WorldWideScience

Sample records for extruded 24s-t aluminum

  1. The Effect of Artificial Aging on the Tensile Properties of Alclad 24S-T and 24S-T Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotanchik, Joseph N.; Woods, Walter; Zender, George W.

    1943-01-01

    An experimental study was made to determine the effect of artificial aging on the tensile properties of alclad 24S-T and 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet material. The results of the tests show that certain combinations of aging time and temperature cause a marked increase in the yield strength and a small increase in the ultimate strength; these increases are accompanied by a very large decrease in elongation. A curve is presented that shows the maximum yield strengths that can be obtained by aging this material at various combinations of time and temperature. The higher values of yield stress are obtained in material aged at relatively longer times and lower temperatures.

  2. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T Aluminum-alloy Sheet with and Without a Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR; Smith, W H

    1944-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests were made on 189 coupon specimens of 0.032-inch 24S-T aluminum-alloy sheet and a few supplementary specimens of 0.004-inch sheet. The mean load was zero. The specimens were restrained against lateral buckling by lubricated solid guides described in a previous report on this project. About two-thirds of the 0.032-inch specimens were plain coupons nominally free from stress raisers. The remainder contained a 0.1285-inch drilled hole at the center where the reduced section was 0.5 inch wide. S-N diagrams were obtained for cycles to failure between about 1000 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the plain specimens and 17 and 10 to the 7th power cycles for the drilled specimens. The fatigue stress concentration factor increased from about 1.08 for a stress amplitude causing failure at 0.25 cycles (static) to a maximum of 1.83 at 15,000 cycles and then decreased gradually. The graph for the drilled specimens showed less scatter than that for the plain specimens.

  3. Axial Fatigue Tests at Zero Mean Stress of 24S-T and 75S-T Aluminum-alloy Strips with a Central Circular Hole

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brueggeman, W C; Mayer, M JR

    1948-01-01

    Axial fatigue tests at zero mean stress have been made on 0.032- and 0.064-inch 24S-T and 0.032-inch 75S-T sheet-metal specimens 1/4, 1/2, 1, and 2 inches wide without a hole and with central holes giving a range of hole diameter D to specimen width W from 0.01 to 0.95. No systematic difference was noted between the results for the 0.032-inch and the 0.064-inch specimens although the latter seemed the more consistent. In general the fatigue strength based on the minimum section dropped sharply as the ration D/W was increased from zero to about 0.25. The plain specimens showed quite a pronounced decrease in fatigue strength with increasing width. The holed specimens showed only slight and rather inconclusive evidence of this size effect. The fatigue stress-concentration factor was higher for 75S-T than for 24S-T alloy. Evidence was found that a very small hole would not cause any reduction in fatigue strength.

  4. exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (lm6/tic)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    lanez

    2017-11-24

    Nov 24, 2017 ... Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum casting alloy (LM6), and particles of (TiC) which make it the first choice in many applications like airplane and marine industries. During this research the extrudability and mechanical specifications of this composite ...

  5. Exploration the extrudability of aluminum matrix composite (LM6/TIC ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aluminum matrix composites (LM6/TiC) is a mix of excellent properties of aluminum ... ABAQUS/CAE software has been successfully employed for Modeling and ... Experimental results show that, many mechanical properties are improved and ...

  6. Wear behaviors of pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy (AA2024-T4) under variable vertical loads and linear speeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jeki; Oak, Jeong-Jung; Kim, Yong-Hwan; Cho, Yi Je; Park, Yong Ho

    2017-11-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the transition of wear behavior for pure aluminum and extruded aluminum alloy 2024-T4 (AA2024-T4). The wear test was carried using a ball-on-disc wear testing machine at various vertical loads and linear speeds. The transition of wear behaviors was analyzed based on the microstructure, wear tracks, wear cross-section, and wear debris. The critical wear rates for each material are occurred at lower linear speed for each vertical load. The transition of wear behavior was observed in which abrasion wears with the generation of an oxide layer, fracture of oxide layer, adhesion wear, severe adhesion wear, and the generation of seizure occurred in sequence. In case of the pure aluminum, the change of wear debris occurred in the order of blocky, flake, and needle-like debris. Cutting chip, flake-like, and coarse flake-like debris was occurred in sequence for the extruded AA2024-T4. The transition in the wear behavior of extruded AA2024-T4 occurred slower than in pure aluminum.

  7. Surface Quality Improvement of AA6060 Aluminum Extruded Components through Liquid Nitrogen Mold Cooling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Francesco Ciuffini

    2018-06-01

    Full Text Available 6xxx aluminum alloys are suitable for the realization of both structural applications and architectural decorative elements, thanks to the combination of high corrosion resistance and good surface finish. In areas where the aesthetic aspects are fundamental, further improvements in surface quality are significant. The cooling of the extrusion mold via internal liquid nitrogen fluxes is emerging as an important innovation in aluminum extrusion. Nowadays, this innovation is providing a large-scale solution to obtain high quality surface finishes in extruded aluminum semi-finished products. These results are also coupled to a significant increase in productivity. The aim of the work is to compare the surface quality of both cooled liquid nitrogen molds and classically extruded products. In this work, adhesion phenomena, occurring during the extrusion between the mold and the flowing material, have been detected as the main causes of the presence of surface defects. The analysis also highlighted a strong increase in the surface quality whenever the extrusion mold was cooled with liquid nitrogen fluxes. This improvement has further been confirmed by an analysis performed on the finished products, after painting and chromium plating. This work on the AA6060 alloy has moreover proceeded to roughness measurements and metallographic analyses, to investigate the eventual occurrence of other possible benefits stemming from this new extrusion mold cooling technology.

  8. Replacement of steel parts with extruded aluminum alloys in an automobile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daggula, Manikantha Reddy

    Over the past years, vehicle emissions have shown a negative impact on environment and human health. A new strategy has been used by automakers to reduce a vehicle's weight which significantly reduce fuel consumption and C02 emissions. A very light car consumes very less fuel as it needs to overcome less inertia, decreasing the required power to movie the vehicle. Reducing weight is the easiest way to increase fuel economy and making it by just 10% can increase its efficiency 6 to 8 percent. For a normal scale 80% of vehicles weight is shared among chassis, power train and other exterior components. Almost 60% of the vehicles weight is comprised of steel and the remaining is with cast and extruded aluminum and magnesium alloys. Our main aim is to look for the parts like Fuel tank holder, Fuel filler neck, Turbo inlet assembly, and Brake lines, Dash board frame which are made from steel and replace them with extruded aluminum alloys, to analyze a conventional rear wheel aluminum drive shaft and replace it with a new design and with a new aluminum alloy. The current project involves dismantling an automobile and looking for feasible steel parts and making samples, analyzing the hardness of the samples. These parts are optimally analyzed using Ansys Finite element analysis tool, these parts are subjected to the constraints such as three-point bending, tensile testing, hydrostatic pressure and also torsional stress action on the drive shaft, the deformation and stress are observed in these parts. The results show the current steel parts can be replaced with 3000 series aluminum alloy and the drive shaft can be replaced with new design with 6061-T6 Al-alloy which decreases 25% of the shaft weight.

  9. Analysis of the cyclic behavior and fatigue damage of extruded AA2017 aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    May, A.; Taleb, L.; Belouchrani, M.A.

    2013-01-01

    The present work is devoted to study the anisotropic behavior of an extruded aluminum alloy under cyclic loading in axial and shear directions. In first, we have studied its elastoplastic behavior through the evolution of stress–strain loops, isotropic and kinematic hardening and we have associated this behavior with the evolution of its elastic adaptation (shakedown). In second, we have studied the behavior of the material in fatigue damage using the evolution of stiffness. Finally, microstructural investigations were performed on fractured surfaces using scanning electron microscope (SEM) in order to understand the evolution of fatigue damage during cyclic loading

  10. Metallographic Index-Based Quantification of the Homogenization State in Extrudable Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panagiota I. Sarafoglou

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Extrudability of aluminum alloys of the 6xxx series is highly dependent on the microstructure of the homogenized billets. It is therefore very important to characterize quantitatively the state of homogenization of the as-cast billets. The quantification of the homogenization state was based on the measurement of specific microstructural indices, which describe the size and shape of the intermetallics and indicate the state of homogenization. The indices evaluated were the following: aspect ratio (AR, which is the ratio of the maximum to the minimum diameter of the particles, feret (F, which is the maximum caliper length, and circularity (C, which is a measure of how closely a particle resembles a circle in a 2D metallographic section. The method included extensive metallographic work and the measurement of a large number of particles, including a statistical analysis, in order to investigate the effect of homogenization time. Among the indices examined, the circularity index exhibited the most consistent variation with homogenization time. The lowest value of the circularity index coincided with the metallographic observation for necklace formation. Shorter homogenization times resulted in intermediate homogenization stages involving rounding of edges or particle pinching. The results indicated that the index-based quantification of the homogenization state could provide a credible method for the selection of homogenization process parameters towards enhanced extrudability.

  11. Intelligent Extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    AlperEker; Mark Giammattia; Paul Houpt; Aditya Kumar; Oscar Montero; Minesh Shah; Norberto Silvi; Timothy Cribbs

    2003-04-24

    ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.

  12. Preparation of an extruded fish snack using twin screw extruder and the storage characteristics of the product

    OpenAIRE

    Sharma, S.K.; Basu, S.

    2003-01-01

    A value-added extruded fish product was prepared with corn flour (80%) and fish (sciaenid) powder (20%), using a twin-screw extruder. The effect of different parameters like moisture, temperature, fish powder concentration, speed of the extruder and die-diameter on expansion ratio and crisp texture were studied. The storage characteristics of the final product were studied using three different types of packaging under nitrogen flushing. The study revealed that aluminum foil is the best packa...

  13. Biaxial vent extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Idemoto, A.; Maki, Y.; Oda, N.

    1981-01-01

    A biaxial vent extruder is described for processing of slurry-like waste fluids or radioactive waste fluids which have a hopper cylinger, a solidifying substance port and a solidified substance port. A plurality of vent cylinders each having a vent port are provided with a plunger type scraper. An extruding cylinder having a single opening for a main screw is connected to the assembled vent cylinders. The main screw extends to the upstream end of the extruding cylinder and a sub-screw extends to the extruding cylinder. The screws each having a full flight engaging the other and a set of rings are mounted on the screws near the respective vent port inlets. The screws are rotated in different directions and inwardly with respect to the vent ports. Rotors may be mounted on the screws to break down solid particles

  14. Erosion in extruder flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, Miron; Fodor, Petru S.

    A detailed analysis of the fluid flow in Tadmor's unwound channel model of the single screw extruder is performed by combining numerical and analytical methods. Using the analytical solution for the longitudinal velocity field (in the limit of zero Reynolds number) allows us to devote all the computational resources solely for a detailed numerical solution of the transversal velocity field. This high resolution 3D model of the fluid flow in a single-screw extruder allows us to identify the position and extent of Moffatt eddies that impede mixing. We further consider the erosion of particles (e.g. carbon-black agglomerates) advected by the polymeric flow. We assume a particle to be made of primary fragments bound together. In the erosion process a primary fragment breaks out of a given particle. Particles are advected by the laminar flow and they disperse because of the shear stresses imparted by the fluid. The time evolution of the numbers of particles of different sizes is described by the Bateman coupled differential equations used to model radioactivity. Using the particle size distribution we compute an entropic fragmentation index which varies from 0 for a monodisperse system to 1 for an extreme poly-disperse system.

  15. The aluminum smelting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvande, Halvor

    2014-05-01

    This introduction to the industrial primary aluminum production process presents a short description of the electrolytic reduction technology, the history of aluminum, and the importance of this metal and its production process to modern society. Aluminum's special qualities have enabled advances in technologies coupled with energy and cost savings. Aircraft capabilities have been greatly enhanced, and increases in size and capacity are made possible by advances in aluminum technology. The metal's flexibility for shaping and extruding has led to architectural advances in energy-saving building construction. The high strength-to-weight ratio has meant a substantial reduction in energy consumption for trucks and other vehicles. The aluminum industry is therefore a pivotal one for ecological sustainability and strategic for technological development.

  16. Analysis of Material Flow in Screw Extrusion of Aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haugen, Bjoern; Oernskar, Magnus; Welo, Torgeir; Wideroee, Fredrik

    2010-01-01

    Screw extrusion of aluminum is a new process for production of aluminum profiles. The commercial potential could be large. Little experimental and numerical work has been done with respect to this process.The material flow of hot aluminum in a screw extruder has been analyzed using finite element formulations for the non-Newtonian Navier-Stokes equations. Aluminum material properties are modeled using the Zener-Holloman material model. Effects of stick-slip conditions are investigated with respect to pressure build up and mixing quality of the extrusion process.The numerical results are compared with physical experiments using an experimental screw extruder.

  17. Extruding plastic scintillator at Fermilab

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alain D.; Rykalin, Viktor V.

    2003-01-01

    An understanding of the costs involved in the production of plastic scintillators and the development of a less expensive material have become necessary with the prospects of building very large plastic scintillation detectors. Several factors contribute to the high cost of plastic scintillating sheets, but the principal reason is the labor-intensive nature of the manufacturing process. In order to significantly lower the costs, the current casting procedures had to be abandoned. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. This concept was tested and high quality extruded plastic scintillator was produced. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. This paper will discuss the characteristics of extruded plastic scintillator and its raw materials, the different manufacturing techniques and the current R andD program at Fermilab

  18. Properties of extrudates from sorghum varieties | Byaruhanga ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Physical-chemical properties of the extrudates including, lateral expansion, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index, as well as proximate composition were determined. The extrudates exhibited 240-300% lateral expansion and 0.067-0.095 g cm-3 bulk density. The water absorption index was ...

  19. Extruded plastic scintillator for MINERvA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pla-Dalmau, Anna; Bross, Alan D.; FermilabRykalin, Victor V.; Wood, Brian M.; NICADD, DeKalb

    2005-01-01

    An extrusion line has recently been installed at Fermilab in collaboration with NICADD (Northern Illinois Center for Accelerator and Detector Development). This new facility will serve to further develop and improve extruded plastic scintillator. Since polystyrene is widely used in the consumer industry, the logical path was to investigate the extrusion of commercial-grade polystyrene pellets with dopants to yield high quality plastic scintillator. The D0 and MINOS experiments are already using extruded scintillator strips in their detectors. A new experiment at Fermilab is pursuing the use of extruded plastic scintillator. A new plastic scintillator strip is being tested and its properties characterized. The initial results are presented here

  20. TEXTURE ANALYSIS OF EXTRUDED APPLE POMACE - WHEAT SEMOLINA BLENDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Bakalov

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Apple pomace - wheat semolina blends were extruded in a laboratory single screw extruder (Brabender 20 DN, Germany. Effects apple pomace content, moisture content, screw speed, and temperature of final cooking zone on texture of extrudates were studied applying response surface methodology. The texture characteristics of the extrudates were measured using a TA.XT Plus Texture Analyser, Stable Micro Systems.

  1. Packaging material and aluminum. Hoso zairyo to aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Itaya, T [Mitsubishi Aluminum Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1992-02-01

    The present paper introduces aluminum foil packaging materials among the relation between packing materials and aluminum. The characteristics of aluminum foil in the packaging area are in its barrier performance, non-toxicity, tastelessness and odorlessness. Its excellent functions and processibility suit best as functional materials for food, medicine and industrial material packaging. While an aluminum foil may be used as a single packing material as in foils used in homes, many of it as a packaging material are used in combination with adhesives, papers or plastic films, or coated or printed. It is used as composite materials laminated or coated with other materials according to their use for the purpose of complementing the aluminum foil as the base material. Representative method to laminate aluminum foils include the wet lamination, dry lamination, thermally dissolved lamination and extruded lamination. The most important quality requirement in lamination is the adhesion strength, which requires a close attention in selecting the kinds of adhesive, laminating conditions, and aging conditions. 8 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Effect of the aluminum flow pattern on the bonding of aluminum to oxidized Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.; Lambert, J.P.

    1965-04-01

    The bonds produced when hot aluminum is allowed to flow smoothly from an extrusion die to the oxidized surface of a heated tube of Zircaloy-2 are consistently inferior to those produced with back-extruded flow. The difference is believed to be due to the reduction in, or elimination of, the oxide layer on the aluminum that comes in contact with the surface of the Zircaloy-2. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 1965. (author)

  3. Physical simulation method for the investigation of weld seam formation during the extrusion of aluminum alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fang, G; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    Extrusion through the porthole die is a predominant forming process used in the production of hollow aluminum alloy profiles across the aluminum extrusion industry. Longitudinal weld seams formed during the process may negatively influence the quality of extruded profiles. It is therefore of

  4. Investigating aluminum alloy reinforced by graphene nanoflakes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yan, S.J., E-mail: shaojiuyan@126.com [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Dai, S.L.; Zhang, X.Y.; Yang, C.; Hong, Q.H.; Chen, J.Z. [Beijing Institute of Aeronautical Materials, Beijing 100095 (China); Lin, Z.M. [Aviation Industry Corporation of China, Beijing 100022 (China)

    2014-08-26

    As one of the most important engineering materials, aluminum alloys have been widely applied in many fields. However, the requirement of enhancing their mechanical properties without sacrificing the ductility is always a challenge in the development of aluminum alloys. Thanks to the excellent physical and mechanical properties, graphene nanoflakes (GNFs) have been applied as promising reinforcing elements in various engineering materials, including polymers and ceramics. However, the investigation of GNFs as reinforcement phase in metals or alloys, especially in aluminum alloys, is still very limited. In this study, the aluminum alloy reinforced by GNFs was successfully prepared via powder metallurgy approach. The GNFs were mixed with aluminum alloy powders through ball milling and followed by hot isostatic pressing. The green body was then hot extruded to obtain the final GNFs reinforced aluminum alloy nanocomposite. The scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscope analysis show that GNFs were well dispersed in the aluminum alloy matrix and no chemical reactions were observed at the interfaces between the GNFs and aluminum alloy matrix. The mechanical properties' testing results show that with increasing filling content of GNFs, both tensile and yield strengths were remarkably increased without losing the ductility performance. These results not only provided a pathway to achieve the goal of preparing high strength aluminum alloys with excellent ductilitybut they also shed light on the development of other metal alloys reinforced by GNFs.

  5. Aluminum Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum hydroxide is used for the relief of heartburn, sour stomach, and peptic ulcer pain and to ... Aluminum hydroxide comes as a capsule, a tablet, and an oral liquid and suspension. The dose and ...

  6. The Evolution of Plate and Extruded Products with High Strength and Fracture Toughness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denzer, D. K.; Rioja, R. J.; Bray, G. H.; Venema, G. B.; Colvin, E. L.

    From the first use of 2017-T74 on the Junkers F13, improvements have been made to plate and extruded products for applications requiring the highest attainable strength and adequate fracture toughness. One such application is the upper wing of large aircraft. The progression of these product improvements achieved through the development of alloys that include 7075-(T6 & T76), 7150-(T6 & T77) and 7055-(T77 & T79) and most recently 7255-(T77 & T79) is reviewed. The most current advancements include aluminum-copper-lithium, alloy 2055 plate and extruded products that can attain strength equivalent to that of 7055-T77 with higher modulus, similar fracture toughness and improved fatigue, fatigue crack growth and corrosion performance. The achievement of these properties is explained in terms of the several alloy design principles. The highly desired and balanced characteristics make these products ideal for upper wing applications.

  7. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    OpenAIRE

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, CliffordIII; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0?20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As ...

  8. Experiment using laboratory scale extruder. Fluid behavior in twin-screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroshi; Miura, Akihiko

    1999-09-01

    All evidences and chemical data suggest non-chemical heating mechanism raised the filling temperature of the bituminized product. But they indicate the filling temperature was higher than before at the incident. We estimated the physical heat mechanism in the extruder. It is well known that the viscous-heating occurs in mixing process in extruders. In order to confirm the behavior of the torque and temperature, some experiment using laboratory scale extruder were performed. The result of the experiment using laboratory scale extruder showed that the phenomena of salt enrichment and salt accumulation were observed and they raised mixture temperature at the decreased feed rate. These phenomena depend on the feed rate. It is considered that they have large contribution to heat transportation and operational torque due to the friction between screw and mixture. In this report, all experiment result are explained. (author)

  9. A phenomenological study on twin screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1976-01-01

    Although more and more twin screw extruders are being used in the polymer industry, the theoretical background is relatively undeveloped. The literature abounds in contradictions and often informs the reader that all extrusion problems can be solved if a certain new design is considered. The

  10. Properties of extruded teff-oat composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teff is an ancient grain that is becoming more popular since it is gluten-free and a good source of vitamins, minerals and protein. Relatively little is known about the properties of extruded teff, although the high insoluble fiber and protein contents have been shown to limit expansion. The health ...

  11. The extrudate swell of HDPE: Rheological effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konaganti, Vinod Kumar; Ansari, Mahmoud; Mitsoulis, Evan; Hatzikiriakos, Savvas G.

    2017-05-01

    The extrudate swell of an industrial grade high molecular weight high-density polyethylene (HDPE) in capillary dies is studied experimentally and numerically using the integral K-BKZ constitutive model. The non-linear viscoelastic flow properties of the polymer resin are studied for a broad range of large step shear strains and high shear rates using the cone partitioned plate (CPP) geometry of the stress/strain controlled rotational rheometer. This allowed the determination of the rheological parameters accurately, in particular the damping function, which is proven to be the most important in simulating transient flows such as extrudate swell. A series of simulations performed using the integral K-BKZ Wagner model with different values of the Wagner exponent n, ranging from n=0.15 to 0.5, demonstrates that the extrudate swell predictions are extremely sensitive to the Wagner damping function exponent. Using the correct n-value resulted in extrudate swell predictions that are in excellent agreement with experimental measurements.

  12. Study on profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, LiangCai; Zhang, Wanping; Zhu, Weihu

    1996-10-01

    This paper presents a new 2D measuring system-profile measurement of extruding tire tread by laser. It includes the thickness measurement of extruding tire tread by laser and the width measurement of extruding tire tread using Moire Fringe. The system has been applied to process line of extruding tire tread. Two measuring results have been obtained. One is a standard profile picture of extruding tire tread including seven measuring values. Another one is a series of thickness and width values. When the scanning speed thickness range is thickness < +/- 0.1mm.

  13. EFFECT OF ADDITION OF PROTEIN PREPARATIONS ON THE QUALITY OF EXTRUDED MAIZE EXTRUDATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Rytel

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The method of extrusion enables enrichment of snacking products with protein preparation simultaneously providing a high quality of end products. Maize semolina with particle size of 500-1250 μm was used as raw material and as additives soybean protein isolate, distillery yeast Safethanol 3035 and laboratory obtained potato protein preparation. Snacks were determined for contents of dry matter, protein, fat as well as for texture, volume weight, bulk density and sensory traits. The application of 3% and 6% additions of protein preparations in extruded snacks production was found to exert a beneficial effect on their chemical composition without deteriorating sensory characteristics. The higher, 6%, addition of proteins to extrudates turned out to significantly reduce content of fat (by 18% and ash (by 50%, and to increase total protein content by 26%, on average, in the products examined as compared to the samples free of additives. The addition of potato protein to extrudates, especially at the higher dose (6%, significantly improved their consistency and texture, simultaneously diminishing the expansion ratio of ready products. The higher (6% addition of yeast protein applied in the production of extrudates resulted in slight deterioration of their taste and aroma, yet had a positive effect on the structure and expansion ratio of the ready products. The extrudates produced with the addition of soybean protein were characterized by a good expansion ratio, uniform structure, irrespective of preparation dose and simultaneously demonstrated lower bulk mass as compared to the other products obtained in the experiment.

  14. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Vadukapuram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0–20% into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P≤0.05 different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P>0.05 in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5–10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  15. Physicochemical Properties of Flaxseed Fortified Extruded Bean Snack.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadukapuram, Naveen; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Niehaus, Mary

    2014-01-01

    Milled flaxseed was incorporated (0-20%) into a combination of bean-corn flours and extruded in a twin screw extruder using corn curl method. Physicochemical parameters such as water activity, color, expansion ratio, bulk density, lipid content, and peroxide values of extruded snack were analyzed. Scanning electron micrographs were taken. Peroxide values and propanal contents were measured over four months of storage. Rancidity scores of extruded snack were measured using a trained panel. As expected, omega-3 fatty acids and bulk density increased with increasing flaxseed fortification levels. Extrudates with more flaxseed had decreased lightness values and expansion ratios. However, only the 15 and 20% flaxseed containing extrudates had expansion ratios that were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) different from the control. In general, no significant difference (P > 0.05) in water activity values was observed in the flaxseed fortified extrudates, except in the navy-corn based extrudates. Peroxide values increased with increased flaxseed levels and over a storage period. However, propanal values did not change significantly in the 5-10% flaxseed fortified extrudates but increased in extrudates with higher levels of flaxseed. Rancidity scores were correlated with peroxide values and did not increase significantly during storage under nitrogen flushed conditions.

  16. Properties of extruded snacks supplemented with amaranth grain grits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadnađev Miroslav S.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded amaranth grain products have specific aroma and can be used as snack food, supplement in breakfast cereals, or as raw material for further processing. Extruded products of corn-amaranth grits blends, containing 20% or 50% amaranth grain grits, were produced by extrusion-cooking using a laboratory Brabender single screw extruder 20 DN. Extrudates with various texture were obtained. During extrusion process starch granules are partially degraded, hence rheological properties were examined. All samples exhibited thixotropic flow behavior. Those samples in which part of the corn grits was replaced with amaranth one had lower viscosity and exhibited lower level of structuration during storage.

  17. The nutritional properties of extruded and non-extruded corn fiber isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artz, W E; Warren, C C; Erdman, J W; Villota, R

    1990-01-01

    The feed efficiency and selected organ weights of rats fed diets containing 3 or 7% corn fiber, extruded corn fiber or silica were compared to rats fed a fiber-free diet. No significant differences were found in feed efficiency, spleen, lung or liver weights for any of the treatments relative to the fiber-free control diet.

  18. Fuzzy logic application for extruders replacement problem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edison Conde Perez dos Santos

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In a scenario of uncertainty and imprecision, before taking the replacement analysis, a manager needs to consider the uncertain reality of a problem. In this scenario, the fuzzy logic makes an excellent option. Therefore, it is necessary to make a decision based on the fuzzy model. This study is based on the comparison of two methodologies used in the problem of asset replacement. The study, thus, was based on a comparison between two extruders for polypropylene yarn bibliopegy, comparing mainly the costs involved in maintaining the equipment.

  19. Method and apparatus for extruding thermoplastic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKelvey, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    A gear pump assisted screw conveyor extrusion system utilizing a cartridge heating device disposed axially within the screw and having the drives for the gear pump and the screw correlated in speed to create relatively little pressure in the thermoplastic material being extruded such that relatively little mechanical working thereof occurs. The thermoplastic material is melted in the screw conveyor primarily by heat transfer from the cartridge heater and the gear pump is utilized for conveying the melted material under pressure to a subsequent work station. A relatively deep material-conveying spiral channel is provided in the screw for maximized extrusion output per revolution of the screw and minimized mechanical energy generation by the screw. A motionless mixer may be employed intermediate the screw and the work station to homogenize the melted material for reducing temperature gradients therein. The system advantageously is capable of extruding material at a substantially greater rate and a lower material temperature and with substantially increased power economy than conventional systems utilizing a high pressure, externally heated screw conveyor portion

  20. Method of extruding and packaging a thin sample of reactive material including forming the extrusion die

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewandowski, E.F.; Peterson, L.L.

    1985-01-01

    This invention teaches a method of cutting a narrow slot in an extrusion die with an electrical discharge machine by first drilling spaced holes at the ends of where the slot will be, whereby the oil can flow through the holes and slot to flush the material eroded away as the slot is being cut. The invention further teaches a method of extruding a very thin ribbon of solid highly reactive material such as lithium or sodium through the die in an inert atmosphere of nitrogen, argon or the like as in a glovebox. The invention further teaches a method of stamping out sample discs from the ribbon and of packaging each disc by sandwiching it between two aluminum sheets and cold welding the sheets together along an annular seam beyond the outer periphery of the disc. This provides a sample of high purity reactive material that can have a long shelf life

  1. Evaluation of the amount of apically extruded debris during ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2015-04-06

    Apr 6, 2015 ... Objective: To evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during retreatment (with or without solvent) of root canals filled by two ... These filling materials can be used with several obturation .... The tip of the master cone.

  2. Acceptability and characterization of extruded pinto, navy and black beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simons, Courtney W; Hall, Clifford; Tulbek, Mehmet; Mendis, Mihiri; Heck, Taylor; Ogunyemi, Samuel

    2015-08-30

    Consumption of dry beans has been relatively flat over the last decade. Creating new bean products may increase the consumption of beans and allow more consumers to obtain the health benefits of beans. In this study, pinto, navy and black beans were milled and the resulting flours extruded into puffs. Unflavored extruded puffs were evaluated by untrained panelists using a hedonic scale for appearance, flavor, texture and overall acceptability. The compositions of raw flours and extrudates were characterized. Sensory results indicated that all beans met or exceeded the minimum requirement for acceptability. Overall acceptability of navy and pinto beans was not significantly different, while acceptability of black bean puffs was significantly lower. Total protein (198-217 g kg(-1)) in extrudates was significantly different among the three beans. Total starch ranged from 398 to 406 g kg(-1) and was not significantly different. Resistant starch, total extractable lipid and raffinose contents were significantly reduced by extrusion. Extrusion did not affect crude fiber and phytic acid contents. The minimal effects on protein and fiber contents, the significant reduction in raffinose content and the acceptability of the unflavored extruded puffs support using various bean flours as ingredients in extruded puffed products. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Optimization and Numerical Simulation of Outlet of Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yuan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the unreasonable design of non-intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder die, the problem of productivity reduction was discussed. Firstly, the mathematical model of extruder productivity was established. The extruder die model was improved. Secondly, the force analysis of twin screw extruder physical model was carried out. Meanwhile, A combination of mechanical analysis and numerical simulation was adopted. The velocity field, pressure field and viscosity field were calculated by Mini-Element interpolation method, linear interpolation method and Picard iterative convergence method respectively. The influence of die model on the quantity of each field before and after improvement was analyzed. The results show that the improved model had increased the rheological parameters of the flow field, the leakage and reverse flow decreased. Through post-processing calculation, the productivity of the third dies extruder was 10% higher than before. The research results provide a theoretical basis for the design and optimization of die model of non intermeshing counter-rotating twin screw extruder.

  4. The Prediction of Microstructure Evolution of 6005A Aluminum Alloy in a P-ECAP Extrusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shi; Jiu-Ba, Wen; Chang, Ren

    2018-05-01

    Finite element modeling (FEM) was applied for predicting the recrystallized structure in extruded 6005 aluminum alloy, and simulated results were experimentally validated. First, microstructure evolution of 6005 aluminum alloy during deformation was studied by means of isothermal compression test, where the processing parameters were chosen to reproduce the typical industrial conditions. Second, microstructure evolution was analyzed, and the obtained information was used to fit a dynamic recrystallization model implementing inside the DEFORM-3D FEM code environment. FEM of deformation of 6005 aluminum has been established and validated by microstructure comparison. Finally, the obtained dynamic recrystallization model was applied to tube extrusion by using a portholes-equal channel angular pressing die. The finite element analysis results showed that coarse DRX grains occur in the extruded tube at higher temperature and in the extruded tube at the faster speed of the stem. The test results showed material from the front end of the extruded tube has coarse grains (60 μm) and other extruded tube has finer grains (20 μm).

  5. The Prediction of Microstructure Evolution of 6005A Aluminum Alloy in a P-ECAP Extrusion Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lei, Shi; Jiu-Ba, Wen; Chang, Ren

    2018-04-01

    Finite element modeling (FEM) was applied for predicting the recrystallized structure in extruded 6005 aluminum alloy, and simulated results were experimentally validated. First, microstructure evolution of 6005 aluminum alloy during deformation was studied by means of isothermal compression test, where the processing parameters were chosen to reproduce the typical industrial conditions. Second, microstructure evolution was analyzed, and the obtained information was used to fit a dynamic recrystallization model implementing inside the DEFORM-3D FEM code environment. FEM of deformation of 6005 aluminum has been established and validated by microstructure comparison. Finally, the obtained dynamic recrystallization model was applied to tube extrusion by using a portholes-equal channel angular pressing die. The finite element analysis results showed that coarse DRX grains occur in the extruded tube at higher temperature and in the extruded tube at the faster speed of the stem. The test results showed material from the front end of the extruded tube has coarse grains (60 μm) and other extruded tube has finer grains (20 μm).

  6. Apically-extruded debris using the ProTaper system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Nasim Gheshlaghi; Ebrahimi, Gholamreza

    2005-04-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to determine the quantity of debris and irrigant extruded apically using the ProTaper system compared to ProFiles and K-Flexofiles. Thirty-six mesio-buccal root canals of human mandibular molars were selected and divided into three groups of twelve canals. Two groups were instrumented with ProFiles and ProTapers according to the manufacturer's instructions. The other group was instrumented with K-Flexofiles using the step-back technique. A standard amount of irrigant was used for each canal. Apically-extruded debris and irrigant was collected in pre-weighed vials. The mean weight of extruded debris and irrigant for each group was statistically analysed using Student's t-test and one-way ANOVA. All instrumentation techniques produced extruded debris and irrigant. Although the mean amount of extrusion with the step-back technique was higher than the two rotary systems, there was no significant difference between the three groups (p > 0.05). NiTi rotary systems were associated with less apical extrusion, but were not significantly better than hand file instrumentation. All techniques extruded debris.

  7. Bio rapid prototyping by extruding/aspirating/refilling thermoreversible hydrogel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iwami, K; Noda, T; Ishida, K; Umeda, N; Morishima, K; Nakamura, M

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports a method for rapid prototyping of cell tissues, which is based on a system that extrudes, aspirates and refills a mixture of cells and thermoreversible hydrogel as a scaffold. In the extruding mode, a cell-mixed scaffold solution in the sol state is extruded from a cooled micronozzle into a temperature-controlled substrate, which keeps the scaffold in the gel state. In the aspiration mode, the opposite process is performed by Bernoulli suction. In the refilling mode, the solution is extruded into a groove created in the aspiration mode. The minimum width of extruded hydrogel pattern is 114 ± 15 μm by employing a nozzle of diameter 100 μm, and that of aspirated groove was 355 ± 10 μm using a 500 μm-diameter nozzle. Gum arabic is mixed with the scaffold solution to avoid peeling-off of the gel pattern from the substrate. Patterning of Sf-9 cell tissue is demonstrated, and the stability of the patterned cell is investigated. This system offers a procedure for rapid prototyping and local modification of cell scaffolds for tissue engineering.

  8. Analysis of the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coverdell, B.L.

    1995-09-01

    In order for the Retained Gas Sample (RGS) Extruder Assembly to be safely used it was determined by the cognizant engineer that analysis was necessary. The use of the finite-element analysis (FEA) progarm COSMOS/M version 1.71 permitted a quick, easy, and detailed stress analysis of the RGS Extruder Assembly. The FEA model is a three dimensional model using the SHELL4T element type. From the results of the FEA, the cognizant engineer determined that the RGS extruder would be rated at 10,000 lbf and load tested to 12,000 lbf. The respective input and output files for the model are EXTR02.GFM and EXTR02.OUT and can be found on the attached tape

  9. Chemical modification and blending of polymers in an extruder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Prut, Eduard V; Zelenetskii, Alexandr N

    2001-01-01

    Chemical modification and blending of polymers in an extruder reactor are discussed. Relationships between the parameters affecting the reaction kinetics, viz., mixing time, duration of a chemical reaction and the residence time of the system in the extruder reactor, and the structure of the materials produced are analysed. The mechanisms of (i) grafting of low-molecular-mass compounds onto polymers; (ii) reactions between terminal groups of different polymers and (iii) transesterification and interchange reactions are considered. The factors affecting the mechanism of dynamic vulcanisation and the properties of thermoplastic elastomers are identified. Solid-phase reactions of polysaccharides in an extruder are discussed. The priority aspects of studies on the chemical modification and blending of polymers are noted. The bibliography includes 90 references.

  10. Extruder system and method for treatment of a gaseous medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silvi, Norberto; Perry, Robert James; Singh, Surinder Prabhjot; Balch, Gary Stephen; Westendorf, Tiffany Elizabeth Pinard

    2016-04-05

    A system for treatment of a gaseous medium, comprises an extruder having a barrel. The extruder further comprises a first inlet port, a second inlet port, and a plurality of outlet ports coupled to the barrel. The first inlet port is configured for feeding a lean sorbent, the second inlet port is configured for feeding a gaseous medium, and the plurality of outlet ports are configured for releasing a plurality of components removed from the gaseous medium. Further, the extruder comprises a plurality of helical elements coupled to a plurality of kneading elements, mounted on a shaft, and disposed within the barrel. The barrel and the plurality of helical and kneading elements together form an absorption unit and a desorption unit. The first and second inlet ports are formed in the absorption unit and the plurality of outlet ports are formed in the absorption and desorption units.

  11. Quality improvement of melt extruded laminar systems using mixture design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasa, D; Perissutti, B; Campisi, B; Grassi, M; Grabnar, I; Golob, S; Mian, M; Voinovich, D

    2015-07-30

    This study investigates the application of melt extrusion for the development of an oral retard formulation with a precise drug release over time. Since adjusting the formulation appears to be of the utmost importance in achieving the desired drug release patterns, different formulations of laminar extrudates were prepared according to the principles of Experimental Design, using a design for mixtures to assess the influence of formulation composition on the in vitro drug release from the extrudates after 1h and after 8h. The effect of each component on the two response variables was also studied. Ternary mixtures of theophylline (model drug), monohydrate lactose and microcrystalline wax (as thermoplastic binder) were extruded in a lab scale vertical ram extruder in absence of solvents at a temperature below the melting point of the binder (so that the crystalline state of the drug could be maintained), through a rectangular die to obtain suitable laminar systems. Thanks to the desirability approach and a reliability study for ensuring the quality of the formulation, a very restricted optimal zone was defined within the experimental domain. Among the mixture components, the variation of microcrystalline wax content played the most significant role in overall influence on the in vitro drug release. The formulation theophylline:lactose:wax, 57:14:29 (by weight), selected based on the desirability zone, was subsequently used for in vivo studies. The plasma profile, obtained after oral administration of the laminar extruded system in hard gelatine capsules, revealed the typical trend of an oral retard formulation. The application of the mixture experimental design associated to a desirability function permitted to optimize the extruded system and to determine the composition space that ensures final product quality. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Physical and functional properties of arrowroot starch extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyothi, A N; Sheriff, J T; Sajeev, M S

    2009-03-01

    Arrowroot starch, a commercially underexploited tuber starch but having potential digestive and medicinal properties, has been subjected to extrusion cooking using a single screw food extruder. Different levels of feed moisture (12%, 14%, and 16%) and extrusion temperatures (140, 150, 160, 170, 180, and 190 degrees C) were used for extrusion. The physical properties--bulk density, true density, porosity, and expansion ratio; functional properties such as water absorption index, water solubility index, oil absorption index, pasting, rheological, and textural properties; and in vitro enzyme digestibility of the extrudates were determined. The expansion ratio of the extrudates ranged from 3.22 to 6.09. The water absorption index (6.52 to 8.85 g gel/g dry sample), water solubility index (15.92% to 41.31%), and oil absorption index (0.50 to 1.70 g/g) were higher for the extrudates in comparison to native starch (1.81 g gel/g dry sample, 1.16% and 0.60 g/g, respectively). The rheological properties, storage modulus, and loss modulus of the gelatinized powdered extrudates were significantly lower (P extruded at higher feed moisture and lower extrusion temperature, whereas snap force and energy were higher at lower feed moisture and temperature. There was a significant decrease in the percentage digestibility of arrowroot starch (30.07% after 30 min of incubation with the enzyme) after extrusion (25.27% to 30.56%). Extrusion cooking of arrowroot starch resulted in products with very good expansion, color, and lower digestibility, which can be exploited for its potential use as a snack food.

  13. An in vitro comparison of apically extruded debris using three rotary nickel-titanium instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamer Tasdemir

    2010-09-01

    Conclusion: According to this study, all instrumentation techniques apically extruded debris through the apical foramen. However, the BioRaCe instruments induced less extruded debris than the ProTaper Universal and Mtwo rotary systems.

  14. Joining of aluminum sheet and glass fiber reinforced polymer using extruded pins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Romina; Buhl, Johannes; Ambrogio, Giuseppina; Bambach, Markus

    2018-05-01

    The present contribution proposes a new approach for joining sheet metal and fiber reinforced composites. The joining process draws upon a Friction Stir Forming (FSF) process, which is performed on the metal sheet to produce slender pins. These pins are used to pierce through the composite. Joining is complete by forming a locking head out of the part if the pin sticks out of the composite. Pins of different diameters and lengths were produced from EN AW-1050 material, which were joined to glass fiber reinforced polyamide-6. The strength of the joint has been experimentally tested in order to understand the effect of the process temperature on the pins strength and therefore on the joining. The results demonstrate the feasibility of this new technique, which uses no excess material.

  15. Residence time distribution in twin-screw extruders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jager, T.

    1992-01-01

    For the twin-screw extruders used in the food industry at short time high temperature processes the knowledge of their reactor properties is incomplete for mass- and heat flow. Therefore each process change such as: scale-up or product development requires a great number of measurements

  16. Studies on positive conveying in helically channeled single screw extruders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Pan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available A solids conveying theory called double-flight driving theory was proposed for helically channeled single screw extruders. In the extruder, screw channel rotates against static barrel channel, which behaves as cooperative embedded twin-screws for the positive conveying. They turn as two parallel arc plates, between which an arc-plate solid-plug was assumed. By analyzing the forces on the solid-plug in the barrel channel and screw channel, the boundary conditions when the solid-plug is waived of being cut off on barrel wall, were found to have the capacity of the positive conveying. Experimental data were obtained using a specially designed extruder with a helically channeled barrel in the feeding zone and a pressure-adjustable die. The effects of the barrel channel geometry and friction coefficients on the conveying mechanism were presented and compared with the experimental results. The simulations showed that the positive conveying could be achieved after optimizing extruder designs. Compared with the traditional design with the friction-drag conveying, the throughput is higher while screw torque and energy consumption are decreased. Besides, the design criteria of the barrel channel were also discussed.

  17. Alfalfa silage ratios and full fat extruded soybeans on milk

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    2010-08-16

    Aug 16, 2010 ... Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 0 or 5% full fat extruded soybeans meal (dry matter basis) and ... Milk fat and lactose were not affected by replacing corn .... The oven temperature was initially 180°C for 45.

  18. [Significance of extruded feeds for trout nutrition and water protection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steffens, W

    1993-01-01

    Extruded feeds exhibit an improved starch digestibility and are more firmly bound due to the almost complete gelatinization of the starch. This results in fewer fines and longer water stability than pelleted feeds. Extruded pellets also have the advantage that they can soak up more oil than a conventional pellet. It is therefore possible to increase the maximum oil content to more than 20%. On the other hand extruding feeds is more expensive than steam pelleting. Gelatinized starch is a useful energy source in trout diets helping to reduce feed conversion ratios. Proportions up to 35-40% in the diet are tolerable. Using high dietary levels of both gelatinized starch and oil the non-protein energy of feed may be increased and thus a protein-sparing effect results. High-energy diets enable to reduce excretion of faeces and of nitrogen via gills. In addition a decrease of phosphorus level in feeds and thus of phosphorus excretion by fish is possible. Extruded high-energy diets therefore make a contribution to improve water quality.

  19. Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in rats fed extruded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Weight analyses and nitrogen balance assay in adult rats in raw and extruded African breadfruit (Treculia africana) based diets were carried out using response surface methodology in a central composite design. Process variables were feed composition (40 - 100 % African breadfruit, 0 - 5 % corn and 0 - 55 % soybean, ...

  20. Modeling The Effect Of Extruder Screw Speed On The Mechanical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Modeling The Effect Of Extruder Screw Speed On The Mechanical Properties Of High Density Polyethylene Blown Film. ... Journal of Modeling, Design and Management of Engineering Systems ... Two sets of multiple linear regression models were developed to predict impact failure weight and tenacity respectively.

  1. Investigation of heat transfer for extruded polymers cooled in water

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kumar, R

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available . The temperature of still water after 1, 5 and 10 min were determined experimentally using the digital temperature sensor. The temperature gains for the water after the immersion of the extruded polymers were determined at different time intervals. In the second...

  2. A sustainable solid state recycling of pure aluminum by means of friction stir extrusion process (FSE)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehtedi, Mohamad El; Forcellese, Archimede; Simoncini, Michela; Spigarelli, Stefano

    2018-05-01

    In this research, the feasibility of solid-state recycling of pure aluminum AA1099 machining chips using FSE process is investigated. In the early stage, a FE simulation was conducted in order to optimize the die design and the process parameters in terms of plunge rotational speed and extrusion rate. The AA1099 aluminum chips were produced by turning of an as-received bar without lubrication. The chips were compacted on a MTS machine up to 150KN of load. The extruded samples were analyzed by optical and electron microscope in order to see the material flow and to characterize the microstructure. Finally, micro-hardness Vickers profiles were carried out, in both longitudinal and transversal direction of the obtained profiles, in order to investigate the homogeneity of the mechanical properties of the extrudate.

  3. Control of lipid oxidation in extruded salmon jerky snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Jian; Perkins, L Brian; Dougherty, Michael P; Camire, Mary Ellen

    2011-01-01

    A shelf-life study was conducted to evaluate the effect of antioxidants on oxidative stability of extruded jerky-style salmon snacks. Deterioration of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) due to lipid oxidation is a major concern for this healthy snack. A control jerky with no added antioxidants and 4 jerkies with antioxidants (rosemary, mixed tocopherols, tertiary butylhydroquinone, and ascorbyl palmitate) added as 0.02% of the lipid content were extruded in duplicate in a Coperion ZSK-25 twin screw extruder. Salmon jerkies from each formulation were placed in 3 mil barrier pouches, flushed with nitrogen, and stored at 35 °C and 75% relative humidity. Lipid oxidation was evaluated as by peroxide value and malonaldehyde content. Other chemical analyses included total fatty acid composition, lipid content, moisture, water activity, pH, and salt. Astaxanthin and CIE L*, a*, b* color were also analyzed at 4-wk intervals. Rosemary inhibited peroxide formation better than did other antioxidants at week 8; no treatment inhibited malonaldehyde levels. All jerkies had lower astaxanthin levels after 8 wk, but rosemary-treated jerky had higher pigment concentrations than did the control at weeks 4 and 8. Protection of omega-3 lipids in these extruded jerkies must be improved to offer consumers a convenient source of these healthful lipids. Practical Application: Salmon flesh can be extruded to produce a jerky that provides 410 mg of omega-3 lipids per serving. Natural antioxidants such as rosemary should be added at levels over 0.02% of the lipid content to help control lipid oxidation. Astaxanthin and CIE a* values correlated well with lipid stability and could be used to monitor quality during storage if initial values are known.

  4. Influence of Extrusion Temperature on the Aging Behavior and Mechanical Properties of an AA6060 Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadja Berndt

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Processing of AA6060 aluminum alloys for semi-products usually includes hot extrusion with subsequent artificial aging for several hours. Processing below the recrystallization temperature allows for an increased strength at a significantly reduced annealing time by combining strain hardening and precipitation hardening. In this study, we investigate the potential of cold and warm extrusion as alternative processing routes for high strength aluminum semi-products. Cast billets of the age hardening aluminum alloy AA6060 were solution annealed and then extruded at room temperature, 120 or 170 °C, followed by an aging treatment. Electron microscopy and mechanical testing were performed on the as-extruded as well as the annealed materials to characterize the resulting microstructural features and mechanical properties. All of the extruded profiles exhibit similar, strongly graded microstructures. The strain gradients and the varying extrusion temperatures lead to different stages of dynamic precipitation in the as-extruded materials, which significantly alter the subsequent aging behavior and mechanical properties. The experimental results demonstrate that extrusion below recrystallization temperature allows for high strength at a massively reduced aging time due to dynamic precipitation and/or accelerated precipitation kinetics. The highest strength and ductility were achieved by extrusion at 120 °C and subsequent short-time aging.

  5. Influence of extruder screws speed and process temperature on the extrudate shape changes of the maize-spelt blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomasz Żelaziński

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was examination of changes in the shape factors of extruded products, which occur as a result of different settings of the extrusion process variables. Samples analysed included products created by means of the extrusion process from a mixture of spelt flour and cornmeal, with the share of spelt at 70 to 100%. The samples were made with the use of a co-rotating twin screw extruder. Two speeds of extruder screw rotation (300 and 350 rpm as well as two levels of temperature (120 and 140°C were set during the investigation. The samples obtained were photographed in a light box, following which they underwent an image analysis with the use of specialist vision software. Four shape-related factors were determined: area, elongation factor, Heywood circularity factor and compactness factor. It was determined that the product shape changed significantly depending on the share of spelt flour in the mixture. Moreover, it was observed that change in the screw rotation speed within the analysed range may cause material changes in the shape of particular extrudates.

  6. Specification for the delivery of special sections made of aluminum alloy for use as vacuum chambers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Possible extension of the research facility by a large storage-ring facility is presently being planned at DESY. For preliminary engineering tests concerning the dimensions of the vacuum system, there is a need for two extruded special sections made of an aluminum alloy, which are to be fabricated as vacuum chambers in deflecting magnets and in focussing magnets. Conditions of the contract and technical requirements of the special sections are given

  7. Extrudates of starch-xanthan gum mixtures as affected by chemical agents and irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanna, M.A.; Chinnaswamy, R.; Gray, D.R.; Miladinov, V.D.

    1997-01-01

    Mixtures of starch, xanthan gum and either polyvinyl alcohol, epichlorohydrin, valeric acid or adipoyl chloride were extruded. Properties of extrudates including apparent viscosity, water solubility, water absorption indices and extrudate expansion were measured for different proportions of xanthan gum, 70% amylose starch (with or without irradiation) and chemical agents. Extrusion with chemical agents and irradiation changed physical properties of both starch and xanthan gum. Expansions of extrudates were higher than that of starch. Viscosity of extrudates increased with xanthan gum concentration. The addition of 1% (w/w) polyvinyl alcohol had the greatest effect of the chemical agents. Irradiation increased the apparent viscosity of starch-xanthan gum mixtures

  8. ALUMINUM BOX BUNDLING PRESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iosif DUMITRESCU

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In municipal solid waste, aluminum is the main nonferrous metal, approximately 80- 85% of the total nonferrous metals. The income per ton gained from aluminum recuperation is 20 times higher than from glass, steel boxes or paper recuperation. The object of this paper is the design of a 300 kN press for aluminum box bundling.

  9. Application of physical and numerical simulations for interpretation of peripheral coarse grain structure during hot extrusion of AA7020 aluminum alloy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eivani, A.R.; Zhou, J.

    2017-01-01

    In this research, hot compression test is used to simulate the metallurgical phenomena occurring in the peripheral part of AA7020 aluminum alloy extrudates during hot extrusion and leading to the formation of the peripheral coarse grain (PCG) structure. The temperature profiles at a tracking

  10. The Fatigue Characteristics of Bolted Lap Joints of 24S-T Alclad Sheet Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    1946-10-01

    extremely close bolt fits are needed to o%tain maximum life of bolt ~oint~ under repeated etreseeci. -. Szvzral ty~+?+s of bolt patterns hava been tegted...Memorial Institute on spec~meris of 0.102-i.nch sheet. In particular, figure 4 shows, on a load- life diagram, . results of tests Qn single-bolt...results of tests at the Univer- sity of’ il~~nols on single—bolt specimens, Tables 10 and 11 give reeults of tests, made at the U“ uiversity of Illino~8 , on

  11. Graphene-aluminum nanocomposites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartolucci, Stephen F.; Paras, Joseph; Rafiee, Mohammad A.; Rafiee, Javad; Lee, Sabrina; Kapoor, Deepak; Koratkar, Nikhil

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → We investigated the mechanical properties of aluminum and aluminum nanocomposites. → Graphene composite had lower strength and hardness compared to nanotube reinforcement. → Processing causes aluminum carbide formation at graphene defects. → The carbides in between grains is a source of weakness and lowers tensile strength. - Abstract: Composites of graphene platelets and powdered aluminum were made using ball milling, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion. The mechanical properties and microstructure were studied using hardness and tensile tests, as well as electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction and differential scanning calorimetry. Compared to the pure aluminum and multi-walled carbon nanotube composites, the graphene-aluminum composite showed decreased strength and hardness. This is explained in the context of enhanced aluminum carbide formation with the graphene filler.

  12. Anisotropic deformation behavior of as-extruded 6063-T4 alloy under dynamic impact loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ye, Tuo [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Li, Luoxing, E-mail: luoxing_li@yahoo.com [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China); Joint Center for Intelligent New Energy Vehicle, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Liu, Xiao; Liu, Wenhui [Key Laboratory of High Temperature Wear Resistant Materials Preparation Technology of Hunan Province, Hunan University of Science and Technology, Xiangtan 411201 (China); Guo, Pengcheng; Tang, Xu [State Key Laboratory of Advanced Design and Manufacturing for Vehicle Body, Hunan University, Changsha 410082 (China)

    2016-06-01

    The deformation behavior of 6063-T4 aluminum alloy bar was investigated by compression tests conducted at a wide strain rate range of 10{sup −4} to 9×10{sup 3} s{sup −1} with loading directions at 0°, 45° and 90° to the axis of the extruded bar. It is found that the flow stresses of 0° specimens are always the highest and those of the 45° specimens are the lowest at the same conditions. The flow stress exhibits obvious strain rate sensitivity (SRS), which differs from static to dynamic deformation. The Schmid factors (SFs) for each type of texture components were calculated. For the {112}<111> texture component, the max Schmid factors are 0.27, 0.49 and 0.41 for 0°, 45° and 90° specimens. For the {110}<111> texture component, they are 0.27, 0.43 and 0.41 for the three directions. The initial texture changes significantly with increasing strain, the strain rate has slight influence on the texture evolution. The transmission electron microscope (TEM) observations indicate that as the strain rate increases, the density of the dislocation increases and its distribution becomes more homogeneous. It is necessary to consider the anisotropic deformation behavior and microstructure evolution in material selection and structure design for the impact components.

  13. Forgeability test of extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn alloys under warm forming conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoon, Jonghun; Park, Sunghyuk

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • We compared forgeability of new developed TAZ alloys with conventional AZ alloys. • Forgeability was evaluated with a T-shape forging under hot forming condition. • TAZ alloys show the best performance in forgeability under hot forging condition. • Microstructures of the forged part were investigated with EBSD experiments. • YS and UTS of forged part with TAZ alloy are enhanced compared with AZ alloy. - Abstract: Magnesium (Mg) alloys have been thoroughly researched to replace steel or aluminum parts in automotives for reducing weight without sacrificing their strength. The widespread use of Mg alloys has been limited by its insufficient formability, which results from a lack of active slip systems at room temperature. It leads to a hot forming process for Mg alloys to enhance the formability and plastic workability. In addition, forged or formed parts of Mg alloys should have the reliable initial yield and ultimate tensile strength after hot working processes since its material properties should be compatible with other parts thereby guaranteeing structural safety against external load and crash. In this research, an optimal warm forming condition for applying extruded Mg–Sn–Al–Zn (TAZ) Mg alloys into automotive parts is proposed based on T-shape forging tests and the feasibility of forged parts is evaluated by measuring the initial yield strength and investigating the grain size in orientation imaging microscopy (OIM) maps

  14. A materials compatibility study in FM-1, a liquid component of a paste extrudable explosive

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goods, S.H.; Shepodd, T.J.; Mills, B.E. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Foster, P. [Mason and Hanger-Silas Mason Co., Inc., Amarillo, TX (United States). Pantex Plant

    1993-09-01

    The chemical compatibility of various metallic and organic containment materials with a constituent of a paste extrudable explosive (PEX) has been examined through a series of long-term exposures. Corrosion coupons and mechanical test specimens (polymers only) were exposed to FM-1, a principal liquid component of PEX, at 74{degree}C. RX-08-FK is the LLNL designator for this formulation. Compatibility was determined by measuring changes in weight, physical dimensions, and mechanical properties, by examining the coupons for discoloration, surface attack, and corrosion products, and by analyzing for dissolved metals in the FM-1. Of the metals and alloys examined, none of the 300 series stainless steels exhibited adequate corrosion resistance after 74 days of exposure. Copper showed evidence of severe uniform surface attack. Monel 400 also exhibited signs of chemical attack. Nickel and tantalum showed less evidence of attack, although neither, was immune to the liquid. Gold coupons developed a ``tarnish`` film. The gold along with an aluminum alloy, 6061 (in the T6 condition) performed the most satisfactorily. A wide range of polymers were tested for 61 days at 74{degree}C. The materials that exhibited the most favorable response in terms of weight change, dimensional stability, and mechanical properties were Kalrez, PTFE Teflon, and polyethylene.

  15. Characteristics of hydrostatically extruded Zr-2.5Nb alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jie, Z.; Jiaqi, D.; Tieqi, Y.; Wenxian, H.; Yan, L.; Yunxia, Z.; Zhenhe, L.

