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Sample records for extremely low-birth-weight children

  1. Developmental coordination disorder in extremely low birth weight children at nine years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holsti, Liisa; Grunau, Ruth V E; Whitfield, Michael F

    2002-02-01

    Developmental coordination disorder (DCD) is defined as an impairment in the development of motor coordination that interferes with academic achievement or activities of daily living (DSM-IV). DCD has been reported to affect 5% to 9% of children in the normal population. This study describes the prevalence of DCD in a cohort of extremely low birth weight children (ELBW, DCD. ELBW children with DCD also had significantly lower Performance IQ (PIQ) scores and were more likely (43%) to have a learning difficulty in arithmetic than ELBW children who did not have DCD. This study found that DCD is a common problem in school-aged ELBW children.

  2. Pattern of learning disabilities in children with extremely low birth weight and broadly average intelligence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grunau, Ruth Eckstein; Whitfield, Michael F; Davis, Cynthia

    2002-06-01

    To examine the prevalence and pattern of specific areas of learning disability (LD) in neurologically normal children with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) (intelligence compared with full-term children with normal birth weight of comparable sociodemographic background, and to explore concurrent cognitive correlates of the specific LDs. Longitudinal follow-up; geographically defined region. Regional follow-up program. Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised, Gray Oral Reading Test-Revised, Test of Written Language-Revised, Wide Range Achievement Test-Revised, Developmental Test of Visual-Motor Integration. One hundred fourteen (87%) of 131 children with ELBW born between 1982 and 1987 were seen at ages 8 to 9 years. Of the 114 children, 74, who were neurologically normal, with a Verbal or Performance IQ greater than or equal to 85, formed the study group. A group of 30 full-term children with normal birth weight and similar sociodemographic status comprised a comparison group. The children were predominantly white and middle class. Significantly more children with ELBW (65%) met criteria for LD in 1 or more areas compared with 13% of the comparison children. In the ELBW group, the most frequently affected area was written output, then arithmetic, then reading. Visuospatial and visual-motor abilities in combination with verbal functioning primarily explained performance in arithmetic and reading among children with ELBW, unlike the control children, whose scores were associated only with verbal functioning. Complex LDs in multiple academic domains are common sequelae among broadly middle class, predominantly white, neurologically normal children with ELBW compared with control peers. The developmental etiology of LDs in children with ELBW and control peers differs.

  3. Self-Regulation in Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight at 2 Years Old: A Comparison Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynn, Lisa N.; Cuskelly, Monica; Gray, Peter H.; O'Callaghan, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Survival rates for children born with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) are increasing; however, many of these children experience later problems with learning. This study adopted an integrated approach to these problems, involving the self-regulatory tasks of inhibition and delay of gratification and relevant individual factors including…

  4. Learning Disabilities in Extremely Low Birth Weight Children and Neurodevelopmental Profiles at Preschool Age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Squarza, Chiara; Picciolini, Odoardo; Gardon, Laura; Giannì, Maria L; Murru, Alessandra; Gangi, Silvana; Cortinovis, Ivan; Milani, Silvano; Mosca, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    At school age extremely low birth weight (ELBW) and extremely low gestational age (ELGAN) children are more likely to show Learning Disabilities (LDs) and difficulties in emotional regulation. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of LDs at school age and to detect neurodevelopmental indicators of risk for LDs at preschool ages in a cohort of ELBW/ELGAN children with broadly average intelligence. All consecutively newborns 2001-2006 admitted to the same Institution entered the study. Inclusion criteria were BW disabilities, genetic abnormalities, and/or a Developmental Quotient below normal limits (learning disabilities at school age was investigated through a parent-report questionnaire at children's age range 9-10 years. Neurodevelopmental profiles were assessed through the Griffiths Mental Development Scales at 1 and 2 years of corrected age and at 3, 4, 5, and 6 years of chronological age and were analyzed comparing two groups of children: those with LDs and those without. At school age 24 on 102 (23.5%) of our ELBW/ELGAN children met criteria for LDs in one or more areas, with 70.8% comorbidity with emotional/attention difficulties. Children with LDs scored significantly lower in the Griffiths Locomotor and Language subscales at 2 years of corrected age and in the Personal-social, Performance and Practical Reasoning subscales at 5 years of chronological age. Our findings suggest that, among the early developmental indicators of adverse school outcome, there is a poor motor experimentation, language delay, and personal-social immaturity. Cognitive rigidity and poor ability to manage practical situations also affect academic attainment. Timely detection of these early indicators of risk is crucial to assist the transition to school.

  5. Selective deficit in spatial location memory in extremely low birth weight children at age six: the PETIT study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Brandt, Jason; Ahronovich, Margot D; Baker, Robin; Erickson, Kristine; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Spatial location memory has rarely been assessed in young children due to a scarcity of developmentally appropriate tests. This study sought to compare nonverbal learning and recall in children born extremely low birth weight (ELBW; children at early school age using a recently developed and adapted test. We administered a modification of the Hopkins Board to 210 children at age six; 84 born ELBW (35 born children had worse general cognition, item naming, delayed item recall, delayed location recall, and percent retention than term-born children. Delayed item recall and percent retention performances of ELBW children remained worse after correction for general cognition. ELBW groups (children in naming and delayed item recall with chronological age as covariate. Those born before 26 GW, but not 26-33 GW, performed worse than term-born children in delayed location recall and percent retention. Differences remained significant after controlling for gender, maternal education, and delivery type. All three groups' performance declined from final learning trial to delayed location recall, with a decline greater for less than 26 GW than term-born children. Extreme prematurity (spatial location memory deficit. The modified Hopkins Board discriminated high-risk preterm and term-born children at early school age and appears to be a useful test to measure this rarely studied cognitive capacity.

  6. Test of visuospatial construction: Validity evidence in extremely low birth weight and late preterm children at early school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rider, G Nicole; Weiss, Brandi A; McDermott, Adam T; Hopp, Crista A; Baron, Ida Sue

    2016-01-01

    The Test of Visuospatial Construction (TVSC), a measure of visuoconstruction that does not rely on upper extremity motor response or written production, was administered to extremely low birth weight (ELBW), late preterm (LPT), and term participants at preschool (n = 355) and kindergarten (n = 265) ages. TVSC showed statistically significant weak-to-moderate positive correlations (age 3: r = .118-.303; age 6: r = .138-.348) with Developmental VMI, Differential Ability Scales-II Copying, Matrices, and Pattern Construction subtests, Baron-Hopkins Board Test, and the Purdue Pegboard. One-way ANOVA indicated ELBW performed worse than Term (p = .044) on visuospatial construction at age 3 with a small-to-medium effect size (d = -0.43). No other statistically significant differences were found at age 3 on the TVSC (ELBW/LPT: p = .608, d = -0.17; LPT/Term: p = .116, d = -0.31). At age 6, ELBW participants performed worse than LPT participants (p = .027) and Term participants (p = .012); LPT participants did not differ from Term participants. Small effect sizes at age 3 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.17; ELBW < Term, d = -0.43) were notably larger at age 6 (ELBW < LPT, d = -0.42; ELBW < Term, d = -0.53). Important practical differences showing LPT participants performed below Term participants (d = -0.31) at age 3 were no longer evident at age 6 (d = -0.097). These findings provide preliminary evidence of TVSC validity supporting its use to detect neuropsychological impairment and to recommend appropriate interventions in young preterm children.

  7. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonja Stutte

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA. Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01. Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05, but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.. In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001. Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05, whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05. Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children.

  8. Impact of Early Nutrition on Body Composition in Children Aged 9.5 Years Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stutte, Sonja; Gohlke, Bettina; Peiler, Annika; Schreiner, Felix; Born, Mark; Bartmann, Peter; Woelfle, Joachim

    2017-01-01

    To evaluate body composition, metabolism and growth as well as their interaction with early nutrition in former extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW), we assessed qualitative and quantitative nutritional intake during initial hospitalization and infantile growth parameters in 61 former ELBW infants with a birth weight <1000 g. In two follow-up exams, physical and biochemical development were measured at 5.7 and at 9.5 years. At the second follow-up, in addition to biochemical reassessment, body composition was analyzed by dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Protein intake between birth and discharge was associated with weight gain in the first six months of life (r = 0.51; p < 0.01). Weight catch-up preceded height catch-up. Protein intake in early infancy correlated highly significantly with abdominal fat mass (r = 0.49; p < 0.05), but not with lean body mass at 9.5 years (r = 0.30; not significant (n.s.). In contrast to nutrient intake, birth weight was associated with lean body mass (r = 0.433; p < 0.001). Early protein and carbohydrate intake were associated with high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol, and early catch-up growth correlated with fasting insulin at follow-up. Stepwise linear regression demonstrated that protein intake predicted fat mass (p < 0.05), whereas only gender and birth weight standard deviation score (SDS) contributed significantly to lean body mass variation (p < 0.05). Our results suggest an important impact of early nutrient intake on body composition and metabolism in later childhood in ELBW children. PMID:28208596

  9. Does Extremely Low Birth Weight Predispose to Low-Renin Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raaijmakers, Anke; Zhang, Zhen-Yu; Claessens, Jolien; Cauwenberghs, Nicholas; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Wei, Fang-Fei; Jacobs, Lotte; Levtchenko, Elena; Pauwels, Steven; Kuznetsova, Tatiana; Allegaert, Karel; Staessen, Jan A

    2017-03-01

    Low birth weight and prematurity are risk factors for hypertension in adulthood. Few studies in preterm or full-term born children reported on plasma renin activity (PRA). We tested the hypothesis that renin might modulate the incidence of hypertension associated with prematurity. We enrolled 93 prematurely born children with birth weight hypertension associated with extreme low birth weight were 6.43 (2.52-16.4; Phypertension, but does not affect the inverse association between PRA and BP. URL: https://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT02147457. © 2017 American Heart Association, Inc.

  10. Impaired kidney growth in low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Ida M; Chellakooty, Marla; Boisen, Kirsten A

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight is an important risk factor for hypertension and unfavorable prognoses of a number of renal diseases. It is also associated with reduced kidney size and nephron number. A differentiation between the effects of low birth weight versus being born premature or small...... growth-retarded infants (Premature children had smaller kidneys compared to mature at all ages (0 months, P= 0.001; 3 months, P= 0.007; and 18 months, P= 0.042), without any significant catch-up with age...... growth in response to formula feeding. CONCLUSION: Being small for gestational age is associated with small kidneys at birth and impaired kidney growth in early childhood. The present data suggest that intrauterine growth has a regulatory influence on nephron formation and renal function in humans...

  11. Life expectancies and outcomes in extremely low birth weight neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayeri F, Amini E, Shariat M, Mansoori B

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Background: Much has changed in neonatal care for extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight <1000g infants over the recent years in Iran, resulting in an increase in their survival rate. We determined neonatal survival and short-term morbidity rates among ELBW infants, and the correlation of these factors with mortality risk. "n"nMethods: All single live-born ELBW babies delivered at Vali-e-Asr Hospital over a four-year period were identified. Data that were prospectively collected included: maternal age, prenatal and perinatal complications, antenatal steroid use, birth weight, gestational age, route of delivery, sex, need for resuscitation, APGAR score, need for mechanical  ventilation, and complications including respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, sepsis, jaundice, intraventricular  hemorrhage (IVH, necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC metabolic and hematologic and cardiac disorders. Information was statistically analyzed and a probability value of <0.05 was considered significant. "n"nResults: A total of 93 neonates were included in the study. The survival rate in the delivery room was 36.6%. The lowest birth weight was 400g, with a mean birth weight of 850.43(±136.48g, and the lowest gestational age was 22 weeks. The mean gestational period was 28.31(±2.77 weeks. The most frequent complication after birth was RDS(69.89% and the least frequent was NEC (6.4%. Short and normal gestation was observed in 44.08% and 48.4% of the neonates, respectively. There was a significant relationship between neonatal mortality and the need for resuscitation after birth, RDS and need for a respirator (p<0.05. "n"nFurthermore, there was significant increase in mortality among neonates with gestational age <30 weeks, birth weight under 750g and lack of steroids before birth (p<0.05. "n"nConclusions: To enhance perinatal and neonatal care and decrease the rate of preterm labor, improved standard resuscitation and increased administration of antenatal

  12. Delivery of the extremely low-birth- weight vertex-presenting baby ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2010-12-02

    Dec 2, 2010 ... both mother and baby when delivery of an extremely low- birth-weight infant is inevitable. Over the past few decades there has been a sharp rise in the .... there was any advantage for very-low-birth-weight babies delivered by ...

  13. Green teeth are a late complication of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battineni, Sireesha; Clarke, Paul

    2012-01-01

    Eruption of green, discolored teeth affecting the primary dentition has been described in association with congenital viral infection, sepsis, hemolytic jaundice, and cholestasis. The purpose of this paper was to present the cases of 3 extremely low birth weight preterm infants who were noted to have green teeth at the corrected ages of 10 to 12 months. All had a history of prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia during their time in neonatal intensive care. For infants with prolonged conjugated hyperbilirubinemia, extreme preterm birth and/or extremely low birth weight may be additional risk factors predisposing to the eruption of green teeth in later infancy.

  14. Trisomy 21 in one of extremely low birth weight twins

    OpenAIRE

    Solomon, Benjamin D.; Balachandar, Divya; Perry, Karen; Carrillo-Carrasco, Nuria; Markello, Thomas C.; Rais-Bahrami, Khodayar

    2008-01-01

    Prematurity is frequently seen in the neonatal intensive care unit, and trisomy 21 is an often diagnosed neonatal disorder. We report a unique case of extremely premature twins, one of whom was ultimately diagnosed with trisomy 21. We were able to examine the neonatal courses and outcomes of these twins, which were similar despite the presence of trisomy 21 in one twin. This is the first report comparing the neonatal course of an infant with trisomy 21 to an unaffected twin in patients born s...

  15. Children born with very low birth weight show difficulties with sustained attention but not response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Katherine A; Healy, Elaine; Dooley, Barbara; Kelly, Simon P; McNicholas, Fiona

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight perform poorly on executive function and attention measures. Any difficulties with sustained attention may underpin impairments in performance on tasks measuring higher order cognitive control. Previous sustained attention research in very low birth weight cohorts has used tasks that involve arousing stimuli, potentially spoiling the measure of sustained attention. The aim of this study was to compare the performance of very low birth weight and normal birth weight children on a well-controlled task of sustained attention. The Fixed and Random versions of the Sustained Attention to Response Task were given to 17 very low birth weight and 18 normal birth weight children. The very low birth weight group performed the Fixed and Random Sustained Attention to Response Tasks in a similar manner as the normal birth weight group on all measures except for the omission error and Slow Frequency Area under the Spectra variables on the Fixed Sustained Attention to Response Task. These measures index lapses in sustained attention that may be underpinned by declining arousal. The very low birth weight group showed no response inhibition deficits. Omission errors and slow-timescale response-time variability on predictable tasks may thus present sensitive indices of difficulties with sustained attention and arousal associated with premature birth and low birth weight.

