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Sample records for exudates and transudates

  1. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

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    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA, in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP and total protein (TP, can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic. CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10 % of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S was 0.10 ± 0.13 . For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15 , respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration ( r = 0.764 ; p < 0.0001 . The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5un g/mL. SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates

  2. The Acute-Phase Proteins Serum Amyloid A and C Reactive Protein in Transudates and Exudates

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    Okino, Alessandra M.; Bürger, Cristiani; Cardoso, Jefferson R.; Lavado, Edson L.; Lotufo, Paulo A.; Campa, Ana

    2006-01-01

    The distinction between exudates and transudates is very important in the patient management. Here we evaluate whether the acute-phase protein serum amyloid A (SAA), in comparison with C reactive protein (CRP) and total protein (TP), can be useful in this discrimination. CRP, SAA, and TP were determined in 36 exudate samples (27 pleural and 9 ascitic) and in 12 transudates (9 pleural and 3 ascitic). CRP, SAA, and TP were measured. SAA present in the exudate corresponded to 10% of the amount found in serum, that is, the exudate/serum ratio (E/S) was 0.10 ± 0.13. For comparison, the exudate/serum ratio for CRP and TP was 0.39 ± 0.37 and 0.68 ± 0.15, respectively. There was a strong positive correlation between serum and exudate SAA concentration (r = 0.764;p < 0.0001). The concentration of SAA in transudates was low and did not overlap with that found in exudates (0.02-0.21 versus 0.8–360.5 g/mL). SAA in pleural and ascitic exudates results mainly from leakage of the serum protein via the inflamed membrane. A comparison of the E/S ratio of SAA and CRP points SAA as a very good marker in discriminating between exudates and transudates. PMID:16864904

  3. The diagnostic value of pleural effusion ferritin and the ratio of it to serum ferritin in differentiating exudates from transudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To explore the diagnostic value of measuring the level of ferritin in pleural and peritoneal effusion for differentiating exudates from transudates, 128 effusion samples were initially detected for differentiating exudates from transudates by traditional method and Light's criteria. Ferritin in the effusions and serum ferritin were detected simultaneously, and the ratio of effusion ferritin (PFt) to serum ferritin (SFt) was counted. Based on the clinical data, the samples were divided into four groups and PFt and PFt/SFt were compared. At the same time, the sensitivity and specificity of PFt and PFt/SFt in differentiating exudates from transudates were compared with traditional method and Light's criteria. The results showed that in the groups of tuberculous pleurisy, non-tuberculous, benign pleurisy, and malignant tumor, the concentration of Ft in the effusions was significantly higher than that in the group of congestive heart failure and cirrhosis; and the Ft in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates (P0.05). If the cut-off value was set up for Ft in the effusion as 100 μg/L and PFt/SFt ratio as 0.5, respectively, the differentiating sensitivity and specificity were 94.2% and 87.0%, respectively. Conclusion was that the concentration of PFt and PFt/SFt in exudates are higher than 100 μg/L and 0.5, respectively. On the contrary, they are lower than the cut-off level in transudates. PFt and PFt/SFt have high sensitivity and high specificity in differentiating exudates from transudates, and have great diagnostic value

  4. Lymphangitic Carcinomatosis as a Cause of Malignant Transient Pleural Transudate

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    Raquel Garcia Sevila

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Although it is generally accepted that a malignant transient pleural transudate may appear during the early stages of lymphatic obstruction, cases demonstrating such probability are rare in literature. A 67-year-old woman was admitted to hospital because a lymphangitic carcinomatosis and a transudative infrapulmonary pleural effusion with a cytology positive for adenocarcinoma. One month later the effusion keeps being positive for adenocarcinoma but exudative in character. Lymphatic obstruction appears as the cause of the initial transudative characteristics of the pleural effusion.

  5. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

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    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais universitários no estado do Rio de Janeiro (RJ entre 2003 e 2006. Os parâmetros diagnósticos incluídos no critério clássico, assim como os do novo critério, foram determinados. RESULTADOS: Dos 181 pacientes, 152 e 29 foram diagnosticados, respectivamente, com exsudato pleural e transudato pleural. A sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia do critério clássico para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foram, respectivamente, de 99,8%, 68,6% e 94,5%, enquanto, para o diagnóstico de transudato pleural, essas foram de 76,1%, 90,1% e 87,6%. Utilizando-se os pontos de corte de 3,4 g/dL para a dosagem de PT-LP e de 328,0 U/L para aquela de DHL-LP (novo critério, a sensibilidade, especificidade e acurácia foram de, respectivamente, 99,4%, 72,6% e 99,2%, para o diagnóstico de exsudato, e de 98,5%, 83,4% e 90,0%, para o diagnóstico de transudato. A acurácia do novo critério proposto para o diagnóstico de exsudato pleural foi significativamente maior que aquela do critério clássico (p = 0,0022. CONCLUSÕES: O rendimento diagnóstico dos dois critérios estudados foi semelhante. Portanto, esse novo critério de classificação pode ser utilizado na prática diária.OBJECTIVE: To propose a new classification criterion for the differentiation between pleural exudates and transudates-quantifying total proteins in pleural fluid (TP-PF and lactate dehydrogenase in pleural fluid (LDH-PF exclusively-as well as to compare this new criterion with

  6. Diagnostic value of Light's criteria and albumin gradient in classifying the pathophysiology of pleural effusion formation in cats.

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    Zoia, Andrea; Drigo, Michele

    2016-08-01

    The primary aim of this study was to assess whether human Light's criteria with the cut-off values previously published for cats are useful and superior to the traditional veterinary classification in diagnosing pathophysiology of fluid formation in cats with pleural effusion. The secondary aim was to assess if the albumin gradient (ALBg) is a reliable criterion for differentiating exudates from transudates in patients with pleural effusion thought to be transudative by clinical criteria but identified as exudative by Light's criteria. Nineteen client-owned cats with pleural effusion were studied. The aetiology of the pleural effusion was used to establish the pathophysiology of its formation. Parameters measured or calculated undergoing statistical analysis included Light's criteria, total protein and total nucleated cell count in the pleural effusions, and the ALBg. Based on the pathophysiology of fluid formation there were seven transudates caused by increased hydrostatic pressure and 12 exudates. There was a significant difference in the accuracy of the Light's criteria in correctly classifying origin of the pleural fluid formation compared with the traditional veterinary classification (84% vs 53%). ALBg values were significantly different between transudates and exudates. One of the three transudates misclassified as exudates by Light's criteria was correctly identified as a transudate by the ALBg. In conclusion, pleural effusion should be classified as either a transudate or an exudate using Light's criteria. In cats with pleural effusion thought to be transudative by clinical criteria, but identified as exudative by Light's criteria, the ALBg may further help in correctly differentiating exudates from transudates. PMID:26116619

  7. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lars Tue; Zillmer, Rikke; Agren, Magnus;

    2009-01-01

    Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof...... was excised. Transepidermal water loss (TEWL) was measured after 2, 4, and 7 days. Then, the smokers were randomized to continuous smoking or abstinence with a transdermal nicotine patch or a placebo by concealed allocation. The sequence was repeated after 4, 8, and 12 weeks in all smokers and abstainers...... smokers' MMP-8 level was 21.2 ng/mL (6.6-43.0) (p=0.02, when compared with smokers). MMP-1 was unaffected by smoking and abstention. Transdermal nicotine patch did not affect any parameter. We conclude that smoking attenuates epidermal healing and may enhance extracellular matrix degradation. Three months...

  8. Effect of smoking, abstention, and nicotine patch on epidermal healing and collagenase in skin transudate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorensen, L.T.; Zillmer, R.; Agren, M.;

    2009-01-01

    and in 6 never smokers. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-8 and MMP-1 levels in suction blister fluid were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Random-effects models for repeated measurements were applied and p wounding the TEWL was 17.20 (14......Delayed wound healing may explain postoperative tissue and wound dehiscence in smokers, but the effects of smoking and smoking cessation on the cellular mechanisms remain unclear. Suction blisters were raised in 48 smokers and 30 never smokers. The fluid was retrieved and the epidermal roof....... Three months of abstinence from smoking does not restore epidermal healing, whereas 4 weeks of abstinence normalizes suction blister MMP-8 levels. These findings suggest sustained impaired wound healing in smokers and potential reversibility of extracellular matrix degradation Udgivelsesdato: 2009/5...

  9. Features of the biochemical parameters of blood and exudates during tubercular exudative pleurisy

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    Ye. A. Yuriyeva

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Some biochemical indicators of peripheral blood and pleural fluid (level of the total protein, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase activity at patients with various variants of tubercular exudative pleurisy (MBT-positive and MBT-negative for the purpose of definition of possibility of use this indicators as criteria for differential diagnostics of a pleurisy, have been studied. It has been established that tubercular exudative pleurisy is characterized by the expressed changes of the biochemical status of blood and pleural fluid in comparison with that at healthy donors and patients with not tubercular exudative pleurisy, however, this changes in most cases are nonspecific and don't depend on a variant of tubercular exudative pleurisy.

  10. Chickenpox Chorioretinitis with Retinal Exudates and Periphlebitis

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    Hirokuni Kitamei

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Chickenpox is rarely associated with posterior segment inflammation. We report on a case of unilateral chickenpox chorioretinitis with retinal exudates and periphlebitis. Case Presentation: A 21-year-old healthy man, who suffered from chickenpox 2 weeks prior to symptom development, exhibited mild anterior chamber cells, vitreous opacity, sheathing of retinal veins, and yellow-white exudates in his right eye. Varicella zoster virus DNA was detected by polymerase chain reaction in the aqueous humor. He was treated with intravenous acyclovir followed by oral prednisolone and valaciclovir. Aqueous cells quickly disappeared and retinal exudates diminished within 1 month, leaving faint retinal scarring. Retinal arteritis had never been observed in this patient. Conclusions: Although the ocular findings in this case were similar to acute retinal necrosis (ARN, the clinical features differed from ARN in the following points: (1 mild anterior chamber inflammation, (2 absence of retinal arteritis, and (3 prompt resolution of inflammatory findings. The distinctive clinical features indicated that chorioretinitis associated with chickenpox may not have the same pathological conditions as ARN.

  11. Retinoid-like activity and teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates.

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    Jonas, Adam; Buranova, Veronika; Scholz, Stefan; Fetter, Eva; Novakova, Katerina; Kohoutek, Jiri; Hilscherova, Klara

    2014-10-01

    Retinoic acids and their derivatives have been recently identified by chemical analyses in cyanobacteria and algae. Given the essential role of retinoids for vertebrate development this has raised concerns about a potential risk for vertebrates exposed to retinoids during cyanobacterial blooms. Our study focuses on extracellular compounds produced by phytoplankton cells (exudates). In order to address the capacity for the production of retinoids or compounds with retinoid-like activity we compared the exudates of ten cyanobacteria and algae using in vitro reporter gene assay. Exudates of three cyanobacterial species showed retinoid-like activity in the range of 269-2,265 ng retinoid equivalents (REQ)/L, while there was no detectable activity in exudates of the investigated algal species. The exudates of one green alga (Desmodesmus quadricaudus) and the two cyanobacterial species with greatest REQ levels, Microcystis aeruginosa and Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, were selected for testing of the potential relation of retinoid-like activity to developmental toxicity in zebrafish embryos. The exudates of both cyanobacteria were indeed provoking diverse teratogenic effects (e.g. tail, spine and mouth deformation) and interference with growth in zebrafish embryos, while such effects were not observed for the alga. Fish embryos were also exposed to all-trans retinoic acid (ATRA) in a range equivalent to the REQ concentrations detected in exudates by in vitro bioassays. Both the phenotypes and effective concentrations of exudates corresponded to ATRA equivalents, supporting the hypothesis that the teratogenic effects of cyanobacterial exudates are likely to be associated with retinoid-like activity. The study documents that some cyanobacteria are able to produce and release retinoid-like compounds into the environment at concentrations equivalent to those causing teratogenicity in zebrafish. Hence, the characterization of retinoid-like and teratogenic potency should be

  12. Field Evaluation of Calypte’s AWARE™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid Tests for Detecting Antibodies to HIV-1 and 2 in Plasma and Oral Fluid

    OpenAIRE

    Alemnji, George A; Ngulefac, Gisele A; Ndumbe, Peter M.; Asonganyi, Tazoacha

    2009-01-01

    As programs to prevent and care for HIV-infected persons are scaled-up in Africa, there is the need for continuous evaluation of the performance of test kits that could best support these programs. The present study evaluated the sensitivity, specificity, ease of use, and cost of AWARE ™ Blood Serum Plasma (BSP) and Oral Mucosal Transudate (OMT) Rapid HIV-1/2 test kits using real-time and archived samples of HIV-infected persons from Cameroon. Matched whole blood and OMT specimens were collec...

  13. COMPARISION OF ADENOSINE DEAMINASE [ADA] LEVELS WITH CYTO-CHEMICAL ANALYSIS OF PLEURAL FLUIDS TO DIFFERENTIATE TUBERCULAR AND NON â TUBERCULAR EFFUSIONS

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    Choukimath M Sharanabasav

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available This study is intended to utilize biochemical parameters like ADA and protein levels in comparison with cell count and cell type in pleural fluid to differentiate tubercular and non-tubercular effusions. We have analyzed a total of 208 cases and among them 59.61% cases were ADA positive and 40.39% cases were ADA negative, and 156 cases were exudates and 52 cases were transudates. Categorized these effusions into 4 groups taking consideration of ADA, cell count, lymphocyte and protein levels as exudate with ADA positive, exudate with ADA negative, transudate with ADA positive and transudate with ADA negative. This study has shown promising results to diagnose tuberculosis with immediate and cost effectiveness that can be undertaken by any basic laboratory, in a endemic areas and developing countries like India

  14. Hard Retinal exudates and visual loss due to papilledema

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    Rush, J.A.

    1982-02-01

    Bilateral papilledema developed in a patient with a cystic, grade 3 astrocytoma of the right frontal lobe. Despite successful neurosurgical treatment, /sup 60/Co radiotherapy, and oral corticosteroid therapy, progressive visual loss occurred. At examination one year later, visual activity was 20/200 and 20/70, and extensive lipid exudates in the peripapillary retina and central macula of each eye were noted. Retinal lipid exudates rarely complicate the course of surviving patients who had papilledema from intracranial tumor; physicians involved in the multispecialty care of such patients should be aware of the possible ocular residuals of persistent papilledema in an otherwise successfully treated patient.

  15. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    OpenAIRE

    Karlovsky Petr; Steingrobe Bernd; Ratzinger Astrid; Hettwer Ursula; Khorassani Reza; Claassen Norbert

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P) supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrom...

  16. Nature's amazing biopolymer: basic mechanical and hydrological properties of soil affected by plant exudates

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    Naveed, Muhammad; Roose, Tiina; Raffan, Annette; George, Timothy; Bengough, Glyn; Brown, Lawrie; Keyes, Sam; Daly, Keith; Hallett, Paul

    2016-04-01

    Plant exudates are known to have a very large impact on soil physical properties through changes in mechanical and hydrological processes driven by long-chain polysaccharides and surface active compounds. Whilst these impacts are well known, the basic physical properties of these exudates have only been reported in a small number of studies. We present data for exudates obtained from barley roots and chia seeds, incorporating treatments examining biological decomposition of the exudates. When these exudates were added to a sandy loam soil, contact angle and drop penetration time increased exponentially with increasing exudate concentration. These wetting properties were strongly correlated with both exudate density and zero-shear viscosity, but not with exudate surface tension. Water holding capacity and water repellency of exudate mixed soil tremendously increased with exudate concentration, however they were significantly reduced on decomposition when measured after 14 days of incubation at 16C. Mechanical stability greatly increased with increasing exudate amendment to soils, which was assessed using a rheological amplitude sweep test near saturation, at -50 cm matric potential (field capacity) using indentation test, and at air-dry condition using the Brazilian test. This reflects that exudates not only attenuate plant water stress but also impart mechanical stability to the rhizosphere. These data are highly relevant to the understanding and modelling of rhizosphere development, which is the next phase of our research.

  17. Effectively managing wound exudate.

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    Chamanga, Edwin

    2015-09-01

    The management of wound exudate remains a clinical challenge despite technological advances in products with better exudate-handling capacities. This clinical challenge is occasionally encountered when thick exudate (viscous exudate) is present, and when most modern dressings do not possess the capabilities to manage the viscosity while enabling exudate absorption. Maceration to the peri-wound area poses another challenge, irrespective of the number of topical barrier application products on the market and the innovation of dressing products that lock exudate away or those that encourage vertical wicking. In addition to all the above, in clinical practice, the assessment and documentation of wound exudate remains sporadic, leading to the challenges of effective wound exudate dressing selection and cost-effective dressings. PMID:26322408

  18. ASSOCIATION BETWEEN RETINAL HARD EXUDATES AND DYSLIPIDEMIA IN TYPE 2 DIABETIC PATIENTS IN RURAL KARNATAKA

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    Arun Kumar B.

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To evaluate the association of elevated serum lipids with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic patients in rural Karnataka. MATERIAL AND METHODS : Hospital based cross sectional study which included 60 (n=60 type 2 diabetic patients (60 eyes fulfilling the inclusion criteria. Patients were subjected to detailed ocular examination, fundus examination done under full dilatation using indirect ophth almoscope with 20D lens and slit lamp biomicroscope with 90D lens. Fundus photographs were obtained using fundus camera. Grading of retinal hard exudates performed by utilizing modified Airlie House classification. The modified Airlie House Classification used is as follows: Grade 0 - No evidence of hard exudates; Grade 1 : Questionable hard exudates present; Grade 2 : Hard exudates less than standard photograph 3; Grade 3 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 3, but less than standard p hotograph 5; Grade 4 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 5, but less than standard photograph 4 and Grade 5 : Hard exudates greater than or equal to standard photograph 4. These grades were further divided into three groups of patie nt severity as follows: Group 1 (absent or minimal hard exudates included patients with Grade 0, 1 or 2 hard exudates; Group 2 (hard exudates present included patients with Grade 3 or 4 hard exudates and Group 3 (prominent hard exudates included patient s with Grade 5 hard exudates. Fasting lipid profile including serum total cholesterol, low density lipoproteins, very low density lipoproteins, high density lipoproteins and triglycerides was obtained. Association of dyslipidemia with retinal hard exudates was analysed using one way ANOVA test. RESULTS: On statistical analysis with ANOVA test retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with elevated total cholesterol (p= .0001, triglycerides (p= .0001, serum LDL (p=.008, serum VLDL (p=.012, and negative correlation was found

  19. ACE/ACE2 Ratio and MMP-9 Activity as Potential Biomarkers in Tuberculous Pleural Effusions

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    Wen-Yeh Hsieh, Tang-Ching Kuan, Kun-Shan Cheng, Yan-Chiou Liao, Mu-Yuan Chen, Pei-Heng Lin, Yuan-Chang Hsu, Chen-Yi Huang, Wei-Hua Hsu, Sheng-Yao Yu, Chih-Sheng Lin

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Pleural effusion is common problem, but the rapid and reliable diagnosis for specific pathogenic effusions are lacking. This study aimed to identify the diagnosis based on clinical variables to differentiate pleural tuberculous exudates from other pleural effusions. We also investigated the role of renin-angiotensin system (RAS and matrix metalloproteinase (MMPs in the pathogenesis of pleural exudates.Experimental design: The major components in RAS and extracellular matrix metabolism, including angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE, ACE2, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities, were measured and compared in the patients with transudative (n = 45 and exudative (n = 80 effusions. The exudative effusions were come from the patients with tuberculosis (n = 20, pneumonia (n = 32, and adenocarcinoma (n = 28.Results: Increased ACE and equivalent ACE2 activities, resulting in a significantly increased ACE/ACE2 ratio in exudates, were detected compared to these values in transudates. MMP-9 activity in exudates was significantly higher than that in transudates. The significant correlation between ACE and ACE2 activity that was found in transudates was not found in exudates. Advanced analyses showed significantly increased ACE and MMP-9 activities, and decreased ACE2 activity in tuberculous pleural effusions compared with those in pneumonia and adenocarcinoma effusions. The results indicate that increased ACE and MMP-9 activities found in the exudates were mainly contributed from a higher level of both enzyme activities in the tuberculous pleural effusions.Conclusion: Interplay between ACE and ACE2, essential functions in the RAS, and abnormal regulation of MMP-9 probably play a pivotal role in the development of exudative effusions. Moreover, the ACE/ACE2 ratio combined with MMP-9 activity in pleural fluid may be potential biomarkers for diagnosing tuberculous pleurisy.

  20. Chemical and spectroscopic studies of Cercidium praecox gum exudate.

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    León de Pinto, G; Martínez, M; Rivas, C

    1994-07-01

    The structure of the polysaccharide from Cercidium praecox (R&P) Harms gum exudate has been studied by Smith degradation, by sugar and methylation analyses, and by 13C NMR spectroscopy. The results showed a (1-->4)-xylan core. Some xylose residues are substituted at O-2 by alpha-D-glucuronic acid and 4-O-methyl-alpha-D-glucuronic acid residues. beta-D-Glucuronic acid is present, probably as terminal residues. The arabinose is present as alpha-L-furanose and beta-L-pyranose. PMID:8062287

  1. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by

  2. Pea-root exudates and their effect upon root-nodule bacteria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egeraat, van A.W.S.M.

    1972-01-01

    The main purpose of this investigation was to study the exudation (mechanism, sites) of various compounds by roots of pea seedlings in relation to the growth of Rhizobium leguminosarum.Chapter 1 gives a survey of the literature pertaining to plant-root exudates and their influence upon soil microorg

  3. The effects of cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuxiang WU; Weiping FANG; Shuijin ZHU; Kuiying JIN; Daofan JI

    2008-01-01

    The effects of upland cotton root exudates on the growth and development of Verticillium dahliae were studied, through the compared analysis of the root exudates components between the resistant and suscept-ive cotton materials, using a pair of resistant and sus-ceptive isogenic lines to Verticillium wilt, Z5629 and Z421, as well as 4 other upland cotton cultivars with different resistant levels of Verticillium wilt. The results showed that the amino acids in the root exudates of the resistant cultivars were much less than that of the sus-ceptible ones. Compared with the susceptible ones, there were a lack of aspartic acid, threonine, glutamic acid, alanine, isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, lysine and proline in the root exudates from the resistant cul-tivars. On the contrary, arginine was lacking in the sus-ceptive cultivars. The saccharide types in the root exudates were no different between the two kinds of cultivars, but the contents of glucose, fructose and suc-rose in the root exudates of the susceptible varieties were much higher than those in the resistant ones. The experiment of Verticillium dahliae culture showed that the cotton root exudates from resistant cultivars can effectively restrain the spore germination and mycelium growth of Verticillium dahliae, and the argi-nine was the leading amino acid in this inhibitory action, besides the nutrition of the root exudates. However, the cotton root exudates from the susceptive cotton cultivars can improve the growth and develop-ment of Verticillium dahliae effectively; among the amino acid in the exudates, alanine was the most active one in this stimulating function.

  4. COMPREHENSIVE CHEMICAL PROFILING OF GRAMINEOUS PLANT ROOT EXUDATES USING HIGH-RESOLUTION NMR AND MS. (R825433C007)

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    Root exudates released into soil have important functions in mobilizing metal micronutrients and for causing selective enrichment of plant beneficial soil micro-organisms that colonize the rhizosphere. Analysis of plant root exudates typically has involved chromatographic meth...

  5. Bioassay and Identification of Root Exudates of Three Fruit Tree Species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang-Hong Zhang; Zhi-Quan Mao; Li-Qin Wang; Huai-Rui Shu

    2007-01-01

    A laboratory bioassay was designed to determine the allelopathic potential of root exudates of three fruit tree species on apple germination. The results showed that root exudates of apple (Malus pumila L.) and peach (Prunus persica L.), each at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.2 mg/L, inhibited germination and radicle growth of apple seeds by 56.7%, 60.7%, 51.5%, and 59.3%, respectively. The corresponding shoot growth inhibition rate was 49.5%, 46.7%, 36.4%, and 44%, respectively. Root exudates of jujube (Ziziphus jujuba Mill.) had no significant effect on apple seeds.Qualitative determination of root exudates of apple, peach, and jujube tree was developed with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The root exudates of apple seedlings mainly contain organic acids, glycol, esters, and benzenphenol derivatives. Peach root exudates contained phenolic acids and benzenphenol derivatives in addition to two unidentified compounds. The root exudates of jujube did not contain any phenolic acids.

  6. The root exudation of grain amaranth and its role in release of mineral potassium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grain amaranth is a pseudo-cereal with big biomass and abundant mineral elements. The genotypic variations of Amaranthus spp. with different K-use efficiency (KUE) were studied in root exudation and the role of root exudate in solubilizing mineral K by use of hydroponics and 14C tracing technique. The results showed that high KUE varieties had strong ability of both CO2 assimilation and exudation of photosynthate. Predominate low-molecular-weight organic acids (IMWOAs) in root exudate of grain amaranth was oxalic acid, accounting for more than 95% of the total LMWOAs tested. Amaranthus spp. differed in the intensity of root exudation with an order as. A. dubis>A. retroflexus>A. cruentus. In the same species, then, high KUE varieties usually had higher power of excretion. K-free treatment promoted excretion of photosynthate, but oxalic acid increased only in high KUE varieties. The root exudate could solubilize K-minerals significantly, and the amount of oxalic acid and its K release were closely correlated, which indicated that oxalic acid exudation is one of the key mechanism for Amaranthus spp. to enrich and take up K from K-minerals

  7. Potential of Root Exudates from Wetland Plants and Their Potential Role for Denitrification and Allelopathic Interactions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhai, Xu

    Root exudates from wetland plants have both positive and negative interactions among microbe, plants and ecosystems. Wetland species releasing organic carbon into the rhizosphere for providing energy to denitrifying bacteria fuel denitrification for removal nitrogen in subsurface flow constructed...... wetlands. Furthermore, environmental factors such as temperature and light-regime affect the photosynthetic carbon fixation, which continuously influence the compositions and quantity of root exudates released into rhizosphere. Conversely, root exudates from invasive species might contain some phytotoxic...... chemicals to suppress the growth of native species. Phragmites australis is recognized as the most invasive species in wetland ecosystems in North America, and allelopathy has been reported to be involved in the invasion success of the introduced exotic P. australis. The composition of the root exudates may...

  8. Rheological Modeling and Characterization of Ficus platyphylla Gum Exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nnabuk O. Eddy

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ficus platyphylla gum exudates (FP gum have been analyzed for their physicochemical parameters and found to be ionic, mildly acidic, odourless, and yellowish brown in colour. The gum is soluble in water, sparingly soluble in ethanol, and insoluble in acetone and chloroform. The nitrogen (0.39% and protein (2.44% contents of the gum are relatively low. The concentrations of the cations were found to increase according to the following trend, Mn>Fe>Zn>Pb>Cu>Mg>Cd>Ca. Analysis of the FTIR spectrum of the gum revealed vibrations similar to those found in polysaccharides while the scanning electron micrograph indicated that the gum has irregular molecular shapes, arranged randomly. The intrinsic viscosity of FP gum estimated by extrapolating to zero concentrations in Huggins, Kraemer, Schulz-Blaschke, and Martin plots has an average value of 7 dL/g. From the plots of viscosity versus shear rate/speed of rotation and also that of shear stress versus shear rate, FP gum can be classified as a non-Newtonian gum with characteristics-plastic properties. Development of the Master_s curve for FP gum also indicated that the gum prefers to remain in a dilute domain (Cand indicated the presence of fewer inter- and intramolecular interactions.

  9. Effect of root exudates on sorption, desorption, and transport of phenanthrene in mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui; Lu, Haoliang; Dai, Minyue; Hong, Hualong; Liu, Jingchun; Yan, Chongling

    2016-08-15

    The effect of root exudates on the environmental behaviors of phenanthrene in mangrove sediments is poorly understood. In order to evaluate their influence, comprehensive laboratory experiments were performed using batch equilibrium and thin-layer chromatography (TLC) analyses. In the presence of root exudates, sorption of phenanthrene was inhibited, whereas desorption and mobility were promoted, and were elevated as root exudate concentrations increased. Among the three representative low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) (citric, oxalic, and acetic acids), citric acid promoted desorption and mobility of phenanthrene more effectively than the other two. In addition, application of artificial root exudates (AREs) enhanced phenanthrene desorption, and mobility was always lower than that with the same concentration of LMWOAs, suggesting that LMWOAs predominantly affected the fate of phenanthrene in sediments. The results of this study could enhance our understanding of the mobility of persistent organic pollutants in sediment-water system. PMID:27293074

  10. Atypical presentation of ocular toxoplasmosis: A Case report of exudative retinal detachment and choroidal Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yahya A Al-Zahrani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old healthy male presented with a chief complaint of blurred vision in the right eye for 1-week. Fundus examination indicated right exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia. The patient responded well to anti-toxoplasmosis medications and steroids. Exudative retinal detachment and choroidal ischemia are atypical presentations of ocular toxoplasmosis. However, both conditions responded well to anti.parasitic therapy with steroid.

  11. Citramalic acid and salicylic acid in sugar beet root exudates solubilize soil phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlovsky Petr

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In soils with a low phosphorus (P supply, sugar beet is known to intake more P than other species such as maize, wheat, or groundnut. We hypothesized that organic compounds exuded by sugar beet roots solubilize soil P and that this exudation is stimulated by P starvation. Results Root exudates were collected from plants grown in hydroponics under low- and high-P availability. Exudate components were separated by HPLC, ionized by electrospray, and detected by mass spectrometry in the range of mass-to-charge ratio (m/z from 100 to 1000. Eight mass spectrometric signals were enhanced at least 5-fold by low P availability at all harvest times. Among these signals, negative ions with an m/z of 137 and 147 were shown to originate from salicylic acid and citramalic acid. The ability of both compounds to mobilize soil P was demonstrated by incubation of pure substances with Oxisol soil fertilized with calcium phosphate. Conclusions Root exudates of sugar beet contain salicylic acid and citramalic acid, the latter of which has rarely been detected in plants so far. Both metabolites solubilize soil P and their exudation by roots is stimulated by P deficiency. These results provide the first assignment of a biological function to citramalic acid of plant origin.

  12. Stress differentially impacts reserve pools and root exudation: implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landhäusser, Simon; Karst, Justine; Wiley, Erin; Gaster, Jacob

    2016-04-01

    Environmental stress can influence carbon assimilation and the accumulation and distribution of carbon between growth, reserves, and exudation; however, it is unclear how these processes vary by different stress types. Partitioning of carbon to growth and reserves in plants might also vary between different organs. Roots reserves are of particular interest as they link the plant with the soil carbon cycle through exudation. Simple models of diffusion across concentration gradients predict the more C reserves in roots, the more C should be exuded from roots. However, the mechanisms underlying the accumulation and loss of C from roots may differ depending on the stress experienced by the plants. In a controlled study we tested whether different types of stresses (shade, cold soil, and drought) have differential effects on the distribution, abundance, and form (sugar vs. starch) of carbohydrates in seedlings, and whether these changes alone could explain differences in root exudation between stress types. Non-structural carbohydrate (NSC) concentration and pool sizes varied by stress type and between organs. Mass-specific C exudation increased with fine root sugar concentration; however, stress type affected exudation independently of reserve concentration. Seedlings exposed to cold soils exuded the most C on a per root mass basis followed by shade and drought. Through 13C labeling, we also found that depending on the stress type, aspen seedlings may be less able to control the loss of C to the soil compared with unstressed seedlings, resulting in more C leaked to the rhizosphere. The loss of C beyond that predicted by simple concentration gradients might have important implications for ecosystem functioning and carbon balance. If stressed plants lose proportionally more carbon to the soil, existing interactions between plants and soils may decouple under stress, and may include unexpected C fluxes between trees, soils and the atmosphere with a changing climate.

  13. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol, respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones and plant exudates (including ethanol in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF, adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss, to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU. Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization, which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction.

  14. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Manuella Nóbrega; Bogas, Andrea Cristina; Pomini, Armando M; Andreote, Fernando Dini; Quecine, Maria Carolina; Marsaioli, Anita J; Araújo, Welington Luiz

    2013-12-01

    Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and methanol), respectively. In this context, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of quorum sensing molecules (N-acyl-homoserine lactones) and plant exudates (including ethanol) in the expression of a series of bacterial genes involved in Methylobacterium-plant interaction. The selected genes are related to bacterial metabolism (mxaF), adaptation to stressful environment (crtI, phoU and sss), to interactions with plant metabolism compounds (acdS) and pathogenicity (patatin and phoU). Under in vitro conditions, our results showed the differential expression of some important genes related to metabolism, stress and pathogenesis, thereby AHL molecules up-regulate all tested genes, except phoU, while plant exudates induce only mxaF gene expression. In the presence of plant exudates there is a lower bacterial density (due the endophytic and epiphytic colonization), which produce less AHL, leading to down regulation of genes when compared to the control. Therefore, bacterial density, more than plant exudate, influences the expression of genes related to plant-bacteria interaction. PMID:24688531

  15. Organic acid exudation from the roots of Cunninghamia lanceolata and Pinus massoniana seedlings under low phosphorus stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuanchun YU; Jian YU; Qihua SHAN; Li FANG; Defeng JIANG

    2008-01-01

    Organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir (Cunninghamia lanceolata) and Masson pine (Pinus massoniana) seedlings under low phosphorus stress was studied using the solution culture method. The results revealed that organic acid exudation from the roots of Chinese fir and Masson pine seedlings under low phosphorus stress increased. Compared with P3 (KH2PO4, 0.5 mmol/L), the average organic acid exuda-tion from the root of Masson pine seedlings under P0 (KH2PO4, 0 mmol/L), P1 (KH2PO4, 0.03 mmol/L) and P2(KH2PO4, 0.09 mmol/L) increased by 328.6%, 267.9% and 126.4% respectively. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province in China had the highest organic acid exuda-tion. Under low phosphorus stress, the increase in organic acid exudation from the different provinces of Chinese fir and Masson pine varied. Masson pine from Zhejiang Province mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid, citric acid and malic acid exudation, that from Guangxi Province mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation, and that from Guizhou Province, China mainly increased oxalic acid, tartaric acid and malic acid exudation. Chinese fir mainly increased oxalic acid and tartaric acid exudation.

  16. Natural variation of root exudates in Arabidopsis thaliana-linking metabolomic and genomic data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mönchgesang, Susann; Strehmel, Nadine; Schmidt, Stephan; Westphal, Lore; Taruttis, Franziska; Müller, Erik; Herklotz, Siska; Neumann, Steffen; Scheel, Dierk

    2016-01-01

    Many metabolomics studies focus on aboveground parts of the plant, while metabolism within roots and the chemical composition of the rhizosphere, as influenced by exudation, are not deeply investigated. In this study, we analysed exudate metabolic patterns of Arabidopsis thaliana and their variation in genetically diverse accessions. For this project, we used the 19 parental accessions of the Arabidopsis MAGIC collection. Plants were grown in a hydroponic system, their exudates were harvested before bolting and subjected to UPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS analysis. Metabolite profiles were analysed together with the genome sequence information. Our study uncovered distinct metabolite profiles for root exudates of the 19 accessions. Hierarchical clustering revealed similarities in the exudate metabolite profiles, which were partly reflected by the genetic distances. An association of metabolite absence with nonsense mutations was detected for the biosynthetic pathways of an indolic glucosinolate hydrolysis product, a hydroxycinnamic acid amine and a flavonoid triglycoside. Consequently, a direct link between metabolic phenotype and genotype was detected without using segregating populations. Moreover, genomics can help to identify biosynthetic enzymes in metabolomics experiments. Our study elucidates the chemical composition of the rhizosphere and its natural variation in A. thaliana, which is important for the attraction and shaping of microbial communities. PMID:27363486

  17. Stoichiometry constrains microbial response to root exudation- insights from a model and a field experiment in a temperate forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. E. Drake

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Plant roots release a wide range of chemicals into soils. This process, termed root exudation, is thought to increase the activity of microbes and the exoenzymes they synthesize, leading to accelerated rates of carbon (C mineralization and nutrient cycling in rhizosphere soils relative to bulk soils. The nitrogen (N content of microbial biomass and exoenzymes may introduce a stoichiometric constraint on the ability of microbes to effectively utilize the root exudates, particularly if the exudates are rich in C but low in N. We combined a theoretical model of microbial activity with an exudation experiment to test the hypothesis that the ability of soil microbes to utilize root exudates for the synthesis of additional biomass and exoenzymes is constrained by N availability. The field experiment simulated exudation by automatically pumping solutions of chemicals often found in root exudates ("exudate mimics" containing C alone or C in combination with N (C : N ratio of 10 through microlysimeter "root simulators" into intact forest soils in two 50-day experiments. The delivery of C-only exudate mimics increased microbial respiration but had no effect on microbial biomass or exoenzyme activities. By contrast, experimental delivery of exudate mimics containing both C and N significantly increased microbial respiration, microbial biomass, and the activity of exoenzymes that decompose low molecular weight components of soil organic matter (SOM, e.g., cellulose, amino sugars, while decreasing the activity of exoenzymes that degrade high molecular weight SOM (e.g., polyphenols, lignin. The modeling results were consistent with the experiments; simulated delivery of C-only exudates induced microbial N-limitation, which constrained the synthesis of microbial biomass and exoenzymes. Exuding N as well as C alleviated this stoichiometric constraint in the model, allowing for increased exoenzyme production, the priming of decomposition, and a net release of N

  18. Effects of maize root exudates and organic acids on the desorption of phenanthrene from soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Yanhong; ZHANG Shuzhen; HUANG Honglin; WEN Bei

    2009-01-01

    The effects of maize root exudates and low-molecular-weight-organic anions (LMWOAs) on the desorption of phenanthrene from eight artificially contaminated soils were evaluated. A significant negative correlation was observed between the amounts of phenanthrene desorbed and the soil organic carbon (SOC) contents (P0.1). Neither maize root exudates nor oxalate and citrate anions influenced desorption of phenanthrene with the addition of NAN3. A faster phenanthrene desorption occurred without the addition of NaN3 in the presence of maize root exudates than oxalate or citrate due to the enhanced degradation by root exudates. Without the addition of NaN3, oxalate or citrate at different concentrations could inhibit phenanthrene desorption to different extents and the inhibiting effect by citrate was more significant than by oxalate. This study leads to the conclusion that maize root exudates can not enhance the desorption under abiotic condition with the addition of NaN3 and can promote the desorption of phenanthrene in soils without the addition of NAN3.

  19. Two cases of exudative retina detachment and uveitis following H1N1 influenza vaccination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAO Yong; CHANG Li-bing; ZHAO Min; LI Xiao-xin

    2011-01-01

    Uveitis was a rare adverse event of vaccination.We met two cases of acute uveitis with exudative retinal detachment following vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Case 1 was a 10-year-old boy who was admitted for bilateral blurred vision at 10 days after vaccination of H1N1 influenza.Vitreous opacity was obvious in both eyes.Broad exudative retinal detachment was observed in the right eye.Case 2 was a 47-year-old female who suffered from an acute high fever at 2 days after the vaccination of H1 N1 influenza.Later,she encountered bilateral headache and decreasing vision.In both eyes,mutton fat keratic precipitates,positive Tyndall phenomenon,congestion of optic disc and exudative retinal detachment were observed.

  20. Root exudates drive interspecific facilitation by enhancing nodulation and N2 fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bai; Li, Yu-Ying; Wu, Hua-Mao; Zhang, Fang-Fang; Li, Chun-Jie; Li, Xue-Xian; Lambers, Hans; Li, Long

    2016-06-01

    Plant diversity in experimental systems often enhances ecosystem productivity, but the mechanisms causing this overyielding are only partly understood. Intercropping faba beans (Vicia faba L.) and maize (Zea mays L.) result in overyielding and also, enhanced nodulation by faba beans. By using permeable and impermeable root barriers in a 2-y field experiment, we show that root-root interactions between faba bean and maize significantly increase both nodulation and symbiotic N2 fixation in intercropped faba bean. Furthermore, root exudates from maize promote faba bean nodulation, whereas root exudates from wheat and barley do not. Thus, a decline of soil nitrate concentrations caused by intercropped cereals is not the sole mechanism for maize promoting faba bean nodulation. Intercropped maize also caused a twofold increase in exudation of flavonoids (signaling compounds for rhizobia) in the systems. Roots of faba bean treated with maize root exudates exhibited an immediate 11-fold increase in the expression of chalcone-flavanone isomerase (involved in flavonoid synthesis) gene together with a significantly increased expression of genes mediating nodulation and auxin response. After 35 d, faba beans treated with maize root exudate continued to show up-regulation of key nodulation genes, such as early nodulin 93 (ENOD93), and promoted nitrogen fixation. Our results reveal a mechanism for how intercropped maize promotes nitrogen fixation of faba bean, where maize root exudates promote flavonoid synthesis in faba bean, increase nodulation, and stimulate nitrogen fixation after enhanced gene expression. These results indicate facilitative root-root interactions and provide a mechanism for a positive relationship between species diversity and ecosystem productivity. PMID:27217575

  1. Influence of coral and algal exudates on microbially mediated reef metabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas F. Haas

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Benthic primary producers in tropical reef ecosystems can alter biogeochemical cycling and microbial processes in the surrounding seawater. In order to quantify these influences, we measured rates of photosynthesis, respiration, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC exudate release by the dominant benthic primary producers (calcifying and non-calcifying macroalgae, turf-algae and corals on reefs of Mo‘orea French Polynesia. Subsequently, we examined planktonic and benthic microbial community response to these dissolved exudates by measuring bacterial growth rates and oxygen and DOC fluxes in dark and daylight incubation experiments. All benthic primary producers exuded significant quantities of DOC (roughly 10% of their daily fixed carbon into the surrounding water over a diurnal cycle. The microbial community responses were dependent upon the source of the exudates and whether the inoculum of microbes included planktonic or planktonic plus benthic communities. The planktonic and benthic microbial communities in the unamended control treatments exhibited opposing influences on DO concentration where respiration dominated in treatments comprised solely of plankton and autotrophy dominated in treatments with benthic plus plankon microbial communities. Coral exudates (and associated inorganic nutrients caused a shift towards a net autotrophic microbial metabolism by increasing the net production of oxygen by the benthic and decreasing the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community. In contrast, the addition of algal exudates decreased the net primary production by the benthic communities and increased the net consumption of oxygen by the planktonic microbial community thereby resulting in a shift towards net heterotrophic community metabolism. When scaled up to the reef habitat, exudate-induced effects on microbial respiration did not outweigh the high oxygen production rates of benthic algae, such that reef areas dominated with

  2. Bioavailability of zinc and phosphorus in calcareous soils as affected by citrate exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Duffner, A.; Hoffland, E.; Temminghoff, E. J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Aims Zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) deficiency often occurs at the same time and limits crop production in many soils. It has been suggested that citrate root exudation is a response of plants to both deficiencies. We used white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as a model plant to clarify if citrate exuded by roots could increase the bioavailability of Zn and P in calcareous soils. Methods White lupin was grown in nutrient solution and in two calcareous soils in a rhizobox. Rhizosphere soil solution wa...

  3. How far roots and exudates can transform the soil structure and porosity?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johannes, Alice; Kohler-Milleret, Roxane; Lamy, Frédéric; Boivin, Pascal

    2014-05-01

    Aims The impact of plant-roots on soil physical porosity and structure is still to be deciphered. Recent results revealed root-induced increases in soil pore volume whose magnitude could not be attributed to root-drilling effect, thus suggesting an indirect effect via microbial activity enhanced by root exudates (Milleret et al., 2009, Kholer-Milleret et al., 2013). This is discussed in the present study by quantifying the soil hydro-structural changes induced by root exudates and microorganisms in the absence of roots. Methods The experiment was performed on series of structured repacked samples from two soils previously experimented with plants in mesocosms (Anthrosol and Luvisol). The samples received a daily input of artificial root exudates for three months. The soil structural changes were then assessed using shrinkage analysis and aggregate stability test. Microbial activity was measured with CO2 emanation. Results In agreement with previous findings, root exudates increased microbial activity and aggregate stability. Oppositely, the observed structural changes were contradictory both in magnitude and pattern with those observed in the presence of plant roots. The soil bulk porosity was almost not changed while the small-diameter structural porosity was decreased in the presence of root exudates. Moreover, the hydro-structural stability of the soil decreased while the aggregate stability increased. Conclusions Though the structural changes observed in the presence of roots cannot be attributed to direct root drilling effect, they are not observed when only root exudates are delivered to the soil. Our results suggest that the soil structure is engineered by a complex soil-plant-microbe interaction combining root mechanical effect and micro-aggregate stabilisation effect. Cumulative structural pore volume increase could result from aggregates rearrangements induced by root growth, either by drilling or lever effect, further stabilized by microorganism

  4. Clover root exudate produces male-biased sex ratios and accelerates male metamorphic timing in wood frogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, Max R

    2015-12-01

    In amphibians, abnormal metamorph sex ratios and sexual development have almost exclusively been considered in response to synthetic compounds like pesticides or pharmaceuticals. However, endocrine-active plant chemicals (i.e. phytoestrogens) are commonly found in agricultural and urban waterways hosting frog populations with deviant sexual development. Yet the effects of these compounds on amphibian development remain predominantly unexplored. Legumes, like clover, are common in agricultural fields and urban yards and exude phytoestrogen mixtures from their roots. These root exudates serve important ecological functions and may also be a source of phytoestrogens in waterways. I show that clover root exudate produces male-biased sex ratios and accelerates male metamorphosis relative to females in low and intermediate doses of root exudate. My results indicate that root exudates are a potential source of contaminants impacting vertebrate development and that humans may be cultivating sexual abnormalities in wildlife by actively managing certain plant species. PMID:27019728

  5. Lactoferrin, myeloperoxidase, lysozyme and eosinophil cationic protein in exudate in delayed type hypersensitivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Christensen, J D;

    1988-01-01

    allergic patients with nickel challenge in the chamber medium showed a time-dependent increase of mononuclear cells, eosinophils and basophils and a concomitant decrease of polymorphonuclear granulocytes, characteristic of a combined specific and unspecific inflammation. The morphology of the exudate...

  6. Changes of organic acid exudation and rhizosphere pH in rice plants under chromium stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chromium (Cr) stress on the changes of rhizosphere pH, organic acid exudation, and Cr accumulation in plants was studied using two rice genotypes differing in grain Cr accumulation. The results showed that rhizosphere pH increased with increasing level of Cr in the culture solution and with an extended time of Cr exposure. Among the six organic acids examined in this experiment, oxalic and malic acid contents were relatively higher, and had a significant positive correlation with the rhizosphere pH, indicating that they play an important role in changing rhizosphere pH. The Cr content in roots was significantly higher than that in stems and leaves. Cr accumulation in plants was significantly and positively correlated with rhizosphere pH, and the exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acids, suggesting that an increase in rhizosphere pH, and exudation of oxalic, malic and citric acid enhances Cr accumulation in rice plants. - Rhizosphere pH and organic acid exudation of rice roots are markedly affected by chromium level in culture solution

  7. Decision support system for the detection and grading of hard exudates from color fundus photographs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaafar, Hussain F.; Nandi, Asoke K.; Al-Nuaimy, Waleed

    2011-11-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is a major cause of blindness, and its earliest signs include damage to the blood vessels and the formation of lesions in the retina. Automated detection and grading of hard exudates from the color fundus image is a critical step in the automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy. We propose novel methods for the detection and grading of hard exudates and the main retinal structures. For exudate detection, a novel approach based on coarse-to-fine strategy and a new image-splitting method are proposed with overall sensitivity of 93.2% and positive predictive value of 83.7% at the pixel level. The average sensitivity of the blood vessel detection is 85%, and the success rate of fovea localization is 100%. For exudate grading, a polar fovea coordinate system is adopted in accordance with medical criteria. Because of its competitive performance and ability to deal efficiently with images of variable quality, the proposed technique offers promising and efficient performance as part of an automated screening system for diabetic retinopathy.

  8. Oxalate and root exudates enhance the desorption of p,p'-DDT from soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Lei; Zhang, Shuzhen; Shan, Xiao-Quan; Zhu, Yong-Guan

    2006-05-01

    The abiotic desorption of p,p'-DDT from seven Chinese soils spiked with p,p'-DDT and the effects of oxalate at 0.001-0.1M and the root exudates of maize, wheat, and ryegrass were evaluated using batch experiments. Soil organic carbon played a predominant role in the retention of DDT. Oxalate significantly increased the desorption of p,p'-DDT, with the largest increments ranging from 11% to 54% for different soils. Oxalate addition also resulted in the increased release of dissolved organic carbon and inorganic ions from soils. Root exudates had similar effects to those of oxalate. Root exudates significantly increased DDT desorption from the soils, and the general trend was similar among the plant species studied for all the soils (p > 0.05). Low molecular weight dissolved organic carbon amendments caused partial dissolution of the soil structure, such as the organo-mineral linkages, resulting in the release of organic carbon and metal ions and thus the subsequent enhanced desorption of DDT from the soils. The enhancing effects of oxalate and root exudates on DDT desorption were influenced by the contents of soil organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon in soils. PMID:16307790

  9. Organic anion exudation by lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) at zinc and phosphorus deficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoffland, E.; Wei, C.Z.; Wissuwa, M.

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of this paper were to determine (1) if lowland rice (Oryza sativa L.) plants respond similarly to low zinc (Zn) and phosphorus (P) availability by increased root exudation of low-molecular weight organic anions (LMWOAs) and (2) if genotypic variation in tolerance to low soil supply of

  10. Plant root exudates mediate neighbour recognition and trigger complex behavioural changes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semchenko, Marina; Saar, Sirgi; Lepik, Anu

    2014-11-01

    Some plant species are able to distinguish between neighbours of different genetic identity and attempt to pre-empt resources through root proliferation in the presence of unrelated competitors, but avoid competition with kin. However, studies on neighbour recognition have met with some scepticism because the mechanisms by which plants identify their neighbours have remained unclear. In order to test whether root exudates could mediate neighbour recognition in plants, we performed a glasshouse experiment in which plants of Deschampsia caespitosa were subjected to root exudates collected from potential neighbours of different genetic identities, including siblings and individuals belonging to the same or a different population or species. Our results show that root exudates can carry specific information about the genetic relatedness, population origin and species identity of neighbours, and trigger different responses at the whole root system level and at the level of individual roots in direct contact with locally applied exudates. Increased root density was mainly achieved through changes in morphology rather than biomass allocation, suggesting that plants are able to limit the energetic cost of selfish behaviour. This study reveals a new level of complexity in the ability of plants to interpret and react to their surroundings.

  11. Influence of aluminum on growth, mineral nutrition and organic acid exudation of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    A randomized complete block design experiment with six aluminum (Al) concentrations was carried out to evaluate the effect of aluminum on nutrient content, plant growth, dry matter production and Al-induced organic acid exudation in rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum). One rambutan cultivar was grown in...

  12. Mapping Soil Carbon from Cradle to Grave: C Transformations of Root Exudates and Plant Litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pett-Ridge, J.; Keiluweit, M.; Nuccio, E.; Bougoure, J.; Weber, P. K.; Brodie, E.; Mayali, X.; Shi, S.; Hwang, M.; Thelen, M.; Firestone, M.; Kleber, M.; Nico, P. S.

    2013-12-01

    Carbon cycling in the rhizosphere is a nexus of biophysical interactions between plant roots, microorganisms, and the soil organo-mineral matrix. Plant roots provide 30-40% of soil organic C inputs, accelerate the rate of organic matter mineralization by ~10X, and support an active microhabitat for microbial transformation of soil C. Our research on how roots influence decomposition of soil organic matter in both simplified and complex microcosms uses geochemical characterization, molecular microbiology, isotope tracing, metabolomics and novel imaging approaches (';ChipSIP' and ';STXM-SIMS') to trace the fate of isotopically labelled root exudates and plant tissues. Our previous work suggests root exudates drive O2 limitation, alter metal chemistry and mineralogy, and influence the availability of SOM. Our most recent experiments using synthetic rhizospheres were designed to identify the role of root exudates on ligno-cellulose decomposition in soils. Cultures of 13C/15N-labeled single plant cells (lignin-rich tracheary elements) were added to rhizosphere microcosm soils, and their decomposition followed under the influence of different root exudates using the dual imaging approach ';STXM-SIMS'. Using this combination of X-ray spectromicroscopy and NanoSIMS, we imaged the deconstruction of 13C/15N-labeled ligno-cellulose in situ, and mapped associations of plant cell-derived decomposition products with specific soil minerals. We've also looked at microbial community function in the more complex rhizospheres surrounding roots of the annual grass Avena fatua. Using an isotope array that allows us to follow root C into bacterial, fungal, and microfaunal communities, we tracked the movement of 13C from labeled exudates and 15N from labeled root litter into the soil microbial community. Our results indicate that the microbial communities involved in litter decomposition differ in rhizosphere versus bulk soils, which may have implications for carbon stabilization in soil.

  13. Species-dependent effects of border cell and root tip exudates on nematode behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, X; Schmitt, M; Hawes, M C

    2000-11-01

    ABSTRACT Effects of border cell and root tip exudates on root knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita) behavior were examined. In whole-plant assays using pea, M. incognita second-stage juveniles (J2) accumulated rapidly around the 1- to 2-mm apical region ensheathed by border cells, but not in the region of elongation. Within 15 to 30 min, J2 which had accumulated within detached clumps of border cells lost motility and entered into a quiescent state. When border cells (and associated root tip exudates) were washed from pea roots prior to challenge with nematodes, no such accumulation and quiescence was induced. Attraction of nematodes by roots was species dependent: no attraction or accumulation occurred in snap bean. Using a quantitative assay, three categories of chemotaxis responses occurred: attraction (pea and alfalfa cv. Thor), repulsion (alfalfa cv. Moapa 69), and no response (snap bean and alfalfa cv. Lahonton). In contrast, total root tip exudates from all three plant species acted as a repellent for M. incognita in the sand assay. An in vitro assay was developed to characterize the induced quiescence response. When total root tip exudate from the tested legumes (as well as corn) was incubated with J2 populations, >80% of the nematodes lost motility. A similar response occurred in Caenorhabditis elegans. Border cell exudates did not induce or contribute to the induction of quiescence. Cocultivation of pea border cells with M. incognita resulted in changes in border cell shape similar to those observed in response to exogenous plant hormones. No such changes occurred in snap bean border cells. Understanding the cell- and host-specific extracellular recognition that occurs between roots and pathogenic nematodes in the early stages before infection occurs could lead to new avenues for disease control.

  14. Vitamin D nutritional status and vitamin D regulated antimicrobial peptides in serum and pleural fluid of patients with infectious and noninfectious pleural effusions

    OpenAIRE

    Amado, Carlos A.; García-Unzueta, María T; Fariñas, M. Carmen; Santos, Francisca; Ortiz, María; Muñoz-Cacho, Pedro; Amado, José A

    2016-01-01

    Background Vitamin D and vitamin D dependent antimicrobial peptides such as Cathelicidin (LL-37) and β-defensin 2 have an important role in innate and adaptative immunity, but their role in pleural effusions has not been studied before. Methods Serum and pleural fluid samples from 152 patients with pleural effusion were collected, corresponding to 45 transudates and 107 exudates, 51 infectious effusions (14 complicated and 37 non-complicated), 44 congestive heart failure effusions and 38 mali...

  15. Root exudation of phytochemicals in Arabidopsis follows specific patterns that are developmentally programmed and correlate with soil microbial functions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacqueline M Chaparro

    Full Text Available Plant roots constantly secrete compounds into the soil to interact with neighboring organisms presumably to gain certain functional advantages at different stages of development. Accordingly, it has been hypothesized that the phytochemical composition present in the root exudates changes over the course of the lifespan of a plant. Here, root exudates of in vitro grown Arabidopsis plants were collected at different developmental stages and analyzed using GC-MS. Principle component analysis revealed that the composition of root exudates varied at each developmental stage. Cumulative secretion levels of sugars and sugar alcohols were higher in early time points and decreased through development. In contrast, the cumulative secretion levels of amino acids and phenolics increased over time. The expression in roots of genes involved in biosynthesis and transportation of compounds represented in the root exudates were consistent with patterns of root exudation. Correlation analyses were performed of the in vitro root exudation patterns with the functional capacity of the rhizosphere microbiome to metabolize these compounds at different developmental stages of Arabidopsis grown in natural soils. Pyrosequencing of rhizosphere mRNA revealed strong correlations (p<0.05 between microbial functional genes involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates, amino acids and secondary metabolites with the corresponding compounds released by the roots at particular stages of plant development. In summary, our results suggest that the root exudation process of phytochemicals follows a developmental pattern that is genetically programmed.

  16. Effects of root exudates on the leachability, distribution, and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene from mangrove sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Hui; Lu, Haoliang; Liu, Jingchun; Li, Jian; Dai, Minyue; Yan, Chongling

    2016-03-01

    In this study, column leaching experiments were used to evaluate the leachability, distribution and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene by root exudates from contaminated mangrove sediments. We observed that root exudates significantly promoted the release and enhanced the bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene from sediment columns. The concentration of phenanthrene and pyrene and cumulative content released from the analyzed sediment samples following root exudate rinsing decreased in the following order: citric acid > oxalic acid > malic acid. After elution, the total concentrations of phenanthrene and pyrene in sediment layers followed a descending order of bottom (9-12 cm) > middle (5-7 cm) > top (0-3 cm). Furthermore, a positive correlation between leachate pH values and PAH concentrations of the leachate was found. Consequently, the addition of root exudates can increase the leachability and bioavailability of phenanthrene and pyrene. PMID:26573317

  17. Management of Pleural Effusion, Empyema, and Lung Abscess

    OpenAIRE

    Yu, Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Pleural effusion is an accumulation of fluid in the pleural space that is classified as transudate or exudate according to its composition and underlying pathophysiology. Empyema is defined by purulent fluid collection in the pleural space, which is most commonly caused by pneumonia. A lung abscess, on the other hand, is a parenchymal necrosis with confined cavitation that results from a pulmonary infection. Pleural effusion, empyema, and lung abscess are commonly encountered clinical problem...

  18. [Regulation effects of grafting on cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplant root exudates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shao-li; Zhou, Bao-li; Wang, Ru-hua; Fu, Ya-wen

    2008-11-01

    Cinnamic acid and vanillin are the allelochemicals commonly existed in eggplant root exudates. With pot culture experiment, the regulation effects of grafting on the cinnamic acid and vanillin in eggplant root exudates were studied, and the results showed that grafting decreased the amount of the two substances, especially of vanillin, in eggplants root system. The maximum reduction amount of cinnamic acid reached 68.96%, and that of vanillin reached 100%. Under the stress of exotic cinnamic acid and vanillin, especially of exotic cinnamic acid, grafting relieved the autotoxicity of the two substances on eggplants. Compared with own-rooted eggplant, grafted eggplant had a higher plant height and a larger stem diameter, its leaf chlorophyll content increased by 5.26%-13.12%, root electric conductivity and MDA content decreased, and root SOD activity enhanced.

  19. Micropropagation and Phenolic exudation protocol for Excoecaria agallocha-an important mangrove

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Manickam Arumugam; Rajaram Panneerselvam

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To develop a standard micropropagation protocol for an important vulnerable mangrove Excoecaria agallocha. Methods: Collection of explants, surface sterilization, phenolic exudation and medium was standardized. Shoot induction, shoot multiplication and rooting were carried out in MMS medium supplemented with BAP, Kinetin, Zeatin, 2ip, NAA, IAA and IBA. Hardening was carried out after root well established. Results: The best phenolic exudation removal was resulted in 4 g/L activated charcoal. The maximum shoot induction response showed in MMS medium and better shoot induction was performed in the concentration of BAP (3.9 μmol) and NAA (1.34 μmol). Rooting induction was performed high range at 5.02 μmol of IAA. Well rooted micro-shoots were hardened and acclimatized. Conclusions: From the present investigation, it can be concluded that a standard micropropagation protocol was developed for an important vulnerable mangrove species.

  20. Effect of soil water content on spatial distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Kuzyakov, Yakov; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Water and nutrients are expected to become the major factors limiting food production. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to these limited soil resources. Low molecular root exudates released into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. However, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was therefore to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging at different levels of water stress. Maize plants were grown in rhizotrons filled with a silty soil and were exposed to varying soil conditions, from optimal to dry. Mucilage distribution around the roots was estimated from the profiles of water content in the rhizosphere - note that mucilage increases the soil water content. The profiles of water content around different root types and root ages were measured with neutron radiography. Rhizosphere extension was approx. 0.7 mm and did not differ between wet and dry treatments. However, water content (i.e. mucilage concentration) in the rhizosphere of plants grown in dry soils was higher than for plants grown under optimal conditions. This effect was particularly pronounced near the tips of lateral roots. The higher water contents near the root are explained as the water retained by mucilage. 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) was used to estimate the distribution of all rhizodeposits. Two days after labelling, 14C distribution was measured using phosphor-imaging. To quantify 14C in the rhizosphere a calibration was carried out by adding given amounts of 14C-glucose to soil. Plants grown in wet soil transported a higher percentage of 14C to the roots (14Croot/14Cshoot), compared to plants grown under dry conditions (46 vs. 36 %). However, the percentage of 14C allocated from roots to

  1. Methylobacterium-plant interaction genes regulated by plant exudate and quorum sensing molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Manuella Nóbrega Dourado; Andrea Cristina Bogas; Pomini, Armando M.; Fernando Dini Andreote; Maria Carolina Quecine; Marsaioli, Anita J.; Welington Luiz Araújo

    2013-01-01

    Bacteria from the genus Methylobacterium interact symbiotically (endophytically and epiphytically) with different plant species. These interactions can promote plant growth or induce systemic resistance, increasing plant fitness. The plant colonization is guided by molecular communication between bacteria-bacteria and bacteria-plants, where the bacteria recognize specific exuded compounds by other bacteria (e.g. homoserine molecules) and/or by the plant roots (e.g. flavonoids, ethanol and met...

  2. Roles of antibody and complement in the bactericidal activity of mouse peritoneal exudate neutrophils.

    OpenAIRE

    Hart, P. H.; Spencer, L. K.; Hill, N L; McDonald, P J; Finlay-Jones, J. J.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions of complement and antibody to phagocytosis and, as a separate process, intracellular killing of Proteus mirabilis, were investigated using mouse peritoneal exudate neutrophils. Phagocytosis of P. mirabilis was promoted by both immune mouse (IMS) and normal mouse (NMS) sera. Opsonization by IMS promoted significantly greater phagocytosis than did NMS, as did NMS compared with heated IMS (HIMS). The ability of NMS to opsonize P. mirabilis for both phagocytosis and phagocytic k...

  3. Sesquiterpenoids from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha and their neuroprotective effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Li, Yushan; Zhao, Peng; Liu, Cuizhou; Ma, Yonggang; Gao, Jie; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2011-12-01

    Ten new furanosesquiterpenoids, myrrhterpenoids A-J (1- 10), together with eight known analogues (11- 18), were isolated from the resinous exudates of COMMIPHORA MYRRHA. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR) and by the ChemDraw 3D modeling using MM2. All isolated furanosesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP (+)-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  4. Differing Organic Acid Exudation Pattern Explains Calcifuge and Acidifuge Behaviour of Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Tyler, Germund; Ström, Lena

    1995-01-01

    Many vascular plant species are unable to colonize calcareous sites. Thus, the floristic composition of adjacent limestone and acid silicate soils differs greatly. The inability of calcifuge plants to establish in limestone sites seems related to a low capacity of such plants to solubilize and absorb Fe or phosphate from these soils. Until now, mechanisms regulating this differing ability of plants to colonize limestone sites have not been elucidated. We propose that contrasting exudation of ...

  5. Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats

    OpenAIRE

    R Nanthakumar; Ambrose S Stephen; E Sriram; Babu, G.; K Chitra; C Uma maheswara Reddy

    2009-01-01

    Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspir...

  6. Disentangling the rhizosphere effect on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers: insight into the role of root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, S; Texier, S; Hallet, S; Bru, D; Dambreville, C; Chèneby, D; Bizouard, F; Germon, J C; Philippot, L

    2008-11-01

    To determine to which extent root-derived carbon contributes to the effects of plants on nitrate reducers and denitrifiers, four solutions containing different proportions of sugar, organic acids and amino acids mimicking maize root exudates were added daily to soil microcosms at a concentration of 150 microg C g(-1) of soil. Water-amended soils were used as controls. After 1 month, the size and structure of the nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities were analysed using the narG and napA, and the nirK, nirS and nosZ genes as molecular markers respectively. Addition of artificial root exudates (ARE) did not strongly affect the structure or the density of nitrate reducer and denitrifier communities whereas potential nitrate reductase and denitrification activities were stimulated by the addition of root exudates. An effect of ARE composition was also observed on N(2)O production with an N(2)O:(N(2)O + N(2)) ratio of 0.3 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 80% of sugar and of 1 in microcosms amended with ARE containing 40% of sugar. Our study indicated that ARE stimulated nitrate reduction or denitrification activity with increases in the range of those observed with the whole plant. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the composition of the ARE affected the nature of the end-product of denitrification and could thus have a putative impact on greenhouse gas emissions.

  7. The Extraction, Isolation and Identiifcation of Exudates from the Roots of Flaveria bidentis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHANG Li-hui; SHI Cui-ping; SHANG Yan; ZHANG Jin-lin; HAN Jian-min; DONG Jin-gao

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of Flaveria bidentis’s root culturing solution were obtained by using DFT (deep lfow technique) equipment and these solution which was vacuum concentrated (10, 20 mg mL-1) can have a certain inhibition on Triticum aestivum, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Amaranthus retrolfexus, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crusgalli and Chloris virgata. This outcome suggested some active compounds in the root exudates of Flaveria bidentis can inhibit the germination, seedling elongation and root length. The dichloromethane extract of root exudates was identiifcated by GC-MS, and 29 kinds of compounds, including esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, thiazole, amines, etc. were obtained and the phthalate n-octyl ester, phthalate 2-ethylhexyl ester were proved to be allelochemicals. The culturing solution of root exudates was separated through the resin column and silica gel column and a component inhibiting seedling height, root length and fresh weight of wheat was got. There were 6 kinds of organic compounds in this component including dioctyl phthalate, 1,2-phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester by GC-MS.

  8. Phytochemical screening of the exudate of Aloe otallensis and its effect on Leishmania donovani

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zerihun Tesfaye Nigusse

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis (A. otallensis on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani as compared to standard drugs and to screen its phytochemical constituents. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done by using the method mentioned by Evans and Trease on methanolic extract of the exudates of Aloe otallensis leaves. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donavani which is found from the Parasitology Unit of Black Lion Hospital. The result was compared to standard drugs of sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin. Results: The extract has a good antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.1230 μg/mL on L. donovani (AM 563. The experimental data showed that relatively it had better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses were done by GraphPad Prism version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of A. otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the exudates of A. otallensis has a good antileishmaniasis activity and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent presents in high concentration to know which one has the strongest effect.