    1984-01-01

    Hydrostatic extrusion is a new production technology. Zr-2.5Nb alloy tubes cold hydrostatically extruded possess excellent mechanical properties similar to heat-treated tubes and better than cold-worked tubes. Examination by transmission electron microscope shows that the alloy is of a uniform cell substructure containing the (α + β) phases, which is one of important factors improving properties of the alloy. The study of texture, stress, and reorientation of the hydride shows that hydrostatically extruded tubes with basal plane normals in the radial direction have obviously higher hydride reorientation threshold stress than tubes with basal plane normals in the circumferential direction. Moreover, investigation of fracture toughness reveals that hydride distributed perpendicular to the crack propagation direction restrains further propagation of the crack. It is favorable for preserving the fracture resistance of the material

  16. Pitting of 3003 aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, R.

    1996-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source is a state-of-the-art synchrotron light source. The storage ring vacuum chamber is fabricated from 6061 extruded Al. Water connections to the vacuum chambers that were fabricated from 3003 Al had developed water leaks, which were subsequently remedied after considerable investigations. Materials subjected to the pitting analysis in this study are 3003, 6061, and 6063 Al

  17. Wear resistance analysis of the aluminum 7075 alloy and the nanostructured aluminum 7075 - silver nanoparticles composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estrada-Ruiz R.H.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nanostructured composites of the aluminum 7075 alloy and carbon-coated silver nanoparticles were synthetized by the mechanical milling technique using a high-energy mill SPEX 8000M; the powders generated were compacted, sintered and hot-extruded to produce 1 cm-diameter bars. The composites were then subjected to a wear test using a pin-on-disc device to validate the hypothesis that second phase-ductile nanometric particles homogenously distributed throughout the metalmatrix improve the wear resistance of the material. It was found that silver nanoparticles prevent the wear of the material by acting as an obstacle to dislocations movement during the plastic deformation of the contact surface, as well as a solid lubricant when these are separated from the metal-matrix.

  18. Comparison of Extruder Systems for 3D Printer Filament Fabrication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez, Adriana

    Additive Manufacturing (AM) has grown in popularity over the past thirty years, due to its versatility, short design to product cycle, and capability to fabricate complex geometries, which cannot otherwise be produced. There exist several platforms that are able to print objects composed of different materials, making this technology significant in different fields such as: automotive, aerospace, medical, electronics, amongst others. Though several types of AM technologies are available, the expiration of the patents on fused deposition modeling (FDM) in 2009 has led to a widespread use of this platform in academia and home use settings. Widespread use of FDM-type AM platforms has led to a demand to fabricate feedstock materials for this AM platform. Particularly, in the home do it yourself (DIY) community there has been a widespread interest for users to manufacture their own feedstock filament leading to a large growth in home-use extrusion systems. The low cost of these desktop-grade systems has also made them attractive to academics, but there has not been a widespread effort into determining the efficacy of these small scale extrusion systems as compared to industrial quality extruders which are typically used to manufacture feedstock for FDM platforms. The aim of this study was to compare two extrusion processes: 1) a desktop grade single-screw extruder; and 2) an industrial scale twin-screw extruder. In order to understand differences between their performance and quality of mixing, a rubberized blend of acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) mixed with styrene ethylene butylene styrene with a maleic anhydride graft (SEBS-g-MA) at different ratios was compounded on each extrusion system. Melt flow index, and mechanical properties were compared. In addition, a raster pattern sensitivity study was performed to evaluate the effect of the extruder system on 3D printed objects. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to examine the fracture surfaces

  19. Extrudability and Consolidation of Blends between CGM and DDGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. J. R. Verbeek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available During the last decade, the global biofuels industry has experienced exponential growth. By-products such as high protein corn gluten meal (CGM and high fibre distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS have grown in parallel. CGM has been shown to be suitable as a biopolymer; the high fibre content of DDGS reduces its effectiveness, although it is considerably cheaper. In this study, the processing behaviour of CGM and DDGS blends was evaluated and resulting extrudate properties were determined. Prior to processing, urea was used as a denaturant. DDGS : CGM ratios of 0, 33, 50, 66, and 100% were processed in a single screw extruder, which solely used dissipative heating. Blends containing DDGS were less uniformly consolidated and resulted in more dissipative heating. Blends showed multiple glass transitions, which is characteristic of mechanically compatible blends. Transmission electron microscopy revealed phase separation on a microscale, although distinct CGM or DDGS phases could not be identified. On a macroscale, optical microscopy suggested that CGM-rich blends were better consolidated, supported by visual observations of a more continuous extrudate formed during extrusion. Future work should aim to also characterize the mechanical properties of these blends to assess their suitability as either bioplastic feedstock or pelletized livestock feed.

  20. Diclofenac sodium sustained release hot melt extruded lipid matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vithani, K; Cuppok, Y; Mostafa, S; Slipper, I J; Snowden, M J; Douroumis, D

    2014-08-01

    Sustained release diclofenac sodium (Df-Na) solid lipid matrices with Compritol® 888 ATO were developed in this study. The drug/lipid powders were processed via cold and hot melt extrusion at various drug loadings. The influence of the processing temperatures, drug loading and the addition of excipients on the obtained dissolution rates was investigated. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded batches showed the existence of crystalline drug in the extrudates with a small amount being solubilized in the lipid matrix. The drug content and uniformity on the tablet surface were also investigated by using energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis. The dissolution rates were found to depend on the actual Df-Na loading and the nature of the added excipients, while the effect of the processing temperatures was negligible. The dissolution mechanism of all extruded formulations followed Peppas-Korsemeyer law, based on the estimated determination coefficients and the dissolution constant rates, indicating drug diffusion from the lipid matrices.

  1. Enrichment of extruded snack products with whey protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Highest share in products with whey proteins addition belongs to aromatised drinks, aromatised protein bars and various dietetic preparations. In the last few years, there is increased use of the extrusion process for production of food products. This process is, besides other things, used for obtaining directly expanded products, which are immediately packed and sent on market after mechanical and thermal treatment in extruder, or after drying for a short time. One of these food products is “snack” food. Snack food is made with twin corotating screw extruders, in which raw materials are submitted to high temperatures and short time, with intensive expansion and rapid pressure drop. For the production of this category of food products, basic ingredients like corn, wheat, rye and rice, with the maximum of 9 % of proteins, are used. With the development of extrusion technology, special attention is focused on the enrichment of extruded products with different types of proteins, including proteins. In this paper, review of the newest research and achievements in embedding various types of whey concentrates in snack food will be represented. This category of food products for direct consummation is constantly increasing, and addition of whey protein concentrate adds better nutritional value and increased functionality.

  2. BONDING ALUMINUM METALS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noland, R.A.; Walker, D.E.

    1961-06-13

    A process is given for bonding aluminum to aluminum. Silicon powder is applied to at least one of the two surfaces of the two elements to be bonded, the two elements are assembled and rubbed against each other at room temperature whereby any oxide film is ruptured by the silicon crystals in the interface; thereafter heat and pressure are applied whereby an aluminum-silicon alloy is formed, squeezed out from the interface together with any oxide film, and the elements are bonded.

  3. Aluminum powder metallurgy processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flumerfelt, J.F.

    1999-02-12

    The objective of this dissertation is to explore the hypothesis that there is a strong linkage between gas atomization processing conditions, as-atomized aluminum powder characteristics, and the consolidation methodology required to make components from aluminum powder. The hypothesis was tested with pure aluminum powders produced by commercial air atomization, commercial inert gas atomization, and gas atomization reaction synthesis (GARS). A comparison of the GARS aluminum powders with the commercial aluminum powders showed the former to exhibit superior powder characteristics. The powders were compared in terms of size and shape, bulk chemistry, surface oxide chemistry and structure, and oxide film thickness. Minimum explosive concentration measurements assessed the dependence of explosibility hazard on surface area, oxide film thickness, and gas atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization processing conditions. The GARS aluminum powders were exposed to different relative humidity levels, demonstrating the effect of atmospheric conditions on post-atomization oxidation of aluminum powder. An Al-Ti-Y GARS alloy exposed in ambient air at different temperatures revealed the effect of reactive alloy elements on post-atomization powder oxidation. The pure aluminum powders were consolidated by two different routes, a conventional consolidation process for fabricating aerospace components with aluminum powder and a proposed alternative. The consolidation procedures were compared by evaluating the consolidated microstructures and the corresponding mechanical properties. A low temperature solid state sintering experiment demonstrated that tap densified GARS aluminum powders can form sintering necks between contacting powder particles, unlike the total resistance to sintering of commercial air atomization aluminum powder.

  4. Effect of Equal Channel Angular Pressing on the Surface Roughness of Solid State Recycled Aluminum Alloy 6061 Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Taha Abbas

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid state recycling through hot extrusion is a promising technique to recycle machining chips without remelting. Furthermore, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP technique coupled with the extruded recycled billet is introduced to enhance the mechanical properties of recycled samples. In this paper, the surface roughness of solid state recycled aluminum alloy 6061 turning chips was investigated. Aluminum chips were cold compacted and hot extruded under an extrusion ratio (ER of 5.2 at an extrusion temperature (ET of 425°C. In order to improve the properties of the extruded samples, they were subjected to ECAP up to three passes at room temperature using an ECAP die with a channel die angle (Φ of 90°. Surface roughness (Ra and Rz of the processed recycled billets machined by turning was investigated. Box-Behnken experimental design was used to investigate the effect of three machining parameters (cutting speed, feed rate, and depth of cut on the surface roughness of the machined specimens for four materials conditions, namely, extruded billet and postextrusion ECAP processed billets to one, two, and three passes. Quadratic models were developed to relate the machining parameters to surface roughness, and a multiobjective optimization scheme was conducted to maximize material removal rate while maintaining the roughness below a preset practical value.

  5. Effect of extrusion stem speed on extrusion process for a hollow aluminum profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Cunsheng; Zhao, Guoqun; Chen, Zhiren; Chen, Hao; Kou, Fujun

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Extrusion stem speed has significant effects on extrusion process. ► An optimum value of stem speed exists for uniform metal flow distribution. ► A higher stem speed leads to a higher required extrusion force. ► A high stem speed leads to an improved welding quality of aluminum profile. - Abstract: Extrusion stem speed is one of important process parameters during aluminum profile extrusion, which directly influences the profile quality and choice of extrusion equipments. In this paper, the extrusion process of a thin-walled hollow aluminum profile was simulated by means of the HyperXtrude commercial software. Through a serial of numerical simulation, the effects of stem speed on extrusion process, such as metal flow behavior at die exit, temperature distribution, extrusion force, and welding pressure, have been investigated. The numerical results showed that there existed an optimum value of stem speed for flow velocity distribution. With the increasing stem speed, the temperature of the extrudate and required extrusion force increased, and the welding quality of extrudate would be improved. Through comprehensive comparison and analysis, the appropriate stem speed could be determined for practical extrusion production. Thus, the research results could give effective guideline for determining initial billet and die temperature and choosing the proper extrusion press in aluminum profile industry.

  6. Structure/property relations of aluminum under varying rates and stress states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tucker, Matthew T [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Horstemeyer, Mark F [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Whittington, Wilburn R [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV; Solanki, Kiran N [MISSISSIPPI STATE UNIV.

    2010-11-19

    In this work we analyze the plasticity, damage, and fracture characteristics of three different processed aluminum alloys (rolled 5083-H13, cast A356-T6, and extruded 6061-T6) under varying stress states (tension, compression, and torsion) and strain rates (0.001/, 1/s., and 1000/s). The stress state difference had more of a flow stress effect than the applied strain rates for those given in this study (0.001/sec up to 1000/sec). The stress state and strain rate also had a profound effect on the damage evolution of each aluminum alloy. Tension and torsional straining gave much greater damage nucleation rates than compression. Although the damage of all three alloys was found to be void nucleation dominated, the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys incurred void damage via micron scale particles where the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy incurred void damage from two scales, micron-scale particles and nanoscale precipitates. Having two length scales of particles that participated in the damage evolution made the 6061-T6 incur a strain rate sensitive damage rate that was different than the other two aluminum alloys. Under tension, as the strain rate increased, the 6061-T6 aluminum alloy's void nucleation rate decreased, but the A356-T6 and 5083-H131 aluminum alloys void nucleation rate increased.

  7. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. (Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE's Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  8. Utilization of smoked salmon trim in extruded smoked salmon jerky.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, J; Dougherty, M P; Perkins, L B; Camire, M E

    2012-06-01

    During smoked salmon processing, the dark meat along the lateral line is removed before packaging; this by-product currently has little economic value. In this study, the dark meat trim was incorporated into an extruded jerky. Three formulations were processed: 100% smoked trim, 75% : 25% smoked trim : fresh salmon fillet, and 50% : 50% smoked trim : fresh salmon blends (w/w basis). The base formulation contained salmon (approximately 83.5%), tapioca starch (8%), pregelatinized potato starch (3%), sucrose (4%), salt (1.5%), sodium nitrate (0.02%), and ascorbyl palmitate (0.02% of the lipid content). Blends were extruded in a laboratory-scale twin-screw extruder and then hot-smoked for 5 h. There were no significant differences among formulations in moisture, water activity, and pH. Protein was highest in the 50 : 50 blend jerky. Ash content was highest in the jerky made with 100% trim. Total lipids and salt were higher in the 100% trim jerky than in the 50 : 50 blend. Hot smoking did not adversely affect docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) content in lipids from 100% smoked trim jerky. Servings of salmon jerky made with 75% and 100% smoked trim provided at least 500 mg of EPA and DHA. The 50 : 50 formulation had the highest Intl. Commission on Illumination (CIE) L*, a*, and b* color values. Seventy consumers rated all sensory attributes as between "like slightly" and "like moderately." With some formulation and processing refinements, lateral line trim from smoked salmon processors has potential to be incorporated into acceptable, healthful snack products. Dark meat along the lateral line is typically discarded by smoked salmon processors. This omega-3 fatty acid rich by-product can be used to make a smoked salmon jerky that provides a convenient source of these healthful lipids for consumers. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  9. Anodizing Aluminum with Frills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doeltz, Anne E.; And Others

    1983-01-01

    "Anodizing Aluminum" (previously reported in this journal) describes a vivid/relevant laboratory experience for general chemistry students explaining the anodizing of aluminum in sulfuric acid and constrasting it to electroplating. Additions to this procedure and the experiment in which they are used are discussed. Reactions involved are…

  10. Is the Aluminum Hypothesis Dead?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    The Aluminum Hypothesis, the idea that aluminum exposure is involved in the etiology of Alzheimer disease, dates back to a 1965 demonstration that aluminum causes neurofibrillary tangles in the brains of rabbits. Initially the focus of intensive research, the Aluminum Hypothesis has gradually been abandoned by most researchers. Yet, despite this current indifference, the Aluminum Hypothesis continues to attract the attention of a small group of scientists and aluminum continues to be viewed with concern by some of the public. This review article discusses reasons that mainstream science has largely abandoned the Aluminum Hypothesis and explores a possible reason for some in the general public continuing to view aluminum with mistrust. PMID:24806729

  11. Study of the cooling process of an extruded aluminium profile

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bouffioux, C.; Habraken, A.M.; Carton, M.; Lecomte-Beckers, J.

    2004-01-01

    The prediction of the final axial stresses and the residual strains of complex extruded aluminium profiles requires a good knowledge of the material behavior and of the industrial process. This paper is focused on the methods required to provide the whole set of data: material ones and process ones. Scanning differential calorimetry, dilatometry and diffusivity tests identify thermophysic material properties and hot tensile tests identify parameters of the elasto-visco-plastic Norton-Hoff law. The description of the industrial process and its simulations are described. Then a sensitivity analyzis provides the cooling key parameters causing the undesired final curvature during the industrial process

  12. Extrude Hone deburring with X-base media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillespie, L.K.

    1973-09-01

    Small precision mechanisms must have burr-free, sharp-edged parts to operate well. Controlling the size of burrs can lower burr removal costs and improve edge repeatability. Study results indicated that with conventional tooling approaches, Extrude Hone deburring with x-base media removes more material from the hole than desired and is less repeatable than required on precision miniature parts. With this media, the process is most applicable to precision miniature parts with burrs less than 25.4 ..mu..m thick, allowable hole size changes equal to burr thickness, and allowable hole size repeatability of +-0.2 times the actual average hole size change.

  13. Metallization of Extruded Briquettes (BREX in Midrex Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitber Bizhanov

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The results of the full-scale testing of the Extruded Briquettes (BREX as the charge components of the industrial Midrex reactor are discussed. The influence of the type of binder on the degree of metallization of BREX is analyzed. Magnesium sulfate-based binder helps to reach highest metallization degree of BREX. Mineralogical study shows the difference in the iron-silicate phase’s development as well as in the porosity change during metallization depending on the binder used.

  14. Continuous thickness control of extruded pipes with assistance of microcomputers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Breil, J.

    1983-06-01

    Because of economic and quality securing reasons a constant wall thickness of extruded pipes in circumference and extrusion direction is an important production aim. Therefore a microcomputer controlled system was developed, which controls die centering with electric motors. The control of wall thickness distribution; was realized with two conceptions: a dead time subjected control with a rotating on line wall thickness measuring instrument and an adaptive control with sensors in the pipe die. With a PI-algorithm excentricities of 30% of the wall thickness could be controlled below a trigger level of 2% within three dead times. (orig.) [de

  15. Feasibility study of aluminum beam tube for the collider: An option for no-coating and no-liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, W.

    1994-07-01

    This report proposes to use a single-layer beam tube made of high strength, high resistivity aluminum alloy (such as 7039-T61 or A7N01) to replace the double-layer copper coated stainless steel tube in the SSC Collider. The main reasons are: (1) a potential saving of about $23 million which is basically the baseline cost of the copper coating and (2) the use of an extruded aluminum tube consisting of a beam chamber and a pumping chamber may solve the vacuum problem without any liner

  16. Effect of Some Extrusion Variables on Rheological Properties and Physicochemical Changes of Cornmeal Extruded by Twin Screw Extruder

    OpenAIRE

    Chang Y.K.; Martínez-Bustos f.; Lara h.

    1998-01-01

    The effect of extrusion variables, such as barrel temperature (100 to 170ºC), feed rate (100 to 500 g/min), feed moisture (20 to 40 g/100 g wet basis), screw speed rate (from 100 to 500 rpm), and slit die rheometer configuration (0.15 and 0.30 cm height) were studied using a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder coupled to a slit die rheometer on the rheological properties of yellow cornmeal. An increase in feed rate decreased WAI and WSI, but increased the viscosity values. The temper...

  17. Large volume syringe pump extruder for desktop 3D printers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kira Pusch

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Syringe pump extruders are required for a wide range of 3D printing applications, including bioprinting, embedded printing, and food printing. However, the mass of the syringe becomes a major challenge for most printing platforms, requiring compromises in speed, resolution and/or volume. To address these issues, we have designed a syringe pump large volume extruder (LVE that is compatible with low-cost, open source 3D printers, and herein demonstrate its performance on a PrintrBot Simple Metal. Key aspects of the LVE include: (1 it is open source and compatible with open source hardware and software, making it inexpensive and widely accessible to the 3D printing community, (2 it utilizes a standard 60 mL syringe as its ink reservoir, effectively increasing print volume of the average bioprinter, (3 it is capable of retraction and high speed movements, and (4 it can print fluids using nozzle diameters as small as 100 μm, enabling the printing of complex shapes/objects when used in conjunction with the freeform reversible embedding of suspended hydrogels (FRESH 3D printing method. Printing performance of the LVE is demonstrated by utilizing alginate as a model biomaterial ink to fabricate parametric CAD models and standard calibration objects. Keywords: Additive manufacturing, 3D bioprinting, Embedded printing, FRESH, Soft materials extrusion

  18. Use of Red Cactus Pear (Opuntia ficus-indica Encapsulated Powder to Pigment Extruded Cereal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G. Ruiz-Gutiérrez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear is a potential natural dye for the food industry and a known antioxidant. Although the use of this powder is possible, it is not clear how it alters food properties, thus ensuing commercial acceptability. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of encapsulated powder of the red cactus pear on the physicochemical properties of extruded cereals. The powder was mixed (2.5, 5.0, and 7.5% w/w with maize grits and extruded (mix moisture 22%, temperature 100°C, and screw speed 325 rpm. The physical, chemical, and sensory characteristics of the extruded cereal were evaluated; extruded cereal without encapsulated powder was used as a control. All cereal extrudates pigmented with the encapsulated powder showed statistically significant differences (P<0.05 in expansion, water absorption, color, density, and texture compared to the control. The encapsulated powder had a positive effect on expansion and water absorption indices, as well as color parameters, but a negative effect on density and texture. Extruded cereal properties were significantly (P<0.05 correlated. Sensorially, consumers accepted the extruded cereal with a lower red cactus pear powder content (2.5% w/w, because this presented characteristics similar to extruded cereal lacking pigment.

  19. THE GRAFTING OF MALEIC-ANHYDRIDE ON HIGH-DENSITY POLYETHYLENE IN AN EXTRUDER

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    The grafting of maleic anhydride (MAH) on high density polyethylene in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder has been studied. As the reaction kinetics appear to be affected by mass transfer, good micro mixing in the extruder is important. Due to the competing mechanisms of increasing mixing and

  20. Modelling extrudate expansion in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process through dimensional analysis methodology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cheng, Hongyuan; Friis, Alan

    2010-01-01

    A new phenomenological model is proposed to correlate extrudate expansion and extruder operation parameters in a twin-screw food extrusion cooking process. Buckingham's pi dimensional analysis method is applied to establish the model. Three dimensionless groups, i.e. pump efficiency, water content...

  1. Production and characterization of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zepon, Karine Modolon [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Petronilho, Fabricia [FICEXP, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil); Soldi, Valdir [POLIMAT, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Salmoria, Gean Vitor [CIMJECT, Departamento de Engenharia Mecânica, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, 88040-900 Florianópolis, SC (Brazil); Kanis, Luiz Alberto, E-mail: luiz.kanis@unisul.br [TECFARMA, Universidade do Sul de Santa Catarina, 88704-900 Tubarão, SC (Brazil)

    2014-11-01

    The production and evaluation of cornstarch/cellulose acetate/silver sulfadiazine extrudate matrices are reported herein. The matrices were melt extruded under nine different conditions, altering the temperature and the screw speed values. The surface morphology of the matrices was examined by scanning electron microscopy. The micrographs revealed the presence of non-melted silver sulfadiazine microparticles in the matrices extruded at lower temperature and screw speed values. The thermal properties were evaluated and the results for both the biopolymer and the drug indicated no thermal degradation during the melt extrusion process. The differential scanning analysis of the extrudate matrices showed a shift to lower temperatures for the silver sulfadiazine melting point compared with the non-extruded drug. The starch/cellulose acetate matrices containing silver sulfadiazine demonstrated significant inhibition of the growth of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. In vivo inflammatory response tests showed that the extrudate matrices, with or without silver sulfadiazine, did not trigger chronic inflammatory processes. - Highlights: • Melt extruded bio-based matrices containing silver sulfadiazine was produced. • The silver sulfadiazine is stable during melt-extrusion. • The extrudate matrices shown bacterial growth inhibition. • The matrices obtained have potential to development wound healing membranes.

  2. Parametric analysis and design of a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian (pseudoplastic materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.I. Orisaleye

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Extruders have found application in the food, polymer and pharmaceutical industries. Rheological characteristics of materials are important in the specification of design parameters of screw extruders. Biopolymers, which consist of proteins, nucleic acids and polysaccharides, are shear-thinning (pseudoplastic within normal operating ranges. However, analytical models to predict and design screw extruders for non-Newtonian pseudoplastic materials are rare. In this study, an analytical model suitable to design a screw extruder for slightly non-Newtonian materials was developed. The model was used to predict the performance of the screw extruder while processing materials with power law indices slightly deviating from unity (the Newtonian case. Using non-dimensional analysis, the effects of design and operational parameters were investigated. Expressions to determine the optimum channel depth and helix angle were also derived. The model is capable of predicting the performance of the screw extruder within the range of power law indices considered (1/2⩽n⩽1. The power law index influences the choice of optimum channel depth and helix angle of the screw extruder. Keywords: Screw extruder, Slightly non-Newtonian, Shear-thinning, Pseudoplastic, Biopolymer, Power law

  3. Optical bi-sensorial measurement system for production control of extruded profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weckenmann, A.; Bernstein, J.

    2008-09-01

    Extruded profiles are semi-finished products (made out of steel, brass, aluminum, synthetics...) which are appointed for wide applications in manufacturing of technical products. As yet used optical sensors in process control working to the shading technology detect the object's shadow orthographically to the axis of illumination. As a consequence they record it unattached by the profiles coat in measurement range at any point of the measured profile with high precision. As a matter of fact, concave zones cannot be captured. Alternatively the measurement of concave zones can be arranged by light-section systems. These do not comply with the required accuracy, are comparatively slow and moreover affected by dislocations of the section of the profile. A measurement system including a light-section and a shading system combines the advantages of both optical systems. It is to serve with a reliable conception for the assembly of a bi-sensorial measurement system consisting of both systems as well as suitable methods of analysis for the in-line inspection of concave profiles. As a result it contains conclusions concerning requirements of the light source, the arrangement of this source and the cameras, obtainable precision and sampling rate as well as the essential synchronization of both systems. After designing an appropriate prototype, the selected light-section system and the shading system will be synchronized and aligned. Therefore, the metered geometrical data will be merged for the evaluation of form deviation. So, developed and adapted software supports and contains proposals to the uncertainty after successful tests. The system and a calibration method will be proved in production where robustness will be a most critical despite of heat, dust and vibrations. The target uncertainty of less than 0.1 mm at every section of the profiles coat has to be met.

  4. Instrumental and sensory properties of pea protein-fortified extruded rice snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipp, Claudia; Buckow, Roman; Silcock, Pat; Oey, Indrawati

    2017-12-01

    Characteristic attributes of pea-protein fortified, extruded rice snacks were evaluated by mechanical, acoustic and descriptive sensory analysis. The addition of pea protein isolate (0 to 45% (w/w)) to rice flour and extruder screw speed strongly affected the expansion behaviour and therefore, textural attributes of extruded snack products. The sensory panel described the texture of highly expanded extrudates as crisp, while low expanded extrudates were perceived as hard, crunchy and non-crisp. Results of the instrumental and sensory analysis were compared and showed a high correlation between mechanical and sensory hardness (r=0.98), as well as acoustic and sensory crispness (r=0.88). However, poor and/or negative correlations between acoustic and sensory hardness and crunchiness were observed (r=-0.35 and -0.84, respectively). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Lycopene bioaccessibility and starch digestibility for extruded snacks enriched with tomato derivatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghan-Shoar, Zeinab; Mandimika, Tafadzwa; Hardacre, Allan K; Reynolds, Gordon W; Brennan, Charles S

    2011-11-23

    To improve the nutritional value of energy-dense extruded snacks, corn grits were replaced with tomato paste and/or tomato skin powder at ratios of 5, 10, and 20% and extruded to make expanded snack foodlike products. Using a model digestion system, lycopene bioaccessibility and uptake from the snacks into Caco-2 cells were determined. The digestibility of the starch, the main nutrient component of the snacks, was also investigated. While extrusion cooking reduced the lycopene content of the snacks, the proportion of bioaccessible lycopene increased. Lycopene uptake by the Caco-2 cells from the extruded snacks exceeded that of the control in which the lycopene was not extruded, by 5% (p snacks varied depending on the type of tomato derivative and its concentration. Optimization of the extrusion cooking process and the ingredients can yield functional extruded snack products that contain bioavailable lycopene.

  6. Properties of U sub 3 O sub 8 -aluminum cermet fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, H.B.

    1989-10-01

    Nuclear fuel elements containing U{sub 3}O{sub 8} dispersed in an aluminum matrix have been used in research and test reactors for about 30 years. These elements, sometimes called cermet fuel, are made by powder metallurgical methods (PM) and can accommodate up to approximately 50 wt % uranium in the core section of extruded tubes. Cermet fuel elements have been fabricated and irradiated at the Savannah River Site (SRS). Irradiation behavior is excellent. Extruded tubes with up to 50 wt % uranium have been successfully irradiated to fission densities of about 2 {times} 10{sup 21} fissions per cc of core. Physical, mechanical, and chemical properties of cermet fuels are assembled into a reference document. Results will be used by Argonne National Laboratory to design cermet fuel elements for possible use in the New Production Reactor at SRS. 57 refs., 33 figs., 12 tabs.

  7. Aluminum-graphite composite produced by mechanical milling and hot extrusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flores-Zamora, M.I.; Estrada-Guel, I.; Gonzalez-Hernandez, J.; Miki-Yoshida, M.; Martinez-Sanchez, R.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum-graphite composites were produced by mechanical milling followed by hot extrusion. Graphite content was varied between 0 and 1 wt.%. Al-graphite mixtures were initially mixed in a shaker mill without ball, followed by mechanical milling in a High-energy simoloyer mill for 2 h under argon atmosphere. Milled powders were subsequently pressed at ∼950 MPa for 2 min, and next sintered under vacuum for 3 h at 823 K. Finally, sintered products were held for 0.5 h at 823 K and hot extruded using indirect extrusion. Tension and compression tests were carried out to determine the yield stress and maximum stress of the materials. We found that the mechanical resistance increased as the graphite content increased. Microstructural characterization was done by transmission electron microscopy. Al-O-C nanofibers and graphite nanoparticles were observed in extruded samples by transmission electron microscopy. These nanoparticles and nanofibers seemed to be responsible of the reinforcement phenomenon

  8. Advances in aluminum anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, K. H.

    1969-01-01

    White anodize is applied to aluminum alloy surfaces by specific surface preparation, anodizing, pigmentation, and sealing techniques. The development techniques resulted in alloys, which are used in space vehicles, with good reflectance values and excellent corrosive resistance.

  9. Corrosion Inhibitors for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Bodo

    1995-01-01

    Describes a simple and reliable test method used to investigate the corrosion-inhibiting effects of various chelating agents on aluminum pigments in aqueous alkaline media. The experiments that are presented require no complicated or expensive electronic equipment. (DDR)

  10. Corrosion Protection of Aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalrymple, R. S.; Nelson, W. B.

    1963-07-01

    Treatment of aluminum-base metal surfaces in an autoclave with an aqueous chromic acid solution of 0.5 to 3% by weight and of pH below 2 for 20 to 50 hrs at 160 to 180 deg C produces an extremely corrosion-resistant aluminum oxidechromium film on the surface. A chromic acid concentration of 1 to 2% and a pH of about 1 are preferred.

  11. THE MODELING OF COUNTER-ROTATING TWIN-SCREW EXTRUDERS AS REACTORS FOR SINGLE-COMPONENT REACTIONS

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    GANZEVELD, KJ; CAPEL, JE; VANDERWAL, DJ; JANSSEN, LPBM

    Numerical models are useful to study the behaviour of the extruder as a polymerization reactor. With a correct numerical model a theoretical analysis of the influence of several reaction and extruder parameters can be made, the limitations of the use of the extruder reactor can be determined and the

  12. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt; Giuliani, Luisa

    2017-01-01

    to the structural codes with data derived from a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Findings – Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. Originality......Purpose – Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60 and 120 min found...... in most national building regulations. The paper aims to present a detailed analysis of the mechanisms responsible for the loss of loadbearing capacity of hollow-core slabs when exposed to fire. Design/methodology/approach – Furthermore, it compares theoretica calculation and assessment according...

  13. Fire resistance of extruded hollow-core slabs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hertz, Kristian Dahl; Giuliani, Luisa; Sørensen, Lars Schiøtt

    2016-01-01

    Prefabricated extruded hollow-core slabs are preferred building components for floor structures in several countries. It is therefore important to be able to document the fire resistance of these slabs proving fulfilment of standard fire resistance requirements of 60- and 120 minutes found in most...... a standard fire test and from a thorough examination of the comprehensive test documentation available on fire exposed hollow-core slabs. Mechanisms for loss of load-bearing capacity are clarified, and evidence of the fire resistance is found. For the first time the mechanisms responsible for loss of load......-bearing capacity are identified and test results and calculation approach are for the first time Applied in accordance with each other for assessment of fire resistance of the structure....

  14. Centralization of extruded medial meniscus delays cartilage degeneration in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozeki, Nobutake; Muneta, Takeshi; Kawabata, Kenichi; Koga, Hideyuki; Nakagawa, Yusuke; Saito, Ryusuke; Udo, Mio; Yanagisawa, Katsuaki; Ohara, Toshiyuki; Mochizuki, Tomoyuki; Tsuji, Kunikazu; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sekiya, Ichiro

    2017-05-01

    Meniscus extrusion often observed in knee osteoarthritis has a strong correlation with the progression of cartilage degeneration and symptom in the patients. We recently reported a novel procedure "arthroscopic centralization" in which the capsule was sutured to the edge of the tibial plateau to reduce meniscus extrusion in the human knee. However, there is no animal model to study the efficacy of this procedure. The purposes of this study were [1] to establish a model of centralization for the extruded medial meniscus in a rat model; and [2] to investigate the chondroprotective effect of this procedure. Medial meniscus extrusion was induced by the release of the anterior synovial capsule and the transection of the meniscotibial ligament. Centralization was performed by the pulled-out suture technique. Alternatively, control rats had only the medial meniscus extrusion surgery. Medial meniscus extrusion was evaluated by micro-CT and macroscopic findings. Cartilage degeneration of the medial tibial plateau was evaluated macroscopically and histologically. By micro-CT analysis, the medial meniscus extrusion was significantly improved in the centralization group in comparison to the extrusion group throughout the study. Both macroscopically and histologically, the cartilage lesion of the medial tibial plateau was prevented in the centralization group but was apparent in the control group. We developed medial meniscus extrusion in a rat model, and centralization of the extruded medial meniscus by the pull-out suture technique improved the medial meniscus extrusion and delayed cartilage degeneration, though the effect was limited. Centralization is a promising treatment to prevent the progression of osteoarthritis. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Microstructure, mechanical analysis and optimal selection of 7075 aluminum alloy based composite reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ezatpour, H.R.; Torabi Parizi, M.; Sajjadi, S.A.; Ebrahimi, G.R.; Chaichi, A.

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum metal-matrix nanocomposites (AMMNCs) fabricated by conventional stir-casting process usually show high porosity and poor distribution of nanoparticles within the matrix. In the current study, for the improvement of nanoparticles distribution in the aluminum matrix and enhancement of the mechanical properties, a mixture of Al/nano-Al 2 O 3 powders were injected by pure argon gas into the molten 7075 aluminum alloy and this mixture was extruded at high temperature. Mechanical behavior of the final product was investigated by tensile and compression tests, hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Optical Microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited some superior properties such as a fine grain microstructure and a reasonable uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the matrix. Mechanical experiments results confirmed that the addition of Al 2 O 3 nanoparticles and the extrusion process effectively improved ultimate tensile strength, compression strength and hardness. In next step, we used a Preference Selection Index (PSI) materials selection method to select best combination of strength and workability of Al7075−Al 2 O 3 nanocomposites. By this method, extruded Al7075/0.4 and 0.8 wt % Al 2 O 3 has best combination of strength and workability. - Highlights: • Injection Al/Al 2 O 3 powder is benefit way for improving nanoparticles distribution. • Nanocomposites present superior mechanical properties. • Extrusion process improved significantly mechanical properties of nanocomposites. • Preference Selection Index is a simple and benefit method in material selection.

  16. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: an ex vivo comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logani, Ajay; Shah, Naseem

    2008-01-01

    To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( PProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05). Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05). The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( PProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  17. Apically extruded dentin debris by reciprocating single-file and multi-file rotary system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Neves, Aline; Silva, Emmanuel João; Mendonça, Thais Accorsi; Lourenço, Caroline; Calixto, Camila; Lima, Edson Jorge Moreira

    2015-03-01

    This study aims to evaluate the apical extrusion of debris by the two reciprocating single-file systems: WaveOne and Reciproc. Conventional multi-file rotary system was used as a reference for comparison. The hypotheses tested were (i) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude more than conventional multi-file rotary system and (ii) the reciprocating single-file systems extrude similar amounts of dentin debris. After solid selection criteria, 80 mesial roots of lower molars were included in the present study. The use of four different instrumentation techniques resulted in four groups (n = 20): G1 (hand-file technique), G2 (ProTaper), G3 (WaveOne), and G4 (Reciproc). The apparatus used to evaluate the collection of apically extruded debris was typical double-chamber collector. Statistical analysis was performed for multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the two reciprocating systems. In contrast, conventional multi-file rotary system group extruded significantly more debris than both reciprocating groups. Hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than all other groups. The present results yielded favorable input for both reciprocation single-file systems, inasmuch as they showed an improved control of apically extruded debris. Apical extrusion of debris has been studied extensively because of its clinical relevance, particularly since it may cause flare-ups, originated by the introduction of bacteria, pulpal tissue, and irrigating solutions into the periapical tissues.

  18. A Miniaturized Extruder to Prototype Amorphous Solid Dispersions: Selection of Plasticizers for Hot Melt Extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauer, Matthias E; Maurer, Reto; Paepe, Anne T De; Stillhart, Cordula; Jacob, Laurence; James, Rajesh; Kojima, Yuki; Rietmann, Rene; Kissling, Tom; van den Ende, Joost A; Schwarz, Sabine; Grassmann, Olaf; Page, Susanne

    2018-05-19

    Hot-melt extrusion is an option to fabricate amorphous solid dispersions and to enhance oral bioavailability of poorly soluble compounds. The selection of suitable polymer carriers and processing aids determines the dissolution, homogeneity and stability performance of this solid dosage form. A miniaturized extrusion device (MinEx) was developed and Hypromellose acetate succinate type L (HPMCAS-L) based extrudates containing the model drugs neurokinin-1 (NK1) and cholesterylester transfer protein (CETP) were manufactured, plasticizers were added and their impact on dissolution and solid-state properties were assessed. Similar mixtures were manufactured with a lab-scale extruder, for face to face comparison. The properties of MinEx extrudates widely translated to those manufactured with a lab-scale extruder. Plasticizers, Polyethyleneglycol 4000 (PEG4000) and Poloxamer 188, were homogenously distributed but decreased the storage stability of the extrudates. Stearic acid was found condensed in ultrathin nanoplatelets which did not impact the storage stability of the system. Depending on their distribution and physicochemical properties, plasticizers can modulate storage stability and dissolution performance of extrudates. MinEx is a valuable prototyping-screening method and enables rational selection of plasticizers in a time and material sparing manner. In eight out of eight cases the properties of the extrudates translated to products manufactured in lab-scale extrusion trials.

  19. Defatted flaxseed meal incorporated corn-rice flour blend based extruded product by response surface methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganorkar, Pravin M; Patel, Jhanvi M; Shah, Vrushti; Rangrej, Vihang V

    2016-04-01

    Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD). Significant regression models explained the effect of considered variables on all responses. DFM incorporation level was found to be most significant independent variable affecting on extrudates characteristics followed by extruder barrel temperature and then screw rpm. Feed moisture content did not affect extrudates characteristics. As DFM level increased (7.5 % to 20 %), ER and OAA value decreased. However, BS and WSI values were found to increase with increase in DFM level. Based on the defined criteria for numerical optimization, the combination for the production of DFM incorporated extruded snack with desired sensory attributes was achieved by incorporating 10 % DFM (replacing rice flour in flour blend) and by keeping 20 % moisture content, 312 screw rpm and 125 °C barrel temperature.

  20. Effect of Some Extrusion Variables on Rheological Properties and Physicochemical Changes of Cornmeal Extruded by Twin Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Y.K.

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of extrusion variables, such as barrel temperature (100 to 170ºC, feed rate (100 to 500 g/min, feed moisture (20 to 40 g/100 g wet basis, screw speed rate (from 100 to 500 rpm, and slit die rheometer configuration (0.15 and 0.30 cm height were studied using a co-rotating intermeshing twin-screw extruder coupled to a slit die rheometer on the rheological properties of yellow cornmeal. An increase in feed rate decreased WAI and WSI, but increased the viscosity values. The temperature interacts strongly with screw speed in affecting the WSI. The most important factor in starch degradation was the screw speed. Increasing the screw speed completely modifies the organised structure of starch (crystalline region.

  1. Aluminum industry options paper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1999-10-01

    In 1990, Canada's producers of aluminum (third largest in the world) emitted 10 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to 6.4 tonnes of greenhouse gas intensity per tonne of aluminum. In 2000, the projection is that on a business-as-usual (BAU) basis Canadian producers now producing 60 per cent more aluminum than in 1990, will emit 10.7 million tonnes of carbon dioxide and equivalent, corresponding to a GHG intensity of 4.2 tonnes per tonne of aluminum. This improvement is due to production being based largely on hydro-electricity, and partly because in general, Canadian plants are modern, with technology that is relatively GHG-friendly. The Aluminum Association of Canada estimates that based on anticipated production, and under a BAU scenario, GHG emissions from aluminum production will rise by 18 per cent by 2010 and by 30 per cent by 2020. GHG emissions could be reduced below the BAU forecast first, by new control and monitoring systems at some operations at a cost of $4.5 to 7.5 million per smelter. These systems could reduce carbon dioxide equivalent emissions by 0.8 million tonnes per year. A second alternative would require installation of breaker feeders which would further reduce perfluorocarbon (PFC) emissions by 0.9 million tonnes of carbon dioxide equivalent. Cost of the breakers feeders would be in the order of $200 million per smelter. The third option calls for the the shutting down of some of the smelters with older technology by 2015. In this scenario GHG emissions would be reduced by 2010 by 0.8 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent. However, the cost in this case would be about $1.36 billion. The industry would support measures that would encourage the first two sets of actions, which would produce GHG emissions from aluminum production in Canada of about 10.2 million tonnes per year of carbon dioxide equivalent, or about two per cent above 1990 levels with double the aluminum production of 1990. Credit for

  2. Study of Dynamic Flow and Mixing Performances of Tri-Screw Extruders with Finite Element Method

    OpenAIRE

    X. Z. Zhu; G. Wang; Y. D. He; Z. F. Cheng

    2013-01-01

    There is a special circumfluence in the center region of cross-section for a tri-screw extruder. To study the effect of the dynamic center region on the flow and mixing mechanism of the tri-screw extruder, 2D finite element modeling was used to reduce the axial effects. Based on the particle tracking technology, the nonlinear dynamics of a typical particle motions in the center region was carried out and the mixing process in the tri-screw extruder was analyzed with Poincaré maps. Moreover, m...

  3. Mesoporous aluminum phosphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El Haskouri, Jamal; Perez-Cabero, Monica; Guillem, Carmen; Latorre, Julio; Beltran, Aurelio; Beltran, Daniel; Amoros, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    High surface area pure mesoporous aluminum-phosphorus oxide-based derivatives have been synthesized through an S + I - surfactant-assisted cooperative mechanism by means of a one-pot preparative procedure from aqueous solution and starting from aluminum atrane complexes and phosphoric and/or phosphorous acids. A soft chemical extraction procedure allows opening the pore system of the parent as-prepared materials by exchanging the surfactant without mesostructure collapse. The nature of the pore wall can be modulated from mesoporous aluminum phosphate (ALPO) up to total incorporation of phosphite entities (mesoporous aluminum phosphite), which results in a gradual evolution of the acidic properties of the final materials. While phosphate groups in ALPO act as network building blocks (bridging Al atoms), the phosphite entities become basically attached to the pore surface, what gives practically empty channels. The mesoporous nature of the final materials is confirmed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and N 2 adsorption-desorption isotherms. The materials present regular unimodal pore systems whose order decreases as the phosphite content increases. NMR spectroscopic results confirm the incorporation of oxo-phosphorus entities to the framework of these materials and also provide us useful information concerning the mechanism through which they are formed. - Abstract: TEM image of the mesoporous aluminum phosphite showing the hexagonal disordered pore array that is generated by using surfactant micelles as template. Also a scheme emphasizing the presence of an alumina-rich core and an ALPO-like pore surface is presented.

  4. Quantitative Microstructural Characterization of Thick Aluminum Plates Heavily Deformed Using Equal Channel Angular Extrusion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mishin, Oleg; Segal, V.M.; Ferrasse, S.

    2012-01-01

    A detailed quantitative analysis of the microstructure has been performed in three orthogonal planes of 15-mm-thick aluminum plates heavily deformed via two equal channel angular extrusion (ECAE) routes. One route was a conventional route A with no rotation between passes. Another route involved...... sequential 90 deg rotations about the normal direction (ND) between passes. The microstructure in the center of these plates, and especially the extent of microstructural heterogeneity, has been characterized quantitatively and compared with that in bar samples extruded via either route A or route Bc with 90...... Bc. © The Minerals, Metals & Materials Society and ASM International 2012...

  5. Structural Phase Evolution in Ultrasonic-Assisted Friction Stir Welded 2195 Aluminum Alloy Joints

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eliseev, A. A.; Fortuna, S. V.; Kalashnikova, T. A.; Chumaevskii, A. V.; Kolubaev, E. A.

    2017-10-01

    The authors examined the structural and phase state of fixed joints produced by method of friction stir welding (FSW) and ultrasonic-assisted friction stir welding (UAFSW) from extruded profile of aluminum alloy AA2195. In order to identify the role of ultrasonic application in the course of welding, such characteristics, as volume fraction and average size of secondary particles are compared in the base material and stir zones of FSW and UAFSW joints. By applying the methods of SEM and TEM analysis, researchers established the complex character of phase transitions as a result of ultrasonic application.

  6. Effect of Aluminum Addition on the Evolution of Microstructure, Crystallographic Texture and Mechanical Properties of Single Phase Hexagonal Close Packed Mg-Li Alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhagat Singh, P.; Sabat, R. K.; Kumaran, S.; Suwas, S.

    2018-02-01

    In the present investigation, an effort has been made to understand the effect of aluminum addition to α Mg-Li alloys. The corresponding composition Mg-4Li- xAl ( x = 0, 2, 4 and 6 wt.%) alloys have been prepared by stir casting route under an argon environment. Extrusion was carried out at 300 °C with the extrusion ratio of 15:1. Significant grain refinement was observed after extrusion. X-ray diffraction-based investigation of the cast and extruded alloys showed the presence of intermetallic compounds such as Mg17Al12 and AlLi in the Al-rich alloys namely, Mg-4Li- xAl ( x = 4 and 6 wt.%). These precipitates were also present in the extruded plus annealed samples, indicating the stability of the precipitates at high temperature. The bulk x-ray texture measurement revealed a crystallographic texture where the c-axis of the h.c.p crystals was perpendicular to the extrusion direction (ED) for extruded sample. A texture transition was observed on annealing. The c-axis was oriented parallel to the ED. Mechanical properties of the cast, extruded and extruded plus annealed material illustrate that the addition of Al led to enhancement in hardness, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength.

  7. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J; Wegrzyn, James E

    2012-09-18

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, and by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  8. Regeneration of aluminum hydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graetz, Jason Allan; Reilly, James J.

    2009-04-21

    The present invention provides methods and materials for the formation of hydrogen storage alanes, AlH.sub.x, where x is greater than 0 and less than or equal to 6 at reduced H.sub.2 pressures and temperatures. The methods rely upon reduction of the change in free energy of the reaction between aluminum and molecular H.sub.2. The change in free energy is reduced by lowering the entropy change during the reaction by providing aluminum in a state of high entropy, by increasing the magnitude of the change in enthalpy of the reaction or combinations thereof.

  9. Aluminum Hydroxide and Magnesium Hydroxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are antacids used together to relieve heartburn, acid indigestion, and upset stomach. They ... They combine with stomach acid and neutralize it. Aluminum Hydroxide, Magnesium Hydroxide are available without a prescription. ...

  10. Effect of Different Levels of Extruded Soybean and Avizyme Enzyme on Broiler Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Nasiri Mogadam

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to examine the effect of different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme on broiler performance. In a completely randomized design with 2×3 factorial arrangement, 480 one day-old, Ross broiler chickens were divided into 40 groups, 12 chicks per pen. Treatments were consisting of combination of four levels of extruded soybean (0.0, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 % and two levels of enzyme (0.0 and 500 g per ton. Different levels of extruded soybean and enzyme had no significant effect on blood factors such as cholesterol, triglyceride and the weight of liver and heart. The usage of extruded soybean and enzyme showed significantly higher weight gain and better feed conversion (p

  11. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oda, Y.; Azuma, K.; Onozuka, M.; Kasai, S.; Hasegawa, K.

    1995-01-01

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.)

  12. Development of repetitive railgun pellet accelerator and steady-state solid hydrogen extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oda, Y. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Azuma, K. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Onozuka, M. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Kobe (Japan); Kasai, S. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan); Hasegawa, K. [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Development of a railgun pellet accelerator and a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder has been conducted. A railgun accelerator has been investigated for a high-speed repetitive pellet acceleration. The final objective is to develop a railgun system that can achieve a 5km/s speed-class repetitive (2Hz) pellet injection. Improvement in the acceleration efficiency showed a pellet velocity of more than 2km/s using augment rails and a ceramic insulator applied to a 1m-long railgun. The other investigation focused on the development of a steady-state solid hydrogen extruder for continuous pellet injection. Screw-driven extruding system has been chosen to extrude the solid hydrogen filament continuously. Theoretical considerations suggest that temperature control of the system is important in future research. (orig.).

  13. Extruded Tunnel Lining System : Phase 1. Conceptual Design and Feasibility Testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-09-01

    The Extruded Tunnel Lining System (ETLS) has been conceived as a means of continuously placing the final concrete tunnel lining directly behind a tunnel boring machine. The system will shorten the time required to excavate and line a tunnel section, ...

  14. Physical and functional characteristics of extrudates prepared from fenugreek and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmad Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP and oat flour (OF on the physical and functional properties of extruded snack product such as bulk density (BD, hardness (HD, lateral expansion (LE, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI using response surface methodology. All the properties were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 affected by proportion of FSP and OF. Results indicated that with the increase in the FSP content, an increase in the values of BD, HD, WAI and WSI was noticed, whereas negative effect of FSP on LE was observed. Results showed negative effect of OF on HD and WSI and an increased effect on BD, LE and WAI of the extruded product. Numerical optimization results showed that a mixture of 2% FSP and 6% OF had higher preference levels for parameters of physical and functional characteristics and could be extruded to produce acceptable quality extrudates.

  15. Electrically conductive anodized aluminum coatings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alwitt, Robert S. (Inventor); Liu, Yanming (Inventor)

    2001-01-01

    A process for producing anodized aluminum with enhanced electrical conductivity, comprising anodic oxidation of aluminum alloy substrate, electrolytic deposition of a small amount of metal into the pores of the anodized aluminum, and electrolytic anodic deposition of an electrically conductive oxide, including manganese dioxide, into the pores containing the metal deposit; and the product produced by the process.

  16. The interrupted properties of an extruded Mg alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Shun; Liu, Tianmo; He, Jiejun; Lu, Liwei; Zeng, Wen

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} twins on yield stress is reflected at low deformation. ► The recompressive yield stress equals to the stress when it is unloaded. ► The stress–strain curve of recompression seems like that without interruption. ► Twins generated in precompression could become thicker in recompression. -- Abstract: The current paper investigates the effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins identified by using electron backscattered diffraction on the interrupted properties of an extruded Mg–3Al–1Zn (AZ31) alloy. Compressive and recompressive tests are conducted along extrusion direction (ED). It is discovered that the yield strength of recompression is enhanced due to grain refinement by {101 ¯ 2} extension twins. The reinforcement effect of {101 ¯ 2} extension twins on the yield stress of recompression is mainly reflected at the stage of small deformation while the improvement of yield strength is mainly attributed to the pile-up and intersection of dislocations as large deformation occurs. Furthermore, the yield stress of recompression is identical to the interrupted stress of precompression. In situ observation reveals that some twins generated in precompression could also become thicker in the following recompression.

  17. Extruded snacks with the addition of different fish meals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elenice Souza dos Reis GOES

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals were prepared to develop and analyze extruded snacks with residue meal from fish processing. Residue meals were included in five types of corn snacks: control (0% fish meal and four with 9% tilapia, salmon, tuna and sardine meals. Although moisture, lipids and carbohydrates rates did not differ among the snacks, protein rates increased with the increment of fish meal, reaching 11.85% in the tuna snack. Tuna and sardine snacks had the highest iron levels. The most abundant fatty acids were linoleic, oleic, palmitic, linolenic and stearic acids, with sardine, salmon and tuna snacks presenting the highest values of n-3 series fatty acids. Greater luminosity rate was reported for salmon snack, followed by tilapia, tuna and sardine snacks. The highest sensory acceptance index was verified in tilapia (78.07% and salmon (72.40%. A 9% addition of residue meals of tilapia, salmon and tuna improved the nutritional value of the snacks.

  18. Additives for high-load extruders; Additivsysteme fuer hochbelastete Spritzgussmaschinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fletschinger, M.; Brand, F. [Ciba Speciality Chemicals Inc., Basel (Switzerland)

    2004-12-01

    The requirement for tight sealing of hydraulic systems, such as between the moving cylinders and the seals in extruders, has led to the development of new technologies in particular with respect to the sealing materials. Today PTFE/bronze (Poly-Tetra-Fluoro-Ethylene/embedded bronze powder) seals are widely used for these applications, which require in addition reliability and long seal life. Needs to replace environmentally problematic hydraulic fluids based on ZnDTP has gained momentum and therefore new lubricants have also been evaluated for these hydraulic systems. The well-known seal manufacturer Busak + Shamban observed axial tiny scratches in the contact area cylinder-seal on the metal surface when replacing ZnDTP based with Zn-free lubricants. ''Micro-scratching'' refers to this phenomenon, which ultimately leads to fluid leakage thus reducing the efficiency of the hydraulic systems. A first assumption was that this problem is associated with the additive technology. A subsequent root cause analysis clearly showed that this preliminary hypothesis was incorrect. An in depth investigation showed that the phenomenon occurs when the load carrying capacity of the lubricant is insufficient and is not associated with the lubricant additive technology (Zn-free vs. Zn-containing). The load carrying capacity is predominantly determined by the selection of the correct lubricant viscosity and by its appropriate wear inhibition system. In this work it could be demonstrated that there are also Zn-free lubricants available which meet all these requirements. (orig.)

  19. Fluxless aluminum brazing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werner, W.J.

    1974-01-01

    This invention relates to a fluxless brazing alloy for use in forming brazed composites made from members of aluminum and its alloys. The brazing alloy consists of 35-55% Al, 10--20% Si, 25-60% Ge; 65-88% Al, 2-20% Si, 2--18% In; 65--80% Al, 15-- 25% Si, 5- 15% Y. (0fficial Gazette)

  20. Aluminum Corrosion and Turbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Longtin, F.B.

    2003-01-01

    Aluminum corrosion and turbidity formation in reactors correlate with fuel sheath temperature. To further substantiate this correlation, discharged fuel elements from R-3, P-2 and K-2 cycles were examined for extent of corrosion and evidence of breaking off of the oxide film. This report discusses this study

  1. Aluminum concentration in hydrangeas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yanagawa, M.; Haruyama, Y.; Saito, M.

    2008-01-01

    We have been trying to measure concentration of aluminum in Ajisai, Hydrangea macrophylla for these days. But due to bad luck, we have encountered detector trouble for two years in a low. Thus, we have few data to analyze and obtained quite limited results. (author)

  2. Borated aluminum alloy manufacturing technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shimojo, Jun; Taniuchi, Hiroaki; Kajihara, Katsura; Aruga, Yasuhiro

    2003-01-01

    Borated aluminum alloy is used as the basket material of cask because of its light weight, thermal conductivity and superior neutron absorbing abilities. Kobe Steel has developed a unique manufacturing process for borated aluminum alloy using a vacuum induction melting method. In this process, aluminum alloy is melted and agitated at higher temperatures than common aluminum alloy fabrication methods. It is then cast into a mold in a vacuum atmosphere. The result is a high quality aluminum alloy which has a uniform boron distribution and no impurities. (author)

  3. The Cryogenic Properties of Several Aluminum-Beryllium Alloys and a Beryllium Oxide Material

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamwell, Wayne R.; McGill, Preston B.

    2003-01-01

    Performance related mechanical properties for two aluminum-beryllium (Al-Be) alloys and one beryllium-oxide (BeO) material were developed at cryogenic temperatures. Basic mechanical properties (Le., ultimate tensile strength, yield strength, percent elongation, and elastic modulus were obtained for the aluminum-beryllium alloy, AlBeMetl62 at cryogenic [-195.5"C (-320 F) and -252.8"C (-423"F)I temperatures. Basic mechanical properties for the Be0 material were obtained at cyrogenic [- 252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. Fracture properties were obtained for the investment cast alloy Beralcast 363 at cryogenic [-252.8"C (-423"F)] temperatures. The AlBeMetl62 material was extruded, the Be0 material was hot isostatic pressing (HIP) consolidated, and the Beralcast 363 material was investment cast.

  4. Analysis and Prediction of the Billet Butt and Transverse Weld in the Continuous Extrusion Process of a Hollow Aluminum Profile

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lou, Shumei; Wang, Yongxiao; Liu, Chuanxi; Lu, Shuai; Liu, Sujun; Su, Chunjian

    2017-08-01

    In continuous extrusions of aluminum profiles, the thickness of the billet butt and the length of the discarded extrudate containing the transverse weld play key roles in reducing material loss and improving product quality. The formation and final distribution of the billet butt and transverse weld depend entirely on the flow behavior of the billet skin material. This study examined the flow behavior of the billet skin material as well as the formation and evolution of the billet butt and the transverse weld in detail through numerical simulation and a series of experiments. In practical extrusions, even if the billet skin is removed by lathe turning shortly before extrusion, billet skin impurities are still distributed around the transverse weld and in the billet butt. The thickness of the scrap billet butt and the length of the discarded extrudate containing the transverse weld can be exactly predicted via simulation.