  16. Serum magnesium in the first week of life in extremely low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Noone, D

    2012-01-01

    Evidence that antenatal administration of magnesium sulfate (MgSO(4)) to women in preterm labor may confer fetal neuroprotection is growing. MgSO(4) crosses the placenta and can affect the neonate. Magnesium homeostasis in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants remains to be clarified.

  17. General movements in the first fourteen days of life in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, N. K. S.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Bos, A. F.

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To assess the quality of general movements (GMs) in the first fourteen days of life in relation to obstetric and postnatal risk factors and neurodevelopmental outcome in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study design: The GMs of nineteen infants were assessed on days 2, 4, 6, 10

  18. Results of longterm follow-up of children with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of our research is a long-term follow up study of children with low birth weight. Materials and methods. 115 premature children from 0 to 7 years old took part in the research process. The children gestational age was 30-35 weeks and their birth weight was less than 2500 g. All children had thorough clinical and laboratory, instrumental and psychological examination up to the age of seven. Their parents took part in questionnaire survey. Results. Development of all aspects of mentality is retarded and such retardation can be observed in the first months of life as slow learning of new things and peculiarities of psychological interrelations with the world around in the form of negative response to the influence of sensory stimuli, behavioral disorders and difficulties in social adaptation. Conclusion. Children with low birth weight are included into the high-risk group of disabling abnormalities and persistent non-disabling disorders. These children need early comprehensive rehabilitation and, at the same time, extremely careful prognosis of their further development.

  19. Experience in application of enriched breast milk in feeding children with very low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panina O.S.

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Nursing of very low and extremely low birth weight infants is one of the most difficult problems of modern perinatol-ogy. It is impossible to carry out this task without organization of fee-ding of this group of children. The aim of our research was to study clinical efficiency of breast milk fortifiers administration (human milk fortifier when preterm infants feeding. Materials and methods. In consequence of this clinical research (with included 60 premature infants born at less than 33 weeks of gestational age with less than 1500g birth weight the following advantages before other types of feeding were revealed. Results. Mother and child solidarity in the course of breast feeding make deep favorable mutual emotional pressure. It was succeeded to keep all breast feeding advantages and to provide preterm infants special needs in feedstuffs. Human milk fortifiers administration provides higher body weight gain intensity; reduces length of stay in a hospital. It should not go unnoticed high tolerability and lack of complications at its medication usability was noted. Human milk fortifier divorce with small quantity of breast milk and that is especially important for very low and extremely low birth weight infants feeding. Conclusion. All above-mentioned allows recommending human milk fortifiers «PRE NAN FM 85» administration for breast milk in neonatal practice

  20. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurul Komariah

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Background Low birth weight (LBW has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor of academic and financial success.Objective To examine social competence of children aged 3-5 years born with low birth weight.Methods This cross-sectional study was undertaken in Palembang in 2012. Subjects consisted of children aged 3-5 years attended a preschool in the Seberang Ulu I District, Palembang, and were divided into two groups: low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW. Social competence was assessed by observation and Interaction Rating Scale (IRS and Parenting Style questionnaire (PSQ. Chi-square analysis was used to compare social competence between the two groups. Multivariate regression logistic analysis was used to assess for the dominant factors that may affect a child’s social competence.Results Low birth weight children aged 3 to 5 years had a 1.435 times higher risk of low social competence compared to normal birth weight children of similar age. (RP 1.435; 95%CI 1.372 to 13.507; P=0.019. Multivariate regression logistic analysis revealed that parenting style was a dominant factor affecting social competence.Conclusion Social competence in 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight is lower compared to those with normal birth weight.

  1. Autonomic Functioning in Young Adults Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Karen J. Mathewson PhD; Ryan J. Van Lieshout MD, PhD; Saroj Saigal MD; Katherine M. Morrison MD; Michael H. Boyle PhD; Louis A. Schmidt PhD

    2015-01-01

    Autonomic functioning is altered in infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g). HF in the smallest-born ELBW participants was significantly lower than in NBW controls. In both groups, greater birth weight was associated with higher HF. Among ELBW survivors, lower birth weight predicted faster heart rate and higher DBP, but neither heart rate nor DBP appeared to be well-coordinated with baroreflex activity (LF), the principal mechanism for short-term blood pressure regulation. A...

  2. Additional Protein Fortification Is Necessary in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Infants Fed Human Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picaud, Jean-Charles; Houeto, Nellie; Buffin, Rachel; Loys, Claire-Marie; Godbert, Isabelle; Haÿs, Stephane

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, approximately one in three (49/152, 32.2%) extremely low-birth-weight infants were demonstrated to require additional protein intake to supplement the standard fortification to achieve satisfactory weight gain. This additional protein fortification also resulted in a rapid increase in length-for-age (P < 0.001) and head circumference-for-age (P = 0.02) z scores.

  3. The prevalence and risk factors of allergic and respiratory symptoms in a regional cohort of extremely low birth weight children (<1000 g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kwinta Przemko

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Children who were Aim To determine if ELBW infants are at higher risk for the development of allergic and respiratory symptoms and to establish if there were any specific risk factors for these symptoms. Methods 81 children born with a mean birthweight of 845 g (91% of available cohort were evaluated at the mean age 6.7 years. The control group included 40 full-term children. The children were examined for clinical signs of allergy, and were subjected to the following tests: serum total IgE, skin prick tests (SPT, exhaled nitric oxide measurement (FeNO and spirometry. Results ELBW children had wheezing episodes more often (64% vs. 25%; OR (odds ratio: 5.38; 95% CI (confidence interval: 2.14-13.8 and were diagnosed more frequently with asthma (32% vs. 7.5%; OR: 5.83, 95% CI: 1.52-26 than their term born peers. The most important risk factors for wheezing persistence were hospitalization and wheezing episodes in first 24 months of life. Mean serum tIgE level (geometric mean: 32+/−4 vs. 56+/−4 kU/L; p=0.002 was higher and the number of children with positive results of tIgE level (12% vs. 32%; p=0.02 were more frequent in the control group. Children from the control group also more frequently had SPT, however this data was not statistically significant (11% vs. 24%; p=0.09. All of the ELBW had normal FeNO level ( Conclusion ELBW children have more frequent respiratory, but not allergic problems at the age of 6–7 years compared to children born at term. The need for rehospitalization in the first 2 years of life, was a more important risk factor of future respiratory problems at the age of 7 than perinatal factors, the diagnosis of bronchopulmonary dysplasia or allergy.

  4. Family factors and social support in the developmental outcomes of very low-birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hogan, D P; Park, J M

    2000-06-01

    This study used data that were representative of the normative population of all infants born in 1988 and were followed during the first 3 years of life. Large developmental delays and limitations in function were common among children weighing less than 1500 g at birth. Among very low-birth weight infants, minority status and living in a household headed by a single mother further worsen the disadvantages associated with a very low birth weight. Nor could the disadvantages associated with very low birth weight be accounted for by controls for other risk factors or buffering statuses and behaviors. Among all children (including those of very low birth weight) poverty, reliance on Medicaid and other government sources for health insurance, a history of risky behaviors, and inadequate prenatal care are the major risk factors for developmental delays, limitations in function, and impairment at birth. State program benefit levels have no obvious effects on child outcomes, taking into account participation in individual programs. An important finding in light of TANF is that maternal work, the use of child care, and the form and cost of child care did not influence developmental delay, limitation in function, or impairment, the outcomes that we were able to measure during the first 3 years of life. TANF eligibility requirements, however, may increase difficulty in obtaining prenatal and other medical services for mothers and children in need--factors shown here to be related strongly to increased risk of low birth weight and developmental delays, limitations, and impairments. Race and ethnicity, poverty status, and family structure are fundamental factors in early child development and function. Minority status, poverty, and single-parent households greatly increase the likelihood that a mother will engage in risky behaviors (smoking, alcohol use, illegal drug use) during pregnancy and receive inadequate prenatal care. Risky behaviors and inadequate prenatal care are

  5. Randomized trial of BCG vaccination at birth to low-birth-weight children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Ravn, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG.......Observational studies have suggested that BCG may have nonspecific beneficial effects on survival. Low-birth-weight (LBW) children are not given BCG at birth in Guinea-Bissau; we conducted a randomized trial of BCG at birth (early BCG) vs delayed BCG....

  6. Mathematics Deficiencies in Children with Very Low Birth Weight or Very Preterm Birth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H. Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J.

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, less than 1500 g) or very preterm birth (VPTB, less than 32 weeks gestational age or GA) have more mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, greater than 2500 g and greater than 36 weeks GA).…

  7. Linking Assessment and Intervention for Developmental/Functional Outcomes of Premature, Low-Birth-Weight Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Yaoying; Filler, John W.

    2005-01-01

    Prematurity and low birth weight (LBW) are two major biological factors that put infants and young children at high risk for developmental delays or disabilities. While survival rates for premature and LBW children have improved, incidence figures have changed little over the past 20 years; in fact, the incidence of LBW has increased. Although the…

  8. Linguistic Production Abilities of 3-Year-Old Children Born Premature with Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Craig, Holly K.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Of 30 children with low birth weight, only 4 demonstrated clinically significant language problems at age 3. Language problems were characterized by circumscribed expressive syntax difficulties but were not related systematically to birth weight, gestational age, length of neonatal hospitalization, severity of respiratory illness, socioeconomic…

  9. Predicting neurodevelopmental outcomes at preschool age for children with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hsu, Yung-Wen; Wang, Tien-Ni; Wang, Lan-Wan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine predictors of neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight children without major impairment at 5 years of age, as well as to identify the contribution of early neurodevelopmental assessment to preterm children's later developmental outcomes. The participants in this study included 126 children who were prematurely born with very low birth weight. Outcomes of the childrens' later development were measured in tests that factored cognitive function, motor performance, and adaptive behavior. The results indicated that more than 50% of full-scale intelligence and 30% of both motor performance and adaptive behavior at the age of 5 can be explained by four predictors. The four predictors include preterm children's medical complications at birth, maternal education, early motor assessments, and cognitive assessments. Adding each test score obtained in early ages provides additional information to predict children's cognitive, motor, and adaptive behavior at 5 years of age. Manifold assessments conducted in multiple time periods strengthen the predictive values of later developmental outcomes. In addition, the findings of this study indicate that very low birth weight children tend to have lower adaptive behavior at 5 years old. With regard to our findings, we believe that having adaptive function is a reflection of a child's overall integrated abilities. Further study is warranted to increase understanding of this topic, as well as to be able to predict adaptive strengths and weakness and pinpoint limiting factors that may be useful for targeting behaviors in intervention.

  10. Disseminated candidemia refractory to caspofungin therapy in an infant with extremely low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng-Ju Li

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Systemic fungal infections have high morbidity and mortality rates in neonates, especially neonates with an extremely low birth weight (ELBW. Here, we describe a 21-day-old ELBW female infant with an amphotericin B-unresponsive congenital Candida albicans infection that was treated with caspofungin. Blood sterilization was performed during the first episode, but a second episode of candidemia occurred after the discontinuation of caspofungin. Blood sterilization was again performed during the second round of caspofungin treatment, but fungal endocarditis and renal fungal balls still developed during the second episode. Caspofungin can be considered for invasive candidiasis in premature infants, especially in life-threatening situations. As for the focal lesions, more aggressive treatments other than just parenteral antibiotics should be considered. The literature regarding caspofungin therapy for neonatal candidiasis is also reviewed.

  11. Linking Early Adversity, Emotion Dysregulation, and Psychopathology: The Case of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren A. Drvaric

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability to regulate emotion is a crucial process that humans utilize in order to adapt to the demands of environmental constraints. Individuals exposed to early adverse life events such as being born at an extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 501–1000 g are known to have problems regulating emotion which have been linked to the development of psychopathology in this population. Recent studies have used psychophysiological measures, such as electroencephalogram (EEG and cardiac vagal tone, to index emotion regulatory processes. The purpose of this paper was three-fold: (1 to investigate the relation between ELBW and emotion regulation issues (pathway 1, (2 to review studies investigating the relation between early emotion regulation and later internalizing problems (pathway 2; and (3 to provide a model in which two psychophysiological measures (i.e., frontal EEG asymmetry and cardiac vagal tone are suggested to understand the proposed conceptual pathways in the relation between ELBW and psychopathology.

  12. [Nutritional dilemmas in extremely low birth weight infants and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camelo, José Simon; Martinez, Francisco Eulógio

    2005-03-01

    To review the recent medical literature on nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, focusing on nutritional disorders and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood. An extensive review of the related literature was performed using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Best Evidence database. There is a growing body of evidence that early nutritional practices may affect short-term growth and development outcome. In addition, these practices may play a role in determining adult health and disease. There is still much to be learned about safe and efficacious nutrient administration in preterm infants; about techniques to assess the effect of different nutritional strategies; and about the long-term effects of these regimens on development outcome, growth and disease. Despite recent progress in neonatal nutrition, there is a lack of basic and clinical research to better define the nutritional requirements of preterm infants and the best way to meet these requirements, avoiding long-term undesirable consequences.

  13. Medical, nutritional, and dental considerations in children with low birth weight.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Connell, Susan

    2009-11-01

    It is estimated that 8 to 26 percent of infants are born with low birth weight (LBW) worldwide. These children are at risk for medical problems in childhood and adulthood and often have poor oral health. The influence of fetal growth on birth weight and its relevance to childhood growth and future adult health is controversial. Evidence now indicates that the postnatal period is a critical time when nutrition may predispose the child to lifelong metabolic disturbance and obesity. Given the lack of consensus on optimum infant nutrition for LBW, premature, and small-for-gestational-age infants, many such infants may be suboptimally managed. This may result in rapid postnatal weight gain and ongoing health problems. The purpose of this review was to summarize medical terminology and issues related to fetal growth, morbidity associated with being born low birth weight, premature, or small for gestational age, and the importance of appropriate nutrition in such infants. Pediatric dentists can play an important role in supporting healthy feeding practices and improving long-term health in these children. Early integrated medical and dental care should be encouraged for all children with low birth weight.

  14. Is there any role for terlipressin in the extremely low birth weight infant with refractory septic shock?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Bissolo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Terlipressin, a synthetic long-acting analogue of vasopressin, has been investigated as a second line vasopressor in adults and children with refractory septic shock, i.e. not responding to fluid resuscitation and high-dose catecholamine administration. Little experience is available about the safety and efficacy of terlipressin in term and preterm newborns. We report the case of an extremely low birth weight infant with severe septic shock, unresponsive to fluids, noradrenalin and hydrocortisone, in whom terlipressin was attempted as a rescue drug. Despite three doses of terlipressin, administered 6-hourly, the patient remained profoundly hypotensive and eventually died. Further studies are required before any recommendation on the use of terlipressin in term or preterm newborns with septic shock can be made.