  9. Phytochemical screening of the exudate of Aloe otallensis and its effect on Leishmania donovani

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zerihun Tesfaye Nigusse; WoldeaAbebe Wondifraw; Sefinew MigbaruAbate

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antileishmanial activity of methanolic extract of Aloe otallensis (A. otallensis) on the promastigote stage of Leishmania donovani (L. donovani) as compared to standard drugs and to screen its phytochemical constituents. Methods: Phytochemical screening was done by using the method mentioned by Evans and Trease on methanolic extract of the exudates of Aloe otallensis leaves. The extract was also evaluated for in vitro antileishmanial activity against L. donavani which is found from the Parasitology Unit of Black Lion Hospital. The result was compared to standard drugs of sodium stibogluconate, milfostin and paramomycin. Results: The extract has a good antileishmanial activity with an IC50 of 0.1230 μg/mL on L. donovani (AM 563). The experimental data showed that relatively it had better activity than paramomycin and milfostin but less activity than sodium stibogluconate. The data analyses were done by GraphPad Prism version 5 software after it was read by ELISA reader at the wave length of 650 nm. The phytochemical screening of the exudates of A. otallensis showed the presence of phenol, alkaloid and saponin. Conclusions: The methanol extract of the exudates of A. otallensis has a good anti-leishmaniasis activity and this may be attributed to phenol, alkaloid and saponin present in the plant. But it needs further analysis for the conformation of which constituent presents in high concentration to know which one has the strongest effect.

  10. Effect of Bark Extract and Gum Exudate of Commiphora Caudata on Aspirin Induced Ulcer in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Nanthakumar

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Commiphora caudata is used in Indian folk medicine as an antiulcerogenic agent. Despite of its promising use, there has been no scientific report present regarding its antiulcer activity. Therefore, this study was designed to evaluate the antiulcer activity of bark extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata on aspirin induced ulcer in rats. Acute toxicity study was performed and 200 mg/kg was selected as an effective dose. Four groups of Albino Swiss rats were included in this study. Aspirin suspended in 0.5 % carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC was given orally to group 1 rats as a negative control group. Group 2 and group 3 animals received methanolic extract and gum exudate of commiphora caudata respectively. Sucralfate was given orally to group 4 animals as a positive control. The methanolic extract of commiphora caudata has been found to reduce total acidity as much as by sucralfate. However, it has not changed the fluid secretion. The gum preparation not only reduced the total acidity but also considerably reduce the gastric fluid secretion. In case of ulcer score sucralfate, methanolic extract and the gum have produced the low ulcer score compared to aspirin. Increased gastric mucosal protective mechanism by bark extract and gum exudate is probably due to the presence of some active principles present in the plant. However, further investigations are required to elucidate their exact mechanism of anti-ulcer activity.

  11. Contribution of Individual Chemoreceptors to Sinorhizobium meliloti Chemotaxis Towards Amino Acids of Host and Nonhost Seed Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Webb, Benjamin A; Helm, Richard F; Scharf, Birgit E

    2016-03-01

    Plant seeds and roots exude a spectrum of molecules into the soil that attract bacteria to the spermosphere and rhizosphere, respectively. The alfalfa symbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti utilizes eight chemoreceptors (McpT to McpZ and IcpA) to mediate chemotaxis. Using a modified hydrogel capillary chemotaxis assay that allows data quantification and larger throughput screening, we defined the role of S. meliloti chemoreceptors in sensing its host, Medicago sativa, and a closely related nonhost, Medicago arabica. S. meliloti wild type and most single-deletion strains displayed comparable chemotaxis responses to host or nonhost seed exudate. However, while the mcpZ mutant responded like wild type to M. sativa exudate, its reaction to M. arabica exudate was reduced by 80%. Even though the amino acid (AA) amounts released by both plant species were similar, synthetic AA mixtures that matched exudate profiles contributed differentially to the S. meliloti wild-type response to M. sativa (23%) and M. arabica (37%) exudates, with McpU identified as the most important chemoreceptor for AA. Our results show that S. meliloti is equally attracted to host and nonhost legumes; however, AA play a greater role in attraction to M. arabica than to M. sativa, with McpZ being specifically important in sensing M. arabica. PMID:26713349

  12. Interaction of root exudates with the mineral soil constituents and their effect on mineral weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimmo, T.; Terzano, R.; Medici, L.; Lettino, A.; Fiore, S.; Tomasi, N.; Pinton, R.; Cesco, S.

    2012-04-01

    Plants release significant amounts of high and low molecular weight organic compounds into the rhizosphere. Among these exudates organic acids (e.g. citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid), phenolic compounds (e.g. flavonoids), amino acids and siderophores of microbial and/or plant origin strongly influence and modify the biogeochemical cycles of several elements, thus causing changes in their availability for plant nutrition. One class of these elements is composed by the trace elements; some of them are essential for plants even if in small concentrations and are considered micronutrients, such as Fe, Zn, Mn. Their solubility and bioavailability can be influenced, among other factors, by the presence in soil solution of low molecular weight root exudates acting as organic complexing agents that can contribute to the mineral weathering and therefore, to their mobilization in the soil solution. The mobilized elements, in function of the element and of its concentration, can be either important nutrients or toxic elements for plants. The objective of this study was to assess the influence of several root exudates (citric acid, malic acid, oxalic acid, genistein, quercetin and siderophores) on the mineralogy of two different soils (an agricultural calcareous soil and an acidic polluted soil) and to evaluate possible synergic or competitive behaviors. X-ray diffraction (XRD) coupled with Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) was used to identify the crystalline and amorphous phases which were subjected to mineral alteration when exposed to the action of root exudates. Solubilization of trace metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Cr, Pb, Cd as well as of major elements such as Si, Al, Fe and Mn was assessed by means of Inductively Coupled Plasma Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Soil microorganisms have proven to decrease mineral weathering by reducing the concentration of active root exudates in solution. Results obtained are an important cornerstone to better understand the

  13. Effect of root exudates of different resistant varieties of cucumber on fusarium wilt and preliminary studies on their resistance mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Benli HUANG; Yundong XU; Ye WU; Shunqi ZHANG; Xuchao CHEN

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of root exudates of cucumber varieties, Jinyan 4 (susceptible variety), Jinchun 4 (resistant variety) and Yinnan Black seed squash on fusa-rium wilt. The results showed that fusarium wilt occurrence of plants treated with the root exudate of Jinyan 4 was earlier. The infection rate was significantly higher 15 days after inoculation, but similar to the control 20 days after inocula-tion. In contrast, the infection rate of plants treated with the root exudate of Jinchun 4 was significantly lower than that of the control. The plant height and fresh weight of Jinyan 4 treated with its own root exudate were lower than those of the control, and the root vigor decreased but the conductance increased. There was no significant effect of the root exudates from Jinchun 4 and Black seed squash on plant height and fresh mass of Jinyan 4. We found that the root exudate of susceptible cucumber variety stimulated the growth of Fusarium oxysporum pathogen, in contrast, that of resistance variety and Black seed squash suppressed the growth.

  14. Isolation and identification of Desmodium root exudates from drought tolerant species used as intercrops against Striga hermonthica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A.M.; Caulfield, J.C.; Hao, B.; Pickett, J.A.; Midega, C.A.O.; Khan, Z.R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants from the genus Desmodium, in particular D. uncinatum, are used on sub-Saharan small-holder farms as intercrops to inhibit parasitism of cereal crops by Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica via an allelopathic mechanism. The search for Desmodium species which are adapted to more arid conditions, and which show resilience to increased drought stress, previously identified D. intortum, D. incanum and D. ramosissimum as potential drought tolerant intercrops. Their potential as intercrops was assessed for resource poor areas of rain-fed cereal production where drought conditions can persist through normal meteorological activity, or where drought may have increasing impact through climate change. The chemical composition of the root exudates were characterised and the whole exudate biological activity was shown to be active in pot experiments for inhibition of Striga parasitism on maize. Furthermore, rain fed plot experiments showed the drought tolerant Desmodium intercrops to be effective for Striga inhibition. This work demonstrates the allelopathic nature of the new drought tolerant intercrops through activity of root exudates and the major compounds seen in the exudates are characterised as being C-glycosylflavonoid. In young plants, the exudates show large qualitative differences but as the plants mature, there is a high degree of convergence of the C-glycosylflavonoid exudate chemical profile amongst active Desmodium intercrops that confers biological activity. This defines the material for examining the mechanism for Striga inhibition. PMID:26164239

  15. Isolation and identification of Desmodium root exudates from drought tolerant species used as intercrops against Striga hermonthica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, A M; Caulfield, J C; Hao, B; Pickett, J A; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R

    2015-09-01

    Plants from the genus Desmodium, in particular D. uncinatum, are used on sub-Saharan small-holder farms as intercrops to inhibit parasitism of cereal crops by Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica via an allelopathic mechanism. The search for Desmodium species which are adapted to more arid conditions, and which show resilience to increased drought stress, previously identified D. intortum, D. incanum and D. ramosissimum as potential drought tolerant intercrops. Their potential as intercrops was assessed for resource poor areas of rain-fed cereal production where drought conditions can persist through normal meteorological activity, or where drought may have increasing impact through climate change. The chemical composition of the root exudates were characterised and the whole exudate biological activity was shown to be active in pot experiments for inhibition of Striga parasitism on maize. Furthermore, rain fed plot experiments showed the drought tolerant Desmodium intercrops to be effective for Striga inhibition. This work demonstrates the allelopathic nature of the new drought tolerant intercrops through activity of root exudates and the major compounds seen in the exudates are characterised as being C-glycosylflavonoid. In young plants, the exudates show large qualitative differences but as the plants mature, there is a high degree of convergence of the C-glycosylflavonoid exudate chemical profile amongst active Desmodium intercrops that confers biological activity. This defines the material for examining the mechanism for Striga inhibition. PMID:26164239

  16. Gelation of Soy Milk with Hagfish Exudate Creates a Flocculated and Fibrous Emulsion- and Particle Gel.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lukas Böni

    Full Text Available Hagfish slime is an ultra dilute, elastic and cohesive hydrogel that deploys within milliseconds in cold seawater from a glandularly secreted exudate. The slime is made of long keratin-like fibers and mucin-like glycoproteins that span a network which entraps water and acts as a defense mechanism against predators. Unlike other hydrogels, the slime only confines water physically and is very susceptible to mechanical stress, which makes it unsuitable for many processing operations and potential applications. Despite its huge potential, little work has been done to improve and functionalize the properties of this hydrogel. To address this shortcoming, hagfish exudate was mixed with a soy protein isolate suspension (4% w/v and with a soy emulsion (commercial soy milk to form a more stable structure and combine the functionalities of a suspension and emulsion with those of the hydrogel. Hagfish exudate interacted strongly with the soy systems, showing a markedly increased viscoelasticity and water retention. Hagfish mucin was found to induce a depletion and bridging mechanism, which caused the emulsion and suspension to flocculate, making "soy slime", a cohesive and cold-set emulsion- and particle gel. The flocculation network increases viscoelasticity and substantially contributes to liquid retention by entrapping liquid in the additional confinements between aggregated particles and protein fibers. Because the mucin-induced flocculation resembles the salt- or acid-induced flocculation in tofu curd production, the soy slime was cooked for comparison. The cooked soy slime was similar to conventional cooked tofu, but possessed a long-range cohesiveness from the fibers. The fibrous, cold-set, and curd-like structure of the soy slime represents a novel way for a cold coagulation and fiber incorporation into a suspension or emulsion. This mechanism could be used to efficiently gel functionalized emulsions or produce novel tofu-like structured food

  17. Compositional differences in simulated root exudates elicit a limited functional and compositional response in soil microbial communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Michael S; McCulley, Rebecca L; Nelson, Jim A; Bradford, Mark A

    2015-01-01

    Inputs of low molecular weight carbon (LMW-C) to soil - primarily via root exudates- are expected to be a major driver of microbial activity and source of stable soil organic carbon. It is expected that variation in the type and composition of LMW-C entering soil will influence microbial community composition and function. If this is the case then short-term changes in LMW-C inputs may alter processes regulated by these communities. To determine if change in the composition of LMW-C inputs influences microbial community function and composition, we conducted a 90 day microcosm experiment whereby soils sourced from three different land covers (meadows, deciduous forests, and white pine stands) were amended, at low concentrations, with one of eight simulated root exudate treatments. Treatments included no addition of LMW-C, and the full factorial combination of glucose, glycine, and oxalic acid. After 90 days, we conducted a functional response assay and determined microbial composition via phospholipid fatty acid analysis. Whereas we noted a statistically significant effect of exudate treatments, this only accounted for ∼3% of the variation observed in function. In comparison, land cover and site explained ∼46 and ∼41% of the variation, respectively. This suggests that exudate composition has little influence on function compared to site/land cover specific factors. Supporting the finding that exudate effects were minor, we found that an absence of LMW-C elicited the greatest difference in function compared to those treatments receiving any LMW-C. Additionally, exudate treatments did not alter microbial community composition and observable differences were instead due to land cover. These results confirm the strong effects of land cover/site legacies on soil microbial communities. In contrast, short-term changes in exudate composition, at meaningful concentrations, may have little impact on microbial function and composition. PMID:26322029

  18. Influence of Aluminum and Cadmium Stresses on Mineral Nutrition and Root Exudates in Two Barley Cultivars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QUO Tian-Rong; ZHANG Guo-Ping; ZHOU Mei-Xue; WU Fei-Bo; CHEN Jin-Xin

    2007-01-01

    A hydroponic experiment was carried out to study the effect of aluminum (Al) and cadmium (Cd) on Al and mineral nutrient contents in plants and Al-induced organic acid exudation in two barley varieties with different Al tolerance. Al-sensitive cv. Shang 70-119 had significantly higher Al content and accumulation in plants than Al-tolerant cv. Gebeina, especially in roots, when subjected to low pH (4.0) and Al treatments (100 μmol L-1 Al and 100 μmol L-1 Al +1.0 μmol L-1 Cd). Cd addition increased Al content in plants exposed to Al stress. Both low pH and Al treatments caused marked reduction in Ca and Mg contents in all plant parts, P and K contents in the shoots and leaves, Fe, Zn and Mo contents in the leaves, Zn and B contents in the shoots, and Mn contents both in the roots and leaves. Moreover, changes in nutrient concentrations were greater in the plants exposed to both Al and Cd than in those exposed only to Al treatment. A dramatic enhancement of malate, citrate, and succinate was found in the plants exposed to 100 μmol L-1 Al relative to the control, and the Al-tolerant cultivar had a considerable higher exudation of these organic acids than the Al-sensitive one, indicating that Al-induced enhancement of these organic acids is very likely to be associated with Al tolerance.

  19. PK-PD integration and modeling of marbofloxacin in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, F S; Lees, P

    2010-02-01

    The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug, marbofloxacin, was administered intravenously (IV) and intramuscularly (IM) to sheep at a dose rate of 2 mg kg(-1) in a 2-period cross-over study. Using a tissue cage model of inflammation, the pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin were established for serum, inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). For serum, after IV dosing, mean values for pharmacokinetic parameters were: clearance 0.48 L kg(-1) h(-1); elimination half-life 3.96 h and volumes of distribution 2.77 and 1.96 L kg(-1), respectively, for V(darea) and V(ss). After IM dosing mean values for pharmacokinetic variables were: absorption half-time 0.112 h, time of maximum concentration 0.57 h, terminal half-life (T(1/2)el) 3.65 h and bioavailability 106%. For exudate, mean T(1/2)el values were 12.38 and 13.25 h, respectively, after IV and IM dosing and for transudate means were 13.39 h (IV) and 12.55 h (IM). The in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) and ex vivo time-kill curves for marbofloxacin in serum, exudate and transudate were established against a pathogenic strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with MIC determined in vitro provided mean values of area under curve (AUC)/MIC ratio for serum, exudate and transudate of 120.2, 156.0 and 156.6 h after IV dosing and 135.5, 165.3 and 146.2 h after IM dosing, respectively. After IM administration maximum concentration (C(max))/MIC ratios were 21.1, 6.76 and 5.91, respectively, for serum, exudate and transudate. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after IM administration were fitted to the sigmoid E(max) (Hill) equation to provide values for serum of AUC(24h)/MIC producing, bactericidal activity (22.51 h) and virtual eradication of bacteria (35.31 h). It is proposed that these findings might be used with MIC(50) or MIC(90) data to provide a rational approach to the design of

  20. Root Exudates, Rhizosphere Zn Fractions, and Zn Accumulation of Ryegrass at Different Soil Zn Levels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Wei-Hong; LIU Huai; MA Qi-Fu; XIONG Zhi-Ting

    2007-01-01

    A glasshouse experiment was conducted using a root-bag technique to study the root exudates, rhizosphere Zn fractions, and Zn concentrations and accumulations of two ryegrass cultivars (Lolium perenne L. cvs. Airs and Tede) at different soil Zn levels (0, 2, 4, 8, and 16 mmol kg-1 soil). Results indicated that plant growth of the two cultivars was not adversely affected at soil Zn level≤8 mmol kg-1. Plants accumulated more Zn as soil Zn levels increased, and Zn concentrations of shoots were about 540 /μg g-1 in Aris and 583.9μg g-1 in Tede in response to 16 mmol Zn kg-1 soil. Zn ratios of shoots to roots across the soil Zn levels were higher in Tede than in Airs, corresponding with higher rhizosphere available Zn fractions (exchangeable, bound to manganese oxides, and bound to organic matter) in Airs than in Tede. Low-molecular-weight (LMW) organic acids (oxalic, tartaric, malic, and succinic acids) and amino acids (proline, threonine, glutamic acid, and aspartic acid, etc.) were detected in root exudates, and the concentrations of LMW organic acids and amino acids increased with addition of 4 mmol Zn kg-1 soil compared with zero Zn addition. Higher rhizosphere concentrations of oxalic acid, glutamic acid, alanine, phenylalanine, leucine, and proline in Tede than in Airs likely resulted in increased Zn uptake from the soil by Tede than by Airs. The results suggested that genotypic differences in Zn accumulations were mainly because of different root exudates and rhizosphere Zn fractions.

  1. Exudation of organic acids by Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius as affected by phosphorus supply

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hentschel, Werner; Wiche, Oliver

    2016-04-01

    In phytomining and phytoremediation research mixed cultures of bioenergy crops with legumes hold promise to enhance availability of trace metals and metalloids in the soil plant system. This is due to the ability of certain legumes to mobilize trace elements during acquisition of nutrients making these elements available for co-cultured species. The legumes achieve this element mobilization by exudating carboxylates and enzymes as well as by lowering the pH value in the rhizosphere. The aim of our research was to determine characteristics and differences in the exudation of Lupinus albus and Lupinus angustifolius regarding to quantitative as to qualitative aspects. Especially the affection by phosphorus (P) supply was a point of interest. Thus we conducted laboratory batch experiments, wherein the plants were grown over four weeks under controlled light, moisture and nutritional conditions on sand as substrate. Half of the plants were supplied with 12 mg P per kg substrate, the other half were cultivated under a total lack of P. After cultivation the plants were transferred from the cultivation substrate into a 0,05 mmolṡL-1 CaCl2 solution. After two hours the plants were removed, moist and dry mass off shoots and roots were measured together with the root length (Tennants' method). Concentrations of exudated carboxylates in the CaCl2 solution were determined via IC (column: Metrosept OrganicAcids, eluent 0.5 molṡL-1 H2SO4 + 15% acetone, pH=3; 0.5 mLṡmin-1). As a result four different organic acids were identified (citric acid, fumaric acid, tartaric acid, malic acid) in concentration ranges of 0.15 mgṡL-1 (fumaric acid) to 9.21 mgṡL-1 (citric acid). Lupinus angustifolius showed a higher exudation rate (in nmol per cm root length per hour) than Lupinus albus in the presence of phosphorus (e.g. regarding citric acid: 1.99 vs 0.64 nmolṡ(gṡh)-1). However, as the root complexity and length of L. albus were far higher than of L. angustifolius, the total

  2. BACTERIAL ATTRACTION AND QUORUM SENSING INHIBITION IN CAENORHABDITIS ELEGANS EXUDATES

    OpenAIRE

    Kaplan, Fatma; BADRI, DAYAKAR V.; Zachariah, Cherian; Ajredini, Ramadan; Sandoval, Francisco J.; Roje, Sanja; Lanfang H Levine; Zhang, Fengli; Robinette, Steven. L.; Alborn, Hans T.; Zhao, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Nimalendran, Rathika; Dossey, Aaron T.; Brüschweiler, Rafael

    2009-01-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans, a bacterivorous nematode, lives in complex rotting fruit, soil, and compost environments, and chemical interactions are required for mating, monitoring population density, recognition of food, avoidance of pathogenic microbes, and other essential ecological functions. Despite being one of the best-studied model organisms in biology, relatively little is known about the signals that C. elegans uses to chemically interact with its environment or as defense. C. elegans ex...

  3. Extracellular proteins in pea root tip and border cell exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wen, Fushi; VanEtten, Hans D; Tsaprailis, George; Hawes, Martha C

    2007-02-01

    Newly generated plant tissue is inherently sensitive to infection. Yet, when pea (Pisum sativum) roots are inoculated with the pea pathogen, Nectria haematococca, most newly generated root tips remain uninfected even though most roots develop lesions just behind the tip in the region of elongation. The resistance mechanism is unknown but is correlated spatially with the presence of border cells on the cap periphery. Previously, an array of >100 extracellular proteins was found to be released while border cell separation proceeds. Here we report that protein secretion from pea root caps is induced in correlation with border cell separation. When this root cap secretome was proteolytically degraded during inoculation of pea roots with N. haematococca, the percentage of infected root tips increased from 4% +/- 3% to 100%. In control experiments, protease treatment of conidia or roots had no effect on growth and development of the fungus or the plant. A complex of >100 extracellular proteins was confirmed, by multidimensional protein identification technology, to comprise the root cap secretome. In addition to defense-related and signaling enzymes known to be present in the plant apoplast were ribosomal proteins, 14-3-3 proteins, and others typically associated with intracellular localization but recently shown to be extracellular components of microbial biofilms. We conclude that the root cap, long known to release a high molecular weight polysaccharide mucilage and thousands of living cells into the incipient rhizosphere, also secretes a complex mixture of proteins that appear to function in protection of the root tip from infection.

  4. Low strigolactone root exudation: a novel mechanism of broomrape (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp.) resistance available for faba bean breeding.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Aparicio, Mónica; Kisugi, Takaya; Xie, Xiaonan; Rubiales, Diego; Yoneyama, Koichi

    2014-07-23

    Faba bean yield is severely constrained in the Mediterranean region and Middle East by the parasitic weeds Orobanche crenata, O. foetida, and Phelipanche aegyptiaca. Seed germination of these weeds is triggered upon recognition of host root exudates. Only recently faba bean accessions have been identified with resistance based in low induction of parasitic seed germination, but the underlying mechanism was not identified. Strigolactones are a group of terpenoid lactones involved in the host recognition by parasitic plants. Our LC-MS/MS analysis of root exudates of the susceptible accession Prothabon detected orobanchol, orobanchyl acetate, and a novel germination stimulant. A time course analysis indicated that their concentration increased with plant age. However, low or undetectable amounts of these germination stimulants were detected in root exudates of the resistant lines Quijote and Navio at all plant ages. A time course analysis of seed germination induced by root exudates of each faba bean accession indicated important differences in the ability to stimulate parasitic germination. Results presented here show that resistance to parasitic weeds based on low strigolactone exudation does exist within faba bean germplasm. Therefore, selection for this trait is feasible in a breeding program. The remarkable fact that low induction of germination is similarly operative against O. crenata, O. foetida, and P. aegyptiaca reinforces the value of this resistance.

  5. Antibiotic-resistance and plasmids in Staphylococcus-hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative eperdermitis and from healthy pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Schwarz, S.

    1993-01-01

    A total of 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from healthy piglets and piglets with exudative epidermitis originating from 100 different herds was examined for drug-resistance and prevalence of plasmids. Resistance to macrolide/lincosamide antibiotics could be related to plasmids in 55 (93%) of the 59......% of the strains isolated from healthy piglets. Despite its higher prevalence in strains from piglets with EE, the 11.5 kb plasmid could not be shown to encode production of capsule or exfoliative substances: factors which might play a role in the development of exudative epidermitis in piglets....

  6. Inf luence of Spirulina platensis exudates on the endocrine and nervous systems of a mammalian model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Samah; Mamdouh; Mohamed; Fathy; Ashraf; Mohamed; Mohamed; Essa

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the ef ect of intra-peritoneal injection of purii ed exudates of axenic Spirulina platensis on the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems. Methods: The intra-peritoneal injection of the cyanobacterial exudates in mice was applied. Sex hormonal levels of testosterone and progesterone were measured using radioimmunoassay while the follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone were evaluated by direct chemiluminescence. In addition, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase were monitored in the hippocampus region using spectrophotometric method. The levels of the hippocampal monoamines, dopamine, noradrenaline and serotonin were analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography while the acetyl choline neurotransmitter was measured by colorimetric method using choline/acetylcholine assay kit. Results: A sharp disruption in the sex hormones levels of testosterone, progesterone, follicular stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone was demonstrated in the serum of the treated mice. At the same time, a signii cant reduction in the endogenous antioxidant defense enzymes, superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase was observed in the hippocampus region of the injected mice. Moreover, levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin and acetyl choline neurotransmitter in the same region were signii cantly af ected as a result of the treatment with Spirulina i ltrate. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometer and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry analysis showed the presence of some sterol-like compounds in the cyanobacterial i ltrate. Conclusions: This study demonstrated the capability of Spirulina to release detrimental bioactive metabolites into their surrounding that can disrupt the mammalian endocrine and nervous systems.

  7. Distribution of root exudates and mucilage in the rhizosphere: combining 14C imaging with neutron radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holz, Maire; Carminati, Andrea; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2015-04-01

    Water and nutrients will be the major factors limiting food production in future. Plant roots employ various mechanisms to increase the access to limited soil resources. Low molecular weight organic substances released by roots into the rhizosphere increase nutrient availability by interactions with microorganisms, while mucilage improves water availability under low moisture conditions. Though composition and quality of these substances have intensively been investigated, studies on the spatial distribution and quantification of exudates in soil are scarce. Our aim was to quantify and visualize root exudates and mucilage distribution around growing roots using neutron radiography and 14C imaging depending on drought stress. Plants were grown in rhizotrons well suited for neutron radiography and 14C imaging. Plants were exposed to various soil water contents experiencing different levels of drought stress. The water content in the rhizosphere was imaged during several drying/wetting cycles by neutron radiography. The radiographs taken a few hours after irrigation showed a wet region around the root tips showing the allocation and distribution of mucilage. The increased water content in the rhizosphere of the young root segments was related to mucilage concentrations by parameterization described in Kroener et al. (2014). In parallel 14C imaging of root after 14CO2 labeling of shoots (Pausch and Kuzyakov 2011) showed distribution of rhizodeposits including mucilage. Three days after setting the water content, plants were labeled in 14CO2 atmosphere. Two days later 14C distribution in soil was imaged by placing a phosphor-imaging plate on the rhizobox. To quantify rhizodeposition, 14C activity on the image was related to the absolute 14C activity in the soil and root after destructive sampling. By comparing the amounts of mucilage (neutron radiography) with the amount of total root derived C (14C imaging), we were able to differentiate between mucilage and root

  8. Composition and physicochemical properties of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fadavi, Ghasem; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargarran, Azizollaah; Mortazavian, Amir Mohammad; Komeili, Rozita

    2014-01-30

    Composition and physicochemical properties of three types of Zedo gum exudates from Amygdalus scoparia were investigated. Monosaccharide analysis by GC-MS indicated the occurrence of arabinose and galactose as the main sugars. FTIR spectra showed no differences in functional groups among the samples. Steady shear rheological data and power law parameters revealed that the white gum (W) was the most shear sensitive type and had the highest value of consistency coefficient. The mechanical spectra derived from the strain and frequency sweep measurements indicated a liquid viscoelastic behavior for Zedo gum dispersions. GPC-MALLS revealed that the white sample had the highest apparent average molecular weight (4.74 × 10(6)Da) and the lowest dispersity (1.045). TG-DTA analysis showed that the character of gum decomposition significantly depended on the gum type and the white sample had the highest thermal stability. PMID:24299876

  9. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in environments previously dominated by natives. Coupling these findings with studies on invader pathogen-disrupting root exudates is not well documented in the literature describing plant invasion strategies. The interaction effects of altered AMF associations and the impact of invader root exudates would be more relevant than understanding the AMF dynamics or the phytochemistry of successful invaders in isolation, particularly given that AMF and root exudates can have a similar role in pathogen control but function quite differently. One means to achieve this goal is to assess these strategies concurrently by characterizing both the general (mostly pathogens or commensals and AM-specific fungal colonization patterns found in field collected root samples of successful invaders, native plants growing within dense patches of invaders, and native plants growing separately from invaders. In this review I examine the emerging evidence of the ways in which AMF-plant interactions and the production of defensive root exudates provide pathways to invasive plant establishment and expansion, and conclude that interaction studies must be pursued to achieve a more comprehensive understanding of successful plant invasion.

  10. Root exudate-induced alterations in Bacillus cereus cell wall contribute to root colonization and plant growth promotion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swarnalee Dutta

    Full Text Available The outcome of an interaction between plant growth promoting rhizobacteria and plants may depend on the chemical composition of root exudates (REs. We report the colonization of tobacco, and not groundnut, roots by a non-rhizospheric Bacillus cereus (MTCC 430. There was a differential alteration in the cell wall components of B. cereus in response to the REs from tobacco and groundnut. Attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy revealed a split in amide I region of B. cereus cells exposed to tobacco-root exudates (TRE, compared to those exposed to groundnut-root exudates (GRE. In addition, changes in exopolysaccharides and lipid-packing were observed in B. cereus grown in TRE-amended minimal media that were not detectable in GRE-amended media. Cell-wall proteome analyses revealed upregulation of oxidative stress-related alkyl hydroperoxide reductase, and DNA-protecting protein chain (Dlp-2, in response to GRE and TRE, respectively. Metabolism-related enzymes like 2-amino-3-ketobutyrate coenzyme A ligase and 2-methylcitrate dehydratase and a 60 kDa chaperonin were up-regulated in response to TRE and GRE. In response to B. cereus, the plant roots altered their exudate-chemodiversity with respect to carbohydrates, organic acids, alkanes, and polyols. TRE-induced changes in surface components of B. cereus may contribute to successful root colonization and subsequent plant growth promotion.

  11. CONJUGAL GENE TRANSFER IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF WATER GRASS (ECHINOCHLORA CRUSGALLI): INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATE AND BACTERIAL ACTIVITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    The premise that genetic exchange is primarily localized in niches characterized by dense bacterial populations and high availability of growth substrates was tested by relating conjugal gene transfer of an RP4 derivative to availability of root exudates and bacterial metabolic a...

  12. Enrichment of specific bacterial and eukaryotic microbes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, Yuejian; Li, Xiangzhen; Smyth, Eoghan M; Yannarell, Anthony C; Mackie, Roderick I

    2014-06-01

    Identification of microbes that actively utilize root exudates is essential to understand plant-microbe interactions. To identify active root exudate-utilizing microorganisms associated with switchgrass - a potential bioenergy crop - plants were labelled in situ with (13) CO2 , and 16S and 18S rRNA genes in the (13) C-labelled rhizosphere DNA were pyrosequenced. Multi-pulse labelling for 5 days produced detectable (13) C-DNA, which was well separated from unlabelled DNA. Methylibium from the order Burkholderiales were the most heavily labelled bacteria. Pythium, Auricularia and Galerina were the most heavily labelled eukaryotic microbes. We also identified a Glomus intraradices-like species; Glomus members are arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi that are able to colonize the switchgrass root. All of these heavily labelled microorganisms were also among the most abundant species in the rhizosphere. Species belonging to Methylibium and Pythium were the most heavily labelled and the most abundant bacteria and eukaryotes in the rhizosphere of switchgrass. Our results revealed that nearly all of the dominant rhizosphere bacterial and eukaryotic microbes were able to utilize root exudates. The enrichment of microbial species in the rhizosphere is selective and mostly due to root exudation, which functions as a nutrition source, promoting the growth of these microbes.

  13. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mansour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

  14. Diagnostic value of phage typing, antibiogram typing and plasmid profiling of Staphylococcus hyicus from piglets with exudative epidermitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar

    1993-01-01

    A total of 989 isolates of S. hyicus were recovered from the skin of 103 piglets (9.6 isolates per piglet) with exudative epidermitis (EE), and phage typed. Phage patterns of 806 typable isolates (81 %) could be divided into 44 distinct phage types. From 1 to 6 different phage types were found...

  15. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, L. B.

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin...

  16. Assessing bio-availability of metals in biosolid-amended soils: Root exudates and their effects on solubility of metals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The existence of root exudates has been known to research scientists for a long time. Their role and function in plant nutrition and soil chemistry have only recently begun to be understood. The primary constituents of root exudates are low molecular weight organic acids that play an essential role in making the sparingly soluble soil Fe, P, and Zn available to plants. While root exudates are reasonably well characterized, the influence of environmental factors on their chemical composition and volume require further investigation. This study was initiated to investigate the role of root exudates on the solubilization and bioavailability of soil-borne heavy metals in biosolid-treated soils. Corn, wheat, canola, Sudan grass, chickpea, and Swiss chard were grown on standard and biosolid-treated sand media to characterize root exudates and evaluate the plants' metal-uptake patterns. Recent results indicate that: (i) the same organic acids were present over a 16-week growing season. However, the primary constituents of exudates from corn grown on standard sand media and biosolid-treated media were different. (ii) Metal concentrations in plant roots were considerably higher than those present in respective plant shoots, and plants grown in the biosolid-treated rooting medium had significantly higher concentrations of metals than those of the standard sand media at all stages of the growth. (iii) Based on mass present in the growth media and absorbed by corn, the phyto-availability of biosolid-borne metals were in the order: Cd > Ni = Zn > Cu = Pb > Cr. The availability of Mo was comparable to that of Cr. (iv) In the biosolidtreated growth medium, the uptake rates of Cd, Pb, and Zn by corn shoots (measured as mg of metal absorbed per g of biomass increment per unit time) were relatively constant over the active growing phase of the plants and were proportional to respective mass input of the metals. Work is in progress to define the role of root exudates on solubility

  17. Net production and consumption of fluorescent colored dissolved organic matter by natural bacterial assemblages growing on marine phytoplankton exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romera-Castillo, Cristina; Sarmento, Hugo; Alvarez-Salgado, Xosé Antón; Gasol, Josep M; Marrasé, Celia

    2011-11-01

    An understanding of the distribution of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in the oceans and its role in the global carbon cycle requires a better knowledge of the colored materials produced and consumed by marine phytoplankton and bacteria. In this work, we examined the net uptake and release of CDOM by a natural bacterial community growing on DOM derived from four phytoplankton species cultured under axenic conditions. Fluorescent humic-like substances exuded by phytoplankton (excitation/emission [Ex/Em] wavelength, 310 nm/392 nm; Coble's peak M) were utilized by bacteria in different proportions depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Furthermore, bacteria produced humic-like substances that fluoresce at an Ex/Em wavelength of 340 nm/440 nm (Coble's peak C). Differences were also observed in the Ex/Em wavelengths of the protein-like materials (Coble's peak T) produced by phytoplankton and bacteria. The induced fluorescent emission of CDOM produced by prokaryotes was an order of magnitude higher than that of CDOM produced by eukaryotes. We have also examined the final compositions of the bacterial communities growing on the exudates, which differed markedly depending on the phytoplankton species of origin. Alteromonas and Roseobacter were dominant during all the incubations on Chaetoceros sp. and Prorocentrum minimum exudates, respectively. Alteromonas was the dominant group growing on Skeletonema costatum exudates during the exponential growth phase, but it was replaced by Roseobacter afterwards. On Micromonas pusilla exudates, Roseobacter was replaced by Bacteroidetes after the exponential growth phase. Our work shows that fluorescence excitation-emission matrices of CDOM can be a helpful tool for the identification of microbial sources of DOM in the marine environment, but further studies are necessary to explore the association of particular bacterial groups with specific fluorophores. PMID:21742918

  18. Effects of Grafting on Root Exudates of Cucumber and Rhizosphere Environment under Copper Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hua LI; Hongjun HE; Tengfei LI; Xin LI; Zikun ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] This study to aimed to investigate the effects of Cu stress on root exudates and microbial activities in rhizosphere of grafted and ungrafted cucum-ber seedlings, and therefore to elucidate the microbial mechanism of grafting for in-creasing cucumber plants tolerance to Cu stress [Method] Four treatments: (1) un-grafted seedlings + test soil (U0); (2) ungrafted seedlings + test soil + CuSO4·5H2O (U1); (3) grafted seedlings + test soil (G0); (4) grafted seedlings + test soil + Cu-SO4·5H2O (G1) were set in the pot culture experiment. The contents of free amino acids, organic acids, phenolic acid and sugars, microbial population and enzyme ac-tivity in the four treatment were measured, respectively. [Result] The secretion of amino acids and organic acids were increased under Cu stress. The amino acids secretions of grafted seedlings roots were obviously higher than ungrafted seedlings except for Phe and Val. At the same time, the secretion of oxalic acid, malic acid, acetic acid, citric acid, cinnamic acid, ρ-hydroxybenzoic acid and benzoic acid of grafted seedlings were significantly higher than ungrafted seedlings as wel . There-fore, more Cu2+ were restricted in soil by chelating, complexing and precipitation with root exudates, and its toxicity was decreased. The soil microbial biomass C and N in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significantly higher than those in ungrafted cu-cumber rhizosphere, whereas basal respiration and metabolic quotient were signifi-cantly lower. Under Cu stress, the numbers of actinomyces and nitrogen fixing bac-teria decreased and the number of fungi increased significantly, whereas there was no significant difference in amounts of bacteria. The numbers of bacteria, actino-myces, and nitrogen fixing bacteria in grafted cucumber rhizosphere were significant-ly higher than those in ungrafted cucumber rhizosphere, but the number of fungi was opposite. The activities of soil urease, phosphatase, sucrase and catalase in grafted

  19. Pale, soft, and exudative poultry meat--Reviewing ways to manage at the processing plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbut, S

    2009-07-01

    This review focuses on ways the industry can currently deal with pale, soft, and exudative (PSE) poultry meat. Overall, the rapid increase in poultry meat consumption and the move toward selling more cut-up parts have resulted in some complaints associated with meat quality. Because no genetic marker related to PSE in poultry used by breeders has yet been identified, processors can employ several pre- and postrigor strategies to minimize the magnitude of the problem. They include reducing stress before slaughter (e.g., during catching, transportation, waiting period, unloading) and during stunning (gas vs. electrical). Later, there is a need to better understand and adjust processing conditions such as electrical stimulation, chilling rate, and maturation. When dealing with cut-up parts or deboned meat, strategies such as identifying and separating PSE meat, diverting it to no or low moisture-added products, and including additives to compensate for the poor water holding and texture can be beneficial. The potential contribution of ingredients such as starches (regular, modified), carrageenans, and enzymes is discussed. When it comes to formed products (e.g., nuggets), gentle brine addition and the use of low-pressure forming equipment can also help to minimize the effects of using PSE meat. PMID:19531724

  20. Water dynamics in the rhizosphere - a new model of coupled water uptake and mucilage exudation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroener, Eva; Holz, Maire; Ahmed, Mutez; Zarebanadkouki, Mohsen; Bittelli, Marco; Carminati, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    The flow of water from soil to plant roots is affected by the narrow region of soil close to the roots, the so-called rhizosphere. The rhizosphere is influenced by mucilage, a polymeric gel exuded by roots that alters the hydraulic properties of the rhizosphere. Here we present a model that accounts for: (a) an increase in equilibrium water retention curve caused by the water holding capacity of mucilage, (b) a reduction of hydraulic conductivity at a given water content due to the higher viscosity of mucilage and (c) the swelling and shrinking dynamics by decoupling water content and water potential and introducing a non-equilibrium water retention curve. The model has been tested for mixtures of soil and mucilage and we applied it to simulate observations of previous experiments with real plants growing in soil that show evidences of altered hydraulic dynamics in the rhizosphere. Furthermore we present results about how the parameters of the model depend on soil texture and root age. Finally we couple our hydraulic model to a diffusion model of mucilage into the soil. Opposed to classical solute transport models here the water flow in the rhizosphere is affected by the concentration distribution of mucilage.

  1. AUTOMATED DETECTION OF HARD EXUDATES IN FUNDUS IMAGES USING IMPROVED OTSU THRESHOLDING AND SVM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiwei Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One common cause of visual impairment among people of working age in the industrialized countries is Diabetic Retinopathy (DR. Automatic recognition of hard exudates (EXs which is one of DR lesions in fundus images can contribute to the diagnosis and screening of DR.The aim of this paper was to automatically detect those lesions from fundus images. At first,green channel of each original fundus image was segmented by improved Otsu thresholding based on minimum inner-cluster variance, and candidate regions of EXs were obtained. Then, we extracted features of candidate regions and selected a subset which best discriminates EXs from the retinal background by means of logistic regression (LR. The selected features were subsequently used as inputs to a SVM to get a final segmentation result of EXs in the image. Our database was composed of 120 images with variable color, brightness, and quality. 70 of them were used to train the SVM and the remaining 50 to assess the performance of the method. Using a lesion based criterion, we achieved a mean sensitivity of 95.05% and a mean positive predictive value of 95.37%. With an image-based criterion, our approach reached a 100% mean sensitivity, 90.9% mean specificity and 96.0% mean accuracy. Furthermore, the average time cost in processing an image is 8.31 seconds. These results suggest that the proposed method could be a diagnostic aid for ophthalmologists in the screening for DR.

  2. The past, present, and future of exudative age-related macular degeneration treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoreh Barak

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration has been revolutionized within the last 6 years with the introduction of vascular endothelial growth factor neutralizing agents. Previously popular "destructive treatments," such as laser photocoagulation and photodynamic treatment have either been abandoned or used as an adjunct to pharmacotherapy. Despite the increase in vision after antivascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF agents, they require repetitive and costly intravitreal injections that also carry the inherit risks of infection, retinal tears, and detachment. Several new and more potent VEGF inhibitors are at different stages of development. The goal of evolving pharmacotherapy is to preserve the therapeutic effect while reducing or eliminating the discomfort of intravitreal drug delivery, as well as identify new therapeutic targets. Complement inhibitors, immunomodulators, integrin inhibitors are a few of the new class of drugs that are expected to be in our armamentarium soon. Current medications act to decrease leakage through abnormal subretinal choroidal vasculature and promote involution. However, these medications are only effective in treating the active stage of the choroidal neovascular membrane. Restoration of vision of a large number of patients with involuted choroidal neovascular membranes is warranted. For this purpose, tissue engineering techniques have been employed to reconstruct the subretinal anatomy. Discovery of biomarkers, pharmacogenetics, and very specific targeting holds the promise of increased potency and safety in the future.

  3. Diversity and function of the microbial community on anodes of sediment microbial fuel cells fueled by root exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cabezas da Rosa, Angela

    2010-11-26

    Anode microbial communities are essential for current production in microbial fuel cells. Anode reducing bacteria are capable of using the anode as final electron acceptor in their respiratory chain. The electrons delivered to the anode travel through a circuit to the cathode where they reduce oxygen to water generating an electric current. A novel type of sediment microbial fuel cell (SMFC) harvest energy from photosynthetically derived compounds released through the roots. Nothing is known about anode microbial communities of this type of microbial fuel cell. This work consists of three parts. The first part focuses on the study of bacterial and archaeal community compositions on anodes of SMFCs fueled by rice root exudates. By using terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), a profiling technique, and cloning / sequencing of 16S rRNA, we determined that the support type used for the plant (vermiculite, potting soil or rice field soil) is an important factor determining the composition of the microbial community. Finally, by comparing microbial communities of current producing anodes and non-current producing controls we determined that Desulfobulbus- and Geobacter-related populations were probably most important for current production in potting soil and rice field soil SMFCs, respectively. However, {delta}-proteobacterial Anaeromyxobacter spp., unclassified {delta}-proteobacteria and Anaerolineae were also part of the anode biofilm in rice field soil SMFCs and these populations might also play a role in current production. Moreover, distinct clusters of Geobacter and Anaeromyxobacter populations were stimulated by rice root exudates. Regarding Archaea, uncultured Euryarchaea were abundant on anodes of potting soil SMFCs indicating a potential role in current production. In both, rice field soil and potting soil SMFCs, a decrease of Methanosaeta, an acetotrophic methanogen, was detected on current producing anodes. In the second part we focused

  4. Quantitative and Qualitative Effects of Phosphorus on Extracts and Exudates of Sudangrass Roots in Relation to Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwab, Suzanne M.; Menge, John A.; Leonard, Robert T.

    1983-01-01

    A comparison was made of water-soluble root exudates and extracts of Sorghum vulgare Pers. grown under two levels of P nutrition. An increase in P nutrition significantly decreased the concentration of carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids in exudates, and decreased the concentration of carboxylic acids in extracts. Higher P did not affect the relative proportions of specific carboxylic acids and had little effect on proportions of specific amino acids in both extracts and exudates. Phosphorus amendment resulted in an increase in the relative proportion of arabinose and a decrease in the proportion of fructose in exudates, but did not have a large effect on the proportion of individual sugars in extracts. The proportions of specific carbohydrates, carboxylic acids, and amino acids varied between exudates and extracts. Therefore, the quantity and composition of root extracts may not be a reliable predictor of the availability of substrate for symbiotic vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Comparisons of the rate of leakage of compounds from roots with the growth rate of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi suggest that the fungus must either be capable of using a variety of organic substrates for growth, or be capable of inducing a much higher rate of movement of specific organic compounds across root cell membranes than occurs through passive exudation as measured in this study. PMID:16663297

  5. Quantification and enzyme targets of fatty acid amides from duckweed root exudates involved in the stimulation of denitrification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Li; Lu, Yufang; Kronzucker, Herbert J; Shi, Weiming

    2016-07-01

    Fatty acid amides from plant root exudates, such as oleamide and erucamide, have the ability to participate in strong plant-microbe interactions, stimulating nitrogen metabolism in rhizospheric bacteria. However, mechanisms of secretion of such fatty acid amides, and the nature of their stimulatory activities on microbial metabolism, have not been examined. In the present study, collection, pre-treatment, and determination methods of oleamide and erucamide in duckweed root exudates are compared. The detection limits of oleamide and erucamide by gas chromatography (GC) (10.3ngmL(-1) and 16.1ngmL(-1), respectively) are shown to be much lower than those by liquid chromatography (LC) (1.7 and 5.0μgmL(-1), respectively). Quantitative GC analysis yielded five times larger amounts of oleamide and erucamide in root exudates of Spirodela polyrrhiza when using a continuous collection method (50.20±4.32 and 76.79±13.92μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)), compared to static collection (10.88±0.66 and 15.27±0.58μgkg(-1) FW day(-1)). Furthermore, fatty acid amide secretion was significantly enhanced under elevated nitrogen conditions (>300mgL(-1)), and was negatively correlated with the relative growth rate of duckweed. Mechanistic assays were conducted to show that erucamide stimulates nitrogen removal by enhancing denitrification, targeting two key denitrifying enzymes, nitrate and nitrite reductases, in bacteria. Our findings significantly contribute to our understanding of the regulation of nitrogen dynamics by plant root exudates in natural ecosystems. PMID:27152459

  6. Aluminum resistance in common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris) involves induction and maintenance of citrate exudation from root apices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rangel, Andrés Felipe; Rao, Idupulapati Madhusudana; Braun, Hans-Peter; Horst, Walter Johannes

    2010-02-01

    Two common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) genotypes differing in aluminum (Al) resistance, Quimbaya (Al-resistant) and VAX-1 (Al-sensitive) were grown in hydroponics for up to 25 h with or without Al, and several parameters related to the exudation of organic acids anions from the root apex were investigated. Al treatment enhanced the exudation of citrate from the root tips of both genotypes. However, its dynamic offers the most consistent relationship between Al-induced inhibition of root elongation and Al accumulation in and exclusion from the root apices. Initially, in both genotypes the short-term (4 h) Al-injury period was characterized by the absence of citrate efflux independent of the citrate content of the root apices, and reduction of cytosolic turnover of citrate conferred by a reduced Nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate-isocitrate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.42) activity. Transient recovery from initial Al stress (4-12 h) was found to be dependent mainly on the capacity to utilize internal citrate pools (Al-resistant genotype Quimbaya) or enhanced citrate synthesis [increased activities of NAD-malate dehydrogenase (EC 1.1.1.37) and ATP-phosphofructokinase (EC 2.7.1.11) in Al-sensitive VAX-1]. Sustained recovery from Al stress through citrate exudation in genotype Quimbaya after 24 h Al treatment relied on restoring the internal citrate pool and the constitutive high activity of citrate synthase (CS) (EC 4.1.3.7) fuelled by high phosphoenolpyruvate carboxylase (EC 4.1.1.31) activity. In the Al-sensitive genotype VAX-1 the citrate exudation and thus Al exclusion and root elongation could not be maintained coinciding with an exhaustion of the internal citrate pool and decreased CS activity. PMID:20053183

  7. Minimizing Nitrate Reduction during Kjeldahl Digestion of Plant Tissue Extracts and Stem Exudates : APPLICATION TO N STUDIES.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, G M; Mackown, C T; Volk, R J

    1982-01-01

    From 10 to 60% of the nitrate present in plant tissue extracts and stem exudates of corn (Zea mays L.) was found to be reduced during Kjeldahl digestion, even in the absence of added reducing agents. This reduction is of particular concern in [(15)N]nitrate assimilation studies, because it results in an overestimate of nitrate reduction. To overcome this problem, a method was developed for removing nitrate prior to Kjeldahl digestion, thereby preventing nitrate reduction. The procedure utilizes hydrogen peroxide for partial oxidation of organic matter in order to minimize the nitration of organic compounds. The free nitrates are then volatilized as nitric acid from concentrated sulfuric acid at 95 degrees C. When the proposed method was used as a pretreatment to Kjeldahl digestion, less than 0.5% of the applied nitrate was recovered in the reduced nitrogen fraction of plant tissue extracts and stem exudates.

  8. LMWOA (low molecular weight organic acid) exudation by salt marsh plants: Natural variation and response to Cu contamination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mucha, Ana P.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Bordalo, Adriano A.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2010-06-01

    This work aimed to evaluate, in vitro, the capability of roots of two salt marsh plants to release low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) and to ascertain whether Cu contamination would stimulate or not organic acids exudation. The sea rush Juncus maritimus and the sea-club rush Scirpus maritimus, both from the lower Douro river estuary (NW Portugal), were used. Plants were collected seasonally, four times a year in 2004, during low tide. After sampling, plant roots were washed for removal of adherent particles and immersed for 2 h in a solution that matched salinity (3) and pH (7.5) of the pore water from the same location to obtain plant exudates. In one of the seasons, similar experiments were carried out but spiking the solution with different amounts of Cu in order to embrace the range between 0 and 1600 nM. In the final solutions as well as in sediment pore water LMWOAs were determined by high performance liquid chromatography. Plants were able to release, in a short period of time, relatively high amounts of LMWOAs (oxalate, citrate, malate, malonate, and succinate). In the sediment pore water oxalate, succinate and acetate were also detected. Therefore, plant roots probably contributed to the presence of some of these organic compounds in pore water. Exudation differed between the plant species and also showed some seasonally variation, particularly for S. maritimus. The release of oxalate by J. maritimus increased with Cu increase in the media. However, exudation of the other LMWOAs did not seem to be stimulated by Cu contamination in the media. This fact is compatible with the existence of alternative internal mechanisms for Cu detoxification, as denoted by the fact that in media contaminated with Cu both plant species accumulated relatively high amounts (29-83%) of the initially dissolved Cu. This study expands our knowledge on the contribution of globally dominant salt marsh plants to the release of LMWOAs into the environment.

  9. Root Cluster Formation and Citrate Exudation of White Lupin (Lupinus albus L.) as Related to Phosphorus Availability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Jian LI; Rui-Xia LIANG

    2005-01-01

    A split-root system was used to investigate whether the external or internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) grown under controlled conditions. In spite of low P concentrations in the shoots and roots of the -P plant, its dry weight was not reduced compared with the +P plant. Supplying external P (0.25 mmol/L) to one root halfresulted in an increase in P concentration not only in the shoot, but also in the P-deprived root half, indicating P cycling within the plants. Omitting P from both split-root pots stimulated root cluster formation in both root halves,whereas P supply to one root halfstimulated root cluster formation at the beginning of the treatment. Neither P supply to just one root half continuously nor resupply of P to one root half after 19 d of P starvation inhibited root cluster formation on the P-deprived side, although the concentration of P in this root half and shoot increased markedly. The results indicate that root cluster formation in L. albus is controlled by both shoot and root P concentrations. The rates of citrate exudation by both root halves with P deficiency were higher than those of the one root half supplied with P only. In the treatment with one root half supplied with P, the rates of citrate exudation by either the P-supplied or -deprived root halves were almost the same,regardless of P concentration in the roots. The results suggest that internal P concentration controls root cluster formation and citrate exudation in white lupin, but these processes may be regulated by different mechanisms.

  10. Two mire species respond differently to enhanced ultraviolet-B radiation: effects on biomass allocation and root exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rinnan, Riikka Tiivi Mariisa; Gehrke, Carola; Michelsen, Anders

    2006-01-01

    •  Increased ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation arising from stratospheric ozone depletion may influence soil microbial communities via effects on plant carbon allocation and root exudation. •  Eriophorum angustifolium and Narthecium ossifragum plants, grown in peatland mesocosms consisting of Sphagn...... peat, peat pore water and natural microbial communities, were exposed outdoors to enhanced UV-B radiation simulating 15% ozone depletion in southern Scandinavia for 8 wk. •  Enhanced UV-B increased rhizome biomass and tended to decrease the biomass of the largest root fraction of N....... ossifragum and furthermore decreased dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and monocarboxylic acid concentration, which serves as an estimate of net root exudation, in the pore water of the N. ossifragum mesocosms. Monocarboxylic acid concentration was negatively related to the total carbon concentration of N. ossifragum leaves....... •  Increased UV-B radiation appears to alter below-ground biomass of the mire plants in species-specific patterns, which in turn leads to a change in the net efflux of root exudates....

  11. Looking beyond sugars: phytochemical profiling and standardization of manna exudates from Sicilian Fraxinus excelsior L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caligiani, Augusta; Tonelli, Letizia; Palla, Gerardo; Marseglia, Angela; Rossi, Damiano; Bruni, Renato

    2013-10-01

    Different grades of genuine and counterfeit Fraxinus excelsior exudates, marketed as natural sweeteners or mild laxatives, were evaluated for their proximate composition and for saccharidic, organic acids, lipidic and phenolic profile by means of GC-MS and (1)H NMR. Genuine samples contained mannitol (39-48 g/100 g, according to the grade), fructose (9-16 g/100 g), glucose (2-3.7 g/100 g), sorbitol (0,5-0,6 g/100 g), galactose (0.02-0.74 g/100 g), oligosaccharides as mannotriose (13-22 g/100 g) and stachyose (1-11 g/100 g), and traces of myo-inositol, mannose, sucrose. On the contrary, counterfeit samples contained mostly mannitol and sorbitol, with traces of fructose, glucose and mannose. Differences in ash, total polyphenolic content and fatty acid composition allowed a quick identification of counterfeit products, confirmed by a distinct mono-, oligosaccharidic and phenolic pattern. Elenolic acid (63-1628 mg/kg), tyrosol (15-774 mg/kg), homovanillic acid (2,39-52.8 mg/Kg), dopaol (0.8-63 mg/kg), pinoresinol (4.2-18.5 mg/kg) and fraxetin (0.25-11.64 mg/kg), albeit showing a wide concentration range, were the most abundant substances detected in the phenolic fraction of Fraxinus manna, while esculetin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenacetic acid, 3,4 hydroxybenzoic acid, hydroxy-pinoresinol, medioresinol and siringaresinol were present in low amounts. The polyphenolic profile may be used as a marker for authentication and should be considered in the evaluation of nutritional and health properties ascribed to Fraxinus manna.

  12. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in goats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, F S; Lees, P

    2010-05-01

    In a four-period cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to goats intramuscularly (IM) at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg, both alone and in combination with the non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA), also administered IM at a dose rate of 2 mg/kg. Using a tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the irritant actions of carrageenan, the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA were determined. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were similar for serum (5.60 microg h/mL), inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate; 5.32 microg h/mL) and non-inflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate; 4.82 microg h/mL). Values of mean residence time (MRT) of MB in exudate (15.5 h) and transudate (15.8 h) differed significantly from serum MRT (4.23 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB were investigated using a caprine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Integration of PK data with ex vivo bacterial time-kill curve data for serum, exudate and transudate provided AUC(24h)/minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) ratios of 160, 133 and 121 h, respectively, for the strain of organism used. Modelling of the ex vivo time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24h)/MIC values required for bacteriostatic and bactericidal actions of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism of 27.6, 96.2 and 147.3 h, respectively. Corresponding values for MB+TA were 20.5, 66.5 and 103.0 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules of MB for subsequent clinical evaluation.

  13. Arsenic Induced Phytate Exudation, and Promoted FeAsO4 Dissolution and Plant Growth in As-Hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xue; Fu, Jing-Wei; Guan, Dong-Xing; Cao, Yue; Luo, Jun; Rathinasabapathi, Bala; Chen, Yanshan; Ma, Lena Q

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic hyperaccumulator Pteris vittata (PV) is efficient in taking up As and nutrients from As-contaminated soils. We evaluated the mechanisms used by PV to mobilize As and Fe by examining the impacts of As and root exudates on FeAsO4 solubilization, and As and Fe uptake in four plants: As-hyperaccumulators PV and Pteris multifida (PM), nonhyperaccumulator Pteris ensiformis (PE), and angiosperm plant tomato (Solanum lycopersicum). Phytate and oxalate were dominant in fern plants (>93%), which were 50-83, 15-42, and 0-32 mg kg(-1) phytate and 10-15, 7-26, and 4-12 mg kg(-1) oxalate for PV, PM, and PE respectively, with higher As inducing greater phytate exudation and no phytate being detected in tomato exudates. PV treated with phytate+FeAsO4 had higher As and Fe contents and larger biomass than phytate or FeAsO4 treatment, which were 340 vs 20 and 130 mg kg(-1) As in the fronds and 7900 vs 1600 and 4100 mg kg(-1) Fe in the roots. We hypothesized that As-induced phytate exudation helped PV to take up Fe and As from insoluble FeAsO4 and promoted PV growth. Our study suggests that phytate exudation may be special to fern plants, which may play an important role in enhancing As and nutrient uptake by plants, thereby increasing their efficiency in phytoremediation of As-contaminated soils. PMID:27483027

  14. Leachability of volatile fuel compounds from contaminated soils and the effect of plant exudates: A comparison of column and batch leaching tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balseiro-Romero, María; Kidd, Petra S; Monterroso, Carmen

    2016-03-01

    Volatile fuel compounds such as fuel oxygenates (FO) (MTBE and ETBE) and BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene) are some of the most soluble components of fuel. Characterizing the leaching potential of these compounds is essential for predicting their mobility through the soil profile and assessing the risk of groundwater contamination. Plant root exudates can play an important role in the modification of contaminant mobility in soil-plant systems, and such effects should also be considered in leaching studies. Artificially spiked samples of A and B horizons from an alumi-umbric Cambisol were leached in packed-columns and batch experiments using Milli-Q water and plant root exudates as leaching agents. The leaching potential and rate were strongly influenced by soil-contaminant interactions and by the presence of root exudates. Organic matter in A horizon preferably sorbed the most non-polar contaminants, lowering their leaching potential, and this effect was enhanced by the presence of root exudates. On the other hand, the inorganic components of the B horizon, showed a greater affinity for polar molecules, and the presence of root exudates enhanced the desorption of the contaminants. Column experiments resulted in a more realistic protocol than batch tests for predicting the leaching potential of volatile organic compounds in dissimilar soils. PMID:26619047

  15. Differentiation and distribution of three types of exfoliative toxin produced by Staphylococcus hyicus from pigs with exudative epidermitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole

    1998-01-01

    Exfoliative toxins of approximately 30 kDa produced by Staphylococcus hyicus strains NCTC 10350, 1289D-88 and 842A-88 were purified and specific polyclonal antisera were raised against each of the toxins. It was shown by immunoblot analysis and ELISA that three exfoliative toxins from S. hyicus...... were antigenically distinct. The three toxins were designated ExhA, ExhB and ExhC. From 60 diseased pigs, each representing an outbreak of exudative epidermitis, a total of 584 isolates of S. hl icus were phage typed and tested for production of exfoliative toxin. ExhA-, ExhB- and ExhC-producing S...

  16. Comparison of the effect between pegaptanib and ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration with small lesion size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fujihara M

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Yoshihiro Nishimura1,2, Maiko Taguchi1, Takafumi Nagai1, Masashi Fujihara1,2, Shigeru Honda2, Mamoru Uenishi11Department of Ophthalmology, Mitsubishi Kobe Hospital, Kobe, Japan; 2Department of Surgery, Division of Ophthalmology, Kobe University Graduate School of Medicine, Kobe, JapanPurpose: To compare the effect of pegaptanib versus ranibizumab on exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD with small lesion size.Methods: This is a retrospective study of 81 eyes from 78 patients with exudative AMD treated and followed up over 12 months. Patients with baseline best corrected visual acuity (BCVA under 20/400 and with a greatest linear dimension of lesion over 4500 µm were excluded from the study. Twenty-six eyes from 25 patients were treated with three consecutive intravitreal injections of pegaptanib (IVP group and 55 eyes from 54 patients were treated with three consecutive ranibizumab injections (IVR group. Each therapy was repeated as needed. The alteration in BCVA was evaluated in the IVP and IVR groups.Results: No differences were detected in baseline parameters between the IVP and IVR groups. The mean BCVA (logMAR at month 1, 3, 6 and 12 after the initial treatment was improved from baseline in the IVP group (-0.095, -0.17, -0.18 and -0.18, respectively and in the IVR group (-0.077, -0.15, -0.17 and -0.11, respectively, which was statistically significant. There was no difference in the change in mean BCVA between IVP and IVR groups at the same time periods.Conclusions: The visual outcome of IVP was equivalent with IVR in exudative AMD with small lesion size.Keywords: pegaptanib, ranibizumab, age-related macular degeneration, small lesion size

  17. Effect of danaparoid sodium on proteinuria, von Willebrand factor, and hard exudates in patients with diabetes mellitus type 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Pijl, J W; Lemkes, H H; Frölich, M; van der Woude, F J; van der Meer, F J; Van Es, L A

    1999-06-01

    In diabetic nephropathy, heparan sulfate glycosaminoglycan side chains are reduced in glomerular basement membranes proportionally to the degree of proteinuria. Recently, it was demonstrated that additional therapy with danaparoid sodium, a mixture of sulfated glycosaminoglycans with mainly heparan sulfate, lowered proteinuria in type 1 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy. A randomized placebo-controlled parallel study was performed with 750 anti-Xa units of danaparoid sodium once daily in type 2 diabetes patients with severe proteinuria. The aim of the study was to evaluate the possible effects of danaparoid sodium on proteinuria, endothelial dysfunction, and hard exudates in the retina and to determine the safety/tolerability of this drug. Twenty-two patients completed the study, and one patient had to stop prematurely after 6 wk of danaparoid sodium treatment because of urticaria at the injection sites. Apart from a small decrease of hemoglobin and minor skin hematomas at the injection site in five patients in the danaparoid sodium group, no other safety parameters showed any clinically or statistically significant difference between and within groups. The relative change in time of both the urinary albumin and protein excretion rate corrected for creatinine did not differ between both treatment arms (P = 0.2 and 0.49, respectively). No retinal complications or changes of hard exudates occurred. von Willebrand factor was elevated in both groups, but was not influenced by either treatment modality. Contrary to the beneficial effects that occurred in type 1 diabetes patients with diabetic nephropathy, treatment for 8 wk with 750 anti-Xa units of danaparoid sodium gave no reduction of proteinuria, hard exudates, and von Willebrand factor. PMID:10361873

  18. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic modelling of marbofloxacin administered alone and in combination with tolfenamic acid in calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidhu, P K; Landoni, M F; Aliabadi, M H S; Toutain, P L; Lees, P

    2011-08-01

    In a four-period, cross-over study, the fluoroquinolone antibacterial drug marbofloxacin (MB) was administered to calves, alone and in combination with the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug tolfenamic acid (TA). Both drugs were administered intramuscularly (IM) at doses of 2 mg/kg. A tissue cage model of inflammation, based on the actions of the mild irritant carrageenan, was used to evaluate the pharmacokinetics (PK) of MB and MB in combination with TA. MB mean values of area under concentration-time curve (AUC) were 15.1 μg·h/mL for serum, 12.1 μg·h/mL for inflamed tissue cage fluid (exudate) and 9.6 μg·h/mL for noninflamed tissue cage fluid (transudate). Values of C(max) were 1.84, 0.35 and 0.31 μg/mL, respectively, for serum, exudate and transudate. Mean residence time (MRT) of 23.6 h (exudate) and 22.6 h (transudate) also differed significantly from serum MRT (8.6 h). Co-administration of TA did not affect the PK profile of MB. The pharmacodynamics of MB was investigated using a bovine strain of Mannheimia haemolytica. Time-kill curves were established ex vivo on serum, exudate and transudate samples. Modelling the ex vivo serum time-kill data to the sigmoid E(max) equation provided AUC(24 h) /MIC values required for bacteriostatic (18.3 h) and bactericidal actions (92 h) of MB and for virtual eradication of the organism was 139 h. Corresponding values for MB + TA were 20.1, 69 and 106 h. These data were used to predict once daily dosage schedules for a bactericidal action, assuming a MIC(90) value of 0.24 μg/mL, a dose of 2.6 mg/kg for MB and 2.19 mg/kg for MB + TA were determined, which are similar to the currently recommended dose of 2.0 mg/kg.

  19. Pleural effusion following ventriculo-pleural shunt: Case reports and review of the literature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kupeli Elif

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ventriculo-pleural shunt (VPLS is an acceptable alternative in the management of hydrocephalus. Imbalance between the production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid an lead to formation of pleural effusion in patient with VPLS and on occasion produce symptoms. Pleural effusion could be a transudate or a non-specific exudate. We report our experience with this modality in relation to formation of pleural effusion and review the literature to make recommendation for its management. Information related to patients′ demographics, smoking history, prior pulmonary and occupational history, indication, duration and complications of the VPLS and their management was gathered to substantiate current recommendation with our experience.

  20. Histamine-induced airway mucosal exudation of bulk plasma and plasma-derived mediators is not inhibited by intravenous bronchodilators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, C; Alkner, U; Pipkorn, U; Persson, C G

    1994-01-01

    Experimental data suggest the possibility that common bronchodilators, such as the xanthines and beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, may produce microvascular anti-permeability effects in the subepithelial microcirculation of the airways. In this study, we have examined the effect of bronchodilators given intravenously on exudation of different-sized plasma proteins (albumin and fibrinogen) and the generation of plasma-derived peptides (bradykinins) in human nasal airways challenged with histamine. In a double-blind, crossover, placebo-controlled and randomised trial, 12 normal volunteers were given i.v.infusions of terbutaline sulphate, theophylline and enprofylline to produce therapeutic drug levels. The effect of topical nasal provocation with histamine was closely followed by frequently nasal lavage with saline. The lavage fluid levels of albumin, fibrinogen and bradykinins increased significantly after each histamine provocation. The ratio of albumin-to-fibrinogen in plasma and the lavage fluid was 24 and 56, respectively, indicating that topical histamine provocation induced a largely non-sieved flux of macromolecules across the endothelial-epithelial barriers. The systemically administered drugs did not affect the nasal symptoms (sneezing, secretion and blockage), nor did they significantly reduce the levels of plasma proteins and plasma-derived mediators in the nasal lavage fluids. The present data suggest that systemic xanthines and beta 2-adrenoceptor agonists, at clinically employed plasma levels, may not affect the microvascular (and epithelial) exudative permeability and the bradykinin forming capacity of human airways. PMID:8005188

  1. Modeling of Heat Transfer and Interdendritic Strain for Exuded Surface Segregation Layer in the Direct Chill Casting of Aluminum Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Bealy, Mostafa Omar

    2016-02-01

    This investigation on the formation of exuded surface segregation layer " ESSL" is intended to provide experimental and simulated comparison to verify the model developed previously by El-Bealy. Preliminary verification and calibration of the previous 2D mathematical model are demonstrated by quantitative errors between the previous measurements and predictions of temperature and macrosegregation. Also, the results from these comparisons reveal that the errors are in the reasonable and within allowable limits. These comparisons lead to the fact that the exuded surface segregation layer mostly forms on the middle slice of broad sheet ingot face and in the early stages of mold zone. The model predictions point out also that the different interdendritic strain hypotheses associated with fluctuations of mold cooling conditions. This affects the interdendritic liquid flow between the equiaxed crystals which influences the severity of ESSL formation and its macrosegregation level. The mechanism of ESSL with heat flow and interdendritic strain generation has been analyzed and discussed. The quantitative comparisons between the pervious experimental results and numerical simulation in this investigation reveal also several solutions to prevent this defect for future work.

