the HRTiO 4 family.

  17. Global rotation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosquist, K.

    1980-01-01

    Global rotation in cosmological models is defined on an observational basis. A theorem is proved saying that, for rigid motion, the global rotation is equal to the ordinary local vorticity. The global rotation is calculated in the space-time homogeneous class III models, with Godel's model as a special case. It is shown that, with the exception of Godel's model, the rotation in these models becomes infinite for finite affine parameter values. In some directions the rotation changes sign and becomes infinite in a direction opposite to the local vorticity. The points of infinite rotation are identified as conjugate points along the null geodesics. The physical interpretation of the infinite rotation is discussed, and a comparison with the behaviour of the area distance at conjugate points is given. (author)

  18. Stabilising high energy orbit oscillations by the utilisation of centrifugal effects for rotating-tyre-induced energy harvesting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yunshun; Zheng, Rencheng; Nakano, Kimihiko; Cartmell, Matthew P.

    2018-04-01

    Nonlinear energy harvesters are frequently considered in preference to linear devices because they can potentially overcome the narrow frequency bandwidth limitations inherent to linear variants; however, the possibility of variable harvesting efficiency is raised for the nonlinear case. This paper proposes a rotational energy harvester which may be fitted into an automobile tyre, with the advantage that it may broaden the rotating frequency bandwidth and simultaneously stabilise high-energy orbit oscillations. By consideration of the centrifugal effects due to rotation, the overall restoring force will potentially be increased for a cantilever implemented within the harvester, and this manifests as an increase in its equivalent elastic stiffness. In addition, this study reveals that the initial potential well barriers become as shallow as those for a bistable system. When the rotational frequency increases beyond an identifiable boundary frequency, the system transforms into one with a potential barrier of a typical monostable system. On this basis, the inter-well motion of the bistable system can provide sufficient kinetic energy so that the cantilever maintains its high-energy orbit oscillation for monostable hardening behaviour. Furthermore, in a vehicle drive experiment, it has been shown that the effective rotating frequency bandwidth can be widened from 15 km/h-25 km/h to 10 km/h-40 km/h. In addition, it is confirmed that the centrifugal effects can improve the harvester performance, producing a mean power of 61 μW at a driving speed of 40 km/h, and this is achieved by stabilising the high-energy orbit oscillations of the rotational harvester.

  19. Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... that you could lose your vision. Most eye injuries are preventable. If you play sports or work in certain jobs, you may need protection. The most common type of injury happens when something irritates the ...

  20. Eyes - bulging

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... different ages. In: Lambert SR, Lyons CJ, eds. Taylor and Hoyt's Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus . 5th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier; 2017:chap 96. Orge FH, Grigorian F. Examination and common problems of the neonatal eye. ...

  1. [High-frequency rotation sensation function damage of the crista of the horizontal semicircular canal induced by gentamicin and its morphological basis.].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Liang; He, Ming; Wang, Wu-Qing

    2009-12-25

    The goal of the present study was to explore high-frequency rotation sensation function damage of the crista of the horizontal semicircular canal induced by gentamicin and its morphological basis. The guinea pigs were randomly divided into four groups (group 1, 2, 3 and control group, n=20). The animals of treated groups received gentamicin subcutaneously (50 mg/kg per day) for 1 week (group 1), 2 weeks (group 2) and 3 weeks (group 3), respectively. The animals of control group were administered with equal volume of saline subcutaneously. Videonystagmography (VNG) evoked by ice water or high-frequency rotations, and vestibular evoked potential (VsEP) evoked by low- and high-frequency rotations were recorded after the administration. After VNG and VsEP were examined, the cristae of the horizontal semicircular canals were prepared for scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The results are as follows: (1) In VNG examination, after ice water stimulation, no obvious nystagmus was observed in the animals of group 3, and there was no significant difference in nystagmus frequency and duration among group 1, 2 and control group (P>0.05). After high- frequency rotations, no obvious nystagmus was yet observed in the animals of group 3. There were significant differences in the nystagmus frequency and duration of the VNG waves between the experimental group 2 and control group (P0.05). (2) In VsEP examination, there was no significant difference in the parameters of VsEP among group 1, 2 and control group (P>0.05), and VsEP was not observed in group 3 after low-frequency rotations. After high- frequency rotations, compared with control group, the latencies and amplitudes of P1 and P2 in group 2 significantly decreased (P0.05). Group 3 had no response of VsEP to high-frequency rotations. (3) Electron microscopy was used to observe the crista hair cells of the four groups. In control group, the hair cells were normal. In group 1, almost normal appearance with slight

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  4. Frequency-dependent squeeze-amplitude attenuation and squeeze-angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency for gravitational-wave interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mikhailov, Eugeniy E.; Goda, Keisuke; Corbitt, Thomas; Mavalvala, Nergis

    2006-01-01

    We study the effects of frequency-dependent squeeze-amplitude attenuation and squeeze-angle rotation by electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) on gravitational-wave (GW) interferometers. We propose the use of low-pass, bandpass, and high-pass EIT filters, an S-shaped EIT filter, and an intracavity EIT filter to generate frequency-dependent squeezing for injection into the antisymmetric port of GW interferometers. We find that the EIT filters have several advantages over the previous filter designs with regard to optical losses, compactness, and the tunability of the filter linewidth

  5. Lowered threshold energy for femtosecond laser induced optical breakdown in a water based eye model by aberration correction with adaptive optics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Anja; Géneaux, Romain; Günther, Axel; Krüger, Alexander; Ripken, Tammo

    2013-06-01

    In femtosecond laser ophthalmic surgery tissue dissection is achieved by photodisruption based on laser induced optical breakdown. In order to minimize collateral damage to the eye laser surgery systems should be optimized towards the lowest possible energy threshold for photodisruption. However, optical aberrations of the eye and the laser system distort the irradiance distribution from an ideal profile which causes a rise in breakdown threshold energy even if great care is taken to minimize the aberrations of the system during design and alignment. In this study we used a water chamber with an achromatic focusing lens and a scattering sample as eye model and determined breakdown threshold in single pulse plasma transmission loss measurements. Due to aberrations, the precise lower limit for breakdown threshold irradiance in water is still unknown. Here we show that the threshold energy can be substantially reduced when using adaptive optics to improve the irradiance distribution by spatial beam shaping. We found that for initial aberrations with a root-mean-square wave front error of only one third of the wavelength the threshold energy can still be reduced by a factor of three if the aberrations are corrected to the diffraction limit by adaptive optics. The transmitted pulse energy is reduced by 17% at twice the threshold. Furthermore, the gas bubble motions after breakdown for pulse trains at 5 kilohertz repetition rate show a more transverse direction in the corrected case compared to the more spherical distribution without correction. Our results demonstrate how both applied and transmitted pulse energy could be reduced during ophthalmic surgery when correcting for aberrations. As a consequence, the risk of retinal damage by transmitted energy and the extent of collateral damage to the focal volume could be minimized accordingly when using adaptive optics in fs-laser surgery.

  6. Management of Perforated Mooren's Ulcer with a Rotational Scleral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2016-12-13

    Dec 13, 2016 ... C virus had been demonstrated by Gottsch et al.[9] ... left eye (LE) involving 1½ h was managed with a scleral rotational autograft at the Rachel Eye Center, Abuja. The patient was a .... importation of the tissues can be time‑consuming. When .... and autologous serum eye drops in Mooren's ulcer. Nepal J ...

  7. Sub-Doppler spectroscopy of thioformaldehyde: Excited state perturbations and evidence for rotation-induced vibrational mixing in the ground state

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clouthier, D.J.; Huang, G.; Adam, A.G.; Merer, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    High-resolution intracavity dye laser spectroscopy has been used to obtain sub-Doppler spectra of transitions to 350 rotational levels in the 4 1 0 band of the A 1 A 2 --X 1 A 1 electronic transition of thioformaldehyde. Ground state combination differences from the sub-Doppler spectra, combined with microwave and infrared data, have been used to improve the ground state rotational and centrifugal distortion constants of H 2 CS. The upper state shows a remarkable number of perturbations. The largest of these are caused by nearby triplet levels, with matrix elements of 0.05--0.15 cm -1 . A particularly clear singlet--triplet avoided crossing in K a ' = 7 has been shown to be caused by interaction with the F 1 component of the 3 1 6 2 vibrational level of the a 3 A 2 state. At least 53% of the S 1 levels show evidence of very small perturbations by high rovibronic levels of the ground state. The number of such perturbations is small at low J, but increases rapidly beyond J=5 such that 40%--80% of the observed S 1 levels of any given J are perturbed by ground state levels. Model calculations show that the density and J dependence of the number of perturbed levels can be explained if there is extensive rotation-induced mixing of the vibrational levels in the ground state

  8. Stress analysis of mixing of non-newtonian flows in cylindrical vessel induced by co-rotating stirrers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Memon, R.A.; Solangi, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The impacts of rotational velocity and inertia on velocity gradients and stresses are addressed under present study. The non-Newtonian behaviour of inelastic rotating flows is predicted by employing Power law model. A numerical model has been developed for mixing flow within a cylindrical vessel along a couple of stirrers. A time marching FEM (Finite Element Method) is employed to predict the required solution. Predicted solutions are presented for minimum to maximum values in terms of contour plots of velocity gradients and shear stresses, over the range. The long term application of this research will be used to improve the design of mixers and processing products. The predicted results are used to generate the capability and are in good agreement with numerical results to the mixer design that will ultimately effect the processing of dough products. (author)

  9. p53-dependent manner of persistent activation of the radiation-induced reversion in the pink-eyed unstable mouse embryo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraishi, K.; Yonezawa, M.; Niwa, O.

    2003-01-01

    Full text: We previously reported that radiation has an ability to induce genomic instability which causes delayed and untargeted mutation. These mutations aren't accounted for by the usual relationship between DNA damages and repair. However, the mechanisms of a long-term memory of DNA damage and the persistence of up-regulated recombination activity have yet to be elucidated. The mouse pink-eyed unstable (pun) mutation is due to an intragenic duplication of the pink-eyed dilution locus and frequently reverts black to the wild type in germ cells as well as somatic cells. The frequency of reversion was estimated by counting cluster of pigment cells in retinal pigment epithelium. Twice increase of the reversion was observed in F1 mice born to 6Gy irradiated male at spermatozoa stage, but not at other spermatogenesis stages( -tid, -cyte, -gonia ). Trans-genarational effect in F2 mice also didn't observe. Therefore, this phenomenon only occurs under the restricted germ cell stage. Additionally, the reversion frequency of p53 deficient F1 mouse born to irradiated sperm was less than irradiated wild mouse. 5aza-dc chemical agent, which is DNA methylation emzyme inhibitor, also suppressed pun allele recombination in mouse embryo. These data indicate that p53 contributes delayed and untargeted mutation, perhaps, by regulation of DNA metylation status

  10. Reanalysis and extension of the MnH A7Π- X7Σ + (0, 0) band: Fine structure and hyperfine-induced rotational branches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varberg, Thomas D.; Gray, Jeffrey A.; Field, Robert W.; Merer, Anthony J.

    1992-12-01

    The A7Π- X7Σ + (0, 0) band of MnH at 568 nm has been recorded by laser fluorescence excitation spectroscopy. The original rotational analysis of Nevin [ Proc. R. Irish Acad.48A, 1-45 (1942); 50A, 123-137 (1945)] has been extended with some corrections at low J. Systematic internal hyperfine perturbations in the X7Σ + state, caused by the Δ N = 0, Δ J = ±1 matrix elements of the 55Mn hyperfine term in the Hamiltonian, have been observed in all seven electron spin components over the entire range of N″ studied. These perturbations destroy the "goodness" of J″ as a quantum number, giving rise to hyperfine-induced Δ J = ±2 rotational branches and to observable energy shifts of the most severely affected levels. The A7Π state, with A = 40.5 cm -1 and B = 6.35 cm -1, evolves rapidly from Hund's case ( a) to case ( b) coupling, which produces anomalous branch patterns at low J. A total of 156 rotational branches have been identified and fitted by least squares to an effective Hamiltonian, providing precise values for the rotational and fine structure constants. Values of the principal constants determined in the fit are (1σ errors in units of the last digit are listed in parentheses): The fine structures of the A7Π and X7Σ + states confirm the assignment of the A ← X transition as Mn 4 pπ ← 4 sσ in the presence of a spectator, nonbonding Mn 3 d5 ( 6S) open core.

  11. Rotating Wavepackets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekner, John

    2008-01-01

    Any free-particle wavepacket solution of Schrodinger's equation can be converted by differentiations to wavepackets rotating about the original direction of motion. The angular momentum component along the motion associated with this rotation is an integral multiple of [h-bar]. It is an "intrinsic" angular momentum: independent of origin and…

  12. Rotating dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noe, C.

    1984-01-01

    Products to dry are introduced inside a rotating tube placed in an oven, the cross section of the tube is an arc of spiral. During clockwise rotation of the tube products are maintained inside and mixed, during anticlockwise products are removed. Application is made to drying of radioactive wastes [fr

  13. Electronic changes induced by μ+ in PrIn3: Muon-spin-rotation observation and crystalline-electric-field model calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tashma, T.; Amato, A.; Grayevsky, A.; Gygax, F.N.; Pinkpank, M.; Schenck, A.; Kaplan, N.

    1997-01-01

    Muon spin rotation in a single crystal of PrIn 3 reveals a significant influence of the implanted μ + on the local susceptibility χ 1 of the neighboring Pr +3 ions below ∼60K. It is found that χ 1 differs from χ bulk both in magnitude and in symmetry. All of the changes are accounted for by a model calculation based on crystalline-electric-field theory. The extent of the μ + -induced magnetic changes in the present system of PrIn 3 is rather modest compared to previously reported induced changes in PrNi 5 . However, the model-derived electronic-structure changes around the μ + in PrIn 3 appear remarkably similar to those in PrNi 5 , as is to be expected if the driving perturbation in both systems is primarily Coulombic in nature. copyright 1997 The American Physical Society

  14. Efficient programming of human eye conjunctiva-derived induced pluripotent stem (ECiPS) cells into definitive endoderm-like cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massumi, Mohammad; Hoveizi, Elham; Baktash, Parvaneh; Hooti, Abdollah; Ghazizadeh, Leili; Nadri, Samad; Pourasgari, Farzaneh; Hajarizadeh, Athena; Soleimani, Masoud; Nabiuni, Mohammad; Khorramizadeh, Mohammad R

    2014-03-10

    Due to pluripotency of induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells, and the lack of immunological incompatibility and ethical issues, iPS cells have been considered as an invaluable cell source for future cell replacement therapy. This study was aimed first at establishment of novel iPS cells, ECiPS, which directly reprogrammed from human Eye Conjunctiva-derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells (EC-MSCs); second, comparing the inductive effects of Wnt3a/Activin A biomolecules to IDE1 small molecule in derivation of definitive endoderm (DE) from the ECiPS cells. To that end, first, the EC-MSCs were transduced by SOKM-expressing lentiviruses and characterized for endogenous expression of embryonic markers Then the established ECiPS cells were induced to DE formation by Wnt3a/Activin A or IDE1. Quantification of GSC, Sox17 and Foxa2 expression, as DE-specific markers, in both mRNA and protein levels revealed that induction of ECiPS cells by either Wnt3a/Activin A or IDE1 could enhance the expression level of the genes; however the levels of increase were higher in Wnt3a/Activin A induced ECiPS-EBs than IDE1 induced cells. Furthermore, the flow cytometry analyses showed no synergistic effect between Activin A and Wnt3a to derive DE-like cells from ECiPS cells. The comparative findings suggest that although both Wnt3a/Activin A signaling and IDE1 molecule could be used for differentiation of iPS into DE cells, the DE-inducing effect of Wnt3a/Activin A was statistically higher than IDE1. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Eye emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye can be caused by a work-related accident. It can also be caused by common household ... hammers, or other striking tools Working with toxic chemicals Cycling or when in windy and ... A.D.A.M.'s editorial policy , editorial process and privacy policy . A.D.A.M. is ...

  16. Eye Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... layer of tissue underneath the retina that contains connective tissue and melanocytes, which are pigmented (colored) cells, and nourishes the inside of the eye. The choroid is the most common site for a tumor. Types of intraocular cancer The most common intraocular cancer in adults is ...

  17. Eye trauma

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2011-02-02

    Feb 2, 2011 ... Note your findings in an orderly fashion: orbit, lids, conjunctiva, cornea, anterior chamber, iris, pupil reaction, lens, fundus. • Stain cornea with fluorescein. It is advisable to examine the eye as soon as possible since a delay will invariably lead to lid swelling, making the examination far more difficult. This can ...

  18. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a Weight-of-Evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part II: corrosion potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    This is part II of an in silico investigation of chemical-induced eye injury that was conducted at FDA's CFSAN. Serious eye damage caused by chemical (eye corrosion) is assessed using the rabbit Draize test, and this endpoint is an essential part of hazard identification and labeling of industrial and consumer products to ensure occupational and consumer safety. There is an urgent need to develop an alternative to the Draize test because EU's 7th amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (EC, 2003; 76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans animal testing on all cosmetic product ingredients and EU's REACH Program limits animal testing for chemicals in commerce. Although in silico methods have been reported for eye irritation (reversible damage), QSARs specific for eye corrosion (irreversible damage) have not been published. This report describes the development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) for assessing eye corrosion potential of chemicals using a large and diverse CFSAN data set of 504 chemicals, ADMET Predictor's three sensitivity analyses and ANNE classification functionalities with 20% test set selection from seven different methods. QSAR-21 models were internally and externally validated and exhibited high predictive performance: average statistics for the training, verification, and external test sets of these models were 96/96/94% sensitivity and 91/91/90% specificity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Fatty acid‐binding protein 4 regulates fatty infiltration after rotator cuff tear by hypoxia‐inducible factor 1 in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong‐Soo; Kim, Ja‐Yeon; Oh, Kyung‐Soo

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background Fatty infiltration in skeletal muscle is directly linked to loss of muscle strength and is associated with various adverse physical outcomes such as muscle atrophy, inflammation, insulin resistance, mobility impairments, and even mortality in the elderly. Aging, mechanical unloading, muscle injury, and hormonal imbalance are main causes of muscle fat accumulation, and the fat cells are derived from muscle stem cells via adipogenic differentiation. However, the pathogenesis and molecular mechanisms of fatty infiltration in muscles are still not fully defined. Fatty acid‐binding protein 4 (FABP4) is a carrier protein for fatty acids and is involved in fatty acid uptake, transport, and lipid metabolism. Rotator cuff tear (RCT) usually occurs in the elderly and is closely related with fatty infiltration in injured muscle. To investigate potential mechanisms for fatty infiltration other than adipogenic differentiation of muscle stem cells, we examined the role of FABP4 in muscle fatty infiltration in an RCT mouse model. Methods In the RCT model, we evaluated the expression of FABP4 by qRT‐PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemical analyses. Histological changes such as inflammation and fat accumulation in the injured muscles were examined immunohistochemically. To evaluate whether hypoxia induces FABP4 expression, the levels of FABP4 mRNA and protein in C3H10T1/2 cells after hypoxia were examined. Using a transient transfection assay in 293T cells, we assessed the promoter activity of FABP4 by hypoxia‐inducible factors (HIFs). Additionally, we evaluated the reduction in FABP4 expression and fat accumulation using specific inhibitors for HIF1 and FABP4, respectively. Results FABP4 expression was significantly increased after RCT in mice, and its expression was localized in the intramuscular fatty region. Rotator cuff tear‐induced FABP4 expression was up‐regulated by hypoxia. HIF1α, which is activated by hypoxia, augmented the promoter

  20. Solvent-shared pairs of densely charged ions induce intense but short-range supra-additive slowdown of water rotation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vila Verde, Ana; Santer, Mark; Lipowsky, Reinhard

    2016-01-21

    The question "Can ions exert supra-additive effects on water dynamics?" has had several opposing answers from both simulation and experiment. We address this ongoing controversy by investigating water reorientation in aqueous solutions of two salts with large (magnesium sulfate) and small (cesium chloride) effects on water dynamics using molecular dynamics simulations and classical, polarizable models. The salt models are reparameterized to reproduce properties of both dilute and concentrated solutions. We demonstrate that water rotation in concentrated MgSO4 solutions is unexpectedly slow, in agreement with experiment, and that the slowdown is supra-additive: the observed slowdown is larger than that predicted by assuming that the resultant of the extra forces induced by the ions on the rotating water molecules tilts the free energy landscape associated with water rotation. Supra-additive slow down is very intense but short-range, and is strongly ion-specific: in contrast to the long-range picture initially proposed based on experiment, we find that intense supra-additivity is limited to water molecules directly bridging two ions in solvent-shared ion pair configuration; in contrast to a non-ion-specific origin to supra-additive effects proposed from simulations, we find that the magnitude of supra-additive slowdown strongly depends on the identity of the cations and anions. Supra-additive slowdown of water dynamics requires long-lived solvent-shared ion pairs; long-lived ion pairs should be typical for salts of multivalent ions. We discuss the origin of the apparent disagreement between the various studies on this topic and show that the short-range cooperative slowdown scenario proposed here resolves the existing controversy.