  5. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Logani Ajay

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water were used as an irrigant. Debris extruded was collected in preweighed polyethylene vials and the extruded irrigant was evaporated. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by comparing the pre- and postinstrumentation weight of polyethylene vials for each group. Statistical Analysis: The Kruskal-Wallis nonparametric test and Mann-Whitney U test were applied to determine if significant differences existed among the groups ( P < 0.05. Results: All instruments tested produced a measurable amount of debris. No statistically significant difference was observed between ProTaper hand and ProFile system ( P > 0.05. Although ProTaper rotary extruded a relatively higher amount of debris, no statistically significant difference was observed between this type and the ProTaper hand instruments ( P > 0.05. The ProTaper rotary extruded significantly more amount of debris compared to the ProFile system ( P < 0.05. Conclusion: Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that all instruments tested produced apical extrusion of debris. The ProTaper rotary extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than the ProFile.

  6. A desktop 3D printer with dual extruders to produce customised electronic circuitry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Javaid; Onimowo, Dominic Adaoiza; Gohrabian, Mohammed; Sharma, Tinku; Shirvani, Hassan

    2018-03-01

    3D printing has opened new horizons for the manufacturing industry in general, and 3D printers have become the tools for technological advancements. There is a huge divide between the pricing of industrial and desktop 3D printers with the former being on the expensive side capable of producing excellent quality products and latter being on the low-cost side with moderate quality results. However, there is a larger room for improvements and enhancements for the desktop systems as compared to the industrial ones. In this paper, a desktop 3D printer called Prusa Mendel i2 has been modified and integrated with an additional extruder so that the system can work with dual extruders and produce bespoke electronic circuits. The communication between the two extruders has been established by making use of the In-Chip Serial Programming port on the Arduino Uno controlling the printer. The biggest challenge is to control the flow of electric paint (to be dispensed by the new extruder) and CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis has been carried out to ascertain the optimal conditions for proper dispensing. The final product is a customised electronic circuit with the base of plastic (from the 3D printer's extruder) and electronic paint (from the additional extruder) properly dispensed to create a live circuit on a plastic platform. This low-cost enhancement to a desktop 3D printer can provide a new prospect to produce multiple material parts where the additional extruder can be filled with any material that can be properly dispensed from its nozzle.

  7. Continuously graded extruded polymer composites for energetic applications fabricated using twin-screw extrusion processing technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallant, Frederick M.

    A novel method of fabricating functionally graded extruded composite materials is proposed for propellant applications using the technology of continuous processing with a Twin-Screw Extruder. The method is applied to the manufacturing of grains for solid rocket motors in an end-burning configuration with an axial gradient in ammonium perchlorate volume fraction and relative coarse/fine particle size distributions. The fabrication of functionally graded extruded polymer composites with either inert or energetic ingredients has yet to be investigated. The lack of knowledge concerning the processing of these novel materials has necessitated that a number of research issues be addressed. Of primary concern is characterizing and modeling the relationship between the extruder screw geometry, transient processing conditions, and the gradient architecture that evolves in the extruder. Recent interpretations of the Residence Time Distributions (RTDs) and Residence Volume Distributions (RVDs) for polymer composites in the TSE are used to develop new process models for predicting gradient architectures in the direction of extrusion. An approach is developed for characterizing the sections of the extrudate using optical, mechanical, and compositional analysis to determine the gradient architectures. The effects of processing on the burning rate properties of extruded energetic polymer composites are characterized for homogeneous formulations over a range of compositions to determine realistic gradient architectures for solid rocket motor applications. The new process models and burning rate properties that have been characterized in this research effort will be the basis for an inverse design procedure that is capable of determining gradient architectures for grains in solid rocket motors that possess tailored burning rate distributions that conform to user-defined performance specifications.

  8. Effects of extrusion variables on the properties of waxy hulless barley extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Köksel, Hamit; Ryu, Gy-Hyung; Başman, Arzu; Demiralp, Hande; Ng, Perry K W

    2004-02-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the extrudability of waxy hulless barley flour under various extrusion conditions. Waxy hulless barley flour was processed in a laboratory-scale corotating twin-screw extruder with different levels of feed moisture content (22.3, 26.8, and 30.7%) and die temperature (130, 150, and 170 degrees C) to develop a snack food with high beta-glucan content. The effects of extrusion condition variables (screw configuration, moisture, and temperature) on the system variables (pressure and specific mechanical energy), the extrudate physical properties (sectional expansion index, bulk density), starch gelatinization, pasting properties (cold peak viscosity, trough viscosity, and final viscosity), and beta-glucan contents were determined. Results were evaluated by using response surface methodology. Increased extrusion temperature and feed moisture content resulted in decreases in exit die pressure and specific mechanical energy values. For extrudates extruded under low shear screw configuration (LS), increased barrel temperature decreased sectional expansion index (SEI) values at both low and high moisture contents. The feed moisture seems to have an inverse relationship with SEI over the range studied. Bulk density was higher at higher moisture contents, for both low and high barrel temperatures, for samples extruded under high shear screw configuration (HS) and LS. Cold peak viscosities (CV) were observed in all samples. The CV increased with the increase in extrusion temperature and feed moisture content. Although beta-glucan contents of the LS extrudates were comparable to that of barley flour sample, HS samples had generally lower beta-glucan contents. The extrusion cooking technique seems to be promising for the production of snack foods with high beta-glucan content, especially using LS conditions.

  9. Mechanical behavior and strengthening mechanisms in ultrafine grain precipitation-strengthened aluminum alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, Kaka; Wen, Haiming; Hu, Tao; Topping, Troy D.; Isheim, Dieter; Seidman, David N.; Lavernia, Enrique J.; Schoenung, Julie M.

    2014-01-01

    To provide insight into the relationships between precipitation phenomena, grain size and mechanical behavior in a complex precipitation-strengthened alloy system, Al 7075 alloy, a commonly used aluminum alloy, was selected as a model system in the present study. Ultrafine-grained (UFG) bulk materials were fabricated through cryomilling, degassing, hot isostatic pressing and extrusion, followed by a subsequent heat treatment. The mechanical behavior and microstructure of the materials were analyzed and compared directly to the coarse-grained (CG) counterpart. Three-dimensional atom-probe tomography was utilized to investigate the intermetallic precipitates and oxide dispersoids formed in the as-extruded UFG material. UFG 7075 exhibits higher strength than the CG 7075 alloy for each equivalent condition. After a T6 temper, the yield strength (YS) and ultimate tensile strength (UTS) of UFG 7075 achieved 734 and 774 MPa, respectively, which are ∼120 MPa higher than those of the CG equivalent. The strength of as-extruded UFG 7075 (YS: 583 MPa, UTS: 631 MPa) is even higher than that of commercial 7075-T6. More importantly, the strengthening mechanisms in each material were established quantitatively for the first time for this complex precipitation-strengthened system, accounting for grain-boundary, dislocation, solid-solution, precipitation and oxide dispersoid strengthening contributions. Grain-boundary strengthening was the predominant mechanism in as-extruded UFG 7075, contributing a strength increment estimated to be 242 MPa, whereas Orowan precipitation strengthening was predominant in the as-extruded CG 7075 (∼102 MPa) and in the T6-tempered materials, and was estimated to contribute 472 and 414 MPa for CG-T6 and UFG-T6, respectively

  10. Physical, Textural, and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Waxy Wheat Flour Snack Supplemented with Several Varieties of Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischman, Emily F; Kowalski, Ryan J; Morris, Craig F; Nguyen, Thuy; Li, Chongjun; Ganjyal, Girish; Ross, Carolyn F

    2016-09-28

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and although industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets fed to livestock. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran samples from hard red spring, soft white club cv. Bruehl, and purple wheat lines were added to cv. Waxy-Pen wheat flour (Triticum aestivum L.) at replacement concentrations of 0%, 12.5%, 25%, and 37.5% (w/w; n = 10). Extrudates were evaluated for antioxidant capacity, color, and physical properties. Results showed that high fiber concentrations altered several pasting properties, reduced expansion ratios (P extrudates. Purple bran supplemented extrudates produced harder products compared to white and red bran treatments (P Extrudates produced with 37.5% (w/w) of each bran variety absorbed more water than the control with no added bran. The oxygen radical absorption capacity assay, expressed as Trolox Equivalents, showed that extrudates made with addition of red (37.5%) and purple (37.5%) bran had higher values compared to the other treatments; the control, red, and white bran treatments had less antioxidant activity after extrusion (P extrudates. Purple and red brans may serve as viable functional ingredients in extruded foods given their higher antioxidant activities. Future studies could evaluate how bran variety and concentration, extruded shape, and flavor influence consumer acceptance. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  11. THE DESIGN, FABRICATION AND PRELIMINARY TESTING OF AN INDIGENOUS SINGLE SCREW EXTRUDER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FOLASAYO T. FAYOSE

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Developing countries including Nigeria have become dumping grounds of unserviceable and broken down imported machineries because of poor adaptation. Detailed study and design of machines to suit local conditions will prevent poor adaptation of imported machines and high initial costs. In this study, a single screw starch extruder was designed, fabricated and tested using locally available materials. The extruder is the dry type and it has 27.12 kg/s capacity, a compression ratio of 4.5: 1 and is powered by a 5.5 kW electric motor. It consists of a hopper, feeding screw, extruder screw rotating in a barrel and variable die, all made of stainless steel. A unit of the machine costs N 470, 390.00.00 as at April 2015. When used to process cassava flour, a maximum temperature of 114°C was attained through viscous dissipation, up to an actual screw speed of 98.96 rpm (1.65 Hz and extruder efficiency of 64%. Barrel temperature varied directly with extrusion time in a polynomial trend while actual extruder screw speed and efficiency varied inversely with extrusion time and it is best fitted with a polynomial trend.

  12. Numerical study of internal flow in twin screw extruder and its mixing performance analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Nak Soo; Kim, Hong Bum; Lee, Jae Wook

    2006-01-01

    We analyzed the non-Newtonian and non-isothermal flow in the melt conveying zone in co-rotating and counter-rotating screw extruder system with the commercial code, STAR-CD, and compared the mixing performance with respect to screw speed and rotating direction. The viscosity of fluid was described by power-law model. The dynamics of mixing was studied numerically by tracking the motion of particles in a twin screw extruder system. The extent of mixing was characterized in terms of the residence time distribution and average strain. The results showed that high screw speed decreases the residence time but increases the shear rate. Therefore higher screw speed increases the strain and has better mixing performance. Counter-rotating screw extruder system and co-rotating screw extruder has the similar shear rate with the same screw speed in spite of different rotating direction. However, the counter-rotating screw has good mixing performance, which is resulted from longer residence time than that of co-rotating screw extruder

  13. Quality evaluation of millet-soy blended extrudates formulated through linear programming.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, S; Singh, K K; Patil, R T; Onkar, Kolhe K

    2012-08-01

    Whole pearl millet, finger millet and decorticated soy bean blended (millet soy) extrudates formulations were designed using a linear programming (LP) model to minimize the total cost of the finished product. LP formulated composite flour was extruded through twin screw food extruder at different feed rate (6.5-13.5 kg/h), screw speed (200-350 rpm, constant feed moisture (14% wb), barrel temperature (120 °C) and cutter speed (15 rpm). The physical, functional, textural and pasting characteristics of extrudates were examined and their responses were studied. Expansion index (2.31) and sectional expansion index (5.39) was found to be was found maximum for feed rate and screw speed combination 9.5 kg/h and 250 rpm. However, density (0.25 × 10(-3) g/mm(3)) was maximum for 9.5 kg/h and 300 rpm combination. Maximum color change (10.32) was found for 9.5 kg/h feed rate and 200 rpm screw speed. The lower hardness was obtained for the samples extruded at lowest feed rate (6.5 kg/h) for all screw speed and feed rate at 9.5 kg/h for 300-350 rpm screw speed. Peak viscosity decreases with all screw speed of 9.5 kg/h feed rate.

  14. Antioxidant potential and quality characteristics of vegetable-enriched corn-based extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisharat, G I; Lazou, A E; Panagiotou, N M; Krokida, M K; Maroulis, Z B

    2015-07-01

    Phenolic content, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of vegetable-enriched extrudates were investigated as a result of extrusion conditions, including extrusion temperature (140-180 °C), screw rotation speed (150-250 rpm) and feed moisture content (14-19 % w.b.). Broccoli flour and olive paste was used in mixtures with corn flour at a ratio of 4 to 10 % (broccoli/corn) and 4 to 8 % (olive paste/corn). A simple power model was developed for the prediction of phenolic content and antioxidant activity of extrudates by extrusion conditions and feed composition. Phenolic content and antioxidant activity of broccoli enriched extrudates increased with extrusion temperature and broccoli addition and decreased with feed moisture content. The antioxidant activity of olive paste extrudates increased with material ratio and decreased with feed moisture content and screw rotation. Sensory porosity, homogenous structure, crispness, cohesiveness and melting decreased with feed moisture content, while the latter increased the mealy flavor and hardness of extrudates. Acceptable snacks containing broccoli flour or olive paste can be produced by selecting the appropriate process conditions.

  15. Properties of whey protein isolates extruded under acidic and alkaline conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onwulata, C I; Isobe, S; Tomasula, P M; Cooke, P H

    2006-01-01

    Whey proteins have wide acceptance and use in many products due to their beneficial nutritional properties. To further increase the amount of whey protein isolates (WPI) that may be added to products such as extruded snacks and meats, texturization of WPI is necessary. Texturization changes the folding of globular proteins to improve interaction with other ingredients and create new functional ingredients. In this study, WPI pastes (60% solids) were extruded in a twin-screw extruder at 100 degrees C with 4 pH-adjusted water streams: acidic (pH 2.0 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 12.4 +/- 0.4) streams from 2 N HCl and 2 N NaOH, respectively, and acidic (pH 2.5 +/- 0.2) and alkaline (pH 11.5 +/- 0.4) electrolyzed water streams; these were compared with WPI extruded with deionized water. The effects of water acidity on WPI solubility at pH 7, color, microstructure, Rapid Visco Analyzer pasting properties, and physical structure were determined. Alkaline conditions increased insolubility caused yellowing and increased pasting properties significantly. Acidic conditions increased solubility and decreased WPI pasting properties. Subtle structural changes occurred under acidic conditions, but were more pronounced under alkaline conditions. Overall, alkaline conditions increased denaturation in the extruded WPI resulting in stringy texturized WPI products, which could be used in meat applications.

  16. Influence of whey protein concentrate addition on textural properties of corn flour extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mladen Brnčić

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Texture is an important propertiy of extruded snack products, and depended on extrusion process conditions, raw material properties and various ingredients properties as well. The main purpose of this research was, using twin-screw extrusion, to manufacture a direct expanded extrudate based on mixtures of corn flour and whey protein concentrate with acceptable textural properties. Mixtures were made of corn flour and three different concentrations of whey protein concentrate (7,5 %, 15 %, 22,5 %. Materials were processed in co-rotating twin-screw extruder APV Baker, MPF 50.15 under input conditions: water intake was 10,08 L/h, 12,18 L/h, 14,28 L/h, screw speed was 300 rpm; expansion temperature was 130 °C; feed rate was 70 kg/h. Textural properties: breaking strength index and expansion ratio were determined. Breaking strength index had largest value for the sample with 22,5 % of whey protein concentrate and water intake of 14,28 L/h. Sample with 7,5 % of whey protein concentrate and 10,08 L/h had largest expansion ratio. Calculated textural properties confirmed validity of samples. This results suggest that enrichment of extrudates with wpc addition up to 22,5 % to improve their nutritional value as well as their textural characteristics can be accomplished. Validation of direct expanded extrudates in dependence of its textural properties have shown validity and justification of this research.

  17. Fortification of extruded snacks with chitosan: Effects on techno functional and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raushan; Xavier, K A Martin; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Balange, Amjad; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2018-08-15

    Chitosan is a dietary fibre that possesses numerous functional, technological and physiological properties useful in improving food quality. Owing to its fat absorbing ability, chitosan is widely consumed as a health supplement in the form of tablets and capsules. With a view to enhance it consumption and availability, the current work was taken up to evaluate techno-functional quality improvement of shrimp based extruded snacks fortified with chitosan. Chitosan powder at 1, 2 and 3% (w/w) level was added to the base material (corn flour and rice flour in the ratio of 70:30 and 15% Acetes powder) for extrusion. Addition of chitosan in acetes based snacks significantly reduced expansion ratio, porosity and crispiness and increased the hardness value of the product. Chitosan addition had a significant effect (p > 0.05) on the moisture retention and total protein contents of the products as well. Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value of chitosan fortified extrudate showed a significantly lower value than the control sample. A higher level of chitosan also resulted in colour reduction of the final product. The FTIR spectra of extrudate confirmed the stability of chitosan during extrusion conditions. The sensory score revealed that extrudate fortified with 1% chitosan was comparable to control sample. From this study it is concluded that 1% chitosan can be incorporated in Acetes based extruded snacks for an increased level of functionality. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. 21 CFR 73.1645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.1645 Section 73.1645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Drugs § 73.1645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive aluminum powder shall be composed of finely divided particles of aluminum prepared from virgin aluminum. It...

  19. Aluminum fin-stock alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gul, R.M.; Mutasher, F.

    2007-01-01

    Aluminum alloys have long been used in the production of heat exchanger fins. The comparative properties of the different alloys used for this purpose has not been an issue in the past, because of the significant thickness of the finstock material. However, in order to make fins lighter in weight, there is a growing demand for thinner finstock materials, which has emphasized the need for improved mechanical properties, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance. The objective of this project is to determine the effect of iron, silicon and manganese percentage increment on the required mechanical properties for this application by analyzing four different aluminum alloys. The four selected aluminum alloys are 1100, 8011, 8079 and 8150, which are wrought non-heat treatable alloys with different amount of the above elements. Aluminum alloy 1100 serve as a control specimen, as it is commercially pure aluminum. The study also reports the effect of different annealing cycles on the mechanical properties of the selected alloys. Metallographic examination was also preformed to study the effect of annealing on the precipitate phases and the distribution of these phases for each alloy. The microstructure analysis of the aluminum alloys studied indicates that the precipitated phase in the case of aluminum alloys 1100 and 8079 is beta-FeAI3, while in 8011 it is a-alfa AIFeSi, and the aluminum alloy 8150 contains AI6(Mn,Fe) phase. The comparison of aluminum alloys 8011 and 8079 with aluminum alloy 1100 show that the addition of iron and silicon improves the percent elongation and reduces strength. The manganese addition increases the stability of mechanical properties along the annealing range as shown by the comparison of aluminum alloy 8150 with aluminum alloy 1100. Alloy 8150 show superior properties over the other alloys due to the reaction of iron and manganese, resulting in a preferable response to thermal treatment and improved mechanical properties. (author)

  20. Calibration of a Numerical Model for Heat Transfer and Fluid Flow in an Extruder

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hofstätter, Thomas; Pedersen, David Bue; Nielsen, Jakob Skov

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses experiments performed in order to validate simulations on a fused deposition modelling (FDM) extruder. The nozzle has been simulated in terms of heat transfer and fluid flow. In order to calibrate and validate these simulations, experiments were performed giving a significant...... look into the physical behaviour of the nozzle, heating and cooling systems. Experiments on the model were performed at different sub-mm diameters of the extruder. Physical parameters of the model – especially temperature dependent parameters – were set into analytical relationships in order to receive...... dynamical parameters. This research sets the foundation for further research within melted extrusion based additive manufacturing. The heating process of the extruder will be described and a note on the material feeding will be given....

  1. Effect of extruded wheat flour as a fat replacer on batter characteristics and cake quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Santos, Isabel; Martínez, Mario M; Gómez, Manuel

    2015-12-01

    The effects of three levels of fat replacement (1/3, 2/3, and 3/3) by extruded flour paste and the effects of the presence of emulsifier on layer cake batter characteristics and final cake quality were studied. Replacement of oil by extruded flour paste modified the batter density and microscopy, reducing the number of air bubbles and increasing their size, while emulsifier incorporation facilitated air entrapment in batter. Emulsifier addition also increased the elastic and viscous moduli of the batter, while oil reduction resulted in a less structured batter. Emulsifier incorporation leads to good quality cakes, minimizing the negative effect of oil reduction, maintaining the volume and reducing the hardness of cakes. Furthermore, consumer acceptability of the reduced fat cakes was improved by the addition of emulsifier. Thus, the results confirmed the positive effect of partial oil substitution (up to 2/3) by extruded flour paste on the quality of reduced fat cakes when emulsifier was incorporated.

  2. Development of baked and extruded functional foods from metabolic syndrome specific ingredient mix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miglani, Neetu; Bains, Kiran; Kaur, Harpreet

    2015-09-01

    The study was aimed to develop baked and extruded functional foods from Metabolic Syndrome (MS) specific designed ingredient mixes with optimum amino acid makeup using key food ingredients with functional properties such as whole cereals, legumes, skimmed milk powder, along with flaxseeds and fenugreek seeds. Two cereals viz. barley and oats and four pulses viz. mung bean, cowpea, bengal gram and soybean were blended in different proportions in order to balance the limiting amino acid lysine in the wheat flour. Three products namely bread, extruded snack and noodles prepared from twenty five ingredient mixes. Six ingredient mixes of breads and four ingredient mixes each of extruded snack and noodles specifically designed for MS patients were organoleptically at par with control wheat flour products. The acceptable products had significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher lysine, crude protein, ash and fibre and low carbohydrates in compare control whole wheat flour products, hence appropriate for MS patients.

  3. Comparison of waste pumpkin material and its potential use in extruded snack foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norfezah, M N; Hardacre, A; Brennan, C S

    2011-08-01

    Material was produced from Crown pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima) processed from fractions of the fruit which are regarded as waste stream products (peel, flesh and seed). The flour from the three different fractions (peel, flesh and seed) of Crown pumpkin flour was incorporated into an extruded snack product formulation at levels 10%, 30% and 50% (w/w with corn grit) and processed in a twin-screw extruder to make 10 expanded snack products. Proximate analysis was carried out to determine the nutritional value of the raw pumpkin and pumpkin flour. A physical analysis of the product was used to determine its color, the expansion ratio, bulk density and texture. Inclusion of waste stream material (peel and seed) at 10%, yielded extruded products with similar expansion and density characteristics to the control sample; however, an inclusion of greater than 10% yielded significant challenges to product quality (hardness of the product).

  4. Production of aluminum metal by electrolysis of aluminum sulfide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minh, Nguyen Q.; Loutfy, Raouf O.; Yao, Neng-Ping

    1984-01-01

    Production of metallic aluminum by the electrolysis of Al.sub.2 S.sub.3 at 700.degree.-800.degree. C. in a chloride melt composed of one or more alkali metal chlorides, and one or more alkaline earth metal chlorides and/or aluminum chloride to provide improved operating characteristics of the process.

  5. Grain Refinement and Enhancement of Mechanical Properties of Hot Extruded Rare-Earth Containing Magnesium Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bita Pourbahari

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of rare earth addition and hot extrusion process on the grain refinement of magnesium alloy were studied. The as-cast Mg-6Al-1Zn (AZ61 alloy had the average grain size of ~ 64 µm and its microstructure consisted of α-Mg and Mg17Al12 phase. By partial substitution of Al with Gd to reach Mg-4.8Gd-1.2Al-1Zn alloy, it was observed that the Mg17Al12 phase disappeared and two new intermetallic phases, i.e. (Mg,Al3Gd and Al2Gd, were identified. The extrusion process showed significant effects on the shape and size of intermetallics and grain size of the matrix. The grain size of the extruded Mg-6Al-1Zn alloy was refined from 64 µm to 13.4 µm as a result of recrystallization. Regarding the Mg-4.8Gd-1.2Al-1Zn alloy, the grain refinement was much more pronounced, where the extruded grain size has been refined from 698 µm to 2.4 µm (extruded at 385 °C and 1.3 µm (extruded at 320 °C. This was related to the presence of fine and widely dispersed intermetallic phases. Tensile strength and total elongation of extruded alloys were much higher than their as-cast counterparts and the extruded Mg-6Zn-1Al alloy showed magnificent mechanical properties. The latter was related to the absence of intermetallic particles, which act as stress risers.

  6. Extruded black gram flour: Partial substitute for improving quality characteristics of Indian traditional snack

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laxmi Ananthanarayan

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: During extrusion of black gram flour, formation of amylose-lipid complexes lowers down the gelatinization enthalpy of extrudates, and the partially gelatinized black gram starch leads to lowering down the water-holding capacity and alters functional properties resulting in changing quality attributes of the end product on frying/microwaving/roasting. Methods: Attempts have been made to improve the quality of an Indian traditional snack (e.g., papad by incorporating extruded black gram flour as partial substitute for raw (unextruded black gram flour. In present work, overall quality improvement was achieved by analyzing prefrying and postfrying characteristics (diameter, moisture content, expansion ratio, oil uptake, texture, and color of papad and physical properties (color and viscosity of fried oil. Results: Four different papad samples were prepared (control papads without addition of papadkhar, papads with use of 3% papadkhar, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 25% concentration, papads with incorporation of extruded black gram flour at 50% concentration along with 1% papadkhar and analyzed along standard market sample. Incorporation of extruded black gram flour in papad resulted in greater expansion with less oil uptake in fried papad. Further addition of extruded black gram flour permitted the use of lower concentration of papadkhar. After frying, the quality of oil was characterized after numerous frying cycles. Conclusion: Oil used for frying of papads containing highest concentration of papadkhar was effective only up to two frying cycles, after which color and viscosity increased significantly, adversely affecting the quality of fried oil. Keywords: Black gram flour, Extrusion, Prefrying and postfrying characteristics of papad, Quality of fried oil

  7. Applied Electrochemistry of Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Qingfeng; Qiu, Zhuxian

    Electrochemistry of aluminum is of special importance from both theoretical and technological point of view. It covers a wide range of electrolyte systems from molten fluoride melts at around 1000oC to room temperature molten salts, from aqueous to various organic media and from liquid to solid...... electrolytes. The book is an updated review of the technological advances in the fields of electrolytic production and refining of metals, electroplating, anodizing and other electrochemical surface treatments, primary and secondary batteries, electrolytic capacitors; corrosion and protection and others....

  8. Helium trapping in aluminum and sintered aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, S.K.; Kaminsky, M.; Rossing, T.

    1975-01-01

    The surface erosion of annealed aluminum and of sintered aluminum powder (SAP) due to blistering from implantation of 100-keV 4 He + ions at room temperature has been investigated. A substantial reduction in the blistering erosion rate in SAP was observed from that in pure annealed aluminum. In order to determine whether the observed reduction in blistering is due to enhanced helium trapping or due to helium released, the implanted helium profiles in annealed aluminum and in SAP have been studied by Rutherford backscattering. The results show that more helium is trapped in SAP than in aluminum for identical irradiation conditions. The observed reduction in erosion from helium blistering in SAP is more likely due to the dispersion of trapped helium at the large Al-Al 2 O 3 interfaces and at the large grain boundaries in SAP than to helium release

  9. Hot Deformation Behavior of Hot-Extruded AA7175 Through Hot Torsion Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Se-Yeon; Jung, Taek-Kyun; Son, Hyeon-Woo; Kim, Sang-Wook; Son, Kwang-Tae; Choi, Ho-Joon; Oh, Sang-Ho; Lee, Ji-Woon; Hyun, Soong-Keun

    2018-03-01

    The hot deformation behavior of hot-extruded AA7175 was investigated with flow curves and processing maps through hot torsion tests. The flow curves and the deformed microstructures revealed that dynamic recrystallization (DRX) occurred in the hot-extruded AA7175 during hot working. The failure strain was highest at medium temperature. This was mainly influenced by the dynamic precipitation of fine rod-shaped MgZn2. The processing map determined the optimal deformation condition for the alloy during hot working.

  10. Parameters Affecting the Extraction Process of Jatropha Curcas Oil Using a Single Screw Extruder

    OpenAIRE

    Siregar, Ali Nurrakhmad; Ghani, Jaharah A; Che Haron, Che Hassan; Rizal, Muhammad

    2015-01-01

    The most commonly used technique to separate oil and cake from J. curcas seeds is mechanical extraction. It uses simple tools such as a piston and a screw extruder to produce high pressure, driven by hand or by engine. A single screw extruder has one screw rotating inside the barrel and materials simultaneously flow from the feed to the die zone. The highest oil yield can be obtained by a well-designed oil press as well as finding the optimum conditions for all parameters involved during the ...

  11. Physical evaluation of a maize-based extruded snack with curry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christofides, Vassilis; Ainsworth, Paul; Ibanoğlu, Senol; Gomes, Frances

    2004-02-01

    Response surface methodology was used to analyze the effect of screw speed (200-280 rpm), feed moisture (13.0-17.0%, wet basis), and curry powder (6.0-9.0%) on the bulk density, lateral expansion, and firmness of maize-based extruded snack with curry powder. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the responses were obtained. Responses were most affected by changes in feed moisture followed by screw speed and curry powder (p extruded product indicated by a higher correlation coefficient.

  12. Selective Adsorption of Sodium Aluminum Fluoride Salts from Molten Aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leonard S. Aubrey; Christine A. Boyle; Eddie M. Williams; David H. DeYoung; Dawid D. Smith; Feng Chi

    2007-08-16

    Aluminum is produced in electrolytic reduction cells where alumina feedstock is dissolved in molten cryolite (sodium aluminum fluoride) along with aluminum and calcium fluorides. The dissolved alumina is then reduced by electrolysis and the molten aluminum separates to the bottom of the cell. The reduction cell is periodically tapped to remove the molten aluminum. During the tapping process, some of the molten electrolyte (commonly referred as “bath” in the aluminum industry) is carried over with the molten aluminum and into the transfer crucible. The carryover of molten bath into the holding furnace can create significant operational problems in aluminum cast houses. Bath carryover can result in several problems. The most troublesome problem is sodium and calcium pickup in magnesium-bearing alloys. Magnesium alloying additions can result in Mg-Na and Mg-Ca exchange reactions with the molten bath, which results in the undesirable pickup of elemental sodium and calcium. This final report presents the findings of a project to evaluate removal of molten bath using a new and novel micro-porous filter media. The theory of selective adsorption or removal is based on interfacial surface energy differences of molten aluminum and bath on the micro-porous filter structure. This report describes the theory of the selective adsorption-filtration process, the development of suitable micro-porous filter media, and the operational results obtained with a micro-porous bed filtration system. The micro-porous filter media was found to very effectively remove molten sodium aluminum fluoride bath by the selective adsorption-filtration mechanism.

  13. An In vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris Using Reciproc, ProTaper Universal, Neolix and Hyflex in Curved Canals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbaf, Hossein; Nazari Moghadam, Kiumars; Shahab, Shahriar; Mohammadi Bassir, Mahshid; Fahimi, Mohammad Amin

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: As a consequence of root canal preparation, dentinal chips, irrigants and pulp remnants are extruded into preradicular space. This phenomenon may lead to post endodontic flare-ups. The purpose of this study was to compare the amount of extruded debris with four endodontic NiTi engine-driven systems. Methods and Materials: Sixty mesiobuccal roots of maxillary molars with 15-30˚ curvature were divided randomly into four groups (n=15). Each group was instrumented up to apical size of 25 using Reciproc, ProTaper Universal, Neolix and Hyflex. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant and extruded debris was collected in pre-weighted Eppendorf tubes. Tubes were stored in incubator for drying the debris. Extruded debris were weighted in electronic microbalance with accuracy of 0.0001 g. The raw data was analyzed with one way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Tukey’s HSD post hoc test. Level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: The debris extrusion with Reciproc files was significantly higher than the other groups (P<0.05). Hyflex significantly extruded less debris than other files (P<0.05). There was no significant difference between ProTaper Universal and Neolix regarding the amount of extruded debris (P=0.98). Conclusion: All systems extruded debris during the instrumentation. Reciproc system significantly extruded more debris. Caution should be taken when interpreting the results of this study and applying it to the real clinical situation. PMID:28808456

  14. Real-time in vitro dissolution of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single ethyl cellulose coated extrudates studied by UV imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaunø, Mette Høg; Vilhelmsen, Thomas; Larsen, Crilles Casper

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the in vitro release of 5-aminosalicylic acid from single extrudates by UV imaging and to explore the technique as a visualization tool for detecting film coating defects on extrudates coated with a thin ethyl cellulose layer. 5-Aminosalicylic acid ext...

  15. Successful reimplantation of extruded long bone segments in open fractures of lower limb--a report of 3 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanmuganathan, Rajasekaran; Chandra Mohan, Arun Kamal; Agraharam, Devendra; Perumal, Ramesh; Jayaramaraju, Dheenadhayalan; Kulkarni, Sunil

    2015-07-01

    Extruded bone segments are rare complication of high energy open fractures. Routinely these fractures are treated by debridement followed by bone loss management in the form of either bone transport or free fibula transfer. There are very few reports in the literature about reimplantation of extruded segments of bone and there are no clear guidelines regarding timing of reimplantation, bone stabilisation and sterilisation techniques. Reimplantation of extruded bone is a risky procedure due to high chances of infection which determines the final outcome and can result in secondary amputations. We present two cases of successful reimplantation of extruded diaphyseal segment of femur and one case of reimplantation of extruded segment of tibia. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Microstructure, mechanical analysis and optimal selection of 7075 aluminum alloy based composite reinforced with alumina nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezatpour, H.R., E-mail: H.R.Ezatpour@gmail.com [Faculty of Engineering, Sabzevar University of New Technology, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Torabi Parizi, M. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Semnan University of Semnan, Semnan (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Sajjadi, S.A. [Dept. of Materials Science and Metallurgical Engineering, Engineering Faculty, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Mashhad (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ebrahimi, G.R. [Department of Materials and Polymer Engineering, Hakim Sabzevari University, Sabzevar (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Chaichi, A. [Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering, Sharif University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2016-08-01

    Aluminum metal-matrix nanocomposites (AMMNCs) fabricated by conventional stir-casting process usually show high porosity and poor distribution of nanoparticles within the matrix. In the current study, for the improvement of nanoparticles distribution in the aluminum matrix and enhancement of the mechanical properties, a mixture of Al/nano-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powders were injected by pure argon gas into the molten 7075 aluminum alloy and this mixture was extruded at high temperature. Mechanical behavior of the final product was investigated by tensile and compression tests, hardness measurements, Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), High Resolution Transmission Electron Microscopy (HRTEM) and Optical Microscopy. This nanocomposite exhibited some superior properties such as a fine grain microstructure and a reasonable uniform distribution of nanoparticles in the matrix. Mechanical experiments results confirmed that the addition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanoparticles and the extrusion process effectively improved ultimate tensile strength, compression strength and hardness. In next step, we used a Preference Selection Index (PSI) materials selection method to select best combination of strength and workability of Al7075−Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocomposites. By this method, extruded Al7075/0.4 and 0.8 wt % Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} has best combination of strength and workability. - Highlights: • Injection Al/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} powder is benefit way for improving nanoparticles distribution. • Nanocomposites present superior mechanical properties. • Extrusion process improved significantly mechanical properties of nanocomposites. • Preference Selection Index is a simple and benefit method in material selection.

  17. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Chaoyong [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Pan, Fusheng, E-mail: fspan@cqu.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Magnesium Alloys, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China); Chongqing Academy of Science and Technology, Chongqing 401123 (China); Zhang, Lei; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai; Tang, Aitao [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400044 (China)

    2017-01-01

    In this study, as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were studied for orthopedic application, and the microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and compressive tests, immersion test, electrochemical test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were composed of α-Mg and Mg{sub 17}Sr{sub 2} phases, and the content of Mg{sub 17}Sr{sub 2} phases increased with increasing Sr content. As-extruded Mg-Sr alloy with 0.5 wt.% Sr was equiaxed grains, while the one with a higher Sr content was long elongated grains and the grain size of the long elongated grains decreased with increasing Sr content. Tensile and compressive tests showed an increase of both tensile and compressive strength and a decrease of elongation with increasing Sr content. Immersion and electrochemical tests showed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy exhibited the best anti-corrosion property, and the anti-corrosion property of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys deteriorated with increasing Sr content, which was greatly associated with galvanic couple effect. The cytotoxicity test revealed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy did not induce toxicity to cells. These results indicated that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy with suitable mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and good cytocompatibility was potential as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic application. - Highlights: • Biodegradable as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were fabricated. • Microstructure of alloys changed with increasing Sr content. • Mechanical properties of alloys could be controlled by adjusting the Sr content. • Corrosion properties of alloys decreased with increasing Sr content. • As-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy was potential for orthopedic application.

  18. Extrusion trials with a TSK045 twin screw extruder (Poster presentation)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sabel, H.W.R.; Schonewille, E.

    1998-01-01

    In 1994 a 45mm twin screw extruder was introduced at the Prins Maurits Laboratory of TNO for the processing of energetic materials. Initial safety experiments were carried out by using inert compositions with small amounts of different energetic components and micro encapsulated chemical sensors to

  19. Radical Polymerization of Styrene and Styrene–Butylmethacrylate in a Counterrotating Twin Screw Extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goot, A.J. van der; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the copolymerization of styrene–butylmethacrylate (St-BMA) and the homopolymerization of styrene (St) in a counterrotating twin screw extruder. The effect of prepolymerization on both the product properties and process was studied. It turned out that the process of reactive

  20. Twin screw extruders as polymerization reactors for a free radical homo polymerization

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ganzeveld, K.J.; Janssen, L.P.B.M.

    The bulk polymerization of n-butylmethacrylate was investigated in a counter-rotating twin screw extruder. It appeared that the gel effect, occurring with bulk polymerizations, affected the polymerization progress very strongly. Due to this effect the conversion of the reaction is independent of the

  1. The modeling of continuous mixers. Part I: The corotating twin-screw extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, H.E.H.; Elemans, P.H.M.

    1988-01-01

    In many operations in polymer processing, such as polymer blending, devolatilization, or incorporation of fillers in a polymeric matrix, continuous mixers are used; e.g., corotating twin-screw extruders (ZSK), Buss Cokneaders and Farrel Continuous Mixers. Theoretical analysis of these machines tends

  2. Radical polymerization of styrene and styrene-butylmethacrylate in a counterrotating twin screw extruder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderGoot, AJ; Janssen, LPB

    1997-01-01

    This article describes the copolymerization of styrene-butylmethacrylate (St-BMA) and the homopolymerization of styrene (St) in a counterrotating twin screw extruder. The effect of prepolymerization on both the product properties and process was studied. It turned out that the process of reactive

  3. Ethanol fermentation of HTST extruded rye grain by bacteria and yeasts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Czarnecki, Z [Univ. of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Food Technology; Nowak, J [Univ. of Agriculture, Poznan (Poland). Inst. of Food Technology

    1997-09-01

    High temperature extrusion cooking of rye was used as a pretreatment for ethanol fermentation, and yeasts and bacteria were compared for their fermentation rates. Extrusion cooking caused, on average, a 7.5% increase in ethanol yield in comparison to autoclaved samples. The best results were achieved for grain with a moisture of 21-23% which was extruded at temperatures of 160-180 C. Extrusion decreased the relative viscosity of rye grain water extracts, so it was possible to mash it without {alpha}-amylase. The efficiency of fermentation of extruded rye without Termamyl was equal to that of autoclaved and traditionally mashed rye (using {alpha}-amylase). The rate of fermentation of extruded rye grain by Zymomonas was higher during the first stage, but the final ethanol yield was similar for the bacterium and the yeast. Through both microorganisms gave good quality distillates, the concentration of compounds other than ethanol achieved from extruded rye mashes, which were fermented by Z. mobilis, was five times lower than for yeasts. (orig.)

  4. 78 FR 58520 - Extruded Rubber Thread From Malaysia; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-24

    ... Malaysia; Notice of Amended Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review AGENCY: Import... from Malaysia.\\1\\ The period of review (POR) is October 1, 1995, through September 30, 1996. \\1\\ See Extruded Rubber Thread From Malaysia; Final Results of Antidumping Duty Administrative Review, 63 FR 12752...

  5. Characterization of Peptides Found in Unprocessed and Extruded Amaranth (Amaranthus hypochondriacus Pepsin/Pancreatin Hydrolysates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvaro Montoya-Rodríguez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to characterize peptides found in unprocessed amaranth hydrolysates (UAH and extruded amaranth hydrolysates (EAH and to determine the effect of the hydrolysis time on the profile of peptides produced. Amaranth grain was extruded in a single screw extruder at 125 °C of extrusion temperature and 130 rpm of screw speed. Unprocessed and extruded amaranth flour were hydrolyzed with pepsin/pancreatin enzymes following a kinetic at 10, 25, 60, 90, 120 and 180 min for each enzyme. After 180 min of pepsin hydrolysis, aliquots were taken at each time during pancreatin hydrolysis to characterize the hydrolysates by MALDI-TOF/MS-MS. Molecular masses (MM (527, 567, 802, 984, 1295, 1545, 2034 and 2064 Da of peptides appeared consistently during hydrolysis, showing high intensity at 10 min (2064 Da, 120 min (802 Da and 180 min (567 Da in UAH. EAH showed high intensity at 10 min (2034 Da and 120 min (984, 1295 and 1545 Da. Extrusion produced more peptides with MM lower than 1000 Da immediately after 10 min of hydrolysis. Hydrolysis time impacted on the peptide profile, as longer the time lower the MM in both amaranth hydrolysates. Sequences obtained were analyzed for their biological activity at BIOPEP, showing important inhibitory activities related to chronic diseases. These peptides could be used as a food ingredient/supplement in a healthy diet to prevent the risk to develop chronic diseases.

  6. Effect of strontium on the texture and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–1%Mn alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borkar, Hemant; Hoseini, Majid; Pekguleryuz, Mihriban

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Mg–1%Mn and Mg–1%Mn–(0.3–2)Sr alloys were extruded at elevated temperature. ► Strontium additions refine extruded microstructure of M1 alloys. ► Sr additions weaken the basal texture of extruded M1, improve the ductility and reduce the yield asymmetry. ► Texture weakening with increasing strontium additions is the result of particle stimulated nucleation (PSN). - Abstract: Magnesium–manganese, M1, alloy is preferred for extrusion applications due to its extrudability. It is mainly used as a sacrificial anode or as a creep resistant alloy at elevated temperatures in the nuclear industry. Since Mn does not provide a significant strengthening effect, the alloy is not considered for structural applications. The basal texture which forms after extrusion orients the basal planes parallel to the extrusion direction causing anisotropy in mechanical properties. This basal texture, as well as the low strength of the alloy are the main challenges in its widespread applications. In this study, the effect of Sr addition on the texture and mechanical properties of M1 alloy was studied. M1–Sr alloys showed weakened texture by developing random texture components during extrusion. The texture randomisation is attributed to particle stimulated nucleation (PSN) around Mg–Sr intermetallics during recrystallisation. M1–Sr compositions are found to show improved strength and ductility as well as reduced yield asymmetry.

  7. Functional properties of plantain, cowpea flours and oat fiber in extruded products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drying effect on functional properties of two plantain and cowpea varieties and suitability of their flour blends in extruded snacks was determined. The functional and rheological behaviors of (plantain: cowpea): 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, 60:40 and 50:50 blends were evaluated. The extrusion product melt ...

  8. Wheat gluten in extruded fish feed: Effects on morphology and on physical and functional properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Draganovic, V.; Goot, van der A.J.; Boom, R.M.; Jonkers, J.

    2013-01-01

    This article focuses on understanding the role of vital wheat gluten on the structural parameters of extruded fish feed and its correlation to the physical and functional properties. Gluten–soy protein concentrate blends with five gluten concentrations (0–200 g kg-1) were produced. An abrupt

  9. Raw mechanically separated chicken meat and salmon protein hydrolysate as protein sources in extruded dog food

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjernsbekk, M. T.; Tauson, A. H.; Kraugerud, O. F.

    2017-01-01

    Protein quality was evaluated for mechanically separated chicken meat (MSC) and salmon protein hydrolysate (SPH), and for extruded dog foods where MSC or SPH partially replaced poultry meal (PM). Apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of crude protein (CP) and amino acids (AA) in the protein...

  10. Extrudable polymer-polymer composites based on ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panin, S. V.; Kornienko, L. A.; Alexenko, V. O.; Buslovich, D. G.; Dontsov, Yu. V.

    2017-12-01

    Mechanical and tribotechnical characteristics of polymer-polymeric composites of UHMWPE are studied with the aim of developing extrudable, wear-resistant, self-lubricant polymer mixtures for Additive Manufacturing (AM). The motivation of the study is their further application as feedstocks for 3D printing. Blends of UHMWPE with graft- and block copolymers of low-density polyethylene (HDPE-g-VTMS, HDPE-g-SMA, HDPE-b-EVA), polypropylene (PP), block copolymers of polypropylene and polyamide with linear low density polyethylene (PP-b-LLDPE, PA-b-LLDPE), as well as cross-linked polyethylene (PEX-b), are examined. The choice of compatible polymer components for an ultra- high molecular weight matrix for increasing processability (extrudability) is motivated by the search for commercially available and efficient additives aimed at developing wear-resistant extrudable polymer composites for additive manufacturing. The extrudability, mechanical properties and wear resistance of UHMWPE-based polymer-polymeric composites under sliding friction with different velocities and loads are studied.

  11. Application of extruded broken bean flour for formulation of gluten-free cake blends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Oliveira Froes Gomes

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the physical and microbiological characteristics of extruded broken beans flour, in addition to developing mixtures for gluten-free cake with these flours, evaluating their technological and sensory quality. Gluten-free formulations were prepared with 45%, 60% and 75% of extruded broken beans. All analyzes of the flours and mixtures for cakes were performed according to standard techniques found in the literature. Sensory analyzes of cakes applied the 9-point structured hedonic scale. Results were submitted to variance analysis and comparison of means test (Tukey, p<0.05. The use of extruded broken beans improved the water absorbed and water solubility index of the mixtures for gluten-free cake, and for the lower viscosity and retrogradation when compared to the standard formulation. All cakes were accepted (rate ≥ 7 for all the analyzed attributes. From the technological and sensory standpoints, the development of gluten-free cake mixtures is feasible with up to 75% of extruded broken beans.

  12. Effects of feeding un-extruded floating feed to African giant catfish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigated the effects of feeding two types of un-extruded floating fish feeds (HM1 and HM2 –38% CP, produced manually using available feedstuffs) and a commercial imported fish feed (Coppens – 40% CP) on growth performance and body composition of Heterobranchus longifilis over 56 days. Commercial ...

  13. Characterisation and potential application of pineapple pomace in an extruded product for fibre enhancement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selani, Miriam Mabel; Brazaca, Solange Guidolin Canniatti; Dos Santos Dias, Carlos Tadeu; Ratnayake, Wajira S; Flores, Rolando A; Bianchini, Andreia

    2014-11-15

    This study characterised pineapple pomace (PP) and evaluated its application in extrusion to enhance fibre content of the final product. The pomace had low fat (0.61%) and high dietary fibre (45.22%), showing its potential for fibre enrichment of nutritionally poor products, as some extruded snacks. Results also showed low microbiological counts, water activity, and pH indicating good microbiological quality and low risk of physicochemical deterioration. During extrusion, pomace (0%, 10.5% and 21%), moisture (14%, 15% and 16%) and temperature (140 and 160°C) were evaluated. The PP addition decreased expansion and luminosity; while increasing redness of the extrudates compared to the control (0% pomace/14% moisture/140°C). When hardness, yellowness, water absorption, and bulk density were compared to the control, there was no effect (p>0.05) of 10.5% PP addition on the extrudates, indicating that, at this level, PP could be added without affecting the properties of the final extruded product. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Compositional profiling and sensorial analysis of multi-wholegrain extruded puffs as affected by fructan inclusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handa, C; Goomer, S

    2015-09-01

    Rice grits, corn grits, pulse, wholegrain - finger millet and sorghum were utilized in the production of multigrain extruded puffs using a single screw extruder. The effect of inclusion of fructan - fructoligosaccharide in multi-wholegrain (MWG) extruded puffs was examined. MWG fructan enriched puffs puffs had 450 % higher dietary fiber content than the control puff (CP). These puffs can be categorized as 'Good Source' of fiber as it suffices 17.2 % DV of fiber. Puffs were rated 8.1 ± 0.6, 8.3 ± 0.7, 8.1 ± 0.6, 7.5 ± 0.5 and 8.2 ± 0.6 for color, flavor, texture, appearance and overall acceptability respectively. The scores for all the attributes were found to be not significantly different (p extruded puffs could be improved by the inclusion of fructans.

  15. Development of functional extruded snacks by utilizing paste shrimp (Acetes spp.): process optimization and quality evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Raushan; Xavier, Ka Martin; Lekshmi, Manjusha; Dhanabalan, Vignaesh; Thachil, Madonna T; Balange, Amjad K; Gudipati, Venkateshwarlu

    2018-04-01

    Functional extruded snacks were prepared using paste shrimp powder (Acetes spp.), which is rich in protein. The process variables required for the preparation of extruded snacks was optimized using response surface methodology. Extrusion temperature (130-144 °C), level of Acetes powder (100-200 g kg -1 ) and feed moisture (140-200 g kg -1 ) were selected as design variables, and expansion ratio, porosity, hardness, crispness and thiobarbituric acid reactive substance value were taken as the response variables. Extrusion temperature significantly influenced all the response variables, while Acetes inclusion influenced all variables except porosity. Feed moisture content showed a significant quadratic effect on all responses and an interactive effect on expansion ratio and hardness. Shrimp powder incorporation increased the protein and mineral content of the final product. The extruded snack made with the combination of extrusion temperature 144.59 °C, feed moisture 178.5 g kg -1 and Acetes inclusion level 146.7 g kg -1 was found to be the best one based on sensory evaluation. The study suggests that use of Acetes species for the development of extruded snacks will serve as a means of utilization of Acetes as well as being a rich source of proteins for human consumption, which would otherwise remain unexploited as a by-catch. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Aluminum anode for aluminum-air battery - Part I: Influence of aluminum purity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, Young-Joo; Park, In-Jun; Lee, Hyeok-Jae; Kim, Jung-Gu

    2015-03-01

    2N5 commercial grade aluminum (99.5% purity) leads to the lower aluminum-air battery performances than 4N high pure grade aluminum (99.99% purity) due to impurities itself and formed impurity complex layer which contained Fe, Si, Cu and others. The impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al declines the battery voltage on standby status. It also depletes discharge current and battery efficiency at 1.0 V which is general operating voltage of aluminum-air battery. However, the impurity complex layer of 2N5 grade Al is dissolved with decreasing discharge voltage to 0.8 V. This phenomenon leads to improvement of discharge current density and battery efficiency by reducing self-corrosion reaction. This study demonstrates the possibility of use of 2N5 grade Al which is cheaper than 4N grade Al as the anode for aluminum-air battery.

  17. Invisible Display in Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prichystal, Jan Phuklin; Hansen, Hans Nørgaard; Bladt, Henrik Henriksen

    2005-01-01

    Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish for an integ......Bang & Olufsen a/s has been working with ideas for invisible integration of displays in metal surfaces. Invisible integration of information displays traditionally has been possible by placing displays behind transparent or semitransparent materials such as plastic or glass. The wish...... for an integrated display in a metal surface is often ruled by design and functionality of a product. The integration of displays in metal surfaces requires metal removal in order to clear the area of the display to some extent. The idea behind an invisible display in Aluminum concerns the processing of a metal...

  18. Development of protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched extruded corn snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shah, Faiz-Ul-Hassan; Sharif, Mian Kamran; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Shahid, Muhammad

    2017-06-01

    The study was aimed to develop protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrient enriched corn snacks through extrusion processing. Corn snacks supplemented with chickpea, defatted soy flour (20-40/100 g) and guar gum (7/100 g) were prepared through extrusion processing. Micronutrients (iron, zinc, iodine, and vitamins A, C, and folic acid) at recommended daily values were added in all formulations. Extruded corn snacks were analyzed for physical, textural, and sensory attributes. Results showed that piece density (0.34-0.44 g/cm 3 ), moisture (3.40-5.25%), water activity (0.203-0.361), hardness (64.4-133.2 N), and cohesiveness (0.25-0.44) was increased Whereas, expansion ratio (3.72-2.64), springiness (0.82-0.69), chewiness (1.63-0.42), and resilience (1.37-0.14) was decreased as supplementation with soy and chickpea flour increased from 20 to 40/100 g. Overall corn snack supplemented with 15/100 g of soy and 15/100 g of chickpea flour got the highest acceptance from the sensory panelists. The article focuses on physical, textural, and sensory attributes of extruded corn snacks enriched with protein, dietary fiber, and micronutrients Awareness about the importance of healthy snacks has grown among the consumers during the last decade. Extruded snacks developed using nutrient rich ingredients with good textural and sensory properties has always remained a challenge for the snack industry. Texture of the extruded snacks varies a lot with high levels of protein and dietary fiber. This study is helpful for the development of healthy snacks especially in developing countries lacking storage infrastructure or tropical environment. Nutrient rich extruded snacks can also be used to alleviate malnutrition by incorporating in school lunch programs. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. [Microbiological corrosion of aluminum alloys].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smirnov, V F; Belov, D V; Sokolova, T N; Kuzina, O V; Kartashov, V R

    2008-01-01

    Biological corrosion of ADO quality aluminum and aluminum-based construction materials (alloys V65, D16, and D16T) was studied. Thirteen microscopic fungus species and six bacterial species proved to be able to attack aluminum and its alloys. It was found that biocorrosion of metals by microscopic fungi and bacteria was mediated by certain exometabolites. Experiments on biocorrosion of the materials by the microscopic fungus Alternaria alternata, the most active biodegrader, demonstrated that the micromycete attack started with the appearance of exudate with pH 8-9 on end faces of the samples.

  20. Aluminum hydroxide issue closure package

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bergman, T.B.

    1998-01-01

    Aluminum hydroxide coatings on fuel elements stored in aluminum canisters in K West Basin were measured in July and August 1998. Good quality data was produced that enabled statistical analysis to determine a bounding value for aluminum hydroxide at a 99% confidence level. The updated bounding value is 10.6 kg per Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO), compared to the previously estimated bounding value of 8 kg/MCO. Thermal analysis using the updated bounding value, shows that the MCO generates oxygen concentrate that are below the lower flammability limits during the 40-year interim storage period and are, therefore, acceptable

  1. Heated Aluminum Tanks Resist Corrosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, L. E.

    1983-01-01

    Simple expedient of heating foam-insulated aluminum alloy tanks prevents corrosion by salt-laden moisture. Relatively-small temperature difference between such tank and surrounding air will ensure life of tank is extended by many years.

  2. Integration of β-glucan fibre rich fractions from barley and mushrooms to form healthy extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brennan, Margaret A; Derbyshire, Emma; Tiwari, Brijesh K; Brennan, Charles S

    2013-03-01

    β-glucan is a commonly researched plant cell wall component that when incorporated into food products has been associated with cholesterol and glycaemic response reductions. This study focusses on β-glucan rich fractions from barley and mushroom used in the production of extruded ready to eat snacks. Inclusion of barley β-glucan rich fractions and mushroom β-glucan fractions at 10 % levels increased the total dietary fibre content of extrudates compared to the control (P extruded snack products.

  3. Chrome - Free Aluminum Coating System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bailey, John H.; Gugel, Jeffrey D.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation concerns the program to qualify a chrome free coating for aluminum. The program was required due to findings by OSHA and EPA, that hexavalent chromium, used to mitigate corrosion in aerospace aluminum alloys, poses hazards for personnel. This qualification consisted of over 4,000 tests. The tests revealed that a move away from Cr+6, required a system rather than individual components and that the maximum corrosion protection required pretreatment, primer and topcoat.

  4. "Ripples" in an Aluminum Pool?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, James; Wang, Si-Yin; Nesterenko, Vitali F.

    2018-05-01

    Our motivation for this article is for students to realize that opportunities for discovery are all around them. Discoveries that can still puzzle present day researchers. Here we explore an observation by a middle school student concerning the production of what appears to be water-like "ripples" produced in aluminum foil when placed between two colliding spheres. We both applaud and explore the student's reasoning that the ripples were formed in a melted aluminum pool.

  5. A Virtual Aluminum Reduction Cell

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Zhou, Chenn Q.; Wu, Bing; Li, Jie

    2013-11-01

    The most important component in the aluminum industry is the aluminum reduction cell; it has received considerable interests and resources to conduct research to improve its productivity and energy efficiency. The current study focused on the integration of numerical simulation data and virtual reality technology to create a scientifically and practically realistic virtual aluminum reduction cell by presenting complex cell structures and physical-chemical phenomena. The multiphysical field simulation models were first built and solved in ANSYS software (ANSYS Inc., Canonsburg, PA, USA). Then, the methodology of combining the simulation results with virtual reality was introduced, and a virtual aluminum reduction cell was created. The demonstration showed that a computer-based world could be created in which people who are not analysis experts can see the detailed cell structure in a context that they can understand easily. With the application of the virtual aluminum reduction cell, even people who are familiar with aluminum reduction cell operations can gain insights that make it possible to understand the root causes of observed problems and plan design changes in much less time.