  2. [Comparison of the effects of laser and light-emitting diodes on lipid peroxidation in rat wound exudate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klebanov, G I; Shuraeva, N Iu; Chichuk, T V; Osipov, A N; Vladimirov, Iu A

    2006-01-01

    The effect of laser and light-emitting diode radiation on lipid peroxidation in rat wound exudate was studied with the aim to compare the efficiency of coherent laser and incoherent light-emitting diode radiations. A model of aseptic wound in rat suggested by L.I. Slutskii was used. A He-Ne laser (632 nm) and a U-332B light-emitting diode were used in this study. The intensity of lipid peroxidation was estimated by the TBA assay. The antioxidative capacity of rat wound fluid was evaluated by means of chemiluminescent assays in two model systems: a) aqueous system with ABAP and luminol and b) in phospholipid liposome suspension with Fe2+ and cumarin. It was shown that exposure of rat wounds to both laser and light-emitting diode radiation decreased the concentration of TBA products and increased the antioxidative capacity of wound exudates, compared with the control group (without irradiation). The results obtained show that exposure of wounds to both laser and light-emitting diode irradiation causes a decrease in the oxidative stress in the rat wound fluid. No significant quantitative difference between the effects of laser and light-emitting diode irradiation was found. PMID:16637342

  3. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH. PMID:27101777

  4. Rhizosphere priming effect on soil organic carbon decomposition under plant species differing in soil acidification and root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tang, Caixian; Severi, Julia; Butterly, Clayton R; Baldock, Jeff A

    2016-08-01

    Effects of rhizosphere properties on the rhizosphere priming effect (RPE) are unknown. This study aimed to link species variation in RPE with plant traits and rhizosphere properties. Four C3 species (chickpea, Cicer arietinum; field pea, Pisum sativum; wheat, Triticum aestivum; and white lupin, Lupinus albus) differing in soil acidification and root exudation, were grown in a C4 soil. The CO2 released from soil was trapped using a newly developed NaOH-trapping system. White lupin and wheat showed greater positive RPEs, in contrast to the negative RPE produced by chickpea. The greatest RPE of white lupin was in line with its capacity to release root exudates, whereas the negative RPE of chickpea was attributed to its great ability to acidify rhizosphere soil. The enhanced RPE of field pea at maturity might result from high nitrogen deposition and release of structural root carbon components following root senescence. Root biomass and length played a minor role in the species variation in RPE. Rhizosphere acidification was shown to be an important factor affecting the magnitude and direction of RPE. Future studies on RPE modelling and mechanistic understanding of the processes that regulate RPE should consider the effect of rhizosphere pH.

  5. Detection of QTL for exudation rate at ripening stage in rice and its contribution to hydraulic conductance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Toshio; Suzuki, Tadafumi; Suzuki, Kenji; Adachi, Shunsuke; Sun, Jian; Yano, Masahiro; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2016-01-01

    Dry matter production of crops is determined by how much light they intercept and how efficiently they use it for carbon fixation; i.e., photosynthesis. The high-yielding rice cultivar, Akenohoshi, maintains a high photosynthetic rate in the middle of the day owing to its high hydraulic conductance in comparison with the elite commercial rice cultivar, Koshihikari. We developed 94 recombinant inbred lines derived from Akenohoshi and Koshihikari and measured their exudation rate to calculate hydraulic conductance to osmotic water transport in a paddy field. A quantitative trait locus (QTL) for exudation rate was detected on the long arm of chromosome 2 at the heading and ripening stages. We developed chromosome segment substitution lines which carried Akenohoshi segments in the Koshihikari genetic background, and measured hydraulic conductance to both osmotic and passive water transport. The QTL was confirmed to be located within a region of about 4.2Mbp on the distal end of long arm of chromosome 2. The Akenohoshi allele increased root surface area and hydraulic conductance, but didn't increase hydraulic conductivity of a plant.

  6. A mathematical model of sap exudation in maple trees governed by ice melting, gas dissolution and osmosis

    CERN Document Server

    Ceseri, Maurizio

    2013-01-01

    We develop a mathematical model for sap exudation in a maple tree that is based on a purely physical mechanism for internal pressure generation in trees in the leafless state. There has been a long-standing controversy in the tree physiology literature over precisely what mechanism drives sap exudation, and we aim to cast light on this issue. Our model is based on the work of Milburn and O'Malley [Can. J. Bot., 62(10):2101-2106, 1984] who hypothesized that elevated sap pressures derive from compressed gas that is trapped within certain wood cells and subsequently released when frozen sap thaws in the spring. We also incorporate the extension of Tyree [in Tree Sap, pp. 37-45, eds. M. Terazawa et al., Hokkaido Univ. Press, 1995] who argued that gas bubbles are prevented from dissolving because of osmotic pressure that derives from differences in sap sugar concentrations and the selective permeability of cell walls. We derive a system of differential-algebraic equations based on conservation principles that is u...

  7. Effects of root exudates of bivalent transgenic cotton (Bt+CpTI) plants on antioxidant proteins and growth of conventional cotton (Xinluhan 33).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Hong-Sheng; Shi, Xue; Li, Ji; Wu, Tian-Yu; Ren, Qian-Qi; Zhang, Zhen-Hua; Wang, Ming-Yan; Shang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Yan; Xiao, Song-Hua

    2016-01-01

    A greenhouse experiment was conducted to assess the adverse impact of transgenic cotton on ecosystem and environment via effect of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton root exudates on growth and antioxidant activity of conventional parental cotton. Results showed elevated reductive and oxidative species activities in the leaves of conventional parental cotton seedlings treated with varying concentrations of transgenic cotton root exudates. Compared to control, 14.9% to 39.9% increase in catalase, 8.8% to 114% increase in for peroxidase, 21.3% to 59.7% increase in phenylalanine ammonia-lyase and 5.8 to 19.5 fold in ascorbate specific peroxidase was observed. However, biomass and height of conventional cotton seedlings were not affected by any concentration of transgenic cotton root exudates. These results suggested that cultivation of transgenic Bt+CpTI cotton plants poses little risk to conventional parental cotton based on their root interactions. PMID:26930855

  8. Fatty acid derivatives and dammarane triterpenes from the glandular trichome exudates of Ibicella lutea and Proboscidea louisiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asai, Teigo; Hara, Noriyuki; Fujimoto, Yoshinori

    2010-06-01

    Ibicellalutea and Proboscidea louisiana, both of the Martyniaceae family, are known for rich glandular trichomes on their leaves and stems. Chemical investigations of the glandular trichome exudates on leaves of the two plants furnished three types of secondary metabolites, glycosylated fatty acids, glycerides (2-O-(3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols and 2-O-(3-acetyloxyfattyacyl)glycerols) and dammarane triterpenes. The glycosylated fatty acids from I. lutea were determined to be 6(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-octadecanoic acid (1A), -eicosanoic acid (1B) and -docosanoic acid (1C), as well as their respective deacetyl congeners (2A, 2B and 2C), whereas P. louisiana furnished 8(S)-(6-O-acetyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-eicosanoic acid (3A) and -docosanoic acid (3B) and their respective deacetyl congeners (4A and 4B), together with 2B. Both plants contained 12 identical 2-O-[(3R,6S)-3,6-diacetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (5A-L), in which the fatty acyl moieties contained between 17 and 21 carbon atoms. The corresponding mono-acetyloxy compounds, 2-O-[(3R)-3-acetyloxyfattyacyl]glycerols (6A-L) were detected in both plants. Among these glycerides, ten compounds (5A, 5C, 5F, 5H, 5K, 6A, 6C, 6F, 6H and 6K) had iso-fattyacyl structures and four (5E, 5J, 6E and 6J) had anteiso-fattyacyl structures. A previously unknown dammarane triterpene, betulatriterpene C 3-acetate (7), was isolated together with three known dammarane triterpenes, 24-epi-polacandrin 1,3-diacetate (8), betulatriterpene C (9) and 24-epi-polacandrin 3-acetate (10) from I. lutea, whereas 12 dammarane triterpenes, named probosciderols A-L (12-23), and the known compound betulafolienetriol (11) were isolated from P. louisiana. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic analysis including 2D-NMR techniques and chemical transformations. The 6-O-acetylglucosyloxy-fatty acids 1A-C (42%) and the dammarane triterpenes 7-10 (31%) were the two most abundant constituents in the

  9. Lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate potently regulates root-knot nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to block infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Linlin; Li, Xiaolin; Huang, Li; Gao, Ying; Zhong, Lina; Zheng, Yuanyuan; Zuo, Yuanmei

    2014-01-01

    Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) crops can be severely damaged due to parasitism by the root-knot nematode (RKN) Meloidogyne incognita, but are protected when intercropped with crown daisy (Chrysanthemum coronarium L.). Root exudate may be the determining factor for this protection. An experiment using pots linked by a tube and Petri dish experiments were undertaken to confirm that tomato-crown daisy intercropping root exudate decreased the number of nematodes and alleviated nematode damage, and to determine crown daisy root exudate-regulated nematode chemotaxis. Following a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry assay, it was found that the intercropping protection was derived from the potent bioactivity of a specific root exudate component of crown daisy, namely lauric acid. The Mi-flp-18 gene, encoding an FMRFamide-like peptide neuromodulator, regulated nematode chemotaxis and infection by RNA interference. Moreover, it was shown that lauric acid acts as both a lethal trap and a repellent for M. incognita by specifically regulating Mi-flp-18 expression in a concentration-dependent manner. Low concentrations of lauric acid (0.5-2.0mM) attract M. incognita and consequently cause death, while high concentrations (4.0mM) repel M. incognita. This study elucidates how lauric acid in crown daisy root exudate regulates nematode chemotaxis and disrupts Mi-flp-18 expression to alleviate nematode damage, and presents a general methodology for studying signalling systems affected by plant root exudates in the rhizosphere. This could lead to the development of economical and feasible strategies for controlling plant-parasitic nematodes, and provide an alternative to the use of pesticides in farming systems. PMID:24170741

  10. Automatic Detection of Retinal Exudates using a Support Vector Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Nualsawat HIRANSAKOLWONG; Ekkarat POTHIRUK; Kittipol WISAENG

    2013-01-01

    Retinal exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Correct and efficient screening of exudates is very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. Therefore, the retinal image is crucial and essential for experts to detect exudates. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that retinal images in Thailand are poor...

  11. Non-targeted profiling of semi-polar metabolites in Arabidopsis root exudates uncovers a role for coumarin secretion and lignification during the local response to phosphate limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziegler, Jörg; Schmidt, Stephan; Chutia, Ranju; Müller, Jens; Böttcher, Christoph; Strehmel, Nadine; Scheel, Dierk; Abel, Steffen

    2016-03-01

    Plants have evolved two major strategies to cope with phosphate (Pi) limitation. The systemic response, mainly comprising increased Pi uptake and metabolic adjustments for more efficient Pi use, and the local response, enabling plants to explore Pi-rich soil patches by reorganization of the root system architecture. Unlike previous reports, this study focused on root exudation controlled by the local response to Pi deficiency. To approach this, a hydroponic system separating the local and systemic responses was developed. Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes exhibiting distinct sensitivities to Pi deficiency could be clearly distinguished by their root exudate composition as determined by non-targeted reversed-phase ultraperformance liquid chromatography electrospray ionization quadrupole-time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolite profiling. Compared with wild-type plants or insensitive low phosphate root 1 and 2 (lpr1 lpr2) double mutant plants, the hypersensitive phosphate deficiency response 2 (pdr2) mutant exhibited a reduced number of differential features in root exudates after Pi starvation, suggesting the involvement of PDR2-encoded P5-type ATPase in root exudation. Identification and analysis of coumarins revealed common and antagonistic regulatory pathways between Pi and Fe deficiency-induced coumarin secretion. The accumulation of oligolignols in root exudates after Pi deficiency was inversely correlated with Pi starvation-induced lignification at the root tips. The strongest oligolignol accumulation in root exudates was observed for the insensitive lpr1 lpr2 double mutant, which was accompanied by the absence of Pi deficiency-induced lignin deposition, suggesting a role of LPR ferroxidases in lignin polymerization during Pi starvation. PMID:26685189

  12. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fleming, Alan D [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Philip, Sam [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Goatman, Keith A [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom); Williams, Graeme J [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Olson, John A [Diabetes Retinal Screening Service, David Anderson Building, Foresterhill Road, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZP (United Kingdom); Sharp, Peter F [Biomedical Physics, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen, AB25 2ZD (United Kingdom)

    2007-12-21

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy.

  13. Automated detection of exudates for diabetic retinopathy screening

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Automated image analysis is being widely sought to reduce the workload required for grading images resulting from diabetic retinopathy screening programmes. The recognition of exudates in retinal images is an important goal for automated analysis since these are one of the indicators that the disease has progressed to a stage requiring referral to an ophthalmologist. Candidate exudates were detected using a multi-scale morphological process. Based on local properties, the likelihoods of a candidate being a member of classes exudate, drusen or background were determined. This leads to a likelihood of the image containing exudates which can be thresholded to create a binary decision. Compared to a clinical reference standard, images containing exudates were detected with sensitivity 95.0% and specificity 84.6% in a test set of 13 219 images of which 300 contained exudates. Depending on requirements, this method could form part of an automated system to detect images showing either any diabetic retinopathy or referable diabetic retinopathy

  14. Guaianolides and a seco-Eudesmane from the Resinous Exudates of Cushion Bush (Leucophyta brownii) and Evaluation of Their Cytostatic and Anti-inflammatory Activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldgaard, Mette G; Purup, Stig; Bond, Andrew D;

    2015-01-01

    A detailed phytochemical investigation of a dichloromethane extract of the resinous exudates of the cushion bush plant (Leucophyta brownii) resulted in the isolation of the new 8,12-guaianolides leucophytalins A (5) and B (6), the new 1,10-seco-eudesmane leucophytalin C (10), six rare 8,12-guaian...... (+)-germacrene A, and a biosynthetic pathway is proposed for these sesquiterpenoids....

  15. Medium-term response of microbial community to rhizodeposits of white clover and ryegrass and tracing of active processes induced by 13C and 15N labelled exudates

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kusliene, Gedrime; Rasmussen, Jim; Kuzyakov, Yakov;

    2014-01-01

    and actinomycetes was unaffected by plant species, but pool of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria was greater under white clover at the 10 percent significance level. In the short term, microorganisms more actively utilised fresh exudates (13C-labelled) of ryegrass than of white clover. We expected ryegrass...

  16. THE CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF EXUDATES

    OpenAIRE

    K. Wisaeng; N. Hiransakolwong; E. Pothiruk

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating ...

  17. Response of Nodularia spumigena to pCO2 – Part 2: Exudation and extracellular enzyme activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Nausch

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The filamentous and diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nodularia spumigena plays a major role in the productivity of the Baltic Sea as it forms extensive blooms regularly. Under phosphorus limiting conditions Nodularia spumigena has a high enzyme affinity for dissolved organic phosphorus (DOP by production and release of alkaline phosphatase. Additionally, it is able to degrade proteinaceous compounds by expressing the extracellular enzyme leucine aminopeptidase. As atmospheric CO2 concentrations are increasing, we expect marine phytoplankton to experience changes in several environmental parameters including pH, temperature, and nutrient availability. The aim of this study was to investigate the combined effect of CO2-induced changes in seawater carbonate chemistry and of phosphate deficiency on the exudation of organic matter, and its subsequent recycling by extracellular enzymes in a Nodularia spumigena culture. Batch cultures of Nodularia spumigena were grown for 15 days aerated with three different pCO2 levels corresponding to values from glacial periods to future values projected for the year 2100. Extracellular enzyme activities as well as changes in organic and inorganic compound concentrations were monitored. CO2 treatment–related effects were identified for cyanobacterial growth, which in turn was influencing exudation and recycling of organic matter by extracellular enzymes. Biomass production was increased by 56.5% and 90.7% in the medium and high pCO2 treatment, respectively, compared to the low pCO2 treatment and simultaneously increasing exudation. During the growth phase significantly more mucinous substances accumulated in the high pCO2 treatment reaching 363 μg Gum Xanthan eq l−1 compared to 269 μg Gum Xanthan eq l−1 in the low pCO2 treatment. However, cell-specific rates did not change. After phosphate depletion, the acquisition of P from DOP by alkaline phosphatase was significantly enhanced. Alkaline phosphatase activities

  18. Artificial Root Exudate System (ARES): a field approach to simulate tree root exudation in soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez-Sangil, Luis; Estradera-Gumbau, Eduard; George, Charles; Sayer, Emma

    2016-04-01

    The exudation of labile solutes by fine roots represents an important strategy for plants to promote soil nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems. Compounds exuded by roots (mainly sugars, carboxylic and amino acids) provide energy to soil microbes, thus priming the mineralization of soil organic matter (SOM) and the consequent release of inorganic nutrients into the rhizosphere. Studies in several forest ecosystems suggest that tree root exudates represent 1 to 10% of the total photoassimilated C, with exudation rates increasing markedly under elevated CO2 scenarios. Despite their importance in ecosystem functioning, we know little about how tree root exudation affect soil carbon dynamics in situ. This is mainly because there has been no viable method to experimentally control inputs of root exudates at field scale. Here, I present a method to apply artificial root exudates below the soil surface in small field plots. The artificial root exudate system (ARES) consists of a water container with a mixture of labile carbon solutes (mimicking tree root exudate rates and composition), which feeds a system of drip-tips covering an area of 1 m2. The tips are evenly distributed every 20 cm and inserted 4-cm into the soil with minimal disturbance. The system is regulated by a mechanical timer, such that artificial root exudate solution can be applied at frequent, regular daily intervals. We tested ARES from April to September 2015 (growing season) within a leaf-litter manipulation experiment ongoing in temperate deciduous woodland in the UK. Soil respiration was measured monthly, and soil samples were taken at the end of the growing season for PLFA, enzymatic activity and nutrient analyses. First results show a very rapid mineralization of the root exudate compounds and, interestingly, long-term increases in SOM respiration, with negligible effects on soil moisture levels. Large positive priming effects (2.5-fold increase in soil respiration during the growing

  19. Lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion following extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy in an adult: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nouri-Majalan Nader

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Among the complications of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy are perinephric bleeding and hypertension. Case presentation We describe the case of a 31-year-old Asian man with an unusual case of hemoptysis and lung contusion and cavitation with exudative plural effusion due to pulmonary trauma following false positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy. Differential diagnoses included pneumonia and pulmonary emboli, but these diagnoses were ruled out by the uniformly negative results of a lung perfusion scan, Doppler ultrasound, and culture of bronchoalveolar lavage and plural effusion, and because our patient showed spontaneous improvement. Conclusions False positioning of extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy can cause lung trauma presenting as pulmonary contusion and cavitation with plural effusion.

  20. Comparative Study of Elaeis Guiniensis Exudates (Palm Wine as a Corrosion Inhibitor for Mild Steel in Acidic and Basic Solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Nwigbo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study has explored the possibility of using a typical plant extract other than the use of conventional materials as corrosion inhibitor. Elaeis guinensis exudates (Palm wine, which contains carbonyl groups, double bonds and triple bonds as shown by the FTIR, Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and phytochemical tests is a one of good natural materials as corrosion inhibitor. This paper was focused on the behaviour of palm wine as corrosion inhibitor for mild steel in (0.1 and 0.5 M H2SO4 and NaOH solutions at 303 and 333 K temperatures and inhibitor concentrations using weight loss measurement. Results showed that weight loss decreases as concentration of both solutions studied increase. The inhibitor performs better under the basic solution compared to the acidic solution. The kinetics results showed that activation energy increases as temperature and inhibitors concentration increase. Palm wine inhibitor adsorbed on the surface of mild steel through physical adsorption.

  1. Early and exudative age-related macular degeneration is associated with increased plasma levels of soluble TNF receptor II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Faber, Carsten; Jehs, Tina; Juel, Helene Baek;

    2015-01-01

    and other proteins implicated in AMD pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to test whether increased plasma levels of cytokines were present in patients with AMD. METHODS: We conducted a case-control study. Age-related macular degeneration status was assessed using standardized multimodal imaging...... forms of AMD and 74 controls. Significantly increased levels of sTNFRII were observed in patients with early or exudative AMD (p age, sex and smoking history, the level of sTNFRII remained a significant predictor for prevalence of AMD with odds ratios...... at 3.0 in the middle and 3.6 in the highest tertiles. Levels of IL15, IL18 and IFNγ were low and not associated with AMD. CONCLUSIONS: Increased plasma level of sTNFRII is found to be associated with AMD. The data supports the observations of low-grade, systemic inflammatory alterations in patients...

  2. Detection and molecular characterization of porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) from piglets with exudative epidermitis in Uruguay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Natalia; Mirazo, Santiago; Castro, Gustavo; Arbiza, Juan

    2012-10-01

    Porcine circovirus type 2 (PCV2) is an economically important emerging pathogen associated with distinct syndromes and diseases in swine, collectively known as porcine circovirus associated diseases (PCVAD). The main purpose of this study was to investigate the presence of PCV2 in piglets affected with exudative epidermitis (EE) in Uruguay. In addition we aimed to analyze the phylogenetic relationships of the isolated strains. In June 2011 an outbreak of EE detected in a small herd was reported. Piglets presented skin lesions compatible with EE and symptoms associated with postweaning multisystemic wasting syndrome (PMWS) were also observed. Sera from affected and healthy animals were tested for the presence of viral DNA. Exclusively, diseased piglets were infected with PCV2. Phylogenetic analysis showed that PCV2 isolates belonged to PCV2b genotype. We report the detection and molecular characterization of PCV2 strains for the first time in Uruguay.

  3. INFLUENCE OF ROOT EXUDATES AND BACTERIAL METABOLIC ACTIVITY ON APPARENT CONJUGAL GENE TRANSFER FREQUENCIES IN THE RHIZOSPHERE OF WATER GRASS (ECHINOCLORA CRUSGALLI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The premise that genetic exchange is primarily localized in niches characterized by dense bacterial populations and high availability of growth substrates was tested by relating conjugal gene transfer of an RP4 derivative to availability of root exudates and bacterial metabolic a...

  4. Trends in antimicrobial susceptibility in relation to antimicrobial usage and presence of resistance genes in Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Jensen, Lars Bogø

    2002-01-01

    From 1996 to 2001 a total of 467 Staphylococcus hyicus isolates from exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs in Denmark were examined for susceptibility to 13 different antimicrobial agents. The presence of selected genes encoding macrolide (erm(A), erm(B) and erm(C)), penicillin (blaZ), streptogramin...

  5. Determination of Organi Acids in Root Exudates by High Performance Liquid Chromatorgraphy:Ⅰ.Develop—ment and Assessment of Chromatographic Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJIANBO; ZHANGFUSUO; 等

    1998-01-01

    Methods for determining niene low molecular-weight oragnic acids in root exudates were developed by using reversed-phase high performance liquied chromatography with UV (ultraviolet) detection at 214 nm. The mobile phase was 18 mmol L-1 kH2PO4 adjusted to pH 2.25 with phosporic acid nd the flow rate was 0.3 mL min-1,The analytical column was a reversed-phase silica based C-18 column( shim-pack CLC-ODS).The root exudates were collected through submerging the whole root system into aerated deionized water for 2 hours ,The filtered exudate solutions were concentrated to dryness by rotary evaporation at 40℃,dissolved in 10 mL mobile phase.The chromatoraphic conditions of organic acid determination were analyzed.The results showed that there was a high selectivity and sensitivity in the organic acid determination by reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography.Coefficients of variation for organic acied determination were lower than 10% except lactic acid .The recoveries were consistently between 80.1% to 108.3% .Detection limits were approximately 0.05 to 4.5 mg L-1 for organic acids except succinic acid with the detection limit of 7.0 mg L-1 .Phosphorus deficiency may contribute to the release of organic acids in soybean root exudates especially malic,lactic and citric acids.

  6. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato-three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. WinRHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. Barley showed a reduction in root length and root surface area and an increase in root-exuded malic acid under low-P conditions. Potato exuded relatively small amounts of OAs under low P, while there was a marked increase in root tips. Based on the results, we conclude that different crops show divergent morphological and physiological responses to low P availability, having evolved specific traits of root morphology and root exudation that enhance their P-uptake capacity under low-P conditions. These results could underpin future efforts to improve P uptake of the three crops that are of importance for future sustainable crop production. PMID:26286222

  7. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato—three important food crops with divergent root traits, using a hydroponic plant growth system. We hypothesized that the dicots canola and tuber-producing potato and the monocot barley would respond differently under various P availabilities. WinRHIZO and liquid chromatography triple quadrupole mass spectrometry results suggested that under low P availability, canola developed longer roots and exhibited the fastest root exudation rate for citric acid. Barley showed a reduction in root length and root surface area and an increase in root-exuded malic acid under low-P conditions. Potato exuded relatively small amounts of OAs under low P, while there was a marked increase in root tips. Based on the results, we conclude that different crops show divergent morphological and physiological responses to low P availability, having evolved specific traits of root morphology and root exudation that enhance their P-uptake capacity under low-P conditions. These results could underpin future efforts to improve P uptake of the three crops that are of importance for future sustainable crop production. PMID:26286222

  8. Organic acids, amino acids compositions in the root exudates and Cu-accumulation in castor (Ricinus communis L.) Under Cu stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guoyong; Guo, Guangguang; Yao, Shiyuan; Zhang, Na; Hu, Hongqing

    2016-01-01

    Ricinus communis L. is a hyperaccumulation plant newly discovered in an abandoned land of Cu mine in China. A hydroponic experiment was then carried out to determine the root exudates in the Cu-tolerant castor (Ricinus communis L.). Plants were grown in nutrient solution with increasing level of Cu doses (0, 100, 250, 500, and 750 μmol/L Cu) in the form of CuSO4. Cu accumulation in the roots and shoots of castor, and root exudates collected from the castor were measured. The results indicated that the castor had a high Cu accumulation capacity and the Cu concentrations in the shoots and roots of the castor treated with 750 μmol/L Cu were 177.1, 14586.7 mg/kg, respectively. Tartaric was the largest in the root exudates in terms of concentrations, which reached up to 329.13 μmol/g (dry plant) in the level of 750 μmol/L Cu. There was a significantly positive linear relationship between the Cu concentration in root and the concentration of succinic (R = 0.92, P < 0.05), tartaric (R = 0.96, P < 0.01), and citric (R = 0.89, P < 0.05). These results indicated that the difference in root exudation from castor could affect their Cu tolerance. What is more, significant is that the high tartaric and citric, the low oxalic and cysteine in the root exudation of castor contributed to toleration of high Cu concentrations.

  9. Disappearance of diabetic macular hard exudates after hemodialysis introduction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matsuo,Toshihiko

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    We report herein the disappearance of macular hard exudates after the introduction of hemodialysis in diabetic patients. A 62-year-old woman and a 52-year-old man with diabetes mellitus showed hard exudates in the macula of the left eyes. Both patients had previously undergone panretinal photocoagulation in both eyes. During the follow-up, hemodialysis was introduced for deteriorating chronic renal failure caused by diabetic nephropathy. Half a year later, macular hard exudates in the left eyes disappeared dramatically in both patients, but the visual acuity remained the same. No additional laser treatment was done during the observation period. Hemodialysis is considered to have accelerated the resolution of macular hard exudates in both patients. The deposition of macular hard exudates in diabetic patients is due in part to concurrent poor renal function.

  10. Root-exuded acid phosphatase and 32Pi-uptake kinetics of wheat, rye and triticale under phosphorus starvation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A nutrient culture experiment was conducted with cereal species viz., wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) cv. PBW-343), rye (Secale cereale L cv. R-308) and triticale (Triticale octoploide L. cv. DT-46), a hybrid of wheat and rye, to examine the genetic variation in root-exuded acid phosphatase (ACPase) activity and kinetics of 32Pi-uptake under P deficient condition. The ACPase activity was assayed in the extract (intra-) and on surface (extra-cellular) or root, using p-nitrophenyl phosphate as substrate. Significantly higher ACPase activity was observed in wheat followed by rye and triticale both on the root surface and in root extract. In general, root surface ACPase activity was 2.2-fold higher than that in root extract. A strong correlation (r2 = 0.87**) between extra and intra-cellular ACPase activity was observed. In terms of kinetic parameters, it was observed that 32Pi uptake and Imax values were significantly higher in rye while Cmin and Km were lowest compared to wheat and triticale. The dry weights of shoot, root and total plant were significantly higher in rye compared to wheat and triticale. Rye also had higher amount of total plant P content The superiority of rye over wheat and triticale in P uptake was observed mainly due to efficient Pi-uptake system, which needs further studies to ascertain the enhancement of Pi-induced high-affinity P transporter in these cereals. (author)

  11. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions

    OpenAIRE

    L.E. Makarova; L.V. Dudareva; I.G. Petrova

    2015-01-01

    The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC) and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine) in the root exudates of the pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. ) at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content ...

  12. Influence of season and salinity on the exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs) by Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2015-01-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere. This phenomenon occurs for several purposes, for instance, the detoxification of pollutants. Nevertheless, knowledge about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots is still scarce. This work aimed at studying: 1) the ability of marsh plants, freshly collected in estuarine marshes, to liberate ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium and 2) the influence of the physiological cycle of these plants on the exudation of those substances. In vitro experiments were carried out, in different seasons, with Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides (two marsh plants widely distributed in Europe). Root exudates were collected in freshwater to which plant specimens, in different physiological stages, were exposed. Both marsh plants were capable of liberating oxalic and citric acids into the surrounding medium. Formic acid was also released by P. australis roots and acetic acid by H. portulacoides. There was a seasonal effect on the liberation of ALMWOAs by both plant roots. Marked changes were registered in the nature and levels of the ALMWOAs liberated and such changes depended upon the season in which the specimens were collected. In growing season, a significantly higher liberation of oxalic and citric acids (and acetic acid but only in H. portulacoides case) was observed. For P. australis, formic acid was only found in the decaying stage (autumn and winter). The nature of the medium (in particular, salinity) was a feature conditioning the exudation of ALMWOAs. Both plants were shown to contribute for the presence of ALMWOAs in marsh rhizosediments (some ALMWOAs were found in pore waters extracted). The nature and extent of this contribution will be however dependent upon plants' physiological stage, in addition to plant species. Therefore, these features should be taken into consideration in the event of

  13. Aluminum tolerance of two wheat cultivars (Brevor and Atlas66) in relation to their rhizosphere pH and organic acids exuded from roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ping; Bi, Shuping; Ma, Liping; Han, Weiying

    2006-12-27

    Phytotoxicity of aluminum (Al) has become a serious problem in inhibiting plant growth on acid soils. Under Al stress, the changes of rhizosphere pH, root elongation, absorption of Al by wheat roots, organic acids exuded from roots, and some main factors related to Al-tolerant mechanisms have been studied using hydroponics, fluorescence spectrophotometry, and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Two wheat cultivars, Brevor and Atlas66, differing in Al tolerance are chosen in the study. Accordingly, the rhizosphere pH has a positive effect on Al tolerance. Atlas66 (Al-tolerant) has higher capability to maintain high rhizosphere pH than Brevor (Al-sensitive) does. High pH can reduce Al3+ activity and toxicity, and increase the efficiency of exuding organic acids from the roots. More inhibition of root elongation has been found in Brevor because of the exposure of roots to Al3+ solution at low pH. Brevor accumulate more Al in roots than Atlas66 even at higher pH. Al-induced exudation of malic and citric acids has been found in Atlas66 roots, while no Al-induced organic acids have been found in Brevor. These results indicate that the Al-induced secretion of organic acids from Atlas66 roots has a positive correlation with Al tolerance. Comprehensive treatment of Al3+ and H+ indicates that wheat is adversely influenced by excess Al3+, rather than low pH. PMID:17177538

  14. Bioavailable concentrations of germanium and rare earth elements in soil as affected by low molecular weight organic acids and root exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiche, Oliver; Székely, Balázs; Kummer, Nicolai-Alexeji; Heinemann, Ute; Tesch, Silke; Heilmeier, Hermann

    2014-05-01

    Availability of elements in soil to plant is generally dependent on the solubility and mobility of elements in soil solution which is controlled by soil, elemental properties and plant-soil interactions. Low molecular organic acids or other root exudates may increase mobility and availability of certain elements for plants as an effect of lowering pH in the rhizosphere and complexation. However, these processes take place in a larger volume in soil, therefore to understand their nature, it is also important to know in which layers of the soil what factors modify these processes. In this work the influence of citric acid and root exudates of white lupin (Lupinus albus L.) on bioavailable concentrations of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and uptake in root and shoot of rape (Brassica napus L.), comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.), common millet (Panicum milliaceum L.) and oat (Avena sativa L.) was investigated. Two different pot experiments were conducted: (1) the mentioned plant species were treated with nutrient solutions containing various amount of citric acid; (2) white lupin was cultivated in mixed culture (0 % lupin, 33 % lupin) with oat (Avena sativa L.) and soil solution was obtained by plastic suction cups placed at various depths. As a result, addition of citric acid significantly increased germanium concentrations in plant tissue of comfrey and rape and increased translocation of germanium, lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium from root to shoot. The cultivation of white lupin in mixed culture with oat led to significantly higher concentrations of germanium and increasing concentrations of lanthan, neodymium, gadolinium and erbium in soil solution and aboveground plant tissue. In these pots concentrations of citric acid in soil solution were significantly higher than in the control. The results show, that low molecular organic acids exuded by plant roots are of great importance for the mobilization of germanium

  15. The content of secondary phenol metabolites in pruned leaves of Aloe arborescens, a comparison between two methods: leaf exudates and leaf water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gutterman, Yitzchak; Chauser-Volfson, Elena

    2008-10-01

    Aloe arborescens plants, originating from the deserts of South Africa, are grown in the Introduction Garden at Sede Boker in the Negev Desert of Israel. In previous studies, we developed agro-technical methods to raise the content of secondary phenol metabolites (SPhMs) in the Aloe leaves. Plants that are subjected to repeated leaf pruning respond by increasing the content of their SPhMs. The SPhMs found in Aloe arborescens include barbaloin, aloenin and derivatives of aloeresin. Such compounds are used for many purposes, including human skin protection from sun and fire burns and high radiation, as products of the pharmaceutics and cosmetics industries, and as food supplements for treating stomach ulcers and diabetes. In the current study, the SPhMs were separated from pruned leaves of the same A. arborescens plants at the same time by two methods: (1) exudation by squeezing the tissues of the leaves, (2) immersion of the leaves' pruned cut bottom in water and collection of the extract. The exudates and extract were frozen, freeze-dried to a powder and the SPhMs were then separated by chromatography. The yield of powder from water extraction from pruned leaves was much lower than the yield from the exudates. However, higher percentages of the powder from the water extraction contained SPhMs (between 80 and 92.7%). The content of powder in leaf exudates from pruned leaves was much higher because the SPhMs were squeezed out from the cells and tissues. However, the percentages of SPhMs in this powder were much lower (between 39 and 62%). PMID:18470597

  16. Staphylococcus hyicus virulence in relation to exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Andresen, Lars Ole; Bille-Hansen, Vivi

    1993-01-01

    Staphylococcus hyicus strains with different phage types, plasmid profiles, and antibiotic resistance patterns were isolated from piglets with exudative epidermitis. The strains could be divided into virulent strains, producing exudative epidermitis, and avirulent strains, producing no dermal....... It is concluded that crusting reaction of piglet skin is a suitable indicator of virulence in S. hyicus in relation to exudative epidermitis, and that virulent strains produce a 30 kDa protein, absent in concentrated culture supernatants from avirulent strains. This 30 kDa protein might be an exfoliative toxin....

  17. Exudative epidermitis in pigs caused by toxigenic Staphylococcus chromogenes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andresen, Lars Ole; Ahrens, Peter; Daugaard, Lise;

    2005-01-01

    Staphylococcus chromogenes is closely related to Staphylococcus hyicus, which is recognised as the causative agent of exudative epidermitis (EE) in pigs. S. chromogenes is part of the normal skin flora of pigs, cattle and poultry and has so far been considered non-pathogenic to pigs. A strain of S...... alterations, all pigs revealed development of generalized exudative epidermitis. No toxin producing S. hyicus was isolated from the pigs and all ExhB-positive bacterial isolates were identified as S. chromogenes. This confirmed that the disease-causing agent was the inoculated S. chromogenes strain VA654....... The results of this study show that S. chromogenes may cause exudative epidermitis in pigs....

  18. 广藿香根系分泌物的化感自毒作用研究%Study on the Allelopathy and the Autotoxicity of Patchouli Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲梅; 李明

    2011-01-01

    以组培苗为材料,应用组织培养技术分析广藿香根系分泌物对萝卜、广金钱草和广藿香组培苗生长的影响.结果表明,广藿香根系分泌物抑制广藿香组培苗和广金钱草的生长;低浓度能促进萝卜生长,高浓度抑制其生长.根系分泌物对广藿香的不利影响随浓度的增加而增大,表明根系分泌物可能是导致广藿香连作障碍的主要原因之一.%The effect of root exudates on the growth of radish, Desmodium styracifoliurn and patchouli tissue culture were analyzed using tissue culture method. Results showed that root exudates of patchouli inhibited the growth of the patchouli tissue culture and Desmodium styracifoliurn;The low concentration of root exudates promoted the growth of the radish, the high concentration of root exudates inhibited the growth of the radish. The greater concentration of root exudates in the medium,the more adverse effect it had on the plants.It is concluded that root exudates of patchouli was one of the important factors inducing continuous cropping obstacle in patchouli.

  19. Novel mutations in FZD4 and phenotype–genotype correlation in Chinese patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Miao; Ding, Xiaoyan; Li, Jiaqing; Hu, Andina; Yuan, Miner; Yang, Yu; Zhan, Zongyi; Li, Zijing

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To identify novel mutations in the frizzled 4 (FZD4) gene in patients with familial exudative vitreoretinopathy (FEVR) in southern China and to delineate the mutation-associated clinical manifestations. Methods Clinical data and genomic DNA were collected from 100 probands and their family members. The coding regions of FZD4 were screened for mutations with PCR and Sanger sequencing. Cosegregation analysis was used to verify suspected variants, and clinical symptoms in the probands were analyzed. Results Fourteen causative heterozygous mutations in FZD4 in 21 unrelated probands were noted, in 21.0% of the index patients (21/100). Four novel missense mutations (C45R, C45S, C53S, and C90R) and three novel deletion mutations (T326fsX356, G492fsX512, and S345_A351del) with a high possibility of pathogenicity were detected. None of these mutations were found in current online databases and 150 ethnically matched control subjects without retinopathy. The majority of the mutations in FZD4 were identified in probands with retinal folds (15/21) and ectopic macula (5/21). No mutations in FZD4 were found in probands with complete tractional retinal detachment in infancy or with mild asymptomatic FEVR in adulthood. Conclusions Seven novel mutations found in this study have broadened the spectrum of mutations in FZD4 known to cause FEVR, providing a deeper understanding of this disease. The results show that mutations in FZD4 are associated with the phenotypes of retinal folds or ectopic macula in FEVR but might not be associated with extreme severe bilateral FEVR during infancy, at least in southern Chinese patients. PMID:27555740

  20. Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lourenço Soares

    Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com

  1. Secreted phospholipase A2 and glutathione peroxidase activities in chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative meatAtividades de fosfolipase A2 secretada e glutationa peroxidase em filés PSE (pale, soft, exudative de frango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Lourenço Soares

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The excessive release of calcium from the sarcoplasmic reticulum during the installation of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat, leads to increase of phospholipase A2 (PLA2 activity and consequently causes a higher lipid oxidation. In contrast, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px is a selenium-dependent antioxidant enzyme that prevents the oxidative damage. The aim of this work was to investigate the secreted PLA2 (sPLA2 and GSH-PX activities in PSE poultry meat. Breast meat samples (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 were obtained from commercial slaughterhouse. Samples were classified as PSE and Control Meat based on pH and L* values, fillets with pH1h30? 6.0 and L24h* ?53.0 as PSE and fillets with pH1h30> 6.0 and L24h*0,05. The GSH-Px activity was approximately 24,4% higher (p?0,05 for Control meat when compared to PSE meat. The sPLA2 activity of PSE fillets did not changed, however PSE fillets present the enzymatic system of antioxidant defense compromised with lower GSH-PX activity.A liberação excessiva de cálcio do retículo sarcoplasmático durante a instalação de carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative leva a um aumento da atividade da fosfolipase A2 (PLA2, promovendo uma maior oxidação lipídica. Por outro lado, a glutationa peroxidase (GSH-Px é uma enzima antioxidante selênio dependente, prevenindo danos oxidativos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi investigar as atividades da PLA2 secretada (sPLA2 e da GSH-PX em filés PSE de frango. Filés de frango (Pectoralis major m. (n=24 foram obtidos de um frigorífico comercial. As amostras foram classificadas em PSE e Controle, com base nos valores de pH e L*, filés com pH1h30 ? 6.0 e L24h* ? 53,0 como PSE e filés com pH1h30> 6,0 e L24h* 0,05. A atividade da GSH-Px foi aproximadamente 24,4% maior (p?0,05 para os filés Controle quando comparado com filés PSE. A atividade da sPLA2 em filés PSE não foi alterada, entretanto filés PSE apresentam o sistema enzimático de defesa antioxidante comprometido com

  2. Structure and dynamics of microbe-exuded polymers and their interactions with calcite surfaces.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, Randall Timothy; Mitchell, Ralph (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA); Perry, Thomas D. (Harvard University, Cambridge, MA)

    2005-12-01

    Cation binding by polysaccharides is observed in many environments and is important for predictive environmental modeling, and numerous industrial and food technology applications. The complexities of these organo-cation interactions are well suited to predictive molecular modeling studies for investigating the roles of conformation and configuration of polysaccharides on cation binding. In this study, alginic acid was chosen as a model polymer and representative disaccharide and polysaccharide subunits were modeled. The ability of disaccharide subunits to bind calcium and to associate with the surface of calcite was investigated. The findings were extended to modeling polymer interactions with calcium ions.

  3. Automatic Detection of Retinal Exudates using a Support Vector Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nualsawat HIRANSAKOLWONG

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Retinal exudates are among the preliminary signs of diabetic retinopathy, a major cause of vision loss in diabetic patients. Correct and efficient screening of exudates is very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. Nowadays, the digital retinal image is frequently used to follow-up and diagnoses eye diseases. Therefore, the retinal image is crucial and essential for experts to detect exudates. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that retinal images in Thailand are poor quality images. In this paper, we present a series of experiments on feature selection and exudates classification using the support vector machine classifiers. The retinal images are segmented following key preprocessing steps, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal and color space selection. On data sets of poor quality images, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy is 94.46%, 89.52% and 92.14%, respectively.

  4. Clinical case of exudative pleuritis in stallion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A casual exudative pleuritis in 2 years old stallion, Holsteiner breed, has been outlined. The disease is extremely rare in this country. Comprehensive examinations have been made during the period of hospitalization: daily clinical examinations, double renthgenography; regular haematological and biochemical tests; microbiological culture tests with an antibioticogram; laboratory tests of punctate and periodical ultrasound tests. The examinations and tests have been carried out at the Internal Noncontagious Disease Clinic at the Veterinary Faculty of the Thracian University in Stara Zagora

  5. The Content of Phenolic Compounds in the Pea Seedling Root Exudates Depends on the Size of Their Roots and Inoculation of Bacteria Mutualistic and Antagonistic Type of Interactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.E. Makarova

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the bacteria Rhizobium and Pseudomonas on total content of phenolic compounds (PC and their individual components (apigenin, naringenin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, pisatin, N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine in the root exudates of the pea seedlings (Pisum sativum L. at two different growth stages was studied . Bacteria have similar affect on the total number of PC and the number of constituent apigenine, phthalate and pisatine. Difference at the impact of these bacteria on the content of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine was detected, which can be attributed to the peculiarities of the interactions of plants of peas with bacteria-antagonists and mutualists.

  6. Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture

    OpenAIRE

    M. I. Trujillo; S. Mederos-Molina

    2014-01-01

    We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM) inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin a...

  7. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Guodong; Zhou, Baoli; Zhang, Xinyu; Zhang, Zijun; Wu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yiming; Lü, Shuwen; Zou, Qingdao; Gao, Yuan; Teng, Long

    2016-01-01

    Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR), RS2 (moderately resistant, MR) and L-402 (highly susceptible, T). The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita) egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2) were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains) suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in the other

  8. Effects of Tomato Root Exudates on Meloidogyne incognita.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guodong Yang

    Full Text Available Plant root exudates affect root-knot nematodes egg hatch. Chemicals in root exudates can attract nematodes to the roots or result in repellence, motility inhibition or even death. However, until recently little was known about the relationship between tomato root exudates chemicals and root-knot nematodes. In this study, root exudates were extracted from three tomato rootstocks with varying levels of nematode resistance: Baliya (highly resistant, HR, RS2 (moderately resistant, MR and L-402 (highly susceptible, T. The effects of the root exudates on Meloidogyne incognita (M. incognita egg hatch, survival and chemotaxis of second-stage juveniles (J2 were explored. The composition of the root exudates was analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS prior to and following M. incognita inoculation. Four compounds in root exudates were selected for further analysis and their allopathic effect on M. incognita were investigated. Root exudates from each tomato rootstocks (HR, MR and T strains suppressed M. incognita egg hatch and increased J2 mortality, with the highest rate being observed in the exudates from the HR plants. Exudate from HR variety also repelled M. incognita J2 while that of the susceptible plant, T, was demonstrated to be attractive. The relative amount of esters and phenol compounds in root exudates from HR and MR tomato rootstocks increased notably after inoculation. Four compounds, 2,6-Di-tert-butyl-p-cresol, L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate, dibutyl phthalate and dimethyl phthalate increased significantly after inoculation. The egg hatch of M. incognita was suppressed by each of the compound. L-ascorbyl 2,6-dipalmitate showed the most notable effect in a concentration-dependent manner. All four compounds were associated with increased J2 mortality. The greatest effect was observed with dimethyl phthalate at 2 mmol·L-1. Dibutyl phthalate was the only compound observed to repel M. incognita J2 with no effect being detected in

  9. Ability of Agrogyron elongatum to accumulate the single metal of cadmium, copper, nickel and lead and root exudation of organic acids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Agrogyron elongatum were grown in nutrient solution containing moderate to high amounts of separate heavy metal of Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb in a greenhouse for a 9-day. Cd, Cu, Ni and Pb generally led to decrease in the elongation of roots although the length of seedlings exposed to Cd and Pb at 0,05 and 0.5 mg/L showed to be slightly greater than that of controls. Of the four metals in the experiment, Pb was absorbed and accumulated to the highest level, with the concentrations of 92754 mg/kg dry weight (DW) in roots and 11683 mg/kg DW in shoots. Cd was moderately accumulated in Agrogyron elongatum, but the maximum bioaccumulation coefficients (BCs) for rpots and shoots were observed. The patterns for Cu and Ni uptake and distribution in plants differed from those of Pb and Cd, as it was showed that the shoot accumulation of Cu and Ni was significantly higher than in roots. A. elongatum had the highest Ni concentration in shoots (30261 mg/kg DW)at the external concentration of 250 mg/L. Cu ranked second, with a shoot concentration of 12230 mg/kg DW when 50 mg/L Cu in solution was applied. For the four trace elements tested, the highest concentrations in shoots decreased by the order of Ni > Cu > Pb > Cd (mg/kg DW),and those in roots were Pb > Cd > Ni > Cu (mg/kg DW). Malic, oxalic and citric acids exuded by roots exposed to 1 and 50 mg/L of the metals were detected. Release of organic acids from plants significantly differed among the metal treatments. Cu was most effectively in inducing rpot exudation of the three types of organic acids. Cd, and Ni were also the inducers of secretion of malic and oxalic acids. With reference of Pb,a small amounts of malic and oxalic acids were detected in the root exudates, but few quantities of citric acid were found. However, no orrelation between alternations in root exudation of organic acids and metal accumulation could be established.

  10. Unilateral, recurrent exudative retinal detachment in association with pansinusitis [

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Saatci, Ali

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available [english] Aim: To report a patient with unilateral exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis.Methods: Case report.Results: A 65-year-old woman with a two-month history of blurred vision, red eye and lid swelling in her left eye was referred to us. Her best-corrected visual acuity was 20/20 in the right eye and 20/200 in the left. Conjunctival vessels were engorged in the OS. Funduscopy revealed a 360° exudative detachment in OS and computerized tomography (CT imaging revealed pansinusitis. Systemic antibiotic treatment was employed and exudative detachment regressed. However, exudative detachment remitted as soon as antibiotic treatment ceased. Finally she underwent sinus surgery and decompression of the orbita. Her visual acuity improved to 20/100 just two days after the surgery, stabilized at 20/30 and no further recurrences occured during the follow-up of 10 months.Conclusion: Since exudative retinal detachment usually accompanies systemic inflammatory or neoplastic diseases, systemic screening and collaboration with other disciplines are mandatory. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of a case that developed exudative retinal detachment due to pansinusitis and only recovered after decompression surgery.

  11. Identification of Scirpus triqueter root exudates and the effects of organic acids on desorption and bioavailability of pyrene and lead in co-contaminated wetland soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Yunyun; Liu, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Xinying; Chen, Xiao; Tao, Kaiyun; Chen, Xueping; Liang, Xia; He, Chiquan

    2015-11-01

    Root exudates (REs) of Scirpus triqueter were extracted from the rhizosphere soil in this study. The components in the REs were identified by GC-MS. Many organic acids, such as hexadecanoic acid, pentadecanoic acid, vanillic acid, octadecanoic acid, citric acid, succinic acid, glutaric acid, and so on, were found. Batch simulated experiments were conducted to evaluate the impacts of different organic acids, such as citric acid, artificial root exudates (ARE), succinic acid, and glutaric acid in REs of S. triqueter on desorption of pyrene (PYR) and lead (Pb) in co-contaminated wetland soils. The desorption amount of PYR and Pb increased with the rise in concentrations of organic acids in the range of 0-50 g·L(-1), within shaking time of 2-24 h. The desorption effects of PYR and Pb in soils with various organic acids treatments decreased in the following order: citric acid > ARE > succinic acid > glutaric acid. The desorption rate of PYR and Pb was higher in co-contaminated soil than in single pollution soil. The impacts of organic acids in REs of S. triqueter on bioavailability of PYR and Pb suggested that organic acids enhanced the bioavailability of PYR and Pb in wetland soil, and the bioavailability effects of organic acids generally followed the same order as that of desorption effects. PMID:26154043

  12. Genetic variants in three genes and smoking show strong associations with susceptibility to exudative age-related macular degeneration in a Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Background The present study was undertaken to replicate the associations of representative polymorphisms in three genes (complement factor H (CFH), complement factor B (BF) and HtrA serine peptidase 1 (HTRA1)) with exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in a Hart Chinese population, and to test if the modifiable environmental factors affect AMD susceptibility associated with different type of genotype in these genes. Methods An age, gender and ethnicity matched case-control study was conducted to genotype the representative single neucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) loci including rs1061170 and rs1410996 in CFH, rs641153 and rs4151667 in BF and rs11200638 in HTRA1 gene in 144 exudative AMD patients and 126 normal controls using PCR-RFLP and directresequencing. The demographic characteristics and behavioral risk factors were also recorded. Allelic and genotypic associations for individual SNP and joint associations with two loci were performed. The gene-gene and gene-environment interactions were analyzed using multivariate non-conditional Logistic regression analysis. Results The C risk allele frequencies for CFH Y402H (rs1061170) in cases and controls were 12.5% and 5.4% respectively, which were much lower than those in Caucasians (P<0.001). Compared with TT homozygous genotype, the CT heterozygous genotype was positively associated with AMD with odds ratio (OR) of 3.23 (1.36-5.07). However, the population attributable risk (PAR) of C allele was only 3.3% (1.4%-4.3%). rs1410996 was also associated with AMD independent of Y402H. The ORs of exudative AMD for individuals carrying one copy risk allele and two copy risk alleles were 2.57 (1.21-5.45) and 4.76 (2.15-10.55) respectively, with correspondent PARs of 28.3% (2.0%-40.5%) and 38.2% (21.8%-45.4%). rs11200638 in HTRA1 was another susceptible locus for AMD and the risk homozygotes were significantly susceptible for exudutive AMD (OR=3.98, 1.88-8.43) with PAR of 38.9% (24.3%-45.8%). Education status and

  13. PHYTOREMEDIATION: PLANT UPTAKE OF ATRAZINE AND THE ROLE OF ROOT EXUDATES. (R825549C060)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  14. Effect of enhanced UV-B radiation on methane emission in a paddy field and rice root exudation of low-molecular-weight organic acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yongmei; Zhan, Fangdong; Li, Yuan; Xu, Weiwei; Zu, Yanqun; Yue, Ming

    2016-06-01

    A local rice variety, "Baijiaolaojing", was grown in a paddy field in the Yuanyang rice terraces under ambient and supplemental levels of ultraviolet-B (UV-B, 280-315 nm) radiation. The effects of enhanced UV-B radiation (5 and 10 kJ m(-2) d(-1)) on methane emissions in the paddy field were evaluated using a closed-chamber gas chromatography-based system, and the contents of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) in root exudates were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Peaks in methane emissions in the paddy field were detected at 60, 80 and 100 days after rice transplantation. The highest level of cumulative methane emissions occurred at the tillering stage, followed by the jointing-booting and maturity stages. The lowest level was found at the flowering stage. The enhanced UV-B radiation did not change the seasonal variation in methane emissions in the paddy field; however, it induced a significant increase in the flux of methane emissions at the jointing-booting and maturity stages, as well as a significant increase in the cumulative flux of methane emissions throughout the growth period. In addition, the enhanced UV-B radiation caused an increase in the contents of oxalic acid and succinic acid and a decrease in the contents of tartaric acid and malic acid in rice root exudates. Furthermore, a significant positive correlation (r = 0.725, p oxalic acid and the methane emissions in the paddy field. The results indicated that enhanced UV-B radiation promoted methane emissions in the paddy field, which was closely associated with its impact on the exudation of LMWOAs by rice roots. PMID:27194164

  15. An experimental study of Au removal from solution by non-metabolizing bacterial cells and their exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenney, Janice P. L.; Song, Zhen; Bunker, Bruce A.; Fein, Jeremy B.

    2012-06-01

    In this study, we examine the initial interactions between aqueous Au(III)-hydroxide-chloride aqueous complexes and bacteria by measuring the effects of non-metabolizing cells on the speciation and distribution of Au. We conducted batch Au(III) removal experiments, measuring the kinetics and pH dependence of Au removal, and tracking valence state transformations and binding environments using XANES spectroscopy. These experiments were conducted using non-metabolizing cells of Bacillus subtilis or Pseudomonas putida suspended in a 5 ppm Au(III)-(hydroxide)-chloride starting solution of 0.1 M NaClO4 to buffer ionic strength. Both bacterial species removed greater than 85% of the Au from solution after 2 h of exposure time below approximately pH 5. Above pH 5, the extent of Au removed from solution decreased with increasing pH, with less than approximately 10% removal of Au from solution above pH 7.5. Kinetics experiments indicated that the Au removal with both bacterial species was rapid at pH 3, and slowed with increasing pH. Reversibility experiments demonstrated that (1) once the Au was removed from solution, adjusting 35 the pH alone did not remobilize the Au into solution and (2) the presence of cysteine in solution in the reversibility experiments caused Au to desorb, suggesting that the Au was not internalized within the bacterial cells. Our results suggest that Au removal occurs as a two-step pH-dependent adsorption reduction process. The speciation of the aqueous Au and the bacterial surface appears to control the rate of Au removal from solution. Under low pH conditions, the cell walls are only weakly negatively charged and aqueous Au complexes adsorb readily and rapidly. With increasing pH, the cell wall becomes more negatively charged, slowing adsorption significantly. The XANES data demonstrate that the reduction of Au(III) by bacterial exudates is slower and less extensive than the reduction observed in the bacteria-bearing systems, and we conclude that

  16. Metabolism and root exudation of organic acid anions under aluminium stress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariano, E.D.; Jorge, R.A.; Keltjens, W.G.; Menossi, M.

    2005-01-01

    Numerous plant species can release organic acid anions (OA) from their roots in response to toxic aluminium (Al) ions present in the rooting medium. Hypothetically OA complex Al in the root apoplast and/or rhizosphere and thus avoid its interaction with root cellular components and its entry in the

  17. Anti-inflammatory and Quinone Reductase Inducing Compounds from Fermented Noni (Morinda citrifolia) Juice Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, Ui Joung; Park, Eun-Jung; Kondratyuk, Tamara P; Sang-Ngern, Mayuramas; Wall, Marisa M; Wei, Yanzhang; Pezzuto, John M; Chang, Leng Chee

    2016-06-24

    A new fatty acid ester disaccharide, 2-O-(β-d-glucopyranosyl)-1-O-(2E,4Z,7Z)-deca-2,4,7-trienoyl-β-d-glucopyranose (1), a new ascorbic acid derivative, 2-caffeoyl-3-ketohexulofuranosonic acid γ-lactone (2), and a new iridoid glycoside, 10-dimethoxyfermiloside (3), were isolated along with 13 known compounds (4-16) from fermented noni fruit juice (Morinda citrifolia). The structures of the new compounds, together with 4 and 5, were determined by 1D and 2D NMR experiments, as well as comparison with published values. Compounds 2 and 7 showed moderate inhibitory activities in a TNF-α-induced NF-κB assay, and compounds 4 and 6 exhibited considerable quinone reductase-1 (QR1) inducing effects.

  18. Prostaglandin E1 and prostaglandin F2 alpha in exudate in nickel allergy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lerche, A; Bisgaard, H; Kassis, V;

    1989-01-01

    with and one without nickel challenge. A higher flux of leukocytes, PGE1 and PGF2 alpha was observed during the second day of allergen exposure, while the concentrations probably due to dilution were unchanged or diminished, indicating an unspecific role of the prostaglandins during the contact allergic...... reaction. No correlations were found within the groups between the migration of leukocytes and the prostaglandin content....

  19. MicroRNA profiling in human neutrophils during bone marrow granulopoiesis and in vivo exudation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Maria T; Hother, Christoffer; Häger, Mattias;

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the microRNA (miRNA) expression profiles of neutrophils and their precursors from the initiation of granulopoiesis in the bone marrow to extravasation and accumulation in skin windows. We analyzed three different cell populations from human bone marrow......, polymorphonuclear neutrophil (PMNs) from peripheral blood, and extravasated PMNs from skin windows using the Affymetrix 2.0 platform. Our data reveal 135 miRNAs differentially regulated during bone marrow granulopoiesis. The majority is differentially regulated between the myeloblast/promyelocyte (MB/PM) and...

  20. Antitumor activity of fermented noni exudates (fNE) and its fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia) has been extensively used in folk medicine by Polynesians for over 2000 years and recent studies have shown that noni has a wide spectrum of therapeutic activities including inhibition of angiogenesis, anti-inflammatory effects, and anti-cancer activities. We recently repor...

  1. Contrasting responses of root morphology and root-exuded organic acids to low phosphorus availability in three important food crops with divergent root traits

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan-Liang; Almvik, Marit; Clarke, Nicholas; Eich-Greatorex, Susanne; Øgaard, Anne Falk; Krogstad, Tore; Lambers, Hans; Clarke, Jihong Liu

    2015-01-01

    Phosphorus (P) is an important element for crop productivity and is widely applied in fertilizers. Most P fertilizers applied to land are sorbed onto soil particles, so research on improving plant uptake of less easily available P is important. In the current study, we investigated the responses in root morphology and root-exuded organic acids (OAs) to low available P (1 μM P) and sufficient P (50 μM P) in barley, canola and micropropagated seedlings of potato—three important food crops with ...

  2. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author)

  3. Compositional analysis and rheological characterization of gum tragacanth exudates from six species of Iranian Astragalus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balaghi, Sima; Mohammadifar, Mohammad Amin; Zargaraan, Azizollaah;

    2011-01-01

    -performance anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection suggested the occurrence of arabinose, xylose, glucose, galactose, fucose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid residues in the gum structure; however, the proportions of each sugar varied significantly among the gums from the different species...

  4. Diagnostic accuracy and safety of semirigid thoracoscopy in exudative pleural effusions in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Willendrup, Fatin; Bødtger, Uffe; Colella, Sara;

    2014-01-01

    March 1, 2009 to September 1, 2013 in Denmark. RESULTS: Sixty-nine patients were retrospectively studied. In 13 patients it was not possible to perform the scheduled MT, in 9 cases due to an insufficient pneumothorax, in 3 due to an insufficient pleural effusion, and in 1 due to a purulent pleuritis...

  5. Plant-mediated green synthesis of silver nanoparticles using Trifolium resupinatum seed exudate and their antifungal efficacy on Neofusicoccum parvum and Rhizoctonia solani.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatami, Mehrdad; Nejad, Meysam Soltani; Salari, Samira; Almani, Pooya Ghasemi Nejad

    2016-08-01

    In recent years, biosynthesis and the utilisation of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) has become an interesting subject. In this study, the authors investigated the biosynthesis of AgNPs using Trifolium resupinatum (Persian clover) seed exudates. The characterisation of AgNPs were analysed using ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy. Also, antifungal efficacy of biogenic AgNPs against two important plant-pathogenic fungi (Rhizoctonia solani and Neofusicoccum Parvum) in vitro condition was evaluated. The XRD analysis showed that the AgNPs are crystalline in nature and have face-centred cubic geometry. TEM images revealed the spherical shape of the AgNPs with an average size of 17 nm. The synthesised AgNPs were formed at room temperature and kept stable for 4 months. The maximum distributions of the synthesised AgNPs were seen to range in size from 5 to 10 nm. The highest inhibition effect was observed against R. solani at 40 ppm concentration of AgNPs (94.1%) followed by N. parvum (84%). The results showed that the antifungal activity of AgNPs was dependent on the amounts of AgNPs. In conclusion, the AgNPs obtained from T. resupinatum seed exudate exhibit good antifungal activity against the pathogenic fungi R. solani and N. Parvum. PMID:27463795

  6. Effect of Soil Moisture on Release of Low-MolecularWeight Organic Acids in Root Exudates and the Accumulation of Iron in Root Apoplasm of Peanut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A three-compartments rhizobox was designed and used to study the low-molecular-weight organic acids in root exudates and the root apoplastic iron of "lime-induced chlorosis" peanut grown on a calcareous soil in relation to different soil moisture conditions. Results showed that chlorosis of peanuts developed under condition of high soil moisture level (250 g kg-1), while peanuts grew well and chlorosis did not develop when soil moisture was managed to a normal level (150 g kg-1). The malic acid, maleic acid and succinic acid contents of chlorotic peanut increased by 108.723, 0.029 and 22.446μg cm-2, respectively,compared with healthy peanuts. The content of citric acid and fumaric acid also increased in root exudates of chlorotic peanuts. On Days 28 and 42 of peanut growth, the accumulation of root apoplastic iron in chlorotic peanuts was higher than that of healthy peanuts. From Day 28 to Day 42, the mobilization percentages of chlorotic peanuts and healthy peanuts to root apoplastic iron were almost the same, being 52.4% and 52.8%,respectively, indicating that the chlorosis might be caused by the inactivation of iron within peanut plant grown on a calcareous soil under high soil moisture conditions.

  7. Plant exudates promote PCB degradation by a rhodococcal rhizobacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toussaint, Jean-Patrick; Pham, Thi Thanh My; Barriault, Diane; Sylvestre, Michel [Instiut National de la Recherche Scientifique INRS, Laval, QC (Canada). Inst. Armand-Frappier

    2012-09-15

    Rhodococcus erythropolis U23A is a polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB)-degrading bacterium isolated from the rhizosphere of plants grown on a PCB-contaminated soil. Strain U23A bphA exhibited 99% identity with bphA1 of Rhodococcus globerulus P6. We grew Arabidopsis thaliana in a hydroponic axenic system, collected, and concentrated the plant secondary metabolite-containing root exudates. Strain U23A exhibited a chemotactic response toward these root exudates. In a root colonizing assay, the number of cells of strain U23A associated to the plant roots (5.7 x 105 CFU g{sup -1}) was greater than the number remaining in the surrounding sand (4.5 x 104 CFU g{sup -1}). Furthermore, the exudates could support the growth of strain U23A. In a resting cell suspension assay, cells grown in a minimal medium containing Arabidopsis root exudates as sole growth substrate were able to metabolize 2,3,4'- and 2,3',4-trichlorobiphenyl. However, no significant degradation of any of congeners was observed for control cells grown on Luria-Bertani medium. Although strain U23A was unable to grow on any of the flavonoids identified in root exudates, biphenyl-induced cells metabolized flavanone, one of the major root exudate components. In addition, when used as co-substrate with sodium acetate, flavanone was as efficient as biphenyl to induce the biphenyl catabolic pathway of strain U23A. Together, these data provide supporting evidence that some rhodococci can live in soil in close association with plant roots and that root exudates can support their growth and trigger their PCB-degrading ability. This suggests that, like the flagellated Gram-negative bacteria, non-flagellated rhodococci may also play a key role in the degradation of persistent pollutants. (orig.)

  8. Exudative Retinal Detachment Treatment in a Patient with Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Sampo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: We report a case of unilateral exudative retinal detachment in a patient with thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP, without associated hypertension, successfully treated with plasmapheresis. Case Report: A 46-year-old woman with a medical history of TTP presented with unilateral exudative retinal detachment. Biological and radiological assessment eliminated other causes of exudative retinal detachment, including hypertension. Plasma exchange was performed, followed by a rapid improvement in visual acuity and total disappearance of serous detachment. Conclusion: Exudative unilateral retinal detachment is a rare complication of TTP and can be successfully treated by plasma exchange.