  1. Diabetic Eye Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Disease, & Other Dental Problems Diabetes & Sexual & Urologic Problems Diabetic Eye Disease What is diabetic eye disease? Diabetic eye disease is a group ... eye diseases that can threaten your sight are Diabetic retinopathy The retina is the inner lining at ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to ... of the eye. It regulates the amount of light entering the eye through the pupil. Pupil (PYOO- ...

  3. Eye Movement Disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... work properly. There are many kinds of eye movement disorders. Two common ones are Strabismus - a disorder ... in "crossed eyes" or "walleye." Nystagmus - fast, uncontrollable movements of the eyes, sometimes called "dancing eyes" Some ...

  4. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series ... Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun ...

  5. Why Do Eyes Water?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... for Educators Search English Español Why Do Eyes Water? KidsHealth / For Kids / Why Do Eyes Water? What's ... coming out of your nose. Why Do Eyes Water? Eyes water for lots of different reasons besides ...

  6. Space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization of double-helix nanostructure: a nanotube twist with a moving catalyst head.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Meng-Qiang; Zhang, Qiang; Tian, Gui-Li; Huang, Jia-Qi; Wei, Fei

    2012-05-22

    Inorganic materials with double-helix structure have attracted intensive attention due to not only their elegant morphology but also their amazing morphology-related potential applications. The investigation on the formation mechanism of the inorganic double-helix nanostructure is the first step for the fundamental studies of their materials or physical properties. Herein, we demonstrated the space confinement and rotation stress induced self-organization mechanism of the carbon nanotube (CNT)-array double helices under scanning electron microscopy by directly observing their formation process from individual layered double hydroxide flakes, which is a kind of hydrotalcite-like material composed of positively charged layers and charge-balancing interlayer anions. Space confinement is considered to be the most important extrinsic factor for the formation of CNT-array double helices. Synchronous growth of the CNT arrays oppositely from LDH flakes with space confinement on both sides at the same time is essential for the growth of CNT-array double helices. Coiling of the as-grown CNT arrays into double helices will proceed by self-organization, tending to the most stable morphology in order to release their internal rotation stress. Based on the demonstrated mechanism, effective routes were carried out to improve the selectivity for CNT-array double helices. The work provides a promising method for the fabrication of double-helix nanostructures with their two helices connected at the end by self-assembly.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  10. Size-induced axial band structure and directional flow of a ternary-size granular material in a 3-D horizontal rotating drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiliang; Sun, Yuhao; Ma, Honghe; Chew, Jia Wei

    2018-05-01

    Differences in the material property of the granular material induce segregation which inevitably influences both natural and industrial processes. To understand the dynamical segregation behavior, the band structure, and also the spatial redistribution of particles induced by the size differences of the particles, a ternary-size granular mixture in a three-dimensional rotating drum operating in the rolling flow regime is numerically simulated using the discrete element method. The results demonstrate that (i) the axial bands of the medium particles are spatially sandwiched in between those of the large and small ones; (ii) the total mass in the active and passive regions is a global parameter independent of segregation; (iii) nearly one-third of all the particles are in the active region, with the small particles having the highest mass fraction; (iv) the axial bands initially appear near the end wall, then become wider and purer in the particular species with time as more axial bands form toward the axial center; and (v) the medium particle type exhibits segregation later and has the narrowest axial bandwidth and least purity in the bands. Compared to the binary-size system, the presence of the medium particle type slightly increases the total mass in the active region, leads to larger mass fractions of the small and large particle types in the active region, and enhances the axial segregation in the system. The results obtained in the current work provide valuable insights regarding size segregation, and band structure and formation in the rotating drum with polydisperse particles.

  11. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piñero, David P; Camps, Vicente J; Ramón, María L; Mateo, Verónica; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL) power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP). Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y) with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany). In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj) was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj) for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj) and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj) obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal) and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay I). PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05). In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D) and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D) when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01) and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj. Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

  12. Error induced by the estimation of the corneal power and the effective lens position with a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal intraocular lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David P. Piñero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM:To evaluate the prediction error in intraocular lens (IOL power calculation for a rotationally asymmetric refractive multifocal IOL and the impact on this error of the optimization of the keratometric estimation of the corneal power and the prediction of the effective lens position (ELP.METHODS:Retrospective study including a total of 25 eyes of 13 patients (age, 50 to 83y with previous cataract surgery with implantation of the Lentis Mplus LS-312 IOL (Oculentis GmbH, Germany. In all cases, an adjusted IOL power (PIOLadj was calculated based on Gaussian optics using a variable keratometric index value (nkadj for the estimation of the corneal power (Pkadj and on a new value for ELP (ELPadj obtained by multiple regression analysis. This PIOLadj was compared with the IOL power implanted (PIOLReal and the value proposed by three conventional formulas (Haigis, Hoffer Q and Holladay Ⅰ.RESULTS:PIOLReal was not significantly different than PIOLadj and Holladay IOL power (P>0.05. In the Bland and Altman analysis, PIOLadj showed lower mean difference (-0.07 D and limits of agreement (of 1.47 and -1.61 D when compared to PIOLReal than the IOL power value obtained with the Holladay formula. Furthermore, ELPadj was significantly lower than ELP calculated with other conventional formulas (P<0.01 and was found to be dependent on axial length, anterior chamber depth and Pkadj.CONCLUSION:Refractive outcomes after cataract surgery with implantation of the multifocal IOL Lentis Mplus LS-312 can be optimized by minimizing the keratometric error and by estimating ELP using a mathematical expression dependent on anatomical factors.

  13. A vacuum-UV laser-induced fluorescence experiment for measurement of rotationally and vibrationally excited H2

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vankan, P.J.W.; Heil, S.B.S.; Mazouffre, S.; Engeln, R.A.H.; Schram, D.C.; Döbele, H.F.

    2004-01-01

    An experimental setup is built to detect spatially resolved rovibrationally excited hydrogen molecules via laser-induced fluorescence. To excite the hydrogen molecules, laser radiation is produced in the vacuum UV part of the spectrum. The laser radiation is tunable between 120 nm and 230 nm and has

  14. Rotating preventers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tangedahl, M.J.; Stone, C.R.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports that recent changes in the oil and gas industry and ongoing developments in horizontal and underbalanced drilling necessitated development of a better rotating head. A new device called the rotating blowout preventer (RBOP) was developed by Seal-Tech. It is designed to replace the conventional rotating control head on top of BOP stacks and allows drilling operations to continue even on live (underbalanced) wells. Its low wear characteristics and high working pressure (1,500 psi) allow drilling rig crews to drill safely in slightly underbalanced conditions or handle severe well control problems during the time required to actuate other BOPs in the stack. Drilling with a RBOP allows wellbores to be completely closed in tat the drill floor rather than open as with conventional BOPs

  15. Earth Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickey, Jean O.

    1995-01-01

    The study of the Earth's rotation in space (encompassing Universal Time (UT1), length of day, polar motion, and the phenomena of precession and nutation) addresses the complex nature of Earth orientation changes, the mechanisms of excitation of these changes and their geophysical implications in a broad variety of areas. In the absence of internal sources of energy or interactions with astronomical objects, the Earth would move as a rigid body with its various parts (the crust, mantle, inner and outer cores, atmosphere and oceans) rotating together at a constant fixed rate. In reality, the world is considerably more complicated, as is schematically illustrated. The rotation rate of the Earth's crust is not constant, but exhibits complicated fluctuations in speed amounting to several parts in 10(exp 8) [corresponding to a variation of several milliseconds (ms) in the Length Of the Day (LOD) and about one part in 10(exp 6) in the orientation of the rotation axis relative to the solid Earth's axis of figure (polar motion). These changes occur over a broad spectrum of time scales, ranging from hours to centuries and longer, reflecting the fact that they are produced by a wide variety of geophysical and astronomical processes. Geodetic observations of Earth rotation changes thus provide insights into the geophysical processes illustrated, which are often difficult to obtain by other means. In addition, these measurements are required for engineering purposes. Theoretical studies of Earth rotation variations are based on the application of Euler's dynamical equations to the problem of finding the response of slightly deformable solid Earth to variety of surface and internal stresses.

  16. Advances in Rotational Seismic Measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierson, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Laughlin, Darren [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Brune, Robert [Applied Technology Associates, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-10-19

    Rotational motion is increasingly understood to be a significant part of seismic wave motion. Rotations can be important in earthquake strong motion and in Induced Seismicity Monitoring. Rotational seismic data can also enable shear selectivity and improve wavefield sampling for vertical geophones in 3D surveys, among other applications. However, sensor technology has been a limiting factor to date. The US Department of Energy (DOE) and Applied Technology Associates (ATA) are funding a multi-year project that is now entering Phase 2 to develop and deploy a new generation of rotational sensors for validation of rotational seismic applications. Initial focus is on induced seismicity monitoring, particularly for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) with fracturing. The sensors employ Magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) principles with broadband response, improved noise floors, robustness, and repeatability. This paper presents a summary of Phase 1 results and Phase 2 status.

  17. Eye Contricks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Wade

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Icons are eye-cons: they provide a distillation of a complex object or idea into a simple pictorial shape. They create the impression of representing that which cannot be presented. Even at the level of the photograph, the links between icon and object are tenuous. The dimension of distance or depth is missing from the icon, and this alone introduces all manner of potential ambiguities. The history of art can be considered as an exploration of the missing link between icon and object. Eye-cons are more honest—they are tricks of vision so that what is seen does not necessarily correspond to what is presented. They are visual allusions rather than visual illusions, although they can display illusory effects. At its broadest, icon can be equated with image. The concept of image has thrived on its vagueness, and so attempts have been made to refine it. An icon corresponds to an optical image: it shares some of the projective characteristics of the object represented. Written words are also icons but they do not resemble the objects they represent—they are stylised or conventional rather than spatialised and projective. Words and images were set in delightful opposition by René Magritte (1898-1967 in a series of pipe paintings, and he also played on the theme of the arbitrariness of the verbal labels assigned to objects. What is surprising is that Magritte did not apply his painterly skills to transforming the word shapes he used. A similar reluctance to transform the typefaces pervades visual poetry. My interests are in the visual rather than the poetic dimension, and I will present a range of my own eye contricks which play with letter and word shapes in a variety of ways.

  18. Reactive Oxygen Species and the Aging Eye: Specific Role of Metabolically Active Mitochondria in Maintaining Lens Function and in the Initiation of the Oxidation-Induced Maturity Onset Cataract--A Novel Platform of Mitochondria-Targeted Antioxidants With Broad Therapeutic Potential for Redox Regulation and Detoxification of Oxidants in Eye Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babizhayev, Mark A; Yegorov, Yegor E

    2016-01-01

    The aging eye appears to be at considerable risk from oxidative stress. A great deal of research indicates that dysfunctional mitochondria are the primary site of reactive oxygen species (ROS). More than 95% of O2 produced during normal metabolism is generated by the electron transport chain in the inner mitochondrial membrane. Mitochondria are also the major target of ROS. Cataract formation, the opacification of the eye lens, is one of the leading causes of human blindness worldwide, accounting for 47.8% of all causes of blindness. Cataracts result from the deposition of aggregated proteins in the eye lens and lens fiber cell plasma membrane damage, which causes clouding of the lens, light scattering, and obstruction of vision. ROS-induced damage in the lens cell may consist of oxidation of proteins, DNA damage, and/or lipid peroxidation, all of which have been implicated in cataractogenesis. This article is an attempt to integrate how mitochondrial ROS are altered in the aging eye along with those protective and repair therapeutic systems believed to regulate ROS levels in ocular tissues and how damage to these systems contributes to age-onset eye disease and cataract formation. Mitochondria-targeted antioxidants might be used to effectively prevent ROS-induced oxidation of lipids and proteins in the inner mitochondrial membrane in vivo. As a result of the combination of weak metal chelating, OH and lipid peroxyl radicals scavenging, reducing activities to liberated fatty acid, and phospholipid hydroperoxides, carnosine and carcinine appear to be physiological antioxidants able to efficiently protect the lipid phase of biologic membranes and aqueous environments and act as the antiapoptotic natural drug compounds The authors developed and patented the new ophthalmic compositions, including N-acetylcarnosine, acting as a prodrug of naturally targeted to mitochondria L-carnosine endowed with pluripotent antioxidant activities combined with mitochondria

  19. Estimation of the chemical-induced eye injury using a weight-of-evidence (WoE) battery of 21 artificial neural network (ANN) c-QSAR models (QSAR-21): part I: irritation potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Rajeshwar P; Matthews, Edwin J

    2015-03-01

    Evaluation of potential chemical-induced eye injury through irritation and corrosion is required to ensure occupational and consumer safety for industrial, household and cosmetic ingredient chemicals. The historical method for evaluating eye irritant and corrosion potential of chemicals is the rabbit Draize test. However, the Draize test is controversial and its use is diminishing - the EU 7th Amendment to the Cosmetic Directive (76/768/EEC) and recast Regulation now bans marketing of new cosmetics having animal testing of their ingredients and requires non-animal alternative tests for safety assessments. Thus, in silico and/or in vitro tests are advocated. QSAR models for eye irritation have been reported for several small (congeneric) data sets; however, large global models have not been described. This report describes FDA/CFSAN's development of 21 ANN c-QSAR models (QSAR-21) to predict eye irritation using the ADMET Predictor program and a diverse training data set of 2928 chemicals. The 21 models had external (20% test set) and internal validation and average training/verification/test set statistics were: 88/88/85(%) sensitivity and 82/82/82(%) specificity, respectively. The new method utilized multiple artificial neural network (ANN) molecular descriptor selection functionalities to maximize the applicability domain of the battery. The eye irritation models will be used to provide information to fill the critical data gaps for the safety assessment of cosmetic ingredient chemicals. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Development of a human corneal epithelium model utilizing a collagen vitrigel membrane and the changes of its barrier function induced by exposing eye irritant chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takezawa, Toshiaki; Nishikawa, Kazunori; Wang, Pi-Chao

    2011-09-01

    The brief TEER (trans-epithelial electrical resistance) assay after exposing chemicals to corneal epithelium in vivo is known as a suitable method for evaluating corneal irritancy and permeability quantitatively and continuously. A collagen vitrigel membrane we previously developed is a thin (about 20 μm thick) and transparent membrane composed of high density collagen fibrils equivalent to connective tissues in vivo, e.g. corneal Bowman's membrane. To develop such a TEER assay system in vitro utilizing a human corneal epithelial model, HCE-T cells (a human corneal epithelial cell line) were cultured on the collagen vitrigel membrane substratum prepared in a Millicell chamber suitable for TEER measurement. Human corneal epithelium model possessing 5-6 cell layers sufficient for TEER assay was successfully reconstructed on the substratum in the Millicell chamber by culturing the cells in monolayer for 2 days and subsequently in air-liquid interface for 7 days. The exposure of chemicals to the model induced the time-dependent relative changes of TEER in response to the characteristic of each chemical within a few minutes. These results suggest that the TEER assay using the human corneal epithelial model is very useful for an ocular irritancy evaluation as an alternative to the Draize eye irritation test. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Coenzyme Q10 instilled as eye drops on the cornea reaches the retina and protects retinal layers from apoptosis in a mouse model of kainate-induced retinal damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Witort, Ewa; Papucci, Laura; Torre, Eugenio; Schipani, Christian; Bergamini, Christian; Dal Monte, Massimo; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2012-12-17

    To evaluate if coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) can protect retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) from apoptosis and, when instilled as eye drops on the cornea, if it can reach the retina and exert its antiapoptotic activity in this area in a mouse model of kainate (KA)-induced retinal damage. Rat primary or cultured RGCs were subjected to glutamate (50 μM) or chemical hypoxia (Antimycin A, 200 μM) or serum withdrawal (FBS, 0.5%) in the presence or absence of CoQ10 (10 μM). Cell viability was evaluated by light microscopy and fluorescence-activated cell sorting analyses. Apoptosis was evaluated by caspase 3/7 activity and mitochondrion depolarization tetramethylrhodamine ethyl ester analysis. CoQ10 transfer to the retina following its instillation as eye drops on the cornea was quantified by HPLC. Retinal protection by CoQ10 (10 μM) eye drops instilled on the cornea was then evaluated in a mouse model of KA-induced excitotoxic retinal cell apoptosis by cleaved caspase 3 immunohistofluorescence, caspase 3/7 activity assays, and quantification of inhibition of RGC loss. CoQ10 significantly increased viable cells by preventing RGC apoptosis. Furthermore, when topically applied as eye drops to the cornea, it reached the retina, thus substantially increasing local CoQ10 concentration and protecting retinal layers from apoptosis. The ability of CoQ10 eye drops to protect retinal cells from apoptosis in the mouse model of KA-induced retinal damage suggests that topical CoQ10 may be evaluated in designing therapies for treating apoptosis-driven retinopathies.