  15. Adult social outcomes of extremely low birth weight survivors of childhood sexual abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lund, J I; Day, K L; Schmidt, L A; Saigal, S; Van Lieshout, R J

    2016-12-01

    Preterm birth and exposure to childhood sexual abuse (CSA) are early physiological and psychological adversities that have been linked to reduced social functioning across the lifespan. However, the joint effects of being born preterm and being exposed to CSA on adult social outcomes remains unclear. We sought to determine the impact of exposure to both preterm birth and CSA on adult social functioning in a group of 179 extremely low birth weight (ELBW; 2500 g) participants in the fourth decade of life. Social outcome data from a prospective, longitudinal, population-based Canadian birth cohort initiated between the years of 1977 and 1982 were examined. At age 29-36 years, ELBW survivors who experienced CSA reported poorer relationships with their partner, worse family functioning, greater loneliness, lower self-esteem and had higher rates of avoidant personality problems than those who had not experienced CSA. Birth weight status was also found to moderate associations between CSA and self-esteem (P=0.032), loneliness (P=0.021) and family functioning (P=0.060), such that the adverse effects of CSA were amplified in ELBW survivors. Exposure to CSA appears to augment the adult social risks associated with perinatal adversity. Individuals born preterm and exposed to CSA appear to be a group at particularly high risk for adverse social outcomes in adulthood.

  16. Early Vocalization of Preterm Infants with Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW), Part I: From Birth to Expansion Stage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torola, Helena; Lehtihalmes, Matti; Heikkinen, Hanna; Olsen, Paivi; Yliherva, Anneli

    2012-01-01

    The vocalization of preterm infants with extremely low birth weight (ELBW) up to the expansion stage was systematically described and compared with those of healthy full-term infants. The sample consisted of 18 preterm ELBW infants and the control group of 11 full-term infants. The follow-up was performed intensively using video-recordings. The…

  17. Gluconeogenesis is Not Regulated by Either Glucose or Insulin in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants Receiving Total Parenteral Nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chacko, Shaji K.; Ordonez, Jorge; Sauer, Pieter J. J.; Sunehag, Agneta L.

    2011-01-01

    Objective To determine potential factors regulating gluconeogenesis (GNG) in extremely low birth weight infants receiving total parenteral nutrition. Study design Seven infants (birth weight, 0.824 +/- 0.068 kg; gestational age, 25.4 +/- 0.5 weeks; postnatal age, 3.3 +/- 0.2 days) were studied for 1

  18. Frontal Electroencephalogram Asymmetry, Salivary Cortisol, and Internalizing Behavior Problems in Young Adults Who Were Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Louis A.; Miskovic, Vladimir; Boyle, Michael; Saigal, Saroj

    2010-01-01

    The authors examined internalizing behavior problems at middle childhood, adolescence, and young adulthood and brain-based measures of stress vulnerability in 154 right-handed, nonimpaired young adults (M age = 23 years): 71 (30 males, 41 females) born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; less than 1,000 g) and 83 (35 males, 48 females) controls…

  19. Early corticosteroid treatment does not affect severity of unconjugated hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight preterm infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hulzebos, Christian V.; Bos, Arend F.; Anttila, Eija; Hallman, Mikko; Verkade, Henkjan J.

    2011-01-01

    Aim: To determine the relationship between early postnatal dexamethasone (DXM) treatment and the severity of hyperbilirubinemia in extreme low birth weight (ELBW) preterm infants. Methods: In 54 ELBW preterm infants, total serum bilirubin concentrations (TSB) and phototherapy (PT) data during the fi

  20. The 'Effects of Transfusion Thresholds on Neurocognitive Outcome of Extremely Low Birth-Weight Infants (ETTNO)' Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Jes; Veiergang, Gitte

    2012-01-01

    Background: Infants with extremely low birth weight uniformly develop anemia of prematurity and frequently require red blood cell transfusions (RBCTs). Although RBCT is widely practiced, the indications remain controversial in the absence of conclusive data on the long-term effects of RBCT...

  1. Social competence of 3 to 5-year-old children born with low birth weight

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) has long been used as an indicator of public health. Low birth weight is not a proxy for any dimension of other maternal or perinatal health outcomes. Low birth weight infants require special care, and have more chronic conditions, learning delays, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders compared to infants of normal birth weight (NBW). Social competence is viewed as a primary component of healthy function and development and is an important predictor o...

  2. Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cordero, L; Nankervis, C A; Delooze, D; Giannone, P J

    2007-03-01

    Indomethacin prophylaxis or expectant treatment are common strategies for the prevention or management of symptomatic patent ductus arteriosus (sPDA). To compare the clinical responses of extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants to indomethacin prophylaxis with that of other infants who were managed expectantly by being treated with indomethacin or surgically only after an sPDA was detected. Retrospective cohort investigation of 167 ELBW infants who received indomethacin prophylaxis (study) and 167 ELBW infants (control) treated expectantly who were matched by year of birth (1999 to 2006), birth weight, gestational age (GA) and gender. Mothers of the two groups of infants were comparable demographically and on the history of preterm labor, pre-eclampsia, antepartum steroids and cesarean delivery. Study and control infants were similar in birth weight, GA, low 5 min Apgar scores, surfactant administration, the need for arterial blood pressure control, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and neonatal mortality. Necrotizing enterocolitis, spontaneous intestinal perforations, intraventricular hemorrhage grade III to IV, periventricular leukomalacia and stage 3 to 5 retinopathy of prematurity occurred also with similar frequency in both groups of infants. In the indomethacin prophylaxis group, 29% of the infants developed sPDA, and of them 38% responded to indomethacin treatment. In the expectantly treated group, 37% developed sPDA, and of them 59% responded to indomethacin treatment. Overall, surgical ligation rate for sPDA was similar between both groups of patients. In our experience, indomethacin prophylaxis does not show any advantages over expectant early treatment on the management of sPDA in ELBW infants. Although no deleterious effects were observed, prophylaxis exposed a significant number of infants who may have never developed sPDA, to potential indomethacin-related complications.

  3. Mortality in Extremely Low-Birth-Weight Neonates in México City (1985–2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Iglesias-Leboreiro

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To analyze 25 years of mortality of extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW neonates (≤1000 g in a private hospital in Mexico City and to establish the current viability limit for ELBW neonates. Methods. We designed a prospective observational study of all ELBW neonates born between 1985 and 2009. Neonatal mortality, early neonatal mortality, and the 120-day mortality rate were analyzed in 5-year intervals by two categories of birth weight (501–750 g and 751–1000 g. Results. Among the 50,823 total births, 158 were ELBW (3.1 per 103. Neonatal mortality (death ≤28 days decreased for the 501–750 g neonates from 88.9% (1985–1989 to 55.6% (2005–1999 (P=.008 and for 751–1000 g neonates also decreased from 50% to 5.3% (P=.002. The 120-day mortality for neonates over 500 g diminished: 501–750 g neonates, 88.9% to 61.1% (P=.02 and for 751–1000 g neonates, 62.5% to 15.8% (P=.002. The highest viability limit was established in neonates who weighed ≥650 g and were ≥26 weeks in gestational age. Conclusions. The survival of ELBW neonates has improved in Mexico particularly in private hospitals, and it was more evident over the years 2004–2009. These data suggest that it is possible to increase the ELBW neonates survive in developing counties.

  4. Beyond bacteria: a study of the enteric microbial consortium in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariam Susan LaTuga

    Full Text Available Extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants have high morbidity and mortality, frequently due to invasive infections from bacteria, fungi, and viruses. The microbial communities present in the gastrointestinal tracts of preterm infants may serve as a reservoir for invasive organisms and remain poorly characterized. We used deep pyrosequencing to examine the gut-associated microbiome of 11 ELBW infants in the first postnatal month, with a first time determination of the eukaryote microbiota such as fungi and nematodes, including bacteria and viruses that have not been previously described. Among the fungi observed, Candida sp. and Clavispora sp. dominated the sequences, but a range of environmental molds were also observed. Surprisingly, seventy-one percent of the infant fecal samples tested contained ribosomal sequences corresponding to the parasitic organism Trichinella. Ribosomal DNA sequences for the roundworm symbiont Xenorhabdus accompanied these sequences in the infant with the greatest proportion of Trichinella sequences. When examining ribosomal DNA sequences in aggregate, Enterobacteriales, Pseudomonas, Staphylococcus, and Enterococcus were the most abundant bacterial taxa in a low diversity bacterial community (mean Shannon-Weaver Index of 1.02 ± 0.69, with relatively little change within individual infants through time. To supplement the ribosomal sequence data, shotgun sequencing was performed on DNA from multiple displacement amplification (MDA of total fecal genomic DNA from two infants. In addition to the organisms mentioned previously, the metagenome also revealed sequences for gram positive and gram negative bacteriophages, as well as human adenovirus C. Together, these data reveal surprising eukaryotic and viral microbial diversity in ELBW enteric microbiota dominated bytypes of bacteria known to cause invasive disease in these infants.

  5. Cognition, behavior and social competence of preterm low birth weight children at school age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel Gick Fan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to assess the cognitive and behavioral development of preterm and low birth weight newborns living in a disadvantageous socioeconomic environment at school age. METHODS: This cross-sectional study included children aged 6-7 from a historical birth cohort of preterm (gestational age <37 weeks and low birth weight (<2,500 g infants. The Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children III (WISC-III was administered by a psychologist while the parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist. The results were compared to the test's reference. The perinatal information and follow-up data were collected from the hospital files. The demographic data were collected from the parents. The current performance was compared with the results from the Denver II and Bayley II tests, which were administered during the first years of life. RESULTS: The total intelligence quotient varied from 70 to 140 (mean 98.7±15.8. The borderline intelligence quotient was observed in 9.3% of the children. The Child Behavior Checklist indicated a predominance of social competence problems (27.8%, CI 19.2 to 37.9 compared with behavioral problems (15.5%, CI 8.9 to 24.2. Both the Child Behavior Checklist domains, such as schooling, social and attention problems, and the cognitive scores were significantly associated with maternal education and family income. The results of the Denver and Bayley tests were associated with the cognitive performance (p<0.001 and the Child Behavior Checklist social profile, including aggressive and externalizing behavior (p<0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that even low-risk preterm newborns are at risk for developing disturbances in early school age, such as mild cognitive deficits and behavioral disorders. This risk might increase under unfavorable socioeconomic conditions.

  6. Executive functions in extremely low birth weight and late-preterm preschoolers: effects on working memory and response inhibition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, Ida Sue; Kerns, Kimberly A; Müller, Ulrich; Ahronovich, Margot D; Litman, Fern R

    2012-01-01

    Executive function (EF) refers to fundamental capacities that underlie more complex cognition and have ecological relevance across the individual's lifespan. However, emerging executive functions have rarely been studied in young preterm children (age 3) whose critical final stages of fetal development are interrupted by their early birth. We administered four novel touch-screen computerized measures of working memory and inhibition to 369 participants born between 2004 and 2006 (52 Extremely Low Birth Weight [ELBW]; 196 late preterm; 121 term-born). ELBW performed worse than term-born on simple and complex working memory and inhibition tasks and had the highest percentage of incomplete performance on a continuous performance test. The latter finding indicates developmental immaturity and the ELBW group's most at-risk preterm status. Additionally, late-preterm participants performed worse compared with term-born on measures of complex working memory but did not differ from those term-born on response inhibition measures. These results are consistent with a recent literature that identifies often subtle but detectable neurocognitive deficits in late-preterm children. Our results support the development and standardization of computerized touch-screen measures to assess EF subcomponent abilities during the formative preschool period. Such measures may be useful to monitor the developmental trajectory of critical executive function abilities in preterm children, and their use is necessary for timely recognition of deficit and application of appropriate interventional strategies.

  7. Association between abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokines and metabolic alterations in obese low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domínguez Hernández, C; Klünder Klünder, M; Huang, F; Flores Armas, E M; Velázquez-López, L; Medina-Bravo, P

    2016-08-01

    In addition to obesity, low birth weight (LBW) has been proposed as another independent risk factor associated with cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of birth weight on abdominal fat distribution, adipocytokine levels and associated metabolic alterations in obese children. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 92 children. Children were divided into three groups according to their body mass index and birth weight. Glucose and insulin (0 and 120 min), lipid profile and adipocytokines were measured. Abdominal fat distribution was assessed by magnetic resonance imaging. Obese LBW children had higher fasting glucose (P = 0.054) and insulin (P < 0.001), and 120 min glucose (P < 0.001) and insulin levels (P < 0.001), such as increased HOMA-IR (homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance index) (P < 0.001). Obesity and LBW were associated with lower concentrations of high molecular weight (HMW) adiponectin (-2.38 [IC 95% -4.27; -0.42, P = 0.018]) and higher subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) (28.05 [IC 95% 0.40; 55.7, P = 0.047]) compared with NBW obese children, independent of age or sex. LBW in obese children is associated with lower HMW adiponectin, increased insulin resistance and greater SAT. © 2015 World Obesity.

  8. Local and global aspects of biological motion perception in children born at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, K E; Jakobson, L S; Saunders, D R; Troje, N F

    2015-01-01

    Biological motion perception can be assessed using a variety of tasks. In the present study, 8- to 11-year-old children born prematurely at very low birth weight (body structure, and the ability to carry out higher order processes required for action recognition and person identification. Preterm children exhibited difficulties in all 4 aspects of biological motion perception. However, intercorrelations between test scores were weak in both full-term and preterm children--a finding that supports the view that these processes are relatively independent. Preterm children also displayed more autistic-like traits than full-term peers. In preterm (but not full-term) children, these traits were negatively correlated with performance in the task requiring structure-from-motion processing, r(30) = -.36, p children and suggest that a core deficit in social perception/cognition may contribute to the development of the social and behavioral difficulties even in members of this population who are functioning within the normal range intellectually. The results could inform the development of screening, diagnostic, and intervention tools.

  9. Mathematics deficiencies in children with very low birth weight or very preterm birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, H Gerry; Espy, Kimberly Andrews; Anderson, Peter J

    2009-01-01

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW, mathematics disabilities or deficiencies (MD) and higher rates of mathematics learning disabilities (MLD) than normal birth weight term-born children (NBW, >2500 g and >36 weeks GA). MD are found even in children without global disorders in cognition or neurosensory status and when IQ is controlled, and they are associated with other learning problems and weaknesses in perceptual motor abilities and executive function. Factors related to poorer mathematics outcomes include lower birth weight and GA, neonatal complications, and possible abnormalities in brain structure. While little is known about the nature of MD in these children, studies of MLD in other neurodevelopmental disorders and in children with learning disabilities provide useful models for further investigation. Further investigation of the neuropsychological and neuropathological correlates of distinct types of mathematics difficulties is also needed. Studies along these lines will yield information about the unique features of MD in children with VLBW/VPTB and about the nature and origins of poor mathematics achievement more generally.