  6. Anodized aluminum on LDEF

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1993-01-01

    A compilation of reported analyses and results obtained for anodized aluminum flown on the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) was prepared. Chromic acid, sulfuric acid, and dyed sulfuric acid anodized surfaces were exposed to the space environment. The vast majority of the anodized surface on LDEF was chromic acid anodize because of its selection as a thermal control coating for use on the spacecraft primary structure, trays, tray clamps, and space end thermal covers. Reports indicate that the chromic acid anodize was stable in solar absorptance and thermal emittance, but that contamination effects caused increases in absorptance on surfaces exposed to low atomic oxygen fluences. There were some discrepancies, however, in that some chromic acid anodized specimens exhibited significant increases in absorptance. Sulfuric acid anodized surfaces also appeared stable, although very little surface area was available for evaluation. One type of dyed sulfuric acid anodize was assessed as an optical baffle coating and was observed to have improved infrared absorptance characteristics with exposure on LDEF.

  7. The heat insulating properties of potato starch extruded with addition of chosen by- products of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdybel Ewa

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was aimed at determination of time of heat transition through the layer of quince, apple, linen, rose pomace and potato pulp, as well as layer of potato starch and potato starch extruded with addition of above mentioned by-products. Additionally the attempt of creation a heat insulating barrier from researched raw material was made. The heat conductivity of researched materials was dependent on the type of material and its humidity. Extruded potato starch is characterized by smaller heat conductivity than potato starch extruded with addition of pomace. The obtained rigid extruded starch moulders were characterized by higher heat insulating properties than the loose beads. It is possible to use starch and by-products of food industry for production of heat insulating materials.

  8. The effect of moisture content on physicochemical properties of extruded waxy and non-waxy rice flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jongsutjarittam, Ornpicha; Charoenrein, Sanguansri

    2014-12-19

    The properties of waxy rice flour (WRF) and non-waxy rice flour (RF) were modified using an extrusion process with different feeding material moisture contents. WRF was more affected by the thermomechanical stress from extrusion; consequently, it had a lower glass transition temperature but higher water solubility index (WSI) indicating higher molecular degradation than extruded RF. The lower moisture content of the feeding flour caused more severe flour damage (coarser surface of the extruded flour) and lowered relative crystallinity compared to higher moisture content processing. Moreover, low moisture content processing led to complete gelatinization, whereas, partial gelatinization occurred in the higher moisture content extrusion. Consequently, the extruded flours had a lower peak viscosity and gelatinization enthalpy but a higher water absorption index and WSI than native flour. In conclusion, the rice flour type and the moisture content of the extrusion feeding flour affected the physicochemical properties of the extruded flour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Tokai Research Establishment

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs.

  10. Gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashizume, Shuji; Matsumoto, Junko; Banba, Tsunetaka

    1996-10-01

    As a part of study of leaching behavior for solidified dry low level radioactive waste, gas evolution behavior of aluminum in mortar was investigated, and a plan of our research was proposed. The effect of pH on corrosion rate of aluminum, corrosion product, time dependency of corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar, change of corrosion mechanism, the effects of Na, Ca and Cl ions on corrosion rate of aluminum in mortar and corrosion behavior of aluminum when aluminum was used as sacrificed anode in reinforced concrete were previously clarified. Study of the effects of environmental factors such as pH, kind of ions and temperature on gas evolution behavior of aluminum and the effect of aluminum/carbon steel surface ratio no gas evolution behavior of aluminum were planed. (author). 75 refs

  11. Influence of Scanning Strategies on Processing of Aluminum Alloy EN AW 2618 Using Selective Laser Melting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palousek, David; Pantelejev, Libor; Hoeller, Christian; Pichler, Rudolf; Tesicky, Lukas; Kaiser, Jozef

    2018-01-01

    This paper deals with various selective laser melting (SLM) processing strategies for aluminum 2618 powder in order to get material densities and properties close to conventionally-produced, high-strength 2618 alloy. To evaluate the influence of laser scanning strategies on the resulting porosity and mechanical properties a row of experiments was done. Three types of samples were used: single-track welds, bulk samples and samples for tensile testing. Single-track welds were used to find the appropriate processing parameters for achieving continuous and well-shaped welds. The bulk samples were built with different scanning strategies with the aim of reaching a low relative porosity of the material. The combination of the chessboard strategy with a 2 × 2 mm field size fabricated with an out-in spiral order was found to eliminate a major lack of fusion defects. However, small cracks in the material structure were found over the complete range of tested parameters. The decisive criteria was the elimination of small cracks that drastically reduced mechanical properties. Reduction of the thermal gradient using support structures or fabrication under elevated temperatures shows a promising approach to eliminating the cracks. Mechanical properties of samples produced by SLM were compared with the properties of extruded material. The results showed that the SLM-processed 2618 alloy could only reach one half of the yield strength and tensile strength of extruded material. This is mainly due to the occurrence of small cracks in the structure of the built material. PMID:29443912

  12. Influence of Scanning Strategies on Processing of Aluminum Alloy EN AW 2618 Using Selective Laser Melting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutny, Daniel; Palousek, David; Pantelejev, Libor; Hoeller, Christian; Pichler, Rudolf; Tesicky, Lukas; Kaiser, Jozef

    2018-02-14

    This paper deals with various selective laser melting (SLM) processing strategies for aluminum 2618 powder in order to get material densities and properties close to conventionally-produced, high-strength 2618 alloy. To evaluate the influence of laser scanning strategies on the resulting porosity and mechanical properties a row of experiments was done. Three types of samples were used: single-track welds, bulk samples and samples for tensile testing. Single-track welds were used to find the appropriate processing parameters for achieving continuous and well-shaped welds. The bulk samples were built with different scanning strategies with the aim of reaching a low relative porosity of the material. The combination of the chessboard strategy with a 2 × 2 mm field size fabricated with an out-in spiral order was found to eliminate a major lack of fusion defects. However, small cracks in the material structure were found over the complete range of tested parameters. The decisive criteria was the elimination of small cracks that drastically reduced mechanical properties. Reduction of the thermal gradient using support structures or fabrication under elevated temperatures shows a promising approach to eliminating the cracks. Mechanical properties of samples produced by SLM were compared with the properties of extruded material. The results showed that the SLM-processed 2618 alloy could only reach one half of the yield strength and tensile strength of extruded material. This is mainly due to the occurrence of small cracks in the structure of the built material.

  13. Diffusion Bonding and Post-Weld Heat Treatment of Extruded AZ91 Magnesium Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei LIN

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The grain size of as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys was refined to 12.31 μm from 21.41 μm by recrystallization annealing. The vacuum diffusion welding of as-annealed AZ91 magnesium alloys was researched. The results showed that the maximum shear strength of joints reached 64.70 MPa in the situation of 10 MPa bonding pressure, 18 Pa vacuum degree, 470 °C bonding temperature and 90 min bonding time; both bonding temperature and time are the main influence factors on as-extruded AZ91 magnesium alloys diffusion welding. Then the diffusion welded specimens were annealed, and the shear strength of joints was further improved to 76.93 MPa.DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5755/j01.ms.21.4.9699

  14. Tailored sPP/Silica Nanocomposite for Ecofriendly Insulation of Extruded HVDC Cable

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bin Dang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE is a thermosetting material that cannot be recycled at the end of its lifetime. This study investigated the potential of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP/silica as an ecofriendly extruded insulation system for HVDC cables. We investigated the morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical behaviors of sPP modified with 0.5–3% nanosilica. We found that the silica/sPP nanocomposite without cross-linking offered a suitable mechanical modulus at room temperature and sufficient intensity at high temperatures, and adding nanosilica modified by a silane coupling agent to the sPP resulted in significant DC resistivity and space charge improvement. The optimal nanosilica content in the sPP was determined by balancing the mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics and the DC resistivity. The sPP/silica nanocomposite reported here shows great potential as a candidate insulation material for future ecofriendly extruded HVDC cables.

  15. A novel modeling approach to the mixing process in twin-screw extruders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, Amedu Osaighe; Penlington, Roger; Busawon, Krishna; Morgan, Andy

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, a theoretical model for the mixing process in a self-wiping co-rotating twin screw extruder by combination of statistical techniques and mechanistic modelling has been proposed. The approach was to examine the mixing process in the local zones via residence time distribution and the flow dynamics, from which predictive models of the mean residence time and mean time delay were determined. Increase in feed rate at constant screw speed was found to narrow the shape of the residence time distribution curve, reduction in the mean residence time and time delay and increase in the degree of fill. Increase in screw speed at constant feed rate was found to narrow the shape of the residence time distribution curve, decrease in the degree of fill in the extruder and thus an increase in the time delay. Experimental investigation was also done to validate the modeling approach.

  16. Effects of extruded corn on milk yield and composition and blood parameters in lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igino Andrighetto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available According to a 2x2 cross over design, fourteen Holstein dairy cows at 99±55 DIM were fed two diets containing 21.5% DM of either ground corn (GC or extruded corn (EC. Performance and metabolic profile were detected during the third week of each experimental period. DMI and milk yield were not affected by dietary treatments. Milk fat and protein percentage of EC diet were significantly (P<0.10 lower than those of GC diet. Probably the higher rumen degradability of starch from EC thesis modified the synthesis of specific fatty acids leading to a milk fat depression event. Diets did not influence blood parameters, except for lower values of total protein and glucose content in EC diet-fed cows. Results suggested that the dietary inclusion of extruded corn should not be used at the tested level of substitution.

  17. Cassava and turmeric flour blends as new raw materials to extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Mussato Spinello

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Short cooking time and ability to blend varieties of food ingredients have made extrusion cooking a medium for low-cost and nutritionally improved food products. The effect of moisture, extrusion temperature and amount of turmeric flour mixed with cassava flour on physical characteristic of puffed snacks was evaluated in this work. Extrusion process was carried out using a single-screw extruder in a factorial central composite design with four factors. Results showed effect of extrusion parameters on dependents variables. High expansion, low browning, low water solubility index, intermediate water absorption index and high crispness desirable characteristics to puffed snacks are obtained in conditions of 12% moisture, 5% turmeric flour, 105º C of temperature and 250 rpm of screw speed. These paper point to the potential still unexplored of the use of flours of cassava and turmeric as raw materials in the development of extruded puffed snacks.

  18. Numerical studies of the polymer melt flow in the extruder screw channel and the forming tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ershov, S. V.; Trufanova, N. M.

    2017-06-01

    To date, polymer compositions based on polyethylene or PVC is widely used as insulating materials. These materials processing conjugate with a number of problems during selection of the rational extrusion regimes. To minimize the time and cost when determining the technological regime uses mathematical modeling techniques. The paper discusses heat and mass transfer processes in the extruder screw channel, output adapter and the cable head. During the study were determined coefficients for three rheological models based on obtained viscosity vs. shear rate experimental data. Also a comparative analysis of this viscosimetric laws application possibility for studying polymer melt flow during its processing on the extrusion equipment was held. As a result of numerical study the temperature, viscosity and shear rate fields in the extruder screw channel and forming tool were obtained.

  19. Evolution of twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with bimodal grain structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcés, G., E-mail: ggarces@cenim.csic.es [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Oñorbe, E. [CIEMAT, Division of Structural Materials, Avenida Complutense, 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Gan, W. [German Engineering Materials Science Centre at MLZ, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Lichtebergstr. 1, D-85747 Garching (Germany); Máthis, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Tolnai, D. [Institute of Materials Research, Helmholtz-Zentrum Geesthacht, Max-Planck-Str. 1, 21502 Geesthacht (Germany); Horváth, K. [Department of Physics of Materials, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, KeKarlovu 5, 121 16 Praha 2 (Czech Republic); Pérez, P.; Adeva, P. [Department of Physical Metallurgy, National Centre for Metallurgical Research CENIM-CSIC, Av. De Gregorio del Amo 8, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2017-04-15

    Twinning in extruded AZ31 alloy with a bimodal grain structure is studied under compression along the extrusion direction. This study has combined in-situ measurements during the compression tests by Synchrotron Radiation Diffraction and Acoustic Emission techniques and the evaluation of the microstructure and texture in post-mortem compression samples deformed at different strains. The microstructure of the alloy is characterized by the coexistence of large areas of fine dynamic recrystallized grains and coarse non-recrystallized grains elongated along extrusion direction. Twinning occurs initially in large elongated grains before the macroscopic yield stress which is controlled by the twinning in equiaxed dynamically recrystallized grains. - Highlights: • The AZ31 extruded at low temperature exhibits a bimodal grains structure. • Twinning takes place before macroscopic yielding in coarse non-DRXed grains. • DRXed grains controls the beginning of plasticity in magnesium alloys with bimodal grain structure.

  20. Extrusion of blends of cassava leaves and cassava flour: physical characteristics of extrudates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane da Cunha Salata

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A cassava-based puffed snack was produced using a single screw extruder to determine the effect of the raw material composition (cassava leaf flour and moisture and the process parameters (extrusion temperature and screw speed on the physical characteristics of an extruded-expanded snack. A central composite rotational design, including four factors with 30 treatments, was used with the following as dependent variables: expansion index, specific volume, water solubility index, water absorption index, color (L*, a*, b*, and hardness. Under conditions of low moisture content (12 to 14%, low percentage of cassava leaf flour (2 to 4%, and intermediate conditions of extrusion temperature (100°C and screw speed (230rpm, it was possible to obtain puffed snack products with desirable characteristics.

  1. Comparison of Maize Silage-based Diets for Dairy Cows Containing Extruded Rapeseed Cake or Extruded Full-fat Soybean as Major Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Třináctý

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The trial was carried out on four Holstein cows with initial milk yield of 27.3 ± 1.7 kg.day−1. Cows were divided into two groups – the first was fed a diet based on extruded rapeseed cake (D-ERC, the second one was fed a diet based on extruded full-fat soybean (D-EFFS, both diets contained maize silage and meadow hay. The experiment was divided into 4 periods of 42 days. Intake of dry matter, crude protein and NEL was not affected by the treatment (P > 0.05 while the intake of PDIA, PDIN and PDIE was lower in D-ERC than in D-EFFS (P < 0.05. Milk yield in D-ERC (22.6 kg.d−1 was lower than in D-EFFS (24.7 kg.d−1, P < 0.001 while concentration of milk fat and protein were reverse (P < 0.05. Smaller portion of essential AADI in crude protein intake (CPI in D-ERC resulted in lower efficiency of CPI utilization for milk protein synthesis in comparison to D-EFFS being 313 and 327 g.kg−1, respectively (P < 0.01. Concentration of AA in blood plasma was not affected by the type of diet except of His and Ile that were higher in D-EFFS (P < 0.01.

  2. APPLICATION OF OAT, WHEAT AND RYE BRAN TO MODIFY NUTRITIONAL PROPERTIES, PHYSICAL AND SENSORY CHARACTERISTICS OF EXTRUDED CORN SNACKS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Polcyn, Anna; Chudy, Sylwia; Michniewicz, Jan

    2015-01-01

    Cereal products constitute the basis of the diet pyramid. While the consumption of such products as bread decreases, the group of food which popularity increase is cereal snacks. Unfortunately, the dietary value of this group of foodstuffs is limited. Thus, different types of cereal bran may be added to the produced snacks to enhance their nutritive value. However, an addition of bran may have an adverse effect on quality attributes of products. Corn grits enriched with 20 and 40% oat, wheat and rye bran was extruded. Basic parameters determining the nutritive value, physical characteristics and sensory attributes of the six produced types of extrudates were measured and compared. Moreover, the effect of additives applied on viscosity of aqueous suspensions of the raw materials and extrudates under controlled conditions was measured using RVA. The dietary value of snacks containing bran depends on the type and quantitative shares of the additives. The content of dietary fibre in produced extrudates ranged from 6.5 to 15.8%, including soluble dietary fibre at 2.1 to 3.7%. With an increase of bran content in extrudates, their expansion decreased, density increased and the colour of extrudates changed (reduced brightness, increased a*, decreased b*). In sensory evaluation the highest acceptability was given to extrudates with a 20% addition of oat bran, while the lowest was given for those with 40% wheat bran. Based on PCA results positive correlations were found between overall desirability and crispiness, porosity, taste, colour and expansion. Negative correlations between desirability and hardness and density of extrudates were observed. The additives and their level also had an effect on changes in viscosity of aqueous suspensions measured using RVA. However, no correlation was found between quality features of extrudates and values of attributes measured in the analysis of viscosity. In the production of corn extruded snacks an addition of oat, wheat and rye bran

  3. Microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Chaoyong; Pan, Fusheng; Zhang, Lei; Pan, Hucheng; Song, Kai; Tang, Aitao

    2017-01-01

    In this study, as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were studied for orthopedic application, and the microstructure, mechanical properties, bio-corrosion properties and cytotoxicity of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were investigated by optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy with an energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, tensile and compressive tests, immersion test, electrochemical test and cytotoxicity test. The results showed that as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys were composed of α-Mg and Mg 17 Sr 2 phases, and the content of Mg 17 Sr 2 phases increased with increasing Sr content. As-extruded Mg-Sr alloy with 0.5wt.% Sr was equiaxed grains, while the one with a higher Sr content was long elongated grains and the grain size of the long elongated grains decreased with increasing Sr content. Tensile and compressive tests showed an increase of both tensile and compressive strength and a decrease of elongation with increasing Sr content. Immersion and electrochemical tests showed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy exhibited the best anti-corrosion property, and the anti-corrosion property of as-extruded Mg-Sr alloys deteriorated with increasing Sr content, which was greatly associated with galvanic couple effect. The cytotoxicity test revealed that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy did not induce toxicity to cells. These results indicated that as-extruded Mg-0.5Sr alloy with suitable mechanical properties, corrosion resistance and good cytocompatibility was potential as a biodegradable implant for orthopedic application. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of storage on oxidative quality and stability of extruded astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied; Hjermitslev, Niels Harthøj; Frosch, Stina

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the stability of extruded and astaxanthin-coated fish feed pellets during storage in a light box at 28°C and 620lx. Seven groups of fish feed pellets were vacuum coated with fish oil that contained levels of astaxanthin ranging from 0 to 100ppm. To equalize differences...... was comparatively protected against degradation. Furthermore, the initial concentrations of astaxanthin influenced the degradation per se, signifying self-protective properties of astaxanthin....

  5. Texture development in gluten-free breads: Effect of different enzymes and extruded flour

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez, Mario M.; Marcos, Pablo; Gómez, Manuel

    2013-01-01

    Producción Científica One of the main problems with gluten-free breads is their texture and their rapid staling. In this work the influence of different enzymes (one protease, one lipase and two amylases) and of extruded rice flour on rice-bread texture and texture development was studied. For this purpose, the development of firmness, cohesiveness, resilience, springiness and chewiness was modelled and the parameters that define the initial values and the development of these characterist...

  6. Orientation-dependent microstructure and shear flow behavior of extruded Mg–Li–Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karami, M.; Mahmudi, R., E-mail: mahmudi@ut.ac.ir

    2015-06-11

    The microstructural and textural evolutions together with the orientation dependencies of mechanical properties of the extruded Mg–6Li–1Zn (LZ61), Mg–8Li–1Zn (LZ81) and Mg–12Li–1Zn (LZ121) alloys were investigated. The shear punch testing (SPT) method was employed to evaluate the room- and high-temperature (200–300 °C) mechanical anisotropy of the extruded materials. Microstructural analysis revealed that, despite a great discontinuous dynamic recrystallization (DDRX) occurred in the extrusion direction (ED) and normal direction (ND), the microstructural anisotropy was observed in all extruded materials, the effect which was more pronounced in the LZ81 alloy by developing banded structure in the ND condition. Textural studies in both hcp LZ61 and LZ81-α phase showed a fiber-type texture with the basal planes being parallel to the ED after extrusion. For the LZ81 alloy, however, the interfering presence of β phase affects the LZ81-α-phase texture by reducing the intensity of the maximum orientations of the basal and prismatic planes. Similar weakened bimodal type texture was formed in the bcc-structured LZ81-β phase, where some <110> poles were located parallel to the ED along with developing some other poles of a fiber-type character. It was also found that the abnormal grain growth might have been encouraged by the strong texture developed in the extruded LZ121 alloy. The SPT results indicated that the texture-dependent hcp LZ61 alloy showed higher shear strength in the ND condition than the ED condition, caused by the texture strengthening effect. As the Li content and deformation temperature increase, the texture dependence of strength properties, and thus, the mechanical anisotropy, decrease so that the LZ121-ND sample showed lower shear strength than the ED specimen due to the greater grain sizes achieved in the ND condition.

  7. Extrusion Conditions and Amylose Content Affect Physicochemical Properties of Extrudates Obtained from Brown Rice Grains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rolando José González

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of whole grains in food formulations is nowadays recommended. Extrusion cooking allows obtaining precooked cereal products and a wide range of ready-to-eat foods. Two rice varieties having different amylose content (Fortuna 16% and Paso 144, 27% were extruded using a Brabender single screw extruder. Factorial experimental design was used to study the effects of extrusion temperature (160, 175, and 190°C and grits moisture content (14%, 16.5%, and 19% on extrudate properties. Specific mechanical energy consumption (SMEC, radial expansion (E, specific volume (SV, water absorption (WA, and solubility (S were determined on each extrudate sample. In general, Fortuna variety showed higher values of SMEC and S (703–409 versus 637–407 J/g; 33.0–21.0 versus 20.1–11.0%, resp. than those of Paso 144; on the contrary SV (8.64–3.47 versus 8.27–4.53 mL/g and WA tended to be lower (7.7–5.1 versus 8.4–6.6 mL/g. Both varieties showed similar values of expansion rate (3.60–2.18. Physical characteristics depended on extrusion conditions and rice variety used. The degree of cooking reached by Paso rice samples was lower than that obtained for Fortuna. It is suggested that the presence of germ and bran interfered with the cooking process, decreasing friction level and broadening residence time distribution.

  8. Request Twin Screw Extruder to Enhance DoD Interested Polymer Nanocomposite Research and STEM Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-09-25

    will provide more African American STEM workforces to the nation. (a) Papers published in peer-reviewed journals (N/A for none) Enter List of papers...include polymer/carbon nanocomposites, polymer/calcium phosphate composites, and etc , which are within the technical fields of interest to the DoD...e.g. Kalvar), polycarbonate, and textured products, cellulose pulps, etc . Therefore, this twin-screw extruder not only strengthened existing

  9. Creep behavior and threshold stress of an extruded Al-6Mg-2Sc-1Zr alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deshmukh, S.P.; Mishra, R.S.; Kendig, K.L.

    2004-01-01

    Creep experiments were performed on extruded Al-6Mg-2Sc-1Zr (wt.%) alloy in a temperature range of 423-533 K. A threshold type creep behavior was measured and explained by observed dislocation-particle interactions. The experimental threshold stress values at various temperatures were compared with existing theoretical models. None of the available models could account for the decrease in threshold creep strength with increasing temperature

  10. [Process and mechanism of plants in overcoming acid soil aluminum stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tian-Long; Xie, Guang-Ning; Zhang, Xiao-Xia; Qiu, Lin-Quan; Wang, Na; Zhang, Su-Zhi

    2013-10-01

    Aluminum (Al) stress is one of the most important factors affecting the plant growth on acid soil. Currently, global soil acidification further intensifies the Al stress. Plants can detoxify Al via the chelation of ionic Al and organic acids to store the ionic Al in vacuoles and extrude it from roots. The Al extrusion is mainly performed by the membrane-localized anion channel proteins Al(3+)-activated malate transporter (ALMT) and multi-drug and toxin extrusion (MATE). The genes encoding ABC transporter and zinc-finger protein conferred plant Al tolerance have also been found. The identification of these Al-resistant genes makes it possible to increase the Al resistance of crop plants and enhance their production by the biological methods such as gene transformation and mark-associated breeding. The key problems needed to be solved and the possible directions in the researches of plant Al stress resistance were proposed.

  11. Enzymatic conversion of starch in twin-screw HTST-extruder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hakulin, S; Linko, Y Y; Linko, P; Seiler, K; Seibel, W

    1983-12-01

    Wheat starch was liquefied to DE 25-30 employing heat stable ..cap alpha..-amylase and twin-screw Werner and Pfleiderer Continua 58 HTST-extruder. Most significant reduction in batch saccharification time was obtained when starch was liquefied as a slurry containing 60% water at 120/sup 0/C mass temperature, feed rate 1 500 g min/sup -1/, screw rotation rate 250 min/sup -1/, and 0.9% (w/w, d.s.) Novo Termamyl 120 L ..cap alpha..-amylase was added immediately after initiation of gelatinization in the extruder. Saccharification was carried out at 60/sup 0/C employing 0.36 (w/w, d.s.) Novo glucoamylase 150 L to reach a DE 96 in 22 h. Best total conversion was, however, obtained when also saccharification was initiated in the extruder by adding glucoamylase just before the die element, after lowering mass temperature to 60/sup 0/C, and by allowing the saccharification to continue at 60/sup 0/C after extrusion processing to reach a DE 94 in 5 h and DE 97 in 21 h.

  12. Investigation into mixing capability and solid dispersion preparation using the DSM Xplore Pharma Micro Extruder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, Toshiro; Thommes, Markus

    2014-02-01

    The goal of this investigation was to qualify the DSM Xplore Pharma Micro Extruder as a formulation screening tool for early-stage hot-melt extrusion. Dispersive and distributive mixing was investigated using soluplus, copovidone or basic butylated methacrylate copolymer with sodium chloride (NaCl) in a batch size of 5 g. Eleven types of solid dispersions were prepared using various drugs and carriers in batches of 5 g in accordance with the literature. The dispersive mixing was a function of screw speed and recirculation time and the particle size was remarkably reduced after 1 min of processing, regardless of the polymers. An inverse relationship between the particle size and specific mechanical energy (SME) was also found. The SME values were higher than those in large-scale extruders. After 1 min recirculation at 200 rpm, the uniformity of NaCl content met the criteria of the European Pharmacopoeia, indicating that distributive mixing was achieved in this time. For the solid dispersions preparations, the results from different scanning calorimetry, powder X-ray diffractometry and in-vitro dissolution tests confirmed that all solid-dispersion systems were successfully prepared. These findings demonstrated that the extruder is a useful tool to screen solid-dispersion formulations and their material properties on a small scale. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  13. Parameters Affecting the Extraction Process of Jatropha curcas Oil Using a Single Screw Extruder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Nurrakhmad Siregar

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The most commonly used technique to separate oil and cake from J. curcas seeds is mechanical extraction. It uses simple tools such as a piston and a screw extruder to produce high pressure, driven by hand or by engine. A single screw extruder has one screw rotating inside the barrel and materials simultaneously flow from the feed to the die zone. The highest oil yield can be obtained by a well-designed oil press as well as finding the optimum conditions for all parameters involved during the extraction process. The influence of the parameters in a single screw extruder was studied using finite element analysis and computational fluid dynamics simulation with ANSYS POLYFLOW. The research focused on predicting the velocity, pressure and shear rate in the metering section that influenced the screw rotational speed and mass flow rate. The obtained results revealed that increasing the screw rotational speed will increase the pressure, velocity and shear rate. Meanwhile, increasing the mass flow rate results in decreasing the pressure while the velocity and shear rate remain constant.

  14. Performance of calves submitted to protocols using extruded or ground starter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amália Saturnino Chaves

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Feed processing can affect rumen development in new born calves, and potentially define animal performance. Two feed management systems, extruded starter (Ruter with possible early weaning and ground starter (control, were evaluated in thirty-two Holstein calves (16 females and 16 males. Animals were randomly assigned to the treatments using a randomized block design with birth weight as a covariate. They were weaned when starter intake reached 800 g for two consecutive days. Twenty-one days after the weaning, males were slaughtered and the stomach compartments were isolated. Rumen and omasum fragments were processed for morphological evaluation. Animal performance, clinical condition and stomach compartment weight did not differ between the treatments (P> 0.05, despite weaning weight of animals receiving extruded starter being 5.68% higher than the control animals. Extruded starter stimulated cell proliferation of the ruminal epithelium (P <0.05, but did not affect the dimensions of the papillary rumen and omasum mitotic index (MI. The Ruter feeding system was potentially beneficial for weight gain and morphofunctional rumen development in lactating animals; however, this treatment did not allow early weaning as proposed by the feeding system.

  15. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be considered as a source of dietary fiber according to Brazilian law . As for the technological properties, the extruded product presented an expansion index of 8.89 and apparent density of 0.25 g.cm-3. With regard to the sensory analysis, the acceptance average was ranked between 6.8 and 7.7, corresponding to the categories "liked slightly" and "liked very much". With regard to purchase intention, 79% of the panelists said they would certainly or possibly purchase the product. Broken rice and split old beans are interesting alternatives for the elaboration of extruded breakfast products presenting good nutritional, technological, and sensory qualities.

  16. Deformation structure of water atomised and extruded Cu-Cr-Zr alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Correia, J.B.; Davies, H.A.; Sellars, C.M.

    1994-01-01

    Copper alloy powders containing Cr and/or Zr were produced via water atomisation and consolidated by extrusion. The crystallographic orientations relative to the extrusion axis, both in the as-extruded condition and after heat treatment were assessed by an inverse pole figure texture determination method using X-ray diffraction. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was also used for microstructural observations. The as-extruded materials showed a clear double fibre texture ( left angle 111 right angle + left angle 100 right angle ), the left angle 111 right angle component being the stronger. After isochronal 1 hour heat treatments in the temperature range 400-700 C, a clear trend of a decreasing left angle 111 right angle component with increasing temperatures was seen. For the highest heat treatment temperature used (700 C), the alloys approached a random crystallographic distribution. The microstructure of the as-extruded material showed a banded structure with sharp boundaries parallel to the extrusion direction. Also, the left angle 111 right angle or left angle 100 right angle directions were generally parallel to the extrusion direction. TEM observation of longitudinal sections after exposure to increasingly high temperature, notably above 500 C, indicated that boundaries started to lose their sharpness and to spread sideways. When the same materials were observed in transverse sections, the competitive growth of some subgrains was clearly seen. (orig.)

  17. [Extruded rice flour as a gluten substitute in the poduction of rice bread].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clerici, Maria Teresa Pedrosa Silva; El-Dash, Ahmed A

    2006-09-01

    Research regarding the production of gluten-free bread (GFB) is very important nutritionally, technically and economically speaking, both to celiac patients and to developing countries who import wheat. The main technological problem in the production of GFB is obtaining a gluten substitute that is both inexpensive and capable of retaining gas during bread fermentation and baking. The use of gelatinized starch as an alternative for gluten seems promising. In this project, rice bread was made using pregelatinized extruded rice flour as a gluten substitute. Pre-gelatinized rice flours (PRF) were manufactured in a single screw Brabender extruder, varying extrusion temperature (108-192 degrees C) and the moisture of the raw material (19.2 - 24.8%), and were used in a proportion of 10 g for every 100 g of raw rice flour, in the production of gluten-free bread. Results showed that rice flour extruded at a high temperature (180 degrees) and low moisture content (20%), rendered bread with the best technological characteristics, presenting crust and crumb color similar to those of conventional wheat bread, although with volume and texture not as satisfactory in the same comparison.

  18. Identification of potent odorants formed during the preparation of extruded potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2005-08-10

    Extrusion cooking processing followed by air-drying has been applied to obtain low-fat potato snacks. Optimal parameters were developed for a dough recipe. Dough contained apart from potato granules 7% of canola oil, 1% of salt, 1% of baking powder, 5% of maltodextrin, and 15% of wheat flour. After the extrusion process, snacks were dried at 85 degrees C for 15 min followed by 130 degrees C for 45 min. The potent odorants of extruded potato snacks were identified using aroma extract dilution analysis and gas chromatography-olfactometry. Among the characteristic compounds, methional with boiled potato flavor, benzenemethanethiol with pepper-seed flavor, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline with popcorn flavor, benzacetaldehyde with strong flowery flavor, butanal with rancid flavor, and 2-acetylpyrazine with roasty flavor were considered to be the main contributors to the aroma of extruded potato snacks. Several compounds were concluded to be developed during extrusion cooking, such as ethanol, 3-methylbutanal, (Z)-1,5-octadien-3-one with geranium flavor, and unknown ones with the flavor of boiled potato, cumin, candy, or parsley root. Compounds such as methanethiol, 2,3-pentanedione, limonene, 2-acetylpyrazine, 2-ethyl-3,5-dimethylpyrazine, 4-hydroxy-2,5-dimethyl-3(2H)-furanone, 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone, 2-methyl-3,5-diethylpyrazine, 5-methyl-2,3-diethylpyrazine, and (E)-beta-damascenone were probably developed during air-drying of the potato extrudate.

  19. Investigation of functional properties and color changes of corn extrudates enriched with broccoli or olive paste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisharat, Ghassan I; Katsavou, Ioanna D; Panagiotou, Nikolaos M; Krokida, Magdalini K; Maroulis, Zacharias B

    2015-12-01

    Following the tendency of replacing common food snacks with healthier food products, extruded snacks with corn flour and broccoli (4-10%) or olive paste (4-8%) were investigated in this study. The effect of material characteristics, including feed moisture content (14-19%), and broccoli or olive paste concentration, and extrusion conditions, including screw speed (150-250 r/min), and extrusion temperature (140-180 ℃), on the functional properties (water absorption index, water solubility index, and oil absorption index), as well as color change (ΔE) of the extruded snacks was studied. Regression analysis showed that screw speed did not significantly influence (p > 0.05) the properties. After mathematical modelling it was found that broccoli and olive paste concentration, as well as temperature increment, caused a decrease in water absorption index (minimum of 5.6 and 6.4 g/g sample, respectively) and an increase in water solubility index (maximum of 18.7 and 10.9 g/100 g sample, respectively), while feed moisture presented opposite tendency. Higher extrusion temperature led to an increment of oil absorption index (approximately to 1.2 and 1 mL/g sample) and decrement of color changes. Finally, feed moisture and broccoli concentration lowered oil absorption index and color of corn/broccoli extrudates, while olive paste concentration caused their increment. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Weld Repair of Thin Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beuyukian, C. S.; Mitchell, M. J.

    1986-01-01

    Weld repairing of thin aluminum sheets now possible, using niobium shield and copper heat sinks. Refractory niobium shield protects aluminum adjacent to hole, while copper heat sinks help conduct heat away from repair site. Technique limits tungsten/inert-gas (TIG) welding bombardment zone to melt area, leaving surrounding areas around weld unaffected. Used successfully to repair aluminum cold plates on Space Shuttle, Commercial applications, especially in sealing fractures, dents, and holes in thin aluminum face sheets or clad brazing sheet in cold plates, heat exchangers, coolers, and Solar panels. While particularly suited to thin aluminum sheet, this process also used in thicker aluminum material to prevent surface damage near weld area.

  1. Effect of composition and processing conditions on selected characteristics of extruded corn instant gruels enriched with fruits addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kręcisz Magdalena

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Cranberries and goji berries were used as natural supplements in extruded instant corn gruels. The effects of additive type and level, as well as extrusion-cooking screw speed on selected properties of extrudates were tested. Corn grit was used as the base raw materials and dry and ground goji berries and cranberries were added at 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5%. Extrusion-cooking of blends was performed with a single screw extruder at temperature ranged 125-135°C using various screw speed during processing. Extrudates were ground below 1 mm for instant gruels. Water absorption, water solubility, as well as colour profile were tested. The results showed that the highest water absorption was evaluated for instant gruels consist the highest amount of goji berries extruded at the highest screw speed during processing, while cranberries addition have no significant effect on water absorption. Increasing amount of dry cranberries and goji berries in the recipe affected on lowering the water solubility of the extrudates. Significant effect of fruits on color coordinates was observed. Increasing amount of dry berries lowered lightness L* and yellowness of instant gruels, especially when goji berries were used in the recipe. Increasing the screw speed during processing decreased intensity b* values.

  2. Open segmental fracture of both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow with extruded middle segment radius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pawan Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Extruded middle segment of radius with open segmental fracture both bone forearm and dislocation of ipsilateral elbow is a rare injury. A 12-year-old child presented to us within 4 hours following fall from tree. The child′s mother was carrying a 12-cm-long extruded soiled segment of radius. The extruded bone was thoroughly washed. The medullary cavity was properly syringed with antiseptic solution. The bone was autoclaved and put in the muscle plane of the distal forearm after debridement of the wound. After 5 days, a 2.5-mm K-wire was introduced by retrograde method into the proximal radius by passing through the extruded segment. Another 2.5-mm K-wire was passed in ulna. The limb was evaluated clinicoradiologically every 2 weeks. The wound was healed by primary intention. At 4 months, the reposed bone appeared less dense radiologically and K-wire seemed to be out of the bone. In the subsequent months, the roentgenograms show remodeling of the extruded fragment. After 20 weeks, the K-wires were removed (first ulnar and then radial. Complete union was achieved with full range of movement except loss of few degrees of extension of elbow and thumb. This case is reported to show a good outcome following successful incorporation of an extruded segment of radius in an open fracture.

  3. Rumen fermentation and nutrient flow to the omasum in Holstein cows fed extruded canola seeds treated with or without lignosulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wallacy Barbacena Rosa dos Santos

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Four multiparous Holstein cows averaging 548 kg of body weight and 74 d in lactation were used in a Latin square design with four 21-d experimental periods to determine effects of feeding extruded versus non-extruded canola seed, with or without 50 g/kg lignosulfonate on rumen fermentation, nutrient flow to the omasum, and degradability of dry matter (DM and N of each diet. The DM effective degradability increased with extrusion and lignosulfonate treatment had no effect. The effective degradability of N was similar between diets. Lignosulfonate treatment of extruded versus non-extruded canola seeds decreased ruminal and total tract apparent digestibility of organic matter. The lowest apparent ruminal and highest intestinal digestibilities of protein, expressed as a percentage of N intake were observed for cows fed extruded canola seeds without lignosulfonate. Lignosulfonate treatment and extrusion had no effect on pH and concentrations of ammonia N and volatile fatty acids in the rumen. Results suggest that extruded canola seed untreated with formaldehyde may stimulate efficiency of microbial protein synthesis and is an effective means of increasing the availability of protein in the small intestine without affecting the total tract apparent digestibility of protein.

  4. Effects of forage type and extruded linseed supplementation on methane production and milk fatty acid composition of lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Livingstone, K M; Humphries, D J; Kirton, P; Kliem, K E; Givens, D I; Reynolds, C K

    2015-06-01

    Replacing dietary grass silage (GS) with maize silage (MS) and dietary fat supplements may reduce milk concentration of specific saturated fatty acids (SFA) and can reduce methane production by dairy cows. The present study investigated the effect of feeding an extruded linseed supplement on milk fatty acid (FA) composition and methane production of lactating dairy cows, and whether basal forage type, in diets formulated for similar neutral detergent fiber and starch, altered the response to the extruded linseed supplement. Four mid-lactation Holstein-Friesian cows were fed diets as total mixed rations, containing either high proportions of MS or GS, both with or without extruded linseed supplement, in a 4×4 Latin square design experiment with 28-d periods. Diets contained 500 g of forage/kg of dry matter (DM) containing MS and GS in proportions (DM basis) of either 75:25 or 25:75 for high MS or high GS diets, respectively. Extruded linseed supplement (275 g/kg ether extract, DM basis) was included in treatment diets at 50 g/kg of DM. Milk yields, DM intake, milk composition, and methane production were measured at the end of each experimental period when cows were housed in respiration chambers. Whereas DM intake was higher for the MS-based diet, forage type and extruded linseed had no significant effect on milk yield, milk fat, protein, or lactose concentration, methane production, or methane per kilogram of DM intake or milk yield. Total milk fat SFA concentrations were lower with MS compared with GS-based diets (65.4 vs. 68.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and with extruded linseed compared with no extruded linseed (65.2 vs. 68.6 g/100 g of FA, respectively), and these effects were additive. Concentrations of total trans FA were higher with MS compared with GS-based diets (7.0 vs. 5.4 g/100 g of FA, respectively) and when extruded linseed was fed (6.8 vs. 5. 6g/100 g of FA, respectively). Total n-3 FA were higher when extruded linseed was fed compared with no

  5. Strain Mapping and Nanocrystallite Size Determination by Neutron Diffraction in an Aluminum Alloy (AA5083 Severely Plastically Deformed through Equal Channel Angular Pressing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. González Crespo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Six specimens of an aluminum alloy (AA-5083 extruded by Equal Channel Angular Pressing following two different routes plus a blank sample were examined with a neutron radiation of 1.5448 Å. Macrostrain maps from the (311 reflection were obtained. A clear difference about accumulated macrostrain with the extrusion cycles between the two routes is shown. The diffraction data of annealed specimens did permit to estimate crystallite sizes that range between 89 nm and 115 nm depending on the routes.

  6. Recrystallization in Commercially Pure Aluminum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bay, Bent; Hansen, Niels

    1984-01-01

    Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree of defor......Recrystallization behavior in commercial aluminum with a purity of 99.4 pct was studied by techniques such as high voltage electron microscopy, 100 kV transmission electron microscopy, and light microscopy. Sample parameters were the initial grain size (290 and 24 microns) and the degree...... are discussed and compared with results from an earlier study1 covering the recrystallization behavior of commercial aluminum of the same purity deformed at higher degrees of deformation (50 to 90 pct reduction in thickness by cold-rolling)....

  7. Production of Bio-omega-3 eggs through the supplementation of extruded flaxseed meal in hen diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Imran, Muhammad; Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Nadeem, Muhammad; Ahmad, Nazir; Khan, Muhammad Kamran; Mushtaq, Zarina; Hussain, Shahzad

    2015-10-09

    The full-fat flaxseed meal has obtained relatively new flourished concept as staple chicken feedstuff for the production of designer eggs. However, unprocessed flaxseed also encloses well documented anti-nutritional factors which are associated with growth depression of laying hens. The present research work was carried out to evaluate the impact of full-fat extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diets on productivity performance of hens and production of modified ω-3 fatty acids-enriched eggs. The full-fat flaxseed meal was extruded at barrel exit temperature (140 °C), screw speed (160 rpm) and feed rate (25 kg/h) for reduction of anti-nutritional compounds. One hundred and sixty, Babcock hens (age 24 weeks old) were selected at random from a large flock and ten hens were placed in each of 16 wire-mesh pens. The experimental diets prepared by supplementation of extruded flaxseed at 10%, 20% and 30% level were fed to hens along with control. The extruded flaxseed contained 86% and 76% less hydrocyanic compounds and tannin, respectively than the initial material. The hens fed with control diet consumed more feed, possessed heavy body weight and showed higher egg production as compared to hens fed on extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. The loss in body weight and egg production was recorded less for hens fed on 10% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets as compared to those fed on 30% extruded flaxseed supplemented diets. None of the experimental diets resulted in significant increase or decrease the total lipids and cholesterol content in egg yolk of hens. The extruded flaxseed supplemented diets resulted in a significant improvement of α-linolenic and docosahexaenoic acid in egg yolk with a concomitant reduction in arachidonic acid. The sensory scores were assigned higher to control eggs. Increasing level of extruded flaxseed in experimental diets decreased the scores for all sensory attributes of eggs. The present study suggested that extruded flaxseed meal up to

  8. Aluminum-air battery crystallizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maimoni, A.

    1987-01-01

    A prototype crystallizer system for the aluminum-air battery operated reliably through simulated startup and shutdown cycles and met its design objectives. The crystallizer system allows for crystallization and removal of the aluminium hydroxide reaction product; it is required to allow steady-state and long-term operation of the aluminum-air battery. The system has to minimize volume and maintain low turbulence and shear to minimize secondary nucleation and energy consumption while enhancing agglomeration. A lamella crystallizer satisfies system constraints.

  9. Aluminum-carbon composite electrode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Farahmandi, C. Joseph; Dispennette, John M.

    1998-07-07

    A high performance double layer capacitor having an electric double layer formed in the interface between activated carbon and an electrolyte is disclosed. The high performance double layer capacitor includes a pair of aluminum impregnated carbon composite electrodes having an evenly distributed and continuous path of aluminum impregnated within an activated carbon fiber preform saturated with a high performance electrolytic solution. The high performance double layer capacitor is capable of delivering at least 5 Wh/kg of useful energy at power ratings of at least 600 W/kg.

  10. Newly formulated, protein quality-enhanced, extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, corn-, soya-, sugar- and oil-containing fortified-blended foods lead to adequate vitamin A and iron outcomes and improved growth compared with non-extruded CSB+ in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delimont, Nicole M; Fiorentino, Nicole M; Opoku-Acheampong, Alexander B; Joseph, Michael V; Guo, Qingbin; Alavi, Sajid; Lindshield, Brian L

    2017-01-01

    Corn and soyabean micronutrient-fortified-blended foods (FBF) are commonly used for food aid. Sorghum and cowpeas have been suggested as alternative commodities because they are drought tolerant, can be grown in many localities, and are not genetically modified. Change in formulation of blends may improve protein quality, vitamin A and Fe availability of FBF. The primary objective of this study was to compare protein efficiency, Fe and vitamin A availability of newly formulated extruded sorghum-, cowpea-, soya- and corn-based FBF, along with a current, non-extruded United States Agency for International Development (USAID) corn and soya blend FBF (CSB+). A second objective was to compare protein efficiency of whey protein concentrate (WPC) and soya protein isolate (SPI) containing FBF to determine whether WPC inclusion improved outcomes. Eight groups of growing rats ( n 10) consumed two white and one red sorghum-cowpea (WSC1 + WPC, WSC2 + WPC, RSC + WPC), white sorghum-soya (WSS + WPC) and corn-soya (CSB14 + WPC) extruded WPC-containing FBF, an extruded white sorghum-cowpea with SPI (WSC1 + SPI), non-extruded CSB+, and American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G, a weanling rat diet, for 4 weeks. There were no significant differences in protein efficiency, Fe or vitamin A outcomes between WPC FBF groups. The CSB+ group consumed significantly less food, gained significantly less weight, and had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and length, compared with all other groups. Compared with WSC1 + WPC, the WSC1 + SPI FBF group had significantly lower energy efficiency, protein efficiency and weight gain. These results suggest that a variety of commodities can be used in the formulation of FBF, and that newly formulated extruded FBF are of better nutritional quality than non-extruded CSB+.

  11. Aluminum nitride insulating films for MOSFET devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewicki, G. W.; Maserjian, J.

    1972-01-01

    Application of aluminum nitrides as electrical insulator for electric capacitors is discussed. Electrical properties of aluminum nitrides are analyzed and specific use with field effect transistors is defined. Operational limits of field effect transistors are developed.

  12. The effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Yougen; Lu, Lingbin; Roesky, Herbert W.; Wang, Laiwen; Huang, Baiyun

    Aluminum is an ideal material for batteries, due to its excellent electrochemical performance. Herein, the effect of zinc on the aluminum anode of the aluminum-air battery, as an additive for aluminum alloy and electrolytes, has been studied. The results show that zinc can decrease the anodic polarization, restrain the hydrogen evolution and increase the anodic utilization rate.

  13. 75 FR 70689 - Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division; Currently...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-18

    ... DEPARTMENT OF LABOR Employment and Training Administration [TA-W-70,376] Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC; Kaiser Aluminum- Greenwood Forge Division; Currently Known As Contech Forgings, LLC..., applicable to workers of Kaiser Aluminum Fabricated Products, LLC, Kaiser Aluminum-Greenwood Forge Division...

  14. 75 FR 80527 - Aluminum Extrusions From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-22

    ...)] Aluminum Extrusions From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Scheduling of... of subsidized and less-than-fair-value imports from China of aluminum extrusions, primarily provided... contained in Aluminum Extrusions From the People's Republic of China: Notice of Preliminary Determination of...

  15. 21 CFR 73.2645 - Aluminum powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum powder. 73.2645 Section 73.2645 Food and... ADDITIVES EXEMPT FROM CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 73.2645 Aluminum powder. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive aluminum powder shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of...

  16. 21 CFR 582.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Aluminum sulfate. 582.1125 Section 582.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Additives § 582.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  17. 21 CFR 182.1125 - Aluminum sulfate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Aluminum sulfate. 182.1125 Section 182.1125 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR... Substances § 182.1125 Aluminum sulfate. (a) Product. Aluminum sulfate. (b) Conditions of use. This substance...

  18. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anjum Faqir Muhammad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15% and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  19. Impact of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on growth performance, oxidative stability and quality of broiler meat and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjum, Faqir Muhammad; Haider, Muhammad Faizan; Khan, Muhammad Issa; Sohaib, Muhammad; Arshad, Muhammad Sajid

    2013-02-08

    This study was intended to explore the effect of extruded flaxseed meal supplemented diet on broiler growth performance, oxidative stability and organoleptic characteristics of broiler meat and meat products. 120 (day old) broiler chicks were randomly allotted to 12 experimental groups and fed on diets containing extruded flaxseed meal at 0, 5, 10 and 15%. The supplementation of extruded flaxseed in the diet decreases the body weight gain, feed intake and increased feed conversion ratio (FCR) values of broilers. The antioxidant enzymes were strongly influenced by different levels of extruded flaxseed supplementation among treatments. The TBARS assay revealed that maximum malondialdehyde were produced in T3 containing highest extruded flaxseed level (15%) and minimum malondialdehyde were produced in T0 treatment having no extruded flaxseed. The TBARS values ranged from 0.850-2.106 and 0.460-1.052 in leg and breast met respectively. The Free radical scavenging activity varied significantly and DPPH values of breast meat ranged from 20.70% to 39.09% and in leg meat 23.53% to 43.09% respectively. The sensory acceptability of broiler meat nuggets was decreased with the increase in the level of flaxseeds due to the lipid peroxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) which generated off flavors and bad odors. Feeding extruded flaxseed to chicken through feed strongly inflated the quality and functional properties, fatty acid contents and reduced the oxidative stability of broiler meat and meat products. The present study concludes that up to 10% of flaxseed meal may be used in broiler diet to enhance the omega 3 fatty acids content in the broiler meat.

  20. Characterization of ultrafine aluminum nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandstrom, Mary M.; Jorgensen, Betty S.; Mang, Joseph T.; Smith, Bettina L.; Son, Steven F.

    2004-01-01

    Aluminum nanopowders with particle sizes ranging from ∼25 nm to 80 nm were characterized by a variety of methods. We present and compare the results from common powder characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), high resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM), BET gas adsorption surface area analysis, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS), and low angle laser light scattering (LALLS). Aluminum nanoparticles consist of an aluminum core with an aluminum oxide coating. HRTEM measurements of both the particle diameter and oxide layer thickness tend to be larger than those obtained from BET and TGA. LALLS measurements show a large degree of particle agglomeration in solution; therefore, primary particle sizes could not be determined. Furthermore, results from small-angle scattering techniques (SAS), including small-angle neutron (SANS) and x-ray (SAXS) scattering are presented and show excellent agreement with the BET, TGA, and HRTEM. The suite of analytical techniques presented in this paper can be used as a powerful tool in the characterization of many types of nanosized powders.

  1. Aluminum break-point contacts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heinemann, Martina; Groot, R.A. de

    1997-01-01

    Ab initio molecular dynamics is used to study the contribution of a single Al atom to an aluminum breakpoint contact during the final stages of breaking and the initial stages of the formation of such a contact. A hysteresis effect is found in excellent agreement with experiment and the form of the

  2. Temporal analysis of the effect of extruded flaxseed on the swine gut microbiota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holman, Devin B; Baurhoo, Bushansingh; Chénier, Martin R

    2014-10-01

    Flaxseed is a rich source of α-linolenic acid, an essential ω-3 fatty acid reported to have beneficial health effects in humans. Feeding swine a diet supplemented with flaxseed has been found to enrich pork products with ω-3 fatty acids. However, the effect of flaxseed supplementation on the swine gut microbiota has not been assessed to date. The purpose of this study was to investigate if extruded flaxseed has any impact on the bacterial and archaeal microbiota in the feces of growing-finishing pigs over a 51-day period, using denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) and real-time PCR. Bacterial DGGE profile analysis revealed major temporal shifts in the bacterial microbiota with only minor ones related to diet. The archaeal microbiota was significantly less diverse than that of Bacteria. The majority of bacterial DGGE bands sequenced belonged to the Firmicutes phylum while the archaeal DGGE bands were found to consist of only 2 species, Methanobrevibacter smithii and Methanosphaera stadtmanae. The abundance of Bacteroidetes decreased significantly from day 0 to day 21 in all diet groups while the abundance of Firmicutes was relatively stable across all diet cohorts and sampling times. There was also no significant correlation between pig mass and the ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes. While the addition of extruded flaxseed to the feed of growing-finishing pigs was beneficial for improving ω-3 fatty acid content of pork, it had no detectable impact on the fecal bacterial and archaeal microbiota, suggesting that extruded flaxseed may be used to improve meat quality without adverse effect on the swine gut microbiota or animal performance.

  3. Preparation and evaluation of enteric coated tablets of hot-melt extruded lansoprazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alsulays, Bader B; Kulkarni, Vijay; Alshehri, Sultan M; Almutairy, Bjad K; Ashour, Eman A; Morott, Joseph T; Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Park, Jun-Bom; Tiwari, Roshan V; Repka, Michael A

    2017-05-01

    The objective of this work was to use hot-melt extrusion (HME) technology to improve the physiochemical properties of lansoprazole (LNS) to prepare stable enteric coated LNS tablets. For the extrusion process, we chose Kollidon ® 12 PF (K12) polymeric matrix. Lutrol ® F 68 was selected as the plasticizer and magnesium oxide (MgO) as the alkalizer. With or without the alkalizer, LNS at 10% drug load was extruded with K12 and F68. LNS changed to the amorphous phase and showed better release compared to that of the pure crystalline drug. Inclusion of MgO improved LNS extrudability and release and resulted in over 80% drug release in the buffer stage. Hot-melt extruded LNS was physically and chemically stable after 12 months of storage. Both formulations were studied for compatibility with Eudragit ® L100-55. The optimized formulation was compressed into a tablet followed by coating process utilizing a pan coater using L100-55 as an enteric coating polymer. In a two-step dissolution study, the release profile of the enteric coated LNS tablets in the acidic stage was less than 10% of the LNS, while that in the buffer stage was more than 80%. Drug content analysis revealed the LNS content to be 97%, indicating the chemical stability of the enteric coated tablet after storage for six months. HME, which has not been previously used for LNS, is a valuable technique to reduce processing time in the manufacture of enteric coated formulations of an acid-sensitive active pharmaceutical ingredient as compared to the existing methods.

  4. A comparison of the mechanical and sensory properties of baked and extruded confectionery products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butt, Saba; Charalambides, Maria; Mohammed, Idris K.; Powell, Hugh

    2017-10-01

    Traditional baking is the most common way of producing confectionery wafers, however over the past few decades, the extrusion process has become an increasingly important food manufacturing method and is commonly used in the manufacturing of breakfast cereals and filled snack products. This study aims to characterise products made via each of these manufacturing processes in order to understand the important parameters involved in the resulting texture of confectionery products such as wafers. Both of the named processes result in brittle, cellular foams comprising of cell walls and cell pores which may contain some of the confectionery filling. The mechanical response of the cell wall material and the geometry of the products influence the consumer perception and preference. X-Ray micro tomography (XRT) was used to generate geometry of the microstructure which was then fed to Finite Element (FE) for numerical analysis on both products. The FE models were used to determine properties such as solid modulus of the cell walls, Young's modulus of the entire foam and to investigate and compare the microstructural damage of baked wafers and extruded products. A sensory analysis study was performed on both products by a qualified sensory panel. The results of this study were then used to draw links between the mechanical behaviour and sensory perception of a consumer. The extruded product was found to be made up of a stiffer solid material and had a higher compressive modulus and fracture stress when compared to the baked wafer. The sensory panel observed textural differences between the baked and extruded products which were also found in the differences of the mechanical properties of the two products.

  5. Gastrointestinal transit of extruded or pelletized diets in pacu fed distinct inclusion levels of lipid and carbohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claucia Aparecida Honorato

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of pelletized or extruded diets, with different levels of carbohydrate and lipid, on the gastrointestinal transit time (GITT and its modulation in pacu (Piaractus mesopotamicus. One hundred and eighty pacu juveniles were fed with eight isonitrogenous diets containing two carbohydrate levels (40 and 50% and two lipid levels (4 and 8%. Four diets were pelletized and four were extruded. Carbohydrate and lipid experimental levels caused no changes to the bolus transit time. However, the bolus permanence time was related to diet processing. Fish fed pelletized diets exhibited the highest gastrointestinal transit time. Regression analysis of bolus behavior for pelletized and extruded diets with 4% lipid depicted different fits. GITT regression analysis of fish fed 8% lipid was fitted to a cubic equation and displayed adjustments of food permanence, with enhanced utilization of the diets, either with extruded or pelletized diets. GITT of fish fed extruded diets with 4% lipid was adjusted to a linear equation. The GITT of pacu depends on the diet processing and is affected by dietary levels of lipid and carbohydrate.