  2. Tritiated water exposure disrupts myofibril structure and induces mis-regulation of eye opacity and DNA repair genes in zebrafish early life stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arcanjo, Caroline; Armant, Olivier; Floriani, Magali; Cavalie, Isabelle; Camilleri, Virginie; Simon, Olivier; Orjollet, Daniel; Adam-Guillermin, Christelle; Gagnaire, Béatrice

    2018-04-27

    Tritium ( 3 H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. In the environment, the most common form of tritium is tritiated water (HTO). The present study aimed to identify early biomarkers of HTO contamination through the use of an aquatic model, the zebrafish (Danio rerio). We used the zebrafish embryo-larvae model to investigate the modes of action of HTO exposure at dose rates of 0.4 and 4 mGy/h, dose rates expected to induce deleterious effects on fish. Zebrafish were exposed to HTO from 3 hpf (hours post fertilization) to 96 hpf. The transcriptomic effects were investigated 24 h and 96 h after the beginning of the contamination, using mRNAseq. Results suggested an impact of HTO contamination, regardless of the dose rate, on genes involved in muscle contraction (tnnt2d, tnni2a.4, slc6a1a or atp2a1l) and eye opacity (crygm2d9, crygmxl1, mipb or lim2.3) after 24 h of contamination. Interestingly, an opposite differential expression was highlighted in genes playing a role in muscle contraction and eye opacity in 24 hpf embryos when comparing dose rates, suggesting an onset of DNA protective mechanisms. The expression of h2afx and ddb2 involved in DNA repair was enhanced in response to HTO exposure. The entrainment of circadian clock and the response to H 2 O 2 signalling pathways were enriched at 96 hpf at 0.4 mGy/h and in both stages after 4 mGy/h. Genes involved in ROS scavenging were differentially expressed only after 24 h of exposure for the lowest dose rate, suggesting the onset of early protective mechanisms against oxidative stress. Effects highlighted on muscle at the molecular scale were confirmed at a higher biological scale, as electron microscopy observations revealed sarcomere impairments in 96 hpf larvae for both dose rates. Together with other studies, the present work provides useful data to better understand modes of action of tritium on zebrafish embryos-larvae. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  5. Bags Under Eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bags under eyes Overview Bags under eyes — mild swelling or puffiness under the eyes — are common as you age. With aging, the tissues around your ... space below your eyes, adding to the swelling. Bags under eyes are usually a cosmetic concern and ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks Links to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes ...

  7. Measurement of lattice rotations and internal stresses in over one hundred individual grains during a stress-induced martensitic transformation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hachi Younes El

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available To better understand the properties of polycrystals at a microscopic scale during cyclic mechanical loading we have measured the relationship between grain orientations, their positions inside the sample and their internal stresses. In this work, in-situ 3DXRD technique was performed on over hundred grains during the stress-induced martensitic transformation in a Cu-Al-Be shape memory alloy. Information about the position, orientation, and stress field was obtained for each austenitic grain. These results have been used to develop a procedure that allows automatic processing for a large number of grains, matching them during loading and leads to a quantitative stress field. A strong heterogeneity of stress state between the grains at the surface and in the volume is evident.

  8. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  9. Signalling properties of identified deep cerebellar nuclear neurons related to eye and head movements in the alert cat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gruart, A; Delgado-García, J M

    1994-07-01

    1. The spike activity of deep cerebellar nuclear neurons was recorded in the alert cat during spontaneous and during vestibularly and visually induced eye movements. 2. Neurons were classified according to their location in the nuclei, their antidromic activation from projection sites, their sensitivity to eye position and velocity during spontaneous eye movements, and their responses to vestibular and optokinetic stimuli. 3. Type I EPV (eye position and velocity) neurons were located mainly in the posterior part of the fastigial nucleus and activated antidromically almost exclusively from the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex. These neurons, reported here for the first time, increased their firing rate during saccades and eye fixations towards the contralateral hemifield. Their position sensitivity to eye fixations in the horizontal plane was 5.3 +/- 2.6 spikes s-1 deg-1 (mean +/- S.D.). Eye velocity sensitivity during horizontal saccades was 0.71 +/- 0.52 spikes s-1 deg-1 s-1. Variability of their firing rate during a given eye fixation was higher than that shown by abducens motoneurons. 4. Type I EPV neurons increased their firing rate during ipsilateral head rotations at 0.5 Hz with a mean phase lead over eye position of 95.3 +/- 9.5 deg. They were also activated by contralateral optokinetic stimulation at 30 deg s-1. Their sensitivity to eye position and velocity in the horizontal plane during vestibular and optokinetic stimuli yielded values similar to those obtained for spontaneous eye movements. 5. Type II neurons were located in both fastigial and dentate nuclei and were activated antidromically from the restiform body, the medial longitudinal fasciculus close to the oculomotor complex, the red nucleus and the pontine nuclei. Type II neurons were not related to spontaneous eye movements. These neurons increased their firing rate in response to contralateral head rotation and during ipsilateral optokinetic stimulation, and

  10. Management of digital eye strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coles-Brennan, Chantal; Sulley, Anna; Young, Graeme

    2018-05-23

    Digital eye strain, an emerging public health issue, is a condition characterised by visual disturbance and/or ocular discomfort related to the use of digital devices and resulting from a range of stresses on the ocular environment. This review aims to provide an overview of the extensive literature on digital eye strain research with particular reference to the clinical management of symptoms. As many as 90 per cent of digital device users experience symptoms of digital eye strain. Many studies suggest that the following factors are associated with digital eye strain: uncorrected refractive error (including presbyopia), accommodative and vergence anomalies, altered blinking pattern (reduced rate and incomplete blinking), excessive exposure to intense light, closer working distance, and smaller font size. Since a symptom may be caused by one or more factors, a holistic approach should be adopted. The following management strategies have been suggested: (i) appropriate correction of refractive error, including astigmatism and presbyopia; (ii) management of vergence anomalies, with the aim of inducing or leaving a small amount of heterophoria (~1.5 Δ Exo); (iii) blinking exercise/training to maintain normal blinking pattern; (iv) use of lubricating eye drops (artificial tears) to help alleviate dry eye-related symptoms; (v) contact lenses with enhanced comfort, particularly at end-of-day and in challenging environments; (vi) prescription of colour filters in all vision correction options, especially blue light-absorbing filters; and (vii) management of accommodative anomalies. Prevention is the main strategy for management of digital eye strain, which involves: (i) ensuring an ergonomic work environment and practice (through patient education and the implementation of ergonomic workplace policies); and (ii) visual examination and eye care to treat visual disorders. Special consideration is needed for people at a high risk of digital eye strain, such as computer

  11. Attentional Modulation of Eye Torsion Responses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevenson, Scott B.; Mahadevan, Madhumitha S.; Mulligan, Jeffrey B.

    2016-01-01

    Eye movements generally have both reflexive and voluntary aspects, but torsional eye movements are usually thought of as a reflexive response to image rotation around the line of sight (torsional OKN) or to head roll (torsional VOR). In this study we asked whether torsional responses could be modulated by attention in a case where two stimuli rotated independently, and whether attention would influence the latency of responses. The display consisted of rear-projected radial "pinwheel" gratings, with an inner annulus segment extending from the center to 22 degrees eccentricity, and an outer annulus segment extending from 22 degrees out to 45 degrees eccentricity. The two segments rotated around the center in independent random walks, stepping randomly 4 degrees clockwise or counterclockwise at 60 Hz. Subjects were asked to attend to one or the other while keeping fixation steady at the center of the display. To encourage attention on one or the other segment of the display, subjects were asked to move a joystick in synchrony with the back and forth rotations of one part of the image while ignoring the other. Eye torsion was recorded with the scleral search coil technique, sampled at 500 Hz. All four subjects showed roughly 50% stronger torsion responses to the attended compared to unattended segments. Latency varied from 100 to 150 msec across subjects and was unchanged by attention. These findings suggest that attention can influence eye movement responses that are not typically under voluntary control.

  12. Premotor neurons encode torsional eye velocity during smooth-pursuit eye movements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angelaki, Dora E.; Dickman, J. David

    2003-01-01

    Responses to horizontal and vertical ocular pursuit and head and body rotation in multiple planes were recorded in eye movement-sensitive neurons in the rostral vestibular nuclei (VN) of two rhesus monkeys. When tested during pursuit through primary eye position, the majority of the cells preferred either horizontal or vertical target motion. During pursuit of targets that moved horizontally at different vertical eccentricities or vertically at different horizontal eccentricities, eye angular velocity has been shown to include a torsional component the amplitude of which is proportional to half the gaze angle ("half-angle rule" of Listing's law). Approximately half of the neurons, the majority of which were characterized as "vertical" during pursuit through primary position, exhibited significant changes in their response gain and/or phase as a function of gaze eccentricity during pursuit, as if they were also sensitive to torsional eye velocity. Multiple linear regression analysis revealed a significant contribution of torsional eye movement sensitivity to the responsiveness of the cells. These findings suggest that many VN neurons encode three-dimensional angular velocity, rather than the two-dimensional derivative of eye position, during smooth-pursuit eye movements. Although no clear clustering of pursuit preferred-direction vectors along the semicircular canal axes was observed, the sensitivity of VN neurons to torsional eye movements might reflect a preservation of similar premotor coding of visual and vestibular-driven slow eye movements for both lateral-eyed and foveate species.

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... your eye. It helps your eye focus light so things look sharp and clear. Sclera (SKLEH-ruh) ... the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the ...

  14. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision ... to More Information Optical Illusions Printables About the Eye Your eyes are made up of many different ...

  15. Fluorescein eye stain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abnormal results may point to: Abnormal tear production (dry eye) Blocked tear duct Corneal abrasion (a scratch on ... object in eye ) Infection Injury or trauma Severe dry eye associated with arthritis (keratoconjunctivitis sicca)

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member ... Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye Health Find an Ophthalmologist Academy Store Eye Health A- ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  19. Eye Injuries at Work

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... National Standards Institute (ANSI) to meet their eye protection standards. If an eye injury occurs, see an ophthalmologist or go to the emergency room immediately, even if the eye injury appears minor. Delaying medical attention can result in permanent vision ...

  20. EyeGENE

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — The eyeGENE® Biorepository and corresponding Database contain family history and clinical eye exam data from subjects enrolled in eyeGENE® Program coupled to...

  1. Three-dimensional analysis of otolith-ocular reflex during eccentric rotation in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takimoto, Yasumitsu; Imai, Takao; Okumura, Tomoko; Takeda, Noriaki; Inohara, Hidenori

    2016-10-01

    When a participant is rotated while displaced from the axis of rotation (eccentric rotation, ER), both rotational stimulation and linear acceleration are applied to the participant. As linear acceleration stimulates the otolith, the vestibulo-ocular reflex (VOR) caused by the otolith (linear VOR; lVOR) would be induced during ER. Ten participants were rotated sinusoidally at a maximum angular velocity of 50°/s and at frequencies of 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7Hz. The radius of rotation during ER was 90cm. The participants sat on a chair at three different positions: on the axis (center rotation, CR), at 90cm backward from the axis (nose-in ER, NI-ER) and at 90cm forward from the axis (nose-out ER, NO-ER). Their eye movements during rotation were recorded and analyzed three-dimensionally. The VOR gain during NI-ER was lower at 0.5 and 0.7Hz, and that during NO-ER was higher at 0.3, 0.5, and 0.7Hz than during CR. These results indicate that lVOR actually worked at 0.5 and 0.7Hz during ER and that the enhancement and decline of the VOR gain relative to the VOR gain during CR was seen in humans. Thus, we suggest that otolith function can be assessed via rotational testing of NI-ER and NO-ER. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd and Japan Neuroscience Society. All rights reserved.

  2. Management of Perforated Mooren's Ulcer with a Rotational Scleral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A case of bilateral Mooren's ulcer with corneal melting and uveal prolapse in the left eye (LE) involving 1½ h was managed with a scleral rotational autograft at the Rachel Eye Center, Abuja. The patient was a 75‑year‑old female retiree with concomitant rheumatoid arthritis involving the knee and metacarpophalangeal joints ...

  3. Anterior eye protection with orbital neoplasia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hancock, S.L.

    1986-01-01

    The administration of adequate doses of radiation to tumors involving the orbit and surrounding facial structures and sinuses is often complicated by the need to protect the sensitive ocular components, the lens and cornea. A technique has been devised that uses four photon beam fields and an optional electron field to treat the contents of both orbits and adjacent sinuses with effective, reproducible protection of cornea and lens. Essential features include: alignment of the corneal surfaces with the central plane of rotation of the treatment machine, use of a narrow eye block across the entire beam to shield a strip equal to the width of the cornea, positioned symmetrically across the central plane of rotation, fine alignment of the eye block with both corneal surfaces by altering pedestal angle, treatment with paired, wedged, anterior oblique fields to encompass desired orbital and sinus volumes with additional blocking placed as needed, and complementary, lateral strip fields using collimators set to eye block thickness to equalize dose in the posterior orbit shielded by the strip eye block. A similar anterior electron beam strip field may be added to boost the medial orbit and ethmoid regions covered by the eye block. Bite block head immobilization and easy, direct daily visualization of block position assures eye protection for each treatment and provides substantial reduction in dose to the cornea, lens and iris. Additional blocking may be incorporated to provide partial lacrimal and parotid sparing

  4. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    trials. We contacted investigators to ask for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. We did not perform meta-analysis owing to differences in outcome assessments across trials. Main results We identified five eligible RCTs (92 participants) that compared AS versus artificial tears or saline in individuals with dry eye of various origins (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye, and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). We assessed the certainty of evidence as low or very low because of lack of reporting of quantitative data for most outcomes and unclear or high risk of bias among trials. We judged most risk of bias domains to have unclear risk in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics, and we considered one trial to have high risk of bias for most domains. We judged the remaining two trials to have low risk of bias; however, these trials used a cross-over design and did not report data in a way that could be used to compare outcomes between treatment groups appropriately. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity among outcomes and follow-up periods prevented inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. Three trials compared AS with artificial tears; however, only one trial reported quantitative data for analysis. Low-certainty evidence from one trial suggested that AS might provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared with artificial tears after two weeks of treatment; the mean difference in mean change in symptom score measured on a visual analogue scale (range 0 to 100, with higher scores representing worse symptoms) was −12.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) −20.16 to −3.84; 20 participants). This same trial found mixed results with respect to ocular surface outcomes; the mean difference in mean change in

  5. Coordinated Control of Three-Dimensional Components of Smooth Pursuit to Rotating and Translating Textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edinger, Janick; Pai, Dinesh K; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The neural control of pursuit eye movements to visual textures that simultaneously translate and rotate has largely been neglected. Here we propose that pursuit of such targets-texture pursuit-is a fully three-dimensional task that utilizes all three degrees of freedom of the eye, including torsion. Head-fixed healthy human adults (n = 8) tracked a translating and rotating random dot pattern, shown on a computer monitor, with their eyes. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye positions were recorded with a head-mounted eye tracker. The torsional component of pursuit is a function of the rotation of the texture, aligned with its visual properties. We observed distinct behaviors between those trials in which stimulus rotation was in the same direction as that of a rolling ball ("natural") in comparison to those with the opposite rotation ("unnatural"): Natural rotation enhanced and unnatural rotation reversed torsional velocity during pursuit, as compared to torsion triggered by a nonrotating random dot pattern. Natural rotation also triggered pursuit with a higher horizontal velocity gain and fewer and smaller corrective saccades. Furthermore, we show that horizontal corrective saccades are synchronized with torsional corrective saccades, indicating temporal coupling of horizontal and torsional saccade control. Pursuit eye movements have a torsional component that depends on the visual stimulus. Horizontal and torsional eye movements are separated in the motor periphery. Our findings suggest that translational and rotational motion signals might be coordinated in descending pursuit pathways.

  6. Lysophosphatidic acid-induced RhoA signaling and prolonged macrophage infiltration worsens fibrosis and fatty infiltration following rotator cuff tears.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, Michael R; Lee, Lawrence; Feeley, Brian T; Kim, Hubert T; Liu, Xuhui

    2017-07-01

    Previous studies have suggested that macrophage-mediated chronic inflammation is involved in the development of rotator cuff muscle atrophy and degeneration following massive tendon tears. Increased RhoA signaling has been reported in chronic muscle degeneration, such as muscular dystrophy. However, the role of RhoA signaling in macrophage infiltration and rotator muscle degeneration remains unknown. Using a previously established rat model of massive rotator cuff tears, we found RhoA signaling is upregulated in rotator cuff muscle following a massive tendon-nerve injury. This increase in RhoA expression is greatly potentiated by the administration of a potent RhoA activator, lysophosphatidic acid (LPA), and is accompanied by increased TNFα and TGF-β1 expression in rotator cuff muscle. Boosting RhoA signaling with LPA significantly worsened rotator cuff muscle atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration, accompanied with massive monocytic infiltration of rotator cuff muscles. Co-staining of RhoA and the tissue macrophage marker CD68 showed that CD68+ tissue macrophages are the dominant cell source of increased RhoA signaling in rotator cuff muscles after tendon tears. Taken together, our findings suggest that LPA-mediated RhoA signaling in injured muscle worsens the outcomes of atrophy, fibrosis, and fatty infiltration by increasing macrophage infiltraion in rotator cuff muscle. Clinically, inhibiting RhoA signaling may represent a future direction for developing new treatments to improve muscle quality following massive rotator cuff tears. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Orthop Res 35:1539-1547, 2017. © 2016 Orthopaedic Research Society. Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Dynamic characteristics of otolith ocular response during counter rotation about dual yaw axes in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shimizu, N; Wood, S; Kushiro, K; Yanai, S; Perachio, A; Makishima, T

    2015-01-29

    The central vestibular system plays an important role in higher neural functions such as self-motion perception and spatial orientation. Its ability to store head angular velocity is called velocity storage mechanism (VSM), which has been thoroughly investigated across a wide range of species. However, little is known about the mouse VSM, because the mouse lacks typical ocular responses such as optokinetic after nystagmus or a dominant time constant of vestibulo-ocular reflex for which the VSM is critical. Experiments were conducted to examine the otolith-driven eye movements related to the VSM and verify its characteristics in mice. We used a novel approach to generate a similar rotating vector as a traditional off-vertical axis rotation (OVAR) but with a larger resultant gravito-inertial force (>1g) by using counter rotation centrifugation. Similar to results previously described in other animals during OVAR, two components of eye movements were induced, i.e. a sinusoidal modulatory eye movement (modulation component) on which a unidirectional nystagmus (bias component) was superimposed. Each response is considered to derive from different mechanisms; modulations arise predominantly through linear vestibulo-ocular reflex, whereas for the bias, the VSM is responsible. Data indicate that the mouse also has a well-developed vestibular system through otoliths inputs, showing its highly conserved nature across mammalian species. On the other hand, to reach a plateau state of bias, a higher frequency rotation or a larger gravito-inertial force was considered to be necessary than other larger animals. Compared with modulation, the bias had a more variable profile, suggesting an inherent complexity of higher-order neural processes in the brain. Our data provide the basis for further study of the central vestibular system in mice, however, the underlying individual variability should be taken into consideration. Copyright © 2014 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  8. Study on the annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. 1st Report. Stability for translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom systems; Kanjo sukimaryu reiki shindo ni kansuru kenkyu. 1. Heishin oyobi kaiten 1 jiyudokei no anteise

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, D.W. [Hitachi, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Kaneko, S. [The University of Tokyo, Tokyo (Japan); Hayama, S. [Toyama Prefectural University, Toyama (Japan)

    1999-07-25

    This study reports the stability of annular leakage-flow-induced vibrations. The pressure distribution of fluid between a fixed outer cylinder and a vibrating inner cylinder was obtained in the case of a translationally and rotationally coupled motion of the inner cylinder. The unsteady fluid force acting on the inner cylinder in the case of translational and rotational single-degree-of-freedom vibrations was then expressed in terms proportional to the acceleration, velocity, and displacement. Then the critical flow rate (at which stability was lost) was determined for an annular leakage-flow-induced vibration. Finally, the stability was investigated theoretically. It is known that instability will occur in the case of a divergent passage, but the critical flow rate depends on the passage increment in a limited range: the eccentricity of the passage and the pressure loss factor at the inlet of the passage lower the stability. (author)

  9. DEM study of the size-induced segregation dynamics of a ternary-size granular mixture in the rolling-regime rotating drum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiliang; Zhang, Liangqi; Luo, Kun; Chew, Jia Wei

    2017-12-01

    Segregation induced by size, shape, or density difference of the granular material is inevitable in both natural and industrial processes; unfortunately, the underlying mechanism is still not fully understood. In view of the ubiquitous continuous particle size distributions, this study builds on the considerable knowledge gained so far from binary-size mixtures and extends it to a ternary-size mixture to understand the impact of the presence of a third particle size in the three-dimensional rotating drum operating in the rolling flow regime. The discrete element method is employed. The evolution of segregation, the active-passive interface, and the dynamical response of the particle-scale characteristics of the different particle types in the two regions are investigated. The results reveal that the medium particles are spatially sandwiched in between the large and small particles in both the radial and axial directions and therefore exhibit behaviors intermediate to the other two particle types. Compared to the binary-size mixture, the presence of the medium particles leads to (i) higher purity of small particles in the innermost of the radial core, causing a decrease of the translational velocity of small particles; (ii) decrease and increase of the collision forces exerted on, respectively, the large and small particles in both regions; and (iii) increase in the relative ratio of the active-passive exchange rates of small to large particles. The results obtained in the current study therefore provide valuable insights regarding the size-segregation dynamics of granular mixtures with constituents of different sizes.