  10. Social attribution skills of children born preterm at very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Kathryn E; Jakobson, Lorna S

    2014-11-01

    Children born prematurely at very low birth weight (<1500 g) are at increased risk for impairments affecting social functioning, including autism spectrum disorders (e.g., Johnson et al., 2010). In the current study, we used the Happé-Frith animated triangles task (Abell, Happé, & Frith, 2000) to study social attribution skills in this population. In this task, typical viewers attribute intentionality and mental states to shapes, based on characteristics of their movements. Participants included 34 preterm children and 36 full-term controls, aged 8-11 years. Groups were comparable in terms of age at test, gender, handedness, and socioeconomic status; they also performed similarly on tests of selective attention/processing speed and verbal intelligence. Relative to full-term peers, preterm children's descriptions of the animations were less appropriate overall; they also overattributed intentionality/mental states to randomly moving shapes and underattributed intentionality/mental states to shapes that seemed to be interacting socially. Impairments in the ability to infer the putative mental states of triangles from movement cues alone were most evident in children displaying more "autistic-like" traits, and this may reflect atypical development of and/or functioning in, or atypical connections between, parts of the social brain.

  11. High frequencies of elevated alkaline phosphatase activity and rickets exist in extremely low birth weight infants despite current nutritional support

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parker Bruce R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Osteopenia and rickets are common among extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Methods We evaluated all ELBW infants admitted to Texas Children's Hospital NICU in 2006 and 2007. Of 211 admissions, we excluded 98 patients who were admitted at >30 days of age or did not survive/stay for >6 weeks. Bone radiographs obtained in 32 infants were reviewed by a radiologist masked to laboratory values. Results In this cohort of 113 infants, P-APA was found to have a significant inverse relationship with BW, gestational age and serum phosphorus. In paired comparisons, P-APA of infants Conclusion Elevation of P-APA >600 IU/L was very common in ELBW infants. BW was significantly inversely related to both P-APA and radiologic rickets. No single value of P-APA was related to radiological findings of rickets. Given the very high risk of osteopenia and rickets among ELBW infants, we recommend consideration of early screening and early mineral supplementation, especially among infants

  12. Intelligence Quotient (IQ and Growth Indices in Children with the History of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amin-Gooran Urimei

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In two groups of children with and without the history of LBW, Intelligence Quotient (IQ and growth indices including weight and height are compared.Methods: In this historical cohort study performed in Zanjan City (Iran, 130 six-year-old children of both sexes in two equal groups, 65 with LBW history and 65 with normal birth weight (NBW, were selected randomly to be assessed for IQ, utilizing Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R and physical growth indices, including weight and height. The results were analyzed statistically and P-values less than 0.05 were considered as significant.Findings: Verbal, non-verbal and total IQ, all were significantly different between LBW and NBW groups (P=0.02, P=0.04 and P=0.01, respectively. Mean total IQ was 93.66±8.27 and 99.32±11.05, respectively. Weight and height between case and control groups showed significant differences, too (P=0.001 and P= 0.005, respectively.Conclusion: The results of this study and similar studies emphasize paying special attention to the problem of low birth weight deliveries, recognizing related risk factors and trying to reduce them.

  13. Born Too Soon: What Can We Expect? Nature of Home Literacy Experiences for Children with Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragusa, G.

    2009-01-01

    This study documents the home literacy experiences of children born with very low birth weight (VLBW). The study's design was modelled after Purcell-Gates' study of social domains mediated by print as home literacy experiences. A design combining purposeful sampling, semi-structured data collection and descriptive case study analysis was employed…

  14. Development and Predictive Value of Early Vocalizations in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Children: A Longitudinal Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Lehtonen, Liisa; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze early vocalization development, the predictive value of this development in terms of later language skills, and possible gender difference in early vocalization development in a selected cohort of 32 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children and 35 full-term controls. The data on early vocalization…

  15. Meta-analysis of neurobehavioral outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.S.H. Aarnoudse-Moens (Cornelieke); N. Weisglas-Kuperus (Nynke); J.B. van Goudoever (Hans); J. Oosterlaan (Jaap)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractOBJECTIVE: Sequelae of academic underachievement, behavioral problems, and poor executive function (EF) have been extensively reported for very preterm (≤33 weeks' gestation) and/or very low birth weight (VLBW) (≤1500 g) children. Great variability in the published results, however, hind

  16. The 5-minute Apgar score: survival and short-term outcomes in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phalen, Ann Gibbons; Kirkby, Sharon; Dysart, Kevin

    2012-01-01

    The Apgar score is a standardized tool for evaluating newborns in the delivery room. Despite its long history and widespread use, debate remains over its reliability of predicting neonatal outcomes, especially in extremely low-birth-weight premature infants. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between the 5-minute Apgar score of extremely low-birth-weight infants, as it relates to survival and morbidities associated with prematurity and length of hospital stay. A retrospective query of the Alere neonatal database from 2001 to 2011 examined all infants less than 32 weeks' gestation and less than 1000-g birth weight. The 5-minute Apgar score was divided into 2 groups, score of 4 or greater or less than 4. The study compared results of the 5-minute Apgar score and associated morbidities in surviving infants. Statistical analyses included chi-square, Fisher exact test, t test, and multivariate regression. The sample consisted of 3898 infants with an 86.4% (n = 3366) survival rate. Controlling for gestational age and birth weight, surviving infants with a 5-minute Apgar score of less than 4 were more likely to demonstrate nonintact survival. Infants with a low 5-minute Apgar score have greater risk for mortality and morbidities associated with prematurity.

  17. Body mass index may modify asthma prevalence among low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Frank Leigh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung; Caffrey, James L; Lin, Meng-Hung; Lin, Yu-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chun; Tsai, Meng-Shan; Ho, Wen-Chao; Chen, Pau-Chung; Sung, Fung-Chang; Lin, Ruey-Shiung

    2012-07-01

    Childhood asthma, a growing health concern, has been associated with low birth weight and elevated body mass index. This study tested the hypothesis that overweight and obese adolescents with a history of low birth weight are at even greater risk of developing asthma. A cohort of 75,871 junior high school students was screened for asthma during 1995-1996 in Taiwan. Birth weight and estimated gestational age were obtained from the birth registry. Logistic regression and simple regression analyses were adjusted for confounding variables. Asthma was more prevalent in those with birth weights below 3,000 g and higher adolescent body mass indexes. Furthermore, those with both characteristics were consistently most likely to have asthma. Whether the asthma diagnosis among low-birth-weight subjects was assigned by physicians or medical questionnaire, the risks were elevated for both overweight (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.41; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.25) and obese (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.38; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.47) boys as well as overweight (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.63; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.30) and obese (physician diagnosis: odds ratio = 1.44; medical questionnaire: odds ratio = 1.32) girls (P nutritional counseling could reduce asthma prevalence.

  18. Extreme Temperatures May Increase Risk for Low Birth Weight at Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... at term, NIH study suggests Skip sharing on social media links Share this: Page Content Monday, February 27, 201 7 -Stock photo Extreme hot or cold temperatures during pregnancy may increase the risk that infants born at ...

  19. School children with low birth weight inserted in system of Embu's education: construction of sentences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pessoa, Rebeca Rodrigues; Isotani, Selma Mie; Perissinoto, Jacy; Puccini, Rosana Fiorini

    2014-01-01

    To characterize the construction of sentences in schoolchildren born with low weight. We selected 413 students from Embu das Artes (SP), Brazil. Application of Recreating Speech Acts of Test of Language Competence sub-test. We analyzed the number of words and the holistic score. Age group of 6-10 years old, female/male, with low birth weight (temporality and place, with adverb functions. There was no difference between groups regarding the holistic score. It was found positive impact of the variables birth weight (p=0.002), age of child, age of mother and maternal education on standard test scores in both groups. The SG had fewer words compared to CG. The higher the birth weight, the higher the score test pattern. It was evident the age-related changes in morpho-syntactic skills addressed in the study, and protection factors mother's schooling and age had a positive impact on language performance.

  20. 'Resuscitation' of extremely preterm and/or low-birth-weight infants - time to 'call it'?

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Donnell, Colm P F

    2008-01-01

    Since ancient times, various methods have been used to revive apparently stillborn infants; many were of dubious efficacy and had the potential to cause harm. Based largely on studies of acutely asphyxiated term animal models, clinical assessment and positive pressure ventilation have become the cornerstones of neonatal resuscitation over the last 40 years. Over the last 25 years, care of extremely preterm infants in the delivery room has evolved from a policy of indifference to one of increasingly aggressive support. The survival of these infants has improved considerably in recent years; this has not, however, necessarily been due to more aggressive resuscitation. Urban myths have evolved that all extremely preterm infants died before they were intubated, and that all such infants need to immediately intubated or they will quickly die. This has never been true. Clinical assessment of infants at birth is subjective. Also, many techniques used to support preterm infants at birth have not been well studied and there is evidence that they may be harmful. It may thus be argued that many of our well-intentioned resuscitation interventions are of dubious efficacy and have the potential to cause harm. 'Resuscitation' is an emotive term which means 'restoration of life'. Death, thankfully, is a rare presentation in the delivery room. Therefore, concerning neonatal 'resuscitation', it is time to 'call it' something else. This will allow us to dispassionately distinguish preterm infants who are dead, or nearly dead, from those who are merely at high risk of parenchymal lung disease. We may then be able to refine our interventions and determine what methods of support benefit these infants most.

  1. Azithromycin in the extremely low birth weight infant for the prevention of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia: a pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anstead Michael I

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Azithromycin reduces the severity of illness in patients with inflammatory lung disease such as cystic fibrosis and diffuse panbronchiolitis. Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD is a pulmonary disorder which causes significant morbidity and mortality in premature infants. BPD is pathologically characterized by inflammation, fibrosis and impaired alveolar development. The purpose of this study was to obtain pilot data on the effectiveness and safety of prophylactic azithromycin in reducing the incidence and severity of BPD in an extremely low birth weight (≤ 1000 grams population. Methods Infants ≤ 1000 g birth weight admitted to the University of Kentucky Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (level III, regional referral center from 9/1/02-6/30/03 were eligible for this pilot study. The pilot study was double-blinded, randomized, and placebo-controlled. Infants were randomized to treatment or placebo within 12 hours of beginning mechanical ventilation (IMV and within 72 hours of birth. The treatment group received azithromycin 10 mg/kg/day for 7 days followed by 5 mg/kg/day for the duration of the study. Azithromycin or placebo was continued until the infant no longer required IMV or supplemental oxygen, to a maximum of 6 weeks. Primary endpoints were incidence of BPD as defined by oxygen requirement at 36 weeks gestation, post-natal steroid use, days of IMV, and mortality. Data was analyzed by intention to treat using Chi-square and ANOVA. Results A total of 43 extremely premature infants were enrolled in this pilot study. Mean gestational age and birth weight were similar between groups. Mortality, incidence of BPD, days of IMV, and other morbidities were not significantly different between groups. Post-natal steroid use was significantly less in the treatment group [31% (6/19] vs. placebo group [62% (10/16] (p = 0.05. Duration of mechanical ventilation was significantly less in treatment survivors, with a median of 13 days (1–47

  2. C-Reactive Protein and Procalcitonin Diagnostic Value in Congenital Infection in Newborns with Extremely Low and Very Low Birth Weight

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    O. V. Mikhaylova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The high frequency of infectious complications in the early neonatal period of adaptation in infants with extremely low (ELBW and very low birth weight (VLBW attracts particular attention. The aim of our study was to evaluate the sensitivity (Se and specificity (Sp of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin in congenital pneumonia and congenital sepsis in newborn infants with extremely low and very low birth weight.Methods. In 160 preterm newborns that were included in our prospective study, 33 had early neonatal sepsis, 42 children had congenital pneumonia, and 85 infants were without neonatal infection. A comprehensive clinical and laboratoryinstrumental examination of the newborn was done, including determining the concentration of C-reactive protein and procalcitonin at the age of 48–72 hours of life. Results. Low sensitivity of CRP at the age of 48–72 hours of life in congenital sepsis and congenital pneumonia was observed. However, under these pathological conditions CRP and PCT are characterized by high specificity. It should also be noted that PCT has a high sensitivity in children with congenital sepsis aged 48–72 hours. Moreover, PCT also has a high specificity (Sp 80,6%, which determines its advantage in the use of sepsis diagnosis in extremely premature infants compared to CRP.Conclusion. Maximum specificity reaches 100%, co-located with the assessment of CRP and PCT, which determines the feasibility of using this combination for verification of congenital infectious conditions such as sepsis and pneumonia in children ELBW and VLBW aged 48–72 hours.

  3. Oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk to prevent necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants: theoretical perspectives.

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    Rodriguez, Nancy A; Caplan, Michael S

    2015-01-01

    The oropharyngeal administration of mother's milk-placing drops of milk onto the infant's oral mucosa-may serve as a preventative strategy against necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) for extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW: birth weight milk to ELBW infants may serve to expose the infant's oropharynx to protective (immune and trophic) biofactors (also present in amniotic fluid) and may protect the infant against NEC. Emerging evidence suggests that this intervention may have many benefits for extremely premature infants including protection against bacteremia, NEC, and ventilator-associated pneumonia, an earlier attainment of full enteral feeds, enhanced maturation of oral feeding skills, improved growth, and enhanced breast-feeding outcomes. While more research is needed to definitively establish safety and efficacy of this intervention, this article will examine biological plausibility and will describe the theoretical mechanisms of protection against NEC for ELBW infants who receive this intervention. Nurses play a key role in advancing the science and practice of this intervention. Future directions for research and implications for nursing practice will also be presented.

  4. Reduced brachial flow-mediated vasodilation in young adult ex extremely low birth weight preterm: a condition predictive of increased cardiovascular risk?

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    Bassareo, P P; Fanos, V; Puddu, M; Demuru, P; Cadeddu, F; Balzarini, M; Mercuro, G

    2010-10-01

    Sporadic data present in literature report how preterm birth and low birth weight constitute the risk factors for the development of cardiovascular diseases in later life. To assess the presence of potential alterations to endothelial function in young adults born preterm at extremely low birth weight (Cesarea, Israel). Endothelial function was significantly reduced in ex-ELBW subjects compared to C (1.94 +/- 0.37 vs. 2.68 +/- 0.41, p < 0.0001). Moreover, this function correlated significantly with gestational age (r = 0.56, p < 0.0009) and birth weight (r = 0.63, p < 0.0001). The results obtained reveal a significant decrease in endothelial function of ex-ELBW subjects compared to controls, underlining a probable correlation with preterm birth and low birth weight. Taken together, these results suggest that an ELBW may underlie the onset of early circulatory dysfunction predictive of increased cardiovascular risk.