  9. 胸腹水中C反应蛋白等免疫化学指标测定的临床意义%Combined detection of immunobiological markers in pleural or peritoneal exudates of patients with tuberculosis and malignant tumors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏保鑫; 王金玲; 李淑翠

    2011-01-01

    用生化法或电化学发光法测定48例结核性与82例恶性肿瘤患者胸腹水中C反应蛋白等免疫化学指标.结核性胸腹水中C反应蛋白、腺苷脱氨酶、β2-微球蛋白的水平,较恶性组明显升高(均P<0.01);而恶性组胸腹水中总胆固醇、乳酸脱氢酶、癌胚抗原、铁蛋白、糖链抗原153、细胞角蛋白19成分、神经元特异性烯醇化酶、甲胎蛋白、糖链抗原125、糖链抗原199的水平,较结核组明显升高(均P<0.01).联合检测C反应蛋白等多个免疫化学指标有利于诊断或鉴别诊断结核性和癌性胸腹水.%The levels of C-reactive protein(CRP),adenosine deaminase(ADA),total cholesterol (TC),lactate dehydrogenase(LDH),carcinoembryonic antigen(CEA),ferritin(Fer),β2-microglobulin (β2-MG),alpha-fetoprotdn(AFP),carbohydrate anfigen12-5(CA125),carbohydrate antigen19-9(CAl99),carbohydrate antigen15-3(CA153),eyfra211(CY211)and neuron specific enolase(NSE)were detected by automatic chemistry analyzer or electrogenerated chemiluminescence analyzer in pleural and peritoneal exudates from 48 cases oftuberculosis and 82 cases of malignant tumors.The levels of CRP,ADA and β2-MG in tuberculotic exudates were higher than those in malignant exudates(P<0.01).However,the levels of TC,LDH,CEA,Fer,CA153,CY211,NSE,AFP,CA125 and CA199 in malignant exudates were higher than those in tuberculotic exudates(P<0.01).Combined determination of CRP,ADA,TC,LDH,CEA,Fer,and β2-MG in pleural and peritoneal exudates are of value in differentiation of tuberculosis from malignant exudates.Combined determination of CA153.CY211 and NSE in pleural effusions and AFP,CA125 and CA199 in peritoneal effusions can improve the semitivity and specificity of diagnosis for malignant exudates.

  10. THE CLINICAL APPLICATIONS FOR AUTOMATIC DETECTION OF EXUDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Wisaeng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the retinal imaging technology has been widely used for segmenting and detecting the exudates in diabetic retinopathy patients. Unfortunately, the retinal images in Thailand are poor-quality images. Therefore, detecting of exudates in a large number by screening programs, are very expensive in professional time and may cause human error. In this study, the clinical applications for detection of exudates from the poor quality retinal image are presented. An application incorporating function, including retinal color normalization, contrast enhancement, noise removal, color space selection and removal of the optic disc, was also designed to standardize the workflow of retinal analysis. Afterward, detection of exudate based on optimal global thresholding and improved adaptive Otsu’s algorithm was applied. Two experiments were conducted to validate the detection performance with local databases and a publicly available DIARETDB1 database. The first experiment showed the average sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 93.8, 95.3 and 94.9%, respectively. The cross validation results of the second experiment, 60% (53 of the retinal images were used for training and 40% (36 for testing, the sensitivity, specificity and accuracy are 84.2, 85.9 and 85.2%, respectively. This result indicates the proposed clinical application provides an effective tool in the screening of exudates.

  11. Vegetable exudates as food for Callithrix spp. (Callitrichidae: exploratory patterns.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talitha Mayumi Francisco

    Full Text Available Marmosets of the genus Callithrix are specialized in the consumption of tree exudates to obtain essential nutritional resource by boring holes into bark with teeth. However, marmoset preferences for particular tree species, location, type, and other suitable factors that aid in exudate acquisition need further research. In the current study, the intensity of exudate use from Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina trees by hybrid marmosets Callithrix spp. groups was studied in five forest fragments in Viçosa, in the state of Minas, Brazil. Thirty-nine A. peregrina var. peregrina trees were examined and 8,765 active and non-active holes were analyzed. The trunk of A. peregrina var. peregrina had a lower number of holes than the canopy: 11% were found on the trunk and 89% were found on the canopy. The upper canopy was the preferred area by Callithrix spp. for obtaining exudates. The intensity of tree exploitation by marmosets showed a moderate-to-weak correlation with diameter at breast height (DBH and total tree height. The overall results indicate that Anadenanthera peregrina var. peregrina provides food resources for hybrid marmosets (Callithrix spp. and these animals prefer to explore this resource on the apical parts of the plant, where the thickness, location, and age of the branches are the main features involved in the acquisition of exudates.

  12. The Role of Prophylactic Ibuprofen and N-Acetylcysteine on the Level of Cytokines in Periapical Exudates and the Post-Treatment Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyyed Mohsen Aghajanpour Mir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive-microbial disturbances. Objective:To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- alpha, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- alpha, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and posttreatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results:There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion:The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain

  13. The role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine on the level of cytokines in periapical exudates and the post-treatment pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ehsani Maryam

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Periapical lesions are inflammatory diseases that result in periapical bone destruction because of host defensive–microbial disturbances. Objective To evaluate the role of prophylactic ibuprofen and N-acetylcysteine (NAC on the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF- α, interleukin- 6(IL-6 and IL-17 and post-treatment pain level in chronic periapical lesions. Materials and methods Eighty patients with chronic apical lesions less than 1 cm were randomly assigned to receive NAC tablets (400 mg, ibuprofen tablets (400 mg, NAC (400 mg/ibuprofen (200 mg combination and placebo 90 minutes prior to sampling. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals. TNF- α, IL-6 and IL-17 levels were determined by ELISA and post-treatment pain was assessed using a visual analog scale (VAS. Results There was a significant difference in IL-6 level between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.019. Significant difference in IL-17 level was observed between NAC/ibuprofen combination group and placebo (p = 0.043. Four hours after treatment, a significant difference was observed in VAS pain score between ibuprofen group and placebo (p = 0.017. Eight hours post-treatment, VAS pain score for NAC group was statistically lower than placebo group (p = 0.033. After 12 hours VAS pain score showed a significant decrease in NAC group compared to placebo (p = 0.049. Conclusion The prophylactic ibuprofen and NAC failed to clearly reflect their effect on cytokines levels in exudates of chronic periapical lesions. On the other hand it seems that NAC can be a substitute for ibuprofen in the management of post endodontic pain.

  14. Plasma membrane H+-ATPase-dependent citrate exudation from cluster roots of phosphate-deficient white lupin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, Nicola; Kretzschmar, Tobias; Espen, Luca;

    2009-01-01

    the rhizosphere.The relationship between acidification and carboxylate exudation is still largely unknown. In the present work,we studied the linkage between organic acids (malate and citrate) and proton exudations in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin. After the illumination started, citrate exudation......,an activator of the plasmamembrane (PM)H+-ATPase, stimulated citrate exudation, whereas vanadate, an inhibitor of the H+-ATPase, reduced citrate exudation. The burst of citrate exudation was associated with an increase in expression of theLHA1PMH+-ATPase gene,an increased amount of H+-ATPase protein, a shift...... in pH optimum of the enzymeand post-translational modification of an H ++-ATPase protein involving binding of activating 14-3-3 protein.Taken together, our results indicate a close link in cluster roots of P-deficient white lupin between the burst of citrate exudation and PM H+-ATPase-catalysed proton...

  15. The proteome of liquid Sclerotial exudates from Sclerotinia sclerotiorum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Yue; Strelkov, Stephen E; Kav, Nat N V

    2010-06-01

    Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) is a necrotrophic plant pathogen that is capable of infecting more than 400 plant species worldwide. The sclerotium plays important roles in the disease and fungal life cycles. The exudation of liquid droplets is a common feature during sclerotial development, but little is known regarding the nature of these exudates. A proteome-level study was performed in order to gain a better understanding of the types of proteins present in the exudates. Fifty-six proteins were identified and classified into several functional categories, including amino acid metabolism, carbohydrate metabolism, lipid and secondary metabolism, as well as energy, signal transduction, and those with unknown functions. The roles of the identified proteins are discussed within the context of sclerotial development and fungal virulence. Our results may facilitate additional studies aimed at characterizing the function of these proteins in the formation of sclerotia and the life cycle of S. sclerotiorum. PMID:20408562

  16. AUTOMATIC RETINA EXUDATES SEGMENTATION WITHOUT A MANUALLY LABELLED TRAINING SET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy which can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesion) in fundus images. In this work, two new methods for the detection of exudates are presented which do not use a supervised learning step and therefore do not require ground-truthed lesion training sets which are time consuming to create, difficult to obtain, and prone to human error. We introduce a new dataset of fundus images from various ethnic groups and levels of DME which we have made publicly available. We evaluate our algorithm with this dataset and compare our results with two recent exudate segmentation algorithms. In all of our tests, our algorithms perform better or comparable with an order of magnitude reduction in computational time.

  17. IDENTIFITION AND STUDY ON ALLELOPATHY OF SOYBEAN ROOT EXUDATES%大豆根分泌物的鉴定及其化感作用的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩丽梅; 李国权

    2000-01-01

    采用GC-MS分析法,鉴定了由水培试验方法获得的2周、8周大豆根分泌物的二氯甲烷提取物,并对其化感作用进行了初步研究。结果表明:能被二氯甲烷提取出来的根分泌物有有机酸类、醇类、酯类、酮类、醛类、酚类、苯类、烃类等有机化合物,其中包含一些资料报道过的化感物质。与对照比较,2周、8周大豆根分泌物对大豆种子萌发、8周根分泌物对胚根生长未表现出显著抑制作用,但2周根分泌物对胚根生长却表现出极显著的化感抑制作用。上述结果表明,大豆根分泌物中存在化感物质,2周与8周大豆根分泌物的种类和数量有所不同。本文还探讨了大豆根分泌物的化感作用及大豆根分泌物与大豆连作障碍的关系等问题。%Compounds extracted with dichloromethane from soybean rootexudates for two weeks, eight weeks in water-culture were identified and allelopathy were studied by GC-MS analysis. The results showed that: The soybean root exudates extracted with dichloromethane included organic acide, alcohol, ester, acetone, aldehyde, phenol, pheyl, hydrocarbon and so on. Many of which were reported as allelochemicale. Contrast with control, the influence of the soybean root exudates for two weeks, eight weeks on the germination of soybean seeds, for eight weeks on radicle growth did not show significant allelopathy inhibition. But the allelopathy of the soybean root exudates for two weeks on soybean radicle growth showed significant inhibition. The results showed that the allelochemicals exist in the soybean root exudates. The varieties and quantities of soypean root exudates for two weeks are different with those for eight weeks. In addition, the alleleopathy of soybean root exudates and the relationship between soybean root exudates and barrier on soybean continuous and alternate cropping were discussed.

  18. 嫁接西瓜根系分泌物的化感效应及其化感物质的鉴定%Allelopathic effects and identification of allelochemicals in root exudates of grafted watermelons

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑阳霞; 唐海东; 李焕秀; 严泽生; 郭学君

    2011-01-01

    In order to study the allelopathic effects of root exudates from the watermelons grafted with pumpkin and calabash as rootstocks,effects of root exudates from the watermelons grafted on the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons were researched.The Allelochemicals of root exudates were detected by GC-MS.The results showed that the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons were increased when the root exudates were in low concentration,but decreased in high concentration.The root exudates promoted the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons at 2.5 μL·L-1.The root exudates began to restrain the seed germination and seedling growth of watermelons at 10 μL·L-1.When the concentrations were lower,the root exudates from grafted watermelons had more effects on the seed germination and seedling vegetal promotion than own-rooted watermelons.The inhibiting effect of grafted watermelons was less than that of own-rooted watermelon at high concentration of root exudates.And the identification of the allelochemicals in root exudates of grafted watermelons indicated that the categories and the relative contents were different from the own-root plants.The results showed that grafting changed the categories and the relative contents of root exudate components and changed allelopathic effects.Furthermore,there was obvious grafting superiority.So grafting was one of the effective methods for relieving the continuous cropping obstacles caused by autotoxicity.%为了研究嫁接西瓜根系分泌物的化感效应,采用南瓜、葫芦作砧木嫁接西瓜,研究了嫁接西瓜根系分泌物对西瓜种子萌发和幼苗生长的影响,并对嫁接西瓜根系分泌物中的化感物质进行了GC-MS检测。结果表明,各处理对西瓜种子发芽和幼苗生长均呈现出低促高抑的规律。在根系分泌物浓缩液浓度为2.5μL.L-1时,促进西瓜种子的发芽和幼苗的生长。在浓度为10μL.L-1、20μL.L-1

  19. Evaluating the role of root citrate exudation as a mechanism of aluminium resistance in maize genotypes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariano, E.D.; Keltjens, W.G.

    2003-01-01

    Organic anion exudation by roots as a mechanism of aluminium (Al) resistance has been intensively studied lately. In the present study, we evaluated qualitative and quantitative aspects of root exudation of organic anions in maize genotypes of distinct sensitivity to Al in response to Al exposure. R

  20. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fan Ben

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Plant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates. Results Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261 was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides. Conclusions Here we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  1. Transcriptomic profiling of Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Fan, Ben

    2012-06-21

    AbstractBackgroundPlant root exudates have been shown to play an important role in mediating interactions between plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) and their host plants. Most investigations were performed on Gram-negative rhizobacteria, while much less is known about Gram-positive rhizobacteria. To elucidate early responses of PGPR to root exudates, we investigated changes in the transcriptome of a Gram-positive PGPR to plant root exudates.ResultsBacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 is a well-studied Gram-positive PGPR. To obtain a comprehensive overview of FZB42 gene expression in response to maize root exudates, microarray experiments were performed. A total of 302 genes representing 8.2% of the FZB42 transcriptome showed significantly altered expression levels in the presence of root exudates. The majority of the genes (261) was up-regulated after incubation of FZB42 with root exudates, whereas only 41 genes were down-regulated. Several groups of the genes which were strongly induced by the root exudates are involved in metabolic pathways relating to nutrient utilization, bacterial chemotaxis and motility, and non-ribosomal synthesis of antimicrobial peptides and polyketides.ConclusionsHere we present a transcriptome analysis of the root-colonizing bacterium Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 in response to maize root exudates. The 302 genes identified as being differentially transcribed are proposed to be involved in interactions of Gram-positive bacteria with plants.

  2. Neuroprotective cadinane sesquiterpenes from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jing; Guo, Yuanqiang; Zhao, Peng; Xie, Chunfeng; Jin, Da-qing; Hou, Wenbin; Zhang, Tiejun

    2011-12-01

    Three new cadinane sesquiterpenes, commiterpenes A-C, were isolated from the resinous exudates of Commiphora myrrha. Their structures and relative configurations were elucidated by spectroscopic methods (IR, ESIMS, HRESIMS, 1D and 2D NMR). All the isolated sesquiterpenes showed neuroprotective effects against MPP+-induced neuronal cell death in SH-SY5Y cells.

  3. Elimination of browning exudate and in vitro development of shoots in Pistacia vera L. cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica Desf. Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Trujillo

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available We report diminution and/or elimination of browning exudate followed by in vitro establishment of in Pistacia vera cv. mateur and Pistacia atlantica explants. Soaking P. vera cv. mateur explants prior to culture in L-cysteine HCl for 15 min (100 µM inhibits blackening of the modified Murashige and Skoog medium - MS + 400 mg/l NH4NO3 - and of the explants; while shoot formation was increased. The browning in P. vera cv. mateur and P. atlantica explants dissolved when modified MS and Quoirin and Lepoivre - QL.4 - media were supplemented with activated charcoal (from 1 to 3 g l-1 and with 4 and 8 days of darkness. These treatments were enough to eliminate browning from the explants and to improve the shoots elongation, but symptoms of chlorosis were detected. On the other hand, AgNO3 (from 15 to 40 µ1V1 showed a very strong antibrowning effect on the medium and explants of P. atlantica. Thus shoot organogenesis was best achieved and the developing sturdy shoots had large and green leaves.

  4. Trichoderma spp. Improve growth of Arabidopsis seedlings under salt stress through enhanced root development, osmolite production, and Na⁺ elimination through root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Cornejo, Hexon Angel; Macías-Rodríguez, Lourdes; Alfaro-Cuevas, Ruth; López-Bucio, José

    2014-06-01

    Salt stress is an important constraint to world agriculture. Here, we report on the potential of Trichoderma virens and T. atroviride to induce tolerance to salt in Arabidopsis seedlings. We first characterized the effect of several salt concentrations on shoot biomass production and root architecture of Arabidopsis seedlings. We found that salt repressed plant growth and root development in a dose-dependent manner by blocking auxin signaling. Analysis of the wild type and eir1, aux1-7, arf7arf19, and tir1abf2abf19 auxin-related mutants revealed a key role for indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) signaling in mediating salt tolerance. We also found that T. virens (Tv29.8) and T. atroviride (IMI 206040) promoted plant growth in both normal and saline conditions, which was related to the induction of lateral roots and root hairs through auxin signaling. Arabidopsis seedlings grown under saline conditions inoculated with Trichoderma spp. showed increased levels of abscissic acid, L-proline, and ascorbic acid, and enhanced elimination of Na⁺ through root exudates. Our data show the critical role of auxin signaling and root architecture to salt tolerance in Arabidopsis and suggest that these fungi may enhance the plant IAA level as well as the antioxidant and osmoprotective status of plants under salt stress. PMID:24502519

  5. Subretinal lipid exudation associated with untreated choroidal melanoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C K Minija

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Subretinal lipid exudation in an untreated choroidal melanoma is very rare. It is seen following plaque radiotherapy in choroidal melanoma. There is only one case report of untreated choroidal melanoma with massive lipid exudation in a patient with metastatic hypernephroma. We report here a rare case of untreated choroidal melanoma with lipid exudation. Subretinal exudation that is rarely seen following plaque brachytherapy was noted at the borders of this untreated tumor. Lipid exudation partially resolved following brachytherapy.

  6. A Stable-Isotope Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolic Footprinting Approach to Analyze Exudates from Phytoplankton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark R. Viant

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Phytoplankton exudates play an important role in pelagic ecology and biogeochemical cycles of elements. Exuded compounds fuel the microbial food web and often encompass bioactive secondary metabolites like sex pheromones, allelochemicals, antibiotics, or feeding attractants that mediate biological interactions. Despite this importance, little is known about the bioactive compounds present in phytoplankton exudates. We report a stable-isotope metabolic footprinting method to characterise exudates from aquatic autotrophs. Exudates from 13C-enriched alga were concentrated by solid phase extraction and analysed by high-resolution Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry. We used the harmful algal bloom forming dinoflagellate Alexandrium tamarense to prove the method. An algorithm was developed to automatically pinpoint just those metabolites with highly 13C-enriched isotope signatures, allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way to explore the chemical nature of the solutes exuded from phytoplankton cells and will facilitate the discovery of novel dissolved bioactive compounds.

  7. Phosphorylation and Interaction with the 14-3-3 Protein of the Plasma Membrane H+-ATPase are Involved in the Regulation of Magnesium-Mediated Increases in Aluminum-Induced Citrate Exudation in Broad Bean (Vicia faba. L).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Kan, Qi; Wang, Ping; Yu, Wenqian; Yu, Yuzhen; Zhao, Yan; Yu, Yongxiong; Li, Kunzhi; Chen, Limei

    2015-06-01

    Several studies have shown that external application of micromolar magnesium (Mg) can increase the resistance of legumes to aluminum (Al) stress by enhancing Al-induced citrate exudation. However, the exact mechanism underlying this regulation remains unknown. In this study, the physiological and molecular mechanisms by which Mg enhances Al-induced citrate exudation to alleviate Al toxicity were investigated in broad bean. Micromolar concentrations of Mg that alleviated Al toxicity paralleled the stimulation of Al-induced citrate exudation and increased the activity of the plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase. Northern blot analysis shows that a putative MATE-like gene (multidrug and toxic compound extrusion) was induced after treatment with Al for 4, 8 and 12 h, whereas the mRNA abundance of the MATE-like gene showed no significant difference between Al plus Mg and Al-only treatments during the entire treatment period. Real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) and Western blot analyses suggest that the transcription and translation of the PM H(+)-ATPase were induced by Al but not by Mg. In contrast, immunoprecipitation suggests that Mg enhanced the phosphorylation levels of VHA2 and its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein under Al stress. Taken together, our results suggest that micromolar concentrations of Mg can alleviate the Al rhizotoxicity by increasing PM H(+)-ATPase activity and Al-induced citrate exudation in YD roots. This enhancement is likely to be attributable to Al-induced increases in the expression of the MATE-like gene and vha2 and Mg-induced changes in the phosphorylation levels of VHA2, thus changing its interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein.

  8. Dosagem de proteínas totais e desidrogenase lática para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos pleurais: redefinindo o critério clássico com uma nova abordagem estatística Determination of total proteins and lactate dehydrogenase for the diagnosis of pleural transudates and exudates: redefining the classical criterion with a new statistical approach

    OpenAIRE

    Bernardo Henrique Ferraz Maranhão; Cyro Teixeira da Silva Junior; Antonio Monteiro da Silva Chibante; Gilberto Perez Cardoso

    2010-01-01

    OBJETIVO: Propor um novo critério de classificação para a diferenciação entre exsudatos e transudatos pleurais através da dosagem de proteínas totais no líquido pleural (PT-LP) e de desidrogenase lática no líquido pleural (DHL-LP) exclusivamente, assim como comparar o rendimento diagnóstico entre esse novo critério com o critério clássico. MÉTODOS: Estudo observacional, transversal de tipo individualizado, no qual foram selecionados 181 pacientes com derrame pleural tratados em dois hospitais...

  9. Evolutionary Divergences in Root Exudate Composition among Ecologically-Contrasting Helianthus Species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bowsher, Alan W; Ali, Rifhat; Harding, Scott A; Tsai, Chung-Jui; Donovan, Lisa A

    2016-01-01

    Plant roots exude numerous metabolites into the soil that influence nutrient availability. Although root exudate composition is hypothesized to be under selection in low fertility soils, few studies have tested this hypothesis in a phylogenetic framework. In this study, we examined root exudates of three pairs of Helianthus species chosen as phylogenetically-independent contrasts with respect to native soil nutrient availability. Under controlled environmental conditions, seedlings were grown to the three-leaf-pair stage, then transferred to either high or low nutrient treatments. After five days of nutrient treatments, we used gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for analysis of root exudates, and detected 37 metabolites across species. When compared in the high nutrient treatment, species native to low nutrient soils exhibited overall higher exudation than their sister species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs, providing support for repeated evolutionary shifts in response to native soil fertility. Species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils responded similarly to low nutrient treatments with increased exudation of organic acids (fumaric, citric, malic acids) and glucose, potentially as a mechanism to enhance nutrition acquisition. However, species native to low nutrient soils also responded to low nutrient treatments with a larger decrease in exudation of amino acids than species native to high nutrient soils in all three species pairs. This indicates that species native to low nutrient soils have evolved a unique sensitivity to changes in nutrient availability for some, but not all, root exudates. Overall, these repeated evolutionary divergences between species native to low nutrient soils and those native to high nutrient soils provide evidence for the adaptive value of root exudation, and its plasticity, in contrasting soil environments.

  10. 小麦-蚕豆间作对根系分泌糖和氨基酸的影响%Effect of Wheat and Faba Bean Intercropping on Sugar and Amino Acid Exuded by Roots

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖靖秀; 郑毅; 汤利; 董艳

    2015-01-01

    根系分泌物在植物-土壤-微生物互作中充当信号物质,其对植物根际过程影响重大。糖和氨基酸是根系分泌物中两类最主要的物质,目前有关这两类分泌物的研究颇多,但在间作系统中尚缺乏系统研究,人们对间作系统中根系碳和氨基酸的分泌特征尚不清楚。为探讨间作对根系糖和氨基酸分泌的影响,通过盆栽试验分析比较了不同生育期单作、间作小麦(Tricumaestivum L.cv. Yunmai42)、蚕豆(Vicia fabaL. cv. Yundou 8363)的根系质量、根冠比、根系中糖和氨基酸的含量及其分泌速率。研究结果表明,(1)与单作小麦相比,间作提高了拔节期(98d)小麦根系总糖和蔗糖含量,分别提高75.78%和114.5%;在拔节期(98d)、孕穗期(120d)和灌浆期(142d),间作提高了根系总糖分泌速率,分别提高126.9%,34.9%和59.8%;其中,3个时期间作蔗糖分泌速率分别是单作的2.37、1.41和2.0倍。间作对蚕豆根系糖含量及糖的分泌没有影响。(2)与单作相比,在蚕豆分枝期(57d)、结荚期(120d)、籽粒膨大期(142d),间作提高了蚕豆氨基酸分泌速率,分别提高了75.9%、41.5%、39.6%;间作对小麦根系氨基酸含量及根系氨基酸分泌无影响。总之,间作种植提高了作物根系糖含量,促进了根系糖和氨基酸的分泌,但作物种类不同、生育期不同,间作对根系分泌影响并不相同。%It is well documented that root exudations act as signals among the interactions of plant-soil-microbial, and root exudations have important role in rhzosphere process. Sugars and amino acids are two mainly components in root exudations, and lots of researches had carried out. However, little studies have conducted in intercropping system, and the characteristic of sugar and amino acids exuded by root in intercropping is still unknown. Pot experiment of wheat (Tricumaestivum L

  11. A study on an oral mucosa transudation test kit of HIV antibody%一种口腔渗出液中HIV抗体检测试剂的试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘杨; 黄薇; 孟建彤; 戴琪珩; 朱厚宏; 张祁

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To carry out a study on an oral mucosa transudation test (OMT) kit of HIV antibody, to e-valuate the sensitivity, specificity and efficiency. Methods; Oral mucosa transudation and serum specimens were collected from 400 narcotics addicts. Specimens were tested for HIV antibody with the OMT test kit manufactured by Chengdu Xiehe Biological Technology Center and compared with a ELISA kit manufactured by Beijing BGI - GBI Biotech Company Co. , Ltd. Results; The OMT test kit had a sensitivity of 97.44% , a specificity of 100% , and an efficiency of 99.75%. Conclusion:The OMT kit was considered as a relatively reliable rapid test reagent.%目的:对一种口腔黏膜渗出液HIV(1/2)抗体检测试剂盒进行试验研究,评价其检测敏感性、特异性和功效率.方法:采集400名吸毒人群的口腔黏膜渗出液样本,现场使用成都协和生物技术中心生产的口腔黏膜渗出液HIV(1/2)抗体检测试剂盒进行检测,平行采集受试者的血液样本,用北京华大吉比爱生物技术有限公司生产的人类免疫缺陷病毒(HIV)1 +2型抗体酶联免疫法诊断试剂盒进行对比测试.结果:口腔黏膜渗出液HIV(1/2)抗体检测试剂盒的敏感性为97.44%,特异性为100%,功效率为99.75%.结论:这种口腔黏膜渗出液HIV(1/2)抗体检测试剂是一种比较可靠的快速检测试剂.

  12. Root Exudation: The Ecological Driver of Hydrocarbon Rhizoremediation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Rohrbacher

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Rhizoremediation is a bioremediation technique whereby microbial degradation of organic contaminants occurs in the rhizosphere. It is considered to be an effective and affordable “green technology” for remediating soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Root exudation of a wide variety of compounds (organic, amino and fatty acids, carbohydrates, vitamins, nucleotides, phenolic compounds, polysaccharides and proteins provide better nutrient uptake for the rhizosphere microbiome. It is thought to be one of the predominant drivers of microbial communities in the rhizosphere and is therefore a potential key factor behind enhanced hydrocarbon biodegradation. Many of the genes responsible for bacterial adaptation in contaminated soil and the plant rhizosphere are carried by conjugative plasmids and transferred among bacteria. Because root exudates can stimulate gene transfer, conjugation in the rhizosphere is higher than in bulk soil. A better understanding of these phenomena could thus inform the development of techniques to manipulate the rhizosphere microbiome in ways that improve hydrocarbon bioremediation.

  13. Looking Deep Inside: Detection of Low-Abundance Proteins in Leaf Extracts of Arabidopsis and Phloem Exudates of Pumpkin1[W

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fröhlich, Andreas; Gaupels, Frank; Sarioglu, Hakan; Holzmeister, Christian; Spannagl, Manuel; Durner, Jörg; Lindermayr, Christian

    2012-01-01

    The field of proteomics suffers from the immense complexity of even small proteomes and the enormous dynamic range of protein concentrations within a given sample. Most protein samples contain a few major proteins, which hamper in-depth proteomic analysis. In the human field, combinatorial hexapeptide ligand libraries (CPLL; such as ProteoMiner) have been used for reduction of the dynamic range of protein concentrations; however, this technique is not established in plant research. In this work, we present the application of CPLL to Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) leaf proteins. One- and two-dimensional gel electrophoresis showed a decrease in high-abundance proteins and an enrichment of less abundant proteins in CPLL-treated samples. After optimization of the CPLL protocol, mass spectrometric analyses of leaf extracts led to the identification of 1,192 proteins in control samples and an additional 512 proteins after the application of CPLL. Upon leaf infection with virulent Pseudomonas syringae DC3000, CPLL beads were also used for investigating the bacterial infectome. In total, 312 bacterial proteins could be identified in infected Arabidopsis leaves. Furthermore, phloem exudates of pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) were analyzed. CPLL prefractionation caused depletion of the major phloem proteins 1 and 2 and improved phloem proteomics, because 67 of 320 identified proteins were detectable only after CPLL treatment. In sum, our results demonstrate that CPLL beads are a time- and cost-effective tool for reducing major proteins, which often interfere with downstream analyses. The concomitant enrichment of less abundant proteins may facilitate a deeper insight into the plant proteome. PMID:22555880

  14. [Gum-like exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (white mangrove) as culture media for fungi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesa, L M; León-Pinto, G

    1993-01-01

    Morphological studies of eight species of fungus: Aspergillus flavus Microsporum canis, Epidermophyton floccosum, Curvularia lunata, Cladosporium carrionii, Natrassia mangífera (Edo. Scytalidium), Sporotrix schenckii y Rhizophus oligosporus, which belong to families Mucedinaceae, Dematiaceae and Mucoraceae have been carried out in support medium based in gum exudate from Laguncularia racemosa (mangle blanco). This native polimer contains galactose, arabinose, rhamnose, uronic acid and proteins. Nitrogen calcium and magnesium are microconstituents of the gum. An economical substrate which contained gum exudate (4%) and agar (1.5%) was used in these studies. The results obtained showed that gum exudate-agar medium (EGA) permits an adequate identification of the studied species, therefore, it is a possible substitute for Sabouraud. It is important to know that the gum exudate is a natural product, economical and easy to obtain.

  15. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Retinal Fundus Images using Differential Morphological Profile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shraddha Tripathi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an automatic method for exudate detection from colour fundus imagesbased on Differential Morphological Profile (DMP.The detection of exudates is important for the identification of eye diseases such as diabetic retinopathy. The method involves of three main phases. Inthe first phase, pre processing tasks like Gaussian smoothing and contrast enhancement is done. In the second phase, DMP is applied on the pre-processed image. The image obtained from DMP containshighlighted bright regions consisting of exudates and optic disc. In the next phase, feature extraction based on location of optic disc, shape index and area is done to obtain actual exudates. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated by applying it on the DIARETDB1 database. The specificity,sensitivity and PPV of the proposed method were compared with two other methods. The results showthat the proposed method gives better results than the other conventional methods.

  16. Microbial Products Trigger Amino Acid Exudation from Plant Roots1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Donald A.; Fox, Tama C.; King, Maria D.; Bhuvaneswari, T.V.; Teuber, Larry R.

    2004-01-01

    Plants naturally cycle amino acids across root cell plasma membranes, and any net efflux is termed exudation. The dominant ecological view is that microorganisms and roots passively compete for amino acids in the soil solution, yet the innate capacity of roots to recover amino acids present in ecologically relevant concentrations is unknown. We find that, in the absence of culturable microorganisms, the influx rates of 16 amino acids (each supplied at 2.5 μm) exceed efflux rates by 5% to 545% in roots of alfalfa (Medicago sativa), Medicago truncatula, maize (Zea mays), and wheat (Triticum aestivum). Several microbial products, which are produced by common soil microorganisms such as Pseudomonas bacteria and Fusarium fungi, significantly enhanced the net efflux (i.e. exudation) of amino acids from roots of these four plant species. In alfalfa, treating roots with 200 μm phenazine, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol, or zearalenone increased total net efflux of 16 amino acids 200% to 2,600% in 3 h. Data from 15N tests suggest that 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol blocks amino acid uptake, whereas zearalenone enhances efflux. Thus, amino acid exudation under normal conditions is a phenomenon that probably reflects both active manipulation and passive uptake by microorganisms, as well as diffusion and adsorption to soil, all of which help overcome the innate capacity of plant roots to reabsorb amino acids. The importance of identifying potential enhancers of root exudation lies in understanding that such compounds may represent regulatory linkages between the larger soil food web and the internal carbon metabolism of the plant. PMID:15347793

  17. [Signal transudation pathways in parietal cells of the gastric mucosa in experimental stomach ulcer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostapchenko, L I; Drobins'ka, O V; Chaĭka, V O; Bohun, L I; Bohdanova, O V; Kot, L I; Haĭda, L M

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the presented work was the research of signal transduction mechanism in the rat gastric parietal cells under stomach ulcer conditions. In these cells activation of adenylate cyclase (increase of cAMP level and proteinkinase A activity) and phosphoinositide (increases [Ca2+]i; cGMP and phoshatidylinocitole levels; proteinkinase C, proteinkinase G, and calmodulin-dependent-proteinkinase activity) of signals pathway was shown. An increase of plasma membrane phospholipids (PC, PS, PE, PI, LPC) level was shown. Under conditions of influence of the stress factor the membran enzymes activity (H+, K+ -ATPase, 5'-AMPase, Na+, K+ -ATPase, Ca2+, Mg2+ -ATPase and H+, K+ -ATPase) was considerably increased. The intensification of lipid peroxidation processes in rats was demonstrated.

  18. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus using oral mucosal transudate by rapid test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhuvan Jyoti

    2013-01-01

    Settings and Design: OraQuick Rapid HIV-1/2 Diagnostic test was evaluated in sera and oral fluids from 83 subjects. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised of 50 HIV seropositive subjects and the control group comprised of 33 seronegative subjects. Serum samples were collected using the standard phlebotomy technique and oral samples were collected using OraQuick Rapid HIV 1/2 Antibody test OMT collecting device. Statistical Analysis Used: The statistical analysis was done using statistical package for social sciences version 16.0, SPSS Inc., 233 South Wacker Drive, 11 th Floor, Chicago, IL 60606-6412. The Sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value, negative predictive value were used. Results: All the subjects who tested either positive/reactive or negative/non-reactive with Western blot/enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA produced similar results with Rapid test using OMT in study, our study also revealed that the subjects whether on anti-retroviral therapy or not had 100% sensitivity and specificity with the Rapid test using OMT. Conclusions: The Rapid test using OMT is highly accurate as the diagnostic efficacy in our study was 100% for HIV antibody detection and produced similar results to that of conventional Western blot/ELISA tests.

  19. Broiler chicken PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat and water release during chicken carcass thawing and brazilian legislation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talita Kato

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to investigate the relationship between poultry PSE meat and water loss of frozen chicken carcass in two experiments. The first experiment was carried out in commercial abattoir. Poultry carcass were classified as PSE meat (n=59 (pH 5.8. Water absorption and drip test were performed according to the Brazilian legislation methodologies. The second experiment was carried out with commercial whole five brands frozen carcasses purchased from the local supermarkets (n=30 and analyzed for pH, water holding capacity (WHC and drip test. PSE poultry meats absorbed 3.59% of water during the processing similar to the control samples; however, released 0.38% more water during thawing of the carcasses. From these five brands evaluated, three presented drip values above 6.0%. The highest drip value was showed by the brand sample that had pH and WHC values characteristics of PSE meat. It could be postulated that PSE meat phenomenon promoted more water release during thawing leading to a misinterpretation in relation to the Brazilian legislation for water carcass liberation during thawing.

  20. Determination of Organic Acids in Root Exudates by High Performance Liquid Chromatography:Ⅲ.Effects of Interfering Factors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHENJIANBO; ZHANGFUSUO; 等

    1999-01-01

    A solution culture experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of collection time and interfering ions on separation and determination of low-molecular-weight organic acids in root exudates of soybean using the method for directly collecting root exudates.The suitable cooection time of root exudates and the interferiung ions affecting organic acid determination were determined.The method for removing the interfering ions was established and analyzed.The release amount of root exudates increased with the increase of collection time from 0 to 120min but decreased with increasing of collection time from 120to 240min.The maximum exuding amounts of organic acids were observed in root exudates at the collection time of 120min.There was a significant difference of organic acid components between the treatments of collection time of 120min and 240min,Citric acid was founnd only in the treatment of 120min collection time,NO3- was the main interfering ion in organic acid determination and had the same retention time as oxalic acid.Anion exchange resin(SAX)properly treated by HPLC(high performance liquid chromatography)solvent could remove NO3- anion in sample solution of root exudates,thus enhancing the recoveries of organic acids in root exudates.There was no significant effect of the chemicals added into sample solution such as H3PO4,SAX and KNO3 on the retention time of organic acids.

  1. TableCross: Exuding a Shared Space into Personal Spaces to Encourage Its Voluntary Maintenance

    OpenAIRE

    Nishimoto, Kazushi; Ikenoue, Akari; Shimizu, Koji; Tajima, Tomonori; Tanaka, Yuta; Baba, Yutaka; Wang, Xihong

    2011-01-01

    A shared space should be cooperatively maintained by all users. However, due to social loafing, often nobody maintains it and its condition worsens. We propose exudation of a shared space. Part of a shared space is exuded into personal workspaces so that office workers are forced to subjectively experience the atmosphere of the shared space, even while they remain at their personal workspaces. This paper illustrates the first prototype named “TableCross,” which reflects the degree of disorder...

  2. Citrate exudation by maize roots; A possible mechanism of resistance to aluminium

    OpenAIRE

    Mariano, E.D.

    2003-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic anions have been intensively studied as possibly involved in a mechanism of Al resistance in plants, due to their involvement in many metabolic processes and to their negative charge, conferring them the capacity to complex metals. The objective of the thesis was to study the root exudation of organic anions as a potential mechanism of Al resistance operating in maize ( Zea mays L.). The effect of Al exposure on root organic anion exudation was studied with roots ...

  3. Up-regulation and interaction of the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein are involved in the regulation of citrate exudation from the broad bean (Vicia faba L.) under Al stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qi; Guo, Chuan-Long; Wang, Ping; Chen, Xuan-Qin; Wu, Kong-Huan; Li, Kui-Zhi; Yu, Yong-Xiong; Chen, Li-Mei

    2013-09-01

    Our previous study showed that citrate excretion coupled with a concomitant release of protons was involved in aluminum (Al) resistance in the broad bean. Furthermore, genes encoding plasma membrane (PM) H(+)-ATPase (vha2) and the 14-3-3 protein (vf14-3-3b) were up-regulated by Al in Al-resistant (YD) broad bean roots. In this study, the roles of PM H(+)-ATPase (E.C. 3.6.3.6) and the 14-3-3 protein in the regulation of citrate secretion were further investigated in Al-resistant (YD) and Al-sensitive (AD) broad bean cultivars under Al stress. The results showed that greater citrate exudation was positively correlated with higher activities of PM H(+)-ATPase in roots of YD than AD. Real-time RT-PCR analysis revealed that vha2 was clearly up-regulated by Al in YD but not in AD roots, whereas the transcription levels of vf14-3-3b were elevated in a time-dependent manner in both YD and AD roots. Immunoprecipitation and Western analysis suggested that phosphorylation and interaction with the vf14-3-3b protein of the VHA2 were enhanced in YD roots but not in AD roots with increasing Al treatment time. Fusicoccin or adenosine 5'-monophosphate increased or decreased the interaction between the phosphorylated VHA2 and the vf14-3-3b protein, followed by an enhancement or reduction of the PM H(+)-ATPase activity and citrate exudation in both cultivars under Al stress conditions, respectively. Taken together, these results suggested that Al enhanced the expression and interaction of the PM H(+)-ATPase and the 14-3-3 protein, which thereby led to higher activity of the PM H(+)-ATPase and more citrate exudation from YD plants.

  4. Genetics Home Reference: familial exudative vitreoretinopathy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 2):104-12. Citation on PubMed Robitaille J, MacDonald ML, Kaykas A, Sheldahl LC, Zeisler J, Dubé ... Shukla D, Singh J, Sudheer G, Soman M, John RK, Ramasamy K, Perumalsamy N. Familial exudative vitreoretinopathy ( ...

  5. A review of the influence of root-associating fungi and root exudates on the success of invasive plants

    OpenAIRE

    Cindy Bongard

    2012-01-01

    Plant-fungal interactions are essential for understanding the distribution and abundance of plants species. Recently, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal (AMF) partners of non-indigenous invasive plants have been hypothesized to be a critical factor influencing the invasion processes. AMF are known to improve nutrient and moisture uptake, as well as disrupt parasitic and pathogenic microbes in the host plant. Such benefits may enable invaders to establish significant and persistent populations in e...

  6. Inhibitory potential of naphthoquinones leached from leaves and exuded from roots of the invasive plant Impatiens glandulifera.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruckli, Regina; Hesse, Katharina; Glauser, Gaetan; Rusterholz, Hans-Peter; Baur, Bruno

    2014-04-01

    Exploring the effects of allelopathic plant chemicals on the growth of native vegetation is essential to understand their ecological roles and importance in exotic plant invasion. Naphthoquinones have been identified as potential growth inhibitors produced by Impatiens glandulifera, an exotic annual plant that recently invaded temperate forests in Europe. However, naphthoquinone release and inhibitory potential have not been examined. We quantified the naphthoquinone content in cotyledons, leaves, stems, and roots from plants of different ages of both the invasive I. glandulifera and native Impatiens noli-tangere as well as in soil extracts and rainwater rinsed from leaves of either plant species by using ultra-high pressure liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS). We identified the compound 2-methoxy-1,4-naphthoquinone (2-MNQ) exclusively in plant organs of I. glandulifera, in resin bags buried into the soil of patches invaded by I. glandulifera, and in rainwater rinsed from its leaves. This indicates that 2-MNQ is released from the roots of I. glandulifera and leached from its leaves by rain. Specific bioassays using aqueous shoot and root extracts revealed a strong inhibitory effect on the germination of two native forest herbs and on the mycelium growth of three ectomycorrhiza fungi. These findings suggest that the release of 2-MNQ may contribute to the invasion success of I. glandulifera and support the novel weapons hypothesis. PMID:24722883

  7. Isolation and identification of Desmodium root exudates from drought tolerant species used as intercrops against Striga hermonthica

    OpenAIRE

    Hooper, A.M.; Caulfield, J.C.; Hao, B; Pickett, J.A.; Midega, C.A.O.; Khan, Z.R.

    2015-01-01

    Plants from the genus Desmodium, in particular D. uncinatum, are used on sub-Saharan small-holder farms as intercrops to inhibit parasitism of cereal crops by Striga hermonthica and Striga asiatica via an allelopathic mechanism. The search for Desmodium species which are adapted to more arid conditions, and which show resilience to increased drought stress, previously identified D. intortum, D. incanum and D. ramosissimum as potential drought tolerant intercrops. Their potential as intercrops...

  8. Genotypic variation in the ability of landraces and commercial cereal varieties to avoid manganese deficiency in soils with limited manganese availability: is there a role for root-exuded phytases?

    Science.gov (United States)

    George, Timothy S; French, Andrew S; Brown, Lawrie K; Karley, Alison J; White, Philip J; Ramsay, Luke; Daniell, Tim J

    2014-07-01

    The marginal agricultural-systems of the Machair in the Western Isles of Scotland often have limited micronutrient availability because of alkaline soils. Traditional landraces of oats, barley and rye are thought to be better adapted to cope with the limited manganese (Mn) availability of these soils. When commercial cultivars are grown on the Machair, limited Mn-availability reduces crop yield and quality. We hypothesised that traditional cereal landraces selected on the Machair acquire Mn more effectively and that this could be linked to exudation of phytase from roots which would release Mn complexed with inositol phosphates. Growth and Mn-acquisition of five landraces and three commercial cultivars of barley and oats were determined in Machair soil. In addition, root phytase activities were assayed under Mn-starvation and sufficiency in hydroponics. In Machair soil, landraces had greater capacity for acquiring Mn and a greater ability to achieve maximum yield compared to the commercial cultivars. Under Mn-starvation, root phytase exudation was upregulated in all plants, suggesting that this trait might allow cereals to acquire more Mn when Mn-availability is limited. In the landraces, exuded phytase activity related positively to relative Mn-accumulation, whereas in the commercial cultivars this relationship was negative, suggesting that this trait may be secondary to an efficiency trait that has been lost from commercial germplasm by breeding. This research shows that cereal landraces possess traits that could be useful for improving the Mn-acquisition of commercial varieties. Exploiting the genetic diversity of landraces could improve the sustainability of agriculture on marginal calcareous lands globally.

  9. Carbon content and C:N ratio of transparent exopolymeric particles (TEP) produced by bubbling exudates of diatoms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mari, Xavier

    1999-01-01

    a coastal area (Kattegat, Denmark), TEP carbon concentration in the surface mixed layer was on the order of 230 ± 150 µg C l-1. This is high relative to other sources of particulate organic carbon (e.g. phytoplankton) and depending on TEP turnover rates, suggests that TEP is an important pathway......-non-limited to N-limited conditions. While the C:N ratio of the diatom cells grown under N-limited conditions was high (C:N >= 14), the TEP aggregates formed by coagulation of the extracellular release produced by these cells exhibited a C:N ratio relatively constant (C:N = 7.3 ± 2.6) and apparently independent...

  10. Auxin secretion by Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42 both stimulates root exudation and limits phosphorus uptake in Triticum aestivum

    OpenAIRE

    Talboys, Peter J.; Owen, Darren W; Healey, John R; Withers, Paul JA; Jones, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Background The use of auxin-producing rhizosphere bacteria as agricultural products promises increased root production and therefore greater phosphate (Pi) uptake. Whilst such bacteria promote root production in vitro, the nature of the bacteria-plant interaction in live soil, particularly concerning any effects on nutrient uptake, are not known. This study uses Bacillus amyloliquefaciens FZB42, an auxin-producing rhizobacterium, as a dressing on Triticum aestivum seeds. It then examines the ...

  11. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magali Bernardes Maganhini

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de idade, em um Frigorífico localizado na Região Sul do País. Os lombos foram classificados com base no valor de L*24 h e pH24 h. Foi constatada uma incidência de 22,8% de carnes PSE, 1,0% de DFD e 76,2% de normal. Esses valores relativamente altos de carnes PSE mostram a necessidade de se realizar controles no seu manejo pré e pós-abate para a manutenção da qualidade da carne e evitar o excessivo prejuízo econômico dos frigoríficos decorrentes dessas anormalidades.The needs of higher production of low fat pork have conducted changes on the muscle biochemical characteristics leading to color abnormality producing so-called PSE and DFD meats. The consequence is a relevant economical loss due to the impairment of meat functional properties. In this experiment, 946 samples of Longissimus dorsi m. from barrows and gilts of Dalland lineage, of 100 days of age, were evaluated in a pork abattoir located in the south of Brazil. Samples were classified based on the L*24 h e pH24 h values. Results showed the occurrence of 22.8% of PSE meat, 1.0% de DFD meat and 76.2% of normal meat. These relatively higher values for PSE show undoubtedly the needs to carry out pre- and post-mortem management in order to maintain meat quality thus avoiding the excessive economic cost due to these meat abnormalities.

  12. Ecological effect of plant root exudates and related affecting factors: A review%植物根系分泌物生态效应及其影响因素研究综述

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗永清; 赵学勇; 李美霞

    2012-01-01

    The formation of plant root exudates is a vital physiological phenomenon in the metabolic processes of plant, and an important link of material turnover in " plant-soil" system. To study the plant root exudates is of significance in understanding the matter and energy flow, carbon and nitrogen balance, and improvement of primary production in terrestrial ecosystems. This paper reviewed the ecological effect of plant root exudates, such as the effect on plant physiological processes, soil microorganisms, soil matter turnover, and degradation of soil organic contaminants, and summarized the related affecting factors, including soil heavy metals and nutrient contents, soil moisture, light, and heat conditions, plant gene type, soil microorganisms, and input of exogenous organic contaminants. Based on the present research status of plant root exudates, the future research directions about the objects, methods, and effect assessment were prospected.%植物根系分泌物的形成是植物体代谢过程中重要的生理现象,为“植物-土壤”体系物质周转的重要环节.研究植物根系分泌物对于了解陆地生态系统质能过程、碳氮收支平衡及提高生态系统的初级生产具有重要意义.本文从植物根系分泌物对植物生理性状、土壤微生物、土壤物质周转及有机污染物降解影响等4个方面对植物根系分泌物的生态效应进行综述,并从重金属含量、营养元素水平、土壤水分和光热条件、物种基因型、土壤微生物状况和外源有机污染物添加的角度综述了影响植物根系分泌物的因素,旨在对植物根系分泌物的生态效应和影响因素进行总结,并根据目前的研究现状,从研究对象、研究方法和效应评估方面进行了展望.

  13. Response to zinc deficiency of two rice lines with contrasting tolerance is determined by root growth maintenance and organic acid exudation rates, and not by zinc-transporter activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widodo, Basuki; Broadley, Martin R; Rose, Terry; Frei, Michael; Pariasca-Tanaka, Juan; Yoshihashi, Tadashi; Thomson, Michael; Hammond, John P; Aprile, Alessio; Close, Timothy J; Ismail, Abdelbagi M; Wissuwa, Matthias

    2010-04-01

    *Zinc (Zn)-deficient soils constrain rice (Oryza sativa) production and cause Zn malnutrition. The identification of Zn-deficiency-tolerant rice lines indicates that breeding might overcome these constraints. Here, we seek to identify processes underlying Zn-deficiency tolerance in rice at the physiological and transcriptional levels. *A Zn-deficiency-tolerant line RIL46 acquires Zn more efficiently and produces more biomass than its nontolerant maternal line (IR74) at low [Zn](ext) under field conditions. We tested if this was the result of increased expression of Zn(2+) transporters; increased root exudation of deoxymugineic acid (DMA) or low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs); and/or increased root production. Experiments were performed in field and controlled environment conditions. *There was little genotypic variation in transcript abundance of Zn-responsive root Zn(2+)-transporters between the RIL46 and IR74. However, root exudation of DMA and LMWOA was greater in RIL46, coinciding with increased root expression of putative ligand-efflux genes. Adventitious root production was maintained in RIL46 at low [Zn](ext), correlating with altered expression of root-specific auxin-responsive genes. *Zinc-deficiency tolerance in RIL46 is most likely the result of maintenance of root growth, increased efflux of Zn ligands, and increased uptake of Zn-ligand complexes at low [Zn](ext); these traits are potential breeding targets. PMID:20100202

  14. Fast induction of biosynthetic polysaccharide genes lpxA, lpxE, and rkpI of Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 by common bean seed exudates is indicative of a key role in symbiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Luciana Ruano; Rodrigues, Elisete Pains; Marcelino-Guimarães, Francismar Corrêa; Oliveira, André Luiz Martinez; Hungria, Mariangela

    2013-06-01

    Rhizobial surface polysaccharides (SPS) are, together with nodulation (Nod) factors, recognized as key molecules for establishment of rhizobia-legume symbiosis. In Rhizobium tropici, an important nitrogen-fixing symbiont of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), molecular structures and symbiotic roles of the SPS are poorly understood. In this study, Rhizobium sp. strain PRF 81 genes, belonging to the R. tropici group, were investigated: lpxA and lpxE, involved in biosynthesis and modification of the lipid-A anchor of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), and rkpI, involved in synthesis of a lipid carrier required for production of capsular polysaccharides (KPS). Reverse transcription quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) analysis revealed, for the first time, that inducers released from common bean seeds strongly stimulated expression of all three SPS genes. When PRF 81 cells were grown for 48 h in the presence of seed exudates, twofold increases (p PRF81 and of the type strain of R. tropici CIAT899(T)clustered with orthologous Rhizobium radiobacter and were more related to R. etli and Rhizobium leguminosarum, while rkpI was closer to the Sinorhizobium sp. group. Upregulation of lpxE, lpxA, and rkpI genes suggests that seed exudates can modulate production of SPS of Rhizobium sp. PRF81, leading to cell wall changes necessary for symbiosis establishment.

  15. 转Bt基因玉米叶片中Bt蛋白的表达和分泌研究%Study on Expression and Exudation of Bt Protein in Leaves of Transgenic Insect- resistant Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田晓燕; 赵蕾; 孙红炜; 李凡; 赵辉; 颜世磊; 路兴波

    2012-01-01

    With the transgenic insect - resistant corn Mon810 and its non - transgenic parent as materials , the enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA ) method was used to detect the expression and quanti-tate the exudation of Bt protein in corn leaves. The results showed that Bt protein could be detected in tissue and on surface of leaves. The Bt content in tissues showed a rising trend from seedling stage to silking stage with the advances of vegetable growth, and reached the peak at the silking stage and then declined gradually. The variation of Bt exudation on leaf surface had no obvious regularity.%以转Bt玉米Mon810及其亲本非转基因玉米为研究对象,通过酶联免疫吸附测定法(ELISA)定量检测Mon810玉米叶中Bt蛋白表达量和叶表Bt蛋白分泌量,结果表明叶组织和叶表均可检测到Bt蛋白,组织内Bt蛋白量从苗期到抽丝期随着植株营养生长的加快呈上升趋势,至抽丝期达到顶峰,之后逐渐降低;叶表Bt蛋白分泌量变化无明显规律性.

  16. Risk factors and management of diabetes-related macular hard exudates%糖尿病相关黄斑病变硬性渗出的危险因素及治疗

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨鑫

    2014-01-01

    糖尿病相关黄斑病变是常见的与糖尿病相关的眼底改变,主要表现为黄斑区硬性渗出,是糖尿病患者视力下降的主要原因之一.近年来,随着糖尿病相关黄斑病变发病率的升高,其各种临床特征也逐渐受到关注.国内外研究认为,许多全身因素,如血糖、血压、血脂、炎性因子、基因易感性等在糖尿病视网膜病变的发生、发展过程中发挥重要作用,但黄斑区硬性渗出是否也受上述全身因素影响目前尚未得到证实.由于糖尿病黄斑病变硬性渗出可引起视功能永久性丧失,因此了解其发病的危险因素对糖尿病相关黄斑病变的防治至关重要.本文中对近年来的相关研究结果进行总结,评价相关危险因素及有效、相对安全的治疗措施,为最终通过全身综合干预及局部治疗、早期控制糖尿病黄斑病变硬性渗出提供依据和新的思路.%Diabetes-related macular exudation is a common fundus change associated with diabetes mellitus,charactered by hard exudates of macular area.It is one of main causes of lowing vision in diabetic patients.The incidence of diabetes-related macular exudation is increasing recent years,and therefore the diabetic maculopathy is also a matter of urgent concern.Domestic and international studies suggested that many systemic factors,such as blood glucose level,blood pressure,hypertension,higher blood lipid,inflammatory factors and genetic predisposition,exert impacts in the pathogenesis and development of diabetic retinopathy.However,whether the hard exudates of macular area also is associated with systemic factors mentioned above is unclear up to now.Since the hard exudates of diabetic maculopathy may leads to permanent loss of visual function,it is very important for us to find the effective prevent and managing approaches.This paper aimed to review the progress in this field and summarize the relevant risk factors that must be strictly controlled.

  17. High-Resolution Imaging by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Reveals Two Morphologically Distinct Types of Retinal Hard Exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Muneo; Nakao, Shintaro; Kaizu, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakama, Takahito; Arima, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Oshima, Yuji; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Shizuo; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-Hei

    2016-01-01

    Histological studies from autopsy specimens have characterized hard exudates as a composition of lipid-laden macrophages or noncellular materials including lipid and proteinaceous substances (hyaline substances). However, the characteristics of hard exudates in living patients have not been examined due to insufficient resolution of existing equipment. In this study, we used adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to examine the characteristics of hard exudates in patients with retinal vascular diseases. High resolution imaging using AO-SLO enables morphological classification of retinal hard exudates into two types, which could not be distinguished either on fundus examination or by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). One, termed a round type, consisted of an accumulation of spherical particles (average diameter of particles: 26.9 ± 4.4 μm). The other, termed an irregular type, comprised an irregularly shaped hyper-reflective deposition. The retinal thickness in regions with round hard exudates was significantly greater than the thickness in regions with irregular hard exudates (P = 0.01 →0.02). This differentiation of retinal hard exudates in patients by AO-SLO may help in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical prognosis of retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27641223

  18. High-Resolution Imaging by Adaptive Optics Scanning Laser Ophthalmoscopy Reveals Two Morphologically Distinct Types of Retinal Hard Exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Muneo; Nakao, Shintaro; Kaizu, Yoshihiro; Kobayashi, Yoshiyuki; Nakama, Takahito; Arima, Mitsuru; Yoshida, Shigeo; Oshima, Yuji; Takeda, Atsunobu; Ikeda, Yasuhiro; Mukai, Shizuo; Ishibashi, Tatsuro; Sonoda, Koh-hei

    2016-01-01

    Histological studies from autopsy specimens have characterized hard exudates as a composition of lipid-laden macrophages or noncellular materials including lipid and proteinaceous substances (hyaline substances). However, the characteristics of hard exudates in living patients have not been examined due to insufficient resolution of existing equipment. In this study, we used adaptive optics scanning laser ophthalmoscopy (AO-SLO) to examine the characteristics of hard exudates in patients with retinal vascular diseases. High resolution imaging using AO-SLO enables morphological classification of retinal hard exudates into two types, which could not be distinguished either on fundus examination or by spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). One, termed a round type, consisted of an accumulation of spherical particles (average diameter of particles: 26.9 ± 4.4 μm). The other, termed an irregular type, comprised an irregularly shaped hyper-reflective deposition. The retinal thickness in regions with round hard exudates was significantly greater than the thickness in regions with irregular hard exudates (P = 0.01 →0.02). This differentiation of retinal hard exudates in patients by AO-SLO may help in understanding the pathogenesis and clinical prognosis of retinal vascular diseases. PMID:27641223

  19. Squalamine lactate for exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Brian; Desai, Avinash; Garcia, Charles A; Thomas, Edgar; Gast, Michael J

    2006-09-01

    Squalamine lactate inhibits angiogenesis by a long-lived, intracellular mechanism of action. The drug is taken up into activated endothelial cells through caveolae, small invaginations in the cellular membrane. Subsequently, the drug binds to and "chaperones" calmodulin to an intracellular membrane compartment and blocks angiogenesis at several levels. A series of basic investigations, preclinical studies, and human clinical trials have begun to establish the proof of concept, efficacy, and safety parameters for use of squalamine lactate as a therapeutic agent for exudative age-related macular degeneration and several types of malignancies. PMID:16935213

  20. Automatic Detection of Exudates in Diabetic Retinopathy Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekkarat Pothiruk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Diabetic Retinopathy (DR is globally the primary cause of visual impairment and blindness in diabetic patients. Retinal image is essential and crucial for ophthalmologists to diagnose diseases. Many of technique can achieve good performance on retinal feature are clearly visible. Unfortunately, it is a normal situation that the retinal images in Thailand are low-quality images. The existing algorithm cannot detect low-quality image. Therefore, this study is part of a larger effort to develop a new method for detection of exudates in low quality retinal image. Approach: In this study, we presented a new method towards the development for detecting exudates pathologies of DR. The color retinal images are segmented using Fuzzy C-Means (FCM clustering and morphological methods and following key preprocessing step, i.e., color normalization, contrast enhancement, remove noise and color space selection. This enables its difference in our methods compared to other approach and the algorithm can achieve good performance even on low-quality retinal images. Result/Conclusion: The result shows that accuracy values increase when the FCM clustering is combined with morphological methods techniques. If any applications need to detect maximum number of exudates pixels or require execution speed, the FCM clustering technique could be used in isolation. However, if the applications require higher accuracy, the FCM clustering combined with morphological methods should be chosen. This system intends to help ophthalmologists in DR screening process to detect symptoms faster and more easily. This is not a final result application but it can be a preliminary diagnosis tool or decision support system for ophthalmologists. Human ophthalmologists are still needed for the cases where detection results are not very obvious.

  1. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graf, Isabell; Ceseri, Maurizio; Stockie, John M

    2015-10-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first mathematical model for exudation, while also introducing several essential modifications to this hypothesis. We derive a multiscale model consisting of a nonlinear system of differential equations governing phase change and transport within wood cells, coupled to a suitably homogenized equation for temperature on the macroscale. Numerical simulations yield stem pressures that are consistent with experiments and provide convincing evidence that a purely physical mechanism is capable of capturing exudation. PMID:26400199

  2. Coleta e preservação do líquido pleural e biópsia pleural Collection and preservation of the pleural fluid and pleural biopsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Antonangelo

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available As amostras de líquido pleural obtidas por toracocentese para o diagnóstico de transudatos e exsudatos devem obedecer a uma rotina de coleta e preservação para a realização de uma análise laboratorial adequada. Igualmente, fragmentos de biópsia de pleura obtidos para o diagnóstico diferencial dos exsudatos devem ser coletados de forma sistemática com o objetivo de otimizar o diagnóstico e facilitar a instituição da terapêutica adequada.The samples of pleural fluid obtained by thoracentesis for the diagnosis of transudates and exudates shall follow a routine of collection and preservation for an appropriate laboratorial analysis. Equally, fragments of pleura biopsy obtained for the differential diagnosis of the exudates should be collected in a systematic way in order to optimize the diagnosis and facilitate the institution of appropriate therapeutics actions.

  3. Transepithelial chemotaxis of rat peritoneal exudate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, C W; Taylor, J E; Walker, J D; Simmons, N L

    1983-12-01

    The migration of peritoneal exudate (PE) cells into plain Millipore filters mounted in Boyden chambers occurs under random, chemokinetic and chemotactic conditions. Significant migration of such cells in vivo, however, involves both transendothelial and transepithelial penetration and occurs predominantly under pathological conditions where chemotactic agents are presumed to be present in gradient form. When Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) epithelial cells are grown as a confluent monolayer on the Millipore filter of a Boyden chamber, transepithelial migration is seen only under chemotactic conditions thus modelling in vivo behaviour more effectively. The MDCK cell line exists as 2 variant strains which model different regions of the mammalian nephron. Strain I MDCK cells share features of the distal and collecting tubules and have relatively high junctional resistance (greater than 1k omega cm2). Strain II MDCK cells model the proximal segment of the nephron and have relatively low junctional resistance (c. 70 omega cm2). We have found that PE cells penetrate the less resistant strain II MDCK monolayer at a faster rate (as assessed by leading front migration) than they penetrate the tighter strain I monolayer. We have also utilized the electrophysiological features of MDCK monolayers to monitor transepithelial penetration. Our electrophysiological data indicate that rat PE cells penetrate MDCK monolayers of either strain by a transjunctional route with consequent reversible dissolution of the junctional complex. This extracellular path of PE cell migration was confirmed by ultrastructural observations. The extent of junctional dissolution and the delay in re-establishment of monolayer integrity (as assessed by electrophysiological means) are related to the concentration of PE cells added to the MDCK monolayer. Brief treatment (10 min) of the MDCK monolayer with the cation chelating agent EDTA also disrupts monolayer integrity, although its re-establishment is

  4. Effect of heavy metals and organic matter on root exudates (low molecular weight organic acids) of herbaceous species: An assessment in sand and soil conditions under different levels of contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montiel-Rozas, M M; Madejón, E; Madejón, P

    2016-09-01

    Bioavailability of heavy metals can be modified by different root exudates. Among them, low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) play an important role in this process. Three plant species (Poa annua, Medicago polymorpha and Malva sylvestris), potentially used for phytoremediation, have been assessed for both metal uptake and LMWOAs excretion in contaminated environments with different concentrations of Cd, Cu and Zn. The experiments have been carried out in washed sand and in three contaminated soils where two organic amendments were added (biosolid compost and alperujo compost). The most abundant LMWOAs excreted by all studied plants were oxalic and malic acids, although citric and fumaric acids were also detected. The general tendency was that plants responded to an increase of heavy metal stress releasing higher amounts of LMWOAs. This is an efficient exclusion mechanism reducing the metal uptake and allowing the plant growth at high levels of contamination. In the experiment using wash sand as substrate, the organic acids composition and quantity depended mainly on plant species and metal contamination. M. polymorpha was the species that released the highest concentrations of LMWOAs, both in sand and in soils with no amendment addition, whereas a decrease of these acids was observed with the addition of amendments. Our results established a clear effect of organic matter on the composition and total amount of LMWOAs released. The increase of organic matter and nutrients, through amendments, improved the soil quality reducing phytotoxicity. As a result, organic acids exudates decreased and were solely composed of oxalic acid (except for M. polymorpha). The release of LMWOAs has proved to be an important mechanism against heavy metal stress, unique to each species and modifiable by means of organic amendment addition. PMID:27267743

  5. Improvement of the Hard Exudates Detection Method Used For Computer- Aided Diagnosis of Diabetic Retinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feroui Amel

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Diabetic retinopathy is a severe and widely spread eye disease. Early diagnosis and timely treatment of these clinical signs such as hard exudates could efficiently prevent blindness. The presence of exudates within the macular region is a main hallmark of diabetic macular edema and allows its detection with high sensitivity. In this paper, we combine the k-means clustering algorithm and mathematical morphology to detect hard exudates (HEs in retinal images of several diabetic patients. This method is tested on a set of 50 ophthalmologic images with variable brightness, color, and forms of HEs. The algorithm obtained a sensitivity of 95.92%, predictive value of 92.28% and accuracy of 99.70% using a lesion-based criterion.

  6. 铝对茶树根细胞膜透性和根系分泌有机酸的影响%Impacts of Aluminum on Root Cell Membrane Permeability and Organic Acids in Root Exudates of Tea Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腾腾; 郜红建; 宛晓春; 张正竹

    2011-01-01

    采用溶液培养法研究了铝浓度对茶树根细胞膜透性和分泌低分子量有机酸的影响.结果表明,低质量浓度铝( 20 mg/L)有利于茶树根细胞膜的稳定,缺铝(0 mg/L,CK)和高铝(100 mg/L)均使根细胞膜透性显著降低.有机酸总量随铝浓度升高呈现先降低后升高的趋势.草酸、苹果酸和柠檬酸是茶树根系分泌的3种主要有机酸,占85%~93%;根系分泌草酸的量与对照相比,低铝和高铝时显著降低了84.7%和34.3%;分泌苹果酸的量与对照相比,低铝时增加了121.0%,高铝时降低了40.9%;铝浓度对柠檬酸的分泌量影响不大.研究结果可为阐明茶树根系的耐铝生理机制提供依据.%The impacts of aluminum (Al) concentration on root cell membrane permeability and components of organic acids in root exudates of tea plant (Camellia, sinensis L.) were investigated by hydroponics. Results showed that 20 mg/L of low Al concentration could enhance the cell membrane stability of tea root, and the membrane permeability was significantly declined with deficiency Al (0 mg/L, CK) and high Al (100 mg/L) treatments. The total organic acids firstly decreased and then increased with the increase of Al concentrations. About 85%~93% of the total organic acids in root exudates of tea plant were oxalic acid, malic acid and citric acid. Compared with CK, the oxalic acid secretion remarkably reduced 84.7% and 34.3% under the low and high Al concentration treatments. Compared with CK, the malic acid of root exudates increased by 121.1% in low Al concentration, and decreased by 40.9% in high Al concentration. There wasn't significant influence on citric acid, containing about 3.5~4.5 mg/g. This result can provide critical data for elucidating tolerance mechanisms of Al stress on tea root.