  10. Effect of bidirectional rotation of an acupuncture needle at LI10 on acupuncture needle sensation and experimentally-induced contact heat pain in healthy human volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benham, Alex; Johnson, Mark I

    2014-06-01

    There is insufficient evidence of a relationship between acupuncture needle sensations (de qi) and hypoalgesia. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of bidirectional needle rotation at LI10 on acupuncture needle sensations and heat pain thresholds. Twenty-two healthy participants received one acupuncture needle at LI10 with bidirectional rotation of the needle in one experimental session and one acupuncture needle at LI10 with mock rotation in a separate session, in a randomised order. Measurements of heat pain thresholds were taken before needle insertion, during needle retention and 15 min after needle removal. At each measurement time point, participants rated needle sensations using the Massachusetts Acupuncture Sensation Scale (MASS) and a visual analogue scale (VAS) of overall intensity of needle sensation. Bidirectional needle rotation produced significantly higher scores for VAS, MASStotal, MASSpain and MASSsensation compared with mock rotation (all psensation and change in pain threshold after needling was only found when data from mock and rotation interventions were combined. Needle rotation increases the magnitude of hypoalgesia. There is tentative evidence that needle sensation may be associated with the amount of change in pain threshold. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  11. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-05-01

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society. © 2017 International Parkinson and

  12. Quantum coherent π-electron rotations in a non-planar chiral molecule induced by using a linearly polarized UV laser pulse

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mineo, Hirobumi; Fujimura, Yuichi

    2015-06-01

    We propose an ultrafast quantum switching method of π-electron rotations, which are switched among four rotational patterns in a nonplanar chiral aromatic molecule (P)-2,2’- biphenol and perform the sequential switching among four rotational patterns which are performed by the overlapped pump-dump laser pulses. Coherent π-electron dynamics are generated by applying the linearly polarized UV pulse laser to create a pair of coherent quasidegenerated excited states. We also plot the time-dependent π-electron ring current, and discussed ring current transfer between two aromatic rings.

  13. Spontaneous Rotational Inversion in Phycomyces

    KAUST Repository

    Goriely, Alain

    2011-03-01

    The filamentary fungus Phycomyces blakesleeanus undergoes a series of remarkable transitions during aerial growth. During what is known as the stagea IV growth phase, the fungus extends while rotating in a counterclockwise manner when viewed from above (stagea IVa) and then, while continuing to grow, spontaneously reverses to a clockwise rotation (stagea IVb). This phase lasts for 24-48Ah and is sometimes followed by yet another reversal (stageAIVc) before the overall growth ends. Here, we propose a continuum mechanical model of this entire process using nonlinear, anisotropic, elasticity and show how helical anisotropy associated with the cell wall structure can induce spontaneous rotation and, under appropriate circumstances, the observed reversal of rotational handedness. © 2011 American Physical Society.

  14. Generation of functional eyes from pluripotent cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea S Viczian

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Pluripotent cells such as embryonic stem (ES and induced pluripotent stem (iPS cells are the starting point from which to generate organ specific cell types. For example, converting pluripotent cells to retinal cells could provide an opportunity to treat retinal injuries and degenerations. In this study, we used an in vivo strategy to determine if functional retinas could be generated from a defined population of pluripotent Xenopus laevis cells. Animal pole cells isolated from blastula stage embryos are pluripotent. Untreated, these cells formed only epidermis, when transplanted to either the flank or eye field. In contrast, misexpression of seven transcription factors induced the formation of retinal cell types. Induced retinal cells were committed to a retinal lineage as they formed eyes when transplanted to the flanks of developing embryos. When the endogenous eye field was replaced with induced retinal cells, they formed eyes that were molecularly, anatomically, and electrophysiologically similar to normal eyes. Importantly, induced eyes could guide a vision-based behavior. These results suggest the fate of pluripotent cells may be purposely altered to generate multipotent retinal progenitor cells, which differentiate into functional retinal cell classes and form a neural circuitry sufficient for vision.

  15. Eyes Wide Open

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoi Manesi

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Research from evolutionary psychology suggests that the mere presence of eye images can promote prosocial behavior. However, the “eye images effect” is a source of considerable debate, and findings across studies have yielded somewhat inconsistent support. We suggest that one critical factor may be whether the eyes really need to be watching to effectively enhance prosocial behavior. In three experiments, we investigated the impact of eye images on prosocial behavior, assessed in a laboratory setting. Participants were randomly assigned to view an image of watching eyes (eyes with direct gaze, an image of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed for Study 1 and averted eyes for Studies 2 and 3, or an image of flowers (control condition. Upon exposure to the stimuli, participants decided whether or not to help another participant by completing a dull cognitive task. Three independent studies produced somewhat mixed results. However, combined analysis of all three studies, with a total of 612 participants, showed that the watching component of the eyes is important for decision-making in this context. Images of watching eyes led to significantly greater inclination to offer help as compared to images of nonwatching eyes (i.e., eyes closed and averted eyes or images of flowers. These findings suggest that eyes gazing at an individual, rather than any proxy to social presence (e.g., just the eyes, serve as a reminder of reputation. Taken together, we conclude that it is “eyes that pay attention” that can lift the veil of anonymity and potentially facilitate prosocial behavior.

  16. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  17. Rotator cuff exercises

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 25560729 . Read More Frozen shoulder Rotator cuff problems Rotator cuff repair Shoulder arthroscopy Shoulder CT scan Shoulder MRI scan Shoulder pain Patient Instructions Rotator cuff - self-care Shoulder surgery - discharge Using your ...

  18. Synchrotron Radiation and Faraday Rotation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heald, George

    2015-01-01

    Synchrotron radiation and its degree of linear polarization are powerful tracers of magnetic fields that are illuminated by cosmic ray electrons. Faraday rotation of the linearly polarized radiation is induced by intervening line-of-sight magnetic fields that are embedded in ionized plasmas. For

  19. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maraner, Paolo, E-mail: pmaraner@unibz.it

    2014-11-15

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations.

  20. The effect of rotations on Michelson interferometers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maraner, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    In the contest of the special theory of relativity, it is shown that uniform rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. The effect is second order in the ratio of the interferometer’s speed to the speed of light, further suppressed by the ratio of the interferometer’s arms length to the radius of rotation and depends on the interferometer’s position in the co-rotating frame. The magnitude of the phase shift is just beyond the sensitivity of turntable rotated optical resonators used in present tests of Lorentz invariance. It grows significantly large in Earth’s rotated kilometer-scale Fabry–Perot enhanced interferometric gravitational-wave detectors where it appears as a constant bias. The effect can provide the means of sensing center and radius of rotations. - Highlights: • Rotations induce a phase shift in Michelson interferometers. • Earth’s rotation induces a constant bias in Michelson interferometers. • Michelson interferometers can be used to sense center and radius of rotations

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Sep. 01, 2017 Our eyes need tears to stay ... tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why are my eyes bloodshot when ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  3. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  4. Pink Eye (Conjunctivitis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or child care if you're not able to take time off — just stay consistent in practicing good hygiene. Preventing pink eye in newborns Newborns' eyes are susceptible to bacteria normally present in the mother's birth canal. ...

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ... much as it does on your eyes. ... of Health | USA.gov NIH…Turning Discovery Into Health ®

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the ...

  7. Preventing Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Your Eyes Sep 20, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 ... Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  8. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, ...

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists Media Medical Students Patients and ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of ... layer cleans the eye, washing away particles that do not belong in the eye. This layer comes ...

  11. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid ... Your eyes are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and Aging Program African American Program Training and Jobs Fellowships ... Defenses Eye Health and Safety First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes ...

  13. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Clinical Director Laboratories, Sections and Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office ... Diabetic Eye Disease Education Program Glaucoma Education Program Low Vision Education Program Hispanic/Latino Program Vision and ...

  14. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All About Vision About the Eye Ask a Scientist ... you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on ...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home >> NEI for Kids >> About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  16. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of ...

  17. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... eye involvement. Nonretinal and Retinal Eye Findings Facial angiofibromas may involve the eyelids of individuals with TSC, ... the hamartomas have many blood vessels (as are angiofibromas of the skin). Less than half of the ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye Health Home Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Academy Publications EyeNet ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ... website is maintained by the NEI Office of Science Communications, Public Liaison, and Education. Technical questions about ...

  1. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... search for current job openings visit HHS USAJobs Home » NEI for Kids » About the Eye Listen All ... much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  2. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the special health problems and requirements of the blind.” News & Events Events Calendar NEI Press Releases News ... First Aid Tips Healthy Vision Tips Protective Eyewear Sports and Your Eyes Fun Stuff Cool Eye Tricks ...

  3. Immunology of the eye

    OpenAIRE

    Weronika Ratajczak; Beata Tokarz-Deptuła; Wiesław Deptuła

    2018-01-01

    The eye is an organ of sight characterized by unusual immunological properties, resulting from its anatomical structure and physiology, as well as the presence of specific elements that, through the mechanisms of innate and adaptive immunity, provide homeostasis of the eyeball. This article reviews the defensive elements of individual eye structures: conjunctiva, cornea, lacrimal gland, anterior chamber of the eye, uvea, retina and eye-associated lymphoid tissue (EALT), where we distinguish a...

  4. The all seeing eye?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenderink, Jan J.

    2014-01-01

    The All Seeing Eye? Did you know that you are probably a believer in the All Seeing Eye? The odds are that I’m right—why? Well, the bulk of mainstream vision literature blindly relies on the All Seeing Eye. It is written all over papers, albeit between the lines. Understandably so, for scientists

  5. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health ... Eye Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and ...

  6. Dwarf Eye Disorder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Johns Hopkins researchers at the Wilmer Eye Institute have discovered what appears to be the first human gene mutation that causes extreme farsightedness. The researchers report that nanophthalmos, Greek for "dwarf eye," is a rare, potentially blinding disorder caused by an alteration in a gene called MFRP that helps control eye growth and…

  7. Fish eye optics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudec, R.; Michalova, S.

    2017-07-01

    We report on small student (high—school) project of the Czech Academy of Sciences dealing with animal (fish) eyes and possible application in science and technology. Albeit most fishes have refractive eyes, the recent discoveries confirm that some fishes have reflective eyes with strange arrangements as well.

  8. Eye and orbital cavity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Panfilova, G.V.; Koval', G.Yu.

    1984-01-01

    Radioanatomy of eyes and orbit is described. Diseases of the orbit (developmental anomalies, inflammatory diseases, lacrimal apparatus deseases, toxoplasmosis, tumors and cysts et al.), methods of foreign body localization in the eye are considered. Roentgenograms of the orbit and calculation table for foreign body localization in spherical eyes of dissimilar diameter are presented

  9. Relaxation processes in rotational motion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broglia, R.A.

    1986-01-01

    At few MeV above the yrast line the normally strong correlations among γ-ray energies in a rotational sequence become weaker. This observation can be interpreted as evidence for the damping of rotational motion in hot nuclei. It seems possible to relate the spreading width of the E2-rotational decay strength to the spread in frequency Δω 0 of rotational bands. The origin of these fluctuations is found in: (1) fluctuations in the occupation of special single-particle orbits which contribute a significant part of the total angular momentum; and (2) fluctuations in the moment of inertia induced by vibrations of the nuclear shape. Estimates of Δω 0 done making use of the hundred-odd known discrete rotational bands in the rare-earth region lead, for moderate spin and excitation energies (I ≅ 30 and U ≅ 3 to 4 MeV), to rotational spreading widths of the order of 60 to 160 keV in overall agreement with the data. 24 refs

  10. correction of tarsal ectropion following harmful eye medication in a

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr O Babalola

    Correction of Severe Traditional Medication-induced Lower Lid. Ectropion: A case report. BO Emmanuel. Rachel Eye Center, Abuja. SUMMARY. Introduction: The medical and surgical management of lower lid ectropion induced by the instillation of traditional eye medication in a middle-aged Nigerian woman is described .

  11. Role of symmetry-breaking induced by Er × B shear flows on developing residual stresses and intrinsic rotation in the TEXTOR tokamak

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Y.; Shesterikov, I.; Berte, M.; Dumortier, P.; Van Schoor, M.; Vergote, M.; Hidalgo, C.; Krämer-Flecken, A.; Koslowski, R.

    2013-01-01

    Direct measurements of residual stress (force) have been executed at the edge of the TEXTOR tokamak using multitip Langmuir and Mach probes, together with counter-current NBI torque to balance the existing toroidal rotation. Substantial residual stress and force have been observed at the plasma boundary, confirming the existence of a finite residual stress as possible mechanisms to drive the intrinsic toroidal rotation. In low-density discharges, the residual stress displays a quasi-linear dependence on the local pressure gradient, consistent with theoretical predictions. At high-density shots the residual stress and torque are strongly suppressed. The results show close correlation between the residual stress and the E r × B flow shear rate, suggesting a minimum threshold of the E × B flow shear required for the k ∥ symmetry breaking. These findings provide the first experimental evidence of the role of E r × B sheared flows in the development of residual stresses and intrinsic rotation. (letter)

  12. Radiation-induced cataracts: the Health Protection Agency's response to the ICRP statement on tissue reactions and recommendation on the dose limit for the eye lens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffler, Simon; Ainsbury, Elizabeth; Gilvin, Phil; Harrison, John

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents the response of the Health Protection Agency (HPA) to the 2011 statement from the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) on tissue reactions and recommendation of a reduced dose limit for the lens of the eye. The response takes the form of a brief review of the most recent epidemiological and mechanistic evidence. This is presented together with a discussion of dose limits in the context of the related risk and the current status of eye dosimetry, which is relevant for implementation of the limits. It is concluded that although further work is desirable to quantify better the risk at low doses and following protracted exposures, along with research into the mechanistic basis for radiation cataractogenesis to inform selection of risk projection models, the HPA endorses the conclusion reached by the ICRP in their 2011 statement that the equivalent dose limit for the lens of the eye should be reduced from 150 to 20 mSv per year, averaged over a five year period, with no year's dose exceeding 50 mSv.

  13. A holographic waveguide based eye tracker

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Changgeng; Pazzucconi, Beatrice; Liu, Juan; Liu, Lei; Yao, Xincheng

    2018-02-01

    We demonstrated the feasibility of using holographic waveguide for eye tracking. A custom-built holographic waveguide, a 20 mm x 60 mm x 3 mm flat glass substrate with integrated in- and out-couplers, was used for the prototype development. The in- and out-couplers, photopolymer films with holographic fringes, induced total internal reflection in the glass substrate. Diffractive optical elements were integrated into the in-coupler to serve as an optical collimator. The waveguide captured images of the anterior segment of the eye right in front of it and guided the images to a processing unit distant from the eye. The vector connecting the pupil center (PC) and the corneal reflex (CR) of the eye was used to compute eye position in the socket. An eye model, made of a high quality prosthetic eye, was used prototype validation. The benchtop prototype demonstrated a linear relationship between the angular eye position and the PC/CR vector over a range of 60 horizontal degrees and 30 vertical degrees at a resolution of 0.64-0.69 degrees/pixel by simple pixel count. The uncertainties of the measurements at different angular positions were within 1.2 pixels, which indicated that the prototype exhibited a high level of repeatability. These results confirmed that the holographic waveguide technology could be a feasible platform for developing a wearable eye tracker. Further development can lead to a compact, see-through eye tracker, which allows continuous monitoring of eye movement during real life tasks, and thus benefits diagnosis of oculomotor disorders.

  14. Recognizing and Treating Eye Injuries

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye Injuries First Aid for Eye Scratches Protective Eyewear Children’s Eye Injuries: Prevention and Care Eye Injuries ... Academy Jobs at the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For ...

  15. Development of a finite-element eye model to investigate retinal hemorrhages in shaken baby syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadarasa, Jeyendran; Deck, Caroline; Meyer, Frank; Bourdet, Nicolas; Raul, Jean-Sébastien; Willinger, Rémy

    2018-04-01

    Retinal hemorrhages (RH) are among injuries sustained by a large number of shaken baby syndrome victims, but also by a small proportion of road accident victims. In order to have a better understanding of the underlying of RH mechanisms, we aimed to develop a complete human eye and orbit finite element model. Five occipital head impacts, at different heights and on different surfaces, and three shaking experiments were conducted with a 6-week-old dummy (Q0 dummy). This allowed obtaining a precise description of the motion in those two specific situations, which was then used as input for the eye model simulation. Results showed that four parameters (pressure, Von Mises stress and strain, 1st principal stress) are relevant for shaking-fall comparison. Indeed, in the retina, the softest shaking leads to pressure that is 4 times higher than the most severe impact (1.43 vs. 0.34 kPa). For the Von Mises stress, strain and 1st principal stress, this ratio rises to 4.27, 6.53 and 14.74, respectively. Moreover, regions of high stress and strain in the retina and the choroid were identified and compared to what is seen on fundoscopy. The comparison between linear and rotational acceleration in fall and shaking events demonstrated the important role of the rotational acceleration in inducing such injuries. Even though the eye model was not validated, the conclusion of this study is that compared to falls, shaking an infant leads to extreme eye loading as demonstrated by the values taken by the four mentioned mechanical parameters in the retina and the choroid.