  5. High incidence of rickets in extremely low birth weight infants with severe parenteral nutrition-associated cholestasis and bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

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    Lee, Soon Min; Namgung, Ran; Park, Min Soo; Eun, Ho Sun; Park, Kook In; Lee, Chul

    2012-12-01

    Risk factors for rickets of prematurity have not been re-examined since introduction of high mineral formula, particularly in ELBW infants. We analyzed the incidence and the risk factors of rickets in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. As a retrospective case-control study from 2004 to 2008, risk factors were analyzed in 24 patients with rickets versus 31 patients without. The frequency of rickets in ELBW infants was 24/55 (44%). Infants with rickets were diagnosed at 48.2 ± 16.1 days of age, and improved by 85.3 ± 25.3 days. By radiologic evaluation, 29% were grade 1 rickets, 58% grade 2 and 13% grade 3. In univariate analysis, infants with rickets had significantly higher incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, parenteral nutrition associated cholestasis (PNAC), severe PNAC and moderate/severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD). In multiple regression analysis, after adjustment for gestation and birth weight, rickets significantly correlated with severe PNAC and with moderate/severe BPD. Serum peak alkaline phosphatase levels were significantly elevated in rickets (P rickets of prematurity remains high and the incidence of severe PNAC and moderate/severe BPD was significantly increased 18 and 3 times, respectively.

  6. [The use of caspofungin in extremely low birth weight preterm infants based on clinical trials and reports considering the own experience (case report)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stempniewicz, Krzysztof; Walas, Wojciech; Gregorek-Pełka, Edyta; Kamińska, Ewa

    2014-01-01

    In recent years, despite of significant progress in the treatment of premature infants with extremely low body weight, still a significant problem remains severe, treatment-resistant generalized infections among which the percentage of fungal infections is increasing. The invasive candidiasis, especially caused by non-albicans species of Candida, are of particular importance. In the case of resistance on fluconazole and amphotericin B the use of echinocandin drug may be a useful choice. This paper reviews the pharmacokinetics of caspofungin in neonates and children, as well as the case reports and clinical trials on the use of caspofungin in neonates, including the premature infants. We describe also the premature neonate with low birth weight and a generalized infection caused by Candida glabrata, where, despite of the treatment based on the sensitivity of the fungus it did not achieve clinical improvement and sterilization of cultures. It was not until the lead-in of caspofungin in dose 2 mg/kg/day allowed to cure the patient. There was a transient increase in the activity of aminotransferases and level of bilirubin as a complication of treatment. At the end of application of caspofungin the liver functions have been slowly normalized. Caspofungin appeared to be effective in the treatment of systemic fungal C. glabrata in premature neonate with extremely low birth weight. Echinocandins, including caspofungin, appear to be a promising alternative to previously used agents in the treatment of invasive Candida infections in newborns. However, the further randomized trials on the use of caspofungin in preterm neonates, regarding long term follow-up, should be undertaken.

  7. The emergence of grammar in very-low-birth-weight Finnish children at two years of age.

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    Stolt, Suvi; Matomäki, Jaakko; Haataja, Leena; Lapinleimu, Helena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2013-03-01

    It is not well understood how grammar emerges in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) children. The main aim of the present study was to gain information on the emergence of grammar in this group at 2 ; 0. The Finnish version of the Communicative Development Inventory was used to collect data from VLBW children (N = 156) and full-term controls (N = 146). At a group level, the grammatical skills of the VLBW children were significantly weaker than those of the controls. However, when the effect of lexicon size and premature birth on the emergence of grammar was analyzed in detail, few significant differences were found between the groups. The results suggest that even though grammar emerges more slowly for the VLBW children, it emerges in a manner comparable to that of the controls, when the effect of lexicon size is taken into consideration.

  8. 极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床分析%Analysis of clinical characteristics and antimicrobial susceptibilities in very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants with neonatal sepsis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林素; 吴百威; 王能里; 刘花兰; 胡淑英; 林振浪

    2010-01-01

    目的 了解极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床特点、病原菌分布及药物敏感情况,以指导临床合理用药.方法 对1999年1月1日至2008年12月31日温州医学院附属育英儿童医院新生儿重症监护病房收治的56例极低和超低出生体重儿败血症(早发型败血症3例,晚发型败血症53例)临床特点、血培养结果及药物敏感情况进行回顾性分析.结果 极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床表现无特征性.血培养结果阳性43例,以条件致病菌为主,其中新生儿早发型败血症血培养阳性1例.为脑膜炎败血黄杆菌;新生儿晚发型败血症血培养病原菌中,革兰阴性细菌主要是肺炎克雷伯菌(33.3%,14/42);革兰阳性细菌以凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌为首(26.2%,11/42),其次是肠球菌(11.9%,5/42);另有真菌感染2例,为白念珠菌败血症(4.8%,2/42).药物敏感试验方面,所有凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌均为耐苯唑西林凝同酶阴性葡萄球菌,对大部分β-内酰胺类抗生素耐药,对林可霉素、氨基糖苷类、大环内酯类及喹诺酮类抗生素亦不敏感,但对万古霉素未发现耐药,对利福平均敏感;所有肺炎克雷伯菌均产超广谱β-内酰胺酶,仅对碳青霉烯类、氨基糖苷类以及喹诺酮类等少数抗生素敏感.56例败血症患儿治愈43例,死亡13例(包括6例病情恶化放弃治疗),病死率为23.2%.结论极低和超低出生体重儿败血症临床表现缺乏特异性,病原菌主要为条件致病菌,并存在多重耐药,对可疑败血症患儿应及时行病原学检查及药物敏感试验,合理选择抗生素.为减少多重耐药菌感染的发生,应正确合理使用第三代头孢菌素.%Objective To review the basic clinical characteristics and the pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities to neonatal sepsis in very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) and extremely low birth weight infants ( ELBWI) for selection of appropriate antibiotics. Methods A

  9. 117 例极低和超低出生体重儿并发症及结局分析%Complications and outcomes of 117 cases of extremely low birth weight and very low birth weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾军安; 李占魁; 李清红; 邓科委

    2015-01-01

    目的 了解极低出生体重儿( VLBWI)和超低出生体重儿( ELBWI)常见并发症及影响预后的相关因素,为提高极早早产儿救治水平提供参考. 方法 选择西北妇女儿童医院新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)2014年1月1日至12月31日收治的117例VLBWI和ELBWI,根据预后情况分为预后良好组和预后不良组,对其临床资料进行整理和统计分析. 结果 117例患儿中治愈或好转(预后良好)89例(76.1%),放弃治疗或死亡(预后不良)28例(23.9%). VLBWI和ELBWI主要并发症发生率前6位依次是:呼吸窘迫综合征(53.0%),早产儿贫血(50.4%),颅内出血(45.3%),败血症(早发型和晚发型)(36.8%),病理性黄疸(34.2%),呼吸暂停(27.4%). 预后良好组与预后不良组相比较,胎龄较大(t=3.56,P<0.05)、出生体重较重(t=5.30,P<0.05),产时窒息、妊娠期高血压疾病、妊娠糖尿病、肺出血、先天畸形和机械通气率较低(χ2 值分别为4.92、10.73、11.36、5.13、8.79、6.78,均P<0.05). 结论 VLBWI和ELBWI易出现各种并发症,严重并发症及母孕期疾病易导致患儿死亡,并影响家属救治信心,导致预后不良发生,因此,要加强围产期保健,并加强对其并发症的认识,进行及时有效的处理,尽量减少这类患儿的病死率.%Objective To investigate the common complications of very low birth weight infant ( VLBWI) and extremely low birth weight infant ( ELBWI) and related factors influencing prognosis, so as to provide reference for improving the level of treating very preterm infants.Methods From January 1 to December 31 in 2014, totally 117 VLBWIs and ELBWIs treated in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Northwest Women and Children' s Hospital were divided into good prognosis group and poor prognosis group according to prognosis.All these clinical data were collected and analyzed.Results Eighty-nine cases ( 76.1%) were cured or improved ( good prognosis) and 28 cases (23.9%) gave up or died (poor diagnosis

  10. Growth and Development in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants After the Introduction of Exclusive Human Milk Feedings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colacci, Michael; Murthy, Karna; DeRegnier, Raye-Ann O; Khan, Janine Y; Robinson, Daniel T

    2017-01-01

    Objective To estimate associations of exclusive human milk (EHM) feedings with growth and neurodevelopment through 18 months corrected age (CA) in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Study Design ELBW infants admitted from July 2011 to June 2013 who survived were reviewed. Infants managed from July 2011 to June 2012 were fed with bovine milk-based fortifiers and formula (BOV). Beginning in July 2012, initial feedings used a human milk-based fortifier to provide EHM feedings. Infants were grouped on the basis of feeding regimen. Primary outcomes were the Bayley-III cognitive scores at 6, 12, and 18 months and growth. Results Infants (n = 85; 46% received EHM) were born at 26 ± 1.9 weeks (p = 0.92 between groups) weighing 776 ± 139 g (p = 0.67 between groups). Cognitive domain scores were similar at 6 months (BOV: 96 ± 7; EHM: 95 ± 14; p = 0.70), 12 months (BOV: 97 ± 10; EHM: 98 ± 9; p = 0.86), and 18 months (BOV: 97 ± 16; EHM: 98 ± 14; p = 0.71) CA. Growth velocity prior to discharge (BOV: 12.1 ± 5.2 g/kg/day; EHM: 13.1 ± 4.0 g/kg/day; p = 0.33) and subsequent growth was similar between groups. Conclusion EHM feedings appear to support similar growth and neurodevelopment in ELBW infants as compared with feedings containing primarily bovine milk-based products.

  11. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui-Jia; Du, Li-Zhong; Ma, Xiao-Lu; Shi, Li-Ping; Pan, Jia-Hua; Tong, Xiao-Mei; Li, Qiu-Ping; Zhou, Jian-Guo; Yi, Bing; Liu, Ling; Chen, Yun-Bing; Wei, Qiu-Fen; Wu, Hui-Qing; Li, Mei; Liu, Cui-Qing; Gao, Xi-Rong; Xia, Shi-Wen; Li, Wen-Bin; Yan, Chao-Ying; He, Ling; Liang, Kun; Zhou, Xiao-Yu; Han, Shu-Ping; Lyu, Qin; Qiu, Yin-Ping; Li, Wen; Chen, Dong-Mei; Lu, Hong-Ru; Liu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Hong; Lin, Zhen-Lang; Liu, Li; Zhu, Jia-Jun; Xiong, Hong; Yue, Shao-Jie; Zhuang, Si-Qi

    2015-01-01

    Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019). BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed

  12. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Jia Lin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: With the progress of perinatal medicine and neonatal technology, more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW survived all over the world. This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU stay in the mainland of China. Methods: All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW < l000 g were included between January l, 2011 and December 31, 2011. All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire. The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed. Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test. Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors. Results: A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs, of whom the mean gestational age (GA was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks, and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g. The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%. Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3% died and another 69 infants (26.7% died after medical care withdrawal. Furthermore, the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs. 35.3%, P = 0.019. BW < 750 g and GA < 28 weeks were the largest risk factors, and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality. Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication. The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus, intraventricular hemorrhage, periventricular leukomalacia, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%, 33.7%, 6.7%, 48.1%, and 41.4%, respectively. Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization. Conclusions: Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China. The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other

  13. Mortality and Morbidity of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Mainland of China: A Multi-center Study

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hui-Jia Lin; Li-Zhong Du; Xiao-Lu Ma; Li-Ping Shi; Jia-Hua Pan; Xiao-Mei Tong; Qiu-Ping Li

    2015-01-01

    Background:With the progress ofperinatal medicine and neonatal technology,more and more extremely low birth weight (ELBW) survived all over the world.This study was designed to investigate the short-term outcomes of ELBW infants during their Neonatal Intensive Care Unit (NICU) stay in the mainland of China.Methods:All infants admitted to 26 NICUs with a birth weight (BW) <1000 g were included between January 1,2011 and December 3 1,201 1.All the data were collected retrospectively from clinical records by a prospectively designed questionnaire.The data collected from each NICU transmitted to the main institution where the results were aggregated and analyzed.Categorical variables were performed with Pearson Chi-square test.Binary Logistic regression analysis was used to detect risk factors.Results:A total of 258 ELBW infants were admitted to 26 NICUs,of whom the mean gestational age (GA) was 28.1 ± 2.2 weeks,and the mean BW was 868 ± 97 g.The overall survival rate at discharge was 50.0%.Despite aggressive treatment 60 infants (23.3%) died and another 69 infants (26.7%) died after medical care withdrawal.Furthermore,the survival rate was significantly higher in coastal areas than inland areas (53.6% vs.35.3%,P =0.019).BW <750 g and GA <28 weeks were the largest risk factors,and being small for gestational age was a protective factor related to mortality.Respiratory distress syndrome was the most common complication.The incidence of patent ductus arteriosus,intraventricular hemorrhage,periventricular leukomalacia,bronchopulmonary dysplasia,retinopathy of prematurity was 26.2%,33.7%,6.7%,48.1%,and 41.4%,respectively.Ventilator associated pneumonia was the most common hospital acquired infection during hospitalization.Conclusions:Our study was the first survey that revealed the present status of ELBW infants in the mainland of China.The mortality and morbidity of ELBW infants remained high as compared to other developed countries.

  14. Comparison of Growth Parameters in Five Year-Old Children with and Without History of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Dehghanpoor

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Nowadays Low birth weight(LBW or birth weight<2500g is one of the most serious problems among children around the world. The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the growth parameters(weight, height, head circumference and BMI of LBW children at the age of five years with normal birth weight (NBW: birth weight: 2500- 4000 g children. Methods: In a cross-sectional analytic study, growth parameters of five year-old children referred to Azadshahr health care center in Yazd, Iran, from December 2008 to June 2009 were evaluated. NBW and LBW children were selected as control and case groups, respectively. Results: Means of all growth parameters were significantly lower in LBW group. Frequency of severe failure to thrive and short stature was significantly higher in LBW group. Frequency of underweight was higher in LBW group and frequency of obesity was higher in NBW one. Frequency of underweight was higher in LBW girls. Conclusion: Considering that growth in LBW children is slower than NBW children in the first five years of life, it is necessary to emphasize the importance of growth assessment of LBW children for early and timely diagnosis, work-up and management of growth retardation and prevention of subsequent problems.