  7. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF TAGETES SP. ON EGG HATCHING BEHAVIOR OF MELOIDOGYNE INCOGNITA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iruthaya Kalaiselvam

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect root exudates of pre-planted marigold intercropped with tomato in regulating the hatching behavior of root-knot nematode - Meloidogyne incognita eggs were investigated. Marigold cultivars Tagetes patula, T. minuta, T. erecta, T. erecta (var. Orange, T. erecta (var. Yellow significantly reduced the numbers of second-stage juveniles (J2s in subsequent tomato compared to the tomato-tomato control. Four different concentrations (25, 50, 75 and 100 % of water soluble extract from the selected varieties of Marigold cultivars were filtered and added to the petri dish and infested with the eggs of M. incognita. Data indicate that egg hatching was significantly affected by root exudates of Tagetes sp. however, nematicidal activity was species dependent. Root exudates of T. erecta were lethal to J2 of M. incognita and were inhibitory to the hatch of eggs at the concentration of 75 % or higher.

  8. Antimicrobial susceptibility of Staphylococcus hyicus Isolated from exudative epidermitis in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wegener, Henrik Caspar; Watts, J.L.; Salmon, S.A.;

    1994-01-01

    Exudative epidermitis or greasy pig syndrome is caused by the coagulase-variable staphylococcal species Staphylococcus hyicus. Treatment of this disease is problematic because of the limited number of antimicrobial agents available for this purpose. Thirteen antimicrobial agents were evaluated...... for their activities against 100 S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis. Novobiocin was the most active compound tested, with an MIC for 90% of the strains tested (MIC(90)) of less than or equal to 0.06 mu g/ml. Enrofloxacin, ampicillin, and ceftiofur were the next most active compounds...... at ratios of 1:2 (lincomycin to spectinomycin) and 1:8 were more active, with MIC(90)s of 16.0 and 4.0 mu g/ml, respectively. These results indicate that novobiocin and sulfadiazine-trimethoprim were the most active compounds tested against the S. hyicus strains isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis...

  9. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related species to generate positive stem pressure while in a leafless state. Experiments demonstrate that ambient temperatures must oscillate about the freezing point before significantly heightened stem pressures are observed, but the precise causes of exudation remain unresolved. The prevailing hypothesis attributes exudation to a physical process combining freeze-thaw and osmosis, which has some support from experimental studies but remains a subject of active debate. We address this knowledge gap by developing the first math...

  10. Molecular responses in root-associative rhizospheric bacteria to variations in plant exudates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdoun, Hamid; McMillan, Mary; Pereg, Lily

    2015-04-01

    Plant exudates are a major factor in the interface of plant-soil-microbe interactions and it is well documented that the microbial community structure in the rhizosphere is largely influenced by the particular exudates excreted by various plants. Azospirillum brasilense is a plant growth promoting rhizobacterium that is known to interact with a large number of plants, including important food crops. The regulatory gene flcA has an important role in this interaction as it controls morphological differentiation of the bacterium that is essential for attachment to root surfaces. Being a response regulatory gene, flcA mediates the response of the bacterial cell to signals from the surrounding rhizosphere. This makes this regulatory gene a good candidate for analysis of the response of bacteria to rhizospheric alterations, in this case, variations in root exudates. We will report on our studies on the response of Azospirillum, an ecologically, scientifically and agriculturally important bacterial genus, to variations in the rhizosphere.

  11. Clinical efficacy of dressings for treatment of heavily exuding chronic wounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wieg

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Cornelia Wiegand, Jörg Tittelbach, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: The treatment of chronic ulcers is a complex issue and presents an increasing problem for caregivers everywhere. This is especially true in Germany, where more than 4 million chronic wounds are treated each year. Therapeutic decisions must be patient-centered and reflect wound etiology, localization, and healing status. The practice of using the same wound dressing during the entire healing period is no longer reasonable. Instead, multiple types of dressings may be needed for a single wound over its healing trajectory. Selection of the most appropriate dressing should be based on wound phase, depth, signs of infection, and level of exudate. Moisture balance is critical in wound care; dryness will hamper epithelial cell migration while excessive generation of fluid causes maceration at the wound margins. Hence, exudate management is a key issue in chronic wound therapy, particularly given that exudate from chronic wounds has a composition different from that of acute wound fluid. Several studies have shown that exudates from non-healing wounds contain significantly elevated levels of protease activity, increased formation of free radicals, and abundant amounts of proinflammatory cytokines, while concentrations of growth factors and protease inhibitors are markedly decreased. Application of dressings that remove and sequester excess amounts of wound fluid may not only help in restoring the correct balance of moisture, but also support the wound healing process by preventing tissue deterioration caused by abundant protease activity. Several types of dressings, such as hydrogels, hydrocolloids, alginates, hydrofibers, foams, and superabsorbent dressings, are reviewed here and evaluated with regard to their efficacy for highly exuding wounds. Keywords: chronic wounds, exuding, dressings, clinical efficacy 

  12. Antiplasmodial activity of compounds from the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerubo, Leonidah Omosa; Midiwo, Jacob Ogweno; Derese, Solomon; Langat, Moses K; Akala, Hosea M; Waters, Norman C; Peter, Martin; Heydenreich, Matthias

    2013-02-01

    From the surface exudates of Senecio roseiflorus fourteen known methylated flavonoids and one phenol were isolated and characterized. The structures of these compounds were determined on the basis of their spectroscopic analysis. The surface exudate and the flavonoids isolated showed moderate to good antiplasmodial activity with 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-dimethoxyflavanone having the highest activity against chloroquine-sensitive (D6) and resistant (W2) strains of Plasmodium falciparum, with IC50 values of 3.2 +/- 0.8 and 4.4 +/- 0.01 microg/mL respectively. PMID:23513721

  13. Enhanced root exudation stimulates soil nitrogen transformations in a subalpine coniferous forest under experimental warming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Huajun; Li, Yufei; Xiao, Juan; Xu, Zhenfeng; Cheng, Xinyin; Liu, Qing

    2013-07-01

    Despite the perceived importance of exudation to forest ecosystem function, few studies have attempted to examine the effects of elevated temperature and nutrition availability on the rates of root exudation and associated microbial processes. In this study, we performed an experiment in which in situ exudates were collected from Picea asperata seedlings that were transplanted in disturbed soils exposed to two levels of temperature (ambient temperature and infrared heater warming) and two nitrogen levels (unfertilized and 25 g N m(-2)  a(-1) ). Here, we show that the trees exposed to an elevated temperature increased their exudation rates I (μg C g(-1) root biomass h(-1) ), II (μg C cm(-1)  root length h(-1) ) and III (μg C cm(-2)  root area h(-1) ) in the unfertilized plots. The altered morphological and physiological traits of the roots exposed to experimental warming could be responsible for this variation in root exudation. Moreover, these increases in root-derived C were positively correlated with the microbial release of extracellular enzymes involved in the breakdown of organic N (R(2)  = 0.790; P = 0.038), which was coupled with stimulated microbial activity and accelerated N transformations in the unfertilized soils. In contrast, the trees exposed to both experimental warming and N fertilization did not show increased exudation rates or soil enzyme activity, indicating that the stimulatory effects of experimental warming on root exudation depend on soil fertility. Collectively, our results provide preliminary evidence that an increase in the release of root exudates into the soil may be an important physiological adjustment by which the sustained growth responses of plants to experimental warming may be maintained via enhanced soil microbial activity and soil N transformation. Accordingly, the underlying mechanisms by which plant root-microbe interactions influence soil organic matter decomposition and N cycling should be incorporated

  14. Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L.) root

    OpenAIRE

    Hallak Angela Maria Gattás; Davide Lisete Chamma; Souza Itamar Ferreira

    1999-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG) and in a laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA). Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL), was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extract...

  15. Allelopathic effects and components analysis of root exudates of faba bean cultivars with different degrees of resistance to Fusarium oxysporum%不同抗性蚕豆品种根系分泌物对枯萎病菌的化感作用及根系分泌物组分分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董艳; 董坤; 郑毅; 杨智仙; 汤利; 肖靖秀

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilt is one of the most common and destructive soil-borne fungal diseases of faba bean because of continuous monocropping. It has been responsible for severely reduced yield, quality and production of faba bean, especially in Yunnan Province. Numerous studies on soil-borne diseases have mainly focused on changes in soil nutrients, enzyme and microbe. Little has remained known about the relationship between root exudates and soil-borne diseases. In fact, there has been less report confirming the occurrence of fusarium wilt in different cultivars of faba bean affected by different faba bean root exudates. The objectives of this study were to compare the differences in root exudates contents and components of different cultivars of faba bean. The study also aimed to lay the basis for further studies on resistance mechanism of faba bean fusarium wilt, which could in turn lay the basis for ecological control of faba bean fusarium wilt. Cultivars of different resistances to fusarium wilt were used in the experiment -‘89-147’ (high resistant cultivar),‘8363’ (medium resistant cultivar) and‘YD324’ (susceptible cultivar). Root exudates of the three cultivars of faba bean were collected in nutrient solution cultures. The effects of faba bean root exudates on spore germination and mycelia growth of Fusarium oxysporum f. fabae were determined using the culture medium method. The contents and components of organic acids were identified by HPLC while free amino acids were identified by amino acid analyzer. The content of soluble sugar was tested by anthrone colorimetry. The results suggested that compared with the control, root exudates of resistant cultivars inhibited spore germination and mycelia growth of F. oxysporum. Exudates of medium resistant cultivar promoted mycelia growth with the addition of 5 mL of root exudates, it otherwise had no significant effect on mycelia growth. Exudates of susceptible cultivar promoted spore germination and mycelia

  16. Evaluating the potential of a novel oral lesion exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kooren Joel A

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Early diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC increases the survival rate of oral cancer. For early diagnosis, molecular biomarkers contained in samples collected non-invasively and directly from at-risk oral premalignant lesions (OPMLs would be ideal. Methods In this pilot study we evaluated the potential of a novel method using commercial PerioPaper absorbent strips for non-invasive collection of oral lesion exudate material coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics for oral cancer biomarker discovery. Results Our evaluation focused on three core issues. First, using an "on-strip" processing method, we found that protein can be isolated from exudate samples in amounts compatible with large-scale mass spectrometry-based proteomic analysis. Second, we found that the OPML exudate proteome was distinct from that of whole saliva, while being similar to the OPML epithelial cell proteome, demonstrating the fidelity of our exudate collection method. Third, in a proof-of-principle study, we identified numerous, inflammation-associated proteins showing an expected increase in abundance in OPML exudates compared to healthy oral tissue exudates. These results demonstrate the feasibility of identifying differentially abundant proteins from exudate samples, which is essential for biomarker discovery studies. Conclusions Collectively, our findings demonstrate that our exudate collection method coupled with mass spectrometry-based proteomics has great potential for transforming OSCC biomarker discovery and clinical diagnostics assay development.

  17. Differential inactivation of seed exudate stimulation of Pythium ultimum sporangium germination by Enterobacter cloacae influences biological control efficacy on different plant species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B

    2003-02-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and pea from damping-off. Seeds from plants such as corn and pea had high rates of exudation, whereas cotton and cucumber seeds had much lower rates of exudation. Patterns of seed exudation and the release of P. ultimum sporangium germination stimulants varied among the plants tested. Seed exudates of plants such as carrot, corn, lettuce, pea, radish, and wheat were generally more stimulatory to P. ultimum than were the exudates of cotton, cucumber, sunflower, and tomato. However, this was not directly related to the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of the exudate and reduce P. ultimum sporangium germination. In the spermosphere, E. cloacae readily reduced the stimulatory activity of seed exudates from all plant species except corn and pea. Our data have shown that the inability of E. cloacae to protect corn and pea seeds from Pythium damping-off is directly related to its ability to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates. On all other plants tested, E. cloacae was effective in suppressing damping-off and inactivating the stimulatory activity of seed exudates. PMID:12571037

  18. Metabolite fingerprinting of exudates from carrot roots grown under phosphorus stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    To see if differences in the metabolite content of exudates obtained from cultured carrot roots grown in the presence and absence of phosphorus could be detected, crude samples were analyzed via Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Mass Spectrometry (FTMS). The highly accurate masses and elemental compo...

  19. Marsh plant response to metals: Exudation of aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2016-03-01

    Metal exposure is known to induce the production and secretion of substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere by plant roots. Knowledge on this matter is extensive for soil plants but still considerably scarce regarding marsh plants roots adapted to high salinity media. Phragmites australis and Halimione portulacoides, two marsh plants commonly distributed in European estuarine salt marshes, were used to assess the response of roots of both species, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation, to Cu, Ni and Cd exposure (isolated and in mixture since in natural environment, they are exposed to mixture of metals). As previous studies were carried out in unrealistic and synthetic media, here a more natural medium was selected. Therefore, in vitro experiments were carried out, with specimens of both marsh plants, and in freshwater contaminated with two different Cu, Ni and Cd concentrations (individual metal and in mixture). Both marsh plants were capable of liberating ALMWOAs into the surrounding medium. Oxalic, citric and maleic acids were found in P. australis root exudate solutions and oxalic and maleic acids in H. portulacoides root exudate solutions. ALMWOA liberation by both plants was plant species and metal-dependent. For instance, Cu affected the exudation of oxalic acid by H. portulacoides and of oxalic and citric acids by P. australis roots. In contrast, Ni and Cd did not stimulate any specific response. Regarding the combination of all metals, H. portulacoides showed a similar response to that observed for Cu individually. However, in the P. australis case, at high metal concentration mixture, a synergetic effect led to the increase of oxalic acid levels in root exudate solution and to a decrease of citric acid liberation. A correlation between ALMWOAs exudation and metal accumulation could not be established. P. australis and H. portulacoides are considered suitable metal phytoremediators of estuarine impacted areas

  20. A novel method for retinal exudate segmentation using signal separation algorithm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imani, Elaheh; Pourreza, Hamid-Reza

    2016-09-01

    Diabetic retinopathy is one of the major causes of blindness in the world. Early diagnosis of this disease is vital to the prevention of visual loss. The analysis of retinal lesions such as exudates, microaneurysms and hemorrhages is a prerequisite to detect diabetic disorders such as diabetic retinopathy and macular edema in fundus images. This paper presents an automatic method for the detection of retinal exudates. The novelty of this method lies in the use of Morphological Component Analysis (MCA) algorithm to separate lesions from normal retinal structures to facilitate the detection process. In the first stage, vessels are separated from lesions using the MCA algorithm with appropriate dictionaries. Then, the lesion part of retinal image is prepared for the detection of exudate regions. The final exudate map is created using dynamic thresholding and mathematical morphologies. Performance of the proposed method is measured on the three publicly available DiaretDB, HEI-MED and e-ophtha datasets. Accordingly, the AUC of 0.961 and 0.948 and 0.937 is achieved respectively, which are greater than most of the state-of-the-art methods. PMID:27393810

  1. Malate Exudation by Six Aerobic Rice Genotypes Varying in Zinc Uptake Efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gao, X.; Zhang, F.; Hoffland, E.

    2009-01-01

    Received for publication February 2, 2009. Zinc (Zn) uptake by plant roots from soils low in plant-available Zn may be increased by Zn-mobilizing rhizosphere processes, including exudation of low-molecular-weight organic anions. A rhizotron experiment with a low Zn clay soil and a nutrient solution

  2. Study on the antibiosis of exudate JK-91-b against rice sheath blight (SHB)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENZhiyi; YINShangzhi; GAOXianting

    1994-01-01

    Antagonistic bacterial strain 91-b possessed stronger antagonistic ability against SHB infection. The control effects of the bacterization against SHB were 58.1% in greenhouse and 45.1% in paddy. The effect of antibiosis JK-91-b exudated by strain 91-b was studied in the present research.

  3. Macromolecular composition of phloem exudate from white lupin (Lupinus albus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mann Anthea J

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Members of the legume genus Lupinus exude phloem 'spontaneously' from incisions made to the vasculature. This feature was exploited to document macromolecules present in exudate of white lupin (Lupinus albus [L.] cv Kiev mutant, in particular to identify proteins and RNA molecules, including microRNA (miRNA. Results Proteomic analysis tentatively identified 86 proteins from 130 spots collected from 2D gels analysed by partial amino acid sequence determination using MS/MS. Analysis of a cDNA library constructed from exudate identified 609 unique transcripts. Both proteins and transcripts were classified into functional groups. The largest group of proteins comprised those involved in metabolism (24%, followed by protein modification/turnover (9%, redox regulation (8%, cell structural components (6%, stress and defence response (6% with fewer in other groups. More prominent proteins were cyclophilin, ubiquitin, a glycine-rich RNA-binding protein, a group of proteins that comprise a glutathione/ascorbate-based mechanism to scavenge oxygen radicals, enzymes of glycolysis and other metabolism including methionine and ethylene synthesis. Potential signalling macromolecules such as transcripts encoding proteins mediating calcium level and the Flowering locus T (FT protein were also identified. From around 330 small RNA clones (18-25 nt 12 were identified as probable miRNAs by homology with those from other species. miRNA composition of exudate varied with site of collection (e.g. upward versus downward translocation streams and nutrition (e.g. phosphorus level. Conclusions This is the first inventory of macromolecule composition of phloem exudate from a species in the Fabaceae, providing a basis to identify systemic signalling macromolecules with potential roles in regulating development, growth and stress response of legumes.

  4. Exsudação radicular de glyphosate por Brachiaria decumbens e seus efeitos em plantas de eucalipto Radicular exudation of glyphosate by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.D. Tuffi Santos

    2008-06-01

    weed and later, plant absorption. This study aimed to evaluate glyphosate exudation by Brachiaria decumbens and its effects on eucalypt plants when 14C-glyphosate, mixed to the solution of the commercial product Scout® was applied. Seedlings of two eucalypt clones (UFV05 and UFV06 were cultivated in pots, intercropped with Brachiaria decumbens, on two types of soil (clayey and sandy. At 35 days after transplantation, 50 µL of the mixture was applied on brachiaria by using a precision micro-syringe. After application, 2, 8, 16 and 24 days, samples of eucalypt plants were collected and fractioned in the primary apices, secondary apices, leaves and roots, following the usual methodology to determine radioactivity. Symptoms of intoxication were not observed in any eucalypt plant evaluation. However, 14C-glyphosate was found in all plants, regardless of the soil type, clone or evaluation time, with the highest concentration being found in the sandy soil. Results show radicular exudation of glyphosate by B. decumbens and its absorption by eucalypt plants through roots. However, concentrations lower than necessary may cause crop intoxication.

  5. Absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate em clones de eucalipto: clones Absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in Eucalyptus sp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F.L. Machado

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular de glyphosate por dois clones de eucalipto: 2277 e 531. O 14C-glyphosate foi aplicado na concentração de 1.440 g ha-1, distribuída uniformemente no terceiro e no quarto limbo foliar a partir do ápice caulinar, com radioatividade aproximada de 0,030 μCi. A absorção, translocação e exsudação radicular foram avaliadas pela radioatividade do 14C-glyphosate nos diferentes tecidos da planta, bem como na água de lavagem e solução nutritiva, nos intervalos de 0, 2, 8, 32 e 72 horas após a aplicação - HAA. A concentração de 14C-glyphosate na folha aplicada foi semelhante para os dois clones nas avaliações a partir de 8 HAA. Todavia, considerando a planta inteira, ela foi superior no clone 2277 em todas as épocas de avaliação. Maior quantidade de 14C-glyphosate foi verificada na água de lavagem da folha aplicada do clone 531, indicando menor absorção do herbicida nesse clone em relação ao 2277. Na parte aérea e no sistema radicular, a concentração do 14C-glyphosate foi semelhante entre os clones em todos os intervalos de avaliação, porém com concentrações maiores nas raízes. Pequena parte do total aplicado foi exsudada para solução nutritiva (valores entre 0,78 e 1,16%, não havendo diferença entre os clones quanto à translocação na planta e na exsudação radicular do herbicida. A absorção diferencial entre os clones, atribuída na maioria dos casos a diferenças na estrutura e composição da cutícula, pode ser uma possível explicação para a tolerância diferencial entre os genótipos.To evaluate absorption, translocation and radicular glyphosate exudation in two Eucalyptus sp. clones (2277 and 531, 14C-glyphosate at 1440 g ha-1 were distributed on the third and fourth leaf blade, under 0,030 μCi of radioactivity. Evaluations were performed 0, 2, 8, 32 and 72 hours after herbicide application - HAA. After 8 HAA

  6. 大蒜根系分泌物化感作用及化感物质的比较%Comparative analysis of allelopathy and allelochemicals of the root exudates in garlic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周艳丽; 程智慧

    2012-01-01

    【目的】利用生物测定和GC-MS分析方法,研究大蒜根系分泌物的化感作用及化感物质。【方法】采用琼脂培和砂培2种栽培方式收集大蒜根系分泌物,分别采用乙醚、乙酸乙酯、三氯甲烷和正丁醇4种有机溶剂进行萃取分离,对各有机溶剂萃取液进行萝卜种子发芽试验,确定出强化感作用组分,并对其成分进行GC-MS分析。【结果】各有机溶剂萃取液的化感作用强弱顺序依次为:乙酸乙酯萃取液〉三氯甲烷萃取液〉正丁醇和乙醚萃取液,初步确定大蒜根系分泌物中的化感物质为2,6-二异丙基苯酚、2,6-二叔丁基对甲酚和二烯丙基二硫醚。【结论】2种栽培方式收集的大蒜根系分泌物的乙酸乙酯组分中的成分相似,但在含量上差异较大,表现为砂培〉琼脂培。%【Objective】 The allelopathy and major allelochemicals in root exudates of garlic were studied by bioassay and GC-MS methods.【Method】 The root exudates of garlic were collected from agar culture and sand culture in this experiment,and were extracted by ethyl ether,ethyl acetate,chloroform and n-butanol.【Result】 The results showed that allelopathy of ethyl acetate component was the strongest,followed by chloroform component,the allelopathy of ethyl ether component and n-butanol component.The component of ethyl acetate was analyzed by GC-MS,and the main allelochemicals were identified as 2,6-bis(1-methylethyl)-phenol,butylated hydroxytoluene and diallyl disulphide.【Conclusion】 The allelochemicals were similar in ethyl acetate fraction of two cultivation forms,but the quantity was different,and the varieties and quantities of allelochemicals in sand culture were higher than agar culture.

  7. A single-arm, investigator-initiated study of the efficacy, safety, and tolerability of intravitreal aflibercept injection in subjects with exudative age-related macular degeneration previously treated with ranibizumab or bevacizumab (ASSESS study: 12-month analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singh RP

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Rishi P Singh, Sunil K Srivastava, Justis P Ehlers, Fabiana Q Silva, Rumneek Bedi, Andrew P Schachat, Peter K Kaiser Cole Eye Institute, Cleveland Clinic, Cleveland, OH, USA Summary statement: In subjects with active exudative age-related macular degeneration, treating with a fixed intravitreal aflibercept injection dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints from baseline.Purpose: Switching therapies in neovascular age-related macular degeneration (AMD may offer an advantage for some patients. This study evaluates the efficacy of intravitreal aflibercept injection (IAI in subjects previously treated with ranibizumab and/or bevacizumab.Methods: Subjects (n=26 were given monthly 2 mg of IAI for 3 months, followed by 2 mg once in every 2 months for up to 12 months. The mean absolute change from baseline in central subfield thickness (CST measured by optical coherence tomography and the mean change from baseline in best-corrected visual acuity (BCVA early treatment in diabetic retinopathy study (ETDRS letter score were obtained. Additionally, the percentage of subjects who gained or lost ≥15 letters of vision and the percentage of subjects who are 20/40 or better or 20/200 or worse were evaluated.Results: There was a mean decrease in CST of -50.3  µm (P<0.001 and a mean increase in ETDRS BCVA of +9.2 letters (P<0.001. Twenty-seven percent of subjects experienced a  ≥15-letter improvement in visual acuity, and no subject lost ≥3 lines of vision from baseline. Fifty percent of subjects were 20/40 or better, and 11.5% of subjects were 20/200 or worse at month 12.Conclusion: Fixed IAI dosing regimen for 12 months demonstrated improved anatomic and vision endpoints in subjects with active exudative AMD. Keywords: aflibercept, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, ranibizumab, vascular endothelial growth factors

  8. Exudates used as medicine by the "caboclos river-dwellers" of the Unini River, AM, Brazil – classification based in their chemical composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Henrique G. Lago

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Although the use of exudates in traditional medicine has been commonly observed during ethnopharmacological surveys, few records have been made concerning the scientific merits of these products. The aim of this study was to document ethnopharmacological data and to classify exudates used as medicine by the "caboclos" river-dwellers from the Unini River of Amazonas, Brazil, on chemical analyses basis. Using an ethnographic approach, indicated plants and their respective exudates were collected, identified and incorporated into herbarium of the National Institute of Amazonian Research. To classify these exudates, plant material was extracted using methanol, and obtained extracts were analyzed by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance and mass spectrometry aiming identification of main compounds. Fifteen exudates were indicated by "caboclos" river-dwellers as home remedies; among their therapeutic uses, inflammatory processes, culture-bound syndromes and respiratory diseases are most prominent. Based on their solubility and chemicals classes, fifteen exudates were classified into: latex (7, resins (5, sap (1, gum (1, oleoresin (1; and eleven of them have not been mentioned on pharmacological literature until this moment. The obtained results may contribute to chemical/pharmacological application of exudates from these species, several of which have been classically used in Brazilian folk medicine.

  9. The dual effects of root-cap exudates on nematodes: from quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes to frenzy in entomopathogenic nematodes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiltpold, Ivan; Jaffuel, Geoffrey; Turlings, Ted C J

    2015-02-01

    To defend themselves against herbivores and pathogens, plants produce numerous secondary metabolites, either constitutively or de novo in response to attacks. An intriguing constitutive example is the exudate produced by certain root-cap cells that can induce a state of reversible quiescence in plant-parasitic nematodes, thereby providing protection against these antagonists. The effect of such root exudates on beneficial entomopathogenic nematodes (EPNs) remains unclear, but could potentially impair their use in pest management programmes. We therefore tested how the exudates secreted by green pea (Pisum sativum) root caps affect four commercial EPN species. The exudates induced reversible quiescence in all EPN species tested. Quiescence levels varied with the green pea cultivars tested. Notably, after storage in root exudate, EPN performance traits were maintained over time, whereas performances of EPNs stored in water rapidly declined. In sharp contrast to high concentrations, lower concentrations of the exudate resulted in a significant increase in EPN activity and infectiousness, but still reduced the activity of two plant-parasitic nematode species. Our study suggests a finely tuned dual bioactivity of the exudate from green pea root caps. Appropriately formulated, it can favour long-term storage of EPNs and boost their infectiousness, while it may also be used to protect plants from plant-parasitic nematodes.

  10. Urinary albumin excretion rate: a risk factor for retinal hard exudates in macular region in type 2 diabetic patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Shaocheng; Lin Siyong; Cao Xi; Zheng Yuezhong; Wang Jinyang; Lu Na; Yang Jinkui

    2014-01-01

    Background The various risk factors for retinal hard exudates are still poorly understood in type 2 diabetic patients.The aim of this study was to determine the association between urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER) and hard exudates in macular region in north Chinese patients.Methods A total of 272 patients (272 eyes) were enrolled for this study,including 154 subjects from group 1 (mild hard exudates),91 subjects from group 2 (moderate hard exudates) and 27 subjects from group 3 (severe hard exudates) confirmed using colour fundus photography,optical coherence tomography (OCT) as well as slit-lamp biomicroscopy with 78 diopter (D) lens.Each participant underwent a comprehensive assessment that included biochemical,clinical characteristics test and detailed ophthalmic evaluation.One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) test and chi-square test were performed to analyze the fasting blood glucose (FBG),glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c),total cholesterol (TC),low density lipoprotein (LDL),high density lipoprotein (HDL),triglycerides (TG),full blood counts,urinary albumin excretion rate (UAER),blood creatinine (CREA),duration of diabetes,body mass index (BMI),systolic blood pressures (SBP) and diastolic blood pressures (DBP) between groups.Ordinal logistic regression analysis was further performed in order to eliminating the possible confounding factors.Results Three groups were matched in terms of age and gender.Risk factors which showed significant difference between groups include FBG (P <0.001),HbA1c (P <0.001),LDL (P <0.001),UAER (P <0.001),duration of diabetes (P=0.001),TC (P=0.005),SBP (P=0.026),CREA (P=0.004) and haemoglobin (Hb) (P=0.012).There was no significant difference between groups for the TG,HDL,DBP,platelet,total white blood cells and BMI.Using ordinal Logistic regression analyses,of all the variables,HbA1c,LDL and UAER which were independent risk factor for hard exudates showed a significantly odds ratio of 1.25,3.07,and 1.39,respectively

  11. Allelopathic Effects of Root Exudates from Corn and Soybean on Tuber Germination and Bud Growth of Potato%玉米、大豆根系分泌物对马铃薯块茎萌发和萌芽生长的化感效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李翠萍

    2014-01-01

    为了探讨玉米、大豆与马铃薯间作、套种或轮作的生化关系,研究了玉米、大豆根系分泌物对马铃薯块茎萌发和萌芽生长的化感效应。结果表明:玉米、大豆根系分泌物均能促进马铃薯块茎萌发和萌芽生长,但2种根系分泌物及其不同浓度(100%、50%、25%)对马铃薯块茎萌发和萌芽生长的效应不同。高浓度(100%)玉米根系分泌物能显著促进马铃薯块茎萌发,提高马铃薯块茎发芽势,而低浓度(25%)则抑制马铃薯块茎萌发;大豆根系分泌物高、中、低浓度均能显著提高马铃薯块茎的发芽率和发芽势;2种根系分泌物所有浓度处理均显著提高了马铃薯块茎的活力指数,以100%玉米根系分泌物处理提高的幅度最大。玉米和大豆根系分泌物显著增加了马铃薯萌芽的鲜质量、干质量及长度,其中高浓度的根系分泌物表现出较强的促进作用。2种根系分泌物显著提高了马铃薯块茎中的淀粉酶活性,其中高浓度玉米根系分泌物提高的幅度最大,其次是高浓度的大豆根系分泌物。由此可见,玉米和大豆是马铃薯的良好前茬作物,其也可与马铃薯进行间作、套种。%In order to study the biochemical relationships between intercropped crops (corn, soybean and potato),this test investigated allelopathic effects of corn,soybean root exudates on potato tuber germination and bud growth.The results showed that root exudates from corn and soybean were all able to promote tuber germination and bud growth of potato,but different types of root exudates and their different concentrations had different allelopathic effects.High concentrations (100%)of root exudates from corn promoted significantly potato tuber germination, increased tuber germination potential,whereas low concentrations(25%)inhibited germination. Soybean root exudates whether at high concentration or low concentration had a

  12. Status of Exudative Pleural Effusion in Adults of South Khorasan Province, Northeast Iran: Pleural Tuberculosis Tending toward Elderly

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortazavi-Moghaddam, Sayyed Gholam Reza; Sharifzadeh, Gholam Reza; Rezvani, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    The causes and situation of exudative pleural effusion vary from one area to another. A cross-sectional study was conducted on 327 patients with exudative pleural effusion in South Khorasan province (Iran). The patients were older than 12 years and comprised 172 (52.6%) males and 155 (47.4%) females. The study commenced in 2007 with seven years duration. The Light’s criteria were used to define exudative effusion. Procedures including pleural fluid analysis, microbiological study, pleural biopsy, and systemic investigations were conducted to determine the special cause of pleural effusion. The mean age of the patients was 63.4±18.4 years. Malignancies, tuberculosis, and parapneumonia pleural exudation were diagnosed in 125 (38.2%), 48 (14.7%), and 45 (13.8%) cases, respectively. Among malignant effusions, metastasis from lung cancer made 48 (38.4%) of the cases. The origin of metastasis was not determined in 44 (35.2%) patients. The mean age of patients was not significantly different between malignant (66.9±14.3 years) and tuberculosis (63.9±19.7 years) cases (P=0.16). The older age of tuberculosis patients could be a new discussion point on the overall impression created on the subject of tuberculosis pleural exudation (TB-PLE) occurring in young people. PMID:27365554

  13. Enhanced hyphal growth of arbuscular mycorrhizae by root exudates derived from high R/FR treated Lotus japonicus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagata, Maki; Yamamoto, Naoya; Miyamoto, Taro; Shimomura, Aya; Arima, Susumu; Hirsch, Ann M; Suzuki, Akihiro

    2016-06-01

    Red/Far Red (R/FR) sensing positively influences the arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) symbiosis of both legume and nonlegume plants through jasmonic acid (JA) and strigolactone signaling. We previously reported that root exudates obtained from high R/FR-grown plants contained more strigolactone than low R/FR-grown plants. To determine whether JA and JA derivatives were secreted from roots, we investigated the expression levels of JA-responsive genes in L. japonicus Miyakojima MG20 plants treated with root exudates prepared from either high or low R/FR light-treated plants. The root exudates from high R/FR light-treated plants were found to enhance the expression levels of JA-responsive genes significantly. Moreover, exogenous JA increased AM fungal hyphal elongation as did the root exudates derived from high R/FR-grown L. japonicus plants. We conclude that increased JA accumulation and secretion into root exudates from high R/FR light-grown plants is the best explanation for increased colonization and enhanced mycorrhization under these conditions. PMID:27191935

  14. 连作马铃薯不同生育期根系分泌物的成分检测及其自毒效应%Identification and autotoxicity of root exudates of continuous cropping potato at different growth stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文明; 邱慧珍; 张春红; 刘星; 高怡安; 沈其荣

    2015-01-01

    为探讨马铃薯连作障碍的可能机理,在大田条件下,以轮作为对照(CK),收集连作5年(CP5)马铃薯植株在不同生育期的根系分泌物,采用GC-MS对根系分泌物的主要成分进行了鉴定,并通过生物检测验证了根系分泌物的自毒效应。结果表明:CK和CP5处理的马铃薯在不同生育期的根系分泌物均鉴定出糖类、酸类、胺类、脂类、醇类和嘧啶类等成分,以糖类和酸类物质居多; CP5处理根系分泌物的成分较CK复杂,酸类物质含量有升高的趋势。连作改变了马铃薯根系分泌物的化学组成和含量:CP5处理在苗期、现蕾期和开花期的根系分泌物中均鉴定出邻苯二甲酸二丁酯,相对含量分别为0.16%、0.21%和0.24%, CK 处理未检测到; CP5处理在苗期、现蕾期和开花期的根系分泌物中均鉴定出棕榈酸,相对含量分别为0.34%、1.12%和0.47%, CK处理仅在现蕾期和开花期鉴定出棕榈酸的存在,但相对含量仅为0.56%和0.24%。生物检测试验结果表明,棕榈酸和邻苯二甲酸二丁酯显著抑制了马铃薯生长,1 mmol·L−1棕榈酸和邻苯二甲酸二丁酯对马铃薯生长的抑制作用远远大于0.5 mmol·L−1的抑制作用。棕榈酸和邻苯二甲酸二丁酯是马铃薯根系分泌的自毒物质,但二者未表现出物质的叠加效应。现蕾期马铃薯根系分泌物所含的物质最多,是马铃薯根系分泌物收集的适宜时期。%Potato root exudates were collected from two treatments (CK:potato rotation with other crops;CP5:continuous potato cropping for five years) under field conditions to explore the possible obstacle mechanisms of continuous cropping of potato. The root exudates were collected at three growth stages—seedling, squaring and florescence stages. The chemical composition of the root exudates were determined by the GC-MS method and the autotoxicity of the exudates to potato plants tested in a pot experiment. The results showed

  15. Effect of Human Burn Wound Exudate on Pseudomonas aeruginosa Virulence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez, Manuel R; Fleuchot, Betty; Lauciello, Leonardo; Jafari, Paris; Applegate, Lee Ann; Raffoul, Wassim; Que, Yok-Ai; Perron, Karl

    2016-01-01

    Burn wound sepsis is currently the main cause of morbidity and mortality after burn trauma. Infections by notorious pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Acinetobacter baumannii impair patient recovery and can even lead to fatality. In this study, we investigated the effect of burn wound exudates (BWEs) on the virulence of those pathogens. BWEs were collected within 7 days after burn trauma from 5 burn patients. We first monitored their effect on pathogen growth. In contrast to A. baumannii and S. aureus, P. aeruginosa was the only pathogen able to grow within these human fluids. Expression of typical virulence factors such as pyocyanin and pyoverdine was even enhanced compared the levels seen with standard laboratory medium. A detailed chemical composition analysis of BWE was performed, which enabled us to determine the major components of BWE and underline the metabolic modifications induced by burn trauma. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound environment and the establishment of an in vitro system to analyze the initial steps of burn wound infections. IMPORTANCE Microbial infection of severe burn wounds is currently a major medical challenge. Of the infections by bacteria able to colonize such injuries, those by Pseudomonas aeruginosa are among the most severe, causing major delays in burn patient recovery or leading to fatal issues. In this study, we investigated the growth properties of several burn wound pathogens in biological fluids secreted from human burn wounds. We found that P. aeruginosa strains were able to proliferate but not those of the other pathogens tested. In addition, burn wound exudates (BWEs) stimulate the expression of virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. The chemical composition analysis of BWEs enabled us to determine the major components of these fluids. These data are essential for the development of an artificial medium mimicking the burn wound

  16. Automatic differentiation of color fundus images containing drusen or exudates using a contextual spatial pyramid approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Grinsven, Mark J J P; Theelen, Thomas; Witkamp, Leonard; van der Heijden, Job; van de Ven, Johannes P H; Hoyng, Carel B; van Ginneken, Bram; Sánchez, Clara I

    2016-03-01

    We developed an automatic system to identify and differentiate color fundus images containing no lesions, drusen or exudates. Drusen and exudates are lesions with a bright appearance, associated with age-related macular degeneration and diabetic retinopathy, respectively. The system consists of three lesion detectors operating at pixel-level, combining their outputs using spatial pooling and classification with a random forest classifier. System performance was compared with ratings of two independent human observers using human-expert annotations as reference. Kappa agreements of 0.89, 0.97 and 0.92 and accuracies of 0.93, 0.98 and 0.95 were obtained for the system and observers, respectively.

  17. Role of Root Exudates in Adaptative Reactions of Buckwheat Plants in Aluminium-acid Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.E. Smirnov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aliminium toxicity is major limiting factor of crop production in acidic soils. It is known that mechanisms of toxic effects of aluminium are differing in biochemical characters, research of aluminium toxicity complicated by variety of its chemical forms and migration in soil and water ability. The root exudates qualitative composition of common buckwheat was evaluated. Organic complexing agents – oxalic acid and phenolic compounds were revealed. The role of these complexing agents in the buckwheat aluminium resistance under acidic stress, participation in processes of external and internal detoxification was shown. Spectrophometric assay revealed an increase in root secretion of oxalic acid by 2.5 times and decrease in content of phenolic compounds in root exudates solution by 3 times upon aluminium (50 µM treatment. In the meanwhile the same concentration of the metal had induced phenylalanine ammonia-lyase activity by 2 times.

  18. A two-scale Stefan problem arising in a model for tree sap exudation

    CERN Document Server

    Konrad, Isabell; Stockie, John M

    2016-01-01

    The study of tree sap exudation, in which a (leafless) tree generates elevated stem pressure in response to repeated daily freeze-thaw cycles, gives rise to an interesting multi-scale problem involving heat and multiphase liquid/gas transport. The pressure generation mechanism is a cellular-level process that is governed by differential equations for sap transport through porous cell membranes, phase change, heat transport, and generation of osmotic pressure. By assuming a periodic cellular structure based on an appropriate reference cell, we derive an homogenized heat equation governing the global temperature on the scale of the tree stem, with all the remaining physics relegated to equations defined on the reference cell. We derive a corresponding strong formulation of the limit problem and use it to design an efficient numerical solution algorithm. Numerical simulations are then performed to validate the results and draw conclusions regarding the phenomenon of sap exudation, which is of great importance in...

  19. Multiscale model of a freeze-thaw process for tree sap exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Isabell; Ceseri, Maurizio; Stockie, John M.

    2015-01-01

    Sap transport in trees has long fascinated scientists, and a vast literature exists on experimental and modelling studies of trees during the growing season when large negative stem pressures are generated by transpiration from leaves. Much less attention has been paid to winter months when trees are largely dormant but nonetheless continue to exhibit interesting flow behaviour. A prime example is sap exudation, which refers to the peculiar ability of sugar maple (Acer saccharum) and related ...

  20. Effects of Chinese onion's root exudates on cucumber seedlings growth and rhizosphere soil microorganisms%分蘖洋葱根系分泌物对黄瓜幼苗生长及根际土壤微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨阳; 刘守伟; 潘凯; 吴凤芝

    2013-01-01

    以不同化感潜力分蘖洋葱为供体,黄瓜为受体,研究了分蘖洋葱根系分泌物对黄瓜幼苗生长、根际土壤微生物数量及细菌群落结构的影响.结果表明:不同化感潜力分蘖洋葱根系分泌物对黄瓜幼苗生长均具有促进作用,且随着浓度的升高,促进作用增强,相同浓度下,化感潜力强、弱供体之间差异不显著;不同化感潜力分蘖洋葱根系分泌物均增加了黄瓜根际土壤细菌和放线菌数量,降低了真菌和尖镰孢菌数量,化感潜力强的品种(L-06)效果更显著;不同化感潜力分蘖洋葱根系分泌物均能提高黄瓜根际土壤细菌群落丰富度,差异条带的序列片段经比对推测为3大细菌类群:Actinobacteria(放线菌纲)、Proteobacteria(变形菌纲)和Anaerolineaceae(厌氧绳菌纲),其中厌氧绳菌只出现在化感潜力强(L-06)的处理中.化感潜力强(L-06)、浓度高(10 mL·株-1)的分蘖洋葱根系分泌物更有利于黄瓜根际土壤细菌群落丰富度的提高.%Taking the Chinese onion cultivars with different allelopathy potentials as the donor and cucumber as the accepter, this paper studied the effects of Chinese onion' s root exudates on the seedlings growth of cucumber and the culturable microbial number and bacterial community structure in the seedlings rhizosphere soil. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars could promote the growth of cucumber seedlings, and the stimulatory effect increased with the increasing concentration of the root exudates. However, at the same concentrations of root exudates, the stimulatory effect had no significant differences between the Chinese onion cultivars with strong and weak allelopathy potential. The root exudates of the Chinese onion cultivars increased the individual numbers of bacteria and actinomyces but decreased those of fungi and Fusarium in rhizosphere soil, being more significant for the Chinese onion cultivar with high allelopathy potential (L-06

  1. [THE MORPHOMETRY IN CYTOLOGICAL ANALYSIS OF EXUDATIVE FLUIDS].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snikhovskaya, K V; Shabalova, I P

    2015-08-01

    The cytological technique takes a leading position in diagnostic of tumor processes according exudative fluids. However, its results depend on large number of subjective factors. The morphometry is one of techniques by virtue of which objectification of data of cytological analysis is possible. The study was carried out to establish differences of morphometric parameters of benign and malignant cells of pleural effusion. The morphometric analysis of cells of mesothelium, breast cancer, adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach was implemented. The parameters characterizing size (area, perimeter) and form (form factor) of nucleus and cell, nucleus-cytoplasm ratio. The results demonstrated that in pleural effusion between cells of proliferating mesothelium and malignant neoplasms exist significant differences in morphometric parameters (p<0.001). The differences between area of nuclei and cells are especially significant. The comparison of data of morphometry of cells of breast cancer; adenocarcinoma of lung and adenocarcinoma of stomach demonstrated that despite of some morphological similarities, analysis of morphometric parameters can provide important data for proper establishment of cytological diagnosis. PMID:26596045

  2. Isolation, Identification and Antimicrobial Susceptibilities of Pathogens of Exudative Epidermitis%仔猪渗出性皮炎病原的分离鉴定及耐药性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉玉; 吴家强; 郭立辉; 王兴东; 安利国; 王金宝

    2011-01-01

    为消除渗出性皮炎对仔猪的危害,对发生该病的病死仔猪进行细菌分离培养.通过革兰氏染色、生化试验与16S rDNA基因序列同源性分析鉴定:分离出的两株细菌为猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌.猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌能分别产生表皮脱落毒素ExhB和ExhC,表明这两株葡萄球菌都有致病力.猪葡萄球菌和松鼠葡萄球菌均对头孢菌素Ⅰ类(先锋霉素Ⅰ、Ⅴ、Ⅵ)、头孢噻肟和丁胺卡那敏感,在临床上可选择这些药物预防和治疗该病.%To eliminate harm of exudative epidermitis (EE) to piglets, pathogens of EE were isolated and studied.Two gram positive staphylococcus strains were isolated from sick piglets suffered EE.The two isolates were identified as staphylococcus hyicus and staphylococcus sciuri by biochemistry test and analyzing the sequence of 16S rDNA gene.S.hyicus can produce exfoliative toxin ExhB,while S.sciuri can produce exfoliative toxin ExhC, which indicates the two isolates are pathogenic.The two isolates are sensitive to cefalotin,cephazolin,cephradine,cefotaxime and amikacin which shows sick piglets can be treated with these antibiotics.

  3. Pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic integration and modelling of marbofloxacin in calves for Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, T; Illambas, J; Pelligand, L; Rycroft, A; Lees, P

    2013-01-01

    The pharmacokinetics (PK) and pharmacodynamics (PD) of marbofloxacin were established in calves for six strains of each of the pneumonia pathogens Mannheimia haemolytica and Pasteurella multocida. The distribution of marbofloxacin into inflamed (exudate) and non-inflamed (transudate) tissue cage fluids allowed comparison with the serum concentration-time profile. To establish the PD profile, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined in Mueller-Hinton broth (MHB) and calf serum. Moderately higher MICs were obtained for serum compared to MHB. An initial integration of PK-PD data established C(max)/MIC ratios of 45.0 and AUC(24h)/MIC values of 174.7 h, based on serum MICs, for both bacterial species. Using bacterial time-kill curves, generated ex vivo for serum marbofloxacin concentrations, PK-PD modelling established three levels of growth inhibition: AUC(24 h)/MIC ratios for no reduction, 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count from the initial inoculum count were 41.9, 59.5 and 68.0 h for M. haemolytica and 48.6, 64.9 and 74.8 h for P. multocida, on average respectively. Inter-strain variability for 3 log(10) and 4 log(10) reductions in bacterial count was smaller for P. multocida than for M. haemolytica. In conjunction with literature data on MIC(90) values, the present results allowed prediction of dosages for efficacy for each organism for the three levels of growth inhibition.

  4. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qing; Sun, Lina; Hu, Xiaomin; Zhou, Ruiren

    2014-01-01

    Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd). S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA) showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress. PMID:25545686

  5. The variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under cadmium stress: metabonomics analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing Luo

    Full Text Available Hydroponic experiments were conducted to investigate the variation of root exudates from the hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under the stress of cadmium (Cd. S. alfredii was cultured for 4 days in the nutrient solution spiked with CdCl2 at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 40, and 400 µM Cd after the pre-culture. The root exudates were collected and analyzed by GC-MS, and 62 compounds were identified. Of these compounds, the orthogonal partial least-squares discrimination analysis (OPLS-DA showed that there were a distinct difference among the root exudates with different Cd treatments and 20 compounds resulting in this difference were found out. Changing tendencies in the relative content of these 20 compounds under the different Cd treatments were analyzed. These results indicated that trehalose, erythritol, naphthalene, d-pinitol and n-octacosane might be closely related to the Cd stabilization, phosphoric acid, tetradecanoic acid, oxalic acid, threonic acid and glycine could be attributed to the Cd mobilization, and mannitol, oleic acid, 3-hydroxybutanoic acid, fructose, octacosanol and ribitol could copy well with the Cd stress.

  6. Exudative retinal detachment following strabismus surgery in Sturge-Weber syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Cheol Kim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A 15-year-old boy with Sturge-Weber syndrome underwent strabismus surgery (oculus sinister [OS] for the treatment of exotropia. The patient′s visual acuity (OS decreased to hand motion 10 days after the surgery. One month after the surgery, the patient′s visual acuity decreased to light perception, and a fundus examination showed total exudative retinal detachment (OS.

  7. Antigenic evidence for host origin of exudative fluids in lesions of Treponema pallidum-infected rabbits.

    OpenAIRE

    Wos, S M; Wicher, K.

    1985-01-01

    Mucoid fluid accumulating within syphilitic lesions has been considered to be of Treponema pallidum origin. To test this assumption, we examined testicular exudative fluids from T. pallidum-infected rabbits for the presence of T. pallidum antigens by various sensitive immunochemical methods, including Western blot analysis. Antigenic analysis of these fluids revealed host components but not treponemal antigens. Prolonged immunization of rabbits, guinea pigs, and a goat with this material in c...

  8. [Effect of phosphorus deficiency on activity of acid phosphatase exuded by wheat roots].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Haiguo; Zhang, Fusuo

    2002-03-01

    The activity of acid phosphatase exuded by roots, the tissue location of the enzyme, and the relationship between the enzyme activity and phosphorus efficiency of wheat were studied. The results showed that the activity of acid phosphatase exuded by wheat 81(85)5-3-3-3 and NC37 under P-sufficiency treat were lower than those under P-deficiency, and the enzyme activity of the former variety was significantly higher than that of the latter. There was a significant difference in the enzyme activity among 12 wheat genotypes grown under P-deficiency treat. Acid phosphatase was exuded by epidermis cell of root, especially by epidermal cell of root apex. Thus, there was a linear relationship between the enzyme activity and the surface area of root or the number of root apexes. It implied that the enzyme activity was markedly related to the size of root system. The linear relationship between relative grain yield and acid phosphatase activity was significant. It indicates that the enzyme activity could be used as an early indicator to select P-efficient wheat genotypes.

  9. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quartacci, Mike F., E-mail: mfquart@agr.unipi.i [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Irtelli, Barbara [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy); Gonnelli, Cristina; Gabbrielli, Roberto [Dipartimento di Biologia Vegetale, Sezione di Ecologia e Fisiologia Vegetale, Universita di Firenze, Via Micheli 1, 50121 Firenze (Italy); Navari-Izzo, Flavia [Dipartimento di Chimica e Biotecnologie Agrarie, Universita di Pisa, Via del Borghetto 80, 56124 Pisa (Italy)

    2009-10-15

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  10. Naturally-assisted metal phytoextraction by Brassica carinata: Role ofroot exudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Due to relatively high chelant dosages and potential environmental risks it is necessary to explore different approaches in the remediation of metal-contaminated soils. The present study focussed on the removal of metals (As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn) from a multiple metal-contaminated soil by growing Brassica carinata plants in succession to spontaneous metallicolous populations of Pinus pinaster, Plantago lanceolata and Silene paradoxa. The results showed that the growth of the metallicolous populations increased the extractable metal levels in the soil, which resulted in a higher accumulation of metals in the above-ground parts of B. carinata. Root exudates of the three metallicolous species were analysed to elucidate their possible role in the enhanced metal availability. The presence of metals stimulated the exudation of organic and phenolic acids as well as flavonoids. It was suggested that root exudates played an important role in solubilising metals in soil and in favouring their uptake by roots. - Phytoextraction of metals is enhanced in Brassica carinata grown in succession to metallicolous populations of spontaneous species.

  11. Model system for studies of microbial dynamics at exuding surfaces such as the rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odham, G.; Tunlid, A.; Valeur, A.; Sundin, P.; White, D. C.

    1986-01-01

    An autoclavable all-glass system for studying microbial dynamics at permeable surfaces is described. Standard hydrophobic or hydrophilic membranes (46-mm diameter) of various pore sizes were supported on a glass frit through which nutrient solutions were pumped by a peristaltic pump. The pump provided a precisely controlled flow at speeds of 0.5 to 500 ml of defined or natural cell exudates per h, which passed through the membrane into a receiving vessel. The construction allowed a choice of membranes, which could be modified. The system was tested with a bacterium, isolated from rape plant roots (Brassica napus L.), that was inoculated on a hydrophilic membrane filter and allowed to develop into a biofilm. A defined medium with a composition resembling that of natural rape root exudate was pumped through the membrane at 0.5 ml/h. Scanning electron microscopic examinations indicated that the inoculum formed microcolonies embedded in exopolymers evenly distributed over the membrane surface. The lipid composition and content of poly-beta-hydroxybutyrate in free-living and adhered cells were determined by gas chromatography. The bacterial consumption of amino acids in the exudate was also studied.

  12. BACILLUS THURINGIENSIS (BT) TOXIN RELEASED FROM ROOT EXUDATES AND BIOMASS OF BT CORN HAS NO APPARENT EFFECT ON EARTHWORMS, NEMATODES, PROTOZOA, BACTERIA, AND FUNGI IN SOIL. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  13. An integrated approach to characterization of microbial exudates and investigation of their role in the spatial distribution and transformations of uranium at the mineral-microbe interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kemner, K.M.; O' Loughlin, E.J.; Kelly, S.D.; Nealson, K.H.

    2006-06-01

    The long-term aim of this project was to understand the role of microbiota and their polymers (EPS) in controlling the distribution and fates of contaminants in subsurface environments. Additionally, this project also focused on the identification and characterization of extracellular proteins under a variety of growth conditions. Finally, this project sought to develop and advance the use of a variety of synchrotron-based hard-x-ray techniques to address a number of different ERSP elements.

  14. Improvement of cadmium uptake and accumulation in Sedum alfredii by endophytic bacteria Sphingomonas SaMR12: effects on plant growth and root exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Bao; Zhang, Yibin; Rafiq, Muhammad Tariq; Khan, Kiran Yasmin; Pan, Fengshan; Yang, Xiaoe; Feng, Ying

    2014-12-01

    Inoculating endophytic bacteria was proven as a promising way to enhance phytoremediation. By a hydroponic experiment, the role of this study was to clarify the effects of inoculating endophytic bacterium Sphingomonas SaMR12 on phytoremediation, with special emphasis on changes of cadmium uptake, plant growth, root morphology, and organic acids secretion at different cadmium treated levels (0, 5, 50, and 100 μM). The results showed that SaMR12 inoculation improved the accumulation of cadmium as well as plant biomass, length of roots, number of root tips, and root surface area. Root secretion of oxalic, citric, and succinic acids was also increased after inoculated, which may alleviate the cadmium toxicity to plant or inhibit the rising trend of oxidative stress of plant. The major finding of this work suggested that in the root, SaMR12 improves cadmium bioavailability and absorption facility by increasing root-soil contact area and root organic acid secretion; and in the shoot, SaMR12 increases cadmium tolerance by alleviating oxidative stress of plant, so as to enhance the capability of cadmium extraction by plant.

  15. Quantitative differential expression of alpha and beta ryanodine receptor genes in PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative meat from two chicken lines: broiler and layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Helena Inoue Oda

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Total RNA isolated from Pectoralis major muscle from PSE (L*24h>53.0, pH"53 meats of two phenotypically distinct chicken lines, broiler and layer, was used to investigate the α-ryr and β-ryr gene expression by real-time RT-PCR approach. Mean relative quantification (RQ values were lower (p0.05 in α-ryr gene expression regardless of line studied. The β-ryr RQ results suggested that in PSE samples an alteration might occur in the regular ratio (1:1 of α-RyR/β-RyR normally found in avian muscles. These results provided the first evidence of PSE meat occurrence as a result of the differential expression of ryanodine receptor genes which might lead to an increased in Ca2+ availability at the cell milieu.As proteínas α-RyR e β-RyR apresentam papéis distintos no mecanismo de excitação-contração com diferenças em seus mecanismos de ativação e respostas a ligantes. O RNA total de filé de peito (Pectoralis major m com PSE (L*24h>53,0; pH 5,8 e não-PSE (4453 de duas linhagens distintas, de corte e de postura, foram utilizadas para estudar a expressão gênica dos genes α-ryr β-ryr por PCR-em-tempo-real. Os valores médios de expressão gênicas relativas (RQ foram inferiores (p0,05 na expressão do , independentemente da linhagem estudada. Os resultados de RQ para β-ryr indicaram nas amostras PSE, uma alteração na proporção (1:1 de α-RyR/β-RyR comumente encontrada em músculos de aves. Estes resultados originam a primeira evidência da ocorrência de carnes PSE como resultado de uma disponibilidade acentuada de Ca2+ no citosol pela expressão diferenciada de proteínas receptoras de rianodina.

  16. Evaluation of magnetization transfer ratio in ascites and pelvic cystic masses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Okada, Susumu [Nippon Medical School, Inba, Chiba (Japan). Chiba-Hokuso Hospital; Kato, Tomoyasu; Yamashita, Takashi [and others

    1997-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of magnetization transfer contrast (MTC) in characterization of pelvic cystic masses and ascites, in vitro studies were performed. Cystic fluids were taken from operative specimens of ten ovarian cystic masses (five mucinous cystadenomas, one cystadenocarcinoma, two serous cystadenocarcinomas, two clear cell carcinomas) and three non-ovarian pelvic cysts (one paraovarian cyst, one pseudomyxoma peritonei, one pelvic abscess). Samples of ascitic flied were drawn by peritoneal puncture in twenty patients (thirteen with peritonitis carcinomatosa, five with liver dysfunction, two with renal dysfunction). Total protein content in ascitic fluids was measured. Magnetization transfer ratio (MTR) was calculated by the signal intensities under the gradient echo sequence with and without the application of off-resonance pulses. The relative signal intensities (RSI) relative to water in T{sub 1} and T{sub 2} weighted images were obtained using spin echo sequence. There was no correlation between histological type of pelvic mass and MTR and RSI. Good correlation (R{sup 2}=0.761) was obtained between MTR and protein content in ascitic fluids, whereas no correlation was noted between RSI and protein content in ascitic fluids. These results suggest that MTC is not useful in the characterization of pelvic masses but is applicable in the differentiation between exudative ascites and transudative ascites. (author)

  17. Use of Rhizosphere Metabolomics to Investigate Exudation of Phenolics by Arabidopsis Roots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yong Jian; Rai, Amit; Reuben, Sheela; Nesati, Victor; Almeida, Reinaldo; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-04-01

    The rhizosphere is a specialised micro-niche for bacteria that have an active exchange of signals and nutrients with the host plant. Nearly 20% of photosynthates are released as root exudates, which consist of primary metabolites and products of secondary metabolism which are largely phenolic in nature. Previously, using rhizosphere metabolomics, we showed that nearly 50% of organic carbon in the exudates is in the form of phenolic compounds, of which the largest fraction is from the phenylpropanoid synthesis pathway. Using Arabidopsis as a model, we have demonstrated that a biased rhizosphere can be created using plants with varying levels of phenylpropanoids due to mutations in the biosynthetic or regulatory genes. These phenylpropanoids levels are reflected in the exudates, and exudates from lines with regulatory gene mutations, tt8 and ttg, have higher levels of phenylpropanoids, whereas biosynthetic mutant line, tt4, has very low and undetectable levels of phenylpropanoids. The biased rhizosphere of tt8 and ttg lines provides a nutritional advantage to rhizobacteria that can utilize these phenylpropanoids such as quercetin. With such a strategy to increase the competitiveness of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) such as Pseudomonas putida, this system can be applied to improve plant performance. In order to better understand the metabolic basis of the nutritional advantage behind the competitiveness of the favoured P. putida, we elucidated its quercetin utilization pathway. We have recently cloned the gene for quercetin oxidoreductase (QuoA) and expressed it in transgenic Arabidopsis lines to alter the plant phenylpropanoid metabolism, using a gain of function approach. Since phenylpropanoid biosynthesis in plants involve formation of quercetin from naringenin, we envisaged that QuoA expression in plants will provide us with a genetic tool to "reverse" this biosynthetic step. This perturbation led to a decrease in flavonoids and an increase in lignin

  18. COMPREHENSIVE ANALYSIS OF ORGANIC LIGANDS IN WHOLE ROOT EXUDATES USING NUCLEAR MAGNETIC RESONANCE AND GAS CHROMATOGRAPHY-MASS SPECTROMETRY. (R825433C007)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  19. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, C; Andersen, Anne Poder;

    2010-01-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered...... seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16...... of transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women...

  20. Long-term persistence of systemic and mucosal immune response to HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine in preteen/adolescent girls and young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petäjä, T; Pedersen, Court; Poder, A;

    2011-01-01

    Vaccination against oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) types is one key intervention for cervical cancer prevention. This follow-up study assessed the persistence of the systemic and mucosal immune responses together with the safety profile of the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered...... seropositive for serum anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibodies. As previously observed, anti-HPV-16 and -18 antibody levels (ELISA Units/mL) were higher in subjects vaccinated at the age of 10-14 years (2862.2 and 940.8) compared to subjects vaccinated at the age of 15-25 years (1186.2 and 469.8). Moreover, anti-HPV-16...... of transudation or exudation of serum IgG antibodies through the cervical epithelium. The HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine had a clinically acceptable safety profile. In conclusion, this follow-up study shows that the HPV-16/18 AS04-adjuvanted vaccine administered to preteen/adolescents girls and young women...

  1. Microbial processes and community composition in the rhizosphere of European beech – The influence of plant C exudates

    OpenAIRE

    Koranda, Marianne; Schnecker, Jörg; Kaiser, Christina; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Kitzler, Barbara; Stange, Claus Florian; Sessitsch, Angela; Zechmeister-Boltenstern, Sophie; Richter, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    Plant roots strongly influence C and N availability in the rhizosphere via rhizodeposition and uptake of nutrients. This study aimed at investigating the effect of resource availability on microbial processes and community structure in the rhizosphere. We analyzed C and N availability, as well as microbial processes and microbial community composition in rhizosphere soil of European beech and compared it to the bulk soil. Additionally, we performed a girdling experiment in order to disrupt ro...

  2. Composição e propriedades reológicas da goma do angico (anadenanthera macrocarpa benth Composition and rheological properties of exudate gum from anadenanthera macrocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André G. da Silva

    1998-06-01

    Full Text Available A goma do angico foi purificada através de três estágios, cada um deles envolvendo dissolução em água e precipitação em etanol. As duas primeiras precipitações foram efetuadas em presença de NaCl e a última, em ausência. Os teores de umidade, cinza, proteína e cátions foram determinados para a goma nos vários estágios de purificação. A composição do polissacarídeo, obtida por HPLC, foi: 67,8% de arabinose, 24,1% de galactose e 2,0% de ramnose. O teor de 5,9% de ácido urônico foi calculado a partir de titulação condutométrica. Os cátions presentes na goma bruta (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ e Fe3+ foram analisados por absorção atômica e gradualmente substituídos por Na+. O teor de proteína, no entanto, não diminuiu significativamente ao longo das purificações, o que pode ser um indicativo de que ela se encontra agregada ao polissacarídeo. O estudo por GPC sugere a presença de um complexo polissacarídeo-proteina de massa molar 7,9 x 10(5 g/mol e de polissacarídeos de massa molar 8,3 x 10(4 g/mol e 2,2 x 10(4 g/mol. A goma do angico apresenta baixa viscosidade e Energia de ativação de fluxo 16,8 kJ/mol, 17,2 kJ/mol e 17,7 kJ/mol, respectivamente para soluções 2%, 3% e 5%. Comparação com outros polissacarídeos indica que a macromolécula é ramificada, mas em menor grau do que a goma arábica e a goma do cajueiro.A pure salt gum was obtained by using a method of purification based on dissolutions in water and precipitation with ethanol, first in presence of NaCl, and later in absence of salt. Characterization was performed by determination of moisture, ash, protein and cations. The composition of the polysaccharide was determined as 67.8% arabinose, 24.1% galactose, 2.0% rhamnose by HPLC and 5.9 % of uronic acid by condutometric analysis. Cations presents in the crude gum (Na+, K+, Ca2+, Mg2+ and Fe3+ were investigated by atomic absorption spectrophotometry and gradually substituted by Na+. Protein was tightly

  3. Elicitors' influenced differential ginsenoside production and exudation into medium with concurrent Rg3/Rh2 panaxadiol induction in Panax quinquefolius cell suspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Tanya; Kalra, Alok; Mathur, A K; Lal, R K; Singh, Manju; Mathur, Archana

    2016-06-01

    Cobalt nitrate, nickel sulphate, hydrogen peroxide, sodium nitroprusside, and culture filtrates of Pseudomonas monteili, Bacillus circularans, Trichoderma atroviridae, and Trichoderma harzianum were tested to elicit ginsenoside production in a cell suspension line of Panax quinquefolius. Abiotic elicitors preferentially increased panaxadiols whereas biotic elicitors upregulated the panaxatriol synthesis. Cobalt nitrate (50 μM) increased total ginsenosides content by twofold (54.3 mg/L) within 5 days. It also induced the Rc synthesis that was absent in the control cultures. Elicitation with P. monteili (2.5 % v/v, 5 days) also supported 2.4-fold enhancement in saponin yield. Elicitation by T. atroviridae or hydrogen peroxide induced the synthesis of Rg3 and Rh2 that are absent in ginseng roots. The highest ginsenosides productivity (3.2-fold of control) was noticed in cells exposed to 1.25 % v/v dose of T. atroviridae for 5 days. Treating cells with T. harzianum for 15 days afforded maximum synthesis and leaching (8.1 mg/L) of ginsenoside Rh1. PMID:26795963

  4. Measurement of vancomycin hydrochloride concentration in the exudate from wounds receiving negative pressure wound therapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ida, Yukiko; Matsumura, Hajime; Onishi, Masami; Ono, Sayaka; Imai, Ryutaro; Watanabe, Katsueki

    2016-04-01

    It has been reported that negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is effective in the treatment of contaminated wounds. We hypothesised that systemically administered antibiotics migrate to wound site effectively by NPWT, which provides the antibacterial effect. We measured and compared the concentrations of vancomycin in the exudate and blood serum. Eight patients with skin ulcers or skin defect wounds who were treated with NPWT and were administered an intravenous drip of vancomycin were enrolled in this study. The wound surfaces were muscle, muscle fascia or adipose tissue. We administered vancomycin intravenously to NPWT patients (1-3 g/day). The exudate was obtained using 500 ml V.A.C. ATS canisters without gel. Three days later, the concentrations of vancomycin were measured. The mean concentration of vancomycin in the exudate from NPWT was 67% of the serum vancomycin concentration. We found that concentrations of vancomycin in NPWT exudates are higher than the previously reported concentrations in soft tissue without NPWT. The proactive use of NPWT might be considered in cases of suspected wound contamination when a systemic antibiotic is administered. PMID:24674131

  5. Effects of Jianpi Xiaoji granules on gastric juice, gastric acid exudation and pepsin activity in rats of spleen asthenia%健脾消积颗粒对脾虚大鼠胃液、胃酸的分泌及胃蛋白酶活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李红; 蒋晓煌; 蒋孟良; 谢小全

    2012-01-01

    目的:探讨健脾消积颗粒对脾虚大鼠胃液、胃酸分泌及胃蛋白酶活性的影响.方法:用大黄造成大鼠脾虚模型后,再灌服健脾消积颗粒药液,于末次灌胃后1h,测定大鼠胃液、胃酸分泌量、胃蛋白酶活性.结果:健脾消积颗粒的胃液、胃酸分泌量和胃蛋白酶的活性与模型组比较,差异具有统计学意义(P<0.05或P<0.01).结论:健脾消积颗粒对脾虚大鼠的健脾作用机制之一与其能使脾虚大鼠的胃液、胃酸分泌增加、胃蛋白酶活性提高有关.%OBJECTIVE To investigate the effects of Jianpi Xiaoji granules on gastric juice, gastric acid exudation and pepsin activity in rats of spleen asthenia. METHODS The model rats of spleen asthenia were induced by rhubarb, then feed Jianpi Xiaoji granules. The quantity of gastric juice, gastric acid exudation and pepsin activity were mensurated after the last of feed 1 h. RESULTS There was significant difference in the quantity of gastric juice, gastric acid exudation and pepsin activity of rats of spleen asthenia between the Jianpi Xiaoji granules and model group (P<0. 05 or P<0. 01). CONCLUSION The Jianpi Xiaoji granules can promote the secretion of gastric juice, gastric acid and pepsin activity in rats of spleen asthenia.