  6. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the single-file ProTaper F2 technique under reciprocating movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo; Brandão, Maria Claudia; Barino, Bianca; Di Giorgi, Karina; Fidel, Rivail Antonio Sergio; Luna, Aderval Severino

    2010-09-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of dentin debris extruded from the apical foramen by comparing the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal nickel-titanium (NiTi) files with the single-file ProTaper F2 technique. Thirty mesial roots of lower molars were selected, and the use of different instrumentation techniques resulted in 3 groups (n=10 each). In G1, a crown-down hand-file technique was used, and in G2 conventional ProTaper Universal technique was used. In G3, ProTaper F2 file was used in a reciprocating motion. The apical finish preparation was equivalent to ISO size 25. An apparatus was used to evaluate the apically extruded debris. Statistical analysis was performed using 1-way analysis of variance and Tukey multiple comparisons. No significant difference was found in the amount of the debris extruded between the conventional sequence of the ProTaper Universal NiTi files and the single-file ProTaper F2 technique (P>.05). In contrast, the hand instrumentation group extruded significantly more debris than both NiTi groups (P<.05). The present results yielded favorable input for the F2 single-file technique in terms of apically extruded debris, inasmuch as it is the most simple and cost-effective instrumentation approach. Copyright (c) 2010 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Physicochemical Changes and Resistant-Starch Content of Extruded Cornstarch with and without Storage at Refrigerator Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Neder-Suárez

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Effects of extrusion cooking and low-temperature storage on the physicochemical changes and resistant starch (RS content in cornstarch were evaluated. The cornstarch was conditioned at 20%–40% moisture contents and extruded in the range 90–130 °C and at screw speeds in the range 200–360 rpm. The extrudates were stored at 4 °C for 120 h and then at room temperature. The water absorption, solubility index, RS content, viscoelastic, thermal, and microstructural properties of the extrudates were evaluated before and after storage. The extrusion temperature and moisture content significantly affected the physicochemical properties of the extrudates before and after storage. The RS content increased with increasing moisture content and extrusion temperature, and the viscoelastic and thermal properties showed related behaviors. Microscopic analysis showed that extrusion cooking damaged the native starch structure, producing gelatinization and retrogradation and forming RS. The starch containing 35% moisture and extruded at 120 °C and 320 rpm produced the most RS (1.13 g/100 g after to storage at low temperature. Although the RS formation was low, the results suggest that extrusion cooking could be advantageous for RS production and application in the food industry since it is a pollution less, continuous process requiring only a short residence time.

  8. MR imaging findings of a sequestered disc in the lumbar spine: a comparison with an extruded disc

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sim, Su Youn; Park, Ji Seon; Ryu, Kyung Nam; Jin, Wook

    2007-01-01

    To compare the MR findings of a sequestered disc with an extruded disc. MR images of 28 patients with a sequestered disc and 18 patients with an extruded disc were retrospectively reviewed. Patients with sequestered discs were divided into two groups whether definite separation from the parent disc was or was not seen. In the latter group (definite separation not seen) and the extruded disc group of patients, the signal intensities of the herniated discs were compared with the signal intensities of the parent discs and were evaluated on T1-and T2-weighted images. We also assessed the presence of a notch within the herniated disc. In the sequestered disc group of patients (28 discs), only 5 discs (18%) showed obvious separation from the parent disc. Among the remaining 23 discs with indefinite separation, the notch was visible in 14 discs (61%) and 9 discs (39%) had no notch. In the extruded disc group (18 discs), the notch was visible in 2 (11%) discs and the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (ρ 0.0002). The signal intensities of the herniated discs on T1-weighted images were isointense in both the sequestered and extruded discs. The difference of incidence of high signal intensities on T2-weighted images was not statistically significant (ρ = 0.125). It is necessary to consider the possibility of the presence of a sequestered disc when a herniated disc material shows a notch

  9. Effect of incorporation of corn byproducts on quality of baked and extruded products from wheat flour and semolina.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Savita; Gupta, Jatinder Pal; Nagi, H P S; Kumar, Rakesh

    2012-10-01

    The effect of blending level (0, 5, 10, 15 and 20%) of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten with wheat flour on the physico-chemical properties (protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium), baking properties of bread, muffins and cookies, and extrusion properties of noodles and extruded snacks prepared from semolina were examined. Blending of wheat flour and corn byproducts significantly increased the protein, crude fiber, phosphorus, iron and calcium contents. Breads from gluten blends had higher loaf volume as compared to bran and germ breads. Among corn byproducts, gluten cookies were rated superior with respect to top grain. Muffins from germ blends and gluten blends had higher acceptability scores than the bran muffins. Blending of corn bran, defatted germ and gluten at 5 and 10% with wheat flour resulted in satisfactory bread, cookie, and muffin score. Quality of noodles was significantly influenced by addition of corn byproducts and their levels. Corn byproducts blending had significant influence on cooking time, however, gruel solid loss affected non-significantly in case of noodles. Expansion ratio and density of extruded snacks was affected non significantly by blending source and blending level. However, significant effect was observed on amperage, pressure, yield and overall acceptability of extruded snacks. Acceptable extruded products (noodles and extruded snacks) could be produced by blending corn byproducts with semolina upto 10% level.

  10. Effects of selected process parameters in extrusion of yam flour (Dioscorea rotundata) on physicochemical properties of the extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebio, L; Chang, Y K

    2000-04-01

    Raw yam (Dioscorea rotundata) flour was cooked and extruded in a Brabender single-screw laboratory scale extruder. Response surface methodology using an incomplete factorial design was applied with various combinations of barrel temperature [100, 125, 150 degrees C], feed moisture content [18, 22, 26%] and screw speed [100, 150, 200 rpm]. Initial viscosity at 30 degrees C, water solubility index, expansion and hardness were determined. The highest values of initial viscosity were at the highest barrel temperatures and the highest moisture contents. At high feed moisture content and high barrel temperatures the yam extrudate flour showed the greatest values of water solubility index. The physical properties of the extruded product showed that at high temperature the lower the moisture content the greater the expansion index. Hardness was influenced directly by moisture content and inversely by extrusion temperature. The extrusion of yam flour led to the production of snacks and pre-gelatinized flours of diverse properties. Also extruded yam flour can be successfully used in the preparation of 'futu' (pre-cooked compact dough), a yam-based food, popular in Western Africa.

  11. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, M Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y

    2014-09-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60-80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17-20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95-105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300-350 rpm screw speed, 100 ± 10 °C die temperature and 15 ± 2 kg/h feed rate. The exit diameter of the circular die was 3 mm. Sensory acceptability, physical parameters and nutrient analysis along with storage stability of the products was conducted. The fiber and energy content of the RTE extruded snack improved in experimental samples prepared using root and tuber flours. A serving of 100 g of the snack can provide more than 400 Kcal and 10 g of protein. The overall acceptability of RTE extruded products made with potato and taro were highly acceptable compared to yam and sweet potato. The study demonstrates utilization of roots and tuber flours as potential and diverse ingredients to enhance the appearance and nutritional properties in RTE extruded snack.

  12. Mathematical modeling of the drying of extruded fish feed and its experimental demonstration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haubjerg, Anders Fjeldbo; Simonsen, B.; Løvgreen, S.

    This paper present a mathematical model for the drying of extruded fish feed pellets. The model relies on conservation balances for moisture and energy. Sorption isotherms from literature are used together with diffusion and transfer coefficients obtained from dual parameter regression analysis...... against experimental data. The lumped capacitance method for the estimation of the heat transfer coefficient is used. The model performs well at temperatures ± 5 °C from sorption isotherm specificity, and for different pellet sizes. There is a slight under-estimation of surface temperature of denser feed...

  13. Controlling the extrudate swell in melt extrusion additive manufacturing of 3D scaffolds: a designed experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yousefi, Azizeh-Mitra; Smucker, Byran; Naber, Alex; Wyrick, Cara; Shaw, Charles; Bennett, Katelyn; Szekely, Sarah; Focke, Carlie; Wood, Katherine A

    2018-02-01

    Tissue engineering using three-dimensional porous scaffolds has shown promise for the restoration of normal function in injured and diseased tissues and organs. Rigorous control over scaffold architecture in melt extrusion additive manufacturing is highly restricted mainly due to pronounced variations in the deposited strand diameter upon any variations in process conditions and polymer viscoelasticity. We have designed an I-optimal, split-plot experiment to study the extrudate swell in melt extrusion additive manufacturing and to control the scaffold architecture. The designed experiment was used to generate data to relate three responses (swell, density, and modulus) to a set of controllable factors (plotting needle diameter, temperature, pressure, and the dispensing speed). The fitted regression relationships were used to optimize the three responses simultaneously. The swell response was constrained to be close to 1 while maximizing the modulus and minimizing the density. Constraining the extrudate swell to 1 generates design-driven scaffolds, with strand diameters equal to the plotting needle diameter, and allows a greater control over scaffold pore size. Hence, the modulus of the scaffolds can be fully controlled by adjusting the in-plane distance between the deposited strands. To the extent of the model's validity, we can eliminate the effect of extrudate swell in designing these scaffolds, while targeting a range of porosity and modulus appropriate for bone tissue engineering. The result of this optimization was a predicted modulus of 14 MPa and a predicted density of 0.29 g/cm 3 (porosity ≈ 75%) using polycaprolactone as scaffold material. These predicted responses corresponded to factor levels of 0.6 μm for the plotting needle diameter, plotting pressure of 2.5 bar, melt temperature of 113.5 °C, and dispensing speed of 2 mm/s. The validation scaffold enabled us to quantify the percentage difference for the predictions, which was 9.5% for the

  14. Mathematical model of a current of two plastic environments in the forming channel extruders at coextrusion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Vasilenko

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of the classical equations of an isothermal pressure head current of two rheology the various not mixing up viscou- plastic environments in the cylindrical channel, Ostvald-de-Vil submitting to the law, the model of a current of two viscous-plastic environments in the moulding channel extruder is synthesised at co-extrusion on which basis the technique of a choice of diameter of a dosing out branch pipe on the demanded value of the ratio of volume expenditures of two viscous-plastic environments (extrudat and stuffings is offered.

  15. A regionally-linked, dynamic material flow modelling tool for rolled, extruded and cast aluminium products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bertram, M.; Ramkumar, S.; Rechberger, H.

    2017-01-01

    A global aluminium flow modelling tool, comprising nine trade linked regions, namely China, Europe, Japan, Middle East, North America, Other Asia, Other Producing Countries, South America and Rest of World, has been developed. The purpose of the Microsoft Excel-based tool is the quantification...... of regional stocks and flows of rolled, extruded and casting alloys across space and over time, giving the industry the ability to evaluate the potential to recycle aluminium scrap most efficiently. The International Aluminium Institute will update the tool annually and publish a visualisation of results...

  16. SELECTED PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF EXTRUDED COMPOSITES TYPE OF POROUS PVC-METAL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneta Tor-Świątek

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The article presents studies of selected physical and mechanical properties of hybrid materials type of polymer-metal. In the frame of this work modification of PVC with the iron and copper powder in amount of 0, 1.5 and 3% and blowing agent in amount of 0, 0.5, 1% was done. Extrudates in a form of pipe were tested to determine density, porosity, maximum tensile stress, stress at break, modulus of elasticity and elongation with break. The samples were also observed in a microscope. The studies have shown significant influence of the added components on the properties tested.

  17. Processing and characterization of extruded breakfast meal formulated with broken rice and bean flour

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Vânia Carvalho; Rafaella de Andrade Mattietto; Priscila Zaczuk Bassinello; Selma Nakamoto Koakuzu; Alessandro de Oliveira Rios; Renan de Almeida Maciel; Rosangela Nunes Carvalho

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this work was to develop an extruded breakfast product containing broken rice and split old beans and to verify the influence of the extrusion process on their physicochemical, technological, and sensory characteristic. The final product had a protein content of 9.9 g.100 g-1, and therefore it can be considered a good source of proteins for children and teenagers. The dietary fiber content of the final edible product was 3.71 g.100 g-1. Therefore, the breakfast meal may be co...

  18. The measurement of density distribution of bentonite buffer extruded into fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matsumoto, Kazuhiro; Tanai, Kenji

    2008-01-01

    For the geological disposal of the high-level radioactive waste, it is important to develop the model to evaluate the long-term stability of the engineered barrier system. The increase in the reliability of the evaluation model may reduce the uncertainty of the safety assessment. In this study, the density distribution of the bentonite buffer extruded into the artificial fractures was measured by using a X-ray CT scanner to promote understanding of the extrusion phenomenon of the bentonite into fractures. (author)

  19. Decarbonization process for carbothermically produced aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Marshall J.; Carkin, Gerald E.; DeYoung, David H.; Dunlap, Sr., Ronald M.

    2015-06-30

    A method of recovering aluminum is provided. An alloy melt having Al.sub.4C.sub.3 and aluminum is provided. This mixture is cooled and then a sufficient amount of a finely dispersed gas is added to the alloy melt at a temperature of about 700.degree. C. to about 900.degree. C. The aluminum recovered is a decarbonized carbothermically produced aluminum where the step of adding a sufficient amount of the finely dispersed gas effects separation of the aluminum from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates by flotation, resulting in two phases with the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates being the upper layer and the decarbonized aluminum being the lower layer. The aluminum is then recovered from the Al.sub.4C.sub.3 precipitates through decanting.

  20. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded from Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farid Salahudin

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0.25. The result is the formula which can produce best extruded food is pop corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:2:0.25 with Expansion Ratio (ER 2.22 and protein content 8.83%.

  1. Optimization of barrel temperature and kidney bean flour percentage based on various physical properties of extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agathian, G; Semwal, A D; Sharma, G K

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the experiment was to optimize barrel temperature (122 to 178 ± 0.5 °C) and red kidney bean flour percentage (KBF) (12 to 68 ± 0.5 %) based on physical properties of extrudates like flash off percentage, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI), bulk density (BD), radial expansion ratio (RER) and overall acceptability (OAA) using single screw extruder. The study was carried out by central composite rotatable design (CCRD) using Response surface methodology (RSM) and moisture content of feed was kept as constant 16.0 ± 0.5 % throughout experiments. Mathematical models for various responses were found to fit significantly (P Extruded snack prepared with rice flour (80 %) and kidney bean flour (20 %) at optimized conditions was accepted by the taste panellists and above 20 % KB incorporation was found to decrease overall acceptability score.

  2. Aluminum precipitation from Hanford DSSF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borgen, D.; Frazier, P.; Staton, G.

    1994-01-01

    A series of pilot scale tests using simulated Double Shell Slurry Feed (DSSF) showed that well-settled aluminum precipitate can be produced in Hanford double shell tank (DST) high level waste by slow neutralization with carbon dioxide. This pretreatment could provide an early grout feed and free tank space, as well as facilitate downstream processes such as ion exchange by providing a less caustic feed. A total of eight test runs were completed using a 10-ft tall 3-in i.d. glass column. The 10-ft height corresponds to about one third of the vertical height of a DST, hence providing a reasonable basis for extrapolating the observed precipitate settling and compaction to the actual waste tank environment. Four runs (three with a simplified simulant and one with a chemically complete simulant) produced well settled precipitates averaging 1.5 to 2 feet high. Aluminum gel rather than settled precipitate resulted from one test where neutralization was too rapid

  3. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001). The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems. PMID:26697144

  4. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soi, Sonal; Yadav, Suman; Sharma, Sumeet; Sharma, Mohit

    2015-01-01

    Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no periapical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical foramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal preparation using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30). The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calculated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (PProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg) and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg). Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a significantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems.

  5. In Vitro Comparison of Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Preparation of Mandibular Premolars with Manual and Rotary Instruments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonal Soi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and aims. During root canal preparation, debris extruded beyond the apical foramen may result in periapical inflammation and postoperative pain. To date no root canal preparation method has been developed that extrudes no peri-apical debris. The purpose of this study was to identify a system leading to minimal extrusion of debris from the apical fo-ramen. The study was conducted to comparatively evaluate the amount of apical extrusion of debris during root canal prepa-ration using hand ProTaper and GT rotary and RaCe rotary instruments using crown-down technique. Materials and methods. Ninety freshly extracted human single-rooted mandibular premolars were equally assigned to three groups (n=30. The root canals were instrumented using hand ProTaper, GT rotary and RaCe rotary systems. Debris and irrigant extruded from the apical foramen were collected into vials. The mean weight of the remaining debris was calcu-lated for each group and subjected to statistical analysis. Results. ANOVA was used to compare the mean dry weights of the debris extruded in the three groups, followedby post hoc Tukey tests for multiple comparisons the between groups. Highly significant differences were found in the amount of debris extruded among all the groups (P<0.001. The ProTaper group exhibited the highest mean debris weight (0.8293±0.05433 mg and the RaCe system exhibited the lowest mean debris weight (0.1280±0.01606 mg. Conclusion. All the systems tested resulted in apical extrusion of debris. However, the hand ProTaper files extruded a sig-nificantly higher amount of debris than GT and RaCe systems.

  6. Microstructures, mechanical and corrosion properties and biocompatibility of as extruded Mg-Mn-Zn-Nd alloys for biomedical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Ying-Long; Li, Yuncang; Luo, Dong-Mei; Ding, Yunfei; Hodgson, Peter

    2015-04-01

    Extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-xNd alloys (x=0.5, 1.0, 1.5 mass %) have been developed for their potential use as biomaterials. The extrusion on the alloys was performed at temperature of 623K with an extrusion ratio of 14.7 under an average extrusion speed of 4mm/s. The microstructure, mechanical property, corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of the extruded Mg-Mn-Zn-Nd alloys have been investigated in this study. The microstructure was examined using X-ray diffraction analysis and optical microscopy. The mechanical properties were determined from uniaxial tensile and compressive tests. The corrosion behavior was investigated using electrochemical measurement. The biocompatibility was evaluated using osteoblast-like SaOS2 cells. The experimental results indicate that all extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-xNd alloys are composed of both α phase of Mg and a compound of Mg7Zn3 with very fine microstructures, and show good ductility and much higher mechanical strength than that of cast pure Mg and natural bone. The tensile strength and elongation of the extruded alloys increase with an increase in neodymium content. Their compressive strength does not change significantly with an increase in neodymium content. The extruded alloys show good biocompatibility and much higher corrosion resistance than that of cast pure Mg. The extruded Mg-1Mn-2Zn-1.0Nd alloy shows a great potential for biomedical applications due to the combination of enhanced mechanical properties, high corrosion resistance and good biocompatibility. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Electrically Conductive Anodized Aluminum Surfaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Trung Hung

    2006-01-01

    Anodized aluminum components can be treated to make them sufficiently electrically conductive to suppress discharges of static electricity. The treatment was conceived as a means of preventing static electric discharges on exterior satin-anodized aluminum (SAA) surfaces of spacecraft without adversely affecting the thermal-control/optical properties of the SAA and without need to apply electrically conductive paints, which eventually peel off in the harsh environment of outer space. The treatment can also be used to impart electrical conductivity to anodized housings of computers, medical electronic instruments, telephoneexchange equipment, and other terrestrial electronic equipment vulnerable to electrostatic discharge. The electrical resistivity of a typical anodized aluminum surface layer lies between 10(exp 11) and 10(exp 13) Omega-cm. To suppress electrostatic discharge, it is necessary to reduce the electrical resistivity significantly - preferably to anodized surface becomes covered and the pores in the surface filled with a transparent, electrically conductive metal oxide nanocomposite. Filling the pores with the nanocomposite reduces the transverse electrical resistivity and, in the original intended outer-space application, the exterior covering portion of the nanocomposite would afford the requisite electrical contact with the outer-space plasma. The electrical resistivity of the nanocomposite can be tailored to a value between 10(exp 7) and 10(exp 12) Omega-cm. Unlike electrically conductive paint, the nanocomposite becomes an integral part of the anodized aluminum substrate, without need for adhesive bonding material and without risk of subsequent peeling. The electrodeposition process is compatible with commercial anodizing production lines. At present, the electronics industry uses expensive, exotic, electrostaticdischarge- suppressing finishes: examples include silver impregnated anodized, black electroless nickel, black chrome, and black copper. In

  8. Determination of surface energies of hot-melt extruded sugar-starch pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeung, Chi-Wah; Rein, Hubert

    2018-02-01

    Hot-melt extruded sugar-starch pellets are an alternative for commercial sugar spheres, but their coating properties remain to be studied. Both the European Pharmcopoeia 8.6 and the United States Pharmacopoeia 40 specify the composition of sugar-starch pellets without giving requirements for the manufacturing process. Due to various fabrication techniques, the physicochemical properties of pellets may differ. Therefore, the adhesion energies of three coating dispersions (sustained, enteric and immediate release) on different types of pellets were investigated. In this context, the surface energies of various kinds of corn starch (normal, waxy, high-amylose) and sucrose pellets were analyzed using the sessile drop method, whereas the surface tensions of the coating dispersions were examined using the pendant drop method. The adhesion forces were calculated from the results of these studies. Furthermore, sugar spheres were characterized in terms of particle size distribution, porosity and specific surface area. An increase of the pellets' sucrose content leads to a more porous surface structure, which gives them an enhanced wetting behavior with coating dispersions. The adhesion energies of extruded sugar-starch pellets are similar to those of commercial sugar spheres, which comply with pharmacopeial requirements. Both types of pellets are equally suited for coating.

  9. Semi-continuous anaerobic digestion of extruded OFMSW: Process performance and energetics evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mu, Lan; Zhang, Lei; Zhu, Kongyun; Ma, Jiao; Li, Aimin

    2018-01-01

    Recently, extrusion press treatment shows some promising advantages for effectively separating of organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) from the mixed MSW, which is critical for their following high-efficiency treatment. In this study, an extruded OFMSW obtained from a demonstrated MSW treatment plant was characterized, and submitted to a series of semi-continuous anaerobic experiments to examine its biodegradability and process stability. The results indicated that the extruded OFMSW was a desirable substrate with a high biochemical methane potential (BMP), balanced nutrients and reliable stability. For increasing organic loading rates (OLRs), feeding higher volatile solid (VS) contents in feedstock was much better than shortening the hydraulic retention times (HRTs), while excessively high contents caused a low biodegradability due to the mass transfer limitation. For energetics evaluation, a high electricity output of 129.19-156.37kWh/ton raw MSW was obtained, which was further improved by co-digestion with food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Apically extruded debris with reciprocating single-file and full-sequence rotary instrumentation systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bürklein, Sebastian; Schäfer, Edgar

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this in vitro study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris using rotary and reciprocating nickel-titanium instrumentation systems. Eighty human mandibular central incisors were randomly assigned to 4 groups (n = 20 teeth per group). The root canals were instrumented according to the manufacturers' instructions using the 2 reciprocating single-file systems Reciproc (VDW, Munich, Germany) and WaveOne (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and the 2 full-sequence rotary Mtwo (VDW, Munich, Germany) and ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) instruments. Bidistilled water was used as irrigant. The apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials using the Myers and Montgomery method. After drying, the mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using analysis of variance and the post hoc Student-Newman-Keuls test. The time required to prepare the canals with the different instruments was also recorded. The reciprocating files produced significantly more debris compared with both rotary systems (P rotary instruments (P > .05), the reciprocating single-file system Reciproc produced significantly more debris compared with all other instruments (P Instrumentation was significantly faster using Reciproc than with all other instrument (P rotary instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of reciprocating single-file systems. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Extraction of sunflower oil by twin screw extruder: screw configuration and operating condition effects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kartika, I.A. [FATETA-IPB, Bogor (Indonesia). Department of Agroindustrial Technology; Pontalier, P.Y.; Rigal, L. [Laboratoire de Chimie Agro-Industrielle, UMR 1010 INRA/INP-ENSIACET, Toulouse (France)

    2006-12-15

    The objective of this study was to investigate the screw configuration allowing oil extraction from sunflower seeds with a twin-screw extruder. Experiments were conducted using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. Five screw profiles were examined to define the best performance (oil extraction yield, specific mechanical energy and oil quality) by studying the influence of operating conditions, barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate. Generally, the position and spacing between two reversed screw elements affected oil extraction yield. An increase of oil extraction yield was observed as the reversed screw elements were moved with increased spacing between two elements and with smaller pitch elements. In addition, oil extraction yield increased as barrel temperature, screw speed and feed rate were decreased. Highest oil extraction yield (85%) with best cake meal quality (residual oil content lower than 13%) was obtained under operating conditions of 120 {sup o}C, 75 rpm and 19 kg/h. Furthermore, the operating parameters influenced energy input. A decrease in barrel temperature and feed rate followed by an increase in screw speed increased energy input, particularly specific mechanical energy input. Effect of the operating parameters on oil quality was less important. In all experiments tested, the oil quality was very good. The acid value was below 2 mg of KOH/g of oil and total phosphorus content was low, below 100 mg/kg. (author)

  12. Assessment of apically extruded debris produced by the self-adjusting file system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De-Deus, Gustavo André; Nogueira Leal Silva, Emmanuel João; Moreira, Edson Jorge; de Almeida Neves, Aline; Belladonna, Felipe Gonçalves; Tameirão, Michele

    2014-04-01

    This study was designed to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris by the Self-Adjusting-File system (SAF; ReDent-Nova, Ra'anana, Israel). Hand and rotary instruments were used as references for comparison. Sixty mesial roots of mandibular molars were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The root canals were instrumented with hand files using a crown-down technique. The ProTaper (Dentsply Maillefer, Ballaigues, Switzerland) and SAF systems were used according to the manufacturers' instructions. Sodium hypochlorite was used as an irrigant, and the apically extruded debris was collected in preweighted glass vials and dried afterward. The mean weight of debris was assessed with a microbalance and statistically analyzed using 1-way analysis of variance and the post hoc Tukey multiple comparison test. Hand file instrumentation produced significantly more debris compared with the ProTaper and SAF systems (P system produced significantly more debris compared with the SAF system (P systems caused apical debris extrusion. SAF instrumentation was associated with less debris extrusion compared with the use of hand and rotary files. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Production of palm frond based wood plastic composite by using twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Russita, M.; Bahruddin

    2018-04-01

    Wood plastic composite (WPC) is the blending product from wood as filler and polymer thermoplastic as matric. Palm frond waste is a material with selulose about 68%, so it has potential to be developed as raw material for WPC. The purpose of this research was to learn how to produce WPC based on palm frond use twin screw extruder. It used popropilen as matric. As for aditif, it used Maleated Polypropilene (MAPP) as compatibilizer and paraffin as plasticizer. The size of palm frond is 40 – 80 mesh. WPC is made from blending polipropylene, palm frond, MAPP and paraffin with dry mixing method in room temperature. Then, PP, Palm frond and additive from dry mixing is fed into twin screw extruder at 190°C and 60 rpm. It use palm frond/polypropylene 60/40, MAPP 5% w/w and paraffin 2% w/w. From the result, it shown that WPC based on palm frond met the standards forcommercial WPC. It has tensile strength up to 19.2 MPa, bending strength 43.6 MPa and water adsorption 0,32% w/w. So, WPC based on palm frond has prospective to be developed for commercial WPC.

  14. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shah, K G; Delima, T; Felix, S; Sheth, H; Tolosa, V; Tooker, A; Pannu, S S

    2012-03-28

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {micro}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal stud-bumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9 x 10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  15. HIGH-DENSITY, BIO-COMPATIBLE, AND HERMETIC ELECTRICAL FEEDTHROUGHS USING EXTRUDED METAL VIAS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tooker, A; Shah, K; Tolosa, V; Sheth, H; Felix, S; Delima, T; Pannu, S

    2012-03-29

    Implanted medical devices such as pacemakers and neural prosthetics require that the electronic components that power these devices are protected from the harsh chemical and biological environment of the body. Typically, the electronics are hermetically sealed inside a bio-compatible package containing feedthroughs that transmit electrical signals, while being impermeable to particles or moisture. We present a novel approach for fabricating one of the highest densities of biocompatible hermetic feedthroughs in alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}). Alumina substrates with laser machined vias of 200 {mu}m pitch were conformally metallized and lithographically patterned. Hermetic electrical feedthroughs were formed by extruding metal studbumps partially through the vias. Hermeticity testing showed leak rates better than 9x10{sup -10} torr-l/s. Based on our preliminary results and process optimization, this extruded metal via approach is a high-density, low temperature, cost-effective, and robust method of miniaturizing electrical feedthroughs for a wide range of implantable bio-medical device applications.

  16. Microstructures, mechanical properties and corrosion resistances of extruded Mg-Zn-Ca-xCe/La alloys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, L B; Zhang, Q X; Jiang, Z H; Zhang, J B; Meng, J; Cheng, L R; Zhang, H J

    2016-09-01

    Magnesium alloys are considered as good candidates for biomedical applications, the influence of Ce/La microalloying on the microstructure, mechanical property and corrosion performance of extruded Mg-5.3Zn-0.6Ca (wt%) alloy has been investigated in the current study. After Ce/La addition, the conventional Ca2Mg6Zn3 phases are gradually replaced by new Mg-Zn-Ce/La-(Ca) phases (T1'), which can effectively divide the Ca2Mg6Zn3 phase. The Ca2Mg6Zn3/T1' structure in Mg-Zn-Ca-0.5Ce/La alloy is favorably broken into small particles during the extrusion, resulting in an obvious refinement of secondary phase. The dynamic recrystallized grain size is dramatically decreased after 0.5Ce/La addition, and the tensile yield strength is improved, while further addition reverses the effect, due to the grain coarsening. However, the corrosion resistance of extruded Mg-Zn-Ca alloy deteriorates after Ce/La addition, because the diameter of secondary phase particle is remarkably decreased, which increases the amount of cathodic sites and accelerates the galvanic corrosion process. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Tailored sPP/Silica Nano composite for Eco friendly Insulation of Extruded HVDC Cable

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dang, B.; He, J.; Hu, J.; Zhou, Y.

    2015-01-01

    Cross-linked polyethylene (XLPE) is a thermosetting material that cannot be recycled at the end of its lifetime. This study investigated the potential of syndiotactic polypropylene (sPP)/silica as an eco friendly extruded insulation system for HVDC cables. We investigated the morphology, Fourier transform infrared, and thermal, thermomechanical, and electrical behaviors of sPP modified with 0.5-3% nano silica. We found that the silica/sPP nano composite without cross-linking offered a suitable mechanical modulus at room temperature and sufficient intensity at high temperatures, and adding nano silica modified by a silane coupling agent to the sPP resulted in significant DC resistivity and space charge improvement. The optimal nano silica content in the sPP was determined by balancing the mechanical and thermomechanical characteristics and the DC resistivity. The sPP/silica nano composite reported here shows great potential as a candidate insulation material for future eco friendly extruded HVDC cables.

  18. Extruded Bread Classification on the Basis of Acoustic Emission Signal With Application of Artificial Neural Networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Świetlicka, Izabela; Muszyński, Siemowit; Marzec, Agata

    2015-04-01

    The presented work covers the problem of developing a method of extruded bread classification with the application of artificial neural networks. Extruded flat graham, corn, and rye breads differening in water activity were used. The breads were subjected to the compression test with simultaneous registration of acoustic signal. The amplitude-time records were analyzed both in time and frequency domains. Acoustic emission signal parameters: single energy, counts, amplitude, and duration acoustic emission were determined for the breads in four water activities: initial (0.362 for rye, 0.377 for corn, and 0.371 for graham bread), 0.432, 0.529, and 0.648. For classification and the clustering process, radial basis function, and self-organizing maps (Kohonen network) were used. Artificial neural networks were examined with respect to their ability to classify or to cluster samples according to the bread type, water activity value, and both of them. The best examination results were achieved by the radial basis function network in classification according to water activity (88%), while the self-organizing maps network yielded 81% during bread type clustering.

  19. Effect of Extruding Full-Fat Soy Flakes on Trans Fat Content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Feng

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of extrusion process on the trans fatty acids (TFAs formation in soybean crude oils, three different extrusion parameters, namely, extrusion temperature (80–160°C, feed moisture (10–26%, and screw speed (100–500 rpm, were carried out. It was found that only five different types of TFAs were detected out using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Before the extrusion started, the initial amount of total TFAs was 3.04 g/100 g. However, after extruding under every level of any variable, the total amounts of TFAs were significantly higher than those in the control sample (P<0.05. For example, taking the effect of extrusion temperature into account, we can find that the highest amount of total of trans fatty acid (TTFA was 1.62 times the amount of that in the control sample, whereas the lowest amount of TTFA was 1.54 times the amount of that in the control sample. Importantly, it was observed that the amounts of every type of trans fatty acid were not continuously increasing with the increase of the level of any extrusion variable. This phenomenon demonstrated that the formation and diversification were intricate during extruding process and need to be further studied.

  20. Effect of cysteine and cystine addition on sensory profile and potent odorants of extruded potato snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majcher, Małgorzata A; Jeleń, Henryk H

    2007-07-11

    Aromas generated in extruded potato snacks without and with addition of 0.25, 0.5, and 1% (w/w) of flavor precursors, cysteine and cystine, were compared and evaluated by descriptive sensory profiling. The results showed that high addition of cysteine (0.5 and 1%) resulted in the formation of undesirable odor and taste described as mercaptanic/sulfur, onion-like, and bitter; on the contrary, addition of cystine even at high concentration gave product with pleasant odor and taste, slightly changed into breadlike notes. GC/O analysis showed cysteine to be a much more reactive flavor precursor than cystine, stimulating formation of 12 compounds with garlic, sulfury, burnt, pungent/beer, cabbage/mold, meatlike, roasted, and popcorn odor notes. Further analysis performed by the AEDA technique identified 2-methyl-3-furanthiol (FD 2048) as a most potent odorant of extruded potato snacks with 1% addition of cysteine. Other identified compounds with high FD were butanal, 3-methyl-2-butenethiol, 2-methylthiazole, methional, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, and 3-hydroxy-4,5-dimethyl-2(5H)-furanone. In the case of cystine addition (1%) the highest FD factors were calculated for butanal, 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline, benzenemethanethiol, methional, phenylacetaldehyde, dimethyltrisulfide, 1-octen-3-ol, 1,5-octadien-3-one, and 2-acetylpyrazine.

  1. TECHNICAL MEANS FOR OBTAINING INTERMEDIATE PRODUCTS OF THE CASING AND TOPPINGS FOR EXTRUDED FOOD PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Pal’chikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The following article is devoted to the new technical facilities for food production, which technological chain of production process includes computer hardware as a part of the equipment used for body of semi-processed food preparation, blancher for hydrobionts and abrasive blender. For the whole group of the necessary equipment the principal schemes are designed, and the abrasive blender was tested during the experimental approbation to reveal the optimal design. The culinary fish pastes have already been produced in the enterprises in many countries for many years and they are particularly popular in Japan, Germany, Scandinavian and other country. In Poland the mixtures of fish pasted have become widely spread, and are used for production of portioned meals. These pastes may be blended into larger or smaller pieces. The aromatization process of such pastes is conducted with adding the liquid smoke, natural or synthetic fragrances. There is an increasing popularization of the use of flaxseed as a source of alpha-linoleic acid, high-quality protein, phenolics, fiber and minerals. Products with flax meal can be recommended for inclusion in the diet to make up for the deficit of polyunsaturated fatty acids, dietary fiber. In this regard, it is appropriate to use the semi-finished product formulations for the respective housings extruded snack food. The results of the conducted research could be used in the production of domestic extruded snacks, which have the form of the cushions with vitaminized dough body and hydrobionts stuffing if setting the special extrusion modes.

  2. The Effect of Filler on the Quality of Snack Food Extruded From Solid Matter of Industrial Soybean Tofu

    OpenAIRE

    Salahudin, Farid; Syamsixman, Syamsixman

    2010-01-01

    Tofu filter cake is the waste of tofu processing which is used for animal feed. In the other hand tofu filter cake can be used at extruded food processing. The purpose of this study is to look for the formulas and filler materials which could produce extruded food. The first variable in this research is the kind of corn that is pop corn and maize corn. The second variable is formulas of filler material that is composition of corn: rice: tofu filter cake = 1:1:0.5; 1:1:0.25; 1:2:0.5 and 1:2:0....

  3. Development of extruded Ready-To-Eat (RTE) snacks using corn, black gram, roots and tuber flour blends

    OpenAIRE

    Reddy, M. Kavya; Kuna, Aparna; Devi, N. Lakshmi; Krishnaiah, N.; Kaur, Charanjit; Nagamalleswari, Y.

    2014-01-01

    Extruded RTE snacks were prepared from flour blends made with corn flour, Bengal gram flour, roots and tuber flours in a proportion of 60–80: 20: 20 respectively and moisture was adjusted to 17–20 %. The roots and tubers flours were developed from potato (Solanum tuberosum), yam (Dioscorea spp.), sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L.), taro (Colocassia esculenta) and beet root (Beta vulgaris). Different formulations were extruded at 80 ± 5 °C (heater I) and 95–105 °C (heater II) temperature, 300–3...

  4. Production and quality evaluation of extruded snack from blends of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour

    OpenAIRE

    Ogunmuyiwa, O. H.; Adebowale, A. A.; Sobukola, O. P.; Onabanjo, O. O.; Obadina, A. O.; Adegunwa, M. O.; Kajihausa, O. E.; Sanni, L. O.; Tomlins, Keith

    2017-01-01

    Protein dense, fiber-rich extruded snacks were produced from blend of bambara groundnut flour, cassava starch, and corn bran flour using a single screw cooking extruder. The snacks were analyzed for their physical properties and proximate composition using standard laboratory procedures. The expansion ratio, specific volume, breaking force, and breaking strength index (BSI) of the snacks ranged from 0.85 to 1.22, 0.75 to 1.30 g/cm3, 3.95 to 36.45 N, and 0.99 to 9.11 N/mm, respectively. The br...

  5. Infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kohara, S. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology; Niimi, Y. [Science Univ. of Tokyo, Noda, Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Materials Science and Technology

    1996-12-31

    The infrared radiation heating is an efficient and energy saving heating method. Ceramics have been used as an infrared radiant material, because the emissivity of metals is lower than that of ceramics. However, anodized aluminum could be used as the infrared radiant material since an aluminum oxide film is formed on the surface. In the present study, the infrared radiation properties of anodized aluminum have been investigated by determining the spectral emissivity curve. The spectral emissivity curve of anodized aluminum changed with the anodizing time. The spectral emissivity curve shifted to the higher level after anodizing for 10 min, but little changed afterwards. The infrared radiant material with high level spectral emissivity curve can be achieved by making an oxide film thicker than about 15 {mu}m on the surface of aluminum. Thus, anodized aluminum is applicable for the infrared radiation heating. (orig.)

  6. New electrolytes for aluminum production: Ionic liquids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingming; Kamavarum, Venkat; Reddy, Ramana G.

    2003-11-01

    In this article, the reduction, refining/recycling, and electroplating of aluminum from room-temperature molten salts are reviewed. In addition, the characteristics of several non-conventional organic solvents, electrolytes, and molten salts are evaluated, and the applicability of these melts for production of aluminum is discussed with special attention to ionic liquids. Also reviewed are electrochemical processes and conditions for electrodeposition of aluminum using ionic liquids at near room temperatures.

  7. PREPARATION OF ACTINIDE-ALUMINUM ALLOYS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, R.H.

    1962-09-01

    BS>A process is given for preparing alloys of aluminum with plutonium, uranium, and/or thorium by chlorinating actinide oxide dissolved in molten alkali metal chloride with hydrochloric acid, chlorine, and/or phosgene, adding aluminum metal, and passing air and/or water vapor through the mass. Actinide metal is formed and alloyed with the aluminum. After cooling to solidification, the alloy is separated from the salt. (AEC)

  8. Design for low-cost gas metal arc weld-based aluminum 3-D printing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselhuhn, Amberlee S.

    Additive manufacturing, commonly known as 3-D printing, has the potential to change the state of manufacturing across the globe. Parts are made, or printed, layer by layer using only the materials required to form the part, resulting in much less waste than traditional manufacturing methods. Additive manufacturing has been implemented in a wide variety of industries including aerospace, medical, consumer products, and fashion, using metals, ceramics, polymers, composites, and even organic tissues. However, traditional 3-D printing technologies, particularly those used to print metals, can be prohibitively expensive for small enterprises and the average consumer. A low-cost open-source metal 3-D printer has been developed based upon gas metal arc weld (GMAW) technology. Using this technology, substrate release mechanisms have been developed, allowing the user to remove a printed metal part from a metal substrate by hand. The mechanical and microstructural properties of commercially available weld alloys were characterized and used to guide alloy development in 4000 series aluminum-silicon alloys. Wedge casting experiments were performed to screen magnesium, strontium, and titanium boride alloying additions in hypoeutectic aluminum-silicon alloys for their properties and the ease with which they could be printed. Finally, the top performing alloys, which were approximately 11.6% Si modified with strontium and titanium boride were cast, extruded, and drawn into wire. These wires were printed and the mechanical and microstructural properties were compared with those of commercially available alloys. This work resulted in an easier-to-print aluminum-silicon-strontium alloy that exhibited lower porosity, equivalent yield and tensile strengths, yet nearly twice the ductility compared to commercial alloys.

  9. An all aluminum alloy UHV components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugisaki, Kenzaburo

    1985-01-01

    An all aluminum components was developed for use with UHV system. Aluminum alloy whose advantage are little discharge gas, easy to bake out, light weight, little damage against radieactivity radiation is used. Therefore, as it is all aluminum alloy, baking is possible. Baking temperature is 150 deg C in case of not only ion pump, gate valve, angle valve but also aluminum components. Ion pump have to an ultrahigh vacuum of order 10 -9 torr can be obtained without baking, 10 -10 torr order can be obtained after 24 hour of baking. (author)

  10. Gut: An underestimated target organ for Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vignal, C; Desreumaux, P; Body-Malapel, M

    2016-06-01

    Since World War II, several factors such as an impressive industrial growth, an enhanced environmental bioavailability and intensified food consumption have contributed to a significant amplification of human exposure to aluminum. Aluminum is particularly present in food, beverages, some drugs and airbone dust. In our food, aluminum is superimposed via additives and cooking utensils. Therefore, the tolerable intake of aluminum is exceeded for a significant part of the world population, especially in children who are more vulnerable to toxic effects of pollutants than adults. Faced with this oral aluminum influx, intestinal tract is an essential barrier, especially as 38% of ingested aluminum accumulates at the intestinal mucosa. Although still poorly documented to date, the impact of oral exposure to aluminum in conditions relevant to real human exposure appears to be deleterious for gut homeostasis. Aluminum ingestion affects the regulation of the permeability, the microflora and the immune function of intestine. Nowadays, several arguments are consistent with an involvement of aluminum as an environmental risk factor for inflammatory bowel diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. In-situ deformation studies of an aluminum metal-matrix composite in a scanning electron microscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manoharan, M.; Lewandowski, J. J.

    1989-01-01

    Tensile specimens made of a metal-matrix composite (cast and extruded aluminum alloy-based matrix reinforced with Al2O3 particulate) were tested in situ in a scanning electron microscope equipped with a deformation stage, to directly monitor the crack propagation phenomenon. The in situ SEM observations revealed the presence of microcracks both ahead of and near the crack-tip region. The microcracks were primarily associated with cracks in the alumina particles. The results suggest that a region of intense deformation exists ahead of the crack and corresponds to the region of microcracking. As the crack progresses, a region of plastically deformed material and associated microcracks remains in the wake of the crack.

  12. 40 CFR 180.1091 - Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum... PESTICIDE CHEMICAL RESIDUES IN FOOD Exemptions From Tolerances § 180.1091 Aluminum isopropoxide and aluminum secondary butoxide; exemption from the requirement of a tolerance. Aluminum isopropoxide (CAS Reg. No. 555...

  13. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amanlou, H; Maheri-Sis, N; Bassiri, S; Mirza-Aghazadeh, A; Salamatdust, R; Moosavi, A; Karimi, V

    2012-01-01

    Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight) were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (Pfat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; PMilk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (Pfat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (Pfat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein) sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  14. Microstructures and mechanical responses of powder metallurgy non-combustive magnesium extruded alloy by rapid solidification process in mass production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondoh, Katsuyoshi; Hamada, EL-Sayed Ayman; Imai, Hisashi; Umeda, Junko; Jones, Tyrone

    2010-01-01

    Spinning Water Atomization Process (SWAP), which was one of the rapid solidification processes, promised to produce coarse non-combustible magnesium alloy powder with 1-4 mm length, having fine α-Mg grains and Al 2 Ca intermetallic compounds. It had economical and safe benefits in producing coarse Mg alloy powders with very fine microstructures in the mass production process due to its extreme high solidification rate compared to the conventional atomization process. AMX602 (Mg-6%Al-0.5%Mn-2%Ca) powders were compacted at room temperature. Their green compacts with a relative density of about 85% were heated at 573-673 K for 300 s in Ar gas atmosphere, and immediately consolidated by hot extrusion. Microstructure observation and evaluation of mechanical properties of the extruded AMX602 alloys were carried out. The uniform and fine microstructures with grains less than 0.45-0.8 μm via dynamic recrystallization during hot extrusion were observed, and were much small compared to the extruded AMX602 alloy fabricated by using cast ingot. The extremely fine intermetallic compounds 200-500 nm diameter were uniformly distributed in the matrix of powder metallurgy (P/M) extruded alloys. These microstructures caused excellent mechanical properties of the wrought alloys. For example, in the case of AMX602 alloys extruded at 573 K, the tensile strength (TS) of 447 MPa, yield stress (YS) of 425 MPa and 9.6% elongation were obtained.

  15. COST ESTIMATES OF TWIN SCREW EXTRUDED PRODUCTS: TEXTURIZED WHEY PROTEIN SNACKS AND CORN-SOY BLEND USED FOR EMERGENCY FEEDING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The operating costs associated with twin screw extrusion cooking of various foods are fixed for a given size and production capacity for any class of products; the greater percentage of costs arise from the choice of ingredients and the product end use. For example, extruder texturized whey proteins...

  16. Comparison of the amount of apically extruded debris produced by four retreatment techniques: an ex vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiane Ferreira Alfenas

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: the aim of this study was to compare the amount of apically extruded debris during the removal of root canal filling material using nickel-titanium rotary retreatment instruments and Hedström files. Material and Methods: sixty mandibular incisors with a single canal were instrumented and obturated by cold lateral compaction. For retreatment, specimens were randomly divided into four groups (n = 15: Hedström files with or without solvent; D-RaCe system and Mtwo retreatment system. Debris extruded apically during the removal of canal filling material was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. The tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the preretreatment and postretreatment weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The mean weights of extruded material were analyzed by one-way ANOVA. Results: the results showed that all retreatment techniques caused apical extrusion of debris, but no statistically significant difference was observed between groups (p>0.05. Conclusion: under the conditions of this study, all retreatment techniques caused apical debris extrusion.

  17. Physical, textural, and antioxidant properties of extruded waxy wheat flour snack supplemented with several varieties of bran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheat represents a ubiquitous commodity and while industries valorize 10% of wheat bran, most of this antioxidant-rich byproduct gets discarded. The objective of this study was to incorporate wheat bran into an extruded snack. Bran varieties from hard red spring, white club Bruehl, and purple whea...

  18. Influence of dried Hokkaido pumpkin and ascorbic acid addition on chemical properties and colour of corn extrudates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obradović, Valentina; Babić, Jurislav; Šubarić, Drago; Jozinović, Antun; Ačkar, Đurđica; Klarić, Ilija

    2015-09-15

    The influence of Hokkaido pumpkin powder (PP) addition to corn grits at levels 4%, 6%, and 8% and ascorbic acid (AA) addition at levels 0.5% and 1% was evaluated. Extrusion was done using a single-screw extruder at two temperature regimes: 135/170/170°C (E1) and 100/150/150°C (E2). Mathematical models that describe the influence of additives on the colour of extrudates were determined. Raw extrusion mixtures as well as obtained extrudates were tested for ascorbic acid, polyphenol, proteins, fat, crude fibre, ash and carotenoids content, and antioxidant activity. E1 extrusion regime acted favourably on polyphenols, crude fibre content, and antioxidant activity. It also caused higher fat degradation than E2 extrusion. Xanthophylls (lutein and zeaxanthin) were less sensitive to extrusion than carotenes (α-carotene, 9-cis-β-carotene and 13-cis-β-carotene). Ascorbic acid was more sensitive to higher extrusion temperatures (49-76% degradation). It provided protection to carotenoids and consequently the colour of the extrudates. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. A Journey along the Extruder with Polystyrene : C60 Nanocomposites: Convergence of Feeding Formulations into a Similar Nanomorphology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaspar, Hugo; Teixeira, Paulo; Santos, Raquel; Fernandes, Liliana; Hilliou, Loic; Weir, Michael P.; Parnell, Andrew J.; Abrams, Kerry J.; Hill, Christopher J.; Bouwman, W.G.; Parnell, S.R.; King, Stephen M.; Clarke, Nigel; Covas, Jose A.; Bernardo, Gabriel

    2017-01-01

    We investigated the effect of the feeding formulation (premixed powders of pure components versus solvent-blended mixture) of polystyrene–C60 composites on the dispersion and reagglomeration phenomena developing along the barrel of a twin-screw extruder. The dispersion of C60 in the PS matrix is

  20. Effect of cold rolling on microstructure and mechanical property of extruded Mg–4Sm alloy during aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Rongguang, E-mail: lirongguang1980@126.com [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China); Xin, Renlong; Chapuis, Adrien; Liu, Qing [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Chongqing University, Chongqing 400045 (China); Fu, Guangyan; Zong, Lin; Yu, Yongmei; Guo, Beitao; Guo, Shuguo [School of Mechanical Engineering, Shenyang University of Chemical Technology, Shenyang 110142 (China)

    2016-02-15

    Microstructure and mechanical properties of the Mg–4Sm (wt.%) alloy, prepared via combined processes of extrusion, cold rolling and aging, have been investigated. The hot extruded alloy exhibits a weak rare earth magnesium alloy texture with < 11 − 21 >//ED, while the cold-rolled alloy shows a stronger basal texture with < 0001 >//ND. Many tensile twins and double twins are observed in grains after rolling. The cold-rolled alloy shows a weak age-hardening response compared with the extruded alloy, which is the result of more precipitation in the twin boundary during aging. The rolled alloy exhibits almost no precipitate free zone during aging compared with the extruded alloy. The higher proof stress of the rolled alloy in peak-aged condition is attributed to the presence of twin boundaries, stronger basal texture, higher dislocation density, and the suppression of precipitate free zone compared with the extruded alloy. - Highlights: • No precipitate free zone appears in cold-rolled alloy after aging. • Segregation and precipitates are observed in twin boundaries and grain boundaries. • Cold-rolled alloy shows a weak age-hardening response.

  1. 40 CFR 428.60 - Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Applicability; description of the medium-sized general molded, extruded, and fabricated rubber plants subcategory. 428.60 Section 428.60 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS...

  2. Effects of whey protein concentrate, feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical characteristics of a rice-based extruded flour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teba, Carla da Silva; Silva, Erika Madeira Moreira da; Chávez, Davy William Hidalgo; Carvalho, Carlos Wanderlei Piler de; Ascheri, José Luis Ramírez

    2017-08-01

    The influence of whey protein concentrate (WPC), feed moisture and temperature on the physicochemical properties of rice-based extrudates has been investigated. WPC (0.64-7.36g/100g rice) was extruded under 5 moisture (16.64-23.36g/100g) and 5 temperature (106.36-173.64°C) established by a 3 2 central composite rotational design. Physicochemical properties [color, porosimetry, crystallinity, water solubility and absorption, pasting properties, reconstitution test, proximate composition, amino acids, minerals and electrophoresis] were determined. WPC and feed moisture increased redness, yellowness and decreased luminosity. Feed moisture and temperature increased density and total volume pore. WPC and moisture increased crystallinity, but only WPC increased solubility and decrease the retrogradation tendency. Increasing temperature increased the viscosity of the extrudates. The addition of WPC improved the nutritional composition of the extrudates, especially proteins. It is suggested that the extrusion process positively affected the retention of most of the polypeptides chains. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of some extrusion variables on physicochemical characteristics of extruded corn starch-passion fruit pulp (Passiflora edulis) snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cortés, R Nallely Falfán; Guzmán, Iñigo Verdalet; Martínez-Bustos, Fernando

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effect of the addition of passion fruit pulp (PFP: 0-7%), the variation of barrel temperature in the third zone extruder (BT: 80-140 °C) and feed moisture (FM:16-30%) in a blend of corn starch and passion fruit pulp on different physicochemical characteristics of directly expanded snacks by extrusion technology. Single-screw laboratory extruder and a central, composite, rotatable experimental design were used. Expansion index of extrudates ranged between 1.0 and 1.8. Decreasing of feed moisture (18%), passion fruit pulp concentration (1.42%) and the increasing of barrel temperature (127 °C) resulted in higher expansion index. The increasing of feed moisture and passion fruit pulp concentration resulted in higher penetration force values of extrudates. The passion fruit pulp concentration showed a highly significant effect (p ≤ 0.01) on the L *, a * and b * parameters. Passion fruit pulp has a reasonable source of β-carotene, proteins and dietary fibers that can be added to expanded snacks.

  4. Effects of formulation and process conditions on microstructure, texture and digestibility of extruded insect-riched snacks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Azzollini, D.; Derossi, A.; Fogliano, V.; Lakemond, C.M.M.; Severini, C.

    2018-01-01

    Extruded cereals made of wheat flour and grinded Yellow mealworm larvae (Tenebrio molitor) were produced to investigate the effect of insect inclusion (0%, 10%, 20%) and processing conditions (barrel temperature and screw speed) on their nutritional content, microstructure, texture and

  5. Investigation of process and product parameters for physicochemical properties of rice and mung bean (Vigna radiata) flour based extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Chetan; Singh, Baljit; Hussain, Syed Zameer; Sharma, Savita

    2017-05-01

    PR 106 and SML 668 cultivars of rice and mung bean respectively, were studied for their potential to serve as a nutritious snack with improved protein quality and quantity. The effect of extrusion conditions, including feed moisture content (14-18%), screw speed (400-550 rpm) and barrel temperature (130-170°C) on the physicochemical properties (bulk density, water absorption index (WAI), water solubility index (WSI) and hardness) was investigated. The replacement of rice flour at 30% level with mung bean flour for making extruded snacks was evaluated. Pasting temperature increased (84-93 °C) while peak viscosity (2768-408 cP), hold viscosity (2018-369 cP), breakdown (750-39 cP), setback (2697-622 cP) and final viscosity (4715-991 cP) decreased with increasing mung bean flour addition. Increasing feed moisture lowered the specific mechanical energy (SME), WAI and WSI of extrudates whereas increased bulk density and hardness. Higher screw speed had linear positive effect on SME of extruder and negative linear effect on WAI. Positive curvilinear quadratic effect of screw speed was also observed on WSI and density. Higher barrel temperature linearly decreased the SME, density and hardness of extrudates. Developed extrusion cooked rice-mung bean snacks with increased protein content and improved protein quality along with higher dietary fibre and minerals have good potential in effectively delivering the nutrition to the population.

  6. Enrichment of rice-based extrudates with Cactus Opuntia dillenii seed powder: a novel source of fiber and antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayan, Ahmed M; Morsy, Noha E; Youssef, Khaled M

    2018-02-01

    The present study investigated the effects of adding the powder of cactus Opuntia dillenii ( O. dillenii ) seeds on the functional properties, fiber, antioxidants and acceptability of rice-based extrudates. The control blend consisting basically of rice flour was replaced with O. dillenii seed powder at 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 15 and 20% then extruded at the optimum processing conditions. The extruded products were evaluated for their chemical composition, functional properties, color attributes, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics. The results revealed that adding O. dillenii seeds powder enhanced the fiber, phenolics, flavonoid contents and antioxidant activity of extrudates. Expansion, bulk density and breaking strength were significantly decreased, while water absorption index, water solubility index and oil absorption index were significantly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the mean scores of sensory evaluation indicated clear improvements in all tested sensory attributes, which significantly increased by increasing the level of O. dillenii seed powder up to 15%. The results confirmed that O. dillenii seed powder could be incorporated in rice to develop snack products of acceptable functional, nutritional and sensory properties.

  7. Hydrogen effects in aluminum alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Louthan, M.R. Jr.; Caskey, G.R. Jr.; Dexter, A.H.

    1976-01-01

    The permeability of six commercial aluminum alloys to deuterium and tritium was determined by several techniques. Surface films inhibited permeation under most conditions; however, contact with lithium deuteride during the tests minimized the surface effects. Under these conditions phi/sub D 2 / = 1.9 x 10 -2 exp (--22,400/RT) cc (NTP)atm/sup -- 1 / 2 / s -1 cm -1 . The six alloys were also tested before, during, and after exposure to high pressure hydrogen, and no hydrogen-induced effects on the tensile properties were observed

  8. Functional properties of extruded nano composites based on cassava starch, polyvinyl alcohol and montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Debiagi, Flavia; Mali, Suzana

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to produce expanded nano composites (foams) based on starch, PVA and sodium montmorillonite and characterize them according to their expansion index (EI), density, water absorption capacity (WSC), mechanical properties and X-ray diffraction. The nano composites were prepared in a single-screw extruder using different starch contents (97.6 - 55.2 g/100 g formulation), PVA (0 - 40 g/100 g formulation), unmodified nano clay - Closite - Na (0 - 4. 8 g/100 g formulation) and glycerol (20 g/100 g formulation) as plasticizer. The addition of montmorillonite and PVA resulted in an increase of EI and a decrease of density of the samples, and reduced WSC and increased the mechanical strength of the foams. Through the analysis of X-ray diffraction can be observed that the addition of montmorillonite led to production of intercalated nano composites in all samples. (author)

  9. Effect of Deforming Temperature and Strain on Abnormal Grain Growth of Extruded FGH96 Superalloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Chaoyuan

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Based on the experiments of isothermal forging wedge-shaped samples, Deform-3D numerical simulation software was used to confirm the strain distribution in the wedge-shaped samples. The effect of deforming temperature and strain on abnormal grain growth(AGG in extruded FGH96 superalloy was examined. It is found that when the forging speed is 0.04 mm/s,the critical AGG occurring temperature is 1100℃,and the critical strain is 2%.AGG does not occur within 1000-1070℃,but still shows the feature of ‘critical strain’,and the region with strain of 5%-10% has the largest average grain size.AGG can be avoided and the uniform fine grains can be gained when the strain is not less than 15%.