  15. The prevalence and predictive value of weak language skills in children with very low birth weight--a longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Matomaki, Jaakko; Lind, Annika; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena; Lehtonen, Liisa

    2014-06-01

    Previous findings regarding the prevalence and predictive value of weak language skills in preterm children with very low birth weight (VLBW) are unclear. This study analysed the prevalence of weak language skills, the predictive value of early weak language skills on later weak language skills, and the sensitivity and specificity of cognitive scores for identifying concurrent weak language skills in a longitudinal sample of VLBW children (n = 141) and their full-term controls (n = 146). Data on language skills and cognitive development were gathered at two and five years of age. Weak language skills were defined by the 10th percentile value of the controls. In VLBW children, the prevalence of weak language skills varied between 16% and 18% at 2 years of age (controls: 8 to 10%) and between 20% and 27% at 5 years of age (controls: 10%). Early weak language skills predicted later weak language skills in VLBW children. Cognitive scores were specific, but their sensitivity for identifying concurrent weak language skills was low. The prevalence of weak language skills in VLBW children increased during the follow-up period and was higher than the controls. Language-sensitive methods should be used in the clinical follow-up of VLBW children.

  16. Preschool motor skills following physical and occupational therapy services among non-disabled very low birth weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watkins, Stephanie; Jonsson-Funk, Michele; Brookhart, M Alan; Rosenberg, Steven A; O'Shea, T Michael; Daniels, Julie

    2014-05-01

    Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at an increased risk of delayed development of motor skills. Physical and occupational therapy services may reduce this risk. Among VLBW children, we evaluated whether receipt of physical or occupational therapy services between 9 months and 2 years of age is associated with improved preschool age motor ability. Using data from the Early Childhood Longitudinal Study Birth Cohort we estimated the association between receipt of therapy and the following preschool motor milestones: skipping eight consecutive steps, hopping five times, standing on one leg for 10 seconds, walking backwards six steps on a line, and jumping distance. We used propensity score methods to adjust for differences in baseline characteristics between children who did and did not receive physical or occupational therapy, since children receiving therapy may be at higher risk of impairment. We applied propensity score weights and modeled the estimated effect of therapy on the distance that the child jumped using linear regression. We modeled all other end points using logistic regression. Treated VLBW children were 1.70 times as likely to skip eight steps (RR 1.70, 95 % CI 0.84, 3.44) compared to the untreated group and 30 % more likely to walk six steps backwards (RR 1.30, 95 % CI 0.63, 2.71), although these differences were not statistically significant. We found little effect of therapy on other endpoints. Providing therapy to VLBW children during early childhood may improve select preschool motor skills involving complex motor planning.

  17. Executive functions, social information processing, and social adjustment in young children born with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Kelly R; Vannatta, Kathryn; Nelin, Mary Ann; Yeates, Keith Owen

    2015-01-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk for neurocognitive and behavioral sequelae. Although VLBW infants are at higher risk for deficits in executive functions (EFs) and social functioning during school-age years, few studies have investigated those sequelae or their association in young children born VLBW. We examined the associations between EFs and social functioning in preterm, VLBW children age 4-6 years (n = 20) and matched, term-born, normal birth weight controls admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) after birth (n = 18). The groups did not differ significantly on measures of EFs, social information processing, or parent-reported social adjustment. The VLBW group had lower IQs than controls, though both group means were in the average range. Within the VLBW group, medical predictors of better EFs included older gestational age at birth and no history of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Across groups, EFs and social information processing were positively correlated. Deficits in EFs and social functioning may emerge after the preschool years in VLBW children, or improved care of children born VLBW may be reducing the cognitive and psychosocial sequelae observed in earlier cohorts. Among children born VLBW, early EFs may be directly related to social information processing.

  18. Percutaneous evacuation of diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture in a baby with extremely low birth weight: a case report

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    Watanabe Masahiro

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Pulmonary interstitial emphysema is a serious complication of mechanical ventilation and can become life-threatening if progression occurs. Therapeutic lung puncture is a treatment option for severe pulmonary interstitial emphysema but has a limited use in babies with extremely low birth weight. We present a case of pulmonary interstitial emphysema in a Japanese baby (1-day-old boy with extremely low birth weight. The emphysema was successfully decompressed by therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter. Case presentation The baby was born with a weight of 420g, which, to the best of our knowledge, is the lowest reported birth weight among babies with pulmonary interstitial emphysema. A chest X-ray on postnatal day 2 revealed pulmonary interstitial emphysema, which gradually progressed to diffuse pseudocystic changes. His condition became life-threatening despite the use of high-frequency oscillatory ventilation and lateral decubitus positioning. We evacuated the pulmonary interstitial emphysema by lung puncture with a trocar catheter to avoid respiratory and cardiovascular collapse. This resulted in adequate evacuation of the emphysema and a dramatic improvement in his clinical condition. Conclusions Therapeutic lung puncture performed with a trocar catheter is beneficial in babies with extremely low birth weight and diffuse pulmonary interstitial emphysema. This treatment option may be broadly applicable, especially in an emergency situation.

  19. 极低及超低出生体重儿的预后因素分析%Prognostic factors in very low birth weight infants and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王恋; 李娟; 毛健; 张静; 陈丹

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical data of very low birth weight infants (VLBWIs) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs) (birth weight≤1 200 g) and to provide prewarning indicators for prognostic evaluation and clinical intervention. Methods A retrospective analysis was performed on the clinical data of 108 VLBWIs and ELBWIs to investigate the maternal history of diseases during pregnancy, neonatal birth status, the process of diagnosis and treatment, and prognosis. Unconditional logistic regression analysis was used to determine prognostic factors. Results Of the 108 preterm infants, 15 had a birth weight of<800 g, 29 had a birth weight of 800-999 g, and 64 had a birth weight of 1000-1200 g. The mortality was 33.3%(36/108). Placenta previa and Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes were the main risk factors for death within 24 hours of birth;premature rupture of membrane, Apgar score≤3 at 5 minutes, and pulmonary hemorrhage were the main risk factors for death between 24 hours and 7 days after birth;late-onset sepsis caused by invasive fungal infection was an independent risk factor for death over 7 days after birth, while pregnancy-induced hypertension syndrome was a protective factor. Conclusions The mortality in VLBWIs and ELBWIs is relatively high, and the prognostic factors vary between preterm infants of different ages. Clinicians should discuss management options for the infants on the basis of these ifndings to increase the survival of preterm infants.%目的:分析极低及超低出生体重儿(出生体重≤1200 g)的临床资料,为其预后及临床干预提供预警指标。方法回顾性分析108例极低及超低出生体重儿的母孕期病史、新生儿出生时情况、诊治经过及预后,采用非条件logistic回归分析筛选预后的影响因素。结果108例极低及超低出生体重儿,出生体重范围在<800 g,800~999 g和1000~1200 g的早产儿分别为15例、29例和64例。存活72例,死亡36

  20. Neonatal Biomarkers of Inflammation: Correlates of Early Neurodevelopment and Gait in Very-Low-Birth-Weight Preterm Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Jessica; Vassar, Rachel; Cahill-Rowley, Katelyn; Hintz, Susan R; Stevenson, David K

    2016-01-01

    Neonatal biomarkers of inflammation were examined in relation to early neurodevelopment and gait in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm children. We hypothesized that preterm infants exposed to higher levels of neonatal inflammation would demonstrate lower scores on Bayley Scales of Infant Toddler Development, 3rd ed. (BSID-III) and slower gait velocity at 18 to 22 months adjusted age. A total of 102 VLBW preterm infants (birthweight [BW] ≤ 1,500 g, gestational age [GA] ≤ 32 weeks) admitted to neonatal intensive care unit [NICU] were recruited. Neonatal risk factors examined were GA at birth, BW, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, necrotizing enterocolitis, retinopathy of prematurity, sepsis, and serum C-reactive protein (CRP), albumin, and total bilirubin over first 2 postnatal weeks. At 18 to 22 months, neurodevelopment was assessed with BSID-III and gait was assessed with an instrumented mat. Children with neonatal CRP ≥ 0.20 mg/dL (n = 52) versus low-level neonatal inflammation and neurodevelopment suggest early biomarkers that may inform neuroprotective treatment for preterm children. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  1. Trends in survival among extremely-low-birth-weight infants (less than 1000 g without significant bronchopulmonary dysplasia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Botet Francesc

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective The aim of this study was to analyze the evolution from 1997 to 2009 of survival without significant (moderate and severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia (SWsBPD in extremely-low-birth-weight (ELBW infants and to determine the influence of changes in resuscitation, nutrition and mechanical ventilation on the survival rate. Study design In this study, 415 premature infants with birth weights below 1000 g (ELBW were divided into three chronological subgroups: 1997 to 2000 (n = 65, 2001 to 2005 (n = 178 and 2006 to 2009 (n = 172. Between 1997 and 2000, respiratory resuscitation in the delivery room was performed via a bag and mask (Ambu®, Ballerup, Sweden with 40-50% oxygen. If this procedure was not effective, oral endotracheal intubation was always performed. Pulse oximetry was never used. Starting on January 1, 2001, a change in the delivery room respiratory policy was established for ELBW infants. Oxygenation and heart rate were monitored using a pulse oximeter (Nellcor® attached to the newborn’s right hand. If resuscitation was required, ventilation was performed using a face mask, and intermittent positive pressure was controlled via a ventilator (Babylog2, Drägger. In 2001, a policy of aggressive nutrition was also initiated with the early provision of parenteral amino acids. We used standardized parenteral nutrition to feed ELBW infants during the first 12–24 hours of life. Lipids were given on the first day. The glucose concentration administered was increased by 1 mg/kg/minute each day until levels reached 8 mg/kg/minute. Enteral nutrition was started with trophic feeding of milk. In 2006, volume guarantee treatment was instituted and administered together with synchronized intermittent mandatory ventilation (SIMV + VG. The complications of prematurity were treated similarly throughout the study period. Patent ductus arteriosus was only treated when hemodynamically significant. Surgical closure of the

  2. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Islam, M Mazharul

    2015-07-01

    Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW) on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. . Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A'Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children's health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children's performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW) and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7-11 years, who had completed grades 2-4, were surveyed.  . Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7%) of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5-17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%), followed by arithmetic and language (16% each). BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2-6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. . Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  3. Early relations between language development and the quality of mother-child interaction in very-low-birth-weight children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Korja, R; Matomäki, J; Lapinleimu, H; Haataja, L; Lehtonen, L

    2014-05-01

    It is not clearly understood how the quality of early mother-child interaction influences language development in very-low-birth-weight children (VLBW). We aim to analyze associations between early language and the quality of mother-child interaction, and, the predictive value of the features of early mother-child interaction on language development at 24 months of corrected age in VLBW children. A longitudinal prospective follow-up study design was used. The participants were 28 VLBW children and 34 full-term controls. Language development was measured using different methods at 6, 12 and at 24 months of age. The quality of mother-child interaction was assessed using PC-ERA method at 6 and at 12 months of age. Associations between the features of early interaction and language development were different in the groups of VLBW and full-term children. There were no significant correlations between the features of mother-child interaction and language skills when measured at the same age in the VLBW group. Significant longitudinal correlations were detected in the VLBW group especially if the quality of early interactions was measured at six months and language skills at 2 years of age. However, when the predictive value of the features of early interactions for later poor language performance was analyzed separately, the features of early interaction predicted language skills in the VLBW group only weakly. The biological factors may influence on the language development more in the VLBW children than in the full-term children. The results also underline the role of maternal and dyadic factors in early interactions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. The Effects of Low Birth Weight on School Performance and Behavioral Outcomes of Elementary School Children in Oman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mazharul Islam

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Our study aimed to examine the effects of low birth weight (LBW on the school performance and behavior of elementary school children in Oman. Methods: Data were gathered through a cross-sectional survey of nine elementary schools from the Muscat and A’Dhahirah regions. The study utilized a unique database created by linking information from the children’s health cards and current academic and behavioral performance records. Information on children’s performance in various areas such as language, mathematics, science, information technology, sports, and behavior were obtained from the school registers. Birth weight (BW and selected sociodemographic data were obtained from the copy of their health cards kept by each school. A total of 542 elementary school children aged 7–11 years, who had completed grades 2–4, were surveyed.  Results: Data from the school register revealed a very high rate (17.7% of LBW and, overall, 12% of the children exhibited below average performance on selected outcome measures. The below average school performance varied from 5–17% across the six selected areas of school performance. The highest rate of below average performance was observed in science (17%, followed by arithmetic and language (16% each. BW showed significant differential effects on school performance and behavioral outcomes, which remained significant after controlling for the effect of potential confounders. It was found that LBW children were 2–6 times more likely to have poorer school performance in all areas than their normal BW peers. Conclusion: Early intervention programs or special care for LBW children in school could be an effective means of improving educational outcomes and the behavior of these children. Attempts should be made to reduce or prevent poor pregnancy outcomes, which, in turn, would reduce the cost of the health, education, and social services systems.

  5. Size and Composition of the Lexicon in Prematurely Born Very-Low-Birth-Weight and Full-Term Finnish Children at Two Years of Age

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, Suvi; Klippi, Anu; Launonen, Kaisa; Munck, Petriina; Lehtonen, Liisa; Lapinleimu, Helena; Haataja, Leena

    2007-01-01

    This paper focuses on the aspects of the lexicon in 66 prematurely born very-low-birth-weight and 87 full-term Finnish children at 2;0, studied using the Finnish version of the "MacArthur Communicative Developmental Inventory". The groups did not differ in vocabulary size. Furthermore, the female advantage in vocabulary size was not seen…

  6. The contribution of visual processing to academic achievement in adolescents born extremely preterm or extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molloy, Carly S; Di Battista, Ashley M; Anderson, Vicki A; Burnett, Alice; Lee, Katherine J; Roberts, Gehan; Cheong, Jeanie Ly; Anderson, Peter J; Doyle, Lex W

    2017-04-01

    Children born extremely preterm (EP, visual processing. The aim of this study is to determine (1) if visual processing is related to poor academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents, and (2) how much of the variance in academic achievement in EP/ELBW adolescents is explained by visual processing ability after controlling for perinatal risk factors and other known contributors to academic performance, particularly attention and working memory. A geographically determined cohort of 228 surviving EP/ELBW adolescents (mean age 17 years) was studied. The relationships between measures of visual processing (visual acuity, binocular stereopsis, eye convergence, and visual perception) and academic achievement were explored within the EP/ELBW group. Analyses were repeated controlling for perinatal and social risk, and measures of attention and working memory. It was found that visual acuity, convergence and visual perception are related to scores for academic achievement on univariable regression analyses. After controlling for potential confounds (perinatal and social risk, working memory and attention), visual acuity, convergence and visual perception remained associated with reading and math computation, but only convergence and visual perception are related to spelling. The additional variance explained by visual processing is up to 6.6% for reading, 2.7% for spelling, and 2.2% for math computation. None of the visual processing variables or visual motor integration are associated with handwriting on multivariable analysis. Working memory is generally a stronger predictor of reading, spelling, and math computation than visual processing. It was concluded that visual processing difficulties are significantly related to academic outcomes in EP/ELBW adolescents; therefore, specific attention should be paid to academic remediation strategies incorporating the management of working memory and visual processing in EP/ELBW children.