  6. 铅胁迫下小花南芥与玉米间作对根系分泌物有机酸的影响%Effects of Arabisalpina L. var. parviflora Franch and Zea mays L. intercropping system on root-exudated organic acids under lead stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王吉秀; 湛方栋; 李元; 祖艳群; 秦丽; 何永美; 李明锐

    2016-01-01

    为了揭示 Pb 胁迫对间作和单作的超累积植物和作物根系分泌低分子有机酸的影响,研究设置400 mg·L-1 Pb 胁迫,采用水培曝气法试验,以玉米和小花南芥单作为对照处理,研究 Pb 胁迫下玉米和小花南芥间作对植物根系形态、根系分泌有机酸及 Pb 吸收的影响。结果表明:与单作相比,间作小花南芥情况下,玉米根系分泌物检测到乳酸;玉米分根条数、根表面积和根密度与单作相比分别增加60%、15%和42%,地下部和地上部干重生物量分别增加108%和75%,玉米地下部 Pb 含量下降44%;与单作相比,间作玉米条件下,小花南芥根系分泌物检测到乙酸和乳酸,小花南芥根系分泌物量与单作相比增加103%~1700%,小花南芥地下部和地上部 Pb 累积量分别比单作增加49%和75%,转运系数增加22%。相关分析结果表明,单作小花南芥只有地上部Pb 累积量与草酸显著相关,而间作小花南芥地下部和地上部 Pb 累积量与草酸、柠檬酸和苹果酸显著相关。研究表明超富集植物小花南芥与玉米间作体系,根系分泌的有机酸改变了 Pb 在小花南芥和玉米体内的累积特征,促进超累积植物小花南芥累积 Pb,减少农作物玉米植株体内 Pb 含量。Pb 胁迫下超累积植物小花南芥与玉米间作是一种可行的修复模式。%Cultivated soils contamination by heavy metals have become increasingly contentious to decision makers, farmers, consumers and health professionals around the globe. Phytoremediation is a key strategy for decontaminating cultivated soils polluted by heavy metals. Hyperaccumulator plants are limited by their soil occupation rather than agricultural production in China. Intercropping system of hyperaccumulator plants and crops have been recommended for both of remediation and production in the same time. The accumulation of heavy metal in plants is due to root growth and root exudates. However, plant root

  7. 辐照处理对PSE肉的物化、微生物及感官特性影响%Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory characteristics of irradiated pale, soft, exudative (PSE) pork

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳贤德; 朴伶华

    2012-01-01

    The effect of irradiation on the quality characteristics of pale-soft-exudative (PSE) pork was studied. The pork loin with se-vere PSE appearance was selected by meat grader, irradiated at 0 and 4. 5 kGy, and meat quality characteristics including pH, color, lipid oxidation development, microbial and sensory quality were analyzed during 2 weeks of storage at 4 °C. The pH values of non-irradiated and 4. 5 kGy irradiated PSE raw pork loin was not different. Hunter color a * -value, which represents redness of meat surface showed significant increase (P<0. 05) in irradiated PSE pork loin. This higher Hunter color a * -value maintained during 2 weeks of storage. The lipid oxidation was increased by irradiation. By 4. 5 kGy of irradiation, approximately 2 log reduction of total aerobic bacterial counts was achieved during 2 weeks of storage when compared with non-irradiated control. Sensory panelists prefer the color of irradiated PSE meat than that of non-irradiated control because of redness. From the results, it is possible to use an irradiation technology to improve not only microbiological safety but also the color of defect meat such as PSE.%在屠宰厂与农贸市场肉品卫生检验中,常发现以肉色苍白、肉质柔软和切面多汁为特点的生理异常肉,中国称之为“白肌肉”(PSE肉).PSE肉外观色泽苍白,适口性差,易腐败,因而不受消费者欢迎.为了提高PSE肉的外观颜色及微生物安全性,并考虑因辐照产生的异味及微生物杀菌效果,选择0和4.5kGy的辐照剂量对PSE肉进行处理.之后在4℃下储藏2周,并测定pH、颜色、脂肪过氧化值、微生物安全性及官能特性等指标.结果表明:辐照在改善PSE肉的微生物安全性的同时,还能改善PSE肉色.

  8. PENGGUNAAN GETAH PEPAYA DALAM SINTESIS ESTER XILITOL ASAM LEMAK (EXAL [The Use of Papaya Exudates for Fatty Acid Xilitol Synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suhardi

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fatty acid xylitol-ester (FAXILE are xylitol esters of fatty acids with one to five DE (degree of esterification value. FAXILE with DE value of 3 or higher can be used as low calorie fat replacer since they have low digestive property; while the xylitol ester with DE of less than 3 can be used as emulsifier. The FAXILE synthesis experiments were carried out by esterification of xylitol with palm oil¡¦s fatty acid (POFA using papaya exudates as a lipase source. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the potential of papaya exuadates for the synthesis of FAXILE. In this first experiment, test were carried out to determine hydrolytic activity of lipases obtained from different part of papaya plant. The test, were performed with the presence of CaO and under different pH value. The papaya exudates were used for FAXILE synthesis under an optimum condition obtained from the first experiment. Samples were drawn during incubation at 40„aC for 1,2,3, and 4 days and hydroxyl number was analyzed to confirm the ester formation. The results showed that the most active exudate was from papaya leaves, followed by exudates from fruit with hydrolytic activity of 653 and 296 ƒÝmol/g. minutes, respectively. The hydrolytic activity of the fruit exudate was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45-50„aC, with the addition of CaO 4% dry exudates. The FAXILE synthesis with acid of papaya exudates was optimum at pH 6.0, at 45„aC with molar ratio of xylitol: fatty acids was 1 to 6,3 days incubation. At this condition the conversion rate xylitol to FAXILE was 79%.

  9. Phragmites australis response to Cu in terms of low molecular weight organic acids (LMWOAs) exudation: Influence of the physiological cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, A. Cristina S.; Almeida, C. Marisa R.; Basto, M. Clara P.; Vasconcelos, M. Teresa S. D.

    2014-06-01

    Plant roots have the ability to produce and secrete substances, such as aliphatic low molecular weight organic acids (ALMWOAs), into the rhizosphere for several purposes, including in response to metal contamination. Despite this, little is yet known about the exudation of such substances from marsh plants roots in response to metal exposure. This work aimed at assessing the influence of the physiological cycle of marsh plants on the exudation of ALMWOAs in response to Cu contamination. In vitro experiments were carried out with Phragmites australis specimens, collected in different seasons. Plant roots were exposed to freshwater contaminated with two different Cu concentrations (67 μg/L and 6.9 mg/L), being the ALMWOAs released by the roots measured. Significant differences (both qualitative and quantitative) were observed during the Phragmites australis life cycle. At growing stage, Cu stimulated the exudation of oxalic and formic acids but no significant stimulation was observed for citric acid. At developing stage, exposure to Cu caused inhibition of oxalic acid exudation whereas citric acid liberation was stimulated but only in the media spiked with the lowest Cu concentration tested. At the decaying stage, no significant variation on oxalic acid was observed, whereas the citric and formic acids release increased as a consequence of the plant exposure to Cu. The physiological cycle of Phragmites australis, and probably also of other marsh plants, is therefore an important feature conditioning plants response to Cu contamination, in terms of ALMWOAs exudation. Hence this aspect should be considered when conducting studies on rhizodeposition involving marsh plants exposed to metals and in the event of using marsh plants for phytoremediation purposes in contaminated estuarine areas.

  10. The Changes and Degradation of Tobacco Root Exudates in Tobacco Field with Continuous Cropping%连作烟田土壤根系分泌物的变化和分解

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于会泳; 申国明; 高欣欣

    2014-01-01

    We analyzed contents of tobacco root exudates in 0-20 cm and 20-40 cm soil where tobacco had grown for 1 year, 2 years, and 3 years in order to investigate variation of exudates in tobacco field and identify allelochemicals. The results showed that the content of benzoic acid, 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid, 3-oxygen-4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid and phthalic acid dioctyl ester in tobacco field were high, of which 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid was the highest, and the content of 4-hydroxybutyric acid and glycerin were low. Hydroxybutyric acid, 3-methyl-2-hydroxy butyric acid, 4-hydroxybutyric acid, cinnamic acid, oleic acid, stearic acid amide and nicotine had no direct allelopathic influence to tobacco. The decomposition rates of cinnamic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, phthalic acid, 3-hydroxy benzoic acid, dioctyl phthalate, 4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid and myristic acid were less than 50%. We proposed that the following acids were allelochemicals, including benzoic acid, 3-hydroxybenzoic acid, 4-hydroxybenzoic acid, lauric acid, oterephthalic acid, 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenyl acetic acid, 3,4-dihydroxybenzoic acid, myristic acid, palmitic acid, 9,12-octadecadienoic acid, acrylic acid, scopoletin, cinnamic acid, phthalic acid dioctyl phthalate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetic acid.%为阐明烟田土壤中根系分泌物的变化规律及确定具有化感作用的根系分泌物种类,研究分析了种烟1年、连作2年和连作3年0~20 cm、20~40 cm烟田土壤中根系分泌物的含量变化,并通过室内试验研究了烟草根系分泌物的分解转化。结果表明:(1)烟田土壤中含量较高的根系分泌物种类有苯甲酸、4-羟基苯乙酸、3-甲氧基-4-羟基苯乙酸和邻苯二甲酸二辛酯,其中4-羟基苯乙酸含量最高,含量较低的种类有4-羟基丁酸和甘油;(2)羟基丁酸、3-甲基-2-羟基丁酸、4-羟基丁酸、肉桂酸、油酸、硬脂酸酰胺和烟碱对烟草无直接化感作用;(3)

  11. Effects of root exudates on the growth and development of male and female Morus alba seedlings%桑树(Morus alba)幼苗根系分泌物对雌雄植株生长发育的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    竺诗慧; 董廷发; 刘刚; 肖娟; 朱娟; 曾贞; 陈德甫; 胥晓

    2016-01-01

    以桑树(Morus alba)雌雄幼苗为实验材料,采用水培法种植植株,将同龄单培雌雄植株及混培雌雄植株的根系分泌物水溶液分别倒入不同处理组(对照组不作处理),研究了不同来源的根系分泌物对受体雌雄植株生长和分配的影响。结果显示:桑树单培雌雄植株的根系分泌物促进了异性受体植株的生长和干物质积累,导致受体雌株的株高、基径、叶面积和根、茎、叶生物量以及受体雄株的根、茎生物量显著增加,雌株的增加幅度大于雄株。与对照相比,雌/雄株的株高、基径、叶面积以及根、茎、叶生物量分别增加了107%/31%、164%/41%、94%/31%、349%/52%、216%/53%和86%/43%。除雌株根系生物量和根冠比增加外,混培雌雄植株的根系分泌物对受体雌雄植株大部分生长和生物量性状均无显著影响。这些结果表明,不同来源的根系分泌物对受体桑树雌雄植株生长发育的影响不同。这种由根系分泌物引起的差异可能是雌雄植株间相互作用的一种机制。%To investigate effects on the growth and biomass allocation of male and femaleMorus alba seedlings by its root exudates from different origins, the seedlings were exposed to liquid medium containning the root exudates from single-planted seedlings of opposite sex or companion-planted seedlings (a male and a female), and the group without treatment was the control. All the plants were of the same age. The results show that the growth and dry matter accumulation of male and female seedlings were promoted by the root exudates from the opposite sex. In treatment of the exudates from the opposite sex, height, base diameter, leaf area, and biomasses of roots, stems and leaves of females were signiifcantly increased, and biomasses of stems and roots of males were also significantly increased. Furthermore, the increasing amplitude of females was higher than that of males. Compared with the

  12. A case of von Hippel-Lindau disease with exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basel T Ba′arah

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL disease is a rare multisystem familial tumor syndrome of autosomal dominant inheritance. Hallmark lesions include retinal, cerebellum and spinal cord hemangioblastomas, renal cell carcinomas, adrenal pheochromocytomas, angiomatous or cystic lesions of the kidneys, pancreas, and epididymis. We report a case of VHL disease in a 26-year-old patient who presented with exudative macular edema. Ocular and systemic studies revealed the presence of retinal and central nervous system hemangioblastomas, adrenal pheochromocytoma, multiple pancreatic, and kidney cysts. The retinal angiomas were successfully treated with argon laser photocoagulation and cryotherapy.

  13. Association of systemic risk factors with the severity of retinal hard exudates in a north Indian population with type 2 diabetes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sachdev N

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The various risk factors for diabetic retinopathy and its spectrum are still poorly understood in the Indian population. Aims: To study the association of various systemic risk factors with retinal hard exudates in type 2 diabetic north Indian patients and to measure the incidence of dyslipidemia in them. Settings and Design: A tertiary-hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: An observational case-study which included 180 type 2 diabetic patients (180 eyes of nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy (NPDR with clinically significant macular edema (CSME. In these patients the retinal hard exudates were graded on a central 500 fundus picture using modified Airlie House classification and divided into three groups of absent or minimal hard exudates (Group 1, hard exudates present (Group 2 and prominent hard exudates (Group 3. Their association with various risk factors, namely the age of onset of diabetes and its duration, gender, insulin therapy, and various systemic parameters like hypertension, blood hemoglobin, glycosylated hemoglobin, serum (s. creatinine levels, 24-h proteinuria and complete lipid profile including total s. cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL, very low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (VLDL and s. triglyceride (TG was studied. The incidence of dyslipidemia was also calculated among these groups of patients. Statistical Analysis: ANOVA test, linear regression analysis and Spearman′s correlation test. Results: On univariate analysis, the retinal hard exudates were significantly associated with s. creatinine (P=0.016, systolic blood pressure (P=0.014, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001, s. LDL (P=0.008 and s. TG (P=0.013 levels. While on linear regression analysis, s. cholesterol (P < 0.001 and s. LDL cholesterol (P=0.028 were found to be independent risk factors affecting the density of retinal hard exudates. On Spearman′s correlation test, the

  14. 蚕豆根分泌物对紫色土有效养分及微生物数量的影响%Effects of faba bean (Vicia fabaL.) root exudate on soil available nutrients and microbial population in different purple soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁秀梅; 耿赛男; 郑梦圆; 习向银; 宋大利; 黄伏森

    2016-01-01

    为培育紫色土肥力和合理利用蚕豆资源,本研究首先通过溶液培养法收集到蚕豆根系分泌物后,并通过真空旋转蒸发仪得到浓缩液,然后通过室内土壤培养试验,即分别在3种60 g紫色土(酸性紫色土、碱性紫色土和中性紫色土)添加2个水平[6 mL(低量)和12 mL(高量)]的蚕豆根系分泌物浓缩液,并置于25℃恒温箱中黑暗培养15 d ,从而探索蚕豆根系分泌物对不同紫色土有效养分和微生物数量的影响。结果表明:在3种紫色土上,与对照相比,添加低量和高量蚕豆根系分泌物浓缩液后,土壤碱解氮含量和 pH 均显著降低;而土壤有效磷、速效钾、有效铁、有效锌含量和微生物数量均显著增加,且此趋势随根系分泌物浓缩液添加量增加而增强。与其他两种紫色土相比,酸性紫色土添加蚕豆根系分泌物浓缩液对于土壤碱解氮含量和pH的降低效应最明显,对土壤中细菌和真菌数量增加效应更为显著,与对照相比,增幅分别为-32.00%、-4.51%、3.51倍和9.00倍。与其他两种紫色土相比,碱性紫色土添加高量蚕豆根系分泌物浓缩液对土壤有效磷、速效钾、有效锌和有效铁含量活化效应最强,分别是对照的4.48倍、2.04倍、147.10%和128.00%。在中性紫色土上,添加高量蚕豆根系分泌物浓缩液对以上土壤有效养分和土壤微生物数量的影响介于酸性紫色土和碱性紫色土之间。总之,蚕豆根系分泌物对不同紫色土土壤有效养分(土壤碱解氮和pH除外)和土壤微生物活性有不同促进效应,这对于紫色土肥力培育有深远影响。%AbstractIn order to improve the fertility of purple soil and make reasonable use of faba bean, this study collected faba bean root exudates by solution cultivation and obtained the concentrated solution by vacuum rotary evaporator. Then a soil cultivation experiment was carried out with 2

  15. 棉花根系分泌物对土壤速效养分和酶活性及微生物数量的影响%Effects of Cotton Root Exudates on Available Soil Nutrition, Enzyme Activity and Microorganism Quantity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小亮; 刘新虎; 贺江舟; 万传星; 龚明福; 张利莉

    2009-01-01

    采用水培法收集棉花根系分泌物,在耕作1年的土壤中添加棉花根系分泌物,培养10 d后测定土壤中速效养分、酶活性及微生物数量.结果显示,(1)棉花根系分泌物能极显著提高土壤中速效K和速效P含量4.31%~15.03%和5.99%~24.31%(P<0.01);高浓度分泌物处理下速效N含量比对照显著提高11.39%(P<0.05),其它处理影响不显著;各浓度分泌物对土壤有机质含量均无显著影响.(2)各浓度棉花根系分泌物均使土壤中转化酶活性显著提高,且随分泌物浓度的增加而显著增强;低浓度分泌物能显著提高土壤中磷酸酶的活性,所有浓度处理对土壤脲酶活性均无显著影响.(3)中、高浓度的棉花根系分泌物能显著增加土壤中细菌的数量,低浓度的分泌物能显著增加土壤中真菌的数量,而不同浓度处理的土壤中放线菌的数量均无显著的变化.研究表明,棉花根系分泌物可通过促进土壤细菌及土壤真菌的繁殖来增强土壤转化酶和磷酸酶活性,提高土壤速效P、速效K及速效N含量,从而对棉花根际微环境产生深刻影响.%Cotton seedlings were cultured in hydroponics,root exudates were collected by concentrating the deionized water,in which the cotton seedlings transferring to.Collected root exudates were subjected to the soil with cotton cultivation for one year.Soil available nutrition contents,enzyme activities and microorganism quantity were determined after ten days incubation of treated soil.The results showed that the root exudates of cotton can significantly enhance the contents of the available K and available P in soil.In three treatments,soil available P significantly increased by 5.99%,13.14% and 24.31% (P<0.01)and available K significantly elevated by 4.31%,8.26% and 15.03% (P<0.01).Only higher input of cotton root exudates improved the content of the available N by 11.39% (P<0.05) in soil.And any influence was observed in soil organic matter in all

  16. Role of root exudates in dissolution of Cd containing iron oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenfeld, C.; Martinez, C. E.

    2011-12-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) in the rhizosphere contains organic acids, amino acids and more complex organic molecules that can substantially impact the solubility of soil solid phases. Plant roots and soil microorganisms contribute a large fraction of these organic compounds to DOM, potentially accelerating the transfer of solid phase elements into solution. In highly contaminated soils, heavy metals such as Cd are commonly found coprecipitated with common minerals (e.g. iron oxides). Introducing or changing vegetation on these contaminated soils may increase DOM levels in the soil pore fluids and thus enhance the biological and chemical weathering of soil minerals. Here, we investigate the role of root exudates on mineral dissolution and Cd mobility in contaminated soils. We hypothesize that plant exudates containing nitrogen and sulfur functional groups will dissolve Cd-containing mineral phases to a greater extent than exudates containing only oxygen functional groups, resulting in higher Cd concentrations in solution. Two different iron oxide mineral phases were utilized in a laboratory-scale model study system investigating the effects of low molecular weight, oxygen-, nitrogen-, and sulfur-containing organic compounds on mineral dissolution. Goethite (α-FeOOH) was synthesized in the laboratory with 0, 2.4, 5, and 100 theoretical mol% Cd, and franklinite (ZnFe2O4) was prepared with 0, 10, and 25 theoretical mol% Cd. Phase identity of all minerals was verified with X-ray diffraction (XRD). All minerals were reacted with 0.01 mM solutions containing one of four different organic ligands (oxalic acid, citric acid, histidine or cysteine) and aliquots of these solutions were sampled periodically over 40 days. Results from solution samples suggest that oxalic acid, citric acid, and histidine consistently increase mineral dissolution relative to the control (no organic compound present) while cysteine consistently inhibits dissolution relative to the control in

  17. Hyperbaric oxygen increases plasma exudation in rat trachea: involvement of nitric oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernareggi, M; Radice, S; Rossoni, G; Oriani, G; Chiesara, E; Berti, F

    1999-01-01

    This study investigates the microvascular permeability changes in tracheal tissue of rats exposed to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO). Rats, following exposure to HBO or ambient air (control animals) for 1.5, 3 and 6 h, were prepared for recording of nitric oxide exhaled (FENO) in air using a chemiluminescence analyser. The level of FENO was not statistically different in the two groups. Plasma exudation, evaluated by measuring the leakage of Evans blue (EB) dye into the tracheal tissue, was significantly elevated (48, 86 and 105% at 1.5, 3 and 6 h, respectively) in HBO-treated rats. Plasma exudation in the trachea of control rats was significantly increased (42%, P<0.05) by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), whereas it was significantly reduced (31%, P<0.05) in rats exposed to HBO for 3 h. N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and flunisolide significantly prevented the increase in plasma leakage in HBO-treated rats. In contrast, indomethacin was devoid of anti-exudative activity in these experiments. Western immunoblot showed a significant increase in the level of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein in the tracheal homogenates of HBO-treated rats, as compared to basal levels. These results indicate that nitric oxide (NO) is involved in the maintenance of microvascular permeability in tracheal tissue of rats. The protective effect observed with the steroid seems to support this hypothesis. Furthermore, the beneficial action of NAC underlines that reactive oxygen species participate in the microvascular permeability changes observed in tracheal tissue of rats exposed to HBO. PMID:10188993

  18. Use of a hydrocapillary dressing in the management of highly exuding ulcers: a comparative study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norkus, A; Dargis, V; Thomsen, J K;

    2005-01-01

    was conducted on 97 patients with an ankle brachial pressure index > or = 0.8 and a highly exuding leg ulcer. Ulcer duration was at least four weeks.Treatment continued until healing or for a maximum of 12 months. RESULTS: There was no statistically significant difference in healing time or wound area reduction...... between the two treatment protocols. The test dressing (Alione Hydrocapillary) had better absorption capacity and was more comfortable for the patients than the comparator dressings (Tielle/Tielle Plus) and adhered less to the wound bed.Also, more patients preferred the test dressing to their previous...

  19. pH of exudate test in the physiological quality of crambe seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Charline Zaratin Alves; Lennis Afraire Rodrigues; Carlos Henrique Queiroz Rego; Josué Bispo da Silva

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT: Crambe is a rapeseed with high oil content and can be used as a winter cover or as a source of raw material for the production of biodiesel, however espite the growing interest in the culture, research on the subject is still incipient, especially concerning the seed production and analysis technology. The purpose of this study is to evaluate the physiological quality of crambe seeds, 'FMS Brilhante' cultivar, by testing the pH of exudate. Five seed lots were submitted to the determ...

  20. Vitrectomy for circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shukla Dhananjay

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available We report successful surgical management of a circumscribed choroidal hemangioma with exudative retinal detachment refractory to transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT. A 33-year-old man with symptomatic serous macular detachment in the left eye (Snellen acuity: 20/200 secondary to a paramacular choroidal hemangioma was treated with TTT. The nonresponsive detachment was subsequently managed by vitrectomy, endophotocoagulation and silicon-oil tamponade. It resulted in complete resolution of the tumor and the detachment. Silicon oil was removed at four months. Visual acuity improved to 20/80 by the last follow-up visit at 10 months without any recurrence.

  1. Analytical studies on the gum exudate from Anogeissus leiocarpus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anogeissus leiocarpus gum samples were collected as natural exudate nodules, from three different location. Physicochemical properties of gum samples were studied. results showed significant differences within each location in most parameters studied except refractive index value which was found to be constant in all samples. The effect of location on the properties of gum samples was also studied and the analysis of variance showed insignificant differences (P≤0.05) in all properties studied except in ash content. Inter nodule variations of gum from two different location were studied individually. Results showed significant differences for each parameter studied except for the refractive index value. The properties studied of all gum samples were as follows: 9.2% moisture, 3.4% ash, 0.72% nitrogen, 4.74% protein, -35.5 specific rotation, 1.68 relative viscosity, 4.2 pH, 1.334 refractive index, 14.3 uronic acid, 0.44% reducing sugar, 1336.0 equivalent weight and 0.68% tannin content. UV absorption spectra of gum samples and gum nodules were determined. Cationic composition of gum samples was also determined and the results showed that (Mg) has highest value in all samples studied followed by Fe, Na, K, Ca, Zn and trace amount of Mn, Co, Ni, Cd and Pb. The water holding capacity was found to be 65.5% and emulsifying stability was found to be 1.008. The component sugars of gum were examined by different methods followed by qualitative and quantitative analysis. Analysis of hydrolysate crude gum sample by HPLC show L-rhamnose (6.82), L-arabinose (48.08), D-galactose (11.26) and two unknown oligosaccharides having values (0.22 and 32.61). Some physicochemical properties were studied. Results showed significant differences in nitrogen and protein contents, specific rotation, relative viscosity, equivalent weight and pH of fractions, where as insignificant differences were observed in uronic acid content and refractive index values

  2. The effects of technological advances on outcomes for elderly persons with exudative age-related macular degeneration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Frank A; Hanrahan, Brian W

    2014-04-01

    IMPORTANCE Exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD) is the major cause of blindness among US elderly. Developing effective therapies for this disease has been difficult. OBJECTIVES To assess the effects of introducing new therapies for treating exudative ARMD on vision of the affected population and other outcomes among Medicare beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having ARMD. DESIGN The study used data from a 5% sample of Medicare claims and enrollment data with a combination of a regression discontinuity design and propensity score matching to assess the effects on the introduction or receipt of new technologies on study outcomes during a 2-year follow-up period. SETTING AND PARTICIPANTS The analysis was based on longitudinal data for the United States, January 1, 1994, to December 31, 2011, for Medicare beneficiaries with fee-for-service coverage. The sample was limited to beneficiaries 68 years or older newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD as indicated by beneficiaries having no claims with this diagnosis in a 3-year look-back period. EXPOSURES The comparisons with vision outcomes were after vs before the introduction of photodynamic therapy and anti-vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) therapy. The comparisons for depression and long-term care facility admission were between beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD who received photodynamic therapy or anti-VEGF therapy compared with beneficiaries having the diagnosis who received no therapy for this disease. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES Onset of decrease in vision, vision loss or blindness, depression, and admission to a long-term care facility. RESULTS Among beneficiaries newly diagnosed as having exudative ARMD, the introduction of anti-VEGF therapy reduced vision loss by 41% (95% CI, 52%-68%) and onset of severe vision loss and blindness by 46% (95% CI, 47%-63%). Such beneficiaries who received anti-VEGF therapy and were not admitted to a long-term care facility during the look

  3. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants.

  4. Nitrate Protects Cucumber Plants Against Fusarium oxysporum by Regulating Citrate Exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Min; Sun, Yuming; Gu, Zechen; Wang, Ruirui; Sun, Guomei; Zhu, Chen; Guo, Shiwei; Shen, Qirong

    2016-09-01

    Fusarium wilt causes severe yield losses in cash crops. Nitrogen plays a critical role in the management of plant disease; however, the regulating mechanism is poorly understood. Using biochemical, physiological, bioinformatic and transcriptome approaches, we analyzed how nitrogen forms regulate the interactions between cucumber plants and Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. cucumerinum (FOC). Nitrate significantly suppressed Fusarium wilt compared with ammonium in both pot and hydroponic experiments. Fewer FOC colonized the roots and stems under nitrate compared with ammonium supply. Cucumber grown with nitrate accumulated less fusaric acid (FA) after FOC infection and exhibited increased tolerance to chemical FA by decreasing FA absorption and transportation in shoots. A lower citrate concentration was observed in nitrate-grown cucumbers, which was associated with lower MATE (multidrug and toxin compound extrusion) family gene and citrate synthase (CS) gene expression, as well as lower CS activity. Citrate enhanced FOC spore germination and infection, and increased disease incidence and the FOC population in ammonium-treated plants. Our study provides evidence that nitrate protects cucumber plants against F. oxysporum by decreasing root citrate exudation and FOC infection. Citrate exudation is essential for regulating disease development of Fusarium wilt in cucumber plants. PMID:27481896

  5. 缺磷对紫云英根系分泌物产生及难溶性磷活化的影响%Effect of P Deficiency on the Emergence of Astragalus L.Root Exudates and Mobilization of Sparingly Soluble Phosphorus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰忠明; 林新坚; 张伟光; 张辉; 吴一群

    2012-01-01

    [目的]探讨紫云英根分泌物对难溶性磷活化、吸收能力,以及不同紫云英基因型对难洛性磷活化差异.[方法]采用Hoagland营养液培养并收集紫云英根分泌物,经旋转蒸发仪减压、浓缩后,进行难溶性磷活化试验,利用高效液相色谱(HPLC)测定分泌物中有机酸成分及含量.[结果]缺磷胁迫下,不同基因型紫云英根半径减少,而根冠比和根比表面积较供磷有显著提高.紫云英根系分泌的有机酸有草酸、酒石酸、柠檬酸、苹果酸等,但主要为草酸;缺磷条件下,不同基因型紫云英分泌草酸存在显著差异,且各有机酸分泌量显著高于供磷时的分泌量.闽紫1号、浙紫5号和闽紫6号分泌的各种有机酸量明显高于余江大叶和弋江籽分泌的量.缺磷和供磷下,紫云英根系分泌物对难溶性A1-P和Fe-P都具有一定的活化能力,其活化值(P)分别为36.40-157.39 μg·g-1、32.20-139.42μg·g-1,缺磷根系分泌物对难溶性磷的活化量高于供磷处理,而且A1-P的活化能力略高于Fe-P.通过活化模拟试验,也证实不同有机酸可活化难洛性A1-P、Fe-P且差异显著.[结论]缺磷胁迫能促进紫云英分泌有机酸,显著增加对难溶性磷的活化效果;基因型之间紫云英对磷的活化效果差异较为明显,显现出紫云英品种间的差异性;栽培紫云英有利于改善南方红壤地区缺磷土壤磷素养分循环.然而科学地评价有机酸对A1-P和Fe-P的活化能力还有待于进一步研究.%[Objective] The objective of this study was to investigate the mobilization and uptake capacity of sparingly soluble phosphorus by root exudate of Astragalus L, and genotypic variation of different Astragalus L. in activation of sparingly soluble phosphorus. [Method] Hoagland nutrient solution culture was carried out to collect root exudate and test the mobilization of sparingly soluble phosphorus via concentrated vacuum rotary evaporator, and the content

  6. Dipeptidyl peptidase-IV (DPP-IV inhibitory activity of parotid exudate of Bufo melanostictus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Allenki Venkatesham

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes arises as a result of β-cell failure combined with concomitant insulin resistance. Glucagon-like peptide-1 is a gastrointestinal hormone that is released postprandially from the L cells of the gut and exerts a glucose- dependent and direct insulinotropic effect on the pancreatic β cell. Which activate adenylate cyclase and enhances insulin secretion. GLP-1 is rapidly degraded by DPP-IV to GLP-1(9-37 amide following release from gut L cells. GLP-1 directly enhances glucose-dependent insulin secretion via an increase in β-cell cAMP. Dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPP-IV is a plasma membrane glycoprotein ectopeptidase. In mammals, DPP-IV was widely expressed on the surface of endothelial and epithelial cells and highest levels in humans have been reported to occur in the intestine, bone marrow and kidney. Inhibiting DPP-IV reduces its rapid degradation of GLP-1, increasing circulating levels of the active hormone in vivo and prolonging its beneficial effects. The IC 50 value of parotid exudate was found to be 9.4 μg/ml. The maximum % inhibition (61.8 was showed at a concentration of 12μg/ml. Parotid exudate through inhibition of DPP-IV, improves glucose tolerance and enhances insulin secretion. DPP-IV inhibitors are a novel class of oral hypoglycemic agents with a potential to improve pancreatic beta cell function and the clinical course of type 2 diabetes.

  7. Modeling Cesium Partitioning in the Rhizosphere: A Focus on the Role of Root Exudates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, Melinda Ann; Siegel, L. S.; Alshawabkeh, A. N.; Carl D. Palmer

    2003-01-01

    A conceptual model is being developed for prediction of cesium (Cs) partitioning between bound (Csb), aqueous (Csa), and phytoextracted (Csp) phases in the rhizosphere. The model categorizes the processes that impact cesium partitioning into six sub-models: geochemistry, physical factors, root density, microorganisms, nutrients, and root exudates. A seventh sub-model (Cs fate) describes Cs movement between the three phases. Functional relationships and parametric values within and between the submodels are being developed based on literature, field characterization, and laboratory experiments. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to evaluate the effects of root density, microbial population, potassium requirement and concentration, and moisture content on the concentration of root exudates ([E]) and consequently on Cs partitioning. In summary, the model provides a framework for better understanding the fundamental processes that control Cs fate in the rhizosphere. The ability to better understand, predict, and control Cs solubilization could be applied to other metals in the future. Ultimately, the model will be used as a tool for enhancing field implementation of in situ solubilization of metals for a variety of remedial activities.

  8. Plant-microbe rhizosphere interactions mediated by Rehmannia glutinosa root exudates under consecutive monoculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Linkun; Wang, Juanying; Huang, Weimin; Wu, Hongmiao; Chen, Jun; Yang, Yanqiu; Zhang, Zhongyi; Lin, Wenxiong

    2015-10-01

    Under consecutive monoculture, the biomass and quality of Rehmannia glutinosa declines significantly. Consecutive monoculture of R. glutinosa in a four-year field trial led to significant growth inhibition. Most phenolic acids in root exudates had cumulative effects over time under sterile conditions, but these effects were not observed in the rhizosphere under monoculture conditions. It suggested soil microbes might be involved in the degradation and conversion of phenolic acids from the monocultured plants. T-RFLP and qPCR analysis demonstrated differences in both soil bacterial and fungal communities during monoculture. Prolonged monoculture significantly increased levels of Fusarium oxysporum, but decreased levels of Pseudomonas spp. Abundance of beneficial Pseudomonas spp. with antagonistic activity against F. oxysporum was lower in extended monoculture soils. Phenolic acid mixture at a ratio similar to that found in the rhizosphere could promote mycelial growth, sporulation, and toxin (3-Acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-O-Acetyl-4-deoxynivalenol) production of pathogenic F. oxysporum while inhibiting growth of the beneficial Pseudomonas sp. W12. This study demonstrates that extended monoculture can alter the microbial community of the rhizosphere, leading to relatively fewer beneficial microorganisms and relatively more pathogenic and toxin-producing microorganisms, which is mediated by the root exudates.

  9. Use of a new silver barrier dressing, ALLEVYN Ag in exuding chronic wounds.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kotz, Paula

    2009-06-01

    Recognising and managing wounds at risk of infection is vital in wound management. ALLEVYN Ag dressings have been designed to manage exudate in chronic wounds that are at risk of infection; are displaying signs of local infection; or where a suspected increase in bacterial colonisation is delaying healing. They combine an absorbent silver sulfadiazine containing hydrocellular foam layer, with a perforated wound contact layer and highly breathable top film. The results presented are from a multi-centre clinical evaluation of 126 patients conducted to assess the performance of ALLEVYN Ag (Adhesive, Non Adhesive and Sacrum dressings) in a range of indications. Clinicians rated the dressings as acceptable for use in various wound types in 88% of patients. The majority of clinical signs of infection reduced between the initial and the final assessment. The condition of wound tissue and surrounding skin was observed to improve, and there was significant evidence of a reduction in the level of exudate from initial to final assessment (p < 0.001). Clinicians rated ALLEVYN Ag as satisfying or exceeding expectations in over 90% of patients. The evaluation showed the dressings to offer real benefits to patients and clinicians across multiple indications when used in conjunction with local protocols.

  10. Exploring the transfer of recent plant photosynthates to soil microbes: mycorrhizal pathway vs direct root exudation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Christina; Kilburn, Matt R; Clode, Peta L; Fuchslueger, Lucia; Koranda, Marianne; Cliff, John B; Solaiman, Zakaria M; Murphy, Daniel V

    2015-03-01

    Plants rapidly release photoassimilated carbon (C) to the soil via direct root exudation and associated mycorrhizal fungi, with both pathways promoting plant nutrient availability. This study aimed to explore these pathways from the root's vascular bundle to soil microbial communities. Using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) imaging and (13) C-phospho- and neutral lipid fatty acids, we traced in-situ flows of recently photoassimilated C of (13) CO2 -exposed wheat (Triticum aestivum) through arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) into root- and hyphae-associated soil microbial communities. Intraradical hyphae of AM fungi were significantly (13) C-enriched compared to other root-cortex areas after 8 h of labelling. Immature fine root areas close to the root tip, where AM features were absent, showed signs of passive C loss and co-location of photoassimilates with nitrogen taken up from the soil solution. A significant and exclusively fresh proportion of (13) C-photosynthates was delivered through the AM pathway and was utilised by different microbial groups compared to C directly released by roots. Our results indicate that a major release of recent photosynthates into soil leave plant roots via AM intraradical hyphae already upstream of passive root exudations. AM fungi may act as a rapid hub for translocating fresh plant C to soil microbes.

  11. AM fungal exudates activate MAP kinases in plant cells in dependence from cytosolic Ca(2+) increase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francia, Doriana; Chiltz, Annick; Lo Schiavo, Fiorella; Pugin, Alain; Bonfante, Paola; Cardinale, Francesca

    2011-09-01

    The molecular dialogue occurring prior to direct contact between the fungal and plant partners of arbuscular-mycorrhizal (AM) symbioses begins with the release of fungal elicitors, so far only partially identified chemically, which can activate specific signaling pathways in the host plant. We show here that the activation of MAPK is also induced by exudates of germinating spores of Gigaspora margarita in cultured cells of the non-leguminous species tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum), as well as in those of the model legume Lotus japonicus. MAPK activity peaked about 15 min after the exposure of the host cells to the fungal exudates (FE). FE were also responsible for a rapid and transient increase in free cytosolic Ca(2+) in Nicotiana plumbaginifolia and tobacco cells, and pre-treatment with a Ca(2+)-channel blocker (La(3+)) showed that in these cells, MAPK activation was dependent on the cytosolic Ca(2+) increase. A partial dependence of MAPK activity on the common Sym pathway could be demonstrated for a cell line of L. japonicus defective for LjSym4 and hence unable to establish an AM symbiosis. Our results show that MAPK activation is triggered by an FE-induced cytosolic Ca(2+) transient, and that a Sym genetic determinant acts to modulate the intensity and duration of this activity.

  12. Exudate-based diabetic macular edema detection in fundus images using publicly available datasets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Giancardo, Luca [ORNL; Meriaudeau, Fabrice [ORNL; Karnowski, Thomas Paul [ORNL; Li, Yaquin [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK); Garg, Seema [University of North Carolina; Tobin Jr, Kenneth William [ORNL; Chaum, Edward [University of Tennessee, Knoxville (UTK)

    2011-01-01

    Diabetic macular edema (DME) is a common vision threatening complication of diabetic retinopathy. In a large scale screening environment DME can be assessed by detecting exudates (a type of bright lesions) in fundus images. In this work, we introduce a new methodology for diagnosis of DME using a novel set of features based on colour, wavelet decomposition and automatic lesion segmentation. These features are employed to train a classifier able to automatically diagnose DME through the presence of exudation. We present a new publicly available dataset with ground-truth data containing 169 patients from various ethnic groups and levels of DME. This and other two publicly available datasets are employed to evaluate our algorithm. We are able to achieve diagnosis performance comparable to retina experts on the MESSIDOR (an independently labelled dataset with 1200 images) with cross-dataset testing (e.g., the classifier was trained on an independent dataset and tested on MESSIDOR). Our algorithm obtained an AUC between 0.88 and 0.94 depending on the dataset/features used. Additionally, it does not need ground truth at lesion level to reject false positives and is computationally efficient, as it generates a diagnosis on an average of 4.4 s (9.3 s, considering the optic nerve localization) per image on an 2.6 GHz platform with an unoptimized Matlab implementation.

  13. Characteristics of Indocyanine Green Angiography in Exudative Age—related Macular Degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuDZ; WenF

    1999-01-01

    Objective:To observe the characteristics of indocyanine green angiography(ICGA)in exudative age-related macular degeneration(AMD).Methods:Thirty-one cases(39 eyes)were diagnosed as exudative AMD by ocular examination,fundus color photography,fundus fluorescein angiography(FFA)and ICGA.Their ages ranged from 50 to 82 years and visual acuities from FC/30cm to 0.7.We analyzed and compared the characteristics of ICGA and FFA in these patients.Results:of 26 eyes with ccult choroidal neovascularization (CNV)by FFA,15(57.7%)had classic CNV by ICGA.Of 4 eyes with serous retinal pigment epithelial detachment(PED)without CNV by FFA,1 had serous PED with classic CNV by ICGA.The hyperfluorescence of the scar staining was detecfed by ICGA.Conclusion:ICGA adds clinically useful information and is an important adjunct in the evaluation,classification,and laser treatment of patients with occult CNV in AMD.

  14. Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha in Peripical Tissue Exudates of Teeth with Apical Periodontitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Pezelj-Ribaric

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The aim of this study was to determine tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α levels in periapical exudates and to evaluate their relationship with radiological findings. Methodology. Periapical exudates were collected from root canals of 60 single-rooted teeth using absorbent paper points. TNF-α levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. The samples were divided into three groups according to the periapical radiolucent area. Results. Nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test revealed significant differences between TNF-α concentrations in control group (40, 57±28, 15 pg/mL and group with larger radiolucent areas (2365, 79±582, 95 pg/mL, as well as between control and canals with small radiolucent areas (507, 66±278, 97 (P<.05. Conclusions. The levels of TNF-α increase significantly in teeth with periapical pathosis, from smaller to bigger lesions. This research and its results have shown that objective analysis of the TNF-α levels enables establishment of a relationship between different concentrations of TNF-α and different radiological changes.

  15. Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic relationship of marbofloxacin against Pasteurella multocida in a tissue-cage model in yellow cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shan, Q; Wang, J; Yang, F; Ding, H; Liang, C; Lv, Z; Li, Z; Zeng, Z

    2014-06-01

    The fluoroquinolone antimicrobial drug marbofloxacin was administered to yellow cattle intravenously and intramuscularly at a dose of 2 mg/kg of body weight in a two-period crossover study. The pharmacokinetic properties of marbofloxacin in serum, inflamed tissue-cage fluid (exudate), and noninflamed tissue-cage fluid (transudate) were studied by using a tissue-cage model. The in vitro and ex vivo activities of marbofloxacin in serum, exudate, and transudate against a pathogenic strain of Pasteurella multocida (P. multocida) were determined. Integration of in vivo pharmacokinetic data with the in vitro MIC provided mean values for the area under the curve (AUC)/MIC for serum, exudate, and transudate of 155.75, 153.00, and 138.88, respectively, after intravenous dosing and 160.50, 151.00, and 137.63, respectively, after intramuscular dosing. After intramuscular dosing, the maximum concentration/MIC ratios for serum, exudate, and transudate were 21.13, 9.13, and 8.38, respectively. The ex vivo growth inhibition data after intramuscular dosing were fitted to the inhibitory sigmoid Emax equation to provide the values of AUC/MIC required to produce bacteriostasis, bactericidal activity, and elimination of bacteria. The respective values for serum were 17.25, 31.29, and 109.62, and slightly lower values were obtained for transudate and exudate. It is proposed that these findings might be used with MIC50 or MIC90 data to provide a rational approach to the design of dosage schedules which optimize efficacy in respect of bacteriological as well as clinical cures.

  16. Potential Enhancement of Plant Iron Assimilation by Microbial-Induced Root Exudation of Phenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Zhou

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Iron (Fe deficiency in crop plants is a modern agricultural problem worldwide. Although multiple strategies have been evolved to improve Fe assimilation, some plant species, especially dicots and nongraminaceous monocots (strategy I plants, cannot avoid Fe deficiency in low Fe-availability soils. It is well documented that graminaceous plants (strategy II plants employ the chelationbased Fe acquisition, and the strategy I plants use the reduction-based strategy to take up Fe. Intriguingly, under Fe deficiency the strategy I plants have recently been found to acquire Fe via exudation of phenolic compounds to mobilize Fe, which is much similar to the chelation-based mechanism of strategy II plants. Hitherto, increasing evidence has shown that soil microbes play a cooperative role in plant Fe acquisition. Several beneficial rhizobacteria have been found to increase plant Fe accumulation via activation of the reduction-based strategy. Moreover, microbial-induced root exudation of phenolic compounds can also promote plant Fe absorption by efficient mobilization of Fe, which increases Fe bioavailability in calcareous soils. Here, we briefly review the recent progress on the Fe assimilation strategies of strategy I and II plants, and further discuss the possible mechanisms underlying soil microbes enhance plant Fe acquisition.

  17. Reduced germination of Orobanche cumana seeds in the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal fungi or their exudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Louarn, Johann; Carbonne, Francis; Delavault, Philippe; Bécard, Guillaume; Rochange, Soizic

    2012-01-01

    Broomrapes (Orobanche and Phelipanche spp) are parasitic plants responsible for important crop losses, and efficient procedures to control these pests are scarce. Biological control is one of the possible strategies to tackle these pests. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal (AM) fungi are widespread soil microorganisms that live symbiotically with the roots of most plant species, and they have already been tested on sorghum for their ability to reduce infestation by witchweeds, another kind of parasitic plants. In this work AM fungi were evaluated as potential biocontrol agents against Orobanche cumana, a broomrape species that specifically attacks sunflower. When inoculated simultaneously with O. cumana seeds, AM fungi could offer a moderate level of protection against the broomrape. Interestingly, this protection did not only rely on a reduced production of parasitic seed germination stimulants, as was proposed in previous studies. Rather, mycorrhizal root exudates had a negative impact on the germination of O. cumana induced by germination stimulants. A similar effect could be obtained with AM spore exudates, establishing the fungal origin of at least part of the active compounds. Together, our results demonstrate that AM fungi themselves can lead to a reduced rate of parasitic seed germination, in addition to possible effects mediated by the mycorrhizal plant. Combined with the other benefits of AM symbiosis, these effects make AM fungi an attractive option for biological control of O. cumana. PMID:23145139

  18. Membrane-Mediated Decrease in Root Exudation Responsible for Phorphorus Inhibition of Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, James H.; Leonard, Robert T.; Menge, John A.

    1981-01-01

    The mechanism responsible for phosphorus inhibition of vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhiza formation in sudangrass (Sorghum vulgare Pers.) was investigated in a phosphorus-deficient sandy soil (0.5 micrograms phosphorus per gram soil) amended with increasing levels of phosphorus as superphosphate (0, 28, 56, 228 micrograms per gram soil). The root phosphorus content of 4-week-old plants was correlated with the amount of phosphorus added to the soil. Root exudation of amino acids and reducing sugars was greater for plants grown in phosphorus-deficient soil than for those grown in the phosphorus-treated soils. The increase in exudation corresponded with changes in membrane permeability of phosphorus-deficient roots, as measured by K+ (86Rb) efflux, rather than with changes in root content of reducing sugars and amino acids. The roots of phosphorus-deficient plants inoculated at 4 weeks with Glomus fasciculatus were 88% infected after 9 weeks as compared to less than 25% infection in phosphorus-sufficient roots; these differences were correlated with root exudation at the time of inoculation. For plants grown in phosphorus-deficient soil, infection by vesicular-arbuscular mycorrhizae increased root phosphorus which resulted in a decrease in root membrane permeability and exudation compared to nonmycorrhizal plants. It is proposed that, under low phosphorus nutrition, increased root membrane permeability leads to net loss of metabolites at sufficient levels to sustain the germination and growth of the mycorrhizal fungus during pre- and postinfection. Subsequently, mycorrhizal infection leads to improvement of root phosphorus nutrition and a reduction in membrane-mediated loss of root metabolites. PMID:16661955

  19. Overexpression of a Foreign Bt Gene in Cotton Affects the Low-Molecular-Weight Components in Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Wei-Dong; SHI Wei-Ming; LI Bao-Hai; ZHANG Min

    2007-01-01

    Most research in the past using genetically modified crops (GM crops) has focused on the ecological safety of foreign gene (i.e., the gene flow), gene products (for example, Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) protein), and the safety of transgenic food for humans. In this study, changes in both the species and amounts of low-molecular-weight components in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) root exudates after foreign Bt gene overexpression were investigated under different nutritional conditions. Transgenic cotton containing Bt (Bt-cotton), supplemented with all the mineral nutrients, secreted more organic acids than the wild-type cotton (WT). When nitrogen was removed from the full-nutrient solution, the amount of organic acids secretion of Bt-cotton was lesser than that of WT. The roots of the transgenic cotton secreted lesser amounts of amino acids and soluble sugars than the WT roots in the full-nutrient solution. Deficiencies of P and K caused a large increase in the total amino acid and soluble sugar secretions of both Bt-cotton and WT, with larger increases observed in Bt-cotton. Because transferring the foreign Bt gene into cotton can result in alterations in the components of the root exudates, with the effect varying depending on the nutritional status, the cultivation of genetically modified crops, such as Bt-cotton, in soil environments should be more carefully assessed, and the possible effects as a result of the alterations in the root exudate components should be considered.

  20. Degradation of proteins by enzymes exuded by Allium porrum roots - a potentially important strategy for acquiring organic nitrogen by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamczyk, Bartosz; Godlewski, Mirosław; Smolander, Aino; Kitunen, Veikko

    2009-10-01

    Nitrogen is one of the crucial elements that regulate plant growth and development. It is well-established that plants can acquire nitrogen from soil in the form of low-molecular-mass compounds, namely nitrate and ammonium, but also as amino acids. Nevertheless, nitrogen in the soil occurs mainly as proteins or proteins complexed with other organic compounds. Proteins are believed not to be available to plants. However, there is increasing evidence to suggest that plants can actively participate in proteolysis by exudation of proteases by roots and can obtain nitrogen from digested proteins. To gain insight into the process of organic nitrogen acquisition from proteins by leek roots (Allium porrum L. cv. Bartek), casein, bovine serum albumin and oxidized B-chain of insulin were used; their degradation products, after exposure to plant culture medium, were studied using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). Casein was degraded to a great extent, but the level of degradation of bovine serum albumin and the B-chain of insulin was lower. Proteases exuded by roots cleaved proteins, releasing low-molecular-mass peptides that can be taken up by roots. Various peptide fragments produced by digestion of the oxidized B-chain of insulin suggested that endopeptidase, but also exopeptidase activity was present. After identification, proteases were similar to cysteine protease from Arabidopsis thaliana. In conclusion, proteases exuded by roots may have great potential in the plant nitrogen nutrition.

  1. [Balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burova, O V; Bogomil'sky, M R; Polunin, M M; Soldatsky, Yu L

    2016-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effectiveness and the safety of balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media. A total of 15 children (22 ears) at the age from 3 to 16 years suffering from relapsing exudative otitis media over 18 months in duration were available for the examination. Neither conservative nor surgical treatment produced any stable beneficial effect in these patients. Acoustic impedancometry yielded type B tympanograms. All the children were treated with the use of balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube under endotracheal anesthesia. The follow-up examination carried out within 6--8 weeks after the treatment revealed the complete recovery of the function of the middle ear (type A tympanograms) in 11 (73.3%) children. Partial restoration of this function (as evidenced by type C tympanogram) was documented in 4 children. These patients underwent the second course of conservative therapy that resulted in the complete restoration of the function of the middle ear. It is concluded that balloon dilatation of the cartilaginous portion of the Eustachian tube in the children presenting with relapsing exudative otitis media provides the efficient and safe approach to the management of this condition. Being a minimally invasive method, it has good prospects for the practical application and is worth further investigation.

  2. The role of physical rehabilitation in the treatment of exudative pleurisy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Momir

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION Exudates are due to a variety of diseases, the major and most common ones being tuberculosis, nonspecific inflammation and malignancy. They are usually treated conservatively, sometimes combined with surgery and physical treatment. Physical the-rapy includes positional exercises, breathing exercises and biostimulation. Aim of the study The study was aimed to find out the following: 1 Is lung function improved by physical therapy; 2 Can adhesions be diminished and mobility of the affected hemidiaphragm improved by physical treatment; 3 Is there a direct positive correlation between physical treatment and obtained improvement, or the same can be achieved in patients receiving medicamentous treatment only; 4 What are the effects of some factors we cannot influence (sex, age, effusion level, position of adhesions on lung function and diaphragm mobility improvement, that is on the efficiency of physical treatment; 5 How do the factors we can influence (the time interval before initiating the treatment and its duration affect improvement of the same lung function parameters, that is treatment efficacy? Material and methods Physical treatment of patients with exudative pleurisy was accomplished at the Department of Rehabilitation in our Institute and it consisted of directed breathing exercises and laser biostimulation. Its effects were examined in a group of 175 patients, who received both conservative and physical treatment, and results were compared with the control group patients, treated only conservatively (with antibiotics, antituberculotics, corticosteroids. RESULTS Comparative analysis confirmed a significant improvement of lung function parameters (VC, FEV1, PEF as well as of hemidiaphragm mobility on the affected side of the thorax in favour of the examined group. The severity of the lung function and diaphragm mobility impairments have been found to be in correlation with the localization of adhesions, whereas the degree of

  3. [Allelopathic effects of phenolic compounds of melon root exudates on Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Rui-Xiu; Gao, Zeng-Gui; Yao, Yuan; Liu, Xian; Sun, Shu-Qing; Wang, Ying

    2014-08-01

    In this study, the phenolic compounds of melon root exudates were identified by HPLC and seven phenolic compounds including gallic acid, phthalic acid, syringic acid, salicylic acid, ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid were observed. The laboratory experiment showed that ferulic acid, benzoic acid and cinnamic acid of 0.1 and 0.25 mmol x L(-1) could significantly promote the germination of Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. melonis spore while salicylic acid inhibited the spore germination to some degree. Syringic acid and ferulic acid significantly promoted the mycelium growth at the late stage of incubation. The pot experiments demonstrated that cinnamic acid, benzoic acid and ferulic acid enhanced melon infection at concentrations of 0.5, 0.1 and 0.5 mmol x L(-1).

  4. Effect of 1-naphthaleneacetic acid on organic acid exudation by the roots of white lupin plants grown under phosphorus-deficient conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez, Diego A; Carpena, Ramón O

    2014-09-15

    The effect of NAA (1-naphthaleneacetic acid) on organic acid exudation in white lupin plants grown under phosphorus deficiency was investigated. Plants were sampled periodically for collecting of organic acids (citrate, malate, succinate), and also were used to study the effect on proton extrusion and release of Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+) and Mg(2+). The tissues were later processed to quantify the organic acids in tissues, the phosphorus content and the effects on plant biomass. The exogenous addition of NAA led to an increase in organic acid exudation, but this response was not proportional to the concentration of the dose applied, noticing the largest increments with NAA 10(-8)M. In contrast the increase in root weight was proportional to the dose applied, which shows that with higher doses the roots produced are not of proteoid type. Proton extrusion and the release of cations were related to the NAA dose, the first was proportional to the dose applied and the second inversely proportional. Regarding the analysis of tissues, the results of citrate and phosphorus content in shoots show that the overall status of these parts are the main responsible of the organic acids exuded. NAA served as an enhancer of the organic acid exudation that occurs under phosphorus deficient conditions, with a response that depends on the dose applied, not only in its magnitude, but also in the mechanism of action of the plant hormone.

  5. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality. PMID:26304672

  6. Clinical performance of a new silver dressing, Contreet Foam, for chronic exuding venous leg ulcers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karlsmark, T; Agerslev, R H; Bendz, S H;

    2003-01-01

    : The clinical performance of Contreet Foam was studied for four weeks in 25 patients with moderately to highly exuding delayed-healing venous leg ulcers. Healing was assessed on a weekly basis with reference to the wound-bed tissue composition, degree of odour and pain, dressing performance and the dressing......'s effect on the peri-ulcer area. Blood samples were analysed for silver content. RESULTS: Twenty-three out of 25 patients completed the study. One ulcer healed and no wound infections occurred during the study period. A mean 56% reduction in ulcer area (from 15.6 to 6.9 cm2) was recorded during the four...... weeks, and there was a mean 25% reduction in granulation tissue from dull to healthy after one week. Wound odour reduced significantly after one week. Mean dressing wear time was 3.1 days, and there were only minimal incidences of leakage. Serum silver levels did not exceed reference values. CONCLUSION...

  7. A highly pathogenic strain of Staphylococcus sciuri caused fatal exudative epidermitis in piglets.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixi Chen

    Full Text Available Staphylococcus sciuri are important human pathogens responsible for endocarditis, peritonitis, septic shock, urinary tract infection, pelvic inflammatory disease and wound infections. However, little information is known regarding the pathogenicity of S. sciuri to animals. From the pericardial fluid of a diseased piglet with exudative epidermitis (EE, we isolated a strain of Staphylococcus in pure culture. Surprisingly, this isolate was a member of S. sciuri rather than S. hyicus as identified by its biochemical traits and also by analysis of 23S ribosomal DNA using Internal Transcribed Spacer PCR. In addition, inoculation of newborn piglets with 1x10(10 CFU of the isolate by oral feeding or intra-muscular injection successfully reproduced EE in piglets, which suggested that the oral intake of the pathogen by the animals is one of the major routes of exposure. These unexpected findings prioritized S. sciuri as important zoonotic agents, which may have ramifications for human medicine.

  8. Ubiquitous water-soluble molecules in aquatic plant exudates determine specific insect attraction.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julien Sérandour

    Full Text Available Plants produce semio-chemicals that directly influence insect attraction and/or repulsion. Generally, this attraction is closely associated with herbivory and has been studied mainly under atmospheric conditions. On the other hand, the relationship between aquatic plants and insects has been little studied. To determine whether the roots of aquatic macrophytes release attractive chemical mixtures into the water, we studied the behaviour of mosquito larvae using olfactory experiments with root exudates. After testing the attraction on Culex and Aedes mosquito larvae, we chose to work with Coquillettidia species, which have a complex behaviour in nature and need to be attached to plant roots in order to obtain oxygen. This relationship is non-destructive and can be described as commensal behaviour. Commonly found compounds seemed to be involved in insect attraction since root exudates from different plants were all attractive. Moreover, chemical analysis allowed us to identify a certain number of commonly found, highly water-soluble, low-molecular-weight compounds, several of which (glycerol, uracil, thymine, uridine, thymidine were able to induce attraction when tested individually but at concentrations substantially higher than those found in nature. However, our principal findings demonstrated that these compounds appeared to act synergistically, since a mixture of these five compounds attracted larvae at natural concentrations (0.7 nM glycerol, <0.5 nM uracil, 0.6 nM thymine, 2.8 nM uridine, 86 nM thymidine, much lower than those found for each compound tested individually. These results provide strong evidence that a mixture of polyols (glycerol, pyrimidines (uracil, thymine, and nucleosides (uridine, thymidine functions as an efficient attractive signal in nature for Coquillettidia larvae. We therefore show for the first time, that such commonly found compounds may play an important role in plant-insect relationships in aquatic eco-systems.

  9. Functional properties of PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative broiler meat in the production of mortadella

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassiana Kissel

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available This work was carried out in order to evaluate whether the functional properties of broiler meat are affected by the factors that lead to PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative. PSE meat was characterized by pH and L* values, and mortadella formulations consisted of isolated soy protein, sodium tripolyphosphate, and cassava starch in addition to PSE and normal meats. The functionality of the meat was evaluated by examining the water holding capacity (WHC, texture profile, emulsion stability (ES and color of the final products. The results show that in mortadella prepared with PSE meat, the protein denaturation affected the ES. Additives are necessary to enhance the functional properties of PSE meat.Este trabalho foi realizado para avaliar o efeito dos fatores que conduzem à formação das carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative sobre as propriedades funcionais da carne de frango. Carnes PSE foram caracterizadas pelos valores de pH e L* e as formulações da mortadela consistiram de proteina isolada de soja, trifosfato de sódio, amido de mandioca e a adição das carnes normal e PSE. A funcionalidade da carne foi avaliada medindo a capacidade de retenção de água (CRA, perfil de textura, estabilidade de emulsão (EE, e cor dos produtos finais. Os resultados mostraram que na mortadela preparada com carnes PSE, as proteinas desnaturadas afetaram a EE. Aditivos são necessários para potencializar as propriedades funcionais da carne PSE.

  10. Clinical research on the treatment of central exudative chorioretinopathy with blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese medicines%活血化瘀方治疗中心性渗出性脉络膜视网膜病变的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛建杰; 高夕宁; 李彩萍; 田霞

    2010-01-01

    目的 观察中药活血化瘀方对中心性渗出性脉络膜视网膜病变(central exudative chorioretinopathy,CEC)的临床疗效.方法 将中心性渗出性脉络膜视网膜炎患者339例346眼,完全随机分为治疗组176例181眼和对照组163例165眼,治疗组采用中药辩证与辩病相结合的方法治疗,对照组采用常规疗法治疗.结果 治疗组矫正视力0.01~1.2,176例181眼中治愈76眼(41.99%)、好转85眼(46.96%)、无效20眼(11.05%),总有效率为88.95%.对照组163例165眼中治愈62眼(37.57%)、好转67眼(40.60%)、无效36眼(21.82%),总有效率为78.18%,两组总有效率比较差异有统计学意义(U=2.05693,P<0.05),治疗组治疗后3月进行FFA、OCT复查,治疗组中76眼荧光素渗漏消失、OCT示脉络膜新生血管(choroid al neovascularisation,CNV)病灶萎缩消失;85眼荧光素渗漏减轻、OCT示CNV病灶变小;12眼荧光素仍渗漏,8眼有瘢痕形成.结论 中药活血化瘀方可有效的促进眼底出血、渗出及视网膜水肿的消退,提高视力.%Objective To observe the effects of central exudative chorioretinopathy(central exudative chorioretinopathy,CEC)treated with blood-activating and stasis-removing Chinese medicines.Methods All 339 cases of central exudative chorioretinopathy with 346 infected eyes were randomly recruited into a treatment group(176 cases with 181 infected eyes)and a control group(163 cases with 165 infected eyes).The treatment group was treated with traditional Chinese medicine by dialectical combination of syndrome and disease,while the control group was treated with conventional treatment.Results The corrected visual acuity was 0.01~1.2 in the treatment group.Of all 181 eyes in 176 patients,76 eyes were cured(41.98%),85 eyes were improved(46.96%),and 20 eyes were ineffective(11.6%),with a total effective rate being 88.94%.BY contrast,in the control group,of all 165 eyes in 163 patients,62 eyes were cured(37.57%),67 eyes were improved(40.60%),and 36

  11. Tachyphylaxis during ranibizumab treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sibel; Doguizi; Sengul; Ozdek; Selcen; Yuksel

    2015-01-01

    <正>Dear Editor,We are intestigators from Turkey primarily studying exudative age-related macular degeneration(AMD).Here we present the results of our retrospective clinical study on tachyphylaxis development during the treatment of exudative AMD with ranibizumab,which,we believe,will form a basis for further prospective studies to predict the drug response in anti-vascular endothelial growth factor

  12. Single Root Model for the Impact of Root Exudates on the Fate of Phosphorus in the Rhizosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klepsch, S.; Leitner, D.; Schnepf, A.

    2012-04-01

    Mathematical models are invaluable for the design of rhizotechnologies that help to improve nutrient and water efficiency. In our work, we present a mechanistic one dimensional model accounting for the complex plant-induced chemical processes in soil on single root scale. The equations are based on conservation of mass and the law of mass action and consider interactions between phosphorus, exudates, diverse complexes, including equilibrium and kinetic sorption, transformation, degradation, and decay processes, as well as dispersion in soil. For the numerical solutions, the software packages COMSOL Multiphysics 3.5A and Matlab 7 are used. Sensitivity analysis of the highly parameterised model, accomplished by coupling to the software PEST, provides information on the factors that mostly contribute to the model output variability. On the other hand, it helps to reduce the complexity of the underlying model. We show simulation studies regarding ad- and desorption of phosphorus and citrate that compete for sorption sites, modeled by a Langmuir-type isotherm. We additionally compare phosphorus root uptake for concentration- and time-dependent exudation patterns versus constant exudation. This model will build the basis for three dimensional root-scale simulations of phosphorus uptake (Leitner et al. 2010). Comparison of the parameter sensitivities on both scales should enable to figure out processes that are leveled out or even have more impact on phosphorus efficiency on the higher root system scale. Leitner D, Klepsch S, Bodner G, Schnepf A (2010a) A dynamic root system growth model based on L-systems. Plant and Soil 332:177-192.

  13. Gastrointestinal and hepatic manifestations of sarcoidosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebert, Ellen C; Kierson, Malca; Hagspiel, Klaus D

    2008-12-01

    Sarcoidosis is a multisystem disease characterized by noncaseating granulomas in the affected organs, including skin, heart, nervous system, and joints. Diagnosis of sarcoidosis is generally based upon a compatible history, demonstration of granulomas in at least two different organs, negative staining and culture for acid fast bacilli, absence of occupational or domestic exposure to toxins, and lack of drug-induced disease. Involvement of the hollow organs is rare. Rather than being due to sarcoidosis, some reported mucosal lesions may simply have incidental granulomas. Extrinsic compression from lymphadenopathy can occur throughout the gastrointestinal tract. The stomach, particularly the antrum, is the most common extrahepatic organ to be involved, while the small bowel is the least common. Liver involvement frequently occurs and ranges from asymptomatic incidental granulomas to portal hypertension from granulomas in the portal triad, usually with relatively preserved liver function. CT scans show hepatosplenomegaly and adenopathy, followed in frequency by focal low-attenuation lesions of the liver and spleen. Ascites is usually a transudate from right heart failure (because of pulmonary hypertension) or portal hypertension (because of biliary cirrhosis). Rarely, an exudative ascites may occur from studding of the peritoneum with nodules. Pancreatic involvement presents as a mass, usually in the head or a diffusely firm, nodular organ. Corticosteroids should be instituted when organ function is threatened, usually lungs, eyes, and central nervous system. Their role in the treatment of hepatic sarcoidosis is unclear. The overall prognosis is good although most patients will have some permanent organ impairment. Cardiac and pulmonary diseases are the main causes of death. PMID:18853979

  14. Root Exudates of Various Host Plants of Rhizobium leguminosarum Contain Different Sets of Inducers of Rhizobium Nodulation Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaat, S A; Wijffelman, C A; Mulders, I H; van Brussel, A A; Lugtenberg, B J

    1988-04-01

    Rhizobium promoters involved in the formation of root nodules on leguminous plants are activated by flavonoids in plant root exudate. A series of Rhizobium strains which all contain the inducible Rhizobium leguminosarum nodA promoter fused to the Escherichia coli lacZ gene, and which differ only in the source of the regulatory nodD gene, were recently used to show that the regulatory nodD gene determines which flavonoids are able to activate the nodA promoter (HP Spaink, CA Wijffelman, E Pees, RJH Okker, BJJ Lugtenberg 1987 Nature 328: 337-340). Since these strains therefore are able to discriminate between various flavonoids, they were used to determine whether or not plants that are nodulated by R. leguminosarum produce different inducers. After chromatographic separation of root exudate constituents from Vicia sativa L. subsp. nigra (L.), V. hirsuta (L.) S.F. Gray, Pisum sativum L. cv Rondo, and Trifolium subterraneum L., the fractions were tested with a set of strains containing a nodD gene of R. leguminosarum, R. trifolii, or Rhizobium meliloti, respectively. It appeared that the source of nodD determined whether, and to what extent, the R. leguminosarum nodA promoter was induced. Lack of induction could not be attributed to the presence of inhibitors. Most of the inducers were able to activate the nodA promoter in the presence of one particular nodD gene only. The inducers that were active in the presence of the R. leguminosarum nodD gene were different in each root exudate.