  10. Mechanical properties of PA6/PP compatibilized nanocomposites using a twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Almeida, M. F.; Correia, Aldina; e Silva, Eliana Costa; Lopes, I. Cristina

    2017-11-01

    In this article, a new approach to study the compatibilization effect of organophilic clays in PA6/PP polymer blends through experimental results of mechanical tests is presented. This study focus on the description of the interphase in compatibilization by addition of the organoclays C15A and C30B into the polymer PA6/PP blend by melt compounding using a Twin Screw Extruder. The experimental results variations are studied, by addition of the organoclays in uncompatibilized polymer blend, using non-parametric analysis of variance (Kruskal-Wallis Test). For all the experimental results, significant differences are identified between the types of polymer blends. It was observed the compatibilization effect of both organophilic clays, being the differences most evident in the presence of PP modified.

  11. Die Hard - improving the physical quality of extruded fish feed pellets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dethlefsen, Markus Wied

    The present thesis, Die Hard – Improving the Physical Quality of Extruded Fish Feed Pellets, approaches some of the biggest challenges within production of high-performance feed: Oil leakage and pellet strength. Salmon farmers in the aquaculture industry are requesting high energy dense diets...... with a supreme physical quality. To fulfil the market expectations, feed pellets have to contain 40% fat and tolerate high levels of stress during the transportation to the fish cages – without the pellets crumbling and oil leaking out of the feed. To solve this task, an improved understanding of the pellet...... structure’s impact on the physical quality of the feed is required. Through detailed analyses of the pellets’ microstructure, it was found that the optimal pore structure is defined by a high pore-surface-area to object-volume ratio. To obtain this pore structure, a new generation of dies was developed...

  12. Processing of nanocomposites EVA/PVC/MMT in twin-screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gehlen, A.; Barbutti Filho, W.R.; Francisquetti, E.L.; Andrade, M.Z.; Zattera, A.J.

    2010-01-01

    Polymeric nanocomposites have some superior properties when compared to conventional polymer composites and is one of the most promising fields in the nanotechnology research. In a EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate) /PVC (poly vinyl chloride) matrix was incorporated different types of montmorillonite clays (an inorganic (Na + ) and two organic modified (15A and 30B nanoclays). The mixtures were processed in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder at processing speeds of 200 and 400 rpm. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shown that the inorganic and organic modified clays promoted a shift to higher temperatures in the degradation temperature., X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electronic microscopy (TEM) shows a possible intercalation with the 15A clay, exfoliation with the 30B clay and formation of clusters in the Na + clay. For all clays studied, the increase in shear rate does not promote significant changes. (author)

  13. Spices in a Product Affect Emotions: A Study with an Extruded Snack Product †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brandon; Adhikari, Koushik; Alavi, Sajid; King, Silvia; Haub, Mark

    2017-01-01

    Food commonly is associated with emotion. The study was designed to determine if a spice blend (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) high in antioxidants can evoke changes in consumer emotions. This was an exploratory study to determine the effects of these four spices on emotions. Three extruded, dry snack products containing 0, 4, or a 5% spice blend were tested. One day of hedonic and just-about-right evaluations (n = 100), followed by three days of emotion testing were conducted. A human clinical trial (n = 10), using the control and the 4% samples, measured total antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels. The emotion “Satisfied” increased significantly in the 5% blend, showing an effect of a higher spice content. The 4% blend was significantly higher in total antioxidant capacity than the baseline, but blood glucose levels were not significantly different. PMID:28820459

  14. Devolatilization Analysis in a Twin Screw Extruder by using the Flow Analysis Network (FAN) Method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomiyama, Hideki; Takamoto, Seiji; Shintani, Hiroaki; Inoue, Shigeki

    We derived the theoretical formulas for three mechanisms of devolatilization in a twin screw extruder. These are flash, surface refreshment and forced expansion. The method for flash devolatilization is based on the equation of equilibrium concentration which shows that volatiles break off from polymer when they are relieved from high pressure condition. For surface refreshment devolatilization, we applied Latinen's model to allow estimation of polymer behavior in the unfilled screw conveying condition. Forced expansion devolatilization is based on the expansion theory in which foams are generated under reduced pressure and volatiles are diffused on the exposed surface layer after mixing with the injected devolatilization agent. Based on these models, we developed the simulation software of twin-screw extrusion by the FAN method and it allows us to quantitatively estimate volatile concentration and polymer temperature with a high accuracy in the actual multi-vent extrusion process for LDPE + n-hexane.

  15. Effects of water on starch-g-polystyrene and starch-g-poly(methyl acrylate) extrudates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henderson, A.M.; Rudin, A.

    1982-01-01

    Polystyrene and poly(methyl acrylate) were grafted onto wheat starch by gamma radiation and chemical initiation, respectively. The respective percent add-on values were 46 and 45; 68% of the polystyrene formed was grafted to starch, and corresponding proportion of poly(methyl acrylate) was 41%. The molecular weight distributions of the homopolymer and graft portions were characterized, and extrusion conditions were established for production of ribbon samples of starch-g-PS and starch-g-PMA. Both copolymer types were considerably weakened by soaking in water, and this effect was more immediate and drastic for starch-g-poly(methyl acrylate). Both graft copolymers regained their original tensile strengths on drying, but the poly(methyl acrylate) specimens did not recover their original unswollen dimensions and retained high breaking elongations characteristic of soaked specimens. Tensile and dynamic mechanical properties of extruded and molded samples of both graft polymers are reported, and plasticizing effects of water are summarized

  16. Bentonite clay purification for development of polymeric nan composites using a single screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, Ana C.M. de; Ito, Edson N.; Costa, Maria C.B.; Barbosa, Maria I.R.

    2011-01-01

    In this work, a bentonite clay rich in montmorillonite was purified and chemical treat to be used in the development of poly (methyl methacrylate) /clay nanocomposites via melting processes. After the clay treatment and purification, a masterbatch with 25% clay and 75% PMMA was produced by solution technique, using acetone as solvent. For produce samples with 2.5% clay, the masterbatch along with pure polymer were added and mixed in single screw extruder with a diameter of 16 mm and W/D 26. X-rays diffractometry (XRD) and X-rays fluorescence (XRF). Tests were performed to evaluate and characterizing the bentonite clay used in the development of this work and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests were performed to evaluate changes in the thermal properties of the nanocomposites produced. (author)

  17. Extrusion and Extruded Products: Changes in Quality Attributes as Affected by Extrusion Process Parameters: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alam, M S; Kaur, Jasmeen; Khaira, Harjot; Gupta, Kalika

    2016-01-01

    Extrusion of foods is an emerging technology for the food industries to process and market a large number of products of varying size, shape, texture, and taste. Extrusion cooking technology has led to production of wide variety of products like pasta, breakfast cereals, bread crumbs, biscuits, crackers, croutons, baby foods, snack foods, confectionery items, chewing gum, texturized vegetable protein (TVP), modified starch, pet foods, dried soups, dry beverage mixes etc. The functional properties of extruded foods plays an important role for their acceptability which include water absorption, water solubility, oil absorption indexes, expansion index, bulk density and viscosity of the dough. The aim of this review is to give the detailed outlines about the potential of extrusion technology in development of different types of products and the role of extrusion-operating conditions and their effect on product development resulting in quality changes i.e physical, chemical, and nutritional, experienced during the extrusion process.

  18. Spices in a Product Affect Emotions: A Study with an Extruded Snack Product †.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Brandon; Adhikari, Koushik; Chambers, Edgar; Alavi, Sajid; King, Silvia; Haub, Mark

    2017-08-18

    Food commonly is associated with emotion. The study was designed to determine if a spice blend (cinnamon, ginger, nutmeg, and cloves) high in antioxidants can evoke changes in consumer emotions. This was an exploratory study to determine the effects of these four spices on emotions. Three extruded, dry snack products containing 0, 4, or a 5% spice blend were tested. One day of hedonic and just-about-right evaluations ( n = 100), followed by three days of emotion testing were conducted. A human clinical trial ( n = 10), using the control and the 4% samples, measured total antioxidant capacity and blood glucose levels. The emotion "Satisfied" increased significantly in the 5% blend, showing an effect of a higher spice content. The 4% blend was significantly higher in total antioxidant capacity than the baseline, but blood glucose levels were not significantly different.

  19. Conductometric method for determining water stability and nutrient leaching of extruded fish feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Banjac Vojislav V.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water stability of eight samples of extruded salmon feeds was first determined by applying two gravimetric methods developed by the authors: gravimetric static and wet sieving method. Then, the conductometric method, primarily developed for investigation of nutrient leaching of feed into the water by the authors, was used for each sample. The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential of the conductometric measurement as a technique for determining water stability of extruded fish feed. In order to find any correlation between the results of two gravimetric tests and conductometric method, correlation analysis was employed. The results of static and wet sieving method were expressed as water stability index, which was expressed as the percent of remained dry matter of sample after being disintegrated in the water. The results of conductometric method were shown as conductivity curves for each sample, giving the insight in rate of nutrient leaching during the time. The obtained values of water conductivity showed no significant (p < 0.05 correlation with the results of static water method, while there was a negative significant (p < 0.05 correlation with the results of wet sieving method during first four hours of pellets soaking in water. The highest correlation coefficients were obtained within the first hour of conductivity measurement, demonstrating that proposed conductometric method had a potential to be applied as a rapid and simple method for determination and relative comparison of salmon feed water stability.[ Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. III46012 and Grant no. TR31011

  20. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal retreatment with several NiTi systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dincer, A N; Er, O; Canakci, B C

    2015-12-01

    To compare the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal retreatment using ProTaper, Mtwo and Reciproc instruments with hand H-files. In total, 60 freshly extracted human mandibular incisor teeth were used. All root canals were prepared with a Reciproc R25 file than filled with Gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer using cold lateral condensation before being assigned randomly to four groups (n = 15 each). In group 1, root fillings were removed with the Protaper Universal retreatment system; ProTaper Universal F3 and F4 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 2, root fillings were removed with the Mtwo retreatment system; Mtwo size 30, .06 taper, size 35, .06 taper and size 40, .06 taper files were used for the final preparation. In group 3, root fillings were removed with Reciproc R25 instruments; Reciproc R40 instruments were used for the final preparation. In group 4, the root fillings were removed with Gates Glidden burs and sizes 35, 30 and 25 H-files; for final preparation, a size 40 H-file was used. Glass vials were used for debris collection. The vials were weighed before and after Gutta-percha removal. Additionally, the times required for the retreatment procedures were recorded. Data were analysed statistically using one-way analysis of variance. The Reciproc system produced significantly smaller amounts of apical extruded debris than the other groups (P ProTaper groups. The ProTaper and Reciproc groups required significantly less time than the Mtwo and H-file groups (P hand filing. Use of the ProTaper and Reciproc instruments required less time for retreatment procedures than use of the Mtwo or H-file. © 2014 International Endodontic Journal. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Preparation and Evaluation of Hot-Melt Extruded Patient-Centric Ketoprofen Mini-Tablets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alshetaili, Abdullah S; Almutairy, Bjad K; Tiwari, Roshan V; Morott, Joseph T; Alshehri, Sultan M; Feng, Xin; Alsulays, Bader B; Park, Jun-Bom; Zhang, Feng; Repka, Michael A

    2016-01-01

    Bitter tasting drugs represent a large portion of active pharmaceutical ingredients. Mini-tablets are specifically designed for patients with difficulty in swallowing particular in young children up to 10 years of age, geriatric patients and patients with esophagitis. The present study was aimed to prepare, taste-masked mini-tablets, which are easily swallowed dosage forms, primarily to be used by pediatric and geriatric patients. Ketoprofen (10%-50% w/w) and Eudragit® EPO were blended and extruded with a 5-mm strand die and cut into consistent mini-tablets by using an adapted downstream pelletizer. Differential scanning calorimetry and polarized light microscopy-hot stage microscopy studies confirmed that the binary mixtures were miscible under the employed extrusion temperatures. In-vitro release studies showed that drug release was less than 0.5% within the first 2 min in simulated salivary fluid (pH 6.8) and more than 90% in the first 20 min in gastric media (pH 1.0). The results of the electronic tongue analysis were well correlated with the drug release profile of the mini-tablets in the artificial saliva. Scanning electron microscopy revealed no cracks on the surface of the minitablets, confirming that the mini-tablets were compact solids. Chemical imaging confirmed the uniform distribution of ketoprofen inside the polymer matrices. Eudragit® EPO containing ketoprofen at various drug loads were successfully melt extruded into tastedmasked mini-tablets. The reduced drug release at salivary pH correlated well with Astree e-Tongue studies for taste masking efficiency.

  2. The Impact of Novel Fermented Products Containing Extruded Wheat Material on the Quality of Wheat Bread

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Vaiciulyte-Funk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactobacillus sakei MI806, Pediococcus pentosaceus MI810 and Pediococcus acidilactici MI807, able to produce bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances, were originally isolated from Lithuanian spontaneous rye sourdough and adapted in the novel fermentation medium containing extruded wheat material. The novel fermented products (50 and 65 % moisture content were stored at the temperatures used in bakeries (15 days at 30–35 °C in the summer period or 20 days under refrigeration conditions at 0–6 °C. The number of lactic acid bacteria (LAB was determined during the storage of fermented products for 15–20 days. Furthermore, the effect of novel fermented products stored under different conditions on wheat bread quality was examined. Extruded wheat material was found to have a higher positive effect on LAB growth compared to the control medium by lowering the reduction of LAB populations in fermented products with the extension of storage time and increase of temperature. During storage, lower variation and lower decrease in LAB count were measured in the novel fermented products with a moisture content of 65 % compared to those with 50 %. Furthermore, this humidity allows for the production of a product with higher moisture content in continuous production processes. The addition of the new fermented products with 65 % humidity to the wheat bread recipe (10 % of the quantity of flour had a significant effect on bread quality: it increased the acidity of the crumb and specific volume of the bread, and decreased the fractal dimension of the crumb pores and crumb firmness. Based on the microbiological investigations of fermented products during storage and baking tests, the conditions of LAB cultivation in novel fermentation media were optimized (time of cultivation approx. 20 days at 0–6 °C and approx. 10 days at 30–35 °C.

  3. Development and evaluation of garlic incorporated ready-to-eat extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haritha, D; Vijayalakshmi, V; Gulla, S

    2014-11-01

    The present study was carried out to develop and evaluate ready to eat extruded snacks incorporated with garlic powder at various levels (5 %, 10 %, 15 %, 20 %). The organoleptic evaluation was conducted for the developed products and the well accepted products were selected for further studies like physical properties and shelf life (stored at room temperature for 2 months). The organoleptic evaluation of the developed snacks revealed that 15 % and 20 % garlic incorporated snacks were not acceptable due to strong garlic flavor, therefore T1 (control), T2 (5 % garlic) and T3 ( 10 % garlic) were selected for further studies. The physical properties showed significant changes with incorporation of garlic powder at 0 %-10 % level. There was an increase in mass flow rate, tap density and bulk density but decrease in the water holding capacity, oil absorption capacity and expansion ratio. The water soluble index and moisture retention of the products showed the same values for all the three selected treatments. The products were packed by ordinary, nitrogen and vacuum packing and stored for 2 months. It was found that there was an increase in moisture content and microbial load, however the increase was within limits. The increase in the moisture content was low in nitrogen packed products where as the microbial load decreased with increase in the percentage of garlic incorporation. The nitrogen and vacuum packed products showed less microbial load than the ordinary packed products. Garlic powder can be incorporated at 5 and 10 % levels in ready-to-eat extruded snacks with well acceptability and can be stored for a period of 2 months with nitrogen packing as an effective packaging.

  4. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during removal of gutta-percha and ResilonTM using different instrumentation techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pešić Dragana

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Apical extrusion of material is considered as one of the very important factor for endodontic treatment success. Microorganisms, necrotic tissue, filling material and irrigants, which can be extruded apically during endodontic retreatment, may jeopardize the success of the therapy. The aim of this in vitro study was to quantitatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris during endodontic retreatment of teeth obturated with two different materials, using one hand and three rotary instrumentation techniques. Methods. Ninety-six extracted single-rooted teeth were endodontically treated and enlarged to size 40 using BioRaCe system, and then randomly divided into 8 groups of 12 specimens each. Half of the specimens were obturated with gutta-percha and AH Plus® sealer and another half with RealSeal SE system, using lateral condensation technique. Retreatment was performed using: Hedström files; ProFile rotary files; ProTaper Retreatment system and D-RaCe system. Apically extruded debris was collected in pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes and evaluated using an electronic microbalance. Data were analyzed statistically using t-test and analysis of variance. Results. In the AH Plus/gutta-percha group, all tested rotary instruments gave significantly less extruded debris compared with Hedström files (p < 0.05. In theRealSeal group, there was significant difference between DRaCe and Hedström instruments (p < 0.05. Conclusion. All retreatment techniques resulted in apical extrusion. DRaCe system produced significantly less extruded debris compared to hand files. No significant difference was found when comparing two instruments specially designed for retreatment: D-RaCe and ProTaper systems.

  5. Effect of thermostable α-amylase injection on mechanical and physiochemical properties for saccharification of extruded corn starch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myat, Lin; Ryu, Gi-Hyung

    2014-01-30

    In industry, a jet cooker is used to gelatinize starch by mixing the starch slurry with steam under pressure at 100-175 °C. A higher degree of starch hydrolysis in an extruder is possible with glucoamylase. Unfortunately, it is difficult to carry out liquefaction and saccharification in parallel, because the temperature of gelatinization will be too high and will inactivate glucoamylase. Since the temperature for liquefaction and saccharification is different, it is hard to change the temperature from high (required for liquefaction) to low (required for saccharification). The industrial gelatinization process is usually carried out with 30-35% (w/w) dry solids starch slurry. Conventional jet cookers cannot be used any more at high substrate concentrations owing to higher viscosity. In this study, therefore, corn starch was extruded at different melt temperatures to overcome these limitations and to produce the highest enzyme-accessible starch extrudates. Significant effects on physical properties (water solubility index, water absorption index and color) and chemical properties (reducing sugar and % increase in reducing sugar after saccharification) were achieved by addition of thermostable α-amylase at melt temperatures of 115 and 135 °C. However, there was no significant effect on % increase in reducing sugar of extruded corn starch at 95 °C. The results show the great potential of extrusion with thermostable α-amylase injection at 115 and 135 °C as an effective pretreatment for breaking down starch granules, because of the significant increase (P < 0.05) in % reducing sugar and enzyme-accessible extrudates for saccharification yield. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  6. Effect of feed composition, moisture content and extrusion temperature on extrudate characteristics of yam-corn-rice based snack food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Dibyakanta; Badwaik, Laxmikant S; Ganapathy, Vijayalakshmi

    2015-03-01

    Blends of yam, rice and corn flour were processed in a twin-screw extruder. Effects of yam flour (10-40 %), feed moisture content (12-24 %) and extruder barrel temperature (100-140 °C) on the characteristics of the dried extrudates was investigated using a statistical technique response surface methodology (RSM). Radial expansion ratio differed significantly (p ≤ 0.05) with change in all the independent variables. Highest expansion (3.97) was found at lowest moisture content (12 %) and highest barrel temperature (140 °C). Increased yam flour level decreased the expansion ratio significantly. Water absorption index (WAI) increased significantly with increase of all variables. However, water solubility index (WSI) did not change with change in yam flour percent. Hardness of extrudates that varied from 3.86 to 6.94 N was positively correlated with yam flour level and feed moisture content, however it decreased significantly (p ≤ 0.001) with increase of barrel temperature. Yam percent of 15.75 with feed moisture and barrel temperature at 12.00 % and 140 °C respectively gave an optimized product of high desirability (> 0.90) with optimum responses of 3.29 expansion ratio, 5.64 g/g dry solid water absorption index, 30.39 % water solubility index and 3.86 N hardness. The predicted values registered non-significant (p extruded snacks and little emphasis on the chemistry of interaction between different components.

  7. Aluminum corrosion product release kinetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwards, Matt, E-mail: Matthew.Edwards@cnl.ca; Semmler, Jaleh; Guzonas, Dave; Chen, Hui Qun; Toor, Arshad; Hoendermis, Seanna

    2015-07-15

    Highlights: • Release of Al corrosion product was measured in simulated post-LOCA sump solutions. • Increased boron was found to enhance Al release kinetics at similar pH. • Models of Al release as functions of time, temperature, and pH were developed. - Abstract: The kinetics of aluminum corrosion product release was examined in solutions representative of post-LOCA sump water for both pressurized water and pressurized heavy-water reactors. Coupons of AA 6061 T6 were exposed to solutions in the pH 7–11 range at 40, 60, 90 and 130 °C. Solution samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy, and coupon samples were analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry. The results show a distinct “boron effect” on the release kinetics, expected to be caused by an increase in the solubility of the aluminum corrosion products. New models were developed to describe both sets of data as functions of temperature, time, and pH (where applicable)

  8. Aluminum alloy and associated anode and battery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tarcy, G.P.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes an aluminum alloy. It comprises: eutectic amounts of at least two alloying elements selected from the group consisting of bismuth, cadmium, scandium, gallium, indium, lead, mercury, thallium, tin, and zinc with the balance being aluminum and the alloying elements being about 0.01 to 3.0 percent by weight of the alloy

  9. Assessment of secondary aluminum reserves of nations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maung, Kyaw Nyunt; Yoshida, Tomoharu; Liu, Gang

    2017-01-01

    aluminum resources are accumulated in landfill sites. Understanding the sizes of primary and secondary aluminum reserves enables us to extend knowledge of efficient raw material sourcing from a narrow perspective of primary reserves alone to a broader perspective of both primary and secondary reserves...

  10. 21 CFR 172.310 - Aluminum nicotinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED FOR DIRECT ADDITION TO FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Special Dietary and Nutritional Additives § 172.310 Aluminum nicotinate. Aluminum nicotinate may be safely...

  11. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononchuk, Olga; Alekseev, Alexey; Zubkova, Olga; Udovitsky, Vladimir

    2017-11-01

    Changing the source of raw materials for producing aluminum and the emergence of a huge number of secondary alumina waste (foundry slag, sludge, spent catalysts, mineral parts of coal and others that are formed in various industrial enterprises) require the creation of scientific and theoretical foundations for their processing. In this paper, the aluminum alloys (GOST 4784-97) are used as an aluminum raw material component, containing the aluminum component produced as chips in the machine-building enterprises. The aluminum waste is a whole range of metallic aluminum alloys including elements: magnesium, copper, silica, zinc and iron. Analysis of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  12. Aluminum low temperature smelting cell metal collection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, Theodore R.; Brown, Craig W.

    2002-07-16

    A method of producing aluminum in an electrolytic cell containing alumina dissolved in an electrolyte. The method comprises the steps of providing a molten salt electrolyte in an electrolytic cell having an anodic liner for containing the electrolyte, the liner having an anodic bottom and walls including at least one end wall extending upwardly from the anodic bottom, the anodic liner being substantially inert with respect to the molten electrolyte. A plurality of non-consumable anodes is provided and disposed vertically in the electrolyte. A plurality of cathodes is disposed vertically in the electrolyte in alternating relationship with the anodes. The anodes are electrically connected to the anodic liner. An electric current is passed through the anodic liner to the anodes, through the electrolyte to the cathodes, and aluminum is deposited on said cathodes. Oxygen bubbles are generated at the anodes and the anodic liner, the bubbles stirring the electrolyte. Molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes into a tubular member positioned underneath the cathodes. The tubular member is in liquid communication with each cathode to collect the molten aluminum therefrom while excluding electrolyte. Molten aluminum is delivered through the tubular member to a molten aluminum reservoir located substantially opposite the anodes and cathodes. The molten aluminum is collected from the cathodes and delivered to the reservoir while avoiding contact of the molten aluminum with the anodic bottom.

  13. Laboratory Powder Metallurgy Makes Tough Aluminum Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royster, D. M.; Thomas, J. R.; Singleton, O. R.

    1993-01-01

    Aluminum alloy sheet exhibits high tensile and Kahn tear strengths. Rapid solidification of aluminum alloys in powder form and subsequent consolidation and fabrication processes used to tailor parts made of these alloys to satisfy such specific aerospace design requirements as high strength and toughness.

  14. Aluminum extrusion with a deformable die

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Assaad, W.

    2010-01-01

    Aluminum extrusion process is one of metal forming processes. In aluminum extrusion, a work-piece (billet) is pressed through a die with an opening that closely resembles a desired shape of a profile. By this process, long profiles with an enormous variety of cross-sections can be produced to

  15. The Comparison of Water Absorption Analysis between Counterrotating and Corotating Twin-Screw Extruders with Different Antioxidants Content in Wood Plastic Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Hafizuddin Ab Ghani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Water absorption is a major concern for natural fibers as reinforcement in wood plastic composites (WPCs. This paper presents a study on the comparison analysis of water absorption between two types of twin-screw extruders, namely, counterrotating and corotating with presence of variable antioxidants content. Composites of mixed fibres between rice husk and saw dust with recycled high-density polyethylene (rHDPE were prepared with two different extruder machines, namely, counterrotating and corotating twin screw, respectively. The contents of matrix (30 wt% and fibres (62 wt% were mixed with additives (8 wt% and compounded using compounder before extruded using both of the machines. Samples were immersed in distilled water according to ASTM D 570-98. From the study, results indicated a significant difference among samples extruded by counterrotating and corotating twin-screw extruders. The counterrotating twin-screw extruder gives the smallest value of water absorption compared to corotating twin-screw extruder. This indicates that the types of screw play an important role in water uptake by improving the adhesion between natural fillers and the polymer matrix.

  16. Trends in the global aluminum fabrication industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Subodh; Yin, Weimin

    2007-02-01

    The aluminum fabrication industry has become more vital to the global economy as international aluminum consumption has grown steadily in the past decades. Using innovation, value, and sustainability, the aluminum industry is strengthening its position not only in traditional packaging and construction applications but also in the automotive and aerospace markets to become more competitive and to face challenges from other industries and higher industrial standards. The aluminum fabrication industry has experienced a significant geographical shift caused by rapid growth in emerging markets in countries such as Brazil, Russia, India, and China. Market growth and distribution will vary with different patterns of geography and social development; the aluminum industry must be part of the transformation and keep pace with market developments to benefit.

  17. Aluminum-based metal-air batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friesen, Cody A.; Martinez, Jose Antonio Bautista

    2016-01-12

    Provided in one embodiment is an electrochemical cell, comprising: (i) a plurality of electrodes, comprising a fuel electrode that comprises aluminum and an air electrode that absorbs gaseous oxygen, the electrodes being operable in a discharge mode wherein the aluminum is oxidized at the fuel electrode and oxygen is reduced at the air electrode, and (ii) an ionically conductive medium, comprising an organic solvent; wherein during non-use of the cell, the organic solvent promotes formation of a protective interface between the aluminum of the fuel electrode and the ionically conductive medium, and wherein at an onset of the discharge mode, at least some of the protective interface is removed from the aluminum to thereafter permit oxidation of the aluminum during the discharge mode.

  18. Aluminum phosphate shows more adjuvanticity than Aluminum hydroxide in recombinant hepatitis –B vaccine formulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although a number of investigation have been carried out to find alternative adjuvants to aluminum salts in vaccine formulations, they are still extensively used due to their good track record of safety, low cost and proper adjuvanticity with a variety of antigens. Adsorption of antigens onto aluminum compounds depends heavily on electrostatic forces between adjuvant and antigen. Commercial recombinant protein hepatitis B vaccines containing aluminum hydroxide as adjuvant is facing low induction of immunity in some sections of the vaccinated population. To follow the current global efforts in finding more potent hepatitis B vaccine formulation, adjuvanticity of aluminum phosphate has been compared to aluminum hydroxide. Materials and methods: The adjuvant properties of aluminum hydroxide and aluminum phosphate in a vaccine formulation containing a locally manufactured hepatitis B (HBs surface antigen was evaluated in Balb/C mice. The formulations were administered intra peritoneally (i.p. and the titers of antibody which was induced after 28 days were determined using ELISA technique. The geometric mean of antibody titer (GMT, seroconversion and seroprotection rates, ED50 and relative potency of different formulations were determined. Results: All the adjuvanicity markers obtained in aluminum phosphate formulation were significantly higher than aluminum hydroxide. The geometric mean of antibody titer of aluminum phosphate was approximately three folds more than aluminum hydroxide. Conclusion: Aluminum phosphate showed more adjuvanticity than aluminum hydroxide in hepatitis B vaccine. Therefore the use of aluminum phosphate as adjuvant in this vaccine may lead to higher immunity with longer duration of effects in vaccinated groups.

  19. Aluminum recovery as a product with high added value using aluminum hazardous waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    David, E.; Kopac, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Granular and compact aluminum dross were physically and chemically characterized. • A relationship between density, porosity and metal content from dross was established. • Chemical reactions involving aluminum in landfill and negative consequences are shown. • A processing method for aluminum recovering from aluminum dross was developed. • Aluminum was recovered as an value product with high grade purity such as alumina. -- Abstract: The samples of hazardous aluminum solid waste such as dross were physically and chemically characterized. A relationship between density, porosity and metal content of dross was established. The paper also examines the chemical reactions involving aluminum dross in landfill and the negative consequences. To avoid environmental problems and to recovery the aluminum, a processing method was developed and aluminum was recovered as an added value product such as alumina. This method refers to a process at low temperature, in more stages: acid leaching, purification, precipitation and calcination. At the end of this process aluminum was extracted, first as Al 3+ soluble ions and final as alumina product. The composition of the aluminum dross and alumina powder obtained were measured by applying the leaching tests, using atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) and chemical analysis. The mineralogical composition of aluminum dross samples and alumina product were determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the morphological characterization was performed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The method presented in this work allows the use of hazardous aluminum solid waste as raw material to recover an important fraction from soluble aluminum content as an added value product, alumina, with high grade purity (99.28%)

  20. Process for anodizing aluminum foil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ball, J.A.; Scott, J.W.

    1984-01-01

    In an integrated process for the anodization of aluminum foil for electrolytic capacitors including the formation of a hydrous oxide layer on the foil prior to anodization and stabilization of the foil in alkaline borax baths during anodization, the foil is electrochemically anodized in an aqueous solution of boric acid and 2 to 50 ppm phosphate having a pH of 4.0 to 6.0. The anodization is interrupted for stabilization by passing the foil through a bath containing the borax solution having a pH of 8.5 to 9.5 and a temperature above 80 0 C. and then reanodizing the foil. The process is useful in anodizing foil to a voltage of up to 760 V

  1. Oxidation dynamics of aluminum nanorods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Ying [Argonne Leadership Computing Facility, Argonne National Laboratory, Argonne, Illinois 60439 (United States); Kalia, Rajiv K.; Nakano, Aiichiro; Vashishta, Priya [Collaboratory for Advanced Computing and Simulations, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Department of Computer Science, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, California 90089-0242 (United States)

    2015-02-23

    Aluminum nanorods (Al-NRs) are promising fuels for pyrotechnics due to the high contact areas with oxidizers, but their oxidation mechanisms are largely unknown. Here, reactive molecular dynamics simulations are performed to study thermally initiated burning of oxide-coated Al-NRs with different diameters (D = 26, 36, and 46 nm) in oxygen environment. We found that thinner Al-NRs burn faster due to the larger surface-to-volume ratio. The reaction initiates with the dissolution of the alumina shell into the molten Al core to generate heat. This is followed by the incorporation of environmental oxygen atoms into the resulting Al-rich shell, thereby accelerating the heat release. These results reveal an unexpectedly active role of the alumina shell as a “nanoreactor” for oxidation.

  2. Decontamination and reuse of ORGDP aluminum scrap

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Compere, A.L.; Griffith, W.L.; Hayden, H.W.; Wilson, D.F.

    1996-12-01

    The Gaseous Diffusion Plants, or GDPs, have significant amounts of a number of metals, including nickel, aluminum, copper, and steel. Aluminum was used extensively throughout the GDPs because of its excellent strength to weight ratios and good resistance to corrosion by UF 6 . This report is concerned with the recycle of aluminum stator and rotor blades from axial compressors. Most of the stator and rotor blades were made from 214-X aluminum casting alloy. Used compressor blades were contaminated with uranium both as a result of surface contamination and as an accumulation held in surface-connected voids inside of the blades. A variety of GDP studies were performed to evaluate the amounts of uranium retained in the blades; the volume, area, and location of voids in the blades; and connections between surface defects and voids. Based on experimental data on deposition, uranium content of the blades is 0.3%, or roughly 200 times the value expected from blade surface area. However, this value does correlate with estimated internal surface area and with lengthy deposition times. Based on a literature search, it appears that gaseous decontamination or melt refining using fluxes specific for uranium removal have the potential for removing internal contamination from aluminum blades. A melt refining process was used to recycle blades during the 1950s and 1960s. The process removed roughly one-third of the uranium from the blades. Blade cast from recycled aluminum appeared to perform as well as blades from virgin material. New melt refining and gaseous decontamination processes have been shown to provide substantially better decontamination of pure aluminum. If these techniques can be successfully adapted to treat aluminum 214-X alloy, internal and, possibly, external reuse of aluminum alloys may be possible

  3. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A.; Kuepouo, Gilbert; Corbin, Rebecca W.; Gottesfeld, Perry

    2014-01-01

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  4. Lead exposure from aluminum cookware in Cameroon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidenhamer, Jeffrey D.; Kobunski, Peter A. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Kuepouo, Gilbert [Research and Education Centre for Development (CREPD), Yaounde (Cameroon); Corbin, Rebecca W. [Department of Chemistry, Geology and Physics, 401 College Ave., Ashland University, Ashland, OH 44805 (United States); Gottesfeld, Perry, E-mail: pgottesfeld@okinternational.org [Occupational Knowledge International, San Francisco, CA (United States)

    2014-10-15

    Blood lead levels have decreased following the removal of lead from gasoline in most of the world. However, numerous recent studies provide evidence that elevated blood lead levels persist in many low and middle-income countries around the world at much higher prevalence than in the more developed countries. One potential source of lead exposure that has not been widely investigated is the leaching of lead from artisanal aluminum cookware, which is commonly used in the developing world. Twenty-nine samples of aluminum cookware and utensils manufactured by local artisans in Cameroon were collected and analyzed for their potential to release lead during cooking. Source materials for this cookware included scrap metal such as engine parts, radiators, cans, and construction materials. The lead content of this cookware is relatively low (< 1000 ppm by X-ray fluorescence), however significant amounts of lead, as well as aluminum and cadmium were released from many of the samples using dilute acetic acid extractions at boiling and ambient temperatures. Potential exposures to lead per serving were estimated to be as high as 260 μg, indicating that such cookware can pose a serious health hazard. We conclude that lead, aluminum and cadmium can migrate from this aluminum cookware during cooking and enter food at levels exceeding recommended public health guidelines. Our results support the need to regulate lead content of materials used to manufacture these pots. Artisanal aluminum cookware may be a major contributor to lead poisoning throughout the developing world. Testing of aluminum cookware in other developing countries is warranted. - Highlights: • Cookware is manufactured in Cameroon from scrap aluminum including car parts. • Twenty-nine cookware samples were evaluated for their potential to leach lead. • Boiling extractions to simulate the effects of cooking released significant lead. • Potential lead exposures per serving are estimated as high as 260 μg.

  5. Fatigue analysis of aluminum drill pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Carlos Ribeiro Plácido

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental program was performed to investigate the fundamental fatigue mechanisms of aluminum drill pipes. Initially, the fatigue properties were determined through small-scale tests performed in an optic-mechanical fatigue apparatus. Additionally, full-scale fatigue tests were carried out with three aluminum drill pipe specimens under combined loading of cyclic bending and constant axial tension. Finally, a finite element model was developed to simulate the stress field along the aluminum drill pipe during the fatigue tests and to estimate the stress concentration factors inside the tool joints. By this way, it was possible to estimate the stress values in regions not monitored during the fatigue tests.

  6. An evaluation of the effects of PEO/PEG molecular weights on extruded alumina rods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Nancy Beth

    1998-12-01

    Alumina rods were piston extruded from bodies containing polyethylene glycols (PEGs) and polyethylene oxides (PEOs) with molecular weights ranging from 1,300 to 3,800,000 g/mol. A blend of aluminas possessing different particle size distributions was evaluated with regard to its extrusion pressure by varying the amount of PEG/PEO addition. Behavior exhibited by the alumina blend was dependent upon the additive that was used. The higher molecular weight binders with average molecular weight of 200,000 g/mol and 3,350,000 g/mol displayed the most severe behaviors of near dilatant and dilatant respectively. Physical properties of the green and fired states, as well as the binder burnout, were investigated with the changing additions. Correlation between the green and fired strengths and the changing molecular weights were examined. The additive present influenced the surface properties of the rods, which affected the green strengths. The highest average molecular weight polyethylene glycols showed higher green strengths, while the lowest green strengths were observed for the high molecular weight polyethylene oxides. Fired strengths generally ranged from approximately 12,000 psi to 16,000 psi for additive batches. Alumina pellets containing twelve separate combinations of polyethylene glycol with polyethylene oxide were dry pressed. Physical properties of the green and fired states were examined. Statistical analysis was performed upon the data and seven combinations of polyethylene glycol with polyethylene oxide were deemed significant. These combinations in conjunction with the same alumina blend were then piston extruded. The addition of polyethylene glycol reduced the near dilatant behavior exhibited by the 200,000 g/mol average molecular weight polyethylene oxide. Dilatant behavior was completely eliminated from the 3,350,000 g/mol average molecular weight polyethylene oxide batches. Physical properties of the green and fired states were again investigated with

  7. The use of tubular retractors for translaminar discectomy for cranially and caudally extruded discs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arvind G Kulkarni

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The conventional interlaminar approach is adequate for access to most disc herniations in lumbar spine surgery. The access to cranially and caudally migrated disc fragments, by conventional interlaminar fenestration, requires an extension of the fenestration with the potential destruction of the facet joint complex and consequent postsurgical instability. To describe the technique and results of the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy using tubular retractors for the surgical treatment of cranially and caudally extruded discs. Materials and Methods: The study period extended from January 2008 to December 2014. All patients with lumbar herniated discs who failed conservative management were selected for surgery and underwent routine erect radiographs and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI of the lumbar spine. The patients with cranially or caudally migrated discs were included in this study. The technique involves approaching migrated disc through an oval window (sculpted through an 18 mm tubular retractor using a burr in the lamina precisely over the location of the migrated disc as predicted by the preoperative MRI (inferior lamina for inferior migration and superior lamina for superior migration. The perioperative parameters studied were operative time, blood loss, complications, Oswestry Disability Index (ODI, and visual analog scale (VAS for leg pain before surgery and at last followup. In the study, 4 patients underwent a postoperative computed tomography-scan with a three-dimensional reconstruction to visualize the oval window and to rule out any pars fracture. All technical difficulties and complications were analyzed. Results: 17 patients in the age group of 41–58 years underwent the translaminar technique of targeted discectomy. The migration of disc was cranial in 12 patients and caudal in 5 patients. Fourteen of the affected discs were at the L4–L5 level and three were at the L5-S1 level. The mean VAS (leg pain

  8. Nanshan Aluminum Reached Strategic Cooperation with CSR Corporation Limited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    As a key supplier of aluminum profiles and aluminum plate,sheet and trip products for CSR Corporation Limited,Nanshan Aluminum will join hands with CSR Corporation Limited to reach strategic cooperation.On January 5,Nanshan Aluminum signed strategic cooperation agreement with CSR Sifang Locomotive&Rolling; Stock Co.,Ltd,both

  9. 49 CFR 178.505 - Standards for aluminum drums.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Standards for aluminum drums. 178.505 Section 178... PACKAGINGS Non-bulk Performance-Oriented Packaging Standards § 178.505 Standards for aluminum drums. (a) The following are the identification codes for aluminum drums: (1) 1B1 for a non-removable head aluminum drum...

  10. Formulation and method for preparing gels comprising hydrous aluminum oxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Jack L.

    2014-06-17

    Formulations useful for preparing hydrous aluminum oxide gels contain a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent. Methods for preparing gels containing hydrous aluminum oxide include heating a formulation to a temperature sufficient to induce gel formation, where the formulation contains a metal salt including aluminum, an organic base, and a complexing agent.

  11. 46 CFR 154.195 - Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. 154.195 Section... Equipment Hull Structure § 154.195 Aluminum cargo tank: Steel enclosure. (a) An aluminum cargo tank and its... the aluminum cargo tank must meet the steel structural standards of the American Bureau of Shipping...

  12. A simple aluminum gasket for use with both stainless steel and aluminum flanges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langley, R.A.

    1991-01-01

    A technique has been developed for making aluminum wire seal gaskets of various sizes and shapes for use with both stainless steel and aluminum alloy flanges. The gasket material used is 0.9999 pure aluminum, drawn to a diameter of 3 mm. This material can be easily welded and formed into various shapes. A single gasket has been successfully used up to five times without baking. The largest gasket tested to date is 3.5 m long and was used in the shape of a parallelogram. Previous use of aluminum wire gaskets, including results for bakeout at temperatures from 20 to 660{degree}C, is reviewed. A search of the literature indicates that this is the first reported use of aluminum wire gaskets for aluminum alloy flanges. The technique is described in detail, and the results are summarized. 11 refs., 4 figs.

  13. Single screw extrusion of apple pomace-enriched blends: Extrudate characteristics and determination of optimum processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Poonam; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan

    2018-07-01

    Response surface methodology was used to investigate the single screw extrusion of apple pomace-defatted soy flour-corn grits blends and the product properties. Five different blends at a level of 0-20% w/w apple pomace were extrusion cooked with varied barrel and die temperature (100-140℃), screw speed (100-200 rpm), and feed moisture content (14-20% wet basis). Increasing apple pomace content in the blends significantly ( P extrudates. The expansion ratio increased with pomace inclusion level of 5% but decreased significantly ( P extruded snack products were at 140℃ barrel and die temperature, 20% feed moisture content, and 200 rpm screw speed. The results indicated active interaction between apple pomace and starch during expansion process.

  14. Fabrication and properties of high-strength extruded brass using elemental mixture of Cu-40% Zn alloy powder and Mg particle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atsumi, Haruhiko, E-mail: atsumi-h@jwri.osaka-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Engineering, Osaka University, 2-1 Yamadaoka, Suita, Osaka 565-0871 (Japan); Imai, Hisashi; Li, Shufeng; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi [Joining and Welding Research Institute, Osaka University, 11-1 Mihogaoka, Ibaraki, Osaka 567-0047 (Japan); Kousaka, Yoshiharu; Kojima, Akimichi [San-etsu Metals Co. Ltd., 1892 Ohta, Tonami, Toyama 939-1315 (Japan)

    2012-08-15

    In this paper, high-strength brass (Cu-40% Zn) alloy with magnesium (Mg) element was fabricated via powder technology process, and the effect of the additive Mg element on microstructural and mechanical properties of extruded brass alloys with {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases was investigated. Pre-mixed Cu-40% Zn alloy powder with 0.5-1.5 mass% pure Mg powder (Cu-40% Zn + Mg) was consolidated using a spark plasma sintering (SPS) equipment. SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens consisted of {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases containing Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} intermetallic compounds (IMCs) with a mean particle size of 10-30 {mu}m in diameter. The IMCs were completely dissolved in the {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases by a heat-treatment at 973 K for 15 min; thus, in order to disperse fine IMCs on {alpha}-{beta} duplex phase matrix, the SPSed Cu-40% Zn + Mg specimens were pre-heated at the solid solutionizing condition, and immediately extruded. The extruded specimen exhibited fine {alpha}-{beta} duplex phases, containing very fine precipitates of the above Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} IMCs with 0.5-3.0 {mu}m in diameter. In particular, a mean grain size of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen was 3.32 {mu}m analyzed using an electron back-scattered diffraction. Tensile properties of the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen were an average value of yield strength (YS): 328 MPa, ultimate tensile strength (UTS): 553 MPa, and 25% elongation. This indicated that the extruded Cu-40% Zn + 1.0% Mg specimen revealed the significantly high-strength properties compared to a conventional binary brass alloy with 229 MPa YS and 464 MPa UTS. A high strengthening mechanism of this wrought brass alloy was mainly due to the grain refinement because of a pinning effect by the fine Mg(Cu{sub 1-x}Zn{sub x}){sub 2} precipitates at the boundaries of each phase. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer New high-strength extruded brass alloy with Mg was fabricated via powder metallurgy. Black

  15. Coordination Structure of Aluminum in Magnesium Aluminum Hydroxide Studied by 27Al NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The coordination structure of aluminum in magnesium aluminum hydroxide was studiedby 27Al NMR. The result showed that tetrahedral aluminum (AlⅣ) existed in magnesiumaluminum hydroxide, and the contents of AlⅣ increased with the increase of the ratio of Al/Mg andwith the peptizing temperature. AlⅣ originated from the so-called Al13 polymer with the structureof one Al tetrahedron surrounded by twelve Al octahedrons.

  16. Influence of lidocaine forms (salt vs. freebase) on properties of drug-Eudragit® L100-55 extrudates prepared by reactive melt extrusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xu; Ma, Xiangyu; Kun, Eucharist; Guo, Xiaodi; Yu, Zhongxue; Zhang, Feng

    2018-06-05

    This study examines the preparation of sustained-release lidocaine polyelectrolyte complex using reactive melt extrusion. Eudragit L100-55 was selected as the ionic polymer. The influence of drug forms (freebase vs. hydrochloride salt) on lidocaine-Eudragit L100-55 interactions, physical stability, and dissolution properties of extrudates was investigated. It was confirmed by DSC, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopy that polyelectrolyte could only form via the acid-base reaction between Eudragit L100-55 and lidocaine freebase. Due to this ionic interaction, the lidocaine extrudate was physically more stable than the lidocaine hydrochloride extrudate during the storage under stressed condition. Drug release from lidocaine extrudate was a function of drug solubility, polymer solubility, drug-polymer interaction, and drug-induced microenvironment pH. At 30% drug loading, extrudate exhibited sustained release in aqueous media at pH 1.2 and 4.5. Due to the alkaline microenvironment pH induced by dissolved lidocaine, Eudragit L100-55 was solubilized and sustained-release was not achieved in water and aqueous media at pH 5.5. In comparison, lidocaine hydrochloride induced an acidic microenvironment. Drug release of lidocaine hydrochloride extrudate was similar at pH 1.2, 4.5, 5.5 and water with drug being released over 10 hours. The release of lidocaine hydrochloride from the extrudates in these media was primarily controlled by microenvironment pH. It is concluded that different forms of lidocaine resulted in different drug-polymer interactions and distinctive physicochemical properties of extrudates. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Nutritional value of raw soybeans, extruded soybeans, roasted soybeans and tallow as fat sources in early lactating dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Moosavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Thirty multiparous Holstein cows (29.8 ± 4.01days in milk; 671.6 ± 31.47 kg of body weight were used in a completely randomized design to compare nutritional value of four fat sources including tallow, raw soybeans, extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans for 8 weeks. Experimental diets were a control containing 27.4 % alfalfa silage, 22.5% corn silage, and 50.1% concentrate, and four diets with either tallow, raw soybean, extruded soybean, or roasted soybean added to provide 1.93% supplemental fat. Dry matter and NEL intakes were similar among treatments, while cows fed fat diets had significantly (P<0.05 high NEL intakes when compared to control with no fat. Supplemental fat, whether tallow or full fat soybeans increased milk production (1.89-2.45 kg/d; P<0.01 and FCM production (1.05-2.79; P<0.01. Milk fat yield and percentage of cows fed fat-supplemented diets were significantly (P<0.01 and P<0.05 respectively higher than control. Between fat-supplemented diets, roasted soybean caused highest milk fat yield and extruded soybean caused lowest milk fat yield. There was no significant effect of supplemental fat on the milk protein and lactose content and yield. Feed efficiency of fat-supplemented diets was significantly (P<0.01 higher than control. Body weight, body weight change and BCS (body condition score of cows, as well as energy balance and energy efficiency were similar between treatments. In conclusion, while there was no significant effect of fat sources on production response of cows, fat originating from heat-treated soybean help to minimize imported RUP (rumen undegradable protein sources level as fish meal in comparison with tallow and raw soybean oil. In the Current study, there was no statistical significance among nutritional values of oil from extruded soybeans and roasted soybeans.

  18. The tumor suppressor adenomatous polyposis coli controls the direction in which a cell extrudes from an epithelium

    OpenAIRE

    Marshall, Thomas W.; Lloyd, Isaac E.; Delalande, Jean Marie; N?thke, Inke; Rosenblatt, Jody

    2011-01-01

    Despite high rates of cell death, epithelia maintain intact barriers by squeezing dying cells out using a process termed cell extrusion. Cells can extrude apically into the lumen or basally into the tissue the epithelium encases, depending on whether actin and myosin contract at the cell base or apex, respectively. We previously found that microtubules in cells surrounding a dying cell target p115 RhoGEF to the actin cortex to control where contraction occurs. However, what controls microtubu...

  19. Apically extruded debris in filling removal of curved canals using 3 NiTi systems and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delai, Débora; Boijink, Daiana; Hoppe, Carolina Bender; Grecca, Abiana Soares; Kopper, Patrícia Maria Poli

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the amount of apically extruded debris during filling removal with WaveOne Gold (WOG), ProTaper Universal Retreatment (PTR), D-RaCe Retreatment (DRR) or hand files (HF), to compare the working time during filling removal, and to describe failures of NiTi instruments. Forty mesiobuccal roots of maxillary first molars were prepared with WOG Primary, obturated and divided into 4 groups (n=10), according to the instruments used: WOG, PTR, DRR or HF. Distilled water was used as irrigant and the extruded debris were collected in Eppendorf tubes and dried. The amount of extruded debris was determined by subtracting the final from the initial weight. The time of filling removal for each canal was recorded and the instruments used were analyzed pre and post-operatively by SEM. Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn's test analyzed extruded debris data and ANOVA, followed by Tukey's test, compared the working time data (a=0.05). Instrument deformation and fracture were described. WOG produced significantly less debris compared with HF and DRR (p0.05). HF, PTR and DRR showed no significant difference (p>0.05). Working time in HF group was significantly higher than others (p<0.05). SEM analyses showed, from the 18 instruments evaluated, 3 fractures and 10 deformations. All instruments tested caused debris extrusion. WOG was associated with less extrusion than DRR and HF. Filling removal with HF was slower than with the other instruments. All NiTi systems presented fracture and deformation.

  20. Water Susceptibility and Mechanical Properties of Thermoplastic Starch–Pectin Blends Reactively Extruded with Edible Citric Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Da Róz,Alessandra Luzia; Veiga-Santos,Pricila; Ferreira,Adriane Medeiros; Antunes,Thaís Cristina Ribeiro; Leite,Fabio de Lima; Yamaji,Fabio Minoru; Carvalho,Antonio José Felix de

    2016-01-01

    Pectin and starch are edible, non-toxic, biodegradable and obtained from renewable sources. Also, have the benefit to be easily cross-linked producing hydrogels. Reactive extrusion with edible citric acid and cross linking interactions was evaluated on extruded thermoplastic in natura and cationic starch-pectin blends. Materials water susceptibility and mechanical properties were characterised. Reactive extrusion decreased (up to 75% in natura starch) mechanical properties. Also have decrease...

  1. Aluminum exclusion and aluminum tolerance in woody plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brunner, Ivano; Sperisen, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    The aluminum (Al) cation Al(3) (+) is highly rhizotoxic and is a major stress factor to plants on acid soils, which cover large areas of tropical and boreal regions. Many woody plant species are native to acid soils and are well adapted to high Al(3) (+) conditions. In tropical regions, both woody Al accumulator and non-Al accumulator plants occur, whereas in boreal regions woody plants are non-Al accumulators. The mechanisms of these adaptations can be divided into those that facilitate the exclusion of Al(3) (+) from root cells (exclusion mechanisms) and those that enable plants to tolerate Al(3) (+) once it has entered the root and shoot symplast (internal tolerance mechanisms). The biochemical and molecular basis of these mechanisms have been intensively studied in several crop plants and the model plant Arabidopsis. In this review, we examine the current understanding of Al(3) (+) exclusion and tolerance mechanisms from woody plants. In addition, we discuss the ecology of woody non-Al accumulator and Al accumulator plants, and present examples of Al(3) (+) adaptations in woody plant populations. This paper complements previous reviews focusing on crop plants and provides insights into evolutionary processes operating in plant communities that are widespread on acid soils.

  2. Elevated temperature crack growth in advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porr, William C., Jr.; Gangloff, Richard P.

    1990-01-01

    Rapidly solidified Al-Fe-V-Si powder metallurgy alloy FVS0812 is among the most promising of the elevated temperature aluminum alloys developed in recent years. The ultra fine grain size and high volume fraction of thermally stable dispersoids enable the alloy to maintain tensile properties at elevated temperatures. In contrast, this alloy displays complex and potentially deleterious damage tolerant and time dependent fracture behavior that varies with temperature. J-Integral fracture mechanics were used to determine fracture toughness (K sub IC) and crack growth resistance (tearing modulus, T) of extruded FVS0812 as a function of temperature. The alloy exhibits high fracture properties at room temperature when tested in the LT orientation, due to extensive delamination of prior ribbon particle boundaries perpendicular to the crack front. Delamination results in a loss of through thickness constraint along the crack front, raising the critical stress intensity necessary for precrack initiation. The fracture toughness and tensile ductility of this alloy decrease with increasing temperature, with minima observed at 200 C. This behavior results from minima in the intrinsic toughness of the material, due to dynamic strain aging, and in the extent of prior particle boundary delaminations. At 200 C FVS0812 fails at K levels that are insufficient to cause through thickness delamination. As temperature increases beyond the minimum, strain aging is reduced and delamination returns. For the TL orientation, K (sub IC) decreased and T increased slightly with increasing temperature from 25 to 316 C. Fracture in the TL orientation is governed by prior particle boundary toughness; increased strain localization at these boundaries may result in lower toughness with increasing temperature. Preliminary results demonstrate a complex effect of loading rate on K (sub IC) and T at 175 C, and indicate that the combined effects of time dependent deformation, environment, and strain aging

  3. The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-04

    AFRL-AFOSR-VA-TR-2016-0075 The Oxidation Products of Aluminum Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters KIT BOWEN JOHNS HOPKINS UNIV BALTIMORE MD...2. REPORT TYPE Final Performance 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 30-09-2014 to 29-09-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE The Oxidation Products of Aluminum ...Hydride and Boron Aluminum Hydride Clusters 5a.  CONTRACT NUMBER 5b.  GRANT NUMBER FA9550-14-1-0324 5c.  PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 61102F 6. AUTHOR(S) KIT

  4. Effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk yield, milk quality and lipid metabolism of dairy cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Brogna

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Twenty Italian Friesian dairy cows were used in an experimental trial to study the effects of extruded linseed dietary supplementation on milk production, milk quality and fatty acid (FA percentages of milk fat and total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. Control cows were fed a corn silage based total mixed ration (TMR while treated animals also received 700g/head/d of extruded linseed supplementation. Feed intake was similar between groups. Milk yields was tendentially greater for cows fed extruded linseed. Milk urea content (P<0.05 were reduced by treatment. Results showed a significant increase n-3 FA concentration (particularly alpha linolenic acid and a significant reduction of n-6/n-3 FA ratio in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids (P<0.001; moreover a reduction trend (P<0.1 of arachidonic acid concentrations was observed in milk fat, total plasma lipids and plasma phospholipids. At last, treatment enhanced milk fat conjugated linoleic acid (CLA percentage (P<0.05.

  5. Influence of hard particle addition and chemical interdiffusion on the properties of hot extruded tool steel compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, P.A.; Weber, S.; Inden, G.; Pyzalla, A.R.

    2009-01-01

    Low alloyed steel bars were co-extruded with pre-sintered tool steel powders with the addition of tungsten carbides (W 2 C/WC) as hard particles. During the hot extrusion process of these massive and powdery materials, an extrudate is formed consisting of a completely densified wear resistant coating layer and a bulk steel bar as the tough substrate core. This work combines experimental measurements (EPMA) and diffusion calculations (DICTRA TM ) to investigate the effect of hard particle addition and its dissolution, as well as the formation of M 6 C carbides on the properties of two different PM tool steel coatings hot extruded with a 1.2714 steel bar. A carburization effect resulting from the W 2 C hard particles is responsible for an increase of the 1.2344 steel matrix hardness. The mechanical properties of the interface region between coating matrix and substrate are influenced by chemical interdiffusion of carbon and other alloying elements occurring during heat treatment.

  6. The influence of feed supplementation with linseed oil and linseed extrudate on fatty acid profile in goat yoghurt drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markéta Borková

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Feed composition is one of the most influential factors affecting fatty acid profile of milk products. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of linseed oil and linseed extrudate supplementation on fatty acid composition of goat prebiotic and probiotic yogurt drinks. Thirty six White Shorthaired dairy goats at the beginning of their third lactation period were divided into two experimental and one control group, each comprising twelve animals. Goats in the experimental groups were given either 55 mL/day of linseed oil or 120 g/day of linseed extrudate over a three week period. The results suggest that feed supplementation with linseed oil and linseed extrudate caused considerable changes in fatty acid profile of goat yoghurt drinks. The most important nutritional change which was observed was increased n-3 fatty acid content (P<0.001 and decreased saturated fatty acid content (P<0.001. α-linolenic acid was significantly elevated (P<0.001 in both groups (in particular in goats which feed was supplemented with linseed oil.