  16. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.; Cheng, Xiang; Ong, Desmond C.; Liddell-Watson, Chekesha; Cohen, Itai

    2013-01-01

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced

  17. A model for investigating developmental eye repair in Xenopus laevis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kha, Cindy X; Son, Philip H; Lauper, Julia; Tseng, Kelly Ai-Sun

    2018-04-01

    Vertebrate eye development is complex and requires early interactions between neuroectoderm and surface ectoderm during embryogenesis. In the African clawed frog, Xenopus laevis, individual eye tissues such as the retina and lens can undergo regeneration. However, it has been reported that removal of either the specified eye field at the neurula stage or the eye during tadpole stage does not induce replacement. Here we describe a model for investigating Xenopus developmental eye repair. We found that tailbud embryos can readily regrow eyes after surgical removal of over 83% of the specified eye and lens tissues. The regrown eye reached a comparable size to the contralateral control by 5 days and overall animal development was normal. It contained the expected complement of eye cell types (including the pigmented epithelium, retina and lens), and is connected to the brain. Our data also demonstrate that apoptosis, an early mechanism that regulates appendage regeneration, is also required for eye regrowth. Treatment with apoptosis inhibitors (M50054 or NS3694) blocked eye regrowth by inhibiting caspase activation. Together, our findings indicate that frog embryos can undergo successful eye repair after considerable tissue loss and reveals a required role for apoptosis in this process. Furthermore, this Xenopus model allows for rapid comparisons of productive eye repair and developmental pathways. It can also facilitate the molecular dissection of signaling mechanisms necessary for initiating repair. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  18. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1977-01-01

    History is surveyed of the development of the theory of rotational states in nuclei. The situation in the 40's when ideas formed of the collective states of a nucleus is evoked. The general rotation theory and the relation between the single-particle and rotational motion are briefly discussed. Future prospects of the rotation theory development are indicated. (I.W.)

  19. EYE GAZE TRACKING

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2017-01-01

    This invention relates to a method of performing eye gaze tracking of at least one eye of a user, by determining the position of the center of the eye, said method comprising the steps of: detecting the position of at least three reflections on said eye, transforming said positions to spanning...... a normalized coordinate system spanning a frame of reference, wherein said transformation is performed based on a bilinear transformation or a non linear transformation e.g. a möbius transformation or a homographic transformation, detecting the position of said center of the eye relative to the position...... of said reflections and transforming this position to said normalized coordinate system, tracking the eye gaze by tracking the movement of said eye in said normalized coordinate system. Thereby calibration of a camera, such as knowledge of the exact position and zoom level of the camera, is avoided...

  20. Rotational motion in nuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bohr, A.

    1976-01-01

    Nuclear structure theories are reviewed concerned with nuclei rotational motion. The development of the deformed nucleus model facilitated a discovery of rotational spectra of nuclei. Comprehensive verification of the rotational scheme and a successful classification of corresponding spectra stimulated investigations of the rotational movement dynamics. Values of nuclear moments of inertia proved to fall between two marginal values corresponding to rotation of a solid and hydrodynamic pattern of an unrotating flow, respectively. The discovery of governing role of the deformation and a degree of a symmetry violence for determining rotational degrees of freedon is pointed out to pave the way for generalization of the rotational spectra

  1. Hyperosmolar tears enhance cooling sensitivity of the corneal nerves in rats: possible neural basis for cold-induced dry eye pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Harumitsu; Rosenblatt, Mark I

    2014-08-19

    Tear hyperosmolarity is a ubiquitous feature of dry-eye disease. Although dry-eye patients' sensitivity to cooling is well known, the effects of tear hyperosmolarity on a small amount of cooling in the corneal nerves have not been quantitatively examined. Recently reported corneal afferents, high-threshold cold sensitive plus dry-sensitive (HT-CS + DS) neurons, in rats is normally excited by strong (>4°C) cooling of the cornea, which, when applied to healthy humans, evokes the sensation of discomfort. However, corneal cooling measured between blinks does not exceed 2°C normally. Thus, we sought to determine if these nociceptors could be sensitized by hyperosmolar tears such that they are now activated by small cooling of the ocular surface. Trigeminal ganglion neurons innervating the cornea were extracellularly recorded in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. The responses of single corneal neurons to cooling stimuli presented in the presence of hyperosmolar (350-800 mOsm NaCl) tears were examined. The HT-CS + DS neurons with thresholds averaging 4°C cooling responded to cooling stimuli presented after 15 minutes of hyperosmolar tears with thresholds of less than 1°C. The response magnitudes also were enhanced so that the responses to small (2°C) cooling emerged, where none was observed before. These results demonstrate that after exposure to hyperosmolar tears, these nociceptive corneal neurons now begin to respond to the slight cooling normally encountered between blinks, enabling the painful information to be carried to the brain, which could explain the cooling-evoked discomfort in dry eye patients. Copyright 2014 The Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology, Inc.

  2. Prospective evaluation of the development of contrast-induced nephropathy in patients with acute coronary syndrome undergoing rotational coronary angiography vs. conventional coronary angiography: CINERAMA study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Fernández-Rodríguez

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction and objectives: Rotational coronary angiography (RCA requires less contrast to be administered and can prevent the onset of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN during invasive coronary procedures. The aim of the study is to evaluate the impact of RCA on CIN (increase in serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL or ≥25% after an acute coronary syndrome. Methods: From April to September 2016, patients suffering acute coronary syndromes who underwent diagnostic coronary angiography, with the possibility of ad hoc coronary angioplasty, were prospectively enrolled. At the operator's discretion, patients underwent RCA or conventional coronary angiography (CCA. CIN (primary endpoint, as well as analytical, angiographic and clinical endpoints, were compared between groups. Results: Of the 235 patients enrolled, 116 patients received RCA and 119 patients received CCA. The RCA group was composed of older patients (64.0 ± 11.8 years vs. 59.7 ± 12.1 years; p = 0.006, a higher proportion of women (44.8 vs. 17.6%; p < 0.001, patients with a lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (76 ± 25 vs. 86 ± 27 ml/min/1.73 m2; p = 0.001, and patients who underwent fewer coronary angioplasties (p < 0.001 compared with the CCA group. Furthermore, the RCA group, received less contrast (113 ± 92 vs. 169 ± 103 ml; p < 0.001, including in diagnostic procedures (54 ± 24 vs. 85 ± 56 ml; p < 0.001 and diagnostic-therapeutic procedures (174 ± 64 vs. 205 ± 98 ml; p = 0.049 compared with the CCA group. The RCA group presented less CIN (4.3 vs. 22.7%; p < 0.001 compared to the CCA group, and this finding was maintained in the regression analysis (Adjusted relative risk: 0.868; 95% CI: 0.794–0.949; p = 0.002. There were no differences in clinical endpoints between the groups. Conclusions: RCA was associated

  3. Organization of eye bank

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reddy, S.C.

    1999-01-01

    Comeal transplantation is the only method of combating the blindness due to corneal opacity caused by infections, malnutrition, trauma and hereditary diseases. Comeal blindness is more prevalent in the developing countries. The availability of the donor cornea, trained ophthalmic surgeons and microsurgery facilities are the key factors in restoring vision in-patients with comeal blindness. The eye bank organization is somewhat similar to that of blood bank. The eye bank should be located in a hospital or a medical centre in which a laboratory may be established for the evaluation and storage of donor tissue. The medical director (Ophthalmologist), technician, secretary and public relation officer are the persons who play an important role in the successful organization of eye bank. The function of the eye bank are procurement, assessment, processing, distribution of donor eyes/corneas, training of technicians/doctors, and conducting research related to storage of donor tissue and corneal transplantation. The necessary infrastructure required for the organization of an eye bank include separate accommodation area for the personnel and the laboratory, telephone, computer, refrigerator, laminar air flow hood. Slitlamp, specular microscope, storage media and equipment, instrument for enucleation of donor eyes, and a motor vehicle. The details of responsibilities of the staff of eye bank, source of donor eyes, suitability of donor material, procurement of the donor cornea, tissue assessment, storage and preservation, distribution of donor tissue, and limitation of eye bank will be discussed at the time of presentation

  4. EyeMusic: Making Music with the Eyes

    OpenAIRE

    Hornof, Anthony J.; Sato, Linda

    2004-01-01

    Though musical performers routinely use eye movements to communicate with each other during musical performances, very few performers or composers have used eye tracking devices to direct musical compositions and performances. EyeMusic is a system that uses eye movements as an input to electronic music compositions. The eye movements can directly control the music, or the music can respond to the eyes moving around a visual scene. EyeMusic is implemented so that any composer using established...

  5. Line Positions of Centrifugal Distorsion Induced Rotational Transitions of Methane Measured up to 2.6 Thz at Sub-Mhz Accuracy with a Cw-Thz Photomixing Spectrometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, Cédric; Cuisset, Arnaud; Hindle, Francis; Mouret, Gaël; Bocquet, Robin; Boudon, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Several Doppler limited rotational transitions of methane induced by centrifugal distortion have been measured with an unprecedented frequency accuracy using the THz photomixing synthesizer based on a frequency comb. Compared to previous synchrotron based FT-Far-IR measurements of Boudon et al., the accuracy of the line frequency measurements is improved by one order of magnitude, this yields a corresponding increase of two orders of magnitude to the weighting of these transitions in the global fit. The rotational transitions in the ν_4←ν_4 hot band are measured for the first time by the broad spectral coverage of the photomixing CW-THz spectrometer providing access up to R(5) transitions at 2.6 THz. The new global fit including the present lines has been used to update the methane line list of the HITRAN database. Some small, but significant variations of the parameter values are observed and are accompanied by a reduction of the 1-σ uncertainties on the rotational (B_0) and centrifugal distortion (D_0) constants. V. Boudon, O. Pirali, P. Roy, J.-B. Brubach, L. Manceron, J. Vander Auwera, J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 111, 1117-1129 (2010).

  6. Spectral lines of methane measured up to 2.6 THz at sub-MHz accuracy with a CW-THz photomixing spectrometer: Line positions of rotational transitions induced by centrifugal distortion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bray, C.; Cuisset, A.; Hindle, F.; Mouret, G.; Bocquet, R.; Boudon, V.

    2017-12-01

    Several Doppler-limited rotational transitions of methane induced by centrifugal distortion have been measured with an unprecedented frequency accuracy using a THz photomixing synthesizer based on a frequency comb. Compared to previous synchrotron based FT-Far-IR measurements of Boudon et al. (Ref. [1]), the accuracy of the line frequency measurements is improved by one order of magnitude; this yields a corresponding increase of two orders of magnitude to the weighting of these transitions in the global fit. The rotational transitions in the ν4 ←ν4 hot band are measured for the first time by the broad spectral coverage of the photomixing CW-THz spectrometer providing access up to R(5) transitions at 2.6 THz. The new global fit including the present lines has been used to update the methane line list of the HITRAN database. Some small, but significant variations of the parameter values are observed and are accompanied by a reduction of the 1-σ uncertainties on the rotational (B0) and centrifugal distortion (D0) constants.

  7. Correlation of visual performance with quality of life and intraocular aberrometric profile in patients implanted with rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOLs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramón, María L; Piñero, David P; Pérez-Cambrodí, Rafael J

    2012-02-01

    To examine the visual performance of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal intraocular lens (IOL) by correlating the defocus curve of the IOL-implanted eye with the intraocular aberrometric profile and impact on the quality of life. A prospective, consecutive, case series study including 26 eyes from 13 patients aged between 50 and 83 years (mean: 65.54±7.59 years) was conducted. All patients underwent bilateral cataract surgery with implantation of a rotationally asymmetric multifocal IOL (Lentis Mplus LS-312 MF30, Oculentis GmbH). Distance and near visual acuity outcomes, intraocular aberrations, defocus curve, and quality of life (assessed using the National Eye Institute Visual Functioning Questionnaire-25) were evaluated postoperatively (mean follow-up: 6.42±2.24 months). A significant improvement in distance visual acuity was found postoperatively (P<.01). Mean postoperative logMAR distance-corrected near visual acuity was 0.19±0.12 (∼20/30). Corrected distance visual acuity and near visual acuity of 20/20 or better were achieved by 30.8% and 7.7% of eyes, respectively. Of all eyes, 96.2% had a postoperative addition between 0 and 1.00 diopter (D). The defocus curve showed two peaks of maximum visual acuity (0 and 3.00 D of defocus), with an acceptable range of intermediate vision. LogMAR visual acuity corresponding to near defocus was directly correlated with some higher order intraocular aberrations (r⩾0.44, P⩽.04). Some difficulties evaluated with the quality of life test correlated directly with near and intermediate visual acuity (r⩾0.50, P⩽.01). The Lentis Mplus multifocal IOL provides good distance, intermediate, and near visual outcomes; however, the induced intraocular aberrometric profile may limit the potential visual benefit. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  8. Contextual effects on motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spering, Miriam; Gegenfurtner, Karl R

    2008-08-15

    Smooth pursuit eye movements are continuous, slow rotations of the eyes that allow us to follow the motion of a visual object of interest. These movements are closely related to sensory inputs from the visual motion processing system. To track a moving object in the natural environment, its motion first has to be segregated from the motion signals provided by surrounding stimuli. Here, we review experiments on the effect of the visual context on motion processing with a focus on the relationship between motion perception and smooth pursuit eye movements. While perception and pursuit are closely linked, we show that they can behave quite distinctly when required by the visual context.

  9. Decrease of the atmospheric co-rotation with height

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Membrado, M; Pacheco, A F

    2010-01-01

    Considering our atmosphere as a steady viscous gaseous envelope that co-rotates with the Earth, we obtain a solution for the form in which this induced rotational effect decreases as a function of the distances to the centre of the Earth and to the rotation axis.

  10. Optical quality of the living cat eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonds, A B

    1974-12-01

    1. The optical quality of the living cat eye was measured under conditions similar to those of cat retinal ganglion cell experiments by recording the aerial image of a nearly monochromatic thin line of light.2. Experiments were performed to assess the nature of the fundal reflexion of the cat eye, which was found to behave essentially as a diffuser.3. The optical Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) was calculated from the measured aerial linespread using Fourier mathematics; the MTF of a ;typical' cat eye was averaged from data collected from ten eyes.4. The state of focus of the optical system, the pupil size and the angle of the light incident on the eye were all varied to determine their effect on image quality.5. By using an image rotator, the aerial linespread was measured for several orientations of the line; these measurements yielded an approximation of the two-dimensional pointspread completely characterizing the optical system.6. Evidence is reviewed to show that the optical resolution of the cat, albeit some 3-5 times worse than that of human, appears to be better than the neural resolution of its retina and its visual system as a whole.

  11. Rotationally invariant correlation filtering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schils, G.F.; Sweeney, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    A method is presented for analyzing and designing optical correlation filters that have tailored rotational invariance properties. The concept of a correlation of an image with a rotation of itself is introduced. A unified theory of rotation-invariant filtering is then formulated. The unified approach describes matched filters (with no rotation invariance) and circular-harmonic filters (with full rotation invariance) as special cases. The continuum of intermediate cases is described in terms of a cyclic convolution operation over angle. The angular filtering approach allows an exact choice for the continuous trade-off between loss of the correlation energy (or specificity regarding the image) and the amount of rotational invariance desired

  12. Effects of Sustained Otolith-Only Stimulation on Post-Rotational Nystagmus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Aasef G; Solomon, David

    2017-06-01

    Constant velocity rotations in darkness evoke vestibulo-ocular reflex in form of pre- and post-rotational nystagmus under cerebellar supervision. Reorientation of the head with respect to gravity, stimulating otolith and semicircular canal, during post-rotational phase rapidly suppresses the post-rotational nystagmus. We asked if pure otolith stimulation without semicircular canal signal is sufficient for the suppression of post-rotational nystagmus. The experimental paradigm comprised of on-axis rotations in the horizontal plane when the subject was sitting upright, followed by a novel stimulus that combined off-axis centrifugation in the horizontal plane with amplitude matched, yet out-of-phase, on-axis horizontal rotation-double centrifugation. The resultant effect of double centrifugation was pure otolith stimulation that constantly changed direction, yet completely canceled out angular velocity (no horizontal semicircular canal stimulation). Double centrifugation without pre-existing on-axis rotations evoked mixture of horizontal and vertical eye movements, latter reflected the known uncertainty of the vestibular system to differentiate whether the sensory signal is related to low-frequency translations in horizontal plane or head tilts relative to the gravity. Double centrifugation during post-rotational phase suppressed the peak slow phase eye velocity of the post-rotational nystagmus, hence affecting the vestibular ocular reflex gain (eye velocity/head velocity) matrix. The decay time constant, however, was unchanged. Amount of suppression of the peak slow phase eye velocity of the post-rotational nystagmus during double centrifugation correlated with the peak vertical eye velocity evoked by the pure otolith stimuli in the absence of pre-existing on axis rotations. In post-rotational phase, the pure otolith signal affects vestibular ocular reflex gain matrix but does not affect the time constant.

  13. Modelling human eye under blast loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esposito, L; Clemente, C; Bonora, N; Rossi, T

    2015-01-01

    Primary blast injury (PBI) is the general term that refers to injuries resulting from the mere interaction of a blast wave with the body. Although few instances of primary ocular blast injury, without a concomitant secondary blast injury from debris, are documented, some experimental studies demonstrate its occurrence. In order to investigate PBI to the eye, a finite element model of the human eye using simple constitutive models was developed. The material parameters were calibrated by a multi-objective optimisation performed on available eye impact test data. The behaviour of the human eye and the dynamics of mechanisms occurring under PBI loading conditions were modelled. For the generation of the blast waves, different combinations of explosive (trinitrotoluene) mass charge and distance from the eye were analysed. An interpretation of the resulting pressure, based on the propagation and reflection of the waves inside the eye bulb and orbit, is proposed. The peculiar geometry of the bony orbit (similar to a frustum cone) can induce a resonance cavity effect and generate a pressure standing wave potentially hurtful for eye tissues.

  14. Detecting mortality induced structural and functional changes in a pinon-juniper woodland using Landsat and RapidEye time series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dan J. Krofcheck; Jan U. H. Eitel; Lee A. Vierling; Urs Schulthess; Timothy M. Hilton; Eva Dettweiler-Robinson; Rosemary Pendleton; Marcy E. Litvak

    2014-01-01

    Pinon-juniper (PJ) woodlands have recently undergone dramatic drought-induced mortality, triggering broad scale structural changes in this extensive Southwestern US biome. Given that climate projections for the region suggest widespread conifer mortality is likely to continue into the next century, it is critical to better understand how this climate-induced change in...

  15. Eye Disease and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars; Selaya, Pablo

    This research advances the hypothesis that cross-country variation in the historical incidence of eye disease has influenced the current global distribution of per capita income. The theory is that pervasive eye disease diminished the incentive to accumulate skills, thereby delaying the fertility...... transition and the take-off to sustained economic growth. In order to estimate the influence from eye disease incidence empirically, we draw on an important fact from the field of epidemiology: Exposure to solar ultraviolet B radiation (UVB-R) is an underlying determinant of several forms of eye disease...

  16. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  17. LASIK eye surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis; Laser vision correction; Nearsightedness - Lasik; Myopia - Lasik ... cornea (curvature) and the length of the eye. LASIK uses an excimer laser (an ultraviolet laser) to ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics ... Services Advocacy Foundation About Subspecialties & More Eye ...

  19. Prevention of Eye Injuries

    OpenAIRE

    Pashby, Tom

    1981-01-01

    In Canada 30,000 people are registered as blind; in one third of these, blindness might have been avoided. Prevention is the key to reducing the number of eye injuries and blind eyes. The role of the family physician in early identification of treatable conditions and in the education of patients is discussed, but responsibility for prevention belongs to all physicians. The success of prevention is seen in the great reduction in eye injuries in industry and sports since eye protectors have be...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ...