  15. Foliar exudates of Blakiella bartsiifolia (S.F. Blake Cuatrec. (Asteraceae, Astereae. A Preliminary study of the Chemical Composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Pia Calcagno-Pissarelli

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available This is the first phytochemical study of Blakiella bartsiifolia, an endemic species of Mérida. From the foliar exudates two flavonoids ((5,4´-dihydroxy-3,6,7,3´-tetramethoxyflavone; 5,7,4´-trihydroxy-3,8,3´-trimethoxy-flavone and a labdane diterpene (labda-7,14-dien-13(S-ol were identified by high field NMR spectroscopy. Plants naturally exposed to direct sunlight possessed a significantly higher specific absorbance coefficient in the UV region than plants growing in shaded areas.

  16. UV-B辐射对元阳梯田水稻根系LMWOAs分泌量和根际微生物数量的影响%Effects of UV-B radiation on rice roots-exudated LMWOAs and rhizospheric microorganism quantities in a paddy field of Yuanyang Terraces, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何永美; 湛方栋; 吴炯; 高召华; 李元

    2016-01-01

    在元阳梯田地方水稻品种———白脚老粳的拔节孕穗期、抽穗扬花期和成熟期,通过小区实验研究不同UV-B辐射强度(0、5.0、10.0 kJ·m-2)对水稻根系低分子量有机酸(LMWOAs)分泌量和根际7个类群微生物数量的影响,并对水稻LMWOAs分泌量和根际微生物数量进行相关分析。结果表明:UV-B辐射增强导致水稻根系草酸和琥珀酸分泌量增加,酒石酸和苹果酸分泌量下降。水稻根际细菌、真菌、自生固氮菌、纤维分解菌、无机磷细菌和钾细菌的数量均在成熟期最大,拔节孕穗期次之,抽穗扬花期最小;但放线菌数量在拔节孕穗期最大,抽穗扬花期次之,成熟期最小。UV-B辐射增强不改变根际微生物数量随生育期进程的动态变化规律,但导致水稻根际7个类群微生物的数量显著或极显著增加。水稻根系草酸分泌量与根际自生固氮菌、纤维分解菌数量呈显著正相关,琥珀酸分泌量与自生固氮菌数量呈显著正相关,与细菌、真菌、纤维分解菌、无机磷细菌和钾细菌数量呈极显著正相关。综上可知UV-B辐射增强影响大田水稻根际微生物的数量,与其改变水稻根系低分子量有机酸的分泌量密切相关。%A local rice variety,“Baijiaolaojing”, was grown in a paddy field in the Yuanyang Terrace under ambient and elevated(5.0 and 10.0 kJ·m-2)ultraviolet-B(UV-B, 280~315 nm)radiation. The rice plant and rhizospheric soil were sampled at jointing-booting, heading-flowering and maturity stages of rice. The exudation of low-molecular-weight organic acids(LMWOAs)including oxalic acid, succinic acid, tartaric acid, and malic acid by rice roots and the quantity of 7 microbial groups in rice rhizosphere were determined. Results showed that elevated UV-B radiation increased the concentrations of oxalic acid and succinic acid, but decreased tartaric acid and malic acid. Rhizo-spheric bacteria

  17. Identification of phenolic acids in tobacco root exudates and their role in the growth of rhizosphere microorganisms%烟草根系分泌物酚酸类物质的鉴定及其对根际微生物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘艳霞; 李想; 蔡刘体; 张恒; 石俊雄

    2016-01-01

    [Objectives] Tobacco continuous mono-cropping has caused very serious problems, including soil-borne disease outbreak, tobacco growth suppression, yield reduction and quality decline.Allelopathy comes from tobacco and soil microorganisms may be one of the most important reasons leading to mono-cropping obstacle. Tobacco root exudates ( TRE) play a key role in the plant-microorganism interactions in the rhizosphere.It is of great importance to explore effect of tobacco root exudates on rhizosphere microorganisms.[Methods] In this study, the main phenolic acids were screened and identified by the UPLC-Q-TOF/MS method, and their contents in tobacco root exudates were evaluated.Effect of identified phenolic acids from TRE in liqiud medium on pathogen and its antagonist was investigated by applying exogenous phenolic acids.Besides, the soil was added with the identified phenolic acids and cultured for 3 d.After that, the rhizosphere microbial diversities and counts, especially the population of pathogen Ralstonia solanacearum and its antagonist Brevibacillus brevis in the soil were measured.[Results] 1 ) The tobacco root exudates promote the growth of pathogen by 16.8% and suppress the growth of antagonist by 29.4%.2 ) Two phenolic acids are screened and identified by UPLC-Q-TOF/MS with the concentrations of 0.25 μg/g and 1.15 μg/g dry root, respectively.3 ) When the exogenous phenolic acids were added to the culture media, low concentrations of benzoic acid (≤2 μg/L) and 3-phenylpropanoic acid (≤3μg/L) promote the growth of the pathogen and antagonist, and the 4μg/L benzoic acid does not significantly affect R.solanacearum, whereas the population of antagonist is decreased by 90.2%.The 6 μg/L 3-phenylpropanoic acid promotes the growth of the pathogen while inhibits the growth of antagonist by 81.1%.High concentrations of benzoic acid (≥ 4 μg/L ) and 3-phenylpropanoic acid (≥ 7 μg/L ) significantly suppress the pathogen and antagonist.4) When the soil

  18. 不同品种小麦与蚕豆间作对蚕豆枯萎病发生、根系分泌物和根际微生物群落功能多样性的影响%Effects of different wheat cultivars intercropped with faba bean on faba bean Fusarium wilt, root exudates and rhizosphere microbial community functional diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨智仙; 汤利; 郑毅; 董坤; 董艳

    2014-01-01

    Fusarium wilt , root exudates content and rhizosphere microbial community functional diversity .Results show that compared with the faba bean monocropping , the disease index of faba bean Fusarium wilt is significantly decreased by 47.6%in the yunmai 42 intercropped with faba bean system ( YM42//B) and decreased by 33.3%in the yunmai 47 intercropped with faba bean system ( YM47//B) , while the disease index of faba bean Fusarium wilt is not significantly changed in the mianyang 29 intercropped with faba bean system ( MY29//B ) .Compared with the faba bean monocropping , the YM42//B and YM47//B treatments significantly increase the total content of organic acids and significantly reduce the total content of soluble sugars and free amino acids in the root exudates . The total utilization ability of carbon sources is significantly increased and the microbial community structures of faba bean rhizosphere are altered under the YM 42//B and YM47//B treatments, and the YM42//B treatment has more obvious effect than the YM47//B treatment.The MY29//B treatment has no significant effects on substrate utilization, total content of soluble sugars , free amino acids and organic acids in the root exudates and microbial community structures .The rhizosphere microbe of the YM 42//B treatment could use more types of carbon source than the YM47//B treatment , and the carbon source types of sugars , amino acids and carboxylic acids used by rhizosphere microbe of the YM42//B treatment are quite different from the YM47//B treatment.The total content of organic acids in the root exudates is increased under YM 42 and YM47 intercropped with faba bean , thus the rhizosphere microbial activity and diversity are improved , and more carbon sources are utilized by rhizosphere microorganisms .Meanwhile secretion of soluble sugar and free amino acid is inhibited by the YM 42//B and YM47//B treatments.Our result illustrates that the interaction of root exudates and rhizosphere microbes is the main reason

  19. Poplar root exudates contain compounds that induce the expression of MiSSP7 in Laccaria bicolor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plett, Jonathan M; Martin, Francis

    2012-01-01

    Communication between organisms is crucial for their survival, especially for sessile organisms such as plants that depend upon interactions with mutualistic organisms to maximize their nutrient acquisition. This communication can take the form of the exchange of volatile compounds, metabolites or effectors - small protein signals secreted from the colonizing cell that change the biology of the host cell.  We recently characterized the first mutualistic effector protein from an ectomycorrhizal fungus, a small secreted protein named MiSSP7 encoded by Laccaria bicolor.  Ectomycorrhizal fungi are soil-borne mutualistic organisms whose hyphae wrap around host roots and grow into the root apoplastic space where the fungus exchanges nutrients such as nitrogen and phosphorus in return for plant derived sugars.  The MiSSP7 protein is induced by root exudates and is highly expressed throughout the root colonization process.  Its presence was responsible for alterations to the plant transcriptomic profile, a mechanism by which MiSSP7 may aid in the formation of the symbiotic interface. Here we further discuss the implications of these findings and, further, we demonstrate that the production of MiSSP7 is induced by two flavonoids, rutin and quercitrin, a class of compounds normally found within the exudates of plant roots.  We also consider the interesting similarities between the mechanisms of effector induction and action between pathogenic and mutualistic fungi.  

  20. [Secretion of Phenolic Compounds into Root Exudates of Pea Seedlings upon Inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. Pisi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L E; Dudareva, L V; Petrova, I G; Vasil'eva, G G

    2016-01-01

    The content of apigenin, naringenin, pisatin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, and N-phenyl-2-naphthyl-amine were assayed in root exudates of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings one day after their inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum, bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. pisi, which represent, respectively, mutualistic and antagonistic strategies of interaction with a host plant. After inoculation with either bacteria, the concentrations of apigenin and pisatin in the root exudates were equal, whereas the concentrations of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine were different and those of dibutyl-o-phthalate were unchanged. A certain role is suggested for the phenolic compounds in an accomplishment of symbiotic relations of bacteria with a host plant. PMID:27266251

  1. [Secretion of Phenolic Compounds into Root Exudates of Pea Seedlings upon Inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. Pisi].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarova, L E; Dudareva, L V; Petrova, I G; Vasil'eva, G G

    2016-01-01

    The content of apigenin, naringenin, pisatin, dibutyl-ortho-phthalate, and N-phenyl-2-naphthyl-amine were assayed in root exudates of pea (Pisum sativum L.) seedlings one day after their inoculation with Rhizobium leguminosarum, bv. viceae or Pseudomonas siringae pv. pisi, which represent, respectively, mutualistic and antagonistic strategies of interaction with a host plant. After inoculation with either bacteria, the concentrations of apigenin and pisatin in the root exudates were equal, whereas the concentrations of naringenin and N-phenyl-2-naphthylamine were different and those of dibutyl-o-phthalate were unchanged. A certain role is suggested for the phenolic compounds in an accomplishment of symbiotic relations of bacteria with a host plant.

  2. EFFECT OF ROOT EXUDATES OF SENGON PLANT (Paraserianthes falcataria L. Nielsen) INOCULATED WITH FUNGAL ENDOPHYTE, Nigrospora sp. ON CONTROL OF ROOT-KNOT NEMATODE Meloidogyne spp.???

    OpenAIRE

    Nur, Amin

    2012-01-01

    Endophytic fungi are fungi that live within their host plant tissues without causing any symptoms on the host. A host plant and endophytic fungi living on it have a mutulistic relathionship. The host provides substrate and space for the endophytes to grow while the fungal endophytes promote plant growth and protect the plant hosts from pests and diseases. The research was aimed to determine the effect of different concentrations of root exudates of sengon plant (Paraserianthes falcataria) ...

  3. PAEs胁迫对高/低累积品种水稻根系形态及根系分泌低分子有机酸的影响%Effects of PAE Stress on Root Morphology andLow Molecular Weight Organic Acid (LMWOC) in Root Exudates of Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Cultivars with High- and Low-PAE Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桐; 蔡全英; 吴启堂; 吕辉雄; 曾巧云; 李慧

    2015-01-01

    systems contaminated with PAEs (0, 20, 40, and 80 mg·L-1). Plant samples were collected at tillering and jointing stage, root morphological properties were analyzed by root scanner, low molecular weight organic acids in root exudates were determined by HPLC, and di(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP) and di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) in roots, stems, and leaves of rice were analyzed using gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The responses of root morphological characteristics (including total root length, root surface area, and root volume) and low molecular weight organic acid (LMWOC) in root exudates were analyzed to investigate the variation factors of high- and low-PAE accumulation of rice cultivars. The results show that, with the increase of PAE concentrations in solution, total root length, root surface area, and root volume of two cultivars increased firstly and then decreased. In the same PAE concentration, root morphological parameters of cultivar Peizataifeng were generally higher than cultivar Fengyousimiao. Change of PAE concentrations in solution was a key factor affecting early growth differences in root morphology of the two rice cultivars. PAE concentrations in the plants of two cultivars increased with PAE concentrations in solution, and those of cultivar Peizataifeng were also higher than cultivar Fengyousimiao. The concentrations of DEHP and DBP in different tissues decrease in the order of roots>leaves≥stems. At tillering stage, PAE concentrations in the plants of two cultivars were significantly correlated with PAE concentrations in solution, but poorly correlated at jointing stage. LMWOC concentrations in root exudates of two cultivars displayed different change trends with PAE concentrations in solution, but concentrations of oxalic acid increased (ranging from 1.11 to 8.13 mg·L-1). Moreover, concentrations of oxalic acid were significantly positively correlated with the concentrations of DBP and DEHP in roots. These results

  4. Differential Inactivation of Seed Exudate Stimulation of Pythium ultimum Sporangium Germination by Enterobacter cloacae Influences Biological Control Efficacy on Different Plant Species

    OpenAIRE

    Kageyama, Koji; Nelson, Eric B.

    2003-01-01

    This study was initiated to understand whether differential biological control efficacy of Enterobacter cloacae on various plant species is due to differences in the ability of E. cloacae to inactivate the stimulatory activity of seed exudates to Pythium ultimum sporangium germination. In biological control assays, E. cloacae was effective in controlling Pythium damping-off when placed on the seeds of carrot, cotton, cucumber, lettuce, radish, tomato, and wheat but failed to protect corn and ...

  5. Improving transport container design to reduce broiler chicken PSE (pale, soft, exudative) meat in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spurio, Rafael S; Soares, Adriana L; Carvalho, Rafael H; Silveira Junior, Vivaldo; Grespan, Moisés; Oba, Alexandre; Shimokomaki, Massami

    2016-02-01

    Throughout the chicken production chain, transport from farm to the commercial abattoir is one of the most critical sources of stress, particularly heat stress. The aim of this work was to describe the performance of a new prototype truck container designed to improve the microenvironment and reduce the incidence of pale, soft and exudative (PSE) meat and dead on arrival (DOA) occurrences. Experiments were carried out for four different conditions: regular and prototype truck, both with and without wetting loaded cages at the farm (for bird thermal stress relief) just before transporting. While there was no difference in the DOA index (P ≥ 0.05), the prototype truck caused a reduction (P < 0.05) in the occurrence of PSE meat by 66.3% and 49.6% with and without wetting, respectively. The results of this experiment clearly revealed a low-cost solution for transporting chickens that yields better animal welfare conditions and improves meat quality.

  6. Automated Fovea Detection in Spectral Domain Optical Coherence Tomography Scans of Exudative Macular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Montuoro, Alessio; Gerendas, Bianca S.; Langs, Georg

    2016-01-01

    In macular spectral domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT) volumes, detection of the foveal center is required for accurate and reproducible follow-up studies, structure function correlation, and measurement grid positioning. However, disease can cause severe obscuring or deformation of the fovea, thus presenting a major challenge in automated detection. We propose a fully automated fovea detection algorithm to extract the fovea position in SD-OCT volumes of eyes with exudative maculopathy. The fovea is classified into 3 main appearances to both specify the detection algorithm used and reduce computational complexity. Based on foveal type classification, the fovea position is computed based on retinal nerve fiber layer thickness. Mean absolute distance between system and clinical expert annotated fovea positions from a dataset comprised of 240 SD-OCT volumes was 162.3 µm in cystoid macular edema and 262 µm in nAMD. The presented method has cross-vendor functionality, while demonstrating accurate and reliable performance close to typical expert interobserver agreement. The automatically detected fovea positions may be used as landmarks for intra- and cross-patient registration and to create a joint reference frame for extraction of spatiotemporal features in “big data.” Furthermore, reliable analyses of retinal thickness, as well as retinal structure function correlation, may be facilitated.

  7. Prosopis alba exudate gum as excipient for improving fish oil stability in alginate-chitosan beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasile, Franco Emanuel; Romero, Ana María; Judis, María Alicia; Mazzobre, María Florencia

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to employ an exudate gum obtained from a South American wild tree (Prosopis alba), as wall material component to enhance the oxidative stability of fish oil encapsulated in alginate-chitosan beads. For this purpose, beads were vacuum-dried and stored under controlled conditions. Oxidation products, fatty acid profiles and lipid health indices were measured during storage. Alginate-chitosan interactions and the effect of gum were manifested in the FT-IR spectra. The inclusion of the gum in the gelation media allowed decreasing the oxidative damage during storage in comparison to the free oil and alginate-chitosan beads. The gum also improved wall material properties, providing higher oil retention during the drying step and subsequent storage. Fatty acids quality and lipid health indices were widely preserved in beads containing the gum. Present results showed a positive influence of the gum on oil encapsulation and stability, being the main mechanism attributed to a physical barrier effect.

  8. Zinc-resistance gene CzrC identified in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus isolated from pigs with exudative epidermitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slifierz, Mackenzie J; Park, Jeonghwa; Friendship, Robert M; Weese, J Scott

    2014-05-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus hyicus (MRSH) was investigated for czrC, a gene conferring zinc-resistance. The czrC gene was identified in 50% (14/28) of MRSH isolates, representing 14 pigs with exudative epidermitis from 8 farms. Newly weaned pigs, which are particularly susceptible to exudative epidermitis, are commonly fed high levels of zinc oxide. PMID:24790238

  9. An assessment of the soil-conditioning capacity of gums exuded by some trees in sierra leone: I. hydraulic conductivity measurements

    OpenAIRE

    P.O. Egbenda; T.B.R. Yormah

    1995-01-01

    Gums exuded by two trees viz., Anacardium occidentale and Parkia bicolor growing widely in Sierra Leone have each been applied in various concentrations to two local soils with poor structure. Changes in the value of the saturated hydraulic conductivity (K) of each soil sample, brought about by the application of the gums, have been used as the index for determining soil conditioning effect; the K of a carefully selected loamy soil (untreated with conditioner) is used as reference. Poly(vinyl...

  10. Preparation of Biotubes with vascular cells component by in vivo incubation using adipose-derived stromal cell-exuding multi-microporous molds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwai, Ryosuke; Tsujinaka, Takahiro; Nakayama, Yasuhide

    2015-12-01

    Biotubes, prepared using in-body tissue architecture (IBTA) technology, have adequate mechanical properties and excellent biocompatibility for vascular grafts. However, they have thin walls, lack vascular constructing cells, and are composed of subcutaneous connective tissues consisting mainly of collagen and fibroblasts. This study aimed to prepare Biotubes with a vascular-like structure including an endothelial cell lining and a smooth muscle cell by IBTA using adipose-derived vascular stromal cell (ADSCs)-exuding specially designed multiporous tubes (outer diameter 5 mm, length 24 mm, pore size 500 μm, pore number 180, cell number/tube >3.0 × 10(6)). ADSCs were separated from rat subcutaneous fat, suspended in a Matrigel™ solution at 4 °C, and then filled into the tubes. After the tubes were embedded into dorsal subcutaneous pouches of the same rats for 2 weeks, robust Biotubes with a wall thickness of >600 μm were formed surrounding the tubes. The luminal layer of the obtained Biotubes was dominated by the cells positive for an endothelial marker. Almost the entire intima, with a thickness of about 400 μm, was occupied with cells positive for a smooth muscle marker. Both cells were derived from ADSCs. Biotube walls were constructed by fusing ADSC-derived vascular constructing cells exuded from the tubes and fibroblasts and collagen from the surrounding connective tissue. A robust Biotubes with vascular cells component, were formed after only 2 weeks of subcutaneous incubation of ADSCs-exuding multiporous tubes.

  11. Benzoxazinoids in root exudates of maize attract Pseudomonas putida to the rhizosphere.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew L Neal

    Full Text Available Benzoxazinoids, such as 2,4-dihydroxy-7-methoxy-2H-1,4-benzoxazin-3(4H-one (DIMBOA, are secondary metabolites in grasses. In addition to their function in plant defence against pests and diseases above-ground, benzoxazinoids (BXs have also been implicated in defence below-ground, where they can exert allelochemical or antimicrobial activities. We have studied the impact of BXs on the interaction between maize and Pseudomonas putida KT2440, a competitive coloniser of the maize rhizosphere with plant-beneficial traits. Chromatographic analyses revealed that DIMBOA is the main BX compound in root exudates of maize. In vitro analysis of DIMBOA stability indicated that KT2440 tolerance of DIMBOA is based on metabolism-dependent breakdown of this BX compound. Transcriptome analysis of DIMBOA-exposed P. putida identified increased transcription of genes controlling benzoate catabolism and chemotaxis. Chemotaxis assays confirmed motility of P. putida towards DIMBOA. Moreover, colonisation essays in soil with Green Fluorescent Protein (GFP-expressing P. putida showed that DIMBOA-producing roots of wild-type maize attract significantly higher numbers of P. putida cells than roots of the DIMBOA-deficient bx1 mutant. Our results demonstrate a central role for DIMBOA as a below-ground semiochemical for recruitment of plant-beneficial rhizobacteria during the relatively young and vulnerable growth stages of maize.

  12. 烟草根系分泌物的GC-MS检测%Determination of tobacco root exudates by GC-MS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于会泳; 申国明; 高欣欣

    2013-01-01

    采用水培试验研究对连作障碍有重大影响的烟草根系分泌物中的化感物质,利用GC-MS检测出了K326和NC89两个烤烟品种移栽后40天根系分泌物中的酸溶性、碱溶性和中溶性组分种类,结果表明,两个烤烟品种共有的根系分泌物中可能是化感物质的种类包括有机酸类、酰胺类、酯类以及甘油和烟碱。%Hydroponic experiments were conducted to study allelochemicals released by tobacco root exudation. Acidic, neutral and alkaline soluble root exudates were extracted, separated and identified 40 days after K326 and NC89 plants were transplanted. Results showed that allelochemicals from root exudates of both cultivars were organic acids, lactam, esters, glycerol and nicotine.

  13. Effect of acupuncture on TNF-alpha, IL-1b and IL-10 concentrations in the peritoneal exudates of carrageenan-induced peritonitis in rats Efeito da acupuntura sobre a concentração de TNF-alfa, IL-1b e IL-10 no exsudato peritoneal de ratos com peritonite induzida por carragenina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Valéria Rizzo Scognamillo-Szabó

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Acupuncture is an ancient and empirical therapeutic procedure known by its efficacy in the treatment of pain. However, the influence of acupuncture on inflammatory process is still poorly understood and additional research is needed. In this work, we investigated the mechanism of action of manual acupuncture on the inhibition of neutrophil migration to the peritoneal cavity induced by the inflammatory stimulus carrageenan in Wistar rats. Previous results from our laboratory showed that this anti-inflammatory effect is not due to endogenous corticoid release. Furthermore, the concentration of IL-1b, but not of TNF-alpha or IL-10 in the carrageenan-induced exudates was reduced in the acupuncture group. Further research will be needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory action of acupuncture as described here.A acupuntura é método terapêutico milenar reconhecido por sua eficácia no tratamento da dor, porém seu efeito sobre processos inflamatórios é ainda pouco conhecido e maiores estudos são necessários. Neste trabalho, é investigado o mecanismo de ação da acupuntura manual sobre a inibição na migração de neutrófilos para a cavidade peritoneal induzida por carragenina em ratos Wistar. Resultados prévios indicam que esse efeito antiinflamatório não depende de hormônios corticóides. Entretanto, as concentrações de IL-1b no exsudato induzido por carragenina foram reduzidas pelo tratamento com acupuntura. Por outro lado os níveis de TNF-alfa e IL-10 não foram afetados pelo tratamento. Mais pesquisas poderão elucidar os mecanismos envolvidos na ação antiinflamatória da acupuntura.

  14. A stable-isotope mass spectrometry-based metabolic footprinting approach to analyze exudates from phytoplankton

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Weber, Ralf J. M.; Selander, Erik; Sommer, Ulf;

    2013-01-01

    , allowing us to discover algal exudates from the complex seawater background. The stable-isotope pattern (SIP) of the detected metabolites then allowed for more accurate assignment to an empirical formula, a critical first step in their identification. This automated workflow provides an effective way...

  15. The impact of mucilage exudate on root water uptake - Numerical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, N.; Carminati, A.; Javaux, M.

    2015-12-01

    For many years, the rhizosphere, which is the zone of soil in the vicinity of the roots and which is influenced by the roots, is known as a unique soil environment with different physical, biological and chemical properties than those of the bulk soil. Indeed, in recent studies it has been shown that root exudates and especially mucilage alter the hydraulic properties of the soil, and that drying and wetting cycles of mucilage result in non-equilibrium water dynamics in the rhizosphere. While there are experimental evidences and simplified 1D model for those concepts, an integrated model that considers rhizosphere processes with a detailed model for water and roots flow is absent. Therefore, the objective of this work is to develop a 3D physical model of water flow in the soil-plant continuum that take in consideration root architecture and rhizosphere specific properties. We simulate wetting and drying cycles and examine the impact of various rhizosphere processes on water content distribution and root water uptake (RWU). For wetting, the model predict that after infiltration the rate of change in the rhizosphere water content is lower than in the bulk soil (due to non-equilibrium), but over time water infiltrated into the rhizosphere and eventually the water content in the rhizosphere became higher than in the bulk soil. For drying, the high water holding capacity of the rhizosphere, and the non-equilibrium between water content and water potential delay the onset of stress. Furthermore, when continues drying-wetting setup is examined, rhizosphere properties results in a lower fluctuation of the water content around the root. Overall, the model presented here is the first attempt to include rhizosphere specific processes within a detailed soil-plant water flow model. The model provides a tool to examine the impact of different rhizosphere processes on water dynamics and RWU under different irrigation practices.

  16. Results of Intravitreal Ranibizumab Treatment for Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Umut Karaca

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Pur po se: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of intravitreal ranibizumab injection for exudative age-related macular degeneration. Ma te ri al and Met hod: In this study, we included forty-eight eyes of 43 age-related macular degeneration patients followed for at least twelve months. Mean age was 73.65±8.93 years and mean follow-up time was 14.2 months. All patients received three consecutive monthly intravitreal ranibizumab injections and then were followed up with clinical examination and optic coherence tomography monthly. Re-injection was executed as needed. Re sults: Twenty patients were male (46.5% and twenty-three patients were female (53.5%. The average number of ranibizumab injection was 3.7 (3-7 per eye. Twenty-six lesions (54.2% were classic (predominantly and minimally and twenty-two (45.8% were occult. Mean best-corrected visual acuity was 46.8 letters with ETDRS chart at the initial examination and 55.5 letters at twelfth month. Mean central foveal thickness decreased from 320 microns to 269 microns. There was a statistically significant improvement in visual acuity and central foveal thickness. On the other hand, this improvement was not significant between lesion types. During follow-up, there were no systemic or serious ocular complications determined. Dis cus si on: Intravitreal ranibizumab injection is safe and effective, both anatomically and functionally, for age-related macular degeneration. (Turk J Ophthalmol 2012; 42: 25-9

  17. Increased root exudation of 14C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering 14C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total 14C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of 14C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of 14C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of 14C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with 14CO2, about 15% of the total 14C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates. (orig.)

  18. Wheat-Exuded Organic Acids Influence Zinc Release from Calcareous Soils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    M. A. MAQSOOD; S. HUSSAIN; T. AZIZ; M. ASHRAF

    2011-01-01

    Rhizosphere drives plant uptake of sparingly soluble soil zinc (Zn).An investigation with three experiments was conducted to study organic acid exudation by two contrasting wheat genotypes (Sehar-06 and Vatan),Zn fractious in 10 different calcareous soils from Punjab,Pakistan,and release of different soil Zn fractions by organic acids.The two genotypes differed significantly in biomass production and Zn accumulation under deficient and optimum Zn levels in nutrient solution.At a deficient Zn level,Sehar-06 released more maleic acid in the rhizosphere than Vatan.Ten soils used in the present study had very different physicochemical properties; their total Zn and Zn distribution among different fractions varied significantly.Zinc release behaviour was determined by extracting the soils with 0.005 mol L-1 citric acid or maleic acid.The parabolic diffusion model best described Zn release as a function of time.Parabolic diffusion model fitting indicated more maleic acid-driven than citric acid-driven soil Zn mobility from different fractions.Cumulative Zn release in six consecutive extractions during 24 h ranged from 1.85 to 13.58 mg kg-1 using maleic acid and from 0.37 to 11.84 mg kg-1 using citric acid.In the selected calcareous soils,the results of stepwise linear regression indicated significant release of Fe-Mn oxide-bounded soil Zn by maleic acid and its availability to the Zn-efficient genotype.Hence,release of maleic acid by plants roots played an important role in phytoavailability of Zn from calcareous soils.

  19. Engineering soil organic matter quality: Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) stimulates exudation of nitrogenous microbial biopolymers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redmile-Gordon, Marc A.; Evershed, Richard P.; Kuhl, Alison; Armenise, Elena; White, Rodger P.; Hirsch, Penny R.; Goulding, Keith W.T.; Brookes, Philip C.

    2015-01-01

    Biodiesel Co-Product (BCP) is a complex organic material formed during the transesterification of lipids. We investigated the effect of BCP on the extracellular microbial matrix or ‘extracellular polymeric substance’ (EPS) in soil which is suspected to be a highly influential fraction of soil organic matter (SOM). It was hypothesised that more N would be transferred to EPS in soil given BCP compared to soil given glycerol. An arable soil was amended with BCP produced from either 1) waste vegetable oils or 2) pure oilseed rape oil, and compared with soil amended with 99% pure glycerol; all were provided with 15N labelled KNO3. We compared transfer of microbially assimilated 15N into the extracellular amino acid pool, and measured concomitant production of exopolysaccharide. Following incubation, the 15N enrichment of total hydrolysable amino acids (THAAs) indicated that intracellular anabolic products had incorporated the labelled N primarily as glutamine and glutamate. A greater proportion of the amino acids in EPS were found to contain 15N than those in the THAA pool, indicating that the increase in EPS was comprised of bioproducts synthesised de novo. Moreover, BCP had increased the EPS production efficiency of the soil microbial community (μg EPS per unit ATP) up to approximately double that of glycerol, and caused transfer of 21% more 15N from soil solution into EPS-amino acids. Given the suspected value of EPS in agricultural soils, the use of BCP to stimulate exudation is an interesting tool to consider in the theme of delivering sustainable intensification. PMID:26635420

  20. Effects of Phosphorus Stress on the Root Morphology and Root Exudates in Different Sugar Beet Genotypes%磷胁迫对不同基因型甜菜根系形态及根分泌物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建朝; 王孝纯; 邓艳红; 林晓坤; 王艳

    2011-01-01

    Phosphorus deficiency was induced in sugar beet plants (Beta vulgaris L., ‘var. 14’, ‘var. 17’ and ‘var. 20’ with different resistance ability to phosphorus stress), cultured hydroponically and sandily under standardized environmental conditions, by removing phosphorus from the nutrient supply at the seedling stage.Root morphology, H + excretion and organic acid in rhizosphere were investigated. The main results were showed as following: the average length of roots and the ratio of root to shoot in all genotypes were increased significantly (P<0.05), among which, the decreasing range of ‘var. 14’ was the biggest one; sugar beet root mainly excreted oxalic, lactic, maleic acid and trans-butenedioic acid, among which, the first two kinds of the organic acids were the main ingredient, and the phenomena of the significant increase in the secretion amount of those two kinds acids was only appeared in ‘var. 20’ with higher resistance to phosphorus stress;phosphorus deficiency stimulated the environment changed in root vicinity of sugar beet, and showed as an increase of the H+ secretion in all the genotypes used in the experiment, but the increased amount of H+ were genetic dependent, i.e. ‘var.20’ >‘ var. 17’ > ‘ var. 14’.%选用了3种不同抗磷胁迫能力的基因型甜菜种质材料'品14'、'品17'和'品20',通过液培和沙培法对低磷胁迫下甜菜根长、根冠比、根系H+及有机酸分泌等形态和生理特性进行了研究.结果表明:(1)磷胁迫对甜菜根系的形态特征影响显著,与正常磷营养水平比,各基因型甜菜的根系长度和根冠比均有显著增加(P<0.05),其中抗磷胁迫能力最强的'品20'增加幅度显著高于其他2个基因型;(2)甜菜根系主要分泌草酸、乳酸、马来酸及反丁烯二酸,其中大部分为草酸和乳酸,在低磷胁迫下,只有抗磷胁迫能力最强的'品20'此两种酸的分泌达到显著增加水平;(3)不同基因型甜菜受

  1. Pharmacological study of radioactive-gold colloid transport by blood and by serous exudate; Contribution a l'etude pharmacologique du transport des colloides d'or radioactif par le sang et les exsudats sereux

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rousselet, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1966-06-01

    After giving the essential physico-chemical properties of the colloids, the author considers the biological role of these substances and, in connection with their transport by the blood, their capture by elements of the reticula-endothelial system. A summary is given of present knowledge concerning the role of serous proteins in the transport of substances, particularly that of radio-active colloidal gold. The blood fractions which can take part in colloidal gold transport are the red blood corpuscles, the leukocytes and histiocytic elements as well as the plasma. The radioactive distribution in these various fractions is obtained by autoradiography of blood sediments. After showing the importance of the role of the plasma in radioactive particle transport, the author, describes the attempts made to detect a possible of colloidal gold 198 on the various serous proteins using various methods of separation. The ''in vitro'' and ''in vivo'' bonds between colloidal gold-198 particles and either the serous proteins or healthy specimens or the effusion liquids of pathological origin in man, or due to an experimental inflammation with carregenin in the rat, have been studied. The bonding appears to be effective because of the protective macromolecular layer formed by the gelatine. The different positions of the colloidal grains on the electrophoregram can only be explained by their different physico-chemical characteristics. Gold in the ionic form, on the other hand, is combined only with the albumen is the amount metal present does not exceed a certain value. (author) [French] Apres avoir enonce les proprietes physicochimiques essentielles des colloides nous etudions le devenir biologique de ces substances et, en relation avec leur transport par le sang, leur captation par les elements du Systeme Reticulo-Endothelial. Nous resumons les connaissances acquises jusqu'alors sur le role des proteines seriques dans le transport des

  2. 植物根系分泌物的研究方法%Progress on the Research Methods for Root Exudates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李汛; 段增强

    2013-01-01

    Root exudate is a general term for a group of organic compounds released from the plant roots to rhizo-sphere, and plays an important role in formation of soil structure, transformation of soil nutrients, absorption of nu-trients by plants, distribution of soil microbe, alleviation the environmental stress, and so on. Furthermore, owing to the degradation by the soil microbe as well as the low concentration and complex composition nature of itself, root exudate and its research methods are always the hot spots and challenges. Recently, several novel experimental tech-niques and research methods have been developed and applied in the research on root exudates. In this paper, the collection, separation, purification and identification of root exudates are reviewed, which will be helpful to re-searchers to choose a feasible, suitable and efficient method to their certain object and purpose.%  根系分泌物是植物根系释放到根际环境中的有机物质的总称,对土壤结构形成、土壤养分转化、植物养分吸收、土壤微生物分布、环境胁迫缓解等方面都具有重要作用。但是,由于土壤中微生物对根系分泌物的降解以及根系分泌物本身含量低、成分复杂,根系分泌物的研究方法一直是植物营养学与土壤科学的研究热点和难点。近年来,一些新的实验技术和研究方法被应用到对植物根系分泌物的研究中。本文对目前在根系分泌物研究中应用较多的以及新发展起来的各种收集、分离和鉴定方法进行了综述,希望有助于相关研究者在针对不同的研究对象和目的时选择出可行、合适、高效的根系分泌物研究方法和技术。

  3. Semi-rigid thoracoscopy for undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions: a comparative study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Zhen; WANG Chen; TONG Zhao-hui; LI Hong-jie; ZHAO Ting-ting; LI Xu-yan; XU Li-li; LUO Jing; JIN Mu-lan; LI Rui-sheng

    2008-01-01

    Background Thoracoscopy is highly sensitive and accurate for detecting pleural effusions. However, most respiratory physicians are not familiar with the use of the more common rigid thoracoscope or the flexible bronchoscope, which is difficult to manipulate within the pleural cavity. The semi-rigid thoracoscope combines the best features of the flexible and rigid instruments. Since the practice with this instrument is limited in China, the diagnostic utility of semi-rigid thoracoscopy (namely medical thoracoscopy) under local anesthesia for undiagnosed exudative pleural effusions was evaluated.Methods In 50 patients with undiagnosed pleural effusions who were studied retrospectively, 23 received routine examinations between July 2004 and June 2005 and the rest 27 patients underwent medical thoracoscopy during July 2005 and June 2006. Routine examinations of the pleural effusions involved biochemistry and cytology, sputum cytology, and thoracentesis. The difference in diagnostic sensitivity, costs related to pleural fluid examination and complications were compared directly between the two groups.Results Medical thoracoscopy revealed tuberculous pleurisy in 6 patients, adenocarcinoma in 7, squamous-cell carcinoma in 2, metastatic carcinoma in 3, mesothelioma in 2, non-Hodgkin's lymphoma in 1, and others in 4. Only 2 patients could not get definite diagnoses. Diagnostic efficiency of medical thoracoscopy was 93% (25/27). Only 21% patients were diagnosed after routine examinations, including parapneumonic effusion in 2 patients, lung cancer in 2 and undetermined metastatic malignancy in 1. Twelve patients with tuberculous pleurisy were suspected by routine examination. Costs related to pleural effusion testing showed no difference between the two groups (P=0.114). Twenty-three patients in the routine examination group underwent 97 times of thoracentesis. Two pleural infection patients and 2 pneumothorax patients were identified and received antibiotic treatment and

  4. Acacia Senegal Gum Exudate Offers Protection Against Cyclophosphamide-Induced Urinary Bladder Cytotoxicity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulaziz A. Al-Yahya

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cylophosphamide (CYCL is a strong anticancer and immunosuppressive agent but its urotoxicity presents one of the major toxic effects that limit its wide usage particularly in high dose regimens. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate Acacia Senegal gum exudate, Gum Arabic (GA, for its possible role as a natural, nontoxic agent against CYCL-induced urotoxicity. Male Swiss albino rats were exposed to CYCL (150 mg/kg BW, once i.p with or without GA oral supplementation (7.5 g/kg/day for 6 days through drinking water. Glutathione (GSH, Malondialdehyde (MDA and Nitric oxide (NO bladder contents were assessed. Responsiveness of the bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh in vitro, microscopic and macroscopic features are also investigated. CYCL produced pronounced harmful effects on bladder urothelial lining with significant increases in (MDA and NO levels in the tissue homogenates. Bladder-GSH content is dropped by over 60% following CYCL injection. Bladder contractility, as measured by its responsiveness to ACh, recorded a marked reduction. The isolated bladders exhibited such macroscopic changes as severe edema, inflammation and extravasation. The bladder weight increased as well. Histological changes were evident in the form of severe congestion, petechial hemorrhage and chronic inflammatory reaction in the lamina propria accompanied with desquamated epithelia. GA, a potential protective agent, produced an almost complete reversal of NO induction, lipid peroxidation or cellular GSH bladder contents in the GA + CYCL-treated group. Likewise, bladder inflammation and edema were reduced. Bladder rings showed a remarkable recovery in their responsiveness to ACh. Bladder histological examination showed a near normal configuration and structural integrity, with a significant reduction in inflammation and disappearance of focal erosions. These remarkable effects of GA may be attributed to its ability to neutralize acrolein, the reactive metabolite of CYCL

  5. INSECTICIDAL TOXIN IN ROOT EXUDATES FROM BT CORN. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  6. The effects of formoterol on plasma exudation produced by a localized acute inflammatory response to bradykinin in the tracheal mucosa of rats in vivo.

    OpenAIRE

    O'Donnell, S. R.; Anderson, G. P.

    1995-01-01

    1. The effects of formoterol, a beta 2-adrenoceptor agonist, on plasma protein exudation and microvascular permeability induced by topical, i.e. applied onto the tracheal mucosal surface, bradykinin (10 nmol; 20 microM, 5 min, 0.1 ml min-1) were studied in a perfused segment of trachea prepared in situ in anaesthetized rats. 2. Bradykinin increased the amount of plasma (fluorimetric assay for protein) in the perfusate (response; 10.98 +/- 0.357 microliters, n = 69; total increase in plasma ov...

  7. [Allelopathic effects of cultured Cucurbita moschata root exudates].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Min; Ma, Yongqin; Shui, Junfeng

    2005-04-01

    By using the techniques of tissue culture, bio-assay and laboratory analysis, this paper studied the effects of the allelopathic chemicals from pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) roots on the seed germination and seedling growth of pumpkin, wheat (Triticum aestivum), and radish (Raphanus sativus). The pumpkin root was cultured on a sterile B5 media, and the concentrations of macro- and microelements, organic supplements and hormones in the media were adjusted by using an orthogonal design. After culturing, the culture media was filtered and used in a bioassay to test the autotoxicity and allelopathic effects. The results showed that the pumpkin had both autotoxic and allelopathic effects, and the media having been used to culture the pumpkin roots contained the chemicals that significantly inhibited the seedling growth of wheat and radish. The allelopathic effect decreased when the culture media was diluted. The production of allelochemicals seemed to be related to the growth rate of the pumpkin roots. When the root growth was rapid, the concentration of allelochemicals was high. The allelopathic effect was stronger on radish than on wheat. The optimum concentrations of macro- and microelements, vitamins and hormones for culturing pumpkin root were determined, and the effect of pumpkin root nutrition on the production of allelochemicals was tested. The results indicated that pumpkin root nutrition had a significant effect on the production of allelochemicals.

  8. The Incidence of Exudative Otitis Media in HIV Infected Children

    OpenAIRE

    Nuriddin U. Narzullaev, PhD

    2012-01-01

    Diseases of the ENT organs are among the commonly prevalent and dangerous pathologies of childhood, occurring as a complication of respiratory, bacterial diseases and HIV infection. One of the serious complications of HIV infection in children is the lesion of ENT organs. In HIV infected children, in addition to suppurative diseases occur middle ear diseases with nonsuppurative origin. A total of 79 HIV infected children aged 3-14 years with different pathologies of the nasal cavity, nasophar...

  9. Response of root border cells of soybean to cultured Chenopodium ambrosioides root exudates%大豆根边缘细胞对土荆芥组培根分泌物的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李安奇; 王亚男; 张红; 汪利沙; 马丹炜

    2012-01-01

    运用组织培养技术和悬空气培养法,研究了大豆根边缘细胞对土荆芥组培根分泌物的响应.结果表明:在土荆芥组培根分泌物作用下,随处理浓度的升高和处理时间的延长,边缘细胞数量和存活率持续下降.游离的根边缘细胞周围聚集了一些颗粒状物质,根边缘细胞可能螯合土荆芥根系分泌物.土荆芥根系分泌物能促进根冠果胶甲基酯酶活性上调,但是随着处理浓度增大和处理时间延长,这种促进效应降低.这些结果表明土荆芥组培根分泌物对大豆根边缘细胞具有一定的胁迫效应,根边缘细胞通过加速死亡并分泌一些活性物质螯合土荆芥根系分泌物,可在一定范围内缓解根系分泌物的毒害作用.%By using the techniques of tissue culture and aeroponic culture, response of root border cells of soybean ( Gtycine max L.) to cultured Chenopodium ambrosioides root exudates was studied. The results showed the number and activity of root border cells decreased consecutively when treated with cultured C. Ambrosioides root exudates. Some granules gathered around free root border cells would result from chelation between root border cells exudates with that of the cultured root. The cultured root exudates could stimulate the activity of pectin methylesterase of the root cap of soybean, but the effect gradually lowered down along with the increasing of treatment concentration and treatment time. The results suggested that the cultured root exudates had stress on root border cells of soybean and root border cells of soybean alleviated the allelopathic effects of the cultured root exudates on root tips though programmed cell death and chelating.

  10. Combined Transpupillary Thermotherapy with Subtenon Triamcinolone Injection in Treatment of Choroidal Neovascularization Secondary to Exudative Age Related Macular Degeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naseripour

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Introduction & Objective: In spite of several treatment methods which are being used to treat exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD like laser therapy, Intravitreal steroids injections or anti-vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGF, no method has been yet presented as the best treatment way. This study aimed to assess the effectiveness of combined transpupillary thermotherapy (TTT with subtenon triamcinolone acetonide (TA injection in treatment of choroidal neovascularization (CNV in patients with ARMD. Materials & Methods: In this clinical trial, 63 eyes of 57 patients with CNV secondary to exudative age-related macular degeneration (ARMD were studied. All CNVs (including 20 predominantly classic and 43 predominantly occult lesions were treated with diode laser (810nm. In 20 eyes with predominantly classic CNVs, 20 mg and 40 mg subtenon triamcinolone was injected in 12 and 8 eyes respectively. The patients were followed for a mean of 9.1 months (ranging from 5.5 to 16 months. The average number of treatment sessions was 1.25. In 43 eyes with occult CNV, 20 mg and 40 mg subtenon triamcinolone was injected in 31 eyes and in 12 eyes respectively. Mean follow up time was 12 months (4.5 to 23 months. Mean treatment times was 1.17. A variable spot size of 0.8, 1.2, 2 and 3 mm was used depending on the size of CNV and treatment was given in one area for 1 minute. Thermotherapy was adminstered through a contact lens at a power range between 120-560 mw. At the end of treatment, each patient randomly received 20 mg or 40 mg subtenon triamcinolone acetonide injection in superotemporal quadrant. Outcome was assessed with clinical and angiographic examination.collected data were analyzed by one-sample and paired –sample T test, using SPSS software. Results: At the end of the study in first group, visual acuity remained stable (0 to ± one line in 14 out of 20 (70 % of eyes, improved (> one line in 2 of 20 (10 % eyes and showed a

  11. Characterization of exudates released by the marine diatom Skeletonema costatum exposed to copper stress: a 3D-fluorescence spectroscopy approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herzi, Faouzi; Hlaili, Asma Sakka; Le Poupon, Christophe; Mabrouk, Hassine Hadj; Mounier, Stéphane

    2013-10-01

    In a laboratory study, metal contamination experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of two free copper concentrations (10(-9) and 10(-8) M) on cell growth and on dissolved organic matter exudation by a marine diatom Skeletonema costatum. Throughout incubation, the growth kinetics and exudation of extracellular molecules (i.e. dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and the fluorescent organic matter) were determined. Results revealed an inhibition of S. costatum growth when the free copper level increased (from 10(-9) to 10(-8)). Furthermore, DOC release was more significant in cultures contaminated by 10(-9) M Cu(2+) than in control, suggesting a coping mechanism developed by this species. In this study, samples were daily analysed by 3D-fluorescence and PARAFAC algorithm, in order to compare the fluorescent material produced during growth under different contaminations. PARAFAC treatment revealed two main contributions: one related to the biological activity (C1), the other linked to the marine organic matter (C2). The third component C3 was typically protein-like. This fluorophore was considered as a tryptophan-like fluorophore, whereas the C1 and the C2 components were associated to marine production such as humic matter. PMID:23868094

  12. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Seewaboon Sireeratawong; Arunporn Itharat; Nusiri Lerdvuthisopon; Pritsana Piyabhan; Parirat Khonsung; Supot Boonraeng; Kanjana Jaijoy

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on bot...

  13. A comparison study on the detection of anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HTV-1) antibodies in different populations with a new rapid test using oral mucosal transudate samples versus enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using serum samples%口腔黏膜渗出液快速诊断试剂与血清ELISA试剂检测不同人群HIV-1抗体的评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴焱; 伦文辉; 王克荣; 韩晶; 赵红心; 曾辉; 徐克沂; 刘彦春; 闫会文; 李兴旺

    2011-01-01

    目的探讨口腔黏膜渗出液(OMT)快速诊断试剂与酶联免疫吸附试验(ELISA)试剂检测不同人群HIV-1抗体的一致性.方法对已经过生物梅里埃ELISA试剂检测血清HIV-1抗体阳性并经蛋白印迹(WB)试验确诊的HIV感染者200例(HIV阳性组),和经过生物梅里埃ELISA试剂检测血清HIV-1抗体阴性的健康人群600例(HIV阴性组)采集OMT标本,使用OMT快速诊断试剂进行HIV-1抗体检测.同时评价口腔黏膜渗出液快速诊断试剂在实际应用中的影响因素.结果 HIV阳性组200例中198例OMT标本检测为阳性,其中192例(96%)检测线清楚,易做阳性结果判断.4例(2%)"模糊",2例(1%)"很模糊",需经专业人员判断;2例(1%)检测线"看不见",为阴性.HIV阴性组600例OMT标本检测HIV抗体全为阴性.结论口腔黏膜渗出液快速诊断试剂与生物梅里埃血清ELISA诊断试剂检测HIV-1抗体相比,在HIV阳性标本中检测一致性为99.0%,在HIV阴性标本中检测一致性为100%,总体一致性为99.75%.%Objective To evaluate the consistence in the detection of antibodies against HIV-1 between a new rapid test using oral mucosal transudate (OMT) samples and ELISA using serum samples. Methods Two-hundred patients who were positive for anti-HIV-1 antibodies by serum ELISA and confirmed by Western blot to be infected with HIV, and 600 healthy human controls negative for anti-HIV-1 antibodies by serum ELISA, were eligible for this study. OMT samples were collected from these subjects and subjected to a rapid test for anti-HIV-1 antibodies. The factors influencing the performance of the rapid test were analyzed. Results Of the 200 OMT specimens from HIV-infected patients, 198 showed positive reaction, 2 showed negative reaction. Among the 198 positive reactions, 192 (96%) were "clear" and easy to make decisions, 4 (2%) were "faint", 2(1%) were "very faint" and required professionals to make decisions. The rapid test was negative in all the 600 OMT specimens

  14. Allelopathic effect of Commelina benghalensis root exudates%火柴头根系分泌物的化感效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨田甜; 杜海荣; 陈刚; 邓鹏; 甄伟伟

    2011-01-01

    在农田生态系统中,作物晚发弱苗的部分原因是杂草向作物生长周围环境释放化感物质.本研究以疏水性根渗出液连续收集法(C RETS)收集火柴头根系分泌物,在室内采用培养皿滤纸和砂培法分别研究了火柴头根系分泌物对4种常见农作物种子萌发、幼苗生长的化感作用.结果表明:火柴头根系分泌物对高粱、玉米、绿豆和油菜具有不同程度的化感效应,化感效应响应强度由强到弱的顺序为:油菜>玉米>绿豆>高梁.对种子萌发和幼苗生长也存在明显的浓度效应,总体上呈现出低浓度(≤0.025 g·mL-1)促进,高浓度( ≥0.050 g·mL-1)抑制的现象,且随着处理浓度的增加抑制作用逐渐增强.%In the farmland ecosystem, one reason for the crop's postponed seed germination and weak seedling was attributed to the influence of allelochemicals released from the weeds. The root exudates of Commelina benghalensis were collected with a continuous trapping system. The allelopathic effects of the root exudates from Commelina benghalensis L on four crops - Sorghum vulgare, Zea mays, Vigna radiate and Brassica napus were investigated in seed germination and seedling growth with petri-dish and sand cultivation. The results showed that the root exudates from C. benghalensis had different allelopathic effects on the four crops, and varied with crop species in the descending order of Brassica napus > Zea mays > Vigna radiate > Sorghum vulgare. Allelopathic index of seed germination and seedling growth depended on the concentration of root exudates, that is, when the concentration was lower than 0. 025 g.mL-1 , the germination and seedling growth of acceptors were promoted. While the concentration was over 0. 050 g . mL-1~ , they were inhibited, and the level of inhibition was improved with the increase of the root exudates concentration. In conclusion, Brassica napus was inhibited more strongly than the other species at the same

  15. Survey for Hantaviruses, Tick-Borne Encephalitis Virus, and Rickettsia spp. in Small Rodents in Croatia

    OpenAIRE

    Svoboda, Petra; Dobler, Gerhard; Markotić, Alemka; Kurolt, Ivan-Christian; Speck, Stephanie; Habuš, Josipa; Vucelja, Marko; Krajinović, Lidija Cvetko; Tadin, Ante; MARGALETIĆ, JOSIP; Essbauer, Sandra

    2014-01-01

    In Croatia, several rodent- and vector-borne agents are endemic and of medical importance. In this study, we investigated hantaviruses and, for the first time, tick-borne encephalitis virus (TBEV) and Rickettsia spp. in small wild rodents from two different sites (mountainous and lowland region) in Croatia. In total, 194 transudate and tissue samples from 170 rodents (A. flavicollis, n=115; A. agrarius, n=2; Myodes glareolus, n=53) were tested for antibodies by indirect immunoflourescence ass...

  16. Structure-activity relationship of polyphenols on inhibition of chemical mediator release from rat peritoneal exudate cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, K; Shoji, K; Mori, M; Ueyama, T; Matsuo, N; Oka, S; Nishiyama, K; Sugano, M

    1999-03-01

    The effect of phenolic compounds in foodstuffs on histamine and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) release from rat peritoneal exudate cells and their antioxidative activity were examined to assess their antiallergenic activities. Among them, triphenols such as pyrogallol and gallic acid inhibited histamine release from the cells, but diphenols did not. On the other hand, o- and p-diphenols such as catechol and hydroquinone with strong antioxidative activity inhibited LTB4 release as strongly as pyrogallol, but an m-derivative resorcinol with weak antioxidative activity did not. Though carboxylated compounds and their noncarboxylated counterparts were antioxidative, the former exerted a much weaker inhibitory effect on the LTB4 release than the latter. In flavonols, only myricetin with a triphenolic B ring strongly inhibited histamine release, but all flavonols strongly suppressed LTB4 release irrespective of the number of OH groups in the B ring. Among flavonoids with an o-diphenolic B ring, flavonol and flavone with a C4-carbonyl group strongly inhibited LTB4 release, whereas the activity of anthocyan without C4-carbonyl was much weaker than the above compounds. These results suggest that triphenolic structure is essential for the inhibition of histamine release. On the other hand, antioxidative activity and membrane permeability of phenolic compounds seemed to be essential for the inhibition of LTB4 release. In addition, the C4-carbonyl group seemed to be important for strongly inhibiting LTB4 release. PMID:10476914

  17. Integrity of the alveolar-capillary barrier and alveolar surfactant system in smokers.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmekel, B; Bos, J.A.; A. R. Khan; Wohlfart, B; Lachmann, B.; Wollmer, P.

    1992-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The permeability of the alveolar-capillary barrier to technetium-99m labelled diethylenetriamine pentaacetate (99mTc DTPA) is known to be greatly increased in smokers, but the underlying mechanism is poorly understood. Abnormal permeability of the alveolar epithelium as well as impaired surfactant function has been suggested. The purpose of this study was to examine transudation of urea and albumin into the alveoli and alveolar surfactant function in smokers and non-smokers and to...

  18. Effects of Root Exudates from Helianthus annuus on Adsorption of Cd~(2+) on Yellow Earth%向日葵根分泌物对黄壤吸附Cd~(2+)行为的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张道勇; 潘响亮; 黄承玲

    2009-01-01

    从pH的影响、等温吸附、吸附动力学和热动力学4个方面研究了向日葵根分泌物对黄壤吸附Cd~(2+)的行为的影响.随着pH的升高,黄壤对Cd~(2+)的吸附量都升高,而且在pH为3~8的范围内,根分泌物的存在都减少了黄壤对Cd~(2+)的吸附.不论有否根分泌物存在,Langmuir方程和Freundlich方程能满意地描述黄壤对Cd~(2+)的等温吸附行为,黄壤对镉的吸附动力学符合拟二级速率方程,是一个墒减的放热的自发反应.向日葵根分泌物的存在抑制了黄壤对镉的吸附容量和吸附速率,并一定程度上降低了吸附过程的自发性.%The effects of root exudates from Helianthus annuus on Cd~(2+) adsorption to yellow earth were investigated in the present study. It was found that root exudates generally inhibited adsorption of Cd~(2+) onto yellow earth. Cd~(2+) adsorption capacity increased on increasing of solution pH and the presence of root exudates reduced Cd~(2+) adsorption capacity at pH 3 - 8-Cd~(2+) isothermal adsorption could be well represented with both Langmuir and Freundlich equations, and the adsorption kinetics with pseudo-second order equation. Cd~(2+) adsorption capacity to yellow earth is a spontaneous exothermic reaction.The presence of root exudates reduced the adsorption capacity and adsorption rate.

  19. Increased root exudation of /sup 14/C-compounds by sorghum seedlings inoculated with nitrogen-fixing bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K.J. (Institute of Forest Genetics, Suweon (Republic of Korea)); Gaskins, M.H. (Florida Univ., Gainesville (USA). Dept. of Agriculture)

    1982-01-01

    Organic components leaked from Sorghum bicolor seedlings ('root exudates') were examined by recovering /sup 14/C labelled compounds from root solutions of seedlings inoculated with Azospirillum brasilense, Azotobacter vinelandii or Klebsiella pneumoniae nif-. Up to 3.5% of the total /sup 14/C recovered from shoots, roots, and nutrient solutions was found in the root solutions. Inoculation with Azospirillum and Azotobacter increased the amounts of /sup 14/C and decreased the amounts of carbohydrates in the root solutions. When sucrose was added as a carbon source for the bacteria, the increase of /sup 14/C in the solutions did not occur. Quantities of /sup 14/C found in the root solutions were proportional to amounts of mineral nitrogen supplied to the plants. Bacterial growth also was proportional to nitrogen levels. When sorghum plants were grown in soil and labelled with /sup 14/CO/sub 2/, about 15% of the total /sup 14/C recovered within 48 hours exposure was found in soil leachates.

  20. 3种水培植物根系分泌的有机酸对氮循环菌的影响%Effect of organic acids exuded from hydroponic plants roots on nitrogen cycling bacteria

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱静平; 程凯

    2011-01-01

    通过收集水培吊兰、空心菜和水芹的根系分泌物,采用液相色谱分析了其中有机酸的种类和含量;并研究了根系分泌物中的有机酸对氮循环菌的影响。结果表明3,种植物根系分泌物中的有机酸对氨化细菌和反硝化细菌的生长具有促进作用,对亚硝化细菌和硝化细菌的生长具有抑制作用。%The variety and content of organic acids exuded from hydroponic Chlorophytum comosum roots,hydroponic Ipomoea aquatica roots and hydroponic Oenanthe javanica roots by liquid chromatography were studied,and the effects of organic acid of root exudates on nitrogen cycling bacteria were analysed.The results showed that organic acid of the three hydroponic plants root exudates has promotion effect on ammonifying bacteria and denitrifying bacteria,but has inhibition effect on nitrobacteria and nitrosobacteria.

  1. Simulation of the effect of citrate exudation from roots on the plant availability of phosphate adsorbed on goethite

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Geelhoed, J.S.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.; Findenegg, G.R.

    1999-01-01

    Rhizosphere processes strongly influence the availability of phosphorus (P) to plants. Organic ligands that are exuded from the root surface mobilize phosphorus by dissolution of P minerals or by desorption of adsorbed phosphate. We developed a mechanistic model to study the mobilization of phosphat

  2. 大蒜根系分泌物对同属作物的抑制作用%Inhibition Effect of Garlic Root Exudates on the Genus Allium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘素慧; 刘世琦; 张自坤; 尉辉; 黄治军; 张宇

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] In order to provide a theoretical basis for solving cropping obstacles of garlic, the inhibition of garlic root exudates on the genus Allium was studied. [Method] In order to avoid interferences from external factors, this paper studied the autotoxicity of garlic root exudates on welsh onion, onion and Chinese leek scallion, by using tissue culture under sterilized condition. [Result] Garlic and receptor crops, such as welsh onion, onion and Chinese leek, are belong to the genus Allium. Root exudates of garlic could inhibit the germination and growth of receptor crops, the inhibitory degree increased progressively and significantly with increasing root exudates concentrations of garlic, and the maximal inhibition rates of germination rate, mean time to germination, embryo and radicle length, embryo and embryo fresh weight were 51.72%, 48.20%, 51.57%, 51.57%, 82.14% and 82.29%, respectively. Garlic root exudates decreased root activity of receptor crops, and significant differences were observed except the lowest concentrations (Tl) on welsh onion and onion, compared to control. Compounds involved in the garlic root exudates were isolated and identified by gas chromatography/mass spectrometer (GC-MS), including 2,2'-methylenebis[6-(l,l-dimethylethyl)-4-methyl-Phenol, mono (2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, eicosanoic acid, ferulic acid, 9-hexadecenoic acid, tetradecanoic acid, diallyl disulphide, etc., ferulic acid and myristic acid which had been identified as growth inhibitory substances. [Conclusion] The germination and growth of receptor crops were inhibited by garlic root exudates, which were released to field year by year and could lead to garlic continuous cropping obstacles.%[目的]研究大蒜根系分泌物对同属作物的抑制作用,为解决大蒜连作障碍提供理论依据.[方法]应用组织培养技术,在无菌条件下研究大蒜根系分泌物对同属作物大葱、洋葱和韭菜的毒害作用.[结果]大蒜根系分泌物对3种同

  3. Diagnostic utility of pleural fluid and serum markers in differentiation between malignant and non-malignant pleural effusions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korczynski P

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Study objective To evaluate the diagnostic value of four different tumor markers: cancer antigen 125 (CA-125, carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, cytokeratin 19 fragment (CYFRA 21-1 and neuron specific enolase (NSE in patients with malignant and non-malignant pleural effusion. Material and methods One hundred and two patients with pleural effusion treated in the University Hospital in Warsaw between 2001 and 2003 were studied. They underwent an extensive, diagnostic work-up in order to determine the pleural effusion etiology. Patients with known pleural fluid etiology were labeled as the study group and submitted for further analysis. Pleural fluid and serum samples for CA-125, CEA, CYFRA 21-1 and NSE measurements were collected during the first thoracentesis, centrifuged, and frozen until further use. Pleural fluid and serum concentration of tumor markers were assessed by electrochemiluminescence methods using commercial kits. Results 74 patients (32 M, 42 F; mean age 65 ± 14 years composed the final study group. Exudative pleural effusion was found in 62 patients; of these 36 were malignant (48.6% of all effusions, 20 parapneumonic (or pleural empyema, and 6 tuberculous. In 12 patients, pleural transudate was diagnosed. The highest diagnostic sensitivity for malignant pleural effusion was found for NSE (94.4% and 80.6% in the pleural fluid and serum, respectively. However, the specificity of NSE measurement was relatively low (36.1% and 47.4% in pleural fluid and serum, respectively. The most specific markers of malignant pleural fluid etiology were pleural fluid CYFRA 21-1 and CEA levels (92.1% and 92.1%, respectively. CA-125 was found to be the most specific serum marker of pleural malignancies (78.9%. The AUC for combined pleural markers was 0.89, combined serum markers 0.82, combined ratio pleural/serum markers 0.88. Conclusions There are significant differences between the diagnostic value of various pleural fluid and serum markers

  4. Allelopathy effects of Panax notoginseng root exudates on wheat under different nitrogen levels%不同氮素水平下三七根系分泌物对小麦的化感作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    拱健婷; 张子龙; 王雄飞

    2014-01-01

    In ordre to explore the allelopathy effect of Panax notoginseng root exudates under different nitrogen levels, the present study using Panax notoginseng seedlings and wheat plants as donor and receptor plants , respectively, was carried out.The results showed that Panax notoginseng root exudates exhibited inhibitory effect on wheat (M3 =-0.04).Compared with seedling growth, seed germination was more likely to be inhibited by the allelopathy effect of Panax notoginseng root exudates.With increased N level, the inhibitory effect on germination index increased in the order of excess N >normal N >deficient N.The shoot growth of wheat seedling was enhanced by allelopathy effect of Panax notoginseng root exudates, while the root growth was inhibited.Besides, it was noticed that the allelopathy effect of Panax notoginseng root exudates on wheat was related to the nitrogen level in solution.%为探讨三七在不同氮素水平下根系分泌物的化感作用,以三七种苗为供体植物,小麦为受体植物进行生物测定。结果表明,三七根系分泌物对小麦表现出化感抑制作用(敏感指数M3=-0.04)。从发育时期来看,小麦种子萌发阶段较幼苗生长阶段更易受化感抑制作用影响,且其发芽指数受抑程度随氮素水平的升高而逐渐增强,即过氮>正常>缺氮;在小麦幼苗生长阶段,三七根系分泌物对其地上部化感作用以促进为主,对根部生长则以抑制作用为主;且三七根系分泌物对小麦的化感作用与培养液氮素水平有关。

  5. 水稻氮高效基因型根系分泌物中有机酸和氨基酸的变化特征%Characteristics of organic acid and amino acid in root exudates of rice genotype with high nitrogen efficiency

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    戢林; 李廷轩; 张锡洲; 余海英

    2012-01-01

    采用溶液培养试验,研究水稻氮高效基因型在不同供氮水平下,根系分泌物中有机酸和氨基酸种类及含量的变化情况,并探讨其与氮素利用效率之间的关系。结果表明: 1)水稻氮高效基因型氮积累量随着供氮水平的降低明显下降,而氮素利用效率显著提高; 在供氮水平为20 mg/L时,高效基因型具有较高的氮积累量,且氮素利用效率较低效基因型高42.9%(分蘖期)和21.4%(拔节期)。 2)草酸为高效基因型根系分泌的主要有机酸种类,其分泌量占有机酸总量的80%以上,其次是乙酸和柠檬酸; 有机酸分泌总量和草酸分泌量在分蘖期和拔节期随供氮水平的降低而降低,乙酸和柠檬酸分泌量在拔节期也呈相同趋势; 相同供氮水平下,高效基因型有机酸分泌总量均显著低于低效基因型,且在20 mg/L时差异明显。 3)丙氨酸为高效基因型根系分泌的主要氨基酸种类,其分泌量占氨基酸总量的50%以上,其次是丝氨酸、 谷氨酸、 天冬氨酸、 苯丙氨酸、 甘氨酸和苏氨酸,且氨基酸分泌总量和各组分氨基酸分泌量均随供氮水平的降低而降低; 在低氮水平(10 mg/L和20 mg/L)下,高效基因型氨基酸分泌总量均显著低于低效基因型。4)在分蘖期和拔节期,水稻根系分泌有机酸和氨基酸总量与氮素利用效率均呈显著或极显著负相关,有机酸分泌组分中的草酸和氨基酸分泌组分的天冬氨酸分泌量与氮素利用效率也呈显著或极显著负相关。以上结果表明,低氮条件下水稻氮高效基因型氮效率优势明显,高效基因型氮素利用效率高,有利于体内同化物质的合理分配。%Nitrogen plays important roles in promoting plant growth and development. The purpose of this study was to investigate how N nutrient affect the changes in the root exudates under different nitrogen levels and their

  6. Efficacy of radiation synovectomy (radiosynovectomy or radiosynoviorthesis) with yttrium-90 in exudative inflammation of synovial membrane of knee joints in patients with rheumatic diseases – preliminary report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Węgierska, Małgorzata; Barczyńska, Tacjana; Waszczak, Marzena; Żuchowski, Paweł; Jeka, Sławomir

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Hypertrophic and exudative synovitis of the knee is one of the earliest symptoms in rheumatic diseases. In the case of pharmacotherapy failure, other methods which directly remove the inflamed synovial membrane are used – synovectomies. Radiosynovectomy (RSV) is the radiopharmaceutical application of colloidal solution to joint cavities. In this study, the authors assessed the efficacy of knee radiosynovectomy with yttrium-90 (Y-90) in several groups of patients divided into certain rheumatic diseases. Material and methods The study group consisted of 70 patients aged from 29 to 65 years with hypertrophic and exudative synovitis of the knee in rheumatic diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthrosis and spondyloarthropathies. Radiopharmaceutical colloid of Y-90, with a radiation dose of 185-222 MBq in a volume of 2-3 ml, was administered to joint. Then the knee joint was immobilized for 72 h. During visits V1, V2, V3 and V4, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) and C-reactive protein (CRP) were measured and ultrasound of the knee was performed. Disease activity was evaluated by the WOMAC scale, HAQ and 100-mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results The most significant difference of synovial hypertrophy, before and after the procedure, was obtained in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Variability of effusion before and after the procedure in all groups was comparable and statistically significant. The greatest improvement in variability of inflammatory parameters, before and 4 weeks after radiosynovectomy, was observed in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. Conclusions In the therapeutic algorithm radiosynovectomy should be located between conservative treatment and operative procedures. Radiosynovectomy does not require hospitalization or prolonged rehabilitation. Radiosynoviorthesis affects the patient's general condition, which is associated with eliminating pain and restoring joint function. PMID:27407269

  7. Detection and significance of serum angiogenesis regulatory cytokines in patients of exudative age-related macular degeneration%渗出型年龄相关性黄斑变性患者血清新生血管调控细胞因子水平变化及意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈烨; 李薇薇; 于小蕊; 田蓓; 魏文斌; 巢国俊

    2015-01-01

    目的 探讨血清新生血管调控相关细胞因子在渗出型年龄相关性黄斑变性(exudative age-related macular degeneration,eAMD)发病中的作用.方法 采用双抗体夹心ELISA法检测51例eAMD患者(eAMD组)血清血管内皮生长因子(vascular endothelial growth factor,VEGF)、血小板衍生生长因子(platelet derived growth factor,PDGF)、基质金属蛋白酶抑制剂-1 (tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase-1,TIMP-1)、内皮抑素(endostatin,ES)水平,并与20例体检健康者(对照组)进行比较.结果 eAMD组血清VEGF[(165.14±100.44) ng/L]、PDGF[(62.18±16.94)μg/L]水平高于对照组[VEGF(64.90±19.74) ng/L、PDGF(39.25±8.39)μg/L] (P<0.01),TIMP-1[(76.33±21.63)μg/L]与对照组[(76.61±13.25)μg/L]比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05),ES[(139.02±40.20) ng/L]低于对照组[(160.85±43.50) ng/L],但差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);ES/VEGF(1.03±0.61)、ES/PDGF比值(2.34±0.88)均较对照组(2.78±1.25、4.34±1.69)降低(P<0.01);对照组VEGF与ES呈负相关(r=-0.700,P=0.002),eAMD组患者血清VEGF与PDGF呈正相关(r=0.610,P=0.000).结论 eAMD患者新生血管细胞因子调节失衡与其脉络膜新生血管发生、发展相关;联合检测血清VEGF、ES、PDGF、TIMP水平对指导eAMD治疗有临床意义.