  7. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  8. Effect of composition in the development of carbamazepine hot-melt extruded solid dispersions by application of mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djuris, Jelena; Ioannis, Nikolakakis; Ibric, Svetlana; Djuric, Zorica; Kachrimanis, Kyriakos

    2014-02-01

    This study investigates the application of hot-melt extrusion for the formulation of carbamazepine (CBZ) solid dispersions, using polyethyleneglycol-polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate grafted copolymer (Soluplus, BASF, Germany) and polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene block copolymer (Poloxamer 407). In agreement with the current Quality by Design principle, formulations of solid dispersions were prepared according to a D-optimal mixture experimental design, and the influence of formulation composition on the properties of the dispersions (CBZ heat of fusion and release rate) was estimated. Prepared solid dispersions were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry, attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy and hot stage microscopy, as well as by determination of the dissolution rate of CBZ from the hot-melt extrudates. Solid dispersions of CBZ can be successfully prepared using the novel copolymer Soluplus. Inclusion of Poloxamer 407 as a plasticizer facilitated the processing and decreased the hardness of hot-melt extrudates. Regardless of their composition, all hot-melt extrudates displayed an improvement in the release rate compared to the pure CBZ, with formulations having the ratio of CBZ : Poloxamer 407 = 1 : 1 showing the highest increase in CBZ release rate. Interactions between the mixture components (CBZ and polymers), or quadratic effects of the components, play a significant role in overall influence on the CBZ release rate. © 2013 Royal Pharmaceutical Society.

  9. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2016-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92-17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46-13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33-33.53 and 5.30-11.53 fold increase in the phenolics and antioxidant activity in the enriched snack products. The effects of feed moisture content, screw speed, and barrel temperature on expansion and nutritional properties of the extruded products were investigated by using response surface methodology. Regression equations describing the effect of each variable on the product responses were obtained. The snacks extruded with feed moisture 13-15 % (wb) and extrusion temperature at 160-180 °C indicated the products with high preference in terms of expansion ratio between insoluble dietary fiber and soluble dietary fiber balance. The results showed that the by-products could be successfully used for nutritional supplemented expanded snacks.

  10. Improvement in the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of traditional extruded cassava-based snack (modified Ajogun).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obadina, Adewale O; Oyewole, Olusola B; Williams, Oluwasolabomi E

    2013-07-01

    This study was carried out to investigate and improve the traditional processing method and nutritional quality of the traditional cassava snack (Ajogun). Cassava root (Manihot esculenta Crantz L.) of TME 419 variety was processed into mash (40% moisture content). The cassava mash was mixed into different blends to produce fried traditional "Ajogun", fried and baked extrudates (modified Ajogun) as snacks. These products were analyzed to determine the proximate composition including carbohydrate, fat, protein, fiber, ash, and moisture contents and functional properties such as bulk density. The results obtained for the moisture, fat, protein, and ash contents showed significant difference (P extrudates. However, there was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the carbohydrate and fiber contents between the three samples. There was no significant difference (P > 0.05) in the bulk density of the snacks. Also, sensory evaluation was carried out on the cassava-based snacks using the 9-point hedonic scale to determine the degree of acceptability. Results obtained showed significant difference (P extrudates and control sample in terms of appearance, taste, flavor, color, aroma, texture, and overall acceptability. The highest acceptability level of the product was at 8.04 for the control sample (traditional Ajogun). This study has shown that "Ajogun", which is a lesser known cassava product, is rich in protein and fat.

  11. Effect of technological factors on water activity of extruded corn product with an addition of whey proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makowska, Agnieszka; Cais-Sokolińska, Dorota; Lasik, Agata

    2014-01-01

    The value of water activity in extruded products constitutes a significant indicator of their quality and stability. The state, in which water is found in extruded products, is an indicator of the conducted extrusion process and the used raw material. The aim of the study was to assess water activity in extruded products made from a mixture of com grits with 12.5 and 15.0% moisture contents and different level of addition of whey proteins. It was shown that the degree of mixture moisture content did not have an effect on the value of aw in produced puffs. The greatest difference was recorded when introducing 3% proteins in comparison to aw of puffs produced solely from corn grits. Δaw = 0.023. The greater the content of whey proteins, the lower the aw value. A 3-month storage at a temperature of 18 ±0.5°C influenced aw of snacks produced from a mixture with a higher moisture content.

  12. Application of response surface methodology for studying the product characteristics of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asare, Emmanuel Kwasi; Sefa-Dedeh, Samuel; Sakyi-Dawson, Esther; Afoakwa, Emmanuel Ohene

    2004-08-01

    Response surface methodology (with central composite rotatable design for k=3) was used to investigate the product properties of extruded rice-cowpea-groundnut blends in a single screw extruder. The combined effect of cowpea (0-20%), groundnut (0-10%), and feed moisture (14-48%) levels were used for formulation of the products. The product moisture, expansion ratio, bulk density and total colour change were studied using standard analytical methods. Well-expanded rice-legume blend extrudates of less bulk density and lower moisture content were produced at low feed moisture. Increasing legume addition affected the various shades of colour in the product. Models developed for the indices gave R(2) values ranging from 52.8% (for the b-value) to 86.5% (for bulk density). The models developed suggested that the optimal process variables for the production of a puffed snack with an enhanced nutrition and spongy structure from a rice-cowpea-groundnut blend are low feed moisture of 14-20% and maximum additions of 20% cowpea and 10% groundnut. A lack-of-fit test showed no significance, indicating that the models adequately fitted the data.

  13. 40 CFR 63.5753 - How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... HAP content of aluminum wipedown solvents and aluminum recreational boat surface coatings? 63.5753... Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants for Boat Manufacturing Standards for Aluminum Recreational Boat Surface Coating Operations § 63.5753 How do I calculate the combined organic HAP content of aluminum...

  14. Electron-beam welding of aluminum alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brillant, Marcel; de Bony, Yves

    1980-08-15

    The objective of this article is to describe the status of the application of electron-beam welding to aluminum alloys. These alloys are widely employed in the aeronautics, space and nuclear industries.

  15. Electrometallurgical treatment of aluminum-based fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Willit, J. L.

    1998-01-01

    We have successfully demonstrated aluminum electrorefining from a U-Al-Si alloy that simulates spent aluminum-based reactor fuel. The aluminum product contains less than 200 ppm uranium. All the results obtained have been in agreement with predictions based on equilibrium thermodynamics. We have also demonstrated the need for adequate stirring to achieve a low-uranium product. Most of the other process steps have been demonstrated in other programs. These include uranium electrorefining, transuranic fission product scrubbing, fission product oxidation, and product consolidation by melting. Future work will focus on the extraction of active metal and rare earth fission products by a molten flux salt and scale-up of the aluminum electrorefining

  16. Masking of aluminum surface against anodizing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, G. B.; Thompson, R. E.

    1969-01-01

    Masking material and a thickening agent preserve limited unanodized areas when aluminum surfaces are anodized with chromic acid. For protection of large areas it combines well with a certain self-adhesive plastic tape.

  17. Aluminum titanate crucible for molten uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Asbury, J.J.

    1975-01-01

    An improved crucible for molten uranium is described. The crucible or crucible liner is formed of aluminum titanate which essentially eliminates contamination of uranium and uranium alloys during molten states thereof. (U.S.)

  18. Interpretation of aluminum-alloy weld radiography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duren, P. C.; Risch, E. R.

    1971-01-01

    Report proposes radiographic terminology standardization which allows scientific interpretation of radiographic films to replace dependence on individual judgement and experience. Report includes over 50 photographic pages where radiographs of aluminum welds with defects are compared with prepared weld sections photomacrographs.

  19. Recycling of aluminum to produce green energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, Susana Silva; Lopez Benites, Wendy; Alvarez Gallegos, Alberto A. [Centro de Investigacion en Ingenieria y Ciencias Aplicadas, Av. Universidad 1001, Col. Chamilpa, Cuernavaca, Morelos C.P. 62210 (Mexico); Sebastian, P.J. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia-UNAM, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2005-07-15

    High-purity hydrogen gas was generated from the chemical reaction of aluminum with sodium hydroxide. Several molar relations of sodium hydroxide/aluminum were investigated in this study. The experimental results showed that hydrogen yields are acceptable and its purity was good enough to be used in a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell to produce electricity. An estimation of the amount of energy produced from the reaction of 100 aluminum cans with caustic soda showed that the hydrogen production is feasible to be scaled up to reach up to 5kWh in a few hours. This study is environmentally friendly and also shows that green energy can be produced from aluminum waste at a low cost.

  20. Aluminum alloy excellent in neutron absorbing performance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iida, Tetsuya; Tamamura, Tadao; Morimoto, Hiroyuki; Ouchi, Ken-ichiro.

    1987-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain structural materials made of aluminum alloys having favorable neutron absorbing performance and excellent in the performance as structural materials such as processability and strength. Constitution: Powder of Gd 2 O 3 as a gadolinium compound or metal gadolinium is uniformly mixed with the powder of aluminum or aluminum alloy. The amount of the gadolinium compound added is set to 0.1 - 30 % by weight. No sufficient neutron absorbing performance can be obtained if it is less than 0.1 % by weight, whereas the processability and mechanical property of the alloy are degraded if it exceeds 30 % by weight. Further, the grain size is set to less about 50 μm. Further, since the neutron absorbing performance varies greatly if the aluminum powder size exceeds 100 μm, the diameter is set to less than about 100 μm. These mixtures are molded in a hot press. This enables to obtain aimed structural materials. (Takahashi, M.)

  1. Seacoast stress corrosion cracking of aluminum alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Humphries, T. S.; Nelson, E. E.

    1981-01-01

    The stress corrosion cracking resistance of high strength, wrought aluminum alloys in a seacoast atmosphere was investigated and the results were compared with those obtained in laboratory tests. Round tensile specimens taken from the short transverse grain direction of aluminum plate and stressed up to 100 percent of their yield strengths were exposed to the seacoast and to alternate immersion in salt water and synthetic seawater. Maximum exposure periods of one year at the seacoast, 0.3 or 0.7 of a month for alternate immersion in salt water, and three months for synthetic seawater were indicated for aluminum alloys to avoid false indications of stress corrosion cracking failure resulting from pitting. Correlation of the results was very good among the three test media using the selected exposure periods. It is concluded that either of the laboratory test media is suitable for evaluating the stress corrosion cracking performance of aluminum alloys in seacoast atmosphere.

  2. Inhibition of aluminum corrosion using Opuntia extract

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    El-Etre, A.Y.

    2003-01-01

    The inhibitive action of the mucilage extracted from the modified stems of prickly pears, toward acid corrosion of aluminum, is tested using weight loss, thermometry, hydrogen evolution and polarization techniques. It was found that the extract acts as a good corrosion inhibitor for aluminum corrosion in 2.0 M HCl solution. The inhibition action of the extract was discussed in view of Langmuir adsorption isotherm. It was found that the adsorption of the extract on aluminum surface is a spontaneous process. The inhibition efficiency (IE) increases as the extract concentration is increased. The effect of temperature on the IE was studied. It was found that the presence of extract increases the activation energy of the corrosion reaction. Moreover, the thermodynamic parameters of the adsorption process were calculated. It was found also that the Opuntia extract provides a good protection to aluminum against pitting corrosion in chloride ion containing solutions

  3. Corrosion of aluminum components and remedial measures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sheikh, S.T.; Khalique, A.; Malik, F.A.

    2006-01-01

    Aluminum has versatile physical properties, mechanical strength, corrosion resistance, and is used in special applications like aerospace, automobiles and other strategic industries. The outdoor exposed structural components of aluminum have very good corrosion resistance due to the thick oxide layer (0.2 -0.4 micro). This study involves the corrosion of aluminum based components, though aluminum is protected by an oxide layer but due to extreme weather and environmental conditions the oxide layer was damaged. The corroded product was removed, pits or cavities formed due to the material removal were filled with epoxy resins and acrylic-based compounds containing fibreglass as reinforcement. Optimum results were obtained with epoxy resins incorporated with 5% glass fibers. The inner surface of the components was provided further protection with a cellulose nitrate compound. (author)

  4. Beryllium-aluminum alloys for investment castings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nachtrab, W.T.; Levoy, N.

    1997-01-01

    Beryllium-aluminum alloys containing greater than 60 wt % beryllium are very favorable materials for applications requiring light weight and high stiffness. However, when produced by traditional powder metallurgical methods, these alloys are expensive and have limited applications. To reduce the cost of making beryllium-aluminum components, Nuclear Metals Inc. (NMI) and Lockheed Martin Electronics and Missiles have recently developed a family of patented beryllium-aluminum alloys that can be investment cast. Designated Beralcast, the alloys can achieve substantial weight savings because of their high specific strength and stiffness. In some cases, weight has been reduced by up to 50% over aluminum investment casting. Beralcast is now being used to make thin wall precision investment castings for several advanced aerospace applications, such as the RAH-66 Comanche helicopter and F-22 jet fighter. This article discusses alloy compositions, properties, casting method, and the effects of cobalt additions on strength

  5. A model for evaluating the flow rate of an extruder for plastic recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oke, S.A.; Popoola, I.O.

    2007-01-01

    For several years, Municipal Solid Wastes (MSW) from packaging, newspapers, batteries, furniture, metals, clothing's, bottles, and food scraps have contributed negatively to the increased deterioration of our environments particularly in developing countries. It has resulted in activities that threaten lives (such as disease outbreaks and severe health hazards). As a result, governments and other stakeholders in environment have considered both theoretical and practical approaches to waste control. Recycling, which has enormous benefits of reducing manufacturing cost of new products and providing employment for the populace has been chosen as a viable option. Despite the multi-disciplinary efforts involved recycling models, guidelines applicable in the design of flow rates of extruders for plastic recycling processes are missing. This gap is addressed in the current paper. This paper conceptualizes the flow rates as an input-output system in a continuous dynamic state. With a focus on the melting activity (operation section), the analysis of flow in the metering zone involves an estimation of the quantity of recycled materials that could be produced per time. The work hopefully stimulates research in an area where quantitative methodologies are sparse. (author)

  6. Pre-conceptual Development and characterization of an extruded graphite composite fuel for the TREAT Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luther, Erik; Rooyen, Isabella van; Leckie, Rafael; Papin, Pallas; Nelson, Andrew; Hunter, James

    2015-03-01

    In an effort to explore fuel systems that are more robust under accident scenarios, the DOE-NE has identified the need to resume transient testing. The Transient Reactor Test (TREAT) facility has been identified as the preferred option for the resumption of transient testing of nuclear fuel in the United States. In parallel, NNSA’s Global Threat Reduction Initiative (GTRI) Convert program is exploring the needs to replace the existing highly enriched uranium (HEU) core with low enriched uranium (LEU) core. In order to construct a new LEU core, materials and fabrication processes similar to those used in the initial core fabrication must be identified, developed and characterized. In this research, graphite matrix fuel blocks were extruded and materials properties of were measured. Initially the extrusion process followed the historic route; however, the project was expanded to explore methods to increase the graphite content of the fuel blocks and explore modern resins. Materials properties relevant to fuel performance including density, heat capacity and thermal diffusivity were measured. The relationship between process defects and materials properties will be discussed.

  7. A comparative study of ground tire rubber devulcanization using twin screw extruder and internal mixer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ujianto, O.; Putri, D. B.; Jayatin; AWinarto, D.

    2017-07-01

    Devulcanization of ground tire rubber (GTR) was done using twin screw extruder (TSE) and internal mixer (IM). Processing parameters were varied to analyze its effect on gel content. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis was performed as qualitative technique to confirm structural change. The devulcanized rubbers with the least gel content percentage produced in both TSE and IM were then used as filler in natural rubber (NR)/coconut coir (CC) composite preparation. Effects of gel content percentage on NR/CC composite tensile strength and elongation at break were analyzed. The results show that the gel content decreased by 41% for sample processed in TSE and 50% in IM compared to control sample. Overall, the devulcanization is influenced by high energy generated by thermal or thermo-mechanical process. FTIR spectra show chemically structural changes of GTR as C=C, CH2, CH3 with higher intensity for IM sample than its counterpart indicated devulcanization. The replacement of GTR to DGTR on NR/CC/GTR composites provided less network structures and resulted better tensile strength and elongation at break.

  8. Two stage S-N curve in corrosion fatigue of extruded magnesium alloy AZ31

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshiharu Mutoh

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Tension-compression fatigue tests of extruded AZ31 magnesium alloys were carried out under corrosive environments:(a high humidity environment (80 %RH and (b 5 wt. %NaCl environment. It was found that the reduction rate of fatiguestrength due to corrosive environment was 0.12 under a high humidity and 0.53 under a NaCl environment. It was alsoobserved that under corrosive environments, the S-N curve was not a single curve but a two-stage curve. Above the fatiguelimit under low humidity, the crack nucleation mechanism was due to a localized slip band formation mechanism. Below thefatigue limit under low humidity, the reduction in fatigue strength was attributed to the corrosion pit formation and growth to the critical size for fatigue crack nucleation under the combined effect of cyclic load and the corrosive environment. The critical size was attained when the stress intensity factor range reached the threshold value for crack growth.

  9. Processing traits and digestibility of extruded dog foods with soy protein concentrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Venturini, K S; Sarcinelli, M F; Baller, M A; Putarov, T C; Malheiros, E B; Carciofi, A C

    2018-04-11

    Soya bean protein concentrate (SPC) with two particle sizes were evaluated on extrusion parameters, kibble formation, digestibility and palatability of dog foods. Eight diets were extruded: PBM-control diet based on poultry by-product meal (PBM); GM-a diet in which corn gluten meal (GM) replaced 45% of the diet protein; cSPC15%, cSPC30% and cSPC45%-diets in which SPC of coarse particle size (600 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein; and sSPC15%, sSPC30% and sSPC45%-diets in which SPC of small particle size (200 μm) replaced 15%, 30% and 45% of the diet protein. The digestibility of nutrients was evaluated for the PBM, GM, cSPC45% and sSPC45% diets, using six dogs per food. The PBM, GM and cSPC45% diets were compared for palatability. Data were submitted for analysis of variance, and the means were compared by polynomial contrasts or Tukey's test (p beans resulted in an ingredient with low fermentable fibre content, which did not alter faecal formation or characteristics. © 2018 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Microstructural and mechanical properties analysis of extruded Sn–0.7Cu solder alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdoul-Aziz Bogno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The properties and performance of lead-free solder alloys such as fluidity and wettability are defined by the alloy composition and solidification microstructure. Rapid solidification of metallic alloys is known to result in refined microstructures with reduced microsegregation and improved mechanical properties of the final products as compared to normal castings. The rapidly solidified Sn-based solders by melt spinning were shown to be suitable for soldering with low temperature and short soldering duration. In the present study, rapidly solidified Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets generated by impulse atomization (IA were achieved as well as directional solidification under transient conditions at lower cooling rate. This paper reports on a comparative study of the rapidly solidified and the directionally solidified samples. Different but complementary characterization techniques were used to fully analyze the solidification microstructures of the samples obtained under the two cooling regimes. These include X-ray diffractometry (XRD and scanning electron microscopy (SEM. In order to compare the tensile strength and elongation to fracture of the directionally solidified ingot and strip castings with the atomized droplet, compaction and extrusion of the latter were carried out. It was shown that more balanced and superior tensile mechanical properties are available for the hot extruded samples from compacted as-atomized Sn–0.7 wt.%Cu droplets. Further, elongation-to-fracture was 2–3× higher than that obtained for the directionally solidified samples.

  11. Tensile and Creep Behavior of Extruded AA6063/SiCp Al MMCs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khalifa, Tarek A.; Mahmoud, Tamer S.

    2010-01-01

    Composites of AA6063 Al alloy reinforced with SiC particles (SiC p ) were prepared by the vortex method. Hot extrusion was carried out for the as cast composites with a reduction in area of 25%. Tensile and creep behavior of as-cast and extruded composites were studied at elevated temperatures. Tensile tests carried out at room temperature showed that for the as-cast composites, the addition of SiC p up to 10% by weight improves the strength but reduces ductility. Further addition of SiC p reduces the strength and ductility of the composites. At 150 and 300 deg. C the matrix alloy exhibits higher strength than the composites. Extrusion generally raised the strength of the composites at both room and elevated temperatures. Time rupture creep tests carried out at 300 deg. C showed that the composites exhibit higher creep resistance as compared to the matrix alloy except at relatively low stresses where the matrix has a better creep resistance. Extrusion improved the resistance of composites to creep rupture.

  12. Fabrication and Characterizations of Hot-Melt Extruded Nanocomposites Based on Zinc Sulfate Monohydrate and Soluplus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Song Yi Lee

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Zinc sulfate monohydrate (ZnSO4-loaded nanocomposites (NCs were fabricated by using a hot-melt extruder (HME system. Soluplus (SP was adopted as an amphiphilic polymer matrix for HME processing. The micro-size of ZnSO4 dispersion was reduced to nano-size by HME processing with the use of SP. ZnSO4 could be homogeneously dispersed in SP through HME processing. ZnSO4/SP NCs with a 75 nm mean diameter, a 0.1 polydispersity index, and a −1 mV zeta potential value were prepared. The physicochemical properties of ZnSO4/SP NCs and the existence of SP in ZnSO4/SP NCs were further investigated by solid-state studies. Nano-size range of ZnSO4/SP NC dispersion was maintained in the simulated gastrointestinal environments (pH 1.2 and 6.8 media. No severe toxicity in intestinal epithelium after oral administration of ZnSO4/SP NCs (at 100 mg/kg dose of ZnSO4, single dosing was observed in rats. These results imply that developed ZnSO4/SP NC can be used as a promising nano-sized zinc supplement formulation. In addition, developed HME technology can be widely applied to fabricate nanoformulations of inorganic materials.

  13. Characterization of Extruded Poly(lactic acid/Pecan Nutshell Biocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. Álvarez-Chávez

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pecan nutshells are a solid form of waste obtained from the pecan nut production and they have been explored as an inexpensive filler for incorporation by melt blending into the poly(lactic acid (PLA matrix. The pecan nutshells contain polyphenols, proteins, tannins, sugars, and lipids; some of these components must be released in order to improve adhesion with a polymeric matrix. The physicochemical characterization of the extruded biocomposites of pecan nutshell powder (PNSP at 0, 5, and 7.5% wt. with two treatments (untreated and defatted into PLA is presented in this work. The incorporation of PNSP into the PLA matrix caused a variation in color and density and increased the water absorption. However, some mechanical and thermal parameters of the biocomposites showed a significant decrease. The morphological analysis showed good dispersion and adhesion of the PNSP to the PLA matrix. Based on the results of the characterization, biocomposites formulated with defatted PNSP have a potential to be used as sustainable fillers in PLA biocomposites. These biocomposites have a potential application as food containers, packaging trays, or disposable items.

  14. Mechanical and Tribological Characteristics of TIG Hardfaced Dispersive Layer by Reinforced with Particles Extruded Aluminium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dimitrova

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The article presents the results of the implemented technology for generation of hardfaced dispersive layers obtained by additive material containing reinforcing phase of non-metal particles. The wear resistant coatings are deposited on pure aluminium metal matrix by shielded gas metal-arc welding applying tungsten inert gas (TIG with extruded aluminium wire reinforced by particles as additive material. Wire filler is produced by extrusion of a pack containing metalized and plated by flux micro/nano SiC particles. The metalized particles implanting in the metal matrix and its dispersive hardfacing are realized by solid-state welding under conditions of hot plastic deformation. Tribological characteristics are studied of the hardfaced layers of dispersive reinforced material on pure aluminium metal matrix with and without flux. Hardness profiles of the hardfaced layers are determined by nanoindentation. The surface layers are studied by means of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM and Energy Dispersive X-ray (EDX analysis. Increase by 15-31 % of the wear resistance of the hardfaced layers and 30-40 % of their hardness was found, which is due to the implanted in the layer reinforcing phase of metalized micro/nano SiC particles.

  15. Economic feasibility of hay enriched extruded production as a complete diet for equine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Feltre

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the economic feasibility of production and commercialization project of Hay Enriched Extruded (HEE as a complete diet for horses. The study was based on survey data and quotation activities involving price from the land preparation (repair, planting and fertilization to the processing of the product at the factory (extrusion and marketing. Transportation costs and taxes were also considered. Discounted Cash Flow (30 years was used to calculate the profitability indicator and the Profit and Loss Statement (PLS. Calculations were developed using Microsoft Office Excel® spreadsheets. Three production scenarios were simulated with different consumer prices: Scenario 1 - equivalent to the complete diet, where the ingredients are supplied together, but purchased separately; Scenario 2 - Considering a value 10% higher than the complete diet; Scenario 3 - Considering a value 20% higher than the complete diet. We observed that the project was economically viable in the three suggested scenarios with positive Net Present Value, Internal Rate of Return greater than 9.4% and payback of 11 to 2 years. The results enable us to conclude that the product may be a promising investment for both product quality and ease of use as the rapid return on invested capital.

  16. Thermal inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus in extruded pet food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbins, S; Forster, J; Clive, S; Schley, D; Zuber, S; Schaaff, J; Corley, D

    2016-12-01

    The risk of importing foot and mouth disease, a highly contagious viral disease of livestock, severely restricts trade and investment opportunities in many developing countries where the virus is present. This study was designed to investigate the inactivation of foot and mouth disease virus (FMDV) by heat treatments used in extruded commercial pet food manufacture. If extrusion could be shown to reliably inactivate the virus, this could potentially facilitate trade for FMDV-endemic countries. The authors found that there was no detectable virus following: i) treatment of FMDVspiked meat slurry at 68°C for 300 s; ii) treatment of FMDV-spiked slurry and meal mix at 79°C for 10 or 30 s, or iii) treatment of homogenised bovine tongue epithelium, taken from an FMDV-infected animal, at 79°C for 10 s. This corresponds to an estimated 8 log10 reduction in titre (95% credible interval: 6 log10 -13 log10). Furthermore, the authors found that the pH of the slurry and meal mix was sufficient to inactivate FMDV in the absence of heat treatment. This demonstrates that heat treatments used in commercial pet food manufacture are able to substantially reduce the titre of FMDV in infected raw materials. © OIE (World Organisation for Animal Health), 2016.

  17. Microstructure and mechanical properties of an extruded Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (wt%) alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meng, Shuaiju [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Yu, Hui, E-mail: yuhuidavid@gmail.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of); Zhang, Huixing [Mechanical and Material School, Tianjin Sino-German University of Applied Sciences, Tianjin 300350 (China); Cui, Hongwei [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Shangdong University of Technology, Zibo 255049 (China); Park, Sung Hyuk [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Kyungpook National University, Daegu 702701 (Korea, Republic of); Zhao, Weiming [School of Materials Science and Engineering, Hebei University of Technology, Tianjin 300130 (China); You, Bong Sun [Materials Commercialization Center, Korea Institute of Materials Science, Changwon 51508 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-04-06

    In this study, the microstructural evolution and mechanical properties of a newly developed rare earth free Mg-8Bi-1Al-1Zn (BAZ811, in wt%) alloy were investigated and compared with those of a commercial AZ31 alloy. The as-extruded BAZ811 alloy with much finer grain size shows more homogeneous dynamical recrystallized (DRXed) microstructure and weaker basal texture than those of AZ31 alloy. In addition, compared with bimodal structure AZ31 alloy containing only relatively coarse and sparse Al{sub 8}Mn{sub 5} phases, the coexistence of strip-like fragmented Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitate and nano-size Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles in the microstructure was observed in BAZ811 alloy. Moreover, the BAZ811 alloy exhibits a tensile yield stress of 291 MPa, an ultimate tensile strength of 331 MPa, an elongation to failure of 14.6% as well as a reduction in yield asymmetry, which is mainly attributed to the combined effects of grain refinement and micro-scale broken Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} particles together with nano-scale spherical Mg{sub 3}Bi{sub 2} precipitates. The strain hardening behavior of both BAZ811 and AZ31 alloys were also discussed in terms of microstructure variation.

  18. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica)—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity. PMID:29507816

  19. Setup of Extruded Cementitious Hollow Tubes as Containing/Releasing Devices in Self-Healing Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra Formia

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to produce self-healing cementitious composites based on the use of cylindrical capsules containing a repairing agent. Cementitious hollow tubes (CHT having two different internal diameters (of 2 mm and 7.5 mm were produced by extrusion and used as containers and releasing devices for cement paste/mortar healing agents. Based on the results of preliminary mechanical tests, sodium silicate was selected as the healing agent. The morphological features of several mix designs used to manufacture the extruded hollow tubes, as well as the coatings applied to increase the durability of both core and shell materials are discussed. Three-point bending tests were performed on samples produced with the addition of the above-mentioned cementitious hollow tubes to verify the self-healing effectiveness of the proposed solution. Promising results were achieved, in particular when tubes with a bigger diameter were used. In this case, a substantial strength and stiffness recovery was observed, even in specimens presenting large cracks (>1 mm. The method is inexpensive and simple to scale up; however, further research is needed in view of a final optimization.

  20. Nutritional value of raw and extruded chickpeas (Cicer arietinum L.) for growing chickens

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenes, A.; Viveros, A.; Centeno, C.; Arija, I.; Marzo, F.

    2008-07-01

    The effects of the inclusion of different concentrations (0, 100, 200 and 300 g kg-1) of raw and extruded chickpeas on performance, digestive organ sizes, and protein and fat digestibilities were studied in one experiment with growing broiler chickens (0 to 21 days of age). Data were analyzed as a 3 x 2 factorial arrangement with three levels of chickpea with or without extrusion. A corn-soybean based diet was used as a positive control. Increasing chickpea content in the diet did not affect weight gain, feed consumption and feed to gain ratio. Relative pancreas and liver weights, and relative lengths of duodenum, jejunum and ceca were significantly (P<0.05) increased in response to increasing chickpea concentration in the diet. The inclusion of graded concentrations of chickpea increased (P<0.05) the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of crude protein (CP) and apparent excreta digestibility (AED) of crude fat (CF) only in the case of the intermediate level of chickpea used (200 g kg-1). Extrusion improved weight gain and lowered relative pancreas weight (P< 0.05) respect to birds fed raw chickpea-based diets. AID of CP and AED of CF were improved (P<0.001) by extrusion. We concluded that the inclusion of up to 300 g kg-1 chickpea in chicken diets did not affect performance, and caused a negative effect on the relative weight of some digestive organs. (Author) 45 refs.

  1. Production of a protein-rich extruded snack base using tapioca starch, sorghum flour and casein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Jiral R; Patel, Ashok A; Singh, Ashish K

    2016-01-01

    A protein-rich puffed snack was produced using a twin screw extruder and the effects of varying levels of tapioca starch (11 to 40 parts), rennet casein (6 to 20 parts) and sorghum flour (25 to 75 parts) on physico-chemical properties and sensory attributes of the product studied. An increasing level of sorghum flour resulted in a decreasing whiteness (Hunter L* value) of the snack. Although the starch also generally tended to make the product increasingly darker, both starch and casein showed redness parameter (a* value) was not significantly influenced by the ingredients levels, the yellow hue (b* value) generally declined with the increasing sorghum level. Tapioca starch significantly increased the expansion ratio and decreased the bulk density and hardness value of the snack, whereas the opposite effects seen in case of sorghum flour. While the water solubility index was enhanced by starch, water absorption index was appreciably improved by sorghum. Incorporation of casein (up to 25 %) improved the sensory color and texture scores, and so also the overall acceptability rating of the product. Sorghum flour had an adverse impact on all the sensory attributes whereas starch only on the color score. The casein or starch level had no perceivable effect on the product's flavor score. The response surface data enabled optimization of the snack-base formulation for the desired protein level or desired sensory characteristics.

  2. Effect of Spirulina addition on the physicochemical and structural properties of extruded snacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bárbara Franco LUCAS

    Full Text Available Abstract Nowadays the demand for practical food like snacks increases worldwide, however the nutritional value in most these formulations is reduced. Due to its chemical composition with high protein concentration, the microalga Spirulina has been used on the production of enriched foods. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of Spirulina sp. LEB 18 addition on snacks formulations and extrusion conditions on the physicochemical and structural properties of snacks. Protein concentration and physical properties such as expansion index, bulk density, hardness, water absorption index, water solubility index and color were determined. The results showed that the addition of Spirulina sp. LEB 18, temperature in the last zone of the extruder and feed moisture influenced the product responses. The increase in feed moisture increased the hardness, bulk density and water absorption index of the snacks. Higher concentrations of microalga produced snacks with higher protein content, total color difference (ΔE and compact structure. The addition of 2.6% Spirulina produced snacks with up to 11.3% protein and with adequate physical and structural properties for consumption. Thus, snacks containing Spirulina are an alternative to the demand for healthy food of practical consumption.

  3. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamila Kasprzak

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8% of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica—a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans-caffeic, cis-caffeic, trans-p-coumaric, cis-p-coumaric, trans-ferulic, cis-ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans-sinapic, and cis-sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea. Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol’s activity.

  4. Novel method for the determination of added annatto colour in extruded corn snack products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Oliveira Rios, A; Mercadante, A Z

    2004-02-01

    There is considerable interest in determining the added levels of the natural dye annatto in foods like snack products, particularly because they are mostly consumed by young people. The objective was to use response surface methodology to develop a new method to analyse annatto in extruded snacks. A pretreatment of the samples was necessary, digesting the ground sample with alpha-amylase at room temperature. The pigment was extracted by shaking with ethyl acetate at room temperature, eight extractions being necessary for completion extract the pigment. Lipids were removed by alkaline saponification. Under these conditions, 100% of the bixin was converted into norbixin, which was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. The method had a mean recovery of 97% and a coefficient of variation for duplicate analysis of 1%. Using this method, of the 13 commercial samples analysed, a parmesan cheese-flavoured snack product showed the highest level of dye expressed as norbixin (15.5 mg kg(-1)), whilst other brands of onion-flavoured snack products had the lowest levels (0.7 and 0.4 mg kg(-1), respectively).

  5. Phenolic Acid Content and Antioxidant Properties of Extruded Corn Snacks Enriched with Kale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzak, Kamila; Oniszczuk, Tomasz; Wójtowicz, Agnieszka; Waksmundzka-Hajnos, Monika; Olech, Marta; Nowak, Renata; Polak, Renata; Oniszczuk, Anna

    2018-01-01

    Prohealth food contains specific components which have positive influence on the health and well-being of the consumer. An important position among bioactive compounds occurs for polyphenols. Many results have indicated that an increased intake of phenolic compounds may reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. The objective of the study was production of extruded corn snacks with addition (0, 2, 4, 6, and 8%) of kale ( Brassica oleracea L. var. sabellica )-a polyphenol-rich plant. Afterwards, high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) and antioxidant activity analyses of snack extracts were performed. In the corn snacks enriched with kale, fifteen phenolic acids were indicated. These were protocatechuic, 4-OH-benzoic, vanillic, trans -caffeic, cis -caffeic, trans -p-coumaric, cis -p-coumaric, trans -ferulic, cis -ferulic, salicylic, gentisic, syringic, 3-OH-cinnamic, trans -sinapic, and cis -sinapic acids. Both the qualitative and quantitative content of polyphenols increased with the addition of B. oleracea . Data from spectrophotometric analyses of the samples showed high DPPH radical scavenging potential of snacks enriched with 4, 6, and 8% of kale. Snacks enriched with kale contain high level of phenolic acids and, therefore, have great potential to make a valuable source of natural antioxidants. High-temperature short-time extrusion-cooking process had no negative impact on polyphenol's activity.

  6. Characterization of Volatile Flavor Compounds in Chinese Rice Wine Fermented from Enzymatic Extruded Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Enbo; Long, Jie; Wu, Zhengzong; Li, Hongyan; Wang, Fang; Xu, Xueming; Jin, Zhengyu; Jiao, Aiquan

    2015-07-01

    Enzymatic extrusion, instead of traditional steam cooking, to treat rice is an efficient and alternative pretreatment for Chinese rice wine fermentation. In order to determine the formation of volatiles in enzymatic extrusion-processed rice wine (EE), and to confirm its characteristic flavor compounds, headspace solid-phase micro-extraction followed by GC-MS was used. A total of 66 volatile compounds were identified in EE. During fermentation, most volatiles generated from enzymatic extruded rice had the similar trends with those from steam-cooked rice, but the differences in the concentration of volatiles indicated a changed balance of flavors release caused by enzymatic extrusion. Besides, the concentrations and sorts of volatiles in EEs fermented from different rice particle sizes, were not dramatically different. By principal component analysis, EE could be distinctly separated from other traditional Chinese rice wines according to its characteristic volatiles, namely, 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, ethyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methylpentyl 2-propenoate, γ-hexalactone, and 4-vinylguaiacol. Enzymatic extrusion liquefaction has been a popular thermal treatment for cereals, and gradually being applied in fermentation and liquor-making industry all over the world. The characterization of volatile flavor compounds in Chinese rice wine processed by enzymatic extrusion liquefaction pretreatment, might be made use not only for a better understanding of this new-type rice wine, but for the further utilization of enzymatic extrusion in other wine or alcohol production as well. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  7. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T e and N e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T e and N e for aluminum in aluminum alloys as a marker for the correct alloying using an optical fiber probe.

  8. Fast LIBS Identification of Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tawfik W.

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS has been applied to analysis aluminum alloy targets. The plasma is generated by focusing a 300 mJ pulsed Nd: YAG laser on the target in air at atmospheric pressure. Such plasma emission spectrum was collected using a one-meter length wide band fused-silica optical fiber connected to a portable Echelle spectrometer with intensified CCD camera. Spectroscopic analysis of plasma evolution of laser produced plasmas has been characterized in terms of their spectra, electron density and electron temperature assuming the LTE and optically thin plasma conditions. The LIBS spectrum was optimized for high S/N ratio especially for trace elements. The electron temperature and density were determined using the emission intensity and stark broadening, respectively, of selected aluminum spectral lines. The values of these parameters were found to change with the aluminum alloy matrix, i.e. they could be used as a fingerprint character to distinguish between different aluminum alloy matrices using only one major element (aluminum without needing to analysis the rest of elements in the matrix. Moreover, It was found that the values of T(e and N(e decrease with increasing the trace elements concentrations in the aluminum alloy samples. The obtained results indicate that it is possible to improve the exploitation of LIBS in the remote on-line industrial monitoring application, by following up only the values of T(e and N(e for the aluminum in aluminum alloys using an optical fiber probe.

  9. Anodizing of aluminum with improved corrosion properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    John, P.; Khan, I.U.

    2010-01-01

    Anodizing of aluminum was studied in sulphuric/oxalic/boric acid electroiyte system. The corrosion resistance of the anodic oxide coating of aluminum was determined by potentiodynamic polarization test and scanning electron microscope (SEM) was used to investigate the surface morphology before and after corrosion test. It was found that the oxide coating obtained by this method showed better corrosion resistance with no significant difference in surface morphology. (author)

  10. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    OpenAIRE

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  11. The effects of ultrasonic solidification on aluminum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Slavko 1

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ultrasound on characteristics of solidified aluminum was shown. An ultrasonic head and ultrasonic system for modification was designed and applied to the crystallizing aluminum melt. The ultrasonic generator allows power of 50-500 W, amplitude of oscillations 10-100 um.m and the operating frequency of 25 kHz. Ultrasonic modification was done by ultrasound introduced from above into the melt. Microstructure photographs show decreasing of the grain size more than five times.

  12. Scientific Background for Processing of Aluminum Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kononchuk Olga

    2017-01-01

    of the aluminum waste A1- Zn-Cu-Si-Fe shows that depending on the content of the metal the dissolution process of an aluminum alloy should be treated as the result of the chemical interaction of the metal with an alkaline solution. It is necessary to consider the behavior of the main components of alloys in an alkaline solution as applied to the system Na2O - Al2O3 - SiO2 - CO2 - H2O.

  13. Advanced powder metallurgy aluminum alloys and composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lisagor, W. B.; Stein, B. A.

    1982-01-01

    The differences between powder and ingot metallurgy processing of aluminum alloys are outlined. The potential payoff in the use of advanced powder metallurgy (PM) aluminum alloys in future transport aircraft is indicated. The national program to bring this technology to commercial fruition and the NASA Langley Research Center role in this program are briefly outlined. Some initial results of research in 2000-series PM alloys and composites that highlight the property improvements possible are given.

  14. Research of plating aluminum and aluminum foil on internal surface of carbon fiber composite material centrifuge rotor drum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lu Xiuqi; Dong Jinping; Dai Xingjian

    2014-01-01

    In order to improve the corrosion resistance, thermal conductivity and sealability of the internal surface of carbon fiber/epoxy composite material centrifuge rotor drum, magnetron sputtering aluminum and pasting an aluminum foil on the inner wall of the drum are adopted to realize the aim. By means of XRD, SEM/EDS and OM, the surface topography of aluminum coated (thickness of 5 μm and 12 μm) and aluminum foil (12 μm) are observed and analyzed; the cohesion of between aluminum coated (or aluminum foil) and substrate material (CFRP) is measured by scratching experiment, direct drawing experiment, and shear test. Besides, the ultra-high-speed rotation experiment of CFRP ring is carried out to analyze stress and strain of coated aluminum (or aluminum foil) which is adhered on the ring. The results showed aluminum foil pasted on inner surface do better performance than magnetron sputtering aluminum on CFRP centrifuge rotor drum. (authors)

  15. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  16. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yumoto, S [Tokyo Univ. (Japan). Faculty of Medicine; Ohashi, H; Nagai, H; Kakimi, S; Ogawa, Y; Iwata, Y; Ishii, K

    1993-12-31

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer`s disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer`s disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer`s disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer`s disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author).

  17. Aluminum neurotoxicity in the rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ogawa, Y.; Iwata, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1992-01-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we administered aluminum to healthy rats and examined the aluminum uptake in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the rat brain and in isolated brain cell nuclei by PIXE analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the brain after 15 months of oral aluminum administration. Moreover, Al was detected in the brain and isolated brain cell nuclei from the patients with Alzheimer's disease. Silver impregnation studies revealed that spines attached to the dendritic processes of cortical nerve cells decreased remarkably after aluminum administration. Electron microscopy revealed characteristic inclusion bodies in the hippocampal nerve cells 75 days after the injection. These morphological changes in the rat brain after the aluminum administration were similar to those reportedly observed in the brain of Alzheimer's disease patients. Our results indicate that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminum in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells. (author)

  18. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using 14 C autoradiography to measure the uptake of 14 C 2-deoxy-D-glucose ( 14 C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-μm resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The 14 C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of 14 C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10 9 Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  19. Spray rolling aluminum alloy strip

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McHugh, Kevin M.; Delplanque, J.-P.; Johnson, S.B.; Lavernia, E.J.; Zhou, Y.; Lin, Y

    2004-10-10

    Spray rolling combines spray forming with twin-roll casting to process metal flat products. It consists of atomizing molten metal with a high velocity inert gas, cooling the resultant droplets in flight and directing the spray between mill rolls. In-flight convection heat transfer from atomized droplets teams with conductive cooling at the rolls to rapidly remove the alloy's latent heat. Hot deformation of the semi-solid material in the rolls results in fully consolidated, rapidly solidified product. While similar in some ways to twin-roll casting, spray rolling has the advantage of being able to process alloys with broad freezing ranges at high production rates. This paper describes the process and summarizes microstructure and tensile properties of spray-rolled 2124 and 7050 aluminum alloy strips. A Lagrangian/Eulerian poly-dispersed spray flight and deposition model is described that provides some insight into the development of the spray rolling process. This spray model follows droplets during flight toward the rolls, through impact and spreading, and includes oxide film formation and breakup when relevant.

  20. Aluminum bioavailability from tea infusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokel, Robert A; Florence, Rebecca L

    2008-12-01

    The objective was to estimate oral Al bioavailability from tea infusion in the rat, using the tracer (26)Al. (26)Al citrate was injected into tea leaves. An infusion was prepared from the dried leaves and given intra-gastrically to rats which received concurrent intravenous (27)Al infusion. Oral Al bioavailability (F) was calculated from the area under the (26)Al, compared to (27)Al, serum concentration x time curves. Bioavailability from tea averaged 0.37%; not significantly different from water (F=0.3%), or basic sodium aluminum phosphate (SALP) in cheese (F=0.1-0.3%), but greater than acidic SALP in a biscuit (F=0.1%). Time to maximum serum (26)Al concentration was 1.25, 1.5, 8 and 4.8h, respectively. These results of oral Al bioavailability x daily consumption by the human suggest tea can provide a significant amount of the Al that reaches systemic circulation. This can allow distribution to its target organs of toxicity, the central nervous, skeletal and hematopoietic systems. Further testing of the hypothesis that Al contributes to Alzheimer's disease may be more warranted with studies focusing on total average daily food intake, including tea and other foods containing appreciable Al, than drinking water.

  1. Extruded snacks from whole wheat supplemented with textured soy flour: Effect on instrumental and sensory textural characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Vidal, Arturo; Martínez-Flores, Héctor Eduardo; González Jasso, Eva; Velázquez de la Cruz, Gonzalo; Ramírez-Jiménez, Aurea K; Morales-Sánchez, Eduardo

    2017-06-01

    The quality of extruded snacks can be affected not only by processing conditions, but also by some factors like the concentration and type of ingredients incorporated in their formulation and the working conditions used. Although the process conditions have been established with measurable textural properties, sensory qualities have not been correlated with these responses in expanded extruded snacks made with added functional ingredients. Therefore, in this study the effect of adding textured soy flour (TSF) and whole wheat flour (WWF) to refined wheat flour in the production of extruded snacks and expanded with hot air was evaluated. A response surface design using two levels with five central points was applied to obtain the best combinations of functional ingredients added, holding the parameters of the extrusion process and moisture of treatments. Some texture characteristics and sensory analysis were used as response variables, such as, hardness, fracturability, toughness, crispness, granularity, and chewiness. Likewise, the rate of expansion was evaluated. The results showed that the level of substitution of WWF, especially levels of 15%, had a significant effect on the hardness perceived by the panelist during sensory evaluation. The TSF at concentrations of ≥15%, favored the fracturability and crispness of the samples. It was found that the best expansion index was with the combination of 5% TSF and 15% WWF. Although a correlation between instrumental and sensory tests carried out on the extruded snacks expanded was not found. The physical characteristics of the extruded snacks such as expansion, hardness, and density are important parameters in terms of consumer acceptability of the final product as well as their functional properties. In other words, the appearance and texture are two of the most important attributes that can be seen in snack foods. In particular, the texture can be measured by intrinsic tests: objective (instrumental) and subjective

  2. The FEM simulation of continuous rotary extrusion (CRE) of aluminum alloy AA3003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajendran, Nijenthan; Valberg, Henry; Misiolek, Wojciech Z.

    2017-10-01

    Continuous Rotary Extrusion (CRE) process is also known in literature under Conform TM name and it is mainly used for the continuous extrusion of Aluminum and Copper alloys. CRE use a feedstock in the form of rod, powders and chips, which are fed into the groove of the rotating wheel. As the wheel rotates the feedstock moves along with it due to friction with the wheel. Once the feedstock reaches the abutment the material deforms plastically and it is extruded through the die. CRE has lot to offer when compared to other more conventional extrusion processes such as low energy input, no limit in billet length as it is a continuous process as well as improved material physical properties due to plastic deformation under constant parameters. In this work a FEM model has been developed using Deform TM 3D, to study the metal flow and state variables of AA3003 CRE extrusion. The effect of extrusion wheel velocity has been investigated. The results show that increase in wheel velocity will heat up the feedstock metal due to high shear deformation and higher friction, which significantly changes metal flow conditions at the die exit.

  3. Cofortification of ferric pyrophosphate and citric acid/trisodium citrate into extruded rice grains doubles iron bioavailability through in situ generation of soluble ferric pyrophosphate citrate complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Laura; Cercamondi, Colin I; Zeder, Christophe; Wild, Daniela; Adelmann, Horst; Zimmermann, Michael B; Moretti, Diego

    2016-05-01

    Iron fortification of rice is a promising strategy for improving iron nutrition. However, it is technically challenging because rice is consumed as intact grains, and ferric pyrophosphate (FePP), which is usually used for rice fortification, has low bioavailability. We investigated whether the addition of a citric acid/trisodium citrate (CA/TSC) mixture before extrusion increases iron absorption in humans from FePP-fortified extruded rice grains. We conducted an iron absorption study in iron-sufficient young women (n = 20), in which each participant consumed 4 different meals (4 mg Fe/meal): 1) extruded FePP-fortified rice (No CA/TSC); 2) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC added before extrusion (CA/TSC extruded); 3) extruded FePP-fortified rice with CA/TSC solution added after cooking and before consumption (CA/TSC solution); and 4) nonextruded rice fortified with a FeSO4 solution added after cooking and before consumption (reference). Iron absorption was calculated from erythrocyte incorporation of stable iron isotopes 14 d after administration. In in vitro experiments, we assessed the soluble and dialyzable iron from rice meals in which CA/TSC was added at different preparation stages and from meals with different iron:CA:TSC ratios. Fractional iron absorption was significantly higher from CA/TSC-extruded meals (3.2%) than from No CA/TSC (1.7%) and CA/TSC solution (1.7%; all P solubility and dialyzability were higher in CA/TSC-extruded rice than in rice with No CA/TSC and CA/TSC solution, and solubility increased with higher amounts of added CA and TSC in extruded rice. Iron bioavailability nearly doubled when CA/TSC was extruded with FePP into fortified rice, resulting in iron bioavailability comparable to that of FeSO4 We attribute this effect to an in situ generation of soluble FePP citrate moieties during extrusion and/or cooking because of the close physical proximity of FePP and CA/TSC in the extruded rice matrix. This trial was registered at

  4. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Golden, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far

  5. Anodized aluminum on LDEF: A current status of measurements on chromic acid anodized aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Johnny L.

    1992-01-01

    Chromic acid anodize was used as the exterior coating for aluminum surfaces on LDEF to provide passive thermal control. Chromic acid anodized aluminum was also used as test specimens in thermal control coatings experiments. The following is a compilation and analysis of the data obtained thus far.

  6. Casting Characteristics of High Cerium Content Aluminum Alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weiss, D; Rios, O R; Sims, Z C; McCall, S K; Ott, R T

    2017-09-05

    This paper compares the castability of the near eutectic aluminum-cerium alloy system to the aluminum-silicon and aluminum-copper systems. The alloys are compared based on die filling capability, feeding characteristics and tendency to hot tear in both sand cast and permanent mold applications. The castability ranking of the binary Al–Ce systems is as good as the aluminum-silicon system with some deterioration as additional alloying elements are added. In alloy systems that use cerium in combination with common aluminum alloying elements such as silicon, magnesium and/or copper, the casting characteristics are generally better than the aluminum-copper system. In general, production systems for melting, de-gassing and other processing of aluminum-silicon or aluminum-copper alloys can be used without modification for conventional casting of aluminum-cerium alloys.

  7. Experimental Design for Evaluation of Co-extruded Refractory Metal/Nickel Base Superalloy Joints

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ME Petrichek

    2005-01-01

    a critical thickness (0.0005 in.). A diffusion barrier that exceeded this thickness would likely fail. The joint fabrication method must therefore mechanically bond the two materials causing little or no interdiffusion upon formation. Co-extrusion fits this description since it forms a mechanical joint between two materials by using heat and pressure. The two materials to be extruded are first assembled and sealed within a co-extrusion billet which is subsequently heated and then extruded through a die. For a production application, once the joint is formed, it is dejacketed to remove the outer canister. The remaining piece consists of two materials bonded together with a thin diffusion barrier. Therefore, the long-term stability of the joint is determined primarily by the kinetics of interdiffusion reaction between the two materials. An experimental design for co-extrusion of refractory metals and nickel-based superalloys was developed to evaluate this joining process and determine the long-term stability of the joints

  8. Progress in Aluminum Electrolysis Control and Future Direction for Smart Aluminum Electrolysis Plant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongliang; Li, Tianshuang; Li, Jie; Yang, Shuai; Zou, Zhong

    2017-02-01

    The industrial aluminum reduction cell is an electrochemistry reactor that operates under high temperatures and highly corrosive conditions. However, these conditions have restricted the measurement of key control parameters, making the control of aluminum reduction cells a difficult problem in the industry. Because aluminum electrolysis control systems have a significant economic influence, substantial research has been conducted on control algorithms, control systems and information systems for aluminum reduction cells. This article first summarizes the development of control systems and then focuses on the progress made since 2000, including alumina concentration control, temperature control and electrolyte molecular ratio control, fault diagnosis, cell condition prediction and control system expansion. Based on these studies, the concept of a smart aluminum electrolysis plant is proposed. The frame construction, key problems and current progress are introduced. Finally, several future directions are discussed.

  9. Effect of an extruded pea or rice diet on postprandial insulin and cardiovascular responses in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adolphe, J L; Drew, M D; Silver, T I; Fouhse, J; Childs, H; Weber, L P

    2015-08-01

    Peas are increasing in popularity as a source of carbohydrate, protein and fibre in extruded canine diets. The aim of this study was to test the health effects of two canine diets with identical macronutrient profiles, but containing either yellow field peas or white rice as the carbohydrate source on metabolism, cardiovascular outcomes and adiposity. First, the acute glycemic, insulinemic and cardiovascular responses to the pea- or rice-based diets were determined in normal weight beagles (n = 7 dogs). The glycemic index did not differ between the pea diet (56 ± 12) and rice diet (63 ± 9). Next, obese beagles (n = 9) were fed the yellow field pea diet or white rice diet ad libitum for 12 weeks in a crossover study. Adiposity (measured using computed tomography), metabolic (oral glucose tolerance test, plasma leptin, adiponectin, C-reactive protein) and cardiovascular assessments (echocardiography and blood pressure) were performed before and after each crossover study period. After 12 weeks on each diet, peak insulin (p = 0.05) and area under the curve (AUC) for insulin after a 10 g oral glucose tolerance test (p = 0.05) were lower with the pea than the rice diet. Diet did not show a significant effect on body weight, fat distribution, cardiovascular variables, adiponectin or leptin. In conclusion, a diet containing yellow field peas reduced the postprandial insulin response after glucose challenge in dogs despite continued obesity, indicating improved metabolic health. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. New extruder-based deuterium feed system for centrifuge pellet injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combs, S.K.; Foust, C.R.