  1. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J.; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A.; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics—eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error—and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns—minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades—were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA. PMID:28187157

  2. Distinct eye movement patterns enhance dynamic visual acuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palidis, Dimitrios J; Wyder-Hodge, Pearson A; Fooken, Jolande; Spering, Miriam

    2017-01-01

    Dynamic visual acuity (DVA) is the ability to resolve fine spatial detail in dynamic objects during head fixation, or in static objects during head or body rotation. This ability is important for many activities such as ball sports, and a close relation has been shown between DVA and sports expertise. DVA tasks involve eye movements, yet, it is unclear which aspects of eye movements contribute to successful performance. Here we examined the relation between DVA and the kinematics of smooth pursuit and saccadic eye movements in a cohort of 23 varsity baseball players. In a computerized dynamic-object DVA test, observers reported the location of the gap in a small Landolt-C ring moving at various speeds while eye movements were recorded. Smooth pursuit kinematics-eye latency, acceleration, velocity gain, position error-and the direction and amplitude of saccadic eye movements were linked to perceptual performance. Results reveal that distinct eye movement patterns-minimizing eye position error, tracking smoothly, and inhibiting reverse saccades-were related to dynamic visual acuity. The close link between eye movement quality and DVA performance has important implications for the development of perceptual training programs to improve DVA.

  3. Extraocular muscle proprioception and eye position.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Ferraresi, A; Draicchio, F; Errico, P; Santarelli, R; Manni, E

    1995-03-01

    In the lamb, acute unilateral section of the ophthalmic branch induced in the ipsilateral eye occasional oscillations of the resting position and misalignment of the horizontal vestibulo-ocular reflex (HVOR) with respect to the stimulus. Additional electrolytic lesion of the cells innervating the proprioceptors of the medial rectus muscle, or of the lateral rectus muscle in the contralateral semilunar ganglion, provoked a 4 degrees-7 degrees consensual eye deviation towards and away from the lesioned side, respectively. The optokinetic beating field was similarly deviated. Under these experimental conditions, HVOR showed enhanced gain and marked misalignment in both eyes. Therefore, the selective suppression of muscular proprioceptive input deviated both eyes towards the direction opposite to the muscle whose gangliar proprioceptive representation has been destroyed.

  4. The mouse small eye mutant, Del(2)Sey3H, which deletes the putative tumor suppressor region of the radiation-induced acute myeloid leukemia is susceptible to radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nitta, Yumiko; Yoshida, Kazuko; Tanaka, Kimio; Peters, Jo; Cattanach, Bruce M.

    2003-01-01

    Radiation-induced murine acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is characterized by the chromosome 2 deletions. Standing on the hypothesis that an AML suppressor gene would locate on the chromosome 2, a deletion-wide screen was performed on radiation-induced AMLs by the fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) method. The hemizugous deletion of the D2Mit15, a marker DNA at the 49.0cM region from the centromere, associated with the AMLs in 97 out of the 105 cases (92.4%). As the deletion region was close to the region of human WAGR syndrome (MIM194072), the mouse small eye mutants could be the animal model for radiation-induced AMLs. The mutant, Del(2)Sey3H (Sey3H) was found to delete around the 49.0cM region by the allelic loss mapping. The Sey3H showed high susceptibility to radiation to develop tumors including the myeloid leukemia with shorter latency. These finding support the existence of a putative tumor suppressor gene responsible for the radiation-leukemogenesis near the D2Mit15 region. (author)

  5. Rotation of vertically oriented objects during earthquakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinzen, Klaus-G.

    2012-10-01

    Vertically oriented objects, such as tombstones, monuments, columns, and stone lanterns, are often observed to shift and rotate during earthquake ground motion. Such observations are usually limited to the mesoseismal zone. Whether near-field rotational ground motion components are necessary in addition to pure translational movements to explain the observed rotations is an open question. We summarize rotation data from seven earthquakes between 1925 and 2009 and perform analog and numeric rotation testing with vertically oriented objects. The free-rocking motion of a marble block on a sliding table is disturbed by a pulse in the direction orthogonal to the rocking motion. When the impulse is sufficiently strong and occurs at the `right' moment, it induces significant rotation of the block. Numeric experiments of a free-rocking block show that the initiation of vertical block rotation by a cycloidal acceleration pulse applied orthogonal to the rocking axis depends on the amplitude of the pulse and its phase relation to the rocking cycle. Rotation occurs when the pulse acceleration exceeds the threshold necessary to provoke rocking of a resting block, and the rocking block approaches its equilibrium position. Experiments with blocks subjected to full 3D strong motion signals measured during the 2009 L'Aquila earthquake confirm the observations from the tests with analytic ground motions. Significant differences in the rotational behavior of a monolithic block and two stacked blocks exist.

  6. Neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation in tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Y.B.; Diamond, P.H.; Groebner, R.J.

    1991-01-01

    Explicit expressions for the neoclassical poloidal and toroidal rotation speeds of primary ion and impurity species are derived via the Hirshman and Sigmar moment approach. The rotation speeds of the primary ion can be significantly different from those of impurities in various interesting cases. The rapid increase of impurity poloidal rotation in the edge region of H-mode discharges in tokamaks can be explained by a rapid steepening of the primary ion pressure gradient. Depending on ion collisionality, the poloidal rotation speed of the primary ions at the edge can be quite small and the flow direction may be opposite to that of the impurities. This may cast considerable doubts on current L to H bifurcation models based on primary ion poloidal rotation only. Also, the difference between the toroidal rotation velocities of primary ions and impurities is not negligible in various cases. In Ohmic plasmas, the parallel electric field induces a large impurity toroidal rotation close to the magnetic axis, which seems to agree with experimental observations. In the ion banana and plateau regime, there can be non-negligible disparities between primary ion and impurity toroidal rotation velocities due to the ion density and temperature gradients. Detailed analytic expressions for the primary ion and impurity rotation speeds are presented, and the methodology for generalization to the case of several impurity species is also presented for future numerical evaluation

  7. Magnetic multipole induced zero-rotation frequency bounce-resonant loss in a Penning–Malmberg trap used for antihydrogen trapping

    CERN Document Server

    Andresen, G B; Bray, C; Butler, E; Cesar, C L; Chapman, S; Charlton, M; Fajans, J; Fujiwara, M C; Gill, D R; Hardy, W N; Hayano, R S; Hayden, M E; Humphries, A J; Hydomako, R; Jørgensen, L V; Kerrigan, S J; Keller, J; Kurchaninov, L; Lambo, R; Madsen, N; Nolan, P; Olchanski, K; Olin, A; Povilus, A; Pusa, P; Robicheaux, F; Sarid, E; Seif El Nasr, S; Silveira, D M; Storey, J W; Thompson, R I; van der Werf, D P; Wurtele, J S; Yamazaki, Y

    2009-01-01

    In many antihydrogen trapping schemes, antiprotons held in a short-well Penning–Malmberg trap are released into a longer well. This process necessarily causes the bounce-averaged rotation frequency $\\overline{\\Omega}_r$ of the antiprotons around the trap axis to pass through zero. In the presence of a transverse magnetic multipole, experiments and simulations show that many antiprotons (over 30% in some cases) can be lost to a hitherto unidentified bounce-resonant process when $\\overline{\\Omega}_r$ is close to zero.

  8. Analyzing the Influence of the Angles of Incidence and Rotation on MBU Events Induced by Low LET Heavy Ions in a 28-nm SRAM-Based FPGA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonfat, Jorge; Kastensmidt, Fernanda Lima; Artola, Laurent; Hubert, Guillaume; Medina, Nilberto H.; Added, Nemitala; Aguiar, Vitor A. P.; Aguirre, Fernando; Macchione, Eduardo L. A.; Silveira, Marcilei A. G.

    2017-08-01

    This paper shows the impact of low linear energy transfer heavy ions on the reliability of 28-nm Bulk static random access memory (RAM) cells from Artix-7 field-programmable gate array. Irradiation tests on the ground showed significant differences in the multiple bit upset cross section of configuration RAM and block RAM memory cells under various angles of incidence and rotation of the device. Experimental data are analyzed at transistor level by using the single-event effect prediction tool called multiscale single-event phenomenon prediction platform coupled with SPICE simulations.

  9. Parameterization of rotational spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhou Chunmei; Liu Tong

    1992-01-01

    The rotational spectra of the strongly deformed nuclei with low rotational frequencies and weak band mixture are analyzed. The strongly deformed nuclei are commonly encountered in the rare-earth region (e. g., 150 220). A lot of rotational band knowledge are presented

  10. Rotating reactors : a review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Visscher, F.; Schaaf, van der J.; Nijhuis, T.A.; Schouten, J.C.

    2013-01-01

    This review-perspective paper describes the current state-of-the-art in the field of rotating reactors. The paper has a focus on rotating reactor technology with applications at lab scale, pilot scale and industrial scale. Rotating reactors are classified and discussed according to their geometry:

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ... Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines ...

  12. Eye tracking social preferences

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jiang, Ting; Potters, Jan; Funaki, Yukihiko

    We hypothesize that if people are motivated by a particular social preference, then choosing in accordance with this preference will lead to an identifiable pattern of eye movements. We track eye movements while subjects make choices in simple three-person distribution experiments. We characterize

  13. XI. THE WATERING EYE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    cause a watering eye; this condition is.called epiphora. Clearly, then, in investigating ... blockage is a common disease in the middle age-groups seen in hospital .... a dry eye, and this is so much worse than a wet one that the procedure is only ...

  14. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... is also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and ...

  16. Photorefraction of the Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colicchia, Giuseppe; Wiesner, Hartmut; Zollman, Dean

    2015-01-01

    Photorefraction is a method to easily estimate the refractive state of the eye. The principle of photorefraction involves projecting light into the eye during flash photography and then examining the paths of light that emerge from the pupil after scattering on the back portion of the interior of the eyeball (fundus). We will explain the optical…

  17. Lasik eye surgery - slideshow

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/presentations/100206.htm Lasik eye surgery - series—Normal anatomy To use the ... A.M. Editorial team. Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Laser Eye Surgery A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by ...

  18. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... luh) is the small, sensitive area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows the eye to focus on both ...

  19. LASIK Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at the front of your eye — to improve vision. Normally, images are clearly focused on the retina in the back of your eye because the ... sharply, light rays focus in front of the retina and blur distant vision. You can see objects that are close fairly ...

  20. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... NIH), the National Eye Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ... Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... also when your eyes do not make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film is made of three ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ... Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society ...

  4. Smoking and Eye Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Tips & Prevention Sections Smoking and Eye Disease Leer en Español: El cigarrillo ... By: Brenda Pagan-Duran MD Apr. 27, 2017 Smoking contributes to a number of major health problems, ...

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ... Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center Our Sites EyeWiki International Society of Refractive ...

  6. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. Did You Know? Vision depends on your brain as much as it does on your eyes. NEI Home Contact Us A-Z Site Map NEI on ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ... Media Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare ...

  8. BullsEye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klokmose, Clemens Nylandsted; Kristensen, Janus Bager; Bagge, Rolf

    2014-01-01

    implemented primarily in shaders on the GPU. The techniques are realized in the BullsEye computer vision software. We demonstrate experimentally that BullsEye provides sub-pixel accuracy down to a tenth of a pixel, which is a significant improvement compared to the commonly used reacTIVision software....

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ... Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum ...

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ... Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and ...

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ... Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  13. Apoptosis in the eye.

    OpenAIRE

    Chahory , Sabine; Torriglia , Alicia

    2006-01-01

    Apoptosis is a normal component of the development and health of multicellular organisms. Cells die during apoptosis in a controlled, regulated fashion. This form of cell death is very important in eye development as well as in eye pathology. We review in this chapter our current knowledge in this topic.

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ... Medical Students Patients and Public Technicians and Nurses Senior Ophthalmologists Young Ophthalmologists Tools and Services EyeCare America ...

  15. Eyes, Bulging (Proptosis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Early Breast Cancer to Avoid Chemo Could a Blood Test Spot Lung Cancer Early? Experimental Drug Shows 'Modest' Benefit ... often done when bulging affects only one eye. Blood tests to measure how well the thyroid is working are done when ... When bulging leads to severe dry eyes, lubrication with artificial tears is needed to ...

  16. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the frontal eye fields during saccadic eye movements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Atsushi; Takagi, Mineo; Abe, Haruki; Nakajima, Takashi; Miyauchi, Satoru.

    1996-01-01

    We evaluated activity-induced signal intensity changes in the human cerebral cortex during horizontal saccadic eye movements using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) based on the blood-oxygenation-level-dependent (BOLD) contrast method. Compared with central fixation, significant signal increases were observed bilaterally in the middle frontal gyrus (Brodmann area 8) during saccadic conditions. The location of the activated area was consistent with that of previously reported frontal eye fields (FEF). These results suggest that fMRI has potential merit for the study of cortical control of eye movements in humans. (author)

  17. Simulation of wave propagation inside a human eye: acoustic eye model (AEM)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Požar, T.; Halilovič, M.; Horvat, D.; Petkovšek, R.

    2018-02-01

    The design and development of the acoustic eye model (AEM) is reported. The model consists of a computer-based simulation that describes the propagation of mechanical disturbance inside a simplified model of a human eye. The capabilities of the model are illustrated with examples, using different laser-induced initial loading conditions in different geometrical configurations typically occurring in ophthalmic medical procedures. The potential of the AEM is to predict the mechanical response of the treated eye tissue in advance, thus complementing other preliminary procedures preceding medical treatments.

  18. Parameterizations for reducing camera reprojection error for robot-world hand-eye calibration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Accurate robot-world, hand-eye calibration is crucial to automation tasks. In this paper, we discuss the robot-world, hand-eye calibration problem which has been modeled as the linear relationship AX equals ZB, where X and Z are the unknown calibration matrices composed of rotation and translation ...

  19. Sulfite induced autoxidation of Cu(II/tetra/ penta and hexaglycine complexes: spectrophotometric and rotating-ring-disk glassy carbon electrode studies and analytical potentialities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alipázaga Maria V.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of Cu(II complexes with tetra, penta and hexaglycine in borate buffer aqueous solution, by dissolved oxygen is strongly accelerated by sulfite. The formation of Cu(III complexes with maximum absorbances at 250 nm (e = 9000 mol-1 L cm-1 and 365 nm (e = 7120 mol-1 L cm-1 was also characterized by using rotating ring-disk voltammetry, whose anodic and cathodic components were observed in voltammograms recorded in solutions containing Cu(II. Voltammograms, obtained at various rotation speeds, showed that the Cu(III species electrochemically generated is not stable over the entire time window of the experiment and in solutions containing tetraglycine the overall limiting current is controlled by the kinetics of an equilibrium involving Cu(II species.The calculated first order rate constant of the decomposition was 4.37x10-3 s-1. Electrochemical experiments carried out in Cu(II solutions after the addition of relatively small amounts of sulfite demonstrated that the Cu(III species formed in the chemical reaction is the same as the one collected at the ring electrode when Cu(II is oxidized at the disk electrode in ring-disk voltammetry. The concentration of Cu(III complexes is proportional to the amount of added sulfite and the results indicated that indirect analytical methods for sulfite may be developed by means of spectrophotometric or amperometric detection of the chemically generated product.

  20. Chromatic and achromatic monocular deprivation produce separable changes of eye dominance in adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jiawei; Reynaud, Alexandre; Kim, Yeon Jin; Mullen, Kathy T; Hess, Robert F

    2017-11-29

    Temporarily depriving one eye of its input, in whole or in part, results in a transient shift in eye dominance in human adults, with the patched eye becoming stronger and the unpatched eye weaker. However, little is known about the role of colour contrast in these behavioural changes. Here, we first show that the changes in eye dominance and contrast sensitivity induced by monocular eye patching affect colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity equally. We next use dichoptic movies, customized and filtered to stimulate the two eyes differentially. We show that a strong imbalance in achromatic contrast between the eyes, with no colour content, also produces similar, unselective shifts in eye dominance for both colour and achromatic contrast sensitivity. Interestingly, if this achromatic imbalance is paired with similar colour contrast in both eyes, the shift in eye dominance is selective, affecting achromatic but not chromatic contrast sensitivity and revealing a dissociation in eye dominance for colour and achromatic image content. On the other hand, a strong imbalance in chromatic contrast between the eyes, with no achromatic content, produces small, unselective changes in eye dominance, but if paired with similar achromatic contrast in both eyes, no changes occur. We conclude that perceptual changes in eye dominance are strongly driven by interocular imbalances in achromatic contrast, with colour contrast having a significant counter balancing effect. In the short term, eyes can have different dominances for achromatic and chromatic contrast, suggesting separate pathways at the site of these neuroplastic changes. © 2017 The Author(s).

  1. Influence of toroidal rotation on tearing modes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huishan; Cao, Jintao; Li, Ding

    2017-10-01

    Tearing modes stability analysis including toroidal rotation is studied. It is found that rotation affects the stability of tearing modes mainly through the interaction with resistive inner region of tearing mode. The coupling of magnetic curvature with centrifugal force and Coriolis force provides a perturbed perpendicular current, and a return parallel current is induced to affect the stability of tearing modes. Toroidal rotation plays a stable role, which depends on the magnitude of Mach number and adiabatic index Γ, and is independent on the direction of toroidal rotation. For Γ >1, the scaling of growth rate is changed for typical Mach number in present tokamaks. For Γ = 1 , the scaling keeps unchanged, and the effect of toroidal rotation is much less significant, compared with that for Γ >1. National Magnetic Confinement Fusion Science Program and National Science Foundation of China under Grants No. 2014GB106004, No. 2013GB111000, No. 11375189, No. 11075161 and No. 11275260, and Youth Innovation Promotion Association CAS.

  2. Rotating Stars in Relativity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stergioulas Nikolaos

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on the equilibrium properties and on the nonaxisymmetric instabilities in f-modes and r-modes have been updated and several new sections have been added on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity.

  3. Why did the UV-A-induced photoluminescent blue–green glow in trilobite eyes and exoskeletons not cause problems for trilobites?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Schoenemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The calcitic lenses in the eyes of Palaeozoic trilobites are unique in the animal kingdom, although the use of calcite would have conveyed great advantages for vision in aquatic systems. Calcite lenses are transparent, and due to their high refractive index they would facilitate the focusing of light. In some respects, however, calcite lenses bear evident disadvantages. Birefringence would cause double images at different depths, but this is not a problem for trilobites since the difference in the paths of the ordinary and extraordinary rays is less than the diameter of the receptor cells. Another point, not discussed hitherto, is that calcite fluoresces when illuminated with UV-A. Here we show experimentally that calcite lenses fluoresce, and we discuss why fluorescence does not diminish the optical quality of these lenses and the image formed by them. In the environments in which the trilobites lived, UV-A would not have been a relevant factor, and thus fluorescence would not have disturbed or confused their visual system. We also argue that whatever the reason that calcite was never again used successfully in the visual systems of aquatic arthropods, it was not fluorescence.

  4. Measuring miniature eye movements by means of a SQUID magnetometer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, M.J.; Dunajski, Z.; Meijzssen, T.E.M.; Breukink, E.W.; Wevers-Henke, J.J.