  7. Influence of low birth weight on minimal change nephrotic syndrome in children, including a meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Teeninga (Nynke); M.F. Schreuder (Michiel); A. Bökenkamp (Arend); H.A.D.V.D. Waal; J.A.E.V. Wijk

    2008-01-01

    textabstractBackground. Low birth weight (LBW) has been shown to lead to a low nephron endowment with subsequent glomerular hyperfiltration. Additional renal disease can therefore be expected to have a more severe course. Minimal change nephrotic syndrome (MCNS) is a common chronic illness in childh

  8. Pericardial Effusion and Cardiac Tamponade Following Percutaneously Inserted Central Line Insertion in an Extremely Low-birth-weight Baby: Case Report and Successful Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desai, Avinash V.; Kumar, Abnish; Shanbhag, Praful; Shah, Forum

    2017-01-01

    Pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade are rare complications of percutaneously inserted central lines (PICLs), in extremely low-birth-weight babies. This particular complication carries a high degree of mortality, if not suspected and diagnosed. Bedside echocardiography proves not only diagnostic but also can be lifesaving in these conditions. Here, we wish to report such a baby who suddenly deteriorated and showed cardiovascular instability 2 days after the insertion of PICL. Immediate bedside echocardiography helped pick up the effusion which was drained using a subxiphoid percutaneous approach. PMID:28197055

  9. Small for gestational age and poor fluid intelligence in childhood predict externalizing behaviors among young adults born at extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahat, Ayelet; Van Lieshout, Ryan J; Saigal, Saroj; Boyle, Michael H; Schmidt, Louis A

    2015-02-01

    Although infants born at extremely low birth weight (ELBW; birth weight intelligence. As young adults, a subset of ELBW survivors free of major neurosensory impairments provided self-reports of personality characteristics related to psychopathology. Data from 66 participants indicated that, as predicted, the association between ELBW and externalizing behaviors was moderated by fluid intelligence. Specifically, ELBW individuals with poor fluid intelligence who were born small for gestational age (birth weight intelligence might be a cognitive mechanism contributing to the development of psychopathology among nonimpaired individuals who were born at ELBW and small for gestational age.

  10. Como minimizar a lesão pulmonar no prematuro extremo: propostas Strategies to minimize lung injury in extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide Suguihara

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Apresentar uma revisão das principais causas da nova displasia broncopulmonar e as estratégias utilizadas para diminuir sua incidência nos prematuros extremos. FONTES DOS DADOS: Para essa revisão, pesquisas foram feitas na MEDLINE (1996 a outubro de 2004, no Cochrane Database, em resumos da Society for Pediatric Research e recentes conferências sobre o tema. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: A tecnologia e os novos conhecimentos científicos têm aumentado significantemente a sobrevida de prematuros extremos. Esse aumento da sobrevida resultou em aumento da incidência de displasia broncopulmonar. Atualmente, a displasia broncopulmonar é mais freqüentemente observada em recém-nascidos OBJECTIVE: To review the main causes of new bronchopulmonary dysplasia and the strategies utilized to decrease its incidence in extremely low birth weight infants. DATA SOURCES: For this review a MEDLINE search from 1966 to October 2004, the Cochrane Database, abstracts from the Society for Pediatric Research and recent meetings on the topic were used. SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The survival of extremely low birth weight infants has increased significantly due to improvement in both scientific knowledge and technology. This improvement in survival has therefore resulted in an increased incidence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. The characteristics of bronchopulmonary dysplasia in extremely low birth weight infants, the so called "new" bronchopulmonary dysplasia are quite different from the classic bronchopulmonary dysplasia described by Northway. This new bronchopulmonary dysplasia has a multifactorial etiology, which includes volutrauma, atelectrauma, oxygen toxicity and lung inflammation. Therapy such as prenatal corticosteroids, exogenous surfactant, nasal continuous positive airway pressure, new mechanical ventilation modalities and gentle ventilation have been used in attempts to decrease lung injury severity. CONCLUSIONS: In order to prevent lung injury in

  11. Visual function in very low birth weight adolescents : Fifteen-year follow-up of children in southeast Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    Hellgren, Kerstin

    2009-01-01

    Background: Very low birth weight (VLBW < 1500 g) carries an increased risk of visual and cognitive deficits. Long term follow-up studies are sparse. The associations between neural structure and visual and cognitive outcome need to be more fully explored. Aims: To describe visual functions in adolescents with VLBW in comparison with a matched control group and to investigate associations with white matter damage of immaturity (WMDI), optic disc measurements and cognitive ...

  12. Correlates of Low Birth Weight

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    Ankur Barua MD, PhD

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Low birth weight is the single most important factor that determines the chances of child survival. A recent annual estimation indicated that nearly 8 million infants are born with low birth weight in India. The infant mortality rate is about 20 times greater for all low birth weight babies. Methods. A matched case–control study was conducted on 130 low birth weight babies and 130 controls for 12 months (from August 1, 2007, to July 31, 2008 at the Central Referral Hospital, Tadong, East District of Sikkim, India. Data were analyzed using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences, version 10.0 for Windows. Chi-square test and multiple logistic regression were applied. A P value less than .05 was considered as significant. Results. In the first phase of this study, 711 newborn babies, borne by 680 mothers, were screened at the Central Referral Hospital of Sikkim during the 1-year study period, and the proportion of low birth weight babies was determined to be 130 (18.3%. Conclusion. Multiple logistic regression analysis, conducted in the second phase, revealed that low or middle socioeconomic status, maternal underweight, twin pregnancy, previous history of delivery of low birth weight babies, smoking and consumption of alcohol during pregnancy, and congenital anomalies had independent significant association with low birth weight in this study population.

  13. Catch–up growth in the first two years of life in Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW) infants is associated with lower body fat in young adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, Lotte; Rayyan, Maissa; van Tienoven, Theun Pieter; Ortibus, Els; Levtchenko, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Aim To investigate growth patterns and anthropometrics in former extremely low birth weight (ELBW, 0.67 SDS. At 11 years, anthropometrics, neurocognitive performance, body composition, grip strength and puberty scores were assessed. Results ELBW neonates displayed extra–uterine growth restriction with mean Z–scores for height, weight and head circumference of –0.77, –0.93 and –0.46 at birth, –1.61, –1.67 and –0.72 at 9 months, –1.22, –1.61 and –0.84 at 24 months, and –0.42, –0.49 and –1.09 at 11 years. ELBW children performed consistently worse on neurocognitive testing with an average intelligence quotient equivalent at 11 years of 92.5 (SD 13.1). Catch–up growth was not associated with neurocognitive performance. Compared to controls, ELBW cases had lower grip strength (13.6 vs. 15.9 kg) and percentage lean body weight (75.1 vs. 80.5%), but higher body fat (24.6 vs. 19.2%) and advanced puberty scores at 11 years (all P≤0.025). Catch–up growth for weight and height in the first two years of life in cases was associated with a lower percentage body fat compared to cases without catch–up growth (16.8% catch-up growth for weight vs. 25.7%, P<0.001; 20.9% catch-up for height vs. 25.8%, P = 0.049). Conclusions In young adolescence, former ELBW children still have difficulties to reach their target height. Compared to normal birth weight controls, ELBW adolescents show lower neurocognitive performance and grip strength and a higher percentage body fat, a potential risk factor for adverse health outcomes in adulthood. Our key finding is that catch–up growth in ELBW children in the first two years of life is associated with a lower percentage body fat and is therefore likely to be beneficial. PMID:28278233

  14. Crescimento de prematuros de extremo baixo peso nos primeiros dois anos de vida Growth of extremely low birth weight infants during the first two years of life

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ligia Maria S. S. Rugolo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Analisar o padrão de crescimento de prematuros de extremo baixo peso (EBP até 24 meses de idade corrigida, a influência da displasia broncopulmonar (DBP e os fatores de risco para falha de crescimento. MÉTODOS: Coorte de prematuros OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the growth pattern of extremely low birth weight infants(ELBW from birth to 24 months of adjusted gestational age (AA, the influence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD and risk factors associated to growth failure. METHODS: This cohort study included all singleton inborn infants with birthweight <1,000g, admitted in the follow-up clinic of a level III Perinatal Center. Weight, length and head circumference were measured at birth, 40 weeks, and 3, 6, 9, 12, 18, 24 months AA, and Z-scores were calculated. Out of the 82 survivors, 70 were studied and classified in two groups: BPD (n=41 and no-BPD (n=29. Statistical analysis included t-test or Mann-Withney, chi-square or Fisher Exact test, and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: In both groups, weight z-score decreased significantly between birth and 40 weeks AA. A peak incremental change in weight, length and head circumference z-scores occurred between 40 weeks and three months. Z-scores for the no-BPD group were close to the expected values by the age of six months and remained at these levels at 24 months AA. Children with BPD had lower z-scores for weight and head circumference in the first year of life, but no difference was found between BPD and no-BPD children in the second year of life. Regression analysis showed that catch-down in weight z-score at 40 weeks was a risk factor for failure to thrive. CONCLUSIONS: ELBW infants experienced early catch-up growth during the first two years of life. ELBW with BPD had poor weight gain. Post-natal growth restriction predicts failure to thrive in infancy.

  15. Use and Cutaneous Side Effects of Skin Antiseptics in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants - A Retrospective Survey of the German NICUs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biermann, C D; Kribs, A; Roth, B; Tantcheva-Poor, I

    2016-07-01

    Background Nosocomial infections are a serious problem in the treatment of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBW, Octenidine without phenoxyethanol (OwPh) and Octenisept(®) were the predominantly used skin antiseptics for intensive-care procedures. At least one skin complication was reported by 27% (n=17) of the NICUs. In 9 cases Octenisept(®) was used, and in 6 cases octenidine was used. According to our knowledge, this is the first study surveying practices and safety of skin antisepsis in ELBWs in the German NICUs. Most German NICUs use octenidine, however, in different preparations. Skin complications including blistering, necrosis and scarring were seen with all octenidine products, a fact which has not been previously reported. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  16. Reduced Hospital Mortality With Surgical Ligation of Patent Ductus Arteriosus in Premature, Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Propensity Score-matched Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tashiro, Jun; Perez, Eduardo A; Sola, Juan E

    2016-03-01

    To evaluate outcomes after surgical ligation (SL) of patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) in premature, extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants. Optimal management of PDA in this specialized population remains undefined. Currently, surgical therapy is largely reserved for infants failing medical management. To date, a large-scale, risk-matched population-based study has not been performed to evaluate differences in mortality and resource utilization. Data on identified premature (Propensity score-matched analysis of 1620 SL versus 1584 non-SL found reduced mortality (15% vs 26%) and more routine disposition (48% vs 41%) for SL (P Propensity score-matched analysis demonstrates reduced mortality in premature/ELBW infants with SL for PDA. NEC and sepsis are predictors of mortality and resource utilization.

  17. Introduction of percutaneous-tunneled transfontanellar external ventricular drainage in the management of hydrocephalus in extremely low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zucchelli, Mino; Lefosse, Mariella; Corvaglia, Luigi; Martini, Silvia; Sandri, Fabrizio; Soffritti, Silvia; Ancora, Gina; Mammoliti, Palma; Gargano, Giancarlo; Galassi, Ercole

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE Hydrocephalus treatment in extremely low-birth-weight (ELBW) infants still represents a challenge for the pediatric neurosurgeon, particularly when the patient weighs far less than 1000 g. In such cases, the benefits in terms of neurological outcome following early treatment do not always outweigh the surgical risks, especially considering the great difference in the surgical risk before patient weight increases. To assess the efficacy and reliability of a percutaneous-tunneled, transfontanellar external ventricular drain (PTTEVD) in ELBW infants, the authors started a new protocol for the early surgical treatment of hydrocephalus. METHODS Ten cases of posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus (PHH) in ELBW infants (5 cases introduction of PTTEVD placement in our standard protocol for the management of PHH has proved to be a wise option for small patients.

  18. Fluconazole prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants and neurodevelopmental outcomes and quality of life at 8 to 10 years of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaufman, David A; Cuff, Amy L; Wamstad, Julia B; Boyle, Robert; Gurka, Matthew J; Grossman, Leigh B; Patrick, Peter

    2011-05-01

    To examine the long-term effects of fluconazole prophylaxis in extremely low birth weight infants. Neurodevelopmental status and quality of life of survivors from a randomized, placebo-controlled trial of fluconazole prophylaxis were evaluated at 8 to 10 years of life using the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales-II (VABS-II) and the Child Health Questionnaire Parent-Completed Form 28 (CHQ-PF28), respectively. VABS-II Domain Scores for the fluconazole-treated (n = 21; 9.1 ± 0.7 years) compared with the placebo group (n = 17; 9.3 ± 0.8 years) were similar for communication [94.6 (±14.8) versus 92.6 (±12.6), P = .65], daily living skills [87.9 (±10.6) versus 87.4 (±9.3), P = .89], socialization [97.2 (±9.2) versus 94.4 (±7.9), P = .31], and motor skills [92.1 (±17.8) versus 95.1 (±14.6), P = .57]. Internalizing and externalizing behaviors and maladaptive behavior index were also similar. The CHQ-PF28 revealed no differences between the two groups regarding quality of life. Survivors were also happy or satisfied with school (90% versus 100%, P = .49), friendships (90% versus 88%, P = 1.00), and life (95% versus 100%, P = 1.00). Self esteem scores were 87.3 ± 15.7 versus 89.7 ± 10.4 (P = .59). There were also no differences between groups regarding emotional difficulties or behavior problems. Fluconazole prophylaxis for the prevention of invasive Candida infections is safe in extremely low birth weight infants and does not appear to be associated with any long-term adverse effects on neurodevelopment and quality of life at 8 to 10 years of life. Copyright © 2011 Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Placental Malaria is associated with reduced early life weight development of affected children independent of low birth weight

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    Palmero Melba S

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Infection with Plasmodium falciparum during pregnancy contributes substantially to the disease burden in both mothers and offspring. Placental malaria may lead to intrauterine growth restriction or preterm delivery resulting in low birth weight (LBW, which, in general, is associated with increased infant morbidity and mortality. However, little is known about the possible direct impact of the specific disease processes occurring in PM on longer term outcomes such as subsequent retarded growth development independent of LBW. Methods In an existing West-African cohort, 783 healthy infants with a birth weight of at least 2,000 g were followed up during their first year of life. The aim of the study was to investigate if Plasmodium falciparum infection of the placenta, assessed by placental histology, has an impact on several anthropometric parameters, measured at birth and after three, six and 12 months using generalized estimating equations models adjusting for moderate low birth weight. Results Independent of LBW, first to third born infants who were exposed to either past, chronic or acute placental malaria during pregnancy had significantly lower weight-for-age (-0.43, 95% CI: -0.80;-0.07, weight-for-length (-0.47, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 and BMI-for-age z-scores (-0.57, 95% CI: -0.84; -0.10 compared to infants born to mothers who were not diagnosed with placental malaria (p = 0.019, 0.013, and 0.012, respectively. Interestingly, the longitudinal data on histology-based diagnosis of PM also document a sharp decline of PM prevalence in the Sukuta cohort from 16.5% in 2002 to 5.4% in 2004. Conclusions It was demonstrated that PM has a negative impact on the infant's subsequent weight development that is independent of LBW, suggesting that the longer term effects of PM have been underestimated, even in areas where malaria transmission is declining.