    1997-01-01

    The pellet injection systems for the next-generation fusion devices (such as the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and future fusion reactors will have to provide deuterium-tritium fueling for much longer pulse lengths (up to ∼1000s) than present applications (typically limited to less than several seconds). Thus, a prototype pellet feed system for centrifuge pellet injection has been developed and used in long-pulse (>100s) tests at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The new apparatus has two key components: (1) a cryogenic deuterium extruder and (2) an electromagnetic pellet punch mechanism. For maximum testing flexibility, the prototype is equipped with several other active components that allow remote adjustments, including precise positioning of the punch and the capability to index through eight different pellet lengths. The new feed system was designed to mate with an existing centrifuge accelerator facility at ORNL, and experiments in the facility were carried out to document the performance and reliability of the new feed system. With 2.3-mm-diam deuterium pellets and a catenary-shaped accelerator (∼1.2mdiam), the prototype feed system was found to be capable of placing up to ∼90% of the punched pellets in the proper time/space window for pickup and acceleration by the high-speed rotating (∼50Hz) arbor. For these operating parameters, the pellet nominal speed was ∼430m/s, and maximum pellet feed rates of 10 pellets/s and greater were tested. In this article the equipment is briefly described, and the experimental test results are summarized. Also, issues affecting overall pellet delivery efficiency are discussed. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  11. Alcohol dose dumping: The influence of ethanol on hot-melt extruded pellets comprising solid lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedinger, N; Schrank, S; Mohr, S; Feichtinger, A; Khinast, J; Roblegg, E

    2015-05-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate interactions between alcohol and hot-melt extruded pellets and the resulting drug release behavior. The pellets were composed of vegetable calcium stearate as matrix carrier and paracetamol or codeine phosphate as model drugs. Two solid lipids (Compritol® and Precirol®) were incorporated into the matrix to form robust/compact pellets. The drug release characteristics were a strong function of the API solubility, the addition of solid lipids, the dissolution media composition (i.e., alcohol concentration) and correspondingly, the pellet wettability. Pellets comprising paracetamol, which is highly soluble in ethanol, showed alcohol dose dumping regardless of the matrix composition. The wettability increased with increasing ethanol concentrations due to higher paracetamol solubilities yielding increased dissolution rates. For pellets containing codeine phosphate, which has a lower solubility in ethanol than in acidic media, the wettability was a function of the matrix composition. Dose dumping occurred for formulations comprising solid lipids as they showed increased wettabilities with increasing ethanol concentrations. In contrast, pellets comprising calcium stearate as single matrix component showed robustness in alcoholic media due to wettabilities that were not affected by the addition of ethanol. The results clearly indicate that the physico-chemical properties of the drug and the matrix systems are crucial for the design of ethanol-resistant dosage forms. Moreover, hydrophobic calcium stearate can be considered a suitable matrix system that minimizes the risk of ethanol-induced dose dumping for certain API's. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Twin Screw Extruders as Continuous Mixers for Thermal Processing: a Technical and Historical Perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Charlie

    2016-02-01

    Developed approximately 100 years ago for natural rubber/plastics applications, processes via twin screw extrusion (TSE) now generate some of the most cutting-edge drug delivery systems available. After 25 or so years of usage in pharmaceutical environments, it has become evident why TSE processing offers significant advantages as compared to other manufacturing techniques. The well-characterized nature of the TSE process lends itself to ease of scale-up and process optimization while also affording the benefits of continuous manufacturing. Interestingly, the evolution of twin screw extrusion for pharmaceutical products has followed a similar path as previously trodden by plastics processing pioneers. Almost every plastic has been processed at some stage in the manufacturing train on a twin screw extruder, which is utilized to mix materials together to impart desired properties into a final part. The evolution of processing via TSEs since the early/mid 1900s is recounted for plastics and also for pharmaceuticals from the late 1980s until today. The similarities are apparent. The basic theory and development of continuous mixing via corotating and counterrotating TSEs for plastics and drug is also described. The similarities between plastics and pharmaceutical applications are striking. The superior mixing characteristics inherent with a TSE have allowed this device to dominate other continuous mixers and spurred intensive development efforts and experimentation that spawned highly engineered formulations for the commodity and high-tech plastic products we use every day. Today, twin screw extrusion is a battle hardened, well-proven, manufacturing process that has been validated in 24-h/day industrial settings. The same thing is happening today with new extrusion technologies being applied to advanced drug delivery systems to facilitate commodity, targeted, and alternative delivery systems. It seems that the "extrusion evolution" will continue for wide

  13. Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of loblolly pine using a continuous, reactive twin-screw extruder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hoekman, S. Kent; Broch, Amber; Felix, Larry; Farthing, William

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of biomass was conducted continuously in a TSE-based reactor system. • The fast HTC (FHTC) reactor system produces hydrochar in higher yields than a batch reactor system. • Severity factor (SF) is a useful metric for characterizing reaction conditions in different reactor systems. - Abstract: Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) has become an accepted means of converting a wide variety of lignocellulosic feedstocks into solid hydrochars, which have improved physical and chemical properties compared to raw biomass. To date, HTC applications have involved batch or semi-continuous process systems, which has limited their economic viability. The work presented here describes a fully-continuous HTC process, made possible by use of a specially modified twin-screw extruder (TSE). The reaction time within this fast HTC (FHTC) reactor system is very short (20–30 sec) as compared to a typical batch reactor. Therefore, the concept of reaction ‘severity factor’ is used when comparing the FHTC products with those produced in other reactor systems. While solid hydrochar produced in the FHTC system has different physical properties than hydrochar from batch reactor systems, these materials exhibit similar energy densification and pelletization behavior, when produced under comparable severity conditions. However, total hydrochar yields are considerably higher from the FHTC reactor compared to batch reactor systems. This is a consequence of the de-pressurization process in the FHTC system, whereby most water-soluble organic products are retained in the hydrochar, rather than exiting the process in a separate aqueous product stream. FHTC treatment of loblolly pine at a severity factor of 5.3 (290 °C) produced a hydrochar yield of nearly 85% (based on dry feedstock mass). Condensation of the flashed vapor products provided a relatively clean water stream, containing only 1.2% organics – primarily furfural and acetic acid

  14. Microstructure damage evolution associated with cyclic deformation for extruded AZ31B magnesium alloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xiong, Ying, E-mail: yxiong@zjut.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Special Purpose Equipment and Advanced Processing Technology, Ministry of Education, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China); College of Mechanical Engineering, Zhejiang University of Technology, Hangzhou, Zhejiang 310032 (China)

    2016-10-15

    Fatigue damage evolution of extruded AZ31B magnesium (Mg) alloy is investigated under strain-controlled tension-compression loading along the extrusion direction at various strain amplitudes, and the different cyclic deformation behaviors are observed. At the strain amplitude of 2%, the tensile peak stress displays significant cyclic softening, whereas the compressive peak stress shows consistent cyclic hardening. At 1%, moderate cyclic hardening is observed at both the tensile peak and compressive peak stresses. At 0.5%, the tensile peak stress presents stable cyclic hardening, whereas the compressive peak stress almost keeps constant. The microstructure morphologies associated with the cyclic deformation are analyzed by scanning electronic microscope (SEM). The degree of deformation twins is evaluated by analyzing X-ray diffraction (XRD) using a normalized parameter λ. The results show the fatigue crack initiation modes and its propagation modes are dependent on the strain amplitude. At 2%, grain boundary (GB) cracking and triple joint cracking are detected after 1st loading cycle. At 1%, fatigue crack initiates at grain boundary (GB cracking), twin boundary (TB cracking) and triple joint of three neighboring grains. Both grain boundary induced (GB-induced) intergranular and persistent slip band induced (PSB-induced) transgranular propagation modes play an important role in the early-stage crack growth. At 0.5%, crack initiation modes are similar to that at 1%, but GB-induced intergranular propagation mode dominates the early-stage crack growth. The effects of the microstructure (texture, grain size and uniformity) on the fatigue damage behavior are discussed.

  15. Precision extruding deposition (PED) fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shor, Lauren; Gueceri, Selcuk; Chang, Robert; Sun Wei [Department of Mechanical Engineering and Mechanics, Drexel University, Philadelphia, PA (United States); Gordon, Jennifer; Kang Qian; Hartsock, Langdon; An Yuehuei [Department of Orthopedic Surgery, Medical University of South Carolina, Charleston, SC (United States)], E-mail: st963bya@drexel.edu, E-mail: guceri@drexel.edu, E-mail: rcc34@drexel.edu, E-mail: sunwei@drexel.edu, E-mail: kangqk@musc.edu, E-mail: hartsock@musc.edu, E-mail: any@musc.edu

    2009-03-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Recent advances have allowed scientists and engineers to develop scaffolds for guided bone growth. However, success requires scaffolds to have specific macroscopic geometries and internal architectures conducive to biological and biophysical functions. Freeform fabrication provides an effective process tool to manufacture three-dimensional porous scaffolds with complex shapes and designed properties. A novel precision extruding deposition (PED) technique was developed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. It was possible to manufacture scaffolds with a controlled pore size of 350 {mu}m with designed structural orientations using this method. The scaffold morphology, internal micro-architecture and mechanical properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mechanical testing, respectively. An in vitro cell-scaffold interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts. Specifically, the cell proliferation and differentiation was evaluated by Alamar Blue assay for cell metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast production of calcium. An in vivo study was performed on nude mice to determine the capability of osteoblast-seeded PCL to induce osteogenesis. Each scaffold was implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and, following sacrifice, was explanted at one of a series of time intervals. The explants were then evaluated histologically for possible areas of osseointegration. Microscopy and radiological examination showed multiple areas of osseous ingrowth suggesting that the osteoblast-seeded PCL scaffolds evoke osteogenesis in vivo. These studies demonstrated the viability of the PED process to fabricate PCL scaffolds having the necessary mechanical properties, structural integrity, and controlled pore size and interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering.

  16. Comparison of clinical parameters in captive Cracidae fed traditional and extruded diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Candido, Marcus Vinicius; Silva, Louise C C; Moura, Joelma; Bona, Tania D M M; Montiani-Ferreira, Fabiano; Santin, Elizabeth

    2011-09-01

    The Cracidae family of neotropical birds is regarded as one of the most severely threatened in the world. They traditionally have been extensively hunted, and, thus, ex situ efforts for their conservation are recommended and involve the optimization of their care in captivity. Nutrition is a fundamental aspect of husbandry, which influences survival and reproduction in captivity. In this study, a total of 29 animals, including 3 species (Penelope obscura, Penelope superciliaris, and Aburria jacutinga), were subjected to monthly physical examination and blood sampling before and after dietary conversion from the traditional diet of broiler feed, fruits, and vegetables to a nutritionally balanced commercial diet specifically designed for wild Galliformes. The diet change produced differences in several parameters tested, including an increase (P < 0.05) in hemoglobin concentration for all species. Increases (P < 0.05) in erythrocyte count, packed cell volume, and body weight were observed in P. obscura, with a concomitant decrease in the standard deviation for such parameters that show improved uniformity. Globulins and lipase also were reduced (P < 0.05) in P. obscura. Although leukocyte count was lowered and eosinophils were increased in all 3 species after dietary conversion, only these 2 changes were significant (P < 0.05) in P. superciliaris. A. jacutinga had higher (P < 0.05) blood glucose concentrations than the other species, but diet had no effect on this parameter. Blood uric acid concentrations were higher (P < 0.05) after conversion to the commercial diet in P superciliaris. The provision of a commercial extruded diet as a single food source was beneficial, which led to a general improvement in clinical aspects and group uniformity in these 3 species of Cracidae.

  17. Precision extruding deposition (PED) fabrication of polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds for bone tissue engineering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shor, Lauren; Gueceri, Selcuk; Chang, Robert; Sun Wei; Gordon, Jennifer; Kang Qian; Hartsock, Langdon; An Yuehuei

    2009-01-01

    Bone tissue engineering is an emerging field providing viable substitutes for bone regeneration. Recent advances have allowed scientists and engineers to develop scaffolds for guided bone growth. However, success requires scaffolds to have specific macroscopic geometries and internal architectures conducive to biological and biophysical functions. Freeform fabrication provides an effective process tool to manufacture three-dimensional porous scaffolds with complex shapes and designed properties. A novel precision extruding deposition (PED) technique was developed to fabricate polycaprolactone (PCL) scaffolds. It was possible to manufacture scaffolds with a controlled pore size of 350 μm with designed structural orientations using this method. The scaffold morphology, internal micro-architecture and mechanical properties were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), micro-computed tomography (micro-CT) and mechanical testing, respectively. An in vitro cell-scaffold interaction study was carried out using primary fetal bovine osteoblasts. Specifically, the cell proliferation and differentiation was evaluated by Alamar Blue assay for cell metabolic activity, alkaline phosphatase activity and osteoblast production of calcium. An in vivo study was performed on nude mice to determine the capability of osteoblast-seeded PCL to induce osteogenesis. Each scaffold was implanted subcutaneously in nude mice and, following sacrifice, was explanted at one of a series of time intervals. The explants were then evaluated histologically for possible areas of osseointegration. Microscopy and radiological examination showed multiple areas of osseous ingrowth suggesting that the osteoblast-seeded PCL scaffolds evoke osteogenesis in vivo. These studies demonstrated the viability of the PED process to fabricate PCL scaffolds having the necessary mechanical properties, structural integrity, and controlled pore size and interconnectivity desired for bone tissue engineering

  18. Thermal Conductivity of Aluminosilicate- and Aluminum Oxide-Filled Thermosets for Injection Molding: Effect of Filler Content, Filler Size and Filler Geometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Zhao

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study, epoxy molding compounds (EMCs with aluminosilicate (AlS and aluminum oxide (AlO were fabricated as fillers by a twin-screw-extruder (TSE and shaped to plate samples using injection molding. AlS and AlO, electrical insulating mineral materials, were used as fillers to improve the thermal conductivity (λc of composites. Composites with different filler particle sizes, filler contents and filler geometry were fabricated and the influence of these variables on the λc was studied. The λc of composites was measured with the hot-disk method. The distribution of fillers in composites was observed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM. Using the Lewis-Nielsen equation, experimental values of λc were compared with those predicted. The predicted results fit the experimental values well. The result showed that λc increases significantly when the filler content of composites is approximately over 50 vol %.

  19. Advance on Al2O3 Particulates Reinforced Aluminum Metal Matrix Composites (Al-MMCs Manufactured by the Power Metallurgy(PM Methods- Improved PM Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Lina

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aluminum metal matrix composites (Al-MMCs with Al2O3 particulates as reinforcement fabricated by the power metallurgy (PM methods have gained much attention due to their unique characteristics of the wide range of Al2O3 particles addition, easy-operating process and effectiveness. The improved PM techniques, such as the high energy ball milling, powder extruder and high pressure torsion were applied to further strengthening the properties or/and diminishing the agglomeration of strength particles. The formation of liquid phase assisted densification of compacts to promote the sintering of composites. Complex design of Al2O3 particles with other particles was another efficient method to tailor the properties of Al-MMCs.

  20. Deposition behavior of residual aluminum in drinking water distribution system: Effect of aluminum speciation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue; Shi, Baoyou; Zhao, Yuanyuan; Yan, Mingquan; Lytle, Darren A; Wang, Dongsheng

    2016-04-01

    Finished drinking water usually contains some residual aluminum. The deposition of residual aluminum in distribution systems and potential release back to the drinking water could significantly influence the water quality at consumer taps. A preliminary analysis of aluminum content in cast iron pipe corrosion scales and loose deposits demonstrated that aluminum deposition on distribution pipe surfaces could be excessive for water treated by aluminum coagulants including polyaluminum chloride (PACl). In this work, the deposition features of different aluminum species in PACl were investigated by simulated coil-pipe test, batch reactor test and quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring. The deposition amount of non-polymeric aluminum species was the least, and its deposition layer was soft and hydrated, which indicated the possible formation of amorphous Al(OH)3. Al13 had the highest deposition tendency, and the deposition layer was rigid and much less hydrated, which indicated that the deposited aluminum might possess regular structure and self-aggregation of Al13 could be the main deposition mechanism. While for Al30, its deposition was relatively slower and deposited aluminum amount was relatively less compared with Al13. However, the total deposited mass of Al30 was much higher than that of Al13, which was attributed to the deposition of particulate aluminum matters with much higher hydration state. Compared with stationary condition, stirring could significantly enhance the deposition process, while the effect of pH on deposition was relatively weak in the near neutral range of 6.7 to 8.7. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  1. Electrochemically replicated smooth aluminum foils for anodic alumina nanochannel arrays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biring, Sajal; Tsai, K-T; Sur, Ujjal Kumar; Wang, Y-L

    2008-01-01

    A fast electrochemical replication technique has been developed to fabricate large-scale ultra-smooth aluminum foils by exploiting readily available large-scale smooth silicon wafers as the masters. Since the adhesion of aluminum on silicon depends on the time of surface pretreatment in water, it is possible to either detach the replicated aluminum from the silicon master without damaging the replicated aluminum and master or integrate the aluminum film to the silicon substrate. Replicated ultra-smooth aluminum foils are used for the growth of both self-organized and lithographically guided long-range ordered arrays of anodic alumina nanochannels without any polishing pretreatment

  2. Precision forging technology for aluminum alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Lei; Wang, Xinyun; Jin, Junsong; Xia, Juchen

    2018-03-01

    Aluminum alloy is a preferred metal material for lightweight part manufacturing in aerospace, automobile, and weapon industries due to its good physical properties, such as low density, high specific strength, and good corrosion resistance. However, during forging processes, underfilling, folding, broken streamline, crack, coarse grain, and other macro- or microdefects are easily generated because of the deformation characteristics of aluminum alloys, including narrow forgeable temperature region, fast heat dissipation to dies, strong adhesion, high strain rate sensitivity, and large flow resistance. Thus, it is seriously restricted for the forged part to obtain precision shape and enhanced property. In this paper, progresses in precision forging technologies of aluminum alloy parts were reviewed. Several advanced precision forging technologies have been developed, including closed die forging, isothermal die forging, local loading forging, metal flow forging with relief cavity, auxiliary force or vibration loading, casting-forging hybrid forming, and stamping-forging hybrid forming. High-precision aluminum alloy parts can be realized by controlling the forging processes and parameters or combining precision forging technologies with other forming technologies. The development of these technologies is beneficial to promote the application of aluminum alloys in manufacturing of lightweight parts.

  3. Determination of aluminum by four analytical methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanson, T.J.; Smetana, K.M.

    1975-11-01

    Four procedures have been developed for determining the aluminum concentration in basic matrices. Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) was the routine method of analysis. Citrate was required to complex the aluminum and eliminate matrix effects. AAS was the least accurate of the four methods studied and was adversely affected by high aluminum concentrations. The Fluoride Electrode Method was the most accurate and precise of the four methods. A Gran's Plot determination was used to determine the end point and average standard recovery was 100% +- 2%. The Thermometric Titration Method was the fastest method for determining aluminum and could also determine hydroxide concentration at the same time. Standard recoveries were 100% +- 5%. The pH Electrode Method also measures aluminum and hydroxide content simultaneously, but is less accurate and more time consuming that the thermal titration. Samples were analyzed using all four methods and results were compared to determine the strengths and weaknesses of each. On the basis of these comparisons, conclusions were drawn concerning the application of each method to our laboratory needs

  4. Effects of different cooling rates during two casting processes on the microstructures and mechanical properties of extruded Mg–Al–Ca–Mn alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, S.W.; Oh-ishi, K.; Kamado, S.; Takahashi, H.; Homma, T.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Ordered monolayer GP zone was formed by increasing cooling rate. ► Finer extruded microstructure was obtained by increasing cooling rate. ► Higher number density precipitates was obtained by increasing cooling rate. ► Tensile 0.2% proof stress was increased by 105 MPa by increasing cooling rate. ► Extruded DC-cast alloy shows higher tensile 0.2% proof stress of 409 MPa. - Abstract: In this study, Mg–3.6Al–3.4Ca–0.3Mn (wt.%) (which is denoted AXM4303) alloy ingots were prepared by two casting processes with different cooling rates: permanent mold (PM) casting, which has a lower cooling rate of 10–20 °C/s and direct chill (DC) casting, which has a higher cooling rate of 100–110 °C/s. Then, these two types of AXM4303 alloy ingots were hot extruded at 400 °C under the same conditions. The microstructures of the as-cast and extruded alloy samples were systematically investigated by field-emission scanning electron microscope (FE-SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD) systems. The effects of the different cooling rates during the casting process on the microstructures and mechanical properties of the extruded AXM4303 alloy samples were evaluated. The results show that the strength of the extruded Mg–Al–Ca–Mn alloy can be substantially increased by microstructural control during the casting process. Because the cooling rate of the DC casting process is much faster than the cooling rate of PM casting, the DC-cast AXM4303 has the following properties: (i) the lamellar eutectic structure and dendrite cell size are significantly refined, (ii) the ordered monolayer GP zones enriched with Al and Ca nucleate with no growth, and (iii) most of the Mn remains in solution in the matrix. Thus, after hot extrusion, the DC-cast AXM4303 has finer dynamically recrystallized (DRXed) grain size, finer and more uniformly distributed fragmented eutectic particles, finer planar Al 2 Ca precipitates

  5. Lithium-aluminum-magnesium electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melendres, Carlos A.; Siegel, Stanley

    1978-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary, high-temperature electrochemical cell. The cell also includes a molten salt electrolyte of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides and a positive electrode including a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent and a magnesium-aluminum alloy as a structural matrix. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, magnesium, and aluminum are formed but the electrode composition in both its charged and discharged state remains substantially free of the alpha lithium-aluminum phase and exhibits good structural integrity.

  6. Lithium-aluminum-iron electrode composition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaun, Thomas D.

    1979-01-01

    A negative electrode composition is presented for use in a secondary electrochemical cell. The cell also includes an electrolyte with lithium ions such as a molten salt of alkali metal halides or alkaline earth metal halides that can be used in high-temperature cells. The cell's positive electrode contains a a chalcogen or a metal chalcogenide as the active electrode material. The negative electrode composition includes up to 50 atom percent lithium as the active electrode constituent in an alloy of aluminum-iron. Various binary and ternary intermetallic phases of lithium, aluminum and iron are formed. The lithium within the intermetallic phase of Al.sub.5 Fe.sub.2 exhibits increased activity over that of lithium within a lithium-aluminum alloy to provide an increased cell potential of up to about 0.25 volt.

  7. Diffusionless bonding of aluminum to Zircaloy-2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, R.D.

    1965-04-01

    Aluminum can be bonded to zirconium without difficulty even when a thin layer of oxide is present on the surface of the zirconium . No detectable diffusion takes place during the bonding process. The bond layer can be stretched as much. as 8% without affecting the bond. The bond can be heated for 1000 hours at 260 o C (500 o F), and can be water quenched from 260 o C (500 o F) without any noticeable change in the bond strength. An extrusion technique has been devised for making transition sections of aluminum bonded to zirconium which can then be used to join these metals by conventional welding. Welding can be done close to the bond zone without seriously affecting the integrity of the bond. This method of bonding aluminum to Zircaloy-2 is covered by Canadian patent 702,438 January 26, 1965. (author)

  8. NASA-427: A New Aluminum Alloy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2015-01-01

    NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center researchers have developed a new, stronger aluminum alloy, ideal for cast aluminum products that have powder or paint-baked thermal coatings. With advanced mechanical properties, the NASA-427 alloy shows greater tensile strength and increased ductility, providing substantial improvement in impact toughness. In addition, this alloy improves the thermal coating process by decreasing the time required for heat treatment. With improvements in both strength and processing time, use of the alloy provides reduced materials and production costs, lower product weight, and better product performance. The superior properties of NASA-427 can benefit many industries, including automotive, where it is particularly well-suited for use in aluminum wheels.

  9. ALUMINUM AND CHROMIUM LEACHING WORKSHOP WHITEPAPER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCabe, D; Jeff Pike, J; Bill Wilmarth, B

    2007-01-01

    A workshop was held on January 23-24, 2007 to discuss the status of processes to leach constituents from High Level Waste (HLW) sludges at the Hanford and Savannah River Sites. The objective of the workshop was to examine the needs and requirements for the HLW flowsheet for each site, discuss the status of knowledge of the leaching processes, communicate the research plans, and identify opportunities for synergy to address knowledge gaps. The purpose of leaching of non-radioactive constituents from the sludge waste is to reduce the burden of material that must be vitrified in the HLW melter systems, resulting in reduced HLW glass waste volume, reduced disposal costs, shorter process schedules, and higher facility throughput rates. The leaching process is estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of SRS by seven years and decrease the number of HLW canisters to be disposed in the Repository by 1000 [Gillam et al., 2006]. Comparably at Hanford, the aluminum and chromium leaching processes are estimated to reduce the operating life cycle of the Waste Treatment Plant by 20 years and decrease the number of canisters to the Repository by 15,000-30,000 [Gilbert, 2007]. These leaching processes will save the Department of Energy (DOE) billions of dollars in clean up and disposal costs. The primary constituents targeted for removal by leaching are aluminum and chromium. It is desirable to have some aluminum in glass to improve its durability; however, too much aluminum can increase the sludge viscosity, glass viscosity, and reduce overall process throughput. Chromium leaching is necessary to prevent formation of crystalline compounds in the glass, but is only needed at Hanford because of differences in the sludge waste chemistry at the two sites. Improving glass formulations to increase tolerance of aluminum and chromium is another approach to decrease HLW glass volume. It is likely that an optimum condition can be found by both performing leaching and improving

  10. Aluminum phosphate ceramics for waste storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wagh, Arun; Maloney, Martin D

    2014-06-03

    The present disclosure describes solid waste forms and methods of processing waste. In one particular implementation, the invention provides a method of processing waste that may be particularly suitable for processing hazardous waste. In this method, a waste component is combined with an aluminum oxide and an acidic phosphate component in a slurry. A molar ratio of aluminum to phosphorus in the slurry is greater than one. Water in the slurry may be evaporated while mixing the slurry at a temperature of about 140-200.degree. C. The mixed slurry may be allowed to cure into a solid waste form. This solid waste form includes an anhydrous aluminum phosphate with at least a residual portion of the waste component bound therein.

  11. Study of aluminum-doped silicon clusters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhan Shichang; Li Baoxing; Yang Jiansong

    2007-01-01

    Using full-muffin-tin-orbital molecular-dynamics (FP-LMTO-MD) method, we have investigated the effect of aluminum heteroatoms on the geometric structures and bond characteristics of Si n (n=5-10) clusters in detail. It is found that the geometric framework of the ground state structures for Si n (n=5-10) clusters change to some extent upon the substitution of Al atoms in some Si atoms. The effect of aluminum doping on the silicon clusters depends on the geometric structures of Si n (n=5-10) clusters. In particular, the calculations suggest that the aluminum doping would improve the bond strength of some Si-Si bonds in the mixed Si n - m Al m clusters

  12. Study on Explosive Forming of Aluminum Alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Iyama

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Now, the aluminum alloy is often used as auto parts, for example, body, engine. For example, there are the body, a cylinder block, a piston, a connecting rod, interior, exterior parts, etc. These are practical used the characteristic of a light and strong aluminum alloy efficiently. However, although an aluminum alloy is lighter than steel, the elongation is smaller than that. Therefore, in press forming, some problems often occur. We have proposed use of explosive forming, in order to solve this problem. In the explosive forming, since a blank is formed at high speed, a strain rate effect becomes large and it can be made the elongation is larger. Then, in order to clarify this feature, we carried out experimental research and numerical analysis. In this paper, these contents will be discussed.

  13. Air-Impregnated Nanoporous Anodic Aluminum Oxide Layers for Enhancing the Corrosion Resistance of Aluminum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, Chanyoung; Lee, Junghoon; Sheppard, Keith; Choi, Chang-Hwan

    2015-10-13

    Nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layers were fabricated on aluminum substrates with systematically varied pore diameters (20-80 nm) and oxide thicknesses (150-500 nm) by controlling the anodizing voltage and time and subsequent pore-widening process conditions. The porous nanostructures were then coated with a thin (only a couple of nanometers thick) Teflon film to make the surface hydrophobic and trap air in the pores. The corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate was evaluated by a potentiodynamic polarization measurement in 3.5 wt % NaCl solution (saltwater). Results showed that the hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer significantly enhanced the corrosion resistance of the aluminum substrate compared to a hydrophilic oxide layer of the same nanostructures, to bare (nonanodized) aluminum with only a natural oxide layer on top, and to the latter coated with a thin Teflon film. The hydrophobic nanoporous anodic aluminum oxide layer with the largest pore diameter and the thickest oxide layer (i.e., the maximized air fraction) resulted in the best corrosion resistance with a corrosion inhibition efficiency of up to 99% for up to 7 days. The results demonstrate that the air impregnating the hydrophobic nanopores can effectively inhibit the penetration of corrosive media into the pores, leading to a significant improvement in corrosion resistance.

  14. Feasibility of Continuous Frying System to Improve the Quality Indices of Palm Olein for the Production of Extruded Product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad Tarmizi, Azmil Haizam; Ahmad, Karimah

    2015-01-01

    Comparative frying studies on the processing of extruded product were conducted under intermittent and continuous frying conditions using two separate frying systems, i.e batch and pilot scale continuous fryers, respectively. Thermal resistance of palm olein were assessed for a total of 5 days of frying operation at 155°C - the unconventional frying temperature gave the product moisture content of 3% after intermittent and continuous frying for 2.5 min and 2 min, respectively. The formation of free fatty acid in palm olein in the case of intermittent frying was more than 2-fold higher compared to its counterpart (0.66%). Smoke point inversely evolved with oil acidity: the value dropped progressively from 215 to 177°C and from 219 to 188°C when extruded product was intermittently and continuously fried, respectively. In the light of induction period, repeated frying exhibited a gradual decrease in the value after 5 days of frying (12.2 h). Interestingly, continuous frying gave somewhat similar induction period, as demonstrated by fresh palm olein, across frying time. Frying at lower temperature, to some extent, provides opportunity for palm olein to retain 74% of its initial vitamin E during continuous frying. This benefit, however, is somehow denied when extruded product was processed under intermittent frying conditions--only 27% of vitamin E was remained at the end of frying session. Regardless of frying protocols, transient in polar compounds was minimal and hence comparable. The colour in the case of continuous frying appeared to be darker due to higher degree of oil utilisation for frying. The data obtained will provide useful information for food processors on how palm olein behaves when frying is undertaken under different frying protocols.

  15. Growth and Nutrient Utilization in Kids Fed Expander-extruded Complete Feed Pellets Containing Red Gram ( Straw

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. B. Reddy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A growth and digestibility study was conducted using Osmanabadi goat male kids by feeding complete diets in the form of mash or expander extruded pellets containing different levels of red gram (Cajanus cajan straw (RGS. Two iso-nitrogenous complete diets were prepared by incorporating RGS at 35% and 50% levels. Half the quantity of each complete mash feed was then converted into pellets through expander extruder processing. Thirty two kids of 4 to 5 months age were divided into four groups of eight each and were fed for 150 d with four experimental diets (T1: mash with 35% RGS, T2: mash with 50% RGS, T3: pellets with 35% RGS and T4: pellets with 50% RGS. Pelleting of complete diets significantly (p<0.001 increased the voluntary feed intake (671.45 vs 426.28 g/d at both levels of RGS in the feeds. Average daily gain (ADG, g/d also increased significantly (p<0.001 from 48.79 in kids fed mash diet to 71.29 in those fed with pelleted diets. Feed conversion efficiency (dry matter (DM intake: weight gain was comparable among all the treatment groups. Digestibility of nutrients was not affected by pelleting of the feeds whereas, increasing the level of inclusion of RGS in feeds from 35% to 50% decreased (p<0.05 the digestibility of DM and crude protein (CP resulting in lower (p<0.001 metabolizable energy (ME content (MJ/kg DM in feeds with 50% RGS (7.93 vs 8.75. Daily intake (MJ/kg BW−0.75 of ME decreased (p<0.05 in feeds containing 50% RGS while pelleting of feeds increased (p<0.05 the intake of DM, CP, digestible crude protein (DCP and ME. It is inferred that expander extruder pelleting can efficiently utilize RGS up to 50% level in complete diets for growing goat kids.

  16. Effect of Y addition on the aging hardening behavior and precipitation evolution of extruded Mg-Al-Zn alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, L.B. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Quan, G.F., E-mail: quangf@home.swjtu.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); Zhou, M.Y.; Guo, Y.Y.; Jiang, Z.Z.; Tang, Q. [Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials, Ministry of Education, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China); School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu, Sichuan 610031 (China)

    2017-04-06

    Abstract:: The 443 K aging hardening behavior and microstructure evolution of extruded Mg-Al-Zn-Y alloys was investigated in aspects of yttrium (Y) content (0.2–0.8 wt%), holding time (0.5–156 h) and the initial states (as-extruded, solution treated). The grain size, precipitation evolution, phases and chemical composition were characterized by the optical microscope, scanning electron microscope, X-ray diffraction, and energy dispersive spectrometer, respectively. The corresponding mechanical response, including the hardness, uniaxial tensile strength were measured with the Vickers hardness tester and universal testing machine, respectively. The results show that, firstly, there is reversal hardness anisotropy between extrusion direction and normal direction in as-extruded Mg-Al-Zn-Y sheets compared with T5 treated ones. Secondly, the short-term aging softening exist at the beginning of T5 treatment which results in a lower hardness even be close to that of solution treated ones, but not for T6 conditions. Thirdly, the suppression of discontinuous precipitation during the aging treatment become more remarkable with increasing Y addition which because of the reduction of diffusional coherency strain near grain boundary, increasing activation energy for the discontinuous precipitates (β-Mg{sub 17}Al{sub 12} phase, DPs) formation and the dilution region of Al near the Al{sub 2}Y. Serrated GBs can also provide more nucleation sites for DPs and lead to relatively more precipitates during T5 treatment. Moreover, the proportional precipitation strengthening in yield strength and hardness was verified in Mg-Al-Zn-Y alloy during the aging process.

  17. Development of an extruder-feeder biomass direct liquefaction process. Volume 2, Parts 4--8: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    White, D.H.; Wolf, D. [Arizona Univ., Tucson, AZ (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1991-10-01

    As an abundant, renewable, domestic energy resource, biomass could help the United States reduce its dependence on imported oil. Biomass is the only renewable energy technology capable of addressing the national need for liquid transportation fuels. Thus, there is an incentive to develop economic conversion processes for converting biomass, including wood, into liquid fuels. Through research sponsored by the US DOE`s Biomass Thermochemical Conversion Program, the University of Arizona has developed a unique biomass direct liquefaction system. The system features a modified single-screw extruder capable of pumping solid slurries containing as high as 60 wt% wood flour in wood oil derived vacuum bottoms at pressures up to 3000 psi. The extruder-feeder has been integrated with a unique reactor by the University to form a system which offers potential for improving high pressure biomass direct liquefaction technology. The extruder-feeder acts simultaneously as both a feed preheater and a pumping device for injecting wood slurries into a high pressure reactor in the biomass liquefaction process. An experimental facility was constructed and following shakedown operations, wood crude oil was produced by mid-1985. By July 1988, a total of 57 experimental continuous biomass liquefaction runs were made using White Birch wood feedstock. Good operability was achieved at slurry feed rates up to 30 lb/hr, reactor pressures from 800 to 3000 psi and temperatures from 350{degree}C to 430{degree}C under conditions covering a range of carbon monoxide feed rates and sodium carbonate catalyst addition. Crude wood oils containing as little as 6--10 wt% residual oxygen were produced. 38 refs., 82 figs., 26 tabs.

  18. The Impact of Rendered Protein Meal Oxidation Level on Shelf-Life, Sensory Characteristics, and Acceptability in Extruded Pet Food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanadang, Sirichat; Koppel, Kadri; Aldrich, Greg

    2016-07-28

    Pet foods are expected to have a shelf-life for 12 months or more. Sensory analysis can be used to determine changes in products and to estimate products' shelf-life. The objectives of this study were to (1) investigate how increasing levels of oxidation in rendered protein meals used to produce extruded pet food affected the sensory properties and (2) determine the effect of shelf-life on pet owners' acceptability of extruded pet food diet formulated without the use of preservative. Pet food diets contained beef meat bone meal (BMBM) and chicken byproduct meal (CBPM) in which the oxidation was retarded with ethoxyquin, mixed tocopherols, or none at all, and then extruded into dry pet foods. These samples represented low, medium, and high oxidation levels, respectively. Samples were stored for 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months at ambient temperature. Each time point, samples were evaluated by six highly trained descriptive panelists for sensory attributes related to oxidation. Samples without preservatives were chosen for the acceptability test, since the differences in sensory characteristics over storage time were more distinguishable in those samples. Pet owners evaluated samples for aroma, appearance and overall liking. Descriptive sensory analysis detected significant changes in oxidized-related sensory characteristics over storage time. However, the differences for CBPM samples were more pronounced and directional. The consumer study showed no differences in pet owners' acceptability for BMBM samples. However, the noticeable increase in aroma characteristics (rancid aroma 0.33-4.21) in CBPM samples over storage time did have a negative effect on consumer's liking (overall liking 5.52-4.95).

  19. Development of micronutrients rich homemade extruded food products with the incorporation of processed foxtail millet, wheat and chickpea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Gautam

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Food based approaches are recognized as an essential part of an urgently needed more comprehensive strategy for improving nutrition by increasing the availability and consumption to combat iron and other micronutrient deficiencies. Aims & Objective: The specific objective of the study was utilization of Foxtail millet (Setariaitalica along with other flour for production of micronutrients rich ready-to-eat snack products using homemade extrusion cooking. Material and methods: Methods Composite flour were prepared using processed Foxtail millet flour (FMF and other processed flours namely; wheat flour (WF, and chick pea flour (CPF. Nutritional properties of the blends were analyzed by using standard procedure. Two homemade extruded products namely; namkeensev, seviyan were prepared with four treatments T0, T1, T2, & T3. The commonly consumed recipes were developed by incorporating 50%, 75% and 100% of best result malted composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF. Results: The organoleptic qualities of these extruded samples were analyzed by panelists on a 9 point hedonic scale. The result indicate that the processed composite flour (FMF+CPF+WF based products were significantly accepted at the level of p<0.05 50% incorporation followed by 75% and 100% respectively. Conclusions: The present study conclude that, processed composite flour (Foxtail millet; wheat; chickpea in the ratios of (50:50 could be used to produce nutritive quality of homemade extrudates with acceptable sensory properties as they deliver vehicles for malnourished children.

  20. Apically Extruded Debris during Root Canal Instrumentation with Reciproc Blue, HyFlex EDM, and XP-endo Shaper Nickel-titanium Files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uslu, Gülşah; Özyürek, Taha; Yılmaz, Koray; Gündoğar, Mustafa; Plotino, Gianluca

    2018-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the amount of apically extruded debris by Reciproc Blue (REC Blue; VDW, Munich, Germany), HyFlex EDM (HEDM; Coltene/Whaledent, Altstätten, Switzerland), and XP-endo Shaper (XPS; FKG Dentaire SA, La Chaux-de-Fonds, Switzerland) files during root canal preparation at body temperature. Sixty extracted single-rooted mandibular premolar human teeth were randomly assigned to 3 groups (n = 20). The canals were instrumented using 1 of the following instruments: REC Blue, HEDM, or XPS. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into preweighed Eppendorf tubes. All the procedures were performed at 35°C. The amount of extruded debris was calculated by subtracting the weight value of the tooth-free apparatus from the postpreparation weight value. The data were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 5% significance level. All the instruments tested caused extrusion of some debris from the apical foramen. XPS extruded significantly less debris from the apex than REC Blue (P  .05). Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the amount of apically extruded debris registered for the different files tested was REC Blue > HEDM > XPS, with a statistical difference only between XPS and REC Blue. Copyright © 2018 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Changes in physicochemical properties and in vitro starch digestion of native and extruded maize flours subjected to branching enzyme and maltogenic α-amylase treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Román, Laura; Martínez, Mario M; Rosell, Cristina M; Gómez, Manuel

    2017-08-01

    Extrusion is an increasingly used type of processing which combined with enzymatic action could open extended possibilities for obtaining clean label modified flours. In this study, native and extruded maize flours were modified using branching enzyme (B) and a combination of branching enzyme and maltogenic α-amylase (BMA) in order to modulate their hydrolysis properties. The microstructure, pasting properties, in vitro starch hydrolysis and resistant starch content of the flours were investigated. Whereas BMA treatment led to greater number of holes on the granule surface in native samples, B and BMA extruded samples showed rougher surfaces with cavities. A reduction in the retrogradation trend was observed for B and BMA native flours, in opposition to the flat pasting profile of their extruded counterparts. The glucose release increased gradually for native flours as the time of reaction did, whereas for extruded flours a fast increase of glucose release was observed during the first minutes of reaction, and kept till the end, indicating a greater accessibility to their porous structure. These results suggested that, in enzymatically treated extruded samples, changes produced at larger hierarchical levels in their starch structure could have masked a slowdown in the starch digestion properties. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Iron, zinc and calcium dialyzability from extruded product based on whole grain amaranth (Amaranthus caudatus and Amaranthus cruentus) and amaranth/Zea mays blends.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galan, María Gimena; Drago, Silvina Rosa; Armada, Margarita; José, Rolando González

    2013-06-01

    Amaranth is a Native American grain appreciated for its high nutritional properties including high mineral content. The aim of this study was to evaluate the availability of Fe, Zn and Ca from extruded products made with two varieties of amaranth and their mixtures with maize at two levels of replacement. Mineral availability was estimated using dialyzability method. The contents of Fe (64.0-84.0 mg/kg), Ca (1977.5-2348.8 mg/kg) and Zn (30.0-32.1 mg/kg) were higher in amaranth than in maize products (6.2, 19.1, 9.7 mg/kg, respectively). Mineral availability was in the range of (2.0-3.6%), (3.3-11.1%) and (1.6-11.4%) for Fe, Ca and Zn, respectively. Extruded amaranth and amaranth/maize products provide higher amount of Fe and Ca than extruded maize. Extruded amaranth products and amaranth addition to maize could be an interesting way to increase nutritional value of extruded products.

  3. Evaluation of apically extruded debris during root canal preparation in primary molar teeth using three different rotary systems and hand files.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topçuoğlu, Gamze; Topçuoğlu, Hüseyin Sinan; Akpek, Firdevs

    2016-09-01

    To assess the amount of debris extruded apically during root canal preparation using various nickel titanium instrumentation systems and hand files in primary molar teeth. Sixty extracted primary first mandibular molar human teeth were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 15 teeth for each group). The canals were then instrumented with the following instrument systems: Revo-S, Mtwo, ProTaper Next, and hand files. Apically extruded debris during instrumentation was collected into pre-weighed Eppendorf tubes. The Eppendorf tubes were then stored in an incubator at 70°C for 5 days. The weight of the dry extruded debris was established by subtracting the pre-instrumentation and post-instrumentation weight of the Eppendorf tubes for each group. The data were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (anova) and Tukey's post hoc tests. ProTaper Next files were associated with less apically extruded debris than the Mtwo, Revo-S, and hand files (P Hand files extruded more debris than Mtwo and Revo-S instruments (P 0.05). All instruments were associated with apical extrusion of debris. ProTaper Next files caused less debris extrusion compared to the other systems used. © 2015 BSPD, IAPD and John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Oxidation of nano-sized aluminum powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vorozhtsov, A.B.; Lerner, M.; Rodkevich, N.; Nie, H.; Abraham, A.; Schoenitz, M.; Dreizin, E.L.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Weight gain measured in TG oxidation experiments was split between particles of different sizes. • Reaction kinetics obtained by isoconversion explicitly accounting for the effect of size distribution. • Activation energy is obtained as a function of oxide thickness for growth of amorphous alumina. • Oxidation mechanism for nanopowders remains the same as for coarser aluminum powders. - Abstract: Oxidation of aluminum nanopowders obtained by electro-exploded wires is studied. Particle size distributions are obtained from transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images. Thermo-gravimetric (TG) experiments are complemented by TEM and XRD studies of partially oxidized particles. Qualitatively, oxidation follows the mechanism developed for coarser aluminum powder and resulting in formation of hollow oxide shells. Sintering of particles is also observed. The TG results are processed to account explicitly for the particle size distribution and spherical shapes, so that oxidation of particles of different sizes is characterized. The apparent activation energy is obtained as a function of the reaction progress using model-free isoconversion processing of experimental data. A complete phenomenological oxidation model is then proposed assuming a spherically symmetric geometry. The oxidation kinetics of aluminum powder is shown to be unaffected by particle sizes reduced down to tens of nm. The apparent activation energy describing growth of amorphous alumina is increasing at the very early stages of oxidation. The higher activation energy is likely associated with an increasing homogeneity in the growing amorphous oxide layer, initially containing multiple defects and imperfections. The trends describing changes in both activation energy and pre-exponent of the growing amorphous oxide are useful for predicting ignition delays of aluminum particles. The kinetic trends describing activation energies and pre-exponents in a broader range of the oxide

  5. Transport critical current density and microstructure in extruded YBa2Cu3O7-x wires processed by zone melting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi, D.; Krishnan, H.; Hong, J.M.; Miller, D.; McGinn, P.J.; Chen, W.H.; Xu, M.; Chen, J.G.; Fang, M.M.; Welp, U.; Lanagan, M.T.; Goretta, K.C.; Dusek, J.T.; Picciolo, J.J.; Balachandran, U.

    1990-01-01

    YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7-x compounds were extruded into long wires with the diameter of 1 mm after sintering. The sintered wires were subsequently zone melted to develop a highly textured microstructure. Magnetization experiments at 77 K indicated a J c value of 1x10 5 A/cm 2 at 1 T. Transport measurements at 77 K showed a greatly enhanced field dependence of the critical current density. Transmission electron microscopy revealed an important grain-boundary feature which eliminated the weak-link behavior. Large amounts of dislocations have also been found in the zone-melted sample which may contribute to flux pinning in the system

  6. The net acid extruders NHE1, NBCn1 and MCT4 promote mammary tumor growth through distinct but overlapping mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Anne Poder; Samsøe-Petersen, Jacob; Oernbo, Eva Kjer

    2018-01-01

    High metabolic and proliferative rates in cancer cells lead to production of large amounts of H+ and CO2 , and as a result, net acid extruding transporters are essential for the function and survival of cancer cells. We assessed protein expression of the Na+ /H+ exchanger NHE1, the Na+ - HCO3......- cotransporter NBCn1, and the lactate-H+ cotransporters MCT1 and -4 by immunohistochemical analysis of a large cohort of breast cancer samples. We found robust expression of these transporters in 20, 10, 4 and 11% of samples, respectively. NHE1 and NBCn1 expression both correlated positively with progesterone...

  7. Apically extruded debris with three contemporary Ni-Ti instrumentation systems: An ex vivo comparative study

    OpenAIRE

    Logani Ajay; Shah Naseem

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To comparatively evaluate the amount of apically extruded debris when ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile systems were used for the instrumentation of root canals. Materials and Methods: Thirty minimally curved, mature, human mandibular premolars with single canals were randomly divided into three groups of ten teeth each. Each group was instrumented using one of the three instrumentation systems: ProTaper hand, ProTaper rotary and ProFile. Five milliliters of sterile water wer...

  8. Extruded pea (Pisum sativum as alternative to soybean protein for dairy cows feeding in organic Alpine farms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flaviana Gottardo

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The study evaluated the use of extruded pea as an alternative to soybean in the protein feeding of dairy cattle raised in organic Alpine farms. The research was carried out in a commercial organic dairy farm located in the Province of Trento (Northern Italy and it considered two separate periods of cows’ lactation: early and late lactation. According to the traditional management practice of alpine dairy herds with the seasonal calving of the cows in early winter, the former period was carried out during the cold season when cows were housed indoors, while the latter period started after the transfer of the entire herd to an alpine pasture for the summer grazing. In both periods, 16 cows of Rendena breed were equally assigned to 2 experimental groups. The dietary forage (meadow hay in early lactation or pasture in late lactation was supplemented to one group of cows with a Control concentrate in which soybean expeller, sunflower expeller and wheat bran were the main protein feeds. Soybean proteins were replaced by extruded peas in the Soy-free concentrate given to the other group of cows. The daily amount of concentrate was adjusted to the individual milk yield on a weekly basis adopting ratios of 0.360 and 0.125 kg of DM per kg of milk in early and late lactation periods, respectively. Cows receiving Soy-free concentrate showed a higher milk yield than the Control cows in both lactation periods (18.7 vs 17.5 kg/d in early lactation and 9.3 vs 8.6 kg/d on pasture, respectively. Milk fat and protein were not affected by the diet at any stage of lactation, while a higher concentration of milk urea was observed in milk samples taken from Soy-free cows in both periods of the study. This result could have been promoted by the higher soluble fraction of extruded pea proteins in comparison to that of soybean expeller. Cows feeding behaviour was monitored only in the early lactation period and despite of the different amount of concentrate consumed by

  9. Expansion and functional properties of extruded snacks enriched with nutrition sources from food processing by-products

    OpenAIRE

    Korkerd, Sopida; Wanlapa, Sorada; Puttanlek, Chureerat; Uttapap, Dudsadee; Rungsardthong, Vilai

    2015-01-01

    Rich sources of protein and dietary fiber from food processing by-products, defatted soybean meal, germinated brown rice meal, and mango peel fiber, were added to corn grit at 20 % (w/w) to produce fortified extruded snacks. Increase of total dietary fiber from 4.82 % (wb) to 5.92–17.80 % (wb) and protein from 5.03 % (wb) to 5.46–13.34 % were observed. The product indicated high expansion and good acceptance tested by sensory panels. There were 22.33–33.53 and 5.30–11.53 fold increase in the ...

  10. Study of New FNAL-NICADD Extruded Scintillator as Active Media of Large EMCal of ALICE at LHC

    CERN Document Server

    Grachov, Oleg A.; Pla-Dalmau, A.; Bross, A.; Rykalin, V.

    2006-01-01

    The current conceptual design of proposed Large EMCal of ALICE at LHC is based largely on the scintillating mega-tile/fiber technology implemented in CDF Endplug upgrade project and in both barrel and endcap electromagnetic calorimeters of the STAR. The cost of scintillating material leads us to the choice of extruded polystyrene based scintillator, which is available in new FNAL-NICADD facility. Result of optical measurements, such as light yield and light yield variation, show that it is possible to use this material as active media of Large EMCal of ALICE at LHC.

  11. Thermally sprayed coatings: Aluminum on lead

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Usmani, S.; Czajkowski, C.J.; Zatorski, R.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental program to determine the feasibility of thermally spraying aluminum on a lead substrate was initiated in support of the accelerator production of tritium (APT) Project for the US Department of Energy. The program consisted of two distinct parts: (1) the characterization of the thermally sprayed coatings, including microhardness testing, effects of heating, and microstructure and porosity determinations, and (2) effects of mercury doping and heat treatments on the thermally sprayed composite. The project determined that aluminum could successfully be thermally sprayed onto the lead. The coatings had a dense microstructure, with a Vicker's Pyramid Hardness (VPH) of about 60, and a maximum porosity (found in strips on the samples) of 12%

  12. Weld Development for Aluminum Fission Chamber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cross, Carl Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martinez, Jesse Norris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-05-16

    The Sigma welding team was approached to help fabricate a small fission chamber (roughly ½ inch dia. x ½ inch tall cylinder). These chambers are used as radiation sensors that contain small traces of radionuclides (Cf 252, U 235, and U 238) that serve to ionize gas atoms in addition to external radiation. When a voltage is applied within the chamber, the resulting ion flow can be calibrated and monitored. Aluminum has the advantage of not forming radioactive compounds when exposed to high external radiation (except from minor Na alloy content). Since aluminum has not been used before in this application, this presented an unexplored challenge.

  13. Anodization process produces opaque, reflective coatings on aluminum

    Science.gov (United States)

    1965-01-01

    Opaque, reflective coatings are produced on aluminum articles by an anodizing process wherein the anodizing bath contains an aqueous dispersion of finely divided insoluble inorganic compounds. These particles appear as uniformly distributed occlusions in the anodic deposit on the aluminum.

  14. Evaluation of aluminum migration into foodstuffs from aluminium cookware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Radi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, the existence of aluminum in human diet as a food contaminant has attracted the concerns of many researchers. It seems that the cooking pans are common sources of aluminum exposure through foodstuffs in Iran. The aim of this study was to evaluate the migration of aluminum from cooking containers into foodstuffs. For this purpose, solutions with different concentrations of citric acid, sodium chloride, fat, protein and sugar were prepared and migration of aluminum into these solutions was measured using atomic absorption spectrometry. Results showed that salt and citric acid concentrations could enhance aluminum migration; whereas, acid concentration was more effective than salt due to its corrosive effect. The intensity of heat processing and the duration of heat treatment had direct relation with aluminum migration. The aluminum content of cooked foods in aluminum cooking pans was also significantly more than control samples.

  15. Low Mass, Aluminum NOFBX Combustion Chamber Development, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Our team proposes to define a diffusion bonding process for aluminum as an enabling step to ultimately develop an innovative, lightweight, long life, aluminum...

  16. Interaction between plasticized polyvinyl chloride waterproofing membrane and extruded polystyrene board, in the inverted flat roof

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedrosa, A.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The inverted flat roof is a constructive system widely used in flat roof construction. In this constructive solution, the insulation is placed over the waterproofing material as a protection. It is believed that this solution provides a longer life cycle; given the fact that it limits the thermal variation the waterproofing material bears up to the end of its life cycle. Consequently, the result will be providing a longer life to the waterproofing membrane. This constructive solution always incorporates polymers or other materials with a thermoplastic addition in their composition. Some polymers show interactions between them that can affect their integrity, and, at the same time, the bulk of the polymeric materials are incompatible. The extruded polystyrene board is always present in the inverted flat roof, and although it is an unbeatable product for this use, it presents incompatibilities and interactions with other materials, and these can affect their properties and therefore the durability of them.La cubierta plana invertida es un sistema constructivo muy utilizado en las cubiertas planas. En esta solución constructiva, el aislamiento se coloca sobre el material impermeabilizante a modo de protección. Se cree que esta solución proporciona un ciclo de vida más largo; dado que se limita la variación térmica de la impermeabilización hasta el final de su ciclo de vida. En consecuencia, el resultado proporciona una vida más larga a la membrana impermeable. Esta solución constructiva siempre incorpora polímeros u otros materiales con adición termoplástica en su composición. Algunos polímeros muestran interacciones entre ellos que pueden afectar a su integridad, además, la mayor parte de los materiales poliméricos son incompatibles. La plancha de poliestireno extrusionado está siempre presente en la cubierta plana invertida, y aunque es un producto inmejorable para este uso, presenta incompatibilidades e interacciones con otros

  17. Destruction behavior of hexabromocyclododecanes during incineration of solid waste containing expanded and extruded polystyrene insulation foams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takigami, Hidetaka; Watanabe, Mafumi; Kajiwara, Natsuko

    2014-12-01

    Hexabromocyclododecanes (HBCDs) have been used for flame retardation mainly in expanded polystyrene (EPS) and extruded polystyrene (XPS) insulation foams. Controlled incineration experiments with solid wastes containing each of EPS and XPS were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator to investigate the destruction behavior of HBCDs and their influence on the formation of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PBDD/DFs). EPS and XPS materials were respectively blended with refuse derived fuel (RDF) as input wastes for incineration. Concentrations of HBCDs contained in the EPS- and XPS-added RDFs, were 140 and 1100 mg kg(-1), respectively. In which γ-HBCD was dominant (68% of the total HBCD content) in EPS-added RDF and α-HBCD accounted for 73% of the total HBCDs in XPS-added RDF. During the incineration experiments with EPS and XPS, primary and secondary combustion zones were maintained at temperatures of 840 °C and 900 °C. The residence times of waste in the primary combustion zone and flue gas in the secondary combustion zone was 30 min and three seconds, respectively. HBCDs were steadily degraded in the combustion chambers and α-, β-, and γ-HBCD behaved similarly. Concentration levels of the total HBCDs in the bag filter exit gas for the two experiments with EPS and XPS were 0.7 and 0.6ngmN(-3), respectively. HBCDs were also not detected (incineration process with destruction efficiencies of more than 99.9999 for both of EPS and XPS cases. For PBDD/DFs, the levels detected in the bottom and fly ash samples were very low (0.028 ng g(-1) at maximum). In the case of XPS-added experiment, 2,3,7,8-TeBDD and 2,3,7,8-TeBDF were determined in the flue gas at levels (0.05-0.07 ng mN(-3)) slightly over the detection limits in the environmental emission gas samples, suggesting HBCDs in XPS are possibly a precursor of detected PBDD/DFs. Operational care should be taken when the ratio of HBCD-containing polystyrene is increased in the input wastes just

  18. Physiological and pharmacological characterization of transmembrane acid extruders in cultured human umbilical artery smooth muscle cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gunng-Shinng Chen

    2015-01-01

    responsible for acid-extruding in HUASMCs.

  19. Impedance spectroscopy evolution upon sintering of Al-rich anodising sludge-based extruded bodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ribeiro, M. J.

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Alumina based ceramic materials, containing Al-rich sludge as the major component, were processed by extrusion. The sludge derived from the wastewater treatment of aluminium anodising industrial process. Long rods were produced using a vacuum screw extruder, by a careful control of all relevant processing parameters. Then, thick discs were obtained by cutting dried selected rods, to be tested as probes for sintering-dependent electrical properties. The sintering process was followed by performing common dilatometric/thermal analyses but the evolution of electrical conductivity, estimated by impedance spectroscopy (IS, was also used for this purpose. Results show that sintering-dependent morphological evolution up to 1300ºC strongly affects the electrical behaviour of samples, and as a consequence IS seems to be a useful technique to follow the firing process.

    Los materiales cerámicos basados en alúmina, conteniendo barros ricos en Al como componente mayoritario fueron procesados por extrusión. Los barros empleados provienen de tratamientos de lavado de residuos de un proceso industrial de anodizado de aluminio. Se produjeron varillas empleando un extrusor de tornillo en vacío con control de todos los parámetros relevantes del proceso. A partir de varillas seleccionadas, se obtuvieron por corte en seco discos cerámicos para evaluar la dependencia de la sinterización y las propiedades eléctricas. El proceso de sinterización se siguió mediante ensayos dilatométricos y análisis térmicos, junto con la evolución de la conductividad eléctrica mediante espectroscopia de impedancia. Los resultados mostraron la evolución de la sinterización y la dependencia morfológica hasta 1300ºC, que afecta fuertemente a la respuesta eléctrica y como consecuencia la espectroscopia de impedancia parece ser una técnica útil en el seguimiento de los procesos de cocción.

  20. Perceptual changes and drivers of liking in high protein extruded snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kreger, Joseph W; Lee, Youngsoo; Lee, Soo-Yeun

    2012-04-01

    Increasing the amount of protein in snack foods can add to their satiating ability, which aligns with many health-based trends currently seen in the food industry. Understanding the effect of adding high levels of protein in a food matrix is essential for product development. The objective for this research was to determine the effects of varying protein type and level on the sensory-related aspects of a model extruded snack food. Independent variables in the design of the snacks were the level of total protein and the protein type in the formulation. The level of protein ranged from 28% to 43% (w/w) in 5% increments. The protein type varied in the ratio of whey to soy protein ranging from 0: 100 to 100: 0, in 25% increments. Descriptive analysis was conducted on the samples to profile their sensory characteristics. Protein type was found to be the predominant variable in differentiating the sensory characteristics of the samples. Soy protein imparted nutty, grainy aromas-by-mouth, and increased expansion during processing, resulting in a lighter, crispier texture. Whey protein imparted dairy related aromas-by-mouth and inhibited expansion during processing, resulting in a more dense, crunchy texture. Separately, 100 consumers rated their acceptance of the samples using the 9-point hedonic scale. It was found that protein type was also the predominant variable in affecting acceptance, with some clusters of consumers preferring samples comprised of soy protein, and others preferring samples with whey. Food product developers can use these findings to predict changes in a similar food product by varying protein level or protein type. This work shows how the perceivable appearance, aroma, and texture characteristics of puffed snack foods change when adding protein or changing the protein type. The type of protein incorporated was shown to have major effects on the characteristics of the snacks, partially because of their impact on how much the snacks puffed during