    1982-01-01

    A new technique to measure small eye movements is reported. The precise recording of human eye movements is necessary for research on visual fatigue induced by visual display units.1 So far all methods used have disadvantages: especially those which are sensitive or are rather painful.2,3 Our method

  5. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    1999-01-01

    In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belo...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherient in the least squares estimation. Keywords: averaging rotations, Riemannian metric, matrix, quaternion......In this article two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very offten the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  6. A visual understanding of optical rotation using corn syrup

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nixon, M.; Hughes, I. G.

    2017-07-01

    In this paper a visual demonstration of optical rotation is presented, with content appropriate for use in a lecture demonstration as well as quantitative techniques suitable for an undergraduate-laboratory experiment. Linearly polarised lasers of various wavelengths are propagated through a glass tube containing corn syrup. The rotation of the plane of polarisation of the light is visible with the naked eye, making the experiment dramatic and engaging and aiding understanding of the phenomenon of optical rotation. In addition, we present a simple approach to quantitatively analyse data using only equipment commonly found in undergraduate teaching laboratories.

  7. A visual understanding of optical rotation using corn syrup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nixon, M; Hughes, I G

    2017-01-01

    In this paper a visual demonstration of optical rotation is presented, with content appropriate for use in a lecture demonstration as well as quantitative techniques suitable for an undergraduate-laboratory experiment. Linearly polarised lasers of various wavelengths are propagated through a glass tube containing corn syrup. The rotation of the plane of polarisation of the light is visible with the naked eye, making the experiment dramatic and engaging and aiding understanding of the phenomenon of optical rotation. In addition, we present a simple approach to quantitatively analyse data using only equipment commonly found in undergraduate teaching laboratories. (paper)

  8. Spin-selective depopulation of triplet sublevels in rapidly rotating triplet exciplexes detected by a heavy-atom-induced magnetic field effect

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Ulrich

    1980-01-01

    A mechanism is presented explaining a reported heavy-atom-induced magnetic field effect as a consequence of non-equilibrium triplet sublevel population in an intermediate exciplex. The triplet exciplex spin polarization is induced by sub-level-selective intersystem crossing from the exciplex triplet to its singlet ground state and is decreased by an external magnetic field. The theory accounts almost quantitatively for the observed influence of magnetic field strength and heavy-atom substitue...

  9. Advocacy for eye care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thulasiraj D Ravilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effectiveness of eye care service delivery is often dependant on how the different stakeholders are aligned. These stakeholders range from the ministries of health who have the capacity to grant government subsidies for eye care, down to the primary healthcare workers who can be enrolled to screen for basic eye diseases. Advocacy is a tool that can help service providers draw the attention of key stakeholders to a particular area of concern. By enlisting the support, endorsement and participation of a wider circle of players, advocacy can help to improve the penetration and effectiveness of the services provided. There are several factors in the external environmental that influence the eye care services - such as the availability of trained manpower, supply of eye care consumables, government rules and regulations. There are several instances where successful advocacy has helped to create an enabling environment for eye care service delivery. Providing eye care services in developing countries requires the support - either for direct patient care or for support services such as producing trained manpower or for research and dissemination. Such support, in the form of financial or other resources, can be garnered through advocacy.

  10. Enhancing Rotational Diffusion Using Oscillatory Shear

    KAUST Repository

    Leahy, Brian D.

    2013-05-29

    Taylor dispersion - shear-induced enhancement of translational diffusion - is an important phenomenon with applications ranging from pharmacology to geology. Through experiments and simulations, we show that rotational diffusion is also enhanced for anisotropic particles in oscillatory shear. This enhancement arises from variations in the particle\\'s rotation (Jeffery orbit) and depends on the strain amplitude, rate, and particle aspect ratio in a manner that is distinct from the translational diffusion. This separate tunability of translational and rotational diffusion opens the door to new techniques for controlling positions and orientations of suspended anisotropic colloids. © 2013 American Physical Society.

  11. Aquaporins in the Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tran, Thuy Linh; Hamann, Steffen; Heegaard, Steffen

    2017-01-01

    The major part of the eye consists of water . Continuous movement of water and ions between the ocular compartments and to the systemic circulation is pivotal for many physiological functions in the eye. The movement of water facilitates removal of the many metabolic products of corneal-, ciliary...... pressure. In the retina, water is transported into the vitreous body and across the retinal pigment epithelium to regulate the extracellular environment and the hydration of the retina. Aquaporins (AQPs ) take part in the water transport throughout the eye....

  12. Deconstructing Mental Rotation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Axel

    2014-01-01

    , flat RTs on negative trials, false alarms and miss rates, effects of complexity, and for the number of eye movement switches between stimuli as functions of angular difference in orientation. Analysis of eye movements supports key aspects of the model and shows that initial processing time is roughly...

  13. Mars geodesy, rotation and gravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenblatt, Pascal; Dehant, Veronique

    2010-01-01

    This review provides explanations of how geodesy, rotation and gravity can be addressed using radioscience data of an orbiter around a planet or of the lander on its surface. The planet Mars is the center of the discussion. The information one can get from orbitography and radioscience in general concerns the global static gravitational field, the time variation of the gravitational field induced by mass exchange between the atmosphere and the ice caps, the time variation of the gravitational field induced by the tides, the secular changes in the spacecraft's orbit induced by the little moons of Mars named Phobos and Deimos, the gravity induced by particular targets, the Martian ephemerides, and Mars' rotation and orientation. The paper addresses as well the determination of the geophysical parameters of Mars and, in particular, the state of Mars' core and its size, which is important for understanding the planet's evolution. Indeed, the state and dimension of the core determined from the moment of inertia and nutation depend in turn on the percentage of light elements in the core as well as on the core temperature, which is related to heat transport in the mantle. For example, the radius of the core has implications for possible mantle convection scenarios and, in particular, for the presence of a perovskite phase transition at the bottom of the mantle. This is also important for our understanding of the large volcanic province Tharsis on the surface of Mars. (invited reviews)

  14. Suppression of self-organized surface nanopatterning on GaSb/InAs multilayers induced by low energy oxygen ion bombardment by using simultaneously sample rotation and oxygen flooding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beainy, Georges; Cerba, Tiphaine; Bassani, Franck; Martin, Mickaël; Baron, Thierry; Barnes, Jean-Paul

    2018-05-01

    Time of flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) is a well-adapted analytical method for the chemical characterization of concentration profiles in layered or multilayered materials. However, under ion beam bombardment, initially smooth material surface becomes morphologically unstable. This leads to abnormal secondary ion yields and depth profile distortions. In this contribution, we explore the surface topography and roughening evolution induced by O2+ ion bombardment on GaSb/InAs multilayers. We demonstrate the formation of nanodots and ripples patterning according to the ion beam energy. Since the latter are undesirable for ToF-SIMS analysis, we managed to totally stop their growth by using simultaneously sample rotation and oxygen flooding. This unprecedented coupling between these two latter mechanisms leads to a significant enhancement in depth profiles resolution.

  15. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... It sends electrical impulses through the optic nerve to the brain. Watch ...

  16. Diabetic Eye Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... damage your eyes. The most common problem is diabetic retinopathy. It is a leading cause of blindness ... You need a healthy retina to see clearly. Diabetic retinopathy damages the tiny blood vessels inside your ...

  17. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams below to ... part of the eye behind the iris that helps to focus light on the retina. It allows ...

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  20. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

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  2. Eye Involvement in TSC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 50% of the individuals with TSC have normal intelligence, and inasmuch as these individuals may become parents, ... of vision may be difficult or impossible. Since growth and change of TSC lesions in the eye ...

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... EyeCare America Help IRIS Registry Medicare Physician Payment Meetings and Deadlines Museum of Vision Ophthalmology Job Center ... Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced Search Annual Meeting Clinical Education Practice Management Member Services Advocacy Foundation ...

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    Full Text Available ... Units Division of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. ... Fellowships NEI Summer Intern Program Diversity In Vision Research & Ophthalmology (DIVRO) Student Training Programs To search for ...

  5. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  6. Amblyopia: Lazy Eye Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... with Myopia Aug 31, 2017 Eye Injuries from Laundry Packets On the Rise Jun 30, 2017 Combating ... with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology Job Center © American ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology ... Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Find an Ophthalmologist Advanced ...

  8. About the Eye

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  10. What Is Dry Eye?

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  11. What Is Dry Eye?

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  14. About the Eye

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  15. About the Eye

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  16. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... about each part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, ... area of the retina needed for central vision. It contains the fovea. Lens is the clear part ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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  18. What Is Dry Eye?

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  20. Using Eye Makeup

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... harmful chemicals. Before applying makeup, be sure your face and eyelids are very clean. Always apply makeup outside the lash line, away from the eye, to avoid blocking the oil glands of the upper or lower ...

  1. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science Programs Division ... Ask a Scientist Video Series Glossary The Visual System Your Eyes’ Natural Defenses Eye Health and Safety ...

  2. About the Eye

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  3. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... part of your eye and what it does. Macula (MACK-yoo-luh) is the small, sensitive area ... FOH-vee-uh) is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP- ...

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Academy Publications EyeNet Ophthalmology Ophthalmology Retina Information for: International Ophthalmologists ...

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    Full Text Available ... 5248 Health Information Frequently asked questions Clinical Studies Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  6. Eye and orbit ultrasound

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Images Head and eye echoencephalogram References Coleman DJ, Silverman RH, Lloyd HO, Daly S. Evaluation of the posterior ... Vision Institute, La Jolla, CA. Also reviewed by David Zieve, MD, MHA, Medical Director, Brenda Conaway, Editorial ...

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  9. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related Please Don’t Shave the Inside ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

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  11. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of the world around you. ... Social Media Policies and Other Important Links NEI Employee Emergency Information ...

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    Full Text Available ... Campus Mission Statement As part of the federal government’s National Institutes of Health (NIH), the National Eye ... Publications Catalog Photos and Images Spanish Language Information Grants and Funding Extramural Research Division of Extramural Science ...

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    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the diagrams ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense of ...

  15. Eye Injuries at Home

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    ... by the Numbers — Infographic Five Steps to Safer Champagne Celebrations Eye Injuries at Home Leer en Español: ... that can splatter hot grease or oil. Opening champagne bottles during a celebration. Drilling or hammering screws ...

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    Full Text Available ... are made up of many different parts that work together to help you see. Check out the ... Learn how the different parts of your eye work together so you can see and make sense ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

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    Full Text Available ... History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  19. Investigating stellar surface rotation using observations of starspots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Korhonen, Heidi Helena

    2011-01-01

    Rapid rotation enhances the dynamo operating in stars, and thus also introduces significantly stronger magnetic activity than is seen in slower rotators. Many young cool stars still have the rapid, primordial rotation rates induced by the interstellar molecular cloud from which they were formed....... Also older stars in close binary systems are often rapid rotators. These types of stars can show strong magnetic activity and large starspots. In the case of large starspots which cause observable changes in the brightness of the star, and even in the shapes of the spectral line profiles, one can get...... information on the rotation of the star. At times even information on the spot rotation at different stellar latitudes can be obtained, similarly to the solar surface differential rotation measurements using magnetic features as tracers. Here, I will review investigations of stellar rotation based...

  20. Fish eye optics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hudec, René; Michalová, S.

    2017-01-01

    Roč. 47, č. 2 (2017), s. 94-99 ISSN 1335-1842. [INTEGRAL/BART Workshop /14./. Karlovy Vary, 03.04.2017-07.04.2017] Grant - others:GA ČR(CZ) GA13-33324S Institutional support: RVO:67985815 Keywords : fish eye optics * lobster eye optics * X-ray monitoring Subject RIV: BN - Astronomy, Celestial Mechanics, Astrophysics OBOR OECD: Astronomy (including astrophysics,space science) Impact factor: 0.336, year: 2016

  1. Rotations with Rodrigues' vector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pina, E

    2011-01-01

    The rotational dynamics was studied from the point of view of Rodrigues' vector. This vector is defined here by its connection with other forms of parametrization of the rotation matrix. The rotation matrix was expressed in terms of this vector. The angular velocity was computed using the components of Rodrigues' vector as coordinates. It appears to be a fundamental matrix that is used to express the components of the angular velocity, the rotation matrix and the angular momentum vector. The Hamiltonian formalism of rotational dynamics in terms of this vector uses the same matrix. The quantization of the rotational dynamics is performed with simple rules if one uses Rodrigues' vector and similar formal expressions for the quantum operators that mimic the Hamiltonian classical dynamics.

  2. On Averaging Rotations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gramkow, Claus

    2001-01-01

    In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong ...... approximations to the Riemannian metric, and that the subsequent corrections are inherent in the least squares estimation.......In this paper two common approaches to averaging rotations are compared to a more advanced approach based on a Riemannian metric. Very often the barycenter of the quaternions or matrices that represent the rotations are used as an estimate of the mean. These methods neglect that rotations belong...

  3. Contribution of eye position to movement perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettorossi, V E; Panichi, R; Bambagioni, D; Grassi, S; Botti, F M

    2004-05-01

    To investigate the influence of gaze eccentricity on movement perception during asymmetric vestibular stimulation. Subjects (n = 10) were placed on a rotating platform and oscillated asymmetrically in the dark. Subjects were asked to reproduce with a pointer the location in space of a light spot that was turned off at the beginning of the oscillation. The target was presented in centric and eccentric (0 degrees, 20 degrees and 40 degrees) positions. In the centric position a large shift from the real position of the target was observed in the opposite direction to that of the faster vestibular stimulation. The shift increased when the target was placed eccentrically toward the slower vestibular stimulation side and decreased when it was placed in the opposite direction. The dependence of rotation perception on the target position suggests that the eye deviation, imposed by the eccentricity of the target, is able to influence the perception of body movement and may modulate the internal reference frame.

  4. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy Beth; Ellervik, Christina; Buch, Helena

    2016-01-01

    , Danish Rural Eye Study (DRES). All DRES participants received a comprehensive general health examination preceding their eye examination, including measurement of best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA) for each eye, bilateral 45° retinal fundus photographs and further ophthalmological examination where...... indicated. RESULTS: Overall, 3826 of 3843 participants (99.6%) had bilateral visual acuity measurements. The overall frequency of VI (BCVA eye) was 0.4% (95% confidence interval, CI, 0.2-0.7%; n = 15) among all DRES participants, 0.6% (95% CI 0.3-1.0%; n = 15) among participants...... >50 years and 3.7% (95% CI 2.1-6.5%; n = 11) in participants >80 years. The primary causes of VI in the better-seeing eye were age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in 46.7% (7/15) and cataract in 26.7% (4/15). A total of 43.3% (n = 115) of participants >80 years were pseudophakic in one or both eyes...

  5. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysianne eBeynel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS and (ii mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS. Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for three weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1 and just after (S2 the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through MADRS scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the TMS-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a ‘trait vs. state’ objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  6. What saccadic eye movements tell us about TMS-induced neuromodulation of the DLPFC and mood changes: a pilot study in bipolar disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beynel, Lysianne; Chauvin, Alan; Guyader, Nathalie; Harquel, Sylvain; Szekely, David; Bougerol, Thierry; Marendaz, Christian

    2014-01-01

    The study assumed that the antisaccade (AS) task is a relevant psychophysical tool to assess (i) short-term neuromodulation of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) induced by intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS); and (ii) mood change occurring during the course of the treatment. Saccadic inhibition is known to strongly involve the DLPFC, whose neuromodulation with iTBS requires less stimulation time and lower stimulation intensity, as well as results in longer aftereffects than the conventional repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Active or sham iTBS was applied every day for 3 weeks over the left DLPFC of 12 drug-resistant bipolar depressed patients. To assess the iTBS-induced short-term neuromodulation, the saccadic task was performed just before (S1) and just after (S2) the iTBS session, the first day of each week. Mood was evaluated through Montgomery and Asberg Depression Rating Scale (MADRS) scores and the difference in scores between the beginning and the end of treatment was correlated with AS performance change between these two periods. As expected, only patients from the active group improved their performance from S1 to S2 and mood improvement was significantly correlated with AS performance improvement. In addition, the AS task also discriminated depressive bipolar patients from healthy control subjects. Therefore, the AS task could be a relevant and useful tool for clinicians to assess if the Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)-induced short-term neuromodulation of the DLPFC occurs as well as a "trait vs. state" objective marker of depressive mood disorder.

  7. Pink Eye: What To Do

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    In this podcast, CDC's Adam Cohen, MD, a pediatrician and parent, discusses conjunctivitis (pink eye), a common eye condition in children and adults. He reviews pink eye causes and treatment, suggestions on when to call or visit a doctor, and practical tips to prevent pink eye from spreading.

  8. Colorimetric and bare eye determination of urinary methylamphetamine based on the use of aptamers and the salt-induced aggregation of unmodified gold nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, Qiunan; Shi, Yupeng; Pan, Yi; Yi, Changqing; Yue, Zhenfeng; Zhang, Heng

    2015-01-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is second only to marijuana as a widely used illicit drug. We are presenting a simple colorimetric assay for sensitive and visual detection of METH in human urine using a METH-specific aptamer as the recognition element and unmodified gold nanoparticles as indicators. The method is based on the finding that the presence of METH results in AuNPs solution’s color change from red to blue. Normally, aptamers attach to the surface of AuNPs and thereby increasing their resistance to NaCl-induced aggregation. If, however, the aptamer bind to METH via G-quartets, rapid salt induced aggregation occurs associated with the formation of a blue colored solution. Urinary METH can be quantified via this effect either visually or by measurement of the absorbance ratios at 660 and 525 nm, respectively. It works in the 2 μM to 10 μM concentration range with a detection limit at 0.82 μM. The method is fast and also works well in human urine. It is believed to represent a widely applicable aptamer-based detection scheme. (author)

  9. Comparison of postoperative corneal changes between dry eye and non-dry eye in a murine cataract surgery model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin Woo; Chung, Yeon Woong; Choi, Jin A; La, Tae Yoon; Jee, Dong Hyun; Cho, Yang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    To compare the effects of the surgical insult of cataract surgery on corneal inflammatory infiltration, neovascularization (NV) and lymphangiogenesis (LY) between the dry eye and non-dry eye in murine cataract surgery models. We established two groups of animals, one with normal eyes (non-dry eye) and the second with induced dry eyes. In both groups, we used surgical insults to mimic human cataract surgery, which consisted of lens extraction, corneal incision and suture. After harvesting of corneas on the 9(th) postoperative day and immunohistochemical staining, we compared NV, LY and CD11b+ cell infiltration in the corneas. Dry eye group had significantly more inflammatory infiltration (21.75%±7.17% vs 3.65%±1.49%; P=0.049). The dry eye group showed significantly more NV (48.21%±4.02% vs 26.24%±6.01%; P=0.016) and greater levels of LY (9.27%±0.48% vs 4.84%±1.15%; P=0.007). In corneas on which no surgery was performed, there was no induction of NV in both the dry and non-dry group, but dry eye group demonstrated more CD11b+ cells infiltration than the non-dry eye group (0.360%±0.160% vs 0.023%±0.006%; P=0.068). Dry eye group showed more NV than non-dry eye group in both topical PBS application and subconjunctival PBS injection (P=0.020 and 0.000, respectively). In a murine cataract surgery model, preexisting dry eye can induce more postoperative NV, LY, and inflammation in corneal tissue.