  8. Phosphorus Affected Organic Acid Exudation from Soybean Root%磷影响大豆根系分泌有机酸总量和不同根区有机酸量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗淑杰; 乔云发; 刘晓冰

    2011-01-01

    采用营养液培养的方法,设置由无磷转化为供磷(0-50)和由供磷转换为无磷(50-0)2个处理,分析了磷转换处理对不同根区有机酸的影响.结果表明:大豆生长对磷素的需求非常迫切,50-0处理根系可溶性磷含量相对较高,而0-50处理地上部可溶性磷含量相对较高;50-0处理根系有机酸分泌量较0-50处理大,而且分泌量随着距离根尖越远越少,50-0处理根区分泌有机酸的变化比0-50处理平缓.%To study the effect of phosphorus on organic acid exudation of soybean root, the phosphorus level changed from 0 to 50 μM and 50 to 0 μM in nutrient solution was carried out. The low-molecular-weight organic acids in root exudates of soybean were determined by high performance liquid chromatography under nutrient solution culture. The dynamics of low-molecular-weight organic acids under different root region were investigated. The influence of P-deficiency on soluble phosphorus content was analyzed. The results showed that the soluble phosphorus content of root in 50-0 treatment was relative higher,while that of shoot in 0-50 treatment was relative higher. Otherwise, organic acid exudation from 50-0 treatment soybean root was larger than 0-50 treatment. The amount of organic acid exudation from soybean root was reduced as far away root tip. The trend of decrease in 50-0 treatment was more slowly than 0-50 treatment.

  9. Effects of sorghum (sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on the cell cycle of the bean plant (phaseolus vulgaris L. root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Gattás Hallak

    1999-03-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to test the allelopathic effect of sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. root exudates on bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. cell division. Research was conducted in the greenhouse of the Wistock Agricultural Research Institute of Minas Gerais State (EPAMIG and in a laboratory of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. Sorghum variety BR-601 and bean variety Carioca MG were used. The exudate, called sorgoleone (SGL, was obtained by methylene chloride and acetic acid extraction from sorghum roots seven days after sowing on Petri dishes, and refrigerated until use. Solutions of 0.01, 0.05, 0.10, and 0.15 mM were prepared using Johanson solution as the SGL solvent. Seven-day-old bean seedlings grown in vermiculite in a greenhouse were transplanted to the solution. Seven days after transplantation, the beans did not show any sign of phytotoxicity; however, cytogenetic observations showed that SGL reduced the number of cells in prophase, metaphase, and anaphase stages. Colchicine effects were observed among cells in metaphase on the third and fifth days after treatments and varied with SGL concentrations. By the seventh day, the colchicine effects were inversely proportional to concentration, which varied from 34.3% for 0.01 mM to 6.6% for 0.15 mM. SGL acts as a mitotic inhibitor. It probably depolymerizes the microtubular proteins and induces the formation of colchicine metaphases causing polyploid nuclei. A largest period of SGL treatment also induced chromosome breaks and bridge formation in anaphase and telophase. Although SGL cannot be used as a herbicide for bean cultures, its allelochemical effects on other cultures are the factors that will define the use of sorghum as a natural herbicide.Foram instalados experimentos em casa de vegetação da Empresa Agropecuária de MG (EPAMIG e laboratório da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA em 1994, com o objetivo de testar a ação alelopática de exsudados de raiz de sorgo (sorgoleone

  10. Use of a portable, single-use negative pressure wound therapy device in home care patients with low to moderately exuding wounds: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurd, Theresa; Trueman, Paul; Rossington, Alan

    2014-03-01

    Negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) is widely used in the management of acute and chronic wounds. The purpose of this 8-week study was to evaluate outcomes of using a new canisterless, portable, single-use NPWT system in patients with wounds treated in a Canadian community healthcare setting. The device is designed to provide negative pressure at 80±20 mm Hg, 24 hours a day of continuous usage, for a maximum wear time of 7 days. Data on wound outcomes, including exudate levels, wound appearance, and wound area, were collected weekly by a Registered Nurse as part of routine practice. When treatment was discontinued, patients and nurses were asked to rate their satisfaction with the device. Data from patients who had used a conventional NPWT device to manage their wounds were retrospectively abstracted from their medical records. In the prospective study, conducted between October 2011 and July 2012, 326 patients (median age=61 years; range 17-91 years) with wounds of mixed etiology (53 pressure ulcers, 21 venous leg ulcers, 16 diabetic foot ulcers, and 15 traumatic and 221 surgical wounds) were treated for a maximum of 8 weeks with the portable NPWT device. The majority of patients (228 out of 326; 68%) achieved complete wound closure within 8 weeks of treatment. The Kaplan-Meier estimate of median time to healing of all wounds was 9 weeks. The majority of patients (318 patients, 97%) reported they were pleased or satisfied with the dressing performance. Nurses indicated satisfaction with the dressing performance for all but two patients (99%). The majority (89%) of patients managed with conventional NPWT (n=539) had an open surgical wound with moderate or high levels of exudate. Healing rates in the portable and conventional NPWT group were similar (10% to 11% per week). Portable, single-use NPWT has the potential to deliver good wound outcomes in community care settings and simplify the use of negative pressure for nurses and patients. Additional research is

  11. Evaluation of the coffee seeds viability by exudates/ Avaliação da viabilidade de sementes de café por exsudatos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tumoru Sera

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A quick evaluation of the germination quality of the seeds is very important for coffee growers. The aim of this research was to estimate the correlation coefficient between the germination and the liberation of brown exudates of coffee seeds with different times after preparation. Petri dishes and humid filter were used to place the seeds. The seeds were obtained from lots of seeds with several aging degrees. The experimental design used was in randomized blocks with seven replications and plots constituted by 10 seeds. High negative correlations (P=0.01 were obtained between the germination and germinative vigour with the liberation of brown exudates at different times. The variance analyses indicated significant differences to germination among seeds of different aging degrees at different evaluation times. The advantage of this technique is to evaluate the germinative quality in six or twelve hours, without the use of specialized labour and expensive equipments.Existe uma grande necessidade de testes que possibilitem uma avaliação rápida e segura da qualidade das sementes. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estimar o coeficiente de correlação existente entre a germinação de sementes de café e a liberação de exsudato marrom. Utilizaram-se placas de Petri e papel-toalha umedecido onde foram colocadas as sementes. Os materiais foram obtidos de lotes de sementes com vários níveis de envelhecimento. Foi utilizado o delineamento em blocos ao acaso com 7 repetições e parcelas constituídas de 10 sementes. Obtiveram-se correlações negativas altas e significativas a 1% entre a germinação e vigor germinativo com a liberação de exsudato marrom. As análises de variância indicaram diferenças significativas na germinação entre sementes de diferentes graus de envelhecimento em relação aos exsudatos marrons. A vantagem desta técnica é avaliar o poder germinativo em poucas horas, sem o uso de mão-de-obra especializada e equipamentos

  12. Effects of Cd Contamination on the root exudates of Sonchus asper L. Hill.%镉胁迫对续断菊Sonchus asper L.Hill.根系分泌物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦丽; 李元; 祖艳群; 何永美; 王吉秀; 陈建军

    2012-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究了不同Cd质量分数(0、50、100、200 mg·kg-1)对续断菊Sonchus asperL.Hill.根系分泌总有机酸、游离氨基酸、可溶性糖的影响,旨在探明根系分泌物对续断菊超积累Cd的影响.结果表明:Cd胁迫下续断菊根系分泌总有机酸、游离氨基酸和可溶性糖的质量浓度显著增加,同时,总有机酸、可溶性糖和游离氨基酸又促进了植株对Cd的吸收.随着Cd处理质量分数的增加,续断菊地上部和根部镉质量分数显著增加,90d时续断菊地上部镉质量分数与可溶性糖、游离氨基酸的质量浓度呈极显著正相关,相关系数分别为0.999(P<0.01)和0.995(P<0.01),根部镉质量分数与可溶性糖、游离氨基酸的质量浓度也呈显著正相关,相关系数分别为0.998(P<0.01)和0.987(P<0.05); Cd对续断菊根系可溶性糖的分泌、游离氨基酸的合成有刺激作用,根系分泌的可溶性糖和游离氨基酸可能在续断菊累积镉的过程中有重要作用.%Pot experiments was carried out to study the effects of four different cadmium levers (0, 50, 100, 200 mg·kg-1) on the root exudates (total organic acids, amino acids and soluble sugar) of Sonchus asper L. Hill, in order to understand the relationship between root exudates and cadmium accumulation in Sonchus asper (L.) Hill. The results showed that with increasing concentration of cadmium, the contents of total organic acids, soluble sugar and dissociative amino acid of root exudates were increased significantly. In the meanwhile, the content of Cd in the shoot and root of Sonchus asper L. Hill was increased significantly, and Cd absorption of Sonchus asper L. Hill, was promoted with the increase of total organic acids, soluble sugar and dissociative amino acid of root exudates. In the 90 th d, there was a significantly positive correlation between shoot Cd contents and the contents of soluble sugar and dissociative amino acid, and the correlation

  13. Organic acid exudates from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens with aluminum stress%超高效液相色谱测定铝胁迫下水培毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘颖坤; 蔡莎艺; 喻卫武; 冷华南; 桂仁意

    2011-01-01

    To develop a simple method to determine the organic acids exuded from roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, root exudates were obtained using a water culture method with treatments of 0, 100, 500, 1 000, and 2000 μmol ·L-1 AlCl3 as the culture solution and analyzed through ultra performance liquid chromatography(UPLC) with ultraviolet(UV) detection. The exudate was concentrated in a rotary evaporator, and separation was performed on an ACQUITY (R)UPLC high-strength silica (HSS) T3 C18 column with 3% CH3OH-KH2PO4 (0.01 mol·L-1)(Ph 2.6)(V/V) as the mobile phase of an ACQUITY (R) UPLC system. Analysis included the effect on separation of 4 organic acids (oxalic acid, malic acid, citric acid and succinic acid) using UV detection wavelength, chromatographic column, and the Ph of the mobile phase. Results showed favorable recovery(95%-105%), satisfactory precision (RSD < 2%), and a good linear relationship (0.022-1.100 μg for the 4 organic acids). According to the retention time and the spectrum of the analytes, the organic acids exuded were an oxalic acid and malic acid. The Al3+ ions interacted with organic acid exudates with the strongest interaction when the concentration of AlCl3 was 500 μmol·L-1.%以毛竹Phyllostachys pubescens种子作为实验材料,建立毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸的提取和测定方法,并测定铝胁迫下毛竹根系分泌物中有机酸.以毛竹水培法收集根系分泌物,分别以0,100,500,1 000,2 000 μmol·L-1等5种不同浓度氯化铝溶液作为培养液进行培养,旋转蒸发浓缩、定容;使用ACQUITYTM Ultra Performance LC超高效液相色谱系统,以体积分数为3%的甲醇-磷酸二氢钾(0.01 mol· L-1)(pH 2.6)溶液作流动相,经HSS T3 C18柱分离,考察检测波长、色谱柱、流动相的pH值及分离温度等因素对4种有机酸分离效果的影响.结果表明:样品制备简便,分离效果好,方法的线性范围及精密度、准确度和回收率都能满足毛竹根系分泌物中痕

  14. A ninety-day oral toxicity study of a new type of processed gum arabic, from Acacia tree (Acacia senegal) exudates, in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doi, Y; Ichihara, T; Hagiwara, A; Imai, N; Tamano, S; Orikoshi, H; Ogasawara, K; Sasaki, Y; Nakamura, M; Shirai, T

    2006-04-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and characterize any subchronic toxicity of a new type of gum arabic (SUPER GUM [Acacia(sen)SUPER GUM]), a naturally processed polysaccharide exudate from gum acacia trees (Acacia senegal), when administered to both sexes of F344 rats at dietary levels of 0 (control), 1.25%, 2.5%, and 5.0% (10 rats/sex/group). During the study, the treatment had no effects on clinical signs, survival, body weights, and food and water consumption, or on findings of urinalysis, ophthalmology, hematology, or blood biochemistry. Gross pathology and histopathology exhibited no differences of toxicological significance between control and treated rats. Increased relative cecum (filled) weights, evident in both sexes of 5.0% group and females of 1.25% and 2.5% groups, were considered to be a physiological adaptation. Thus, the results indicated the toxic level of SUPER GUM to be more than 5.0%, and the no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was concluded to be 5.0% (3,117 mg/kg body weights/day for males, and 3,296 mg/kg body weights/day for males) from the present study. PMID:16256256

  15. Characterization of an extracellularly derived α-mannosidase from the liquid exudate of the sclerotia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (Lib.) de Bary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhengli; Wei, Ran; He, Wen; Ruan, Ying; Liu, Chunlin

    2015-07-01

    Class I α-mannosidases play an important role in co- and post-translational N-glycosylation modification of proteins, and also in glycoprotein glycan hydrolysis. Herein, we investigated a protein named Man-41, from liquid exudate droplets secreted on the surface of developing sclerotia by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. The protein was identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry to be a α-mannosidase. The full-length open reading frame of Man-41 consists of 1581 bp, encoding 526 amino acid residues and containing a putative signal peptide at amino acid residues 1-20, and a conserved sequence at residues 50-521. Man-41 was classified into glycoside hydrolase family 47 (GH47) by clustering analysis. The catalytic residues include Glu(125), Arg(129), Asp(270), Ser(271), Glu(274), Arg(420), Glu(422), Glu(425), Glu(485), Thr(514), and Glu(515), which are conserved in all Class I α-1,2-mannosidases. Recombinant Man-41 protein had 26.67 ± 2.18 U/mg of α-mannosidase activity, about one-half of intracellular mannosidase activity of sclerotia. In conclusion, this is the first time that mannosidase has been identified in an extracellular fluid and Man-41 is also a new member of GH47 with Ca(2+)-dependent characteristics. This work lays the foundation for further study of the function of Man-41 in sclerotial development. PMID:25952984

  16. Isoschaftoside, a C-glycosylflavonoid from Desmodium uncinatum root exudate, is an allelochemical against the development of Striga.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooper, Antony M; Tsanuo, Muniru K; Chamberlain, Keith; Tittcomb, Kay; Scholes, Julie; Hassanali, Ahmed; Khan, Zeyaur R; Pickett, John A

    2010-06-01

    In East African small-holder farming of maize, the cattle forage legume, Desmodium uncinatum is used as an intercrop due to its allelopathic inhibition of parasitism by Striga hermonthica, an obligate parasitic weed that can devastate the maize crop. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the root extract of D. uncinatum revealed isoschaftoside to be the main compound in the most potent fraction inhibiting growth of germinated S. hermonthica radicles. Bioassays repeated with isoschaftoside isolated from a different plant source, Passiflora incarnata, proved it to be a biologically active component. Analysis of the root exudates produced by hydroponically grown D. uncinatum showed isoschaftoside to be present in the hydroponic media at biologically active concentrations of 10-100 nM. PMID:20211477

  17. The effects of low salt concentrations on the mechanism of adhesion between two pieces of pork semimembranosus muscle following tumbling and cooking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bombrun, Laure; Gatellier, Philippe; Carlier, Martine; Kondjoyan, Alain

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this research was to gain deeper insight into the effect of salt content on the adhesion between pieces of semimembranosus pork muscle bound by a tumbling exudate gel. Hydrophobic site number, free thiol and carbonyl content were measured in tumbling exudate and meat protein to evaluate the protein-protein interactions involved in the adhesion process. Proteins were far more oxidized in exudate than in meat, and under our experimental conditions, salt content increased protein bonding in the exudate but not in the meat. Breaking stress increased between non-salted meat and 0.8%-salted meat but did not depend on the protein physicochemical properties of the tumbling exudate. Modifying the meat surface by tumbling alone, tumbling and salting, or scarification had no effect on breaking stress. It is suggested that the break between the meat pieces occurred between the tumbling exudate and the meat surface due to weaker chemical bonds at this location. PMID:23896131

  18. Effects of Diabetic retinopathy hard exudates distributed in macula lutea on visual function%糖尿病视网膜病变黄斑区硬性渗出对视功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘莉莉; 张世幸; 杨木兰

    2015-01-01

    目的:观察非增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变黄斑区硬性渗出对视功能的影响。方法回顾性分析自2010年3月-2011年5月确诊为非增殖期糖尿病视网膜病变者共37例71眼,根据黄斑区6mm硬性渗出累及象限范围分为5组、按渗出的程度分为4级,并分析其与视力、视野的关系。结果黄斑区硬性渗出范围:A组(0象限)、B组(1个象限)、C组(2象限)、D组(3个象限)、E组(4个象限)视力分别是0.83±0.22、0.31±0.24、0.20±0.24、0.17±0.12、0.12±0.13,方差分析差异有统计学意义(F=17.62,P=0.00);视野平均缺损分别为-1.73±1.71、-7.39±4.21、-8.82±6.10、-10.03±3.47、-10.99±2.52,方差分析差异有统计学意义(F=5.79,P=0.00)。黄斑区硬性渗出程度1级、2级、3级、4级组视力分别为0.80±0.23、0.33±0.25、0.15±0.14、0.06±0.03,方差分析差异有统计学意义(F=32.19,P=0.00);视野平均缺损分别为-2.14±2.01、-7.82±3.68、-9.90±2.57、-10.49±8.08,方差分析差异有统计学意义(F=7.57,P=0.00)。结论黄斑区硬性渗出的程度和范围明显影响视力和视野。%Objective To evaluate the influences of hard exudates on macular function of patients with nonproliferative diabet-ic retinopathy. Methods Thirty seven diabetic patients(71 eyes) who were diagnosed as nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy from March 2010 to May 2012 were enrolled for the study. 71 eyes were divided into five groups according to exudates involvement quadrants and four groups were used to estimate the levels of exudates,in order to analyze the relationship between exudates and the visual function. Results Exudates within macula involvement quadrants:The best visual acuities of A,B,C and D group are 0. 83±0.22,0.31±0.24,0.20±0.24,0.17±0.12,0.12±0.13 respectively, they were statistical significantly (F=17.62,P=0.00);The visual field Mean Deviation of A,B,C and D group is -1.73 ±1.71,-7.39 ±4.21,-8.82

  19. Effects of root exudates from Johnsongrass on soil bacteria community diversity%假高粱根系分泌物对土壤细菌群落多样性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘纯; 黄红娟; 张朝贤; 王茂云; 陈小奇; 王金信

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of invasive plant Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers) root exudates on soil bacteria. In a greenhouse experiments, activated carbon was used to investigate root exudates of Johnsongrass because it adsorbs and thereby neutralizes root exudates. The experiment consisted of two combined soil treatments:with or without activated carbon. 16S-rDNA-V3-fragnent-base DGGE (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) was applied to explore variation of the soil bacterial structure. To calculate the diversity parameter, Shannon algorithm was used. The results showed that activated carbon led to a considerable decrease in the soil bacterial diversity level and abundance compared to the without activated carbon treatments. The Shannon diversity index is 2.54 and 3.24 separately in the 160 days. This indicates that Johnsongrass root exudates alter community structure and increase diversity of soil bacteria in rhizobacterial communities. It is different in the bacterial structure with the growth of the plant. The bacterial community showed a high difference with the 50%Jaccard's index of similarity in the florescence, suggesting that increases in root exudates support an increased soil bacterial population. DGGE analysis results show that Johnsongrass root exudates promoted some kinds of rhizobacterial, and show inhibition to some other kinds of the communities. This study establishes root exudates as a mechanism through which a plant is able to regulate soil bacterial community composition, and could be related to the invasive of exotic invasive plants and the soil microbes in rhizosphere.%为探索外来入侵植物假高粱(Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers)根系分泌物对入侵地土壤细菌群落的影响,在室内采用盆栽模拟试验进行了研究。为消除假高粱根系分泌物对土壤的微生物的影响,实验中分别设计添加活性炭的组以及未添加活性炭的组分别培养。

  20. Anti-Inflammatory, Analgesic, and Antipyretic Activities of the Ethanol Extract of Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sireeratawong, Seewaboon; Itharat, Arunporn; Lerdvuthisopon, Nusiri; Piyabhan, Pritsana; Khonsung, Parirat; Boonraeng, Supot; Jaijoy, Kanjana

    2012-01-01

    Piper interruptum Opiz. and Piper chaba Linn. are herbaceous plants in the Piperaceae family. The ethanol extract of P. interruptum and P. chaba inhibited ethyl phenylpropiolate-induced ear edema and carrageenan-induced hind paw edema in rats. Both extracts reduced transudative and granuloma weights as well as body weight gain and thymus weight of the chronic inflammatory model using cotton pellet-induced granuloma formation in rats. Moreover, both extracts exhibited analgesic activity on both early phase and late phase of formalin test in mice and also showed antipyretic activity on yeast-induced hyperthermia in rats. PMID:22530143

  1. Long-lasting effects of anti-VEGF/photodynamic combination therapy in the treatment of exudative age-related macular degeneration: a retrospective chart review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva-Garcia R

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Rosemary Silva-Garcia, Colleen McLellan, Fadi S Shaya, Kent W Small Macula and Retina Institute, Molecular Insight Research Foundation, Cedars-Sinai Medical Towers, Glendale, CA, USA Purpose: To examine the potential long-term benefit of an anti-VEGF/photodynamic therapy (PDT combination on patients treated for wet age-related macular degeneration (AMD.Methods: A retrospective chart review was conducted on 29 eyes (subjects from 26 patients (eight male and 18 female that showed sustained, positive response to combination therapy for exudative AMD for a minimum of 1 year. Collected data included: visual acuity, central retinal thickness, intraocular pressure and history of glaucoma, wet AMD onset and treatment history, concomitant use of anticoagulants and past history or development of cerebrovascular or cardiovascular disease while receiving combination therapy. Results: Subjects underwent an average of five injections and two PDT treatments in total over 16 months before the choroidal neovascular membrane (CNVM stabilized and became inactive for at least 1 year. Prior to the effective anti-VEGF/PDT combination therapy the median Snellen visual acuity ranged from 20/200 to 20/250 and presented at no worse than 20/200 at 1 year after treatment. Some subjects were followed for up to 5 years and remained inactive.Conclusion: Combination therapy can cause long-lasting closure of the CNVM, even with advanced disease resistant to anti-VEGF monotherapy. Keywords: anti-vascular endothelial growth factor, photodynamic therapy, age-related macular degeneration, bevacizumab, visual acuity, intraocular pressure

  2. 地肤根系分泌物对胡麻的化感作用%Ailelopathic effects of different concentration root exudates of Kochia scoparia on oil flax seed germination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵利; 牛俊义; 胡冠芳; 党占海

    2012-01-01

    采用生物测定法,对地肤(Kochia scoparia)根系分泌物对胡麻(Linum usitatissimum)的化感作用进行了研究。结果表明,1)不同浓度的地肤根系分泌物对胡麻的发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数和活力指数均有不同程度的抑制作用,且抑制率随着处理浓度的增大而增大。2)不同浓度的地肤根系分泌物对胡麻根长均表现促进作用,对苗高、根鲜质量和苗鲜质量均表现抑制作用,且无论是促进作用还是抑制作用,均随着处理浓度的升高而增大,但与对照间的差异均不显著。说明地肤根系能够释放化感物质,影响周围植物的生长,根系分泌是地肤释放化感物质的一个途径。3)地肤根系分泌物影响胡麻种子萌发主要是其抑制了胡麻种子的活力指数,对幼苗生长的影响主要是使胡麻的根变细变长。%Allelopathic effects of different concentration root exudates of Kochia scoparia on oil flax seed germination were studied by using methods of bioassay. The results showed that: 1) different concentra-tions of K. scoparia root exudates had different degrees of inhibition (or promotion ) on germination ener-gy, germination rate, germination index and vigor index of oil flax seeds, while the inhibition rate increased with the treatment concentration rising. 2) Different concentrations of K. scoparia root exudates showed to promote the root length of oil flax seedlings and inhibit the shoot height, root fresh weight and shoot fresh weight. However, whether it is promotion or inhibition, the effects trended to be increased with the increase of concentration; but there was no significant difference between the treatments and the control. All these results showed that the root system secretion was one of the way in which K. scoparia could release allelochemicals and affect plant growth around them. 3) The reason of K. scoparia root exu-dates affecting flax seed germination was mainly due to

  3. GC-MS identification of chemicals in lily root exudates%百合根系分泌物的GC-MS鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程智慧; 徐鹏

    2012-01-01

    【目的】分析百合根系分泌物中的主要物质,为预防百合连作障碍和建立科学栽培制度提供依据。【方法】分别用石油醚、乙醚、乙酸乙酯、氯仿和甲醇分离水培法收集百合根系分泌物,用GC-MS分析经生物检测化感强势组分(甲醇组分、石油醚组分、氯仿组分)中的有机物质。【结果】按照相似度达80%、相对含量达0.20%分析检出物质,从百合根系分泌物甲醇组分中共检出11种物质,主要为苯甲酸酯类衍生物,如邻苯二甲酸二异辛酯(52.11%)和双-2-乙己基邻苯二甲酸酯(40.95%),其他成分含量均在1%以下;从石油醚组分中检出6种苯甲酸酯类衍生物,如邻苯二甲酸二异辛酯(88.04%)、邻苯二甲酸二丁酯(9.06%),其他成分含量均在1%以下;氯仿组分中有机物质丰富,检出的有酯类、醛、酚、烯烃、烷烃等19种,含量在1%以上的有邻苯二甲酸二异辛酯(39.87%)、双-2-乙己基邻苯二甲酸酯(39.62%)、十六烷(1.36%)、2-甲氧基-1-(2-硝乙烯基)-3-苯甲氧基-苯(1.22%)、2,4-二叔丁基苯酚(1.02%)。百合根系分泌物的乙醚和乙酸乙酯组分化感作用不强,未对其中的有机物质做进一步鉴定。【结论】百合根系分泌物的GC-MS检出物主要为酯类物质,不同组分中含量高的均为苯甲酸酯类衍生物,还有少量醛、酚、烯等。%【Objective】 The study was to investigate the main organic chemicals in lily root exudates to provide scientific basis for preventing of continuous cropping obstacles and establishing of lily cropping system.【Method】 Lily root exudates collected by hydroponic culture of lily bulbs was isolated with petroleum ether,diethyl ether,ethyl acetate,chloroform and methanol respectively.The strong allelopathic components selected by bioassay were identified by GC-MS.【Result】 Based on the standard of similar degree no lower than 80% and relative content no

  4. Low vision aid in exudative macular degeneration treated by photodynamic therapy and thermal laser photocoagulation%光动力治疗和热激光光凝治疗渗出性黄斑变性所致低视力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Montero JA; Ruiz-Moreno JM; Sanchez-de Castro MJ; Fabiani C

    2006-01-01

    · AIM: To determine the efficacy of low vision rehabilitation (LVR) in patients with age related macular degeneration (AMD) treated by photodynamic therapy (PDT) compared to those treated by thermal laser (TLP).examining the files of 42 patients (42 eyes) with AMD who had been treated either by TLP (Group 1) and PDT (Group 2). Once AMD was considered to be inactive they underwent visual rehabilitation in the LVR Unit in order to increase their ability for distant and near vision.received TLP. Average corrected visual acuity after laser therapy was 0.14 in Group 1, and 0.16 in Group 2. No statistically significant differences were found between both groups before and after laser therapy. Both groups showed improvement after LVR; however, statistically significant differences between both groups were found only for near vision.both PDT and TLP are associated to a decreased visual acuity after treatment, LVR may be more successful for near vision among patients treated by PDT%目的:比较观察光动力治疗(PDT)和热激光光凝(TLP)治疗对年龄相关性黄斑变性(AmD)患者低视力(LVR)的临床疗效.方法:对42例(42眼)AMD患者资料进行回顾性研究,其分别行TLP治疗(组1)或PDT治疗(组2).一旦确定AMD处于非活动期,患者在LVR部进行视力康复,以提高其远、近视功能.结果:18眼接受了PDT治疗,24眼进行TLP治疗.激光治疗后,组1患者的平均最佳矫正视力为0.14,组2平均为0.16.两组比较,视力于激光治疗前后都没有统计学差异;两组的LVR都有提高,但两组中只有近视力比较有统计学差异.结论:本研究结果表明,PDT和TLP治疗后患者的视力均有所下降,PDT治疗时,LVR患者近视力改善更为有效.

  5. Salivary Defense Proteins: Their Network and Role in Innate and Acquired Oral Immunity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gábor Fábián

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available There are numerous defense proteins present in the saliva. Although some of these molecules are present in rather low concentrations, their effects are additive and/or synergistic, resulting in an efficient molecular defense network of the oral cavity. Moreover, local concentrations of these proteins near the mucosal surfaces (mucosal transudate, periodontal sulcus (gingival crevicular fluid and oral wounds and ulcers (transudate may be much greater, and in many cases reinforced by immune and/or inflammatory reactions of the oral mucosa. Some defense proteins, like salivary immunoglobulins and salivary chaperokine HSP70/HSPAs (70 kDa heat shock proteins, are involved in both innate and acquired immunity. Cationic peptides and other defense proteins like lysozyme, bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI, BPI-like proteins, PLUNC (palate lung and nasal epithelial clone proteins, salivary amylase, cystatins, prolin-rich proteins, mucins, peroxidases, statherin and others are primarily responsible for innate immunity. In this paper, this complex system and function of the salivary defense proteins will be reviewed.

  6. TRANSGENIC PLANTS - INSECTICIDAL TOXIN IN ROOT EXUDATES FROM BT CORN. (R826107)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. High cytokine levels in perforated acute otitis media exudates containing live bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skovbjerg, S; Roos, K; Nowrouzian, F; Lindh, M; Holm, S E; Adlerberth, I; Olofsson, S; Wold, A E

    2010-09-01

    Acute otitis media (AOM) is an inflammatory response to microbes in the middle ear, sometimes associated with rupture of the tympanic membrane. Human leukocytes produce different patterns of inflammatory mediators in vitro when stimulated with Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria, respectively. Here, we investigated the cytokine and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) responses in middle ear fluids (MEFs) from children with spontaneously perforated AOM, and related the mediator levels to the presence of pathogens detected by culture (live) or PCR (live or dead). Furthermore, the in vivo cytokine pattern was compared with that induced in leukocytes stimulated by dead bacteria in vitro. MEFs with culturable pathogenic bacteria contained more interleukin (IL)-1β (median: 110 μg/L vs. bacteria. Cytokine levels were unrelated to bacterial species and to the presence or absence of virus. Similar levels of TNF and IL-6 as found in the MEFs were obtained by in vitro stimulation of leukocytes, whereas 11 times more IL-1β and 3.5 times more IL-8 were produced in vivo, and 22 times more IL-10 was produced in vitro. Vigorous production of proinflammatory cytokines accompanies AOM with membrane rupture, regardless of the causative agent, but the production seems to cease rapidly once the bacteria are killed and fragmented. IL-6 and PGE2, however, remain after bacterial disintegration, and may play a role in the resolution phase.

  8. Clinical efficacy of dressings for treatment of heavily exuding chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wiegand, Cornelia; Hipler,Uta-Christina; Elsner, Peter; Tittelbach,Jörg

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia Wiegand, Jörg Tittelbach, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: The treatment of chronic ulcers is a complex issue and presents an increasing problem for caregivers everywhere. This is especially true in Germany, where more than 4 million chronic wounds are treated each year. Therapeutic decisions must be patient-centered and reflect wound etiology, localization, and healing status. The practice of us...

  9. Clinical efficacy of dressings for treatment of heavily exuding chronic wounds

    OpenAIRE

    Wieg; C.; Tittelbach J; Hipler UC; Elsner P

    2015-01-01

    Cornelia Wiegand, Jörg Tittelbach, Uta-Christina Hipler, Peter Elsner Department of Dermatology, University Hospital Jena, Jena, Germany Abstract: The treatment of chronic ulcers is a complex issue and presents an increasing problem for caregivers everywhere. This is especially true in Germany, where more than 4 million chronic wounds are treated each year. Therapeutic decisions must be patient-centered and reflect wound etiology, localization, and healing status. The practice of using ...

  10. A Case of Goldenhar Syndrome Associated with a New Retinal Presentation: Exudative Vitelliform Maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Bruè

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Goldenhar syndrome is a rare clinical disturbance with a wide range of clinical manifestations. We report on a 6-year-old male with peculiar retinal presentation of Goldenhar syndrome. The patient was referred to Ophthalmology for central scotoma in the left eye, where visual acuity was 20/100. Fundus examination was unremarkable, except for yellowish material in the central macula. SD-OCT revealed interruption of the external limiting membrane and inner and outer segment junctions, with disorganized material in the vitelliform space and subretinal fluid. Six months later, fundus and SD-OCT examinations were unchanged without treatment, but visual acuity in the left eye had improved to 20/50. Five years later, he had similar clinical manifestations in the right eye. He was started on systemic steroids. After 15 days, his visual acuity improved to 20/20 and subretinal fluid and yellowish material in the vitelliform space disappeared. Goldenhar syndrome has variable presentation, including vitelliform maculopathy.

  11. A Tale of Transmission: Aeromonas veronii Activity within Leech-Exuded Mucus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, Brittany M; Dacks, Andrew M; Ryan, Kenneth J; Rio, Rita V M

    2016-05-01

    Transmission, critical to the establishment and persistence of host-associated microbiotas, also exposes symbionts to new environmental conditions. With horizontal transmission, these different conditions represent major lifestyle shifts. Yet genome-wide analyses of how microbes adjust their transcriptomes toward these dramatic shifts remain understudied. Here, we provide a comprehensive and comparative analysis of the global transcriptional profiles of a symbiont as it shifts between lifestyles during transmission. The gammaproteobacteriumAeromonas veroniiis transmitted from the gut of the medicinal leech to other hosts via host mucosal castings, yetA. veroniican also transition from mucosal habitancy to a free-living lifestyle. These three lifestyles are characterized by distinct physiological constraints and consequently lifestyle-specific changes in the expression of stress-response genes. Mucus-boundA. veroniihad the greatest expression in terms of both the number of loci and levels of transcription of stress-response mechanisms. However, these bacteria are still capable of proliferating within the mucus, suggesting the availability of nutrients within this environment. We found thatA. veroniialters transcription of loci in a synthetic pathway that obtains and incorporatesN-acetylglucosamine (NAG; a major component of mucus) into the bacterial cell wall, enabling proliferation. Our results demonstrate that symbionts undergo dramatic local adaptation, demonstrated by widespread transcriptional changes, throughout the process of transmission that allows them to thrive while they encounter new environments which further shape their ecology and evolution. PMID:26896136

  12. The strigolactone germination stimulants of the plant-parasitic Striga and Orobanche spp. are derived from the carotenoid pathway

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Matusova, R.; Rani, K.; Verstappen, F.W.A.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Beale, M.; Bouwmeester, H.J.

    2005-01-01

    The seeds of parasitic plants of the genera Striga and Orobanche will only germinate after induction by a chemical signal exuded from the roots of their host. Up to now, several of these germination stimulants have been isolated and identified in the root exudates of a series of host plants of both

  13. Homogenization of the Stefan problem, with application to maple sap exudation

    OpenAIRE

    Graf, Isabell; Stockie, John M.

    2014-01-01

    The technique of periodic homogenization with two-scale convergence is applied to the analysis of a two-phase Stefan-type problem that arises in the study of a periodic array of melting ice bars. For this "reduced model" we prove results on existence, uniqueness and convergence of the two-scale limit solution in the weak form, which requires solving a macroscale problem for the global temperature field and a reference cell problem at each point in space which captures the underlying phase cha...

  14. Citrate exudation by maize roots; A possible mechanism of resistance to aluminium

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mariano, E.D.

    2003-01-01

    Low-molecular-weight organic anions have been intensively studied as possibly involved in a mechanism of Al resistance in plants, due to their involvement in many metabolic processes and to their negative charge, conferring them the capacity to complex metals. The objective of the thesis was to stud

  15. 镉超富集植物东南景天根系分泌物的代谢组学研究%Metabonomics Study on Root Exudates of Cd Hyperaccumulator Sedum Alfredii

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗庆; 孙丽娜; 胡筱敏

    2015-01-01

    利用基于气相色谱_质谱联用技术( GC_MS)的代谢组学方法,寻找不同处理条件间差异显著的镉超富集植物东南景天根系分泌物质,并探讨它们对东南景天耐受或超富集镉的可能作用机制。收集0和40μmol/L镉分别处理4和8天后的东南景天根系分泌物样品,通过样品冻干、甲醇溶解、甲氧胺盐酸盐和N_甲基_N_(三甲基硅烷)三氟乙酰胺衍生化处理、GC_MS检测的分析过程,得到根系分泌物的表达谱。主成分分析和正交偏最小二乘判别分析( OPLS_DA)得分图可将不同处理条件间东南景天的根系分泌物质明显区分,运用OPLS_DA载荷图、模型的变量重要性因子和方差分析发现12个根系分泌物质在4组间存在显著性差异。它们的相对含量在不同处理条件间的变化趋势明显不同,表明东南景天可通过调节它们的分泌来耐受或超富集重金属镉。%A metabonomics method based on gas chromatography_mass spectrometry ( GC_MS) was developed for detecting the significant differences of root exudates of the Cd hyperaccumulator Sedum alfredii under different treatments and study the effect mechanism of S. alfredii tolerating or accumulating the heavy metal Cd. The root exudates were collected after treatment for 4 and 8 days with 0 and 40μmol/L Cd. The collected solution was lyophilized and dissolved with methanol, and after derivatization with methoxyamine hydrochloride and N_methyl_N_trifluoroacetamide, the samples were analyzed by GC_MS. Principal component analysis ( PCA) and orthogonal partial least_squares discrimination analysis ( OPLS_DA) were carried out for pattern recognition and a clear separation among the different treatments was achieved. Twelve compounds which caused the separation among the different treatments were found and identified. With the change of treatments, the relative amount of these 12 compounds revealed different trends, which indicated that the Cd

  16. Epidemiological factors associated with exudative age-related macular degeneration in Spain%西班牙渗出性老年性黄斑变性的相关流行病学因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Javier A Montero; Hortensia S(a)nchez-Tocino; Maria Josefa Mart(i) Maldonado; Concepci(o)n Arnaiz Ni(n)o; Rosa Maria P(e)rez Bartolom; Antonio Valera Coomonte

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To report the demographic characteristics of a sample of population affected by exudative age-related macular degeneration (AMD) in the region of Castilla-Leon (North-Central Spain), and to compare them with a group of population of the same age and from the same geographic area.METHODS: In this observational, prospective study, AMD patients attending a regional reference clinic for photodynamic therapy were interviewed. The patients reported their medical history for high blood pressure, hyperlipemia and smoking habit. Iris color was examined and classified as fight (green, blue and grey) or dark (hazel, brown, black).RESULTS: A total of 343 patients were interviewed. Mean age at onset was 74.9 years (range 55 to 93), Among whom 64.5% were female and 35.5% male. Iris color was rated as light in 45.1% of the patients. Arterial hypertension (AH) was present in 50% of the cases and 15.3% were on treatment for hypercholesterolemia, and 30.2% of the patients were smokers or had quit smoking (80.9% of males).CONCLUSION: The frequency of light colored iris is higher among patients with exudative AMD. In our series, other risk factors for exudative AMD were smoking habit in males, not being on treatment for hypercholesterolemia and being female.%目的:报告在西班牙Castilla-Leo地区患有渗出性老年性黄斑变性(AMD)的样本人群的流行病学特点,并与一组来自同一地区和相同年龄人群进行比较.方法:在本次观察性前瞻性调查中,我们访问了在一家地区性诊所接受光动力学疗法的AMD患者.患者报告了高血压、高血脂、吸烟的病史,检查患者虹膜颜色并分为浅色(绿色、蓝色、灰色)和深色(淡褐色、褐色、黑色).结果:共有343名患者接受了访问,平均年龄为74.9岁(55~93岁),其中64.5%为女性,35.5%为男性,有45.1%的患者虹膜颜色被划为浅色.这些患者中,有50%有动脉性高血压,15.3%接受高胆固醇血症治疗,30.2%吸烟

  17. The study of intravenous infusion mannitol exudation using fresh potatoes compress%静脉输入甘露醇渗出采用新鲜马铃薯外敷的效果研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林伟

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨静脉输入甘露醇渗出采用新鲜马铃薯外敷的效果.方法 将在门诊输液室静脉输入甘露醇渗出的患者60例,随机分为实验组和对照组各30例,实验组给予新鲜马铃薯外敷患处皮肤,对照组给予50%硫酸镁湿敷患处皮肤,疼痛程度采用视觉模拟评分尺进行评分,分别于外敷前及外敷30 min后观察两组患者的疼痛程度及观察两组患者的疗效.结果 实验组患者外敷30 min后疼痛程度较对照组明显减轻,渗出局部组织红、肿、疼痛症状消失快,两者比较(P<0.01),差异有统计学意义.结论 新鲜马铃薯外敷治疗静脉输入甘露醇渗出的疗效比50%硫酸镁湿外敷的疗效显著确切,而且对皮肤组织无刺激,无污染,经济方便,建议临床推广应用.%Objective To explored intravenous infusion mannitol exudation by fresh potatoes compress.Methods The patients with intravenous infusion mannitol exudation in outpatient infusion room were randomly divided into exprimental group and control group,each group was 30 cases,exprimental group was given fresh patato to compress in skin lesion,control group was given 50% magnesium sulfate to wet compress the skin lesion,Using visual analogue scale to score pain intensity,the pain intensity and efficacy of the two group patients before compress and after compress 30 s were observed.Results The pain intensity of exprimental group after compress 30s was released signifiacantly compared with that of control group,and the redness,swelling,pain of leakage local tissue disappeared rapidly had significant differences between the both groups ( P < 0.01 ).Conclusions Fresh potatoes compress to treat intravenous infusion mannitol exudation is markedly exact comparing with 50% magnesium sulfate to wet compress,but no stimulation of the skin tissue,non -polluting,economical and convenient,and adviced to propose and applicate in clinical.

  18. Analysis the reason for failed pleural brushing operation in exudative pleural effusions%渗出性胸腔积液行胸膜刷检操作失败的原因分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    荣艳; 尹冬梅; 凌敏; 苟安栓

    2014-01-01

    目的:分析渗出性胸胸腔积液行胸膜刷检,部分操作失败,分析其原因,总结教训以提高胸膜刷检成功率。方法:对87例渗出性胸腔积液患者,进行闭式胸膜活检术联合胸膜刷检术。结果:87例患者,胸膜活检113次,成功率92.9%(105/113),胸膜刷检112次,成功率仅73.2%(82/112),胸膜刷检操作成功率明显低于胸膜活检,差异有统计学意义(0.05)。30次未成功的胸膜刷检中,19次因细胞刷未能紧贴胸壁,未取到胸膜组织细胞而致操作失败;6次因胸水量大,操作时无法一次将胸水放干净,而致操作失败;另有5次刷检结果仅见红细胞。结论:胸膜刷检在临床中有操作简单、病人耐受性好、取材范围广等优势,在操作中应不断总结经验教训,逐渐提高胸膜刷检操作成功率,从而发挥它在渗出性胸腔积液病因诊断中的价值。%Objective:To analyse reasons for failed pleural brushing in exudative pleural effusions,And summarize lessons to improve success rate of pleural brushing.Methods:The pleural biopsy and pleural brushing was performed in 87 patients suffering from exudative pleural effusions.Results:Total 113 times pleural biopsy were completed in 87 patients, the puncture success rate was 92.9%(105/113). Total 112 times pleural brushing were also completed in this group, brushes examines success rate was 73.2%(82/112), the differences of success rate between pleural biopsy and pleural brushing was statistical significance (P<0.05). Pleural brushing operation failed 30 times, including 19 times for cells brush failed to close the chest , 6 times for a lot of pleural effusion,and other 5 times for only red blood cells.Conclusion: Pleural brushing has a lot of advantages in clinical practice, such as simple operation, good tolerance, wide operation range.We should constantly sum up experience and lessons, and gradually improve the success rate of pleural

  19. Cell origins and diagnostic accuracy of interleukin 27 in pleural effusions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Bing Yang

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study was to investigate the presence of interleukin (IL-27 in pleural effusions and to evaluate the diagnostic significance of pleural IL-27. The concentrations of IL-27 were determined in pleural fluids and sera from 68 patients with tuberculous pleural effusion, 63 malignant pleural effusion, 22 infectious pleural effusion, and 21 transudative pleural effusion. Flow cytometry was used to identify which pleural cell types expressed IL-27. It was found that the concentrations of pleural IL-27 in tuberculous group were significantly higher than those in malignant, infectious, and transudative groups, respectively. Pleural CD4(+ T cells, CD8(+ T cells, NK cells, NKT cells, B cells, monocytes, macrophages, and mesothelial cells might be the cell sources for IL-27. IL-27 levels could be used for diagnostic purpose for tuberculous pleural effusion, with the cut off value of 1,007 ng/L, IL-27 had a sensitivity of 92.7% and specificity of 99.1% for differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from non-tuberculous pleural effusions. Therefore, compared to non-tuberculous pleural effusions, IL-27 appeared to be increased in tuberculous pleural effusion. IL-27 in pleural fluid is a sensitive and specific biomarker for the differential diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion from pleural effusions with the other causes.

  20. Fundus fluorescein angiography of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy%家族性渗出性玻璃体视网膜病变的荧光素眼底血管造影分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑志坤; 黎铧; 李娟娟; 胡竹林

    2011-01-01

    Objective To analysis the the fundus characteristics and fluorescein angiography of familial exudative vitreoretinopathy. Methods Fundus photography and fundus fluorescein angiography were analyzed exudative vitreoretinop-athy. Results Fundus examination showed: the temporal side of a disc-like folds cord where the retinal blood vessels branch-intensive with relatively large number. Peripheral retinal examination showed white lesion with clear boundary, where tortuous retinal blood vessels to expand. Angiographic characteristics: Fundus fluorescein angiography shows peripheral retinal vascular branched, tortuous expansion, with "tree-like" change and take the line straight, the fan-shaped ends and vascular leakage. Conclusion The fundus examination, fundus fluorescein angiography in patients with a history, family history is helpful to confirm the diagnosis.%目的 分析家族性渗出性玻璃体视网膜病变的眼底表现及荧光素眼底血管造影(FFA)特征.方法 收集我院诊治的家族性渗出性玻璃体视网膜病变患者,进行眼底照相及FFA检查,进行对比分析.结果 眼底特征性表现为,视盘颞侧一条索样皱襞,该部分视网膜血管分支密集、数目较多,终止与周边视网膜.周边视网膜检查可见一边界清晰的片状灰白色病灶,此处视网膜血管迂曲扩张.FFA特征为:周边视网膜FFA显示血管分支增多、迂曲扩张,呈"树枝样"改变,走行平直.血管末端发生吻合、呈扇形终止,此部分血管渗漏.结论 眼底检查、FFA结合患者病史、家族史可明确诊断家族性渗出性玻璃体视网膜病变.

  1. Usefulness of pleural effusion antinuclear antibodies in the diagnosis of lupus pleuritis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toworakul, C; Kasitanon, N; Sukitawut, W; Wichinun, R; Louthrenoo, W

    2011-10-01

    We performed this study to determine sensitivity and specificity of pleural effusion antinuclear antibodies (ANA) at a titer of ≥1 : 160, and the ratio of pleural effusion to serum ANA of ≥1, to distinguish between pleural fluid from lupus pleuritis and other causes. A prospective study of 54 patients with pleural effusion (12 lupus pleuritis, seven parapneumonic effusion, 26 malignancy-associated pleural effusions, nine transudative effusions) was performed. ANA at a titer of ≥1 : 160 were found in 11 of 12 lupus pleuritis samples, and in four of 42 pleural effusions from non-systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) patients. The pleural effusion ANA at a titer of ≥1 : 160 gave a sensitivity of 91.67% for lupus pleuritis, with a specificity of 83.33% when compared with all other pleural effusions, 90.91% when compared with exudative effusion (parapneumonic effusion and malignancy-associated effusion) and 55.56% when compared with the transudative pleural effusion group. Using the ratio of pleural effusion to serum ANA of ≥1, the sensitivity and the specificity decreased to 75.00% and 78.57%, respectively. This study provides further evidence that the pleural effusion ANA at a titer of ≥1 : 160 is a sensitive and specific diagnostic biomarker for lupus pleuritis in patients with lupus. However, pleural effusion ANA can occasionally be found in other conditions.

  2. Application of flexible medical thoracoscopy in the diagnosis of exudative pleural effusion%可弯曲内科胸腔镜在渗出性胸腔积液诊断中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李冬琼; 李多; 王文军; 熊彬; 郑俊兰; 范贤明

    2015-01-01

    目的:研究可弯曲内科胸腔镜在渗出性胸腔积液诊断中的临床价值。方法对180例渗出性胸腔积液患者进行可弯曲内科胸腔镜检查,分析其诊断结果、胸膜病变形态、胸水颜色及并发症。结果180例患者成功接受局麻下可弯曲内科胸腔镜检查,明确诊断165例,诊断率为91.7%(165/180)。良性胸腔积液患者112例,占62.2%(112/180),其中结核性胸膜炎109例,肺吸虫感染胸水3例;恶性胸腔积液患者53例,占29.4%(53/180),其中肺癌胸膜转移50例(肺腺癌47例),胸膜间皮瘤2例,淋巴瘤1例;未能明确病理诊断15例(8.3%)。165例确诊患者胸水颜色:血性胸水42例(恶性胸水38例、结核性胸膜炎4例),草黄色胸水123例(结核性胸膜炎105例、肺吸虫感染3例、恶性胸水15例)。恶性胸水组血性胸水比例与良性胸水组比较差异有统计学意义(χ2=85.93,P0.05)。并发症:术前皮下气肿4例,检查后发热4例,术后皮下气肿16例,术中活检时胸痛6例,术后切口疼痛13例,术后交通性气胸1例。结论应用可弯曲内科胸腔镜检查渗出性胸腔积液具有微创、操作简单、诊断率高的优点,可作为渗出性胸腔积液的临床诊断方法。%Objective To study the clinical value of the application flexible medical thoracoscopy check for diagnosing exudative pleural effusion. Methods 180 patients with exudative pleural effusion finished flexible medical thoracoscopy check,analyzed the diagnostic results, pleural lesion morphology, pleural effusion color and complications. Results All 180 patients finished flexible medical thoracoscopy examination,165 cases were diagnosed, the diagnostic rate was 91.7%. 112 pa-tients with benign pleural effusion accounted for 62.2%(112/180), in which 109 cases of tuberculous pleurisy, lung fluke infection in 3 cases. 53 cases of malignant pleural effusions (29.4%):pleural

  3. Automation of a high-speed imaging setup for differential viscosity measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present the automation of a setup previously used to assess the viscosity of pleural effusion samples and discriminate between transudates and exudates, an important first step in clinical diagnostics. The presented automation includes the design, testing, and characterization of a vacuum-actuated loading station that handles the 2 mm glass spheres used as sensors, as well as the engineering of electronic Printed Circuit Board (PCB) incorporating a microcontroller and their synchronization with a commercial high-speed camera operating at 10 000 fps. The hereby work therefore focuses on the instrumentation-related automation efforts as the general method and clinical application have been reported earlier [Hurth et al., J. Appl. Phys. 110, 034701 (2011)]. In addition, we validate the performance of the automated setup with the calibration for viscosity measurements using water/glycerol standard solutions and the determination of the viscosity of an “unknown” solution of hydroxyethyl cellulose

  4. The role of iron species on the competition of two coastal diatoms, Skeletonema costatum and Thalassosira weissflogii

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, S.-X.; Liu, F.-J.; Zheng, F.-Y.; Zuo, Y.-G.; Huang, X.-G.

    2013-12-01

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to macronutrient (N and P) and Fe enrichment. However, how these exposures influence on Fe biogeochemical cycle and then on diatom interspecific competition is unknown. In this study, two non-toxic coastal diatoms, Skeletonema costatum and Thalassosira weissflogii were exposed to N, P, and Fe enrichment for four-day. The growth of algae was co-controlled by macronutrient and Fe species (Fe (III)-EDTA, Fe(OH)3, dissolved, colloidal, and particulate Fe from culture medium). The influence of Fe species on algal cell density was more significant than macronutrient. When S. costatum coexisted with T. weissflogii, their cell density ratios were ranged between 5.57-7.03 times, indicating that S. costatum was more competitive than T. weissflogii. There were not significant correlation between cell density ratio and iron requirement, including iron adsorption and absorption per cell, iron adsorption and absorption by all algal cells. As Fe complexing ligands, algal exudates can promote diatom growth itself and such promotion on S. costatum was more obvious than that on T. weissflogii. Iron species was a key determinant on interspecific competition of coastal diatom, and the degree of bioavailability was described as follows: dissolved iron from own exudates > colloidal iron from own exudates > particulate iron from own exudates > particulate iron from another algal exudates > colloidal iron from another algal exudates > dissolved iron from another algal exudates > Fe (III)-EDTA> Fe (OH)3.

  5. 不同品系小麦根系分泌物对黄瓜化感作用的初步研究%Primary Studies about Root Exudates from Different Wheat Cultivars on Cucumber Allelopathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马亚飞; 杨平; 吴凤芝

    2011-01-01

    以黑龙江省40个小麦品系为供体,以黄瓜品种津优1号为受体,采用培养皿滤纸生物测试法,初步研究了不同品系小麦根系分泌物对黄瓜幼苗的化感作用.结果表明:不同品系小麦根系分泌物对黄瓜种子发芽率、幼苗根长、胚轴长及幼苗鲜质量的影响存在差异.由综合效应(SE)可以看出,龙辐04-0348对黄瓜幼苗的化感促进作用最强,龙辐17化感抑制作用最强,综合化感效应分别为-15.37%和7.76%.%Taking 40 wheat cultivars in Heilongjiang Province as donor and 'Jinyou No.l' cucumber ( Cucumis sativus L. ) as accepter, allelopathy of root exudates from different wheat cultivars on cucumber seedlings were investigated in petri dish experiment. Results showed that different wheat cultivars had different allelopathy on cucumber germination rate, radicle length, radicle and shoot fresh weight. Judging from synthesize effect (SE) value, 'Longfu 04-0348' had the most significant stimulatory effect, and ‘Longfu 17' had the most significant inhibitory effect, their SE values were -15.37 % and 7.76 %,respectively.

  6. 线辣椒不同生育阶段根系分泌物的组分分析%Component Analysis of the Root Exudates at Different Growth Stages in Chili Pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢振华; 赵尊练; 武国平; 叶新华; 史联联; 郭建伟

    2012-01-01

    Root exudates are one of the important factors causing continuous cropping obstacles. In order to resolve the problem of continuous cropping obstacles in chili pepper, the composition and content of the root exudates of chili pepper Shaanjiao 2006 with hydroponics in different growth stages were determined by means of GC-MS. The results showed that the chili pepper root exudates various organic compounds. The 21,27 and 31 kinds of organic compounds, of which similarity (or matching) in more than 70%, were determined in seedling 30 d, seedling 60 d and flowering plant 30 d respectively. Among these organic compounds, the relative content of 21, 24 and 29 kinds was more than 0. 20% respectively. The organic compounds from three growth stages can be divided into eight types, i.e. acids, phenols, hydrocarbons, esters, alcohols, amines, ketones, benzene and other heterocy-clic. The esters is the largest proportion and the total relative content in three growth stages is 67.29%, 56.07% and 59. 51%, respectively. There existed 13 kinds of substances in all of three growth stages. There is 3, 5 and 12 kind's unique material in the three growth stages respectively. In the organic compounds determined, 17 kinds have been proved by previous studies to have allelopathic effects. Among these 17 kinds, there are 9 kinds of substances in the 3 stages of growth. There are three kinds of substances in the two growth stages of flowering plant 30 d and seedling 30 d (or seedling 60 d). There are two kinds of unique material in the growth stages of seedling 60 d, and there are three kinds of unique material in the growth stages of flowering plant 30 d.%根系分泌物是引起连作障碍的原因之一.为解决线辣椒栽培中连作障碍问题,以陕西关中地区线辣椒主栽品种陕椒2006为试材,采用水培收集、气质联用仪(GC-MS)检测,分析陕椒2006在不同生长发育阶段根系分泌物的组成成分和相对含量.结果表明,线辣椒根系分泌物

  7. Evaluation of oral mucosal transudate for immunodiagnosis of Chagas´ disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BARROS Maria das Neves D. S.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Anticorpos anti-Trypanosoma cruzi (isotipo IgG foram detectados no transudato da mucosa oral (TMO através de um ensaio imunoenzimático. Foram estudados 21 indivíduos com doença de Chagas crônica comprovada através de diagnóstico clínico, eletrocardiográfico, epidemiológico e sorológico: 10 com forma cardíaca, 2 com forma digestiva, 6 com forma mista e 3 com forma assintomática. Sete indivíduos de área endêmica, com sorologia negativa, constituiram o grupo controle. O soro destes grupos foi armazenado a -20 oC. A coleta de TMO de ambos os grupos foi realizada com o dispositivo OraSureâ seguindo orientação do fabricante (OraSureâ , Epitope Inc., Beaverton, OR, USA. As amostras de TMO foram diluídas (1:2 e testadas em duplicata através de um ensaio imunoenzimático da Abbott Laboratories para detectar anticorpos IgG contra doença de Chagas. Vinte dos vinte e um pacientes chagásicos apresentaram densidade óptica acima do limiar de reatividade e foram considerados positivos para doença de Chagas. Nenhuma das amostras provenientes de indivíduos soronegativos foi positiva. A sensibilidade e especificidade foram de 95% e 100%, respectivamente. Estes resultados indicam que TMO poderá ser utilizado como um fluido biológico alternativo para o diagnóstico da doença de Chagas. Nós estamos aumentando o número de indivíduos para validar estes resultados incluindo a análise comparativa entre amostras de TMO e soro.

  8. Combined detections of interleukin 27, interferon-γ, and adenosine deaminase in pleural effusion for diagnosis of tuberculous pleurisy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Yan-bin; YE Zhi-jian; QIN Sou-ming; WU Cong; CHEN Yi-qiang; SHI Huan-zhong

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies reported interleukin-27 (IL-27),interferon-γ (IFN-γ),or adenosine deaminase (ADA) alone plays a helpful role in diagnosing tuberculous pleural effusion (TPE).The present study aims at comparing the diagnostic accuracy of pleural IL-27,IFN-γ,and ADA,and investigate the diagnostic accuracy of the combination of IL-27,IFN-γ,or/and ADA for differentiating TPE from pleural effusions with the other etiologies.Methods The concentrations of IL-27,IFN-γ and ADA were simultaneously determined in pleural fluids and sera from 40 patients with TPE; 26 with malignant pleural effusion,seven with infectious pleural effusion,and eight with transudative pleural effusion by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay and colorimetric method.The corresponding biochemical indexs were also simultaneously determined.Results The concentrations of pleural IL-27 and IFN-γ in the tuberculous group were significantly higher than those in the malignant,infectious,and transudative groups.The concentrations of ADA in TPE were significantly higher than those in MPE or transudative effusions,while much lower than those in infectious effusions.Among these three biomarkers,IL-27 was the most effective for TPE diagnosis,with the cut off value of 900.8 ng/L.IL-27 had a high sensitivity of 95% and specificity of 97.6% for differential diagnosis of TPE from non-TPEs.Combinations of IL-27,IFN-γ and ADA measurements further increased the sensitivity or specificity up to 100%.Conclusions Compared to non-TPEs,IL-27,IFN-γ and ADA all simultaneously increased in TPE; and among these three rapid detection methods,IL-27 appeared to be the best for distinguishing tuberculous from non-TPEs,especially from MPE.Combinations of the three markers (IL-27,IFN-γ and ADA) yielded the highest sensitivity and specificity.These findings suggest that the applications of a new biomarker,IL-27,alone or with IFN-γ and ADA,may contribute to more efficient diagnosis strategies in the management

  9. Extraction and identification of ginseng root exudates%人参根系分泌物的提取及鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张爱华; 彭洪利; 雷锋杰; 张连学

    2014-01-01

    [目的]鉴定人参根系分泌物中的化学物质,为研究人参化感作用的发生及其连作障碍提供科学依据.[方法]采用灭菌复合基质复配无土栽培人参,对人参根系分泌物进行原位收集,依次用蒸馏水和乙醇提取人参根系分泌物,合并后用有机溶剂萃取,获得水层及有机相石油醚层和乙酸乙酯层,用HPLC和GC-MS检测水层和2层有机相的物质组成.[结果]人参根系分泌物石油醚层中含有1,3-二氧戊环,4-甲基,4-乙基-2-十五烷、乙基柠檬酸、棕榈酸乙酯和二十五烷等20种化合物,其中,烷烃类物质占46.56%,有机酸酯类物质占22.75%,酚酸类物质占13.78%,烷烃衍生物占3.59%,吡喃类物质占5.39%.乙酸乙酯层中含有丁基柠檬酸、邻苯甲二酸二丁酯和单(2-乙基己基)邻苯二甲酸酯等9种化合物,其中,烷烃类物质占22.77%,有机酸酯类物质占63.71%,酚酸类物质占13.52%.人参根系分泌物水层中含有微量人参皂苷.[结论]采用无土栽培基质可避免人参栽培中微生物的干扰,能很好地培养收集人参根系分泌物,人参根系分泌物中含有人参皂苷及烷烃类物质、有机酸酯类物质和酚酸类物质.

  10. TNT渗油性的分析方法及机理%Analysis Method and Mechanism of TNT Exudation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘国治

    2008-01-01

    针对TNT渗油性标准及其分析方法,用气相色谱、微量天秤和显微摄影等技术,研究了TNT的渗油机理,通过TNT的注装、压装和螺装模拟实验和不同温度下各种装药的渗油实验,发现该渗油性分析方法不是一种严格精准的测定方法,而且其测定机理与现代各种TNT装药工艺不符.因此,认为现行渗油性标准已经落后,应予取消.建议TNT以凝固点(SP)分级,来适应各种装药的需要.同时建立高分离效能的气相色谱分析方法,从微观上监测TNT中各种杂质的变化,以指导TNT生产和装药工艺,确保弹药质量.

  11. Carnes PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) e DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) em lombo suíno numa linha de abate industrial Meats PSE (Pale, Soft, Exudative) and DFD (Dark, Firm, Dry) of an industrial slaughterline for swine loin

    OpenAIRE

    Magali Bernardes Maganhini; Bruno Mariano; Adriana Lourenço Soares; Paulo D. Guarnieri; Massami Shimokomaki; Elza Iouko Ida

    2007-01-01

    A necessidade para uma maior produção de carne magra em suínos tem acarretado modificações nas características bioquímicas do músculo conduzindo ao desenvolvimento das anomalias nas suas cores, as denominadas carnes PSE e DFD. Estas carnes por apresentarem alterações de suas propriedades funcionais, resultam em grandes perdas econômicas. Nesse experimento, foram utilizadas 946 amostras de Longissimus dorsi m., lombos de suínos da linhagem Dalland, machos castrados e fêmeas, com 100 dias de id...

  12. Fate and degradation of petroleum hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    LeFevre, Gregory Hallett

    This dissertation describes the investigation of the fate of hydrocarbons in stormwater bioretention areas and those mechanisms that affect hydrocarbon fate in such systems. Seventy-five samples from 58 bioretention areas were collected and analyzed to measure total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) residual and biodegradation functional genes. TPH residual in bioretention areas was greater than background sites but low overall (<3 µg/kg), and well below either the TPH concentration of concern or the expected concentration, assuming no losses. Bioretention areas with deep-root vegetation contained significantly greater quantites of bacterial 16S rRNA genes and two functional genes involved in hydrocarbon biodegradation. Field soils were capable of mineralizing naphthalene, a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) when incubated in the laboratory. In an additional laboratory investigation, a column study was initiated to comprehensively determine naphthalene fate in a simulated bioretention cell using a 14C-labeled tracer. Sorption to soil was the greatest sink of naphthalene in the columns, although biodegradation and vegetative uptake were also important loss mechanisms. Little leaching occurred following the first flush, and volatilization was insignificant. Significant enrichment of naphthalene degrading bacteria occurred over the course of the experiment as a result of naphthalene exposure. This was evident from enhanced naphthalene biodegradation kinetics (measured via batch tests), significant increases in naphthalene dioxygenase gene quantities, and a significant correlation observed between naphthalene residual and biodegradation functional genes. Vegetated columns outperformed the unplanted control column in terms of total naphthalene removal and biodegradation kinetics. As a result of these experiments, a final study focused on why planted systems outperform unplanted systems was conducted. Plant root exudates were harvested from hydroponic setups for three

  13. Variation among Rice Cultivars in Root Acidification and Its Relation to Cadmium Uptake