  10. Comparison of postoperative corneal changes between dry eye and non-dry eye in a murine cataract surgery model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Jin Woo; Chung, Yeon Woong; Choi, Jin A; La, Tae Yoon; Jee, Dong Hyun; Cho, Yang Kyung

    2016-01-01

    AIM To compare the effects of the surgical insult of cataract surgery on corneal inflammatory infiltration, neovascularization (NV) and lymphangiogenesis (LY) between the dry eye and non-dry eye in murine cataract surgery models. METHODS We established two groups of animals, one with normal eyes (non-dry eye) and the second with induced dry eyes. In both groups, we used surgical insults to mimic human cataract surgery, which consisted of lens extraction, corneal incision and suture. After harvesting of corneas on the 9th postoperative day and immunohistochemical staining, we compared NV, LY and CD11b+ cell infiltration in the corneas. RESULTS Dry eye group had significantly more inflammatory infiltration (21.75%±7.17% vs 3.65%±1.49%; P=0.049). The dry eye group showed significantly more NV (48.21%±4.02% vs 26.24%±6.01%; P=0.016) and greater levels of LY (9.27%±0.48% vs 4.84%±1.15%; P=0.007). In corneas on which no surgery was performed, there was no induction of NV in both the dry and non-dry group, but dry eye group demonstrated more CD11b+ cells infiltration than the non-dry eye group (0.360%±0.160% vs 0.023%±0.006%; P=0.068). Dry eye group showed more NV than non-dry eye group in both topical PBS application and subconjunctival PBS injection (P=0.020 and 0.000, respectively). CONCLUSION In a murine cataract surgery model, preexisting dry eye can induce more postoperative NV, LY, and inflammation in corneal tissue. PMID:26949638

  11. NASA's "Eyes" Focus on Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussey, K.

    2016-12-01

    NASA's "Eyes on…" suite of products continues to grow in capability and popularity. The "Eyes on the Earth", "Eyes on the Solar System" and "Eyes on Exoplanets" real-time, 3D interactive visualization products have proven themselves as highly effective demonstration and communication tools for NASA's Earth and Space Science missions. This presentation will give a quick look at the latest updates to the "Eyes" suite plus what is being done to make them tools for STEM Education.

  12. Asteroid rotation rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Binzel, R.P.; Farinella, P.

    1989-01-01

    Within the last decade the data base of asteroid rotation parameters (rotation rates and lightcurve amplitudes) has become sufficiently large to identify some definite rends and properties which can help us to interpret asteroid collisional evolution. Many significant correlations are found between rotation parameters and diameter, with distinct changes occurring near 125 km. The size range, which is also the diameter above which self-gravity may become important, perhaps represents a division between surviving primordial asteroids and collisional fragments. A Maxwellian is able to fit the observed rotation rate distributions of asteroids with D>125 km, implying that their rotation rates may be determined by collisional evolution. Asteroids with D<125 km show an excess of slow rotators and their non-Maxwellian distributions suggests that their rotation rates are more strongly influenced by other processes, such as the distribution resulting from their formation in catastrophic disruption events. Other correlations observed in the data set include different mean rotation rates for C, S and M type asteroids implying that their surface spectra are indicative of bulk properties

  13. The spatial rotator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmusson, Allan; Hahn, Ute; Larsen, Jytte Overgaard

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a new local volume estimator, the spatial rotator, which is based on measurements on a virtual 3D probe, using computer assisted microscopy. The basic design of the probe builds upon the rotator principle which requires only a few manual intersection markings, thus making...

  14. Superconducting rotating machines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, J.L. Jr.; Kirtley, J.L. Jr.; Thullen, P.

    1975-01-01

    The opportunities and limitations of the applications of superconductors in rotating electric machines are given. The relevant properties of superconductors and the fundamental requirements for rotating electric machines are discussed. The current state-of-the-art of superconducting machines is reviewed. Key problems, future developments and the long range potential of superconducting machines are assessed

  15. Fundamental Relativistic Rotator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staruszkiewicz, A.

    2008-01-01

    Professor Jan Weyssenhoff was Myron Mathisson's sponsor and collaborator. He introduced a class of objects known in Cracow as '' kreciolki Weyssenhoffa '', '' Weyssenhoff's rotating little beasts ''. The Author describes a particularly simple object from this class. The relativistic rotator described in the paper is such that its both Casimir invariants are parameters rather than constants of motion. (author)

  16. SMAP Faraday Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Vine, David

    2016-01-01

    Faraday rotation is a change in the polarization as signal propagates through the ionosphere. At L-band it is necessary to correct for this change and measurements are made on the spacecraft of the rotation angle. These figures show that there is good agreement between the SMAP measurements (blue) and predictions based on models (red).

  17. Units of rotational information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuxiang; Chiribella, Giulio; Hu, Qinheping

    2017-12-01

    Entanglement in angular momentum degrees of freedom is a precious resource for quantum metrology and control. Here we study the conversions of this resource, focusing on Bell pairs of spin-J particles, where one particle is used to probe unknown rotations and the other particle is used as reference. When a large number of pairs are given, we show that every rotated spin-J Bell state can be reversibly converted into an equivalent number of rotated spin one-half Bell states, at a rate determined by the quantum Fisher information. This result provides the foundation for the definition of an elementary unit of information about rotations in space, which we call the Cartesian refbit. In the finite copy scenario, we design machines that approximately break down Bell states of higher spins into Cartesian refbits, as well as machines that approximately implement the inverse process. In addition, we establish a quantitative link between the conversion of Bell states and the simulation of unitary gates, showing that the fidelity of probabilistic state conversion provides upper and lower bounds on the fidelity of deterministic gate simulation. The result holds not only for rotation gates, but also to all sets of gates that form finite-dimensional representations of compact groups. For rotation gates, we show how rotations on a system of given spin can simulate rotations on a system of different spin.

  18. The rotating universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruben, G.; Treder, H.J.

    1987-01-01

    For a long time the question whether the universe rotates or not is discussed. Aspects of Huygens, Newton, Mach and other important historical scientists in this field are reported. The investigations of the mathematician Kurt Groedel in order to prove the rotation of the universe are illustrated. Kurt Groedel has shown that Einstein's gravitational equations of general relativity theory and the cosmological postulate of global homogeneity of cosmic matter (that is the Copernical principle) are not contradictionary to a rotating universe. Abberation measurements, position determination by means of radiointerferometry and methods for the determination of the rotation of the universe from the isotropy of the background radiation are presented. From these experiments it can be concluded that the universe seems not to rotate as already Einstein expected

  19. Rotation sensor switch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sevec, J.B.

    1978-01-01

    A protective device to provide a warning if a piece of rotating machinery slows or stops is comprised of a pair of hinged weights disposed to rotate on a rotating shaft of the equipment. When the equipment is rotating, the weights remain in a plane essentially perpendicular to the shaft and constitute part of an electrical circuit that is open. When the shaft slows or stops, the weights are attracted to a pair of concentric electrically conducting disks disposed in a plane perpendicular to the shaft and parallel to the plane of the weights when rotating. A disk magnet attracts the weights to the electrically conducting plates and maintains the electrical contact at the plates to complete an electrical circuit that can then provide an alarm signal

  20. Rotating stars in relativity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Vasileios; Stergioulas, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Rotating relativistic stars have been studied extensively in recent years, both theoretically and observationally, because of the information they might yield about the equation of state of matter at extremely high densities and because they are considered to be promising sources of gravitational waves. The latest theoretical understanding of rotating stars in relativity is reviewed in this updated article. The sections on equilibrium properties and on nonaxisymmetric oscillations and instabilities in f -modes and r -modes have been updated. Several new sections have been added on equilibria in modified theories of gravity, approximate universal relationships, the one-arm spiral instability, on analytic solutions for the exterior spacetime, rotating stars in LMXBs, rotating strange stars, and on rotating stars in numerical relativity including both hydrodynamic and magnetohydrodynamic studies of these objects.

  1. Microwave and Submillimeter-Wave Measurements of HD 12C 16O in the ν 4, ν 5, and ν 6 Bands: Evidence of Vibrational Induced Rotational Axis Switching ("VIRAS")

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrin, A.; Flaud, J.-M.; Margulès, L.; Demaison, J.; Mäder, H.; Wörmke, S.

    2002-12-01

    The rotational spectrum of HDCO in the 4 1, 5 1, and 6 1 excited vibrational states has been investigated in Lille and Kiel using a sample enriched in deuterium. In Lille, the measurements were performed in the millimeter region (160-600 GHz). The spectra in Kiel were recorded using Fourier transform microwave spectrometers in the regions around 8-18 and 18-26 GHz, employing a rectangular waveguide of length 12 m and a circular waveguide of length 36 m, respectively. These results were combined with the 4 1, 5 1, and 6 1 infrared energy levels which were obtained from a previous analysis of FTS spectra of the ν 4 (CHD bend), ν 5 (CHD rocking), and ν 6 bands (out of plane bend) recorded in the 10-μm region at Giessen (A. Perrin, J.-M. Flaud, M. Smirnov, and M. Lock, J. Mol. Spectrosc.203, 175-187 (2000)). The energy level calculation of the 4 1, 5 1, and 6 1 interacting states accounts for the usual A- and B-type Coriolis resonances in the 5 1⇔6 1 and 4 1⇔6 1 off diagonals blocks. In addition, since the energy levels of the 5 1 and 6 1 states are very strongly resonating, it proved necessary, as in our previous study, to use a { Jx, Jz} nonorthorhombic term in the 5 1 and 6 1v-diagonal blocks of the Hamiltonian matrix in order to reproduce properly the observed microwave transitions and infrared energy levels. Therefore, this work confirms that HDCO is a good example of the vibrational induced rotational axis switching ("VIRAS") effect.

  2. King and Eye

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Suwannakij, Sing

    King and Eye explores the visual formation of kingship in Siam in its multifarious aspects. This dissertation identifies the leitmotifs in the dynamics between seeing the king and being seen by him, which burst forth in different eras. The visual sense has been a repository for the ontologization...... devices, most significantly the photographic and the cine cameras, but also encompassing other ocular apparatuses. The images produced through the contraptions were brought together under the royal eye at the apex, which in turn claimed its supremacy over space, time, and the vast and diverse population...

  3. Danish Rural Eye Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høeg, Tracy B; Moldow, Birgitte; Ellervik, Christina

    2015-01-01

    and older from a Danish rural municipality received a complete general health examination and an ophthalmological interview and examination. This study included a comprehensive ophthalmologic interview, measurement of best corrected visual acuity (BCVA) in each eye, Hirschberg's test for strabismus and two...... 45-degree retinal fundus photographs of each eye. A complete ophthalmologic examination was performed when indicated. RESULTS: The prevalence of monocular visual impairment (MVI) was 4.26% (95% CI, 3.66-4.95, n = 163). Amblyopia was the most common cause, accounting for 33%. The prevalence...

  4. Dynamical models of the human eye and strabismus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pascolo, P.; Carniel, R.; Grimaz, S.

    2009-01-01

    In this work, the applicability of a recently published dynamical model of the eye to the case of strabismus is investigated. Although the basic scheme of the original model remains valid, the simulation of the pathological dynamics requires a more suitable coverage of the space of the physiological rotations of the eye. This requisite is reached by developing the original model and by taking into account the contributions of connective tissues that were originally neglected. Possible wider fields of application of the model are then discussed.

  5. Cyclosporine Amicellar delivery system for dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Sun, Bo Kyung; Hyun, Sang-Min; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop stable cyclosporine A (CsA) ophthalmic micelle solutions for dry-eye syndrome and evaluate their physicochemical properties and therapeutic efficacy. CsA-micelle solutions (MS-CsA) were created by a simple method with Cremophor EL, ethanol, and phosphate buffer. We investigated the particle size, pH, and osmolarity. In addition, long-term physical and chemical stability for MS-CsA was observed. To confirm the therapeutic efficacy, tear production in dry eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test (STT). When compared to a commercial product, Restasis, MS-CsA demonstrated improvement in goblet-cell density and conjunctival epithelial morphology, as demonstrated in histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. MS-CsA had a smaller particle size (average diameter 14-18 nm) and a narrow size distribution. Physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, osmolarity, and remaining CsA concentration were all within the expected range of 60 days. STT scores significantly improved in MS-CsA treated groups (Pdry eye-induced rabbits thinned with loss of goblet cells. However, after 5 days of treatment with drug formulations, rabbit conjunctivas recovered epithelia and showed a relative increase in the number of goblet cells. The results of this study indicate the potential use of a novel MS for the ophthalmic delivery of CsA in treating dry eyes.

  6. Spontaneous Rotation of a Toric Implantable Collamer Lens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandro Navas

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available We present a case of toric implantable collamer lens (TICL spontaneous rotation in a patient with myopic astigmatism. A 23-year-old female underwent TICL implantation. Preoperative uncorrected visual acuity (UCVA was 20/800 and 20/1200, respectively, with –7.75 –4.25 × 0° and –8.25 –5.25 × 180°. The left eye achieved an UCVA of 20/30. After 3 months of successful implantation of TICL in the left eye, the patient presented with a sudden decrease in visual acuity in the left eye. UCVA was 20/100 with a refraction of +2.50 –4.50 × 165°. We observed the toric marks with a 30° rotation from the original position and decided to reposition the TICL, obtaining a final UCVA of 20/25, which remained stable at 6 months’ follow-up. TICL can present a considerable rotation that compromises visual acuity. The relocation of TICL is a safe and effective procedure to recover visual acuity due to significant spontaneous TICL rotation.

  7. Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel; Albietz, Julie M; Tran, Huan; Du Toit, Cimonette; Li, Anita Hui; Yun, Tina; Han, Jee; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-12-01

    Contact lens induced dry eye affects approximately 50% of contact lens wearers. The aim was to assess the effects of Manuka (Leptospermum sp.) honey eye drops (Optimel, Melcare, Australia) on dry eye in contact lens wearers. The safety of the honey eye drops in contact lens wear and contact lens wearers' compliance were also evaluated. Prospective, randomised, cross over study, examiner masked, pilot treatment trial. Twenty-four participants aged 20 to 55 years with contact lens related dry eye were recruited and randomised to two treatment groups; 20 completed the study. One group used Optimel eye drops twice a day for two weeks followed by conventional lubricant (Systane Ultra, Alcon) therapy for two weeks; the other group completed the treatments in the reverse order. Before and after each treatment dry eye symptomology, ocular surface inflammation, and tear quantity and quality were assessed. Participants completed a daily log detailing their usage of treatments and any issues. Dry eye symptoms improved significantly after Optimel treatment. Patients with more severe symptoms at baseline showed a greater improvement in symptoms. No significant differences were observed in the objective signs of dry eye; presumably because of the short treatment duration. Seventy-five% of contact lens wearers reported good adherence to Optimel treatment and 95% reported no issues using this product. Optimel Eye Drops reduce the symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers and are safe to use. A longer treatment period to assess the effect on clinical signs of dry eye is required. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Rotation, Stability and Transport

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Connor, J. W.

    2007-07-01

    Tokamak plasmas can frequently exhibit high levels of rotation and rotation shear. This can usually be attributed to various sources: injection of momentum, e.g. through neutral beams, flows driven by plasma gradients or torques resulting from non-ambipolar particle loss; however, the source sometimes remains a mystery, such as the spontaneous rotation observed in Ohmic plasmas. The equilibrium rotation profile is given by the balance of these sources with transport and other losses; the edge boundary conditions can play an important role in determining this profile . Such plasma rotation, particularly sheared rotation, is predicted theoretically to have a significant influence on plasma behaviour. In the first place, sonic flows can significantly affect tokamak equilibria and neoclassical transport losses. However, the influence of rotation on plasma stability and turbulence is more profound. At the macroscopic level it affects the behaviour of the gross MHD modes that influence plasma operational limits. This includes sawteeth, the seeding of neoclassical tearing modes, resistive wall modes and the onset of disruptions through error fields, mode locking and reconnection. At the microscopic level it has a major effect on the stability of ballooning modes, both ideal MHD and drift wave instabilities such as ion temperature gradient (ITG) modes. In the non-linear state, as unstable drift waves evolve into turbulent structures, sheared rotation also tears apart eddies, thereby reducing the resulting transport. There is considerable experimental evidence for these effects on both MHD stability and plasma confinement. In particular, the appearance of improved confinement modes with transport barriers, such as edge H-mode barriers and internal transport barriers (ITBs) appears to correlate well with the presence of sheared plasma rotation. This talk will describe the theory underlying some of these phenomena involving plasma rotation, on both macroscopic and microscopic

  9. On Job Rotation

    OpenAIRE

    Metin M. Cosgel; Thomas J. Miceli

    1998-01-01

    A fundamental principle of economics with which Adam Smith begins The Wealth of Nations is the division of labor. Some firms, however, have been pursuing a practice called job rotation, which assigns each worker not to a single and specific task but to a set of several tasks among which he or she rotates with some frequency. We examine the practice of job rotation as a serious alternative to specialization, with three objectives. The first is to consider current and historical examples of job...

  10. Glaucoma: Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of this page please turn JavaScript on. Feature: Glaucoma Eye-to-Eye with Dr. Rachel Bishop Past ... nerves are pale and cupped—signs of advanced glaucoma. Yet the patient wasn't aware of any ...

  11. Rotator cuff - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000358.htm Rotator cuff - self-care To use the sharing features on ... and shoulder exercises may help ease your symptoms. Rotator Cuff Problems Common rotator cuff problems include: Tendinitis , which ...

  12. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... programs with respect to blinding eye diseases, visual disorders, mechanisms of visual function, preservation of sight, and the special health problems and ... is the center of the macula, where your vision is sharpest. Optic nerve (OP-tic nurv) is the bundle of more than 1 ...

  13. Eye Injuries in Construction

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cold helps keep down pain and swelling. If pain continues or your vision is blurry, get to a doctor right away. ! If you get hit in the eye with flying metal, wood, or material from a power tool (like a drill or wheel) , OR ! If ...

  14. Robustifying eye interaction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Dan Witzner; Hansen, John Paulin

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a gaze typing system based on consumer hardware. Eye tracking based on consumer hardware is subject to several unknown factors. We propose methods using robust statistical principles to accommodate uncertainties in image data as well as in gaze estimates to improve accuracy. We...

  15. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Accomplishments Budget and Congress About the NEI Director History of the NEI NEI 50th Anniversary NEI Women Scientists Advisory Committee (WSAC) Board of Scientific Counselors National Advisory Eye Council (NAEC) Donating to the NEI Contact Us Visiting the NIH Campus Mission Statement As part ...

  16. About the Eye

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    Full Text Available ... Institute’s mission is to “conduct and support research, training, health information dissemination, and other programs with respect ... Emily Y. Chew, M.D., Deputy Clinical Director Education Programs National Eye Health Education Program (NEHEP) Diabetic ...

  17. About the Eye

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Epidemiology and Clinical Applications eyeGENE Research Directors Office Office of the Scientific Director Sheldon S. Miller, Ph.D., ... David M. Schneeweis, Ph.D., Deputy Scientific Director Office of the Clinical Director Brian P. Brooks, M. ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear ...

  19. LASIK - Laser Eye Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Refractive Surgery Procedures What Is Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK)? LASIK — Laser Eye Surgery Leer en Español: LASIK—Cirugía ocular con láser ... loss of close-up focusing power. How the LASIK procedure works LASIK is performed while the patient ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... make the right type of tears or tear film . How do tears work? When you blink, a film of tears spreads over the eye. This keeps the eye’s surface smooth and clear. The tear film is important for good vision. The tear film ...