  20. Ophthalmic, Hearing, Speaking and School Readiness Outcomes in Low Birth Weight and Normal Birth Weight Primary School Children in Mashhad-Iran

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    Ashraf Mohammadzadeh

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Low Birth weight infants are at risk of many problems. Therefore their outcome must evaluate in different ages especially in school age. In this study we determined prevalence of ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems in children who were born low birth weight and compared them with normal birth weight children. In a cross-sectional and retrospective study, all Primary School children referred to special educational organization center for screening before entrance to school were elected in Mashhad, Iran. In this study 2400 children enrolled to study and were checked for ophthalmic, hearing, speaking and school readiness problems by valid instrument. Data were analyzed by SPSS 11.5. This study showed that 8.3% of our population had birth weight less than 2500 gram. Visual impairment in LBW (Low Birth Weight and NBW (Normal Birth Weight was 8.29% vs. 5.74% and there was statistically significant difference between them (P=0.015. Hearing problem in LBW and NBW was 2.1% vs. 1.3 and it was not statistically significant. Speaking problem in LBW and NBW was 2.6% vs. 2.2% and it was not statistically significant. School readiness problem in LBW and NBW was 12.4% vs. 5.8% and it was statistically significant (P<0.001. According to the results, neurological problems in our society is more than other society and pay attention to this problem is critical. We believe that in our country, it is necessary to provide a program to routinely evaluate LBW children.

  1. Attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children: Cross-lagged relations from 18 to 36 months

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    Rohrer-Baumgartner Nina

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Research has highlighted a series of persistent deficits in cognitive ability in preterm low-birth-weight children. Language and attention problems are among these deficits, although the nature of the relation between attention and language in early development is not well known. This study represents a preliminary attempt to shed light on the relations between attention problems and language development in preterm low-birth-weight children. Methods The aim of this study was to analyse reciprocal influences between language and attention problems from 18 to 36 months. We used maternal reports on attention problems and language ability referring to a sample of 1288 premature low-birth-weight infants, collected as part of the Norwegian Mother and Child Cohort Study (MoBa. A sample of children born full-term was used as the control group (N = 37010. Cross-lagged panel analyses were carried out to study reciprocal influences between attention problems and language. Results Language ability at 18 months did not significantly predict attention problems at 36 months, adjusting for attention problems at 18 months. Attention problems at 18 months significantly predicted changes in language ability from 18 to 36 months, pointing to a precursor role of attention in relation to language in children born preterm. Gender, age corrected for prematurity, and mother's education emerged as important covariates. Conclusions Preliminary evidence was found for a precursor role of early attention problems in relation to language in prematurity. This finding can contribute to a better understanding of the developmental pathways of attention and language and lead to better management of unfavourable outcomes associated with co-morbid attention and language difficulties.

  2. Relationship between Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy of Frontoinsular Gray Matter and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Children at the Age of 4.

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    Wojciech Durlak

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight is associated with long term neurodevelopmental complications. Macroscopic brain abnormalities in prematurity survivors have been investigated in several studies. However, there is limited data regarding local cerebral metabolic status and neurodevelopmental outcomes. The purpose of this study was to characterize the relationship between proton magnetic resonance spectra in basal ganglia, frontal white matter and frontoinsular gray matter, neurodevelopmental outcomes assessed with the Leiter scale and the Developmental Test of Visual Perception and selected socioeconomic variables in a cohort of very low birth weight children at the age of four. Children were divided in three groups based on the severity of neurodevelopmental impairment. There were no differences in spectroscopy in basal ganglia and frontal white matter between the groups. Lower concentrations of N-acetylaspartate (NAA, choline (Cho and myoinositol (mI were observed in the frontoinsular cortex of the left hemisphere in children with neurodevelopmental impairment compared to children with normal neurodevelopmental outcomes. Higher parental education, daycare attendance and breastfeeding after birth were associated with more favorable neurodevelopmental prognosis, whereas rural residence was more prevalent in children with moderate and severe impairment. Our study demonstrates the role of long term neurometabolic disruption in the left frontoinsular cortex and selected socioeconomic variables in determination of neurodevelopmental prognosis in prematurity survivors.

  3. An epidemiological study of urban and rural children in Pakistan: examining the relationship between delayed psychomotor development, low birth weight and postnatal growth failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avan, Bilal I; Raza, Syed A; Kirkwood, Betty R

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight is known to be associated with postnatal growth failure. It is not yet established that both conditions are determinants of psychomotor development. The study investigated whether or not low birth weight leads to delayed psychomotor development of a child, and whether it can be mitigated by adequate postnatal growth. A cross-sectional study was conducted in 2002 in 15 rural and 11 urban communities of Sindh province, Pakistan. Assessment of 1234 children less than 3 years of age included Bayley's Scale of Infant Development II, socioeconomic questionnaire and anthropometry; WHO standards were used to calculate z-scores of height-for-age, weight-for-height and weight-for-age. The underlying study hypotheses were tested through multiple regression modelling. Out of 1219 children, 283 (23.2%) had delayed psychomotor development and 639 (52.4%) were undernourished according to the composite index of anthropometric failure. Strong negative associations with the psychomotor development index were detected between stunting and being underweight, with a larger magnitude of effect for stunting (pdevelopment appears to be mediated largely by postnatal growth and nutritional status. This association suggests that among undernourished children there is significant likelihood of a group that is developmentally delayed. It is important to emphasize developmental needs in programmes that target underprivileged children. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  4. Functional outcomes in self-care, mobility, communication, and learning in extremely low-birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Msall, M E; Tremont, M R

    2000-06-01

    Gaps have existed in specifying degrees of severity of cerebral palsy assessment of self-care and communicative competencies, and specifying age-appropriate preschool educational and behavioral competencies. Imbedded in the concept of measuring functional status is the interaction between health and neurologic impairments, developmental challenges and competencies, family resources and disadvantages, and the child's current status. In reviewing historic outcomes of severe ROP over the past 40 years, it was noted that severe ROP caused blindness in 2% to 11% of survivors. There was a constant observation that approximately 50% of severe ROP survivors with blindness had multiple functional and developmental challenges beyond blindness alone. Similarly, in reviewing outcomes of cerebral palsy, it is imperative to describe the severity of cerebral palsy and functional consequences in motor, selfcare, communication, and learning. The reason to measure the functional status of children with neurodevelopmental impairments before first grade is that the degrees of severity of these disorders can be specified before attending school with peers. Subtler aspects of neurodevelopmental impairments need to assess impact on literacy, information learning, written language, social competencies with peers, and recreational and community participation. In this way, we can understand the vulnerabilities and resiliences of children and families of VLBW and ELBW status. This is a critical step in understanding long-term quality of life and independent living issues. In addition, our efforts can address those factors and pathways whereby multiple disabilities and multiple functional limitations cluster. Our biomedical intervention can prioritize strategies that lessen severe multiple disabilities and simultaneously support families, when despite our best efforts functional challenges are life long.

  5. Cerebral MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight and small-for-gestational-age children at 15 years of age

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skranes, Jon S.; Brubakk, Ann-Mari [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children' s and Women' s Health, Trondheim (Norway); Martinussen, Marit; Smevik, Olaug; Myhr, Gunnar [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Indredavik, Marit [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Neuroscience, Trondheim (Norway); Vik, Torstein [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Community Medicine and General Practice, Trondheim (Norway)

    2005-08-01

    A high prevalence of abnormal cerebral MRI findings has been reported in low-birth-weight children. To compare MRI findings in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) and term small-for-gestational-age (SGA) children with controls in early adolescence. Cerebral MRI was used to examine 55 VLBW, 54 SGA and 66 controls at 15 years of age. The MR images were qualitatively assessed, and size of ventricles, white-matter and grey-matter abnormalities were reported. The VLBW teenagers had a higher prevalence of various MRI abnormalities than SGA children and controls. Dilation of the ventricular system, especially of the occipital horns, was found in 82% of the VLBW group, in 19% of the SGA group and in 21% of controls. White-matter reduction was found in 53% of the VLBW, in 6% of the SGA and in 2% of controls. Corpus callosum thinning was found in 47% of the VLBW, in 2% of the SGA and in 6% of controls. Periventricular gliosis was found in 29% of the VLBW, in 4% of the SGA and in 8% of controls. Cerebral MRI pathology in white matter is a common finding in VLBW teenagers. The findings may indicate minor perinatal PVL with resulting loss of white-matter tissue and ventricular dilation. (orig.)

  6. Pharmacoeconomic impact of use of the probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri DSM 17938 for prevention of necrotizing enterocolitis in extremely low-birth-weight infants

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    Dimaguila MAVT

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Mary Ann VT Dimaguila,1,2 Peter Gal,1,3,4 Tiffany Wilson,1 John E Wimmer Jr,1,2 McCrae Smith,1,2 Rita Q Carlos,1,2 Christie C Davanzo,1,2 J Laurence Ransom1,2 1Women's Hospital of Greensboro, Cone Health, Greensboro, NC, USA; 2Piedmont Neonatology, Greensboro, NC, USA; 3Eshelman School of Pharmacy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USA; 4Greensboro Area Health Education Center, Greensboro, NC, USA Background: A recent study showed that use of Lactobacillus reuteri as probiotic prophylaxis decreased the necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC rate from 15.1% to 2.5% in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Given the controversies surrounding use of probiotics in neonatal intensive care units, we address one additional aspect of routine implementation of probiotics for NEC prophylaxis – the pharmacoeconomic impact. Methods: Using data from our initial published experience, and continuing data collection after instituting a higher dose of L. reuteri, we measured the reduction in NEC in neonates with birth weight below 1000 g. Cost savings from prior studies examining the cost and outcomes of medical and surgical NEC were used to calculate the financial impact of routine L. reuteri DSM 17938 prophylaxis. Results: Medical records for 354 neonates were reviewed, 232 in the years before introduction of L. reuteri prophylaxis and 79 who received L. reuteri prophylaxis dosed at 0.1 mL daily and 43 neonates given a total daily dose of 0.2 mL as one or two doses. The incidence of NEC was significantly lower in the neonates who received L. reuteri (two of 122 neonates [1.6%] versus 35 of 232 neonates [15.1%]. The expected benefits for our neonatal intensive care unit per 100 extremely low-birth-weight neonates treated were four fewer deaths, five fewer cases of medical NEC, eight fewer cases of surgical NEC, one less patient with short-bowel syndrome, and a cost saving of approximately $2.2 million. Conclusion: Prophylactic

  7. 超低出生体重儿呼吸管理的研究进展%Advance in the respiratory management of extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄文娣

    2014-01-01

    随着辅助生育技术及新生儿重症监护室的发展,超低出生体重儿存活率逐渐增加.由于超低出生体重儿肺发育不成熟,一些产前干预、复苏策略及产后的呼吸管理对于该类患儿长期存活及远期预后具有重要意义.无创性呼吸支持策略可以减少机械通气产生的气压伤、容量伤及氧化应激损伤.吸入性NO、体外膜肺等呼吸支持策略还有待深入研究.%With the improvement of assisted reproductive technology and neonatal intensive care unit,the extremely low birth weight infants have increasingly survived.Since the immature pulmonary,antenatal interventions,resuscitation techniques and postnatal respiratory management attribute to their survival and long term outcomes.Non-invasive ventilation minimize barotrauma,volutrauma and oxygen toxicity induced by mechanical ventilation.Other new strategy such asinhaled NO,extracorporeal membrane oxygenation will be explored.

  8. Frequent Use of Fresh Frozen Plasma Is a Risk Factor for Venous Thrombosis in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Matched Case-control Study

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    Maruyama,Hidehiko

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Percutaneously inserted central catheters (PICCs are often used in neonatal medicine. Venous thrombosis (VT is one of the complications associated with PICC use. According to some reports, fresh frozen plasma (FFP may be a risk factor for VT. The purpose of this study was to determine whether FFP use is associated with VT in extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWIs. We performed a matched case-control study on risk factors for VT in ELBWIs born over a period of 5 years in the neonatal intensive care unit of a tertiary hospital. Controls were infants from the unit matched for gestational age and birth weight. We performed univariate analyses and created receiver operating characteristic (ROC curves for the cut-off values of continuous parameters such as FFP. We also conducted multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis and calculated adjusted odds ratios and their 95% confidence intervals. Thirteen VT cases and 34 matched controls were examined. Using an ROC curve, FFP by day 5>50mL/kg was selected as the cut-off value. In multivariate conditional logistic regression analysis, FFP by day 5>50mL/kg exhibited an adjusted odds ratio of 5.88 (95% confidence interval:1.12-41.81, p=0.036. FFP by day 5>50mL/kg may be a risk factor for VT in ELBWIs.

  9. 早期干预对极低出生体重早产儿智能发育的影响研究%Effect of early intervention on intelligence development in very low-birth weight preterm children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁莉丹; 林振浪; 陈尚勤; 赵凯怡; 陈翔

    2015-01-01

    目的探讨早期干预对极低出生体重早产儿智能发育的影响,为极低出生体重早产儿的早期干预提供依据。方法239例极低出生体重早产儿为早产随访组,采用鲍秀兰早期教育资料制定的干预计划,进行系统干预,并与326例失访的早产儿童以及与随访组相似的326例正常儿童进行对照分析。采用Gesel 儿童发育量表等标准化工具进行发育评估。结果早产随访组Gesel 儿童发育量表5项均分、总发育商(developmental quotient,DQ)总分与早产失访组相比差异均有统计学差异(均 P<0.05)。结论早期干预能显著促进极低出生体重早产儿的智能发育,提高患儿的生活质量。%Objective To investigate the effects of early intervention on intel igence development in very low- birth weight preterm children. Methods Total 329 very low- birth weight premature infants born in our hospital received systematic invention based on the early education program developed by Bao Xiulan (intervention group);326 very low- birth weight preterm children served as non- intervention group and 326 normal children served as normal control group. The intel igence development was assessed with Gese1l child development scale and other standardized tools. Results The average scores of 5 items in Gese1l child development scale and the total developmental quotient(DQ) score of intervention group were significantly higher than those of non- intervention group (P<0.05). Conclusion Early intervention can significantly promote intel igence development of the premature infants who have extremely low birth weight.

  10. Low birth weight in Kansas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillory, V James; Lai, Sue Min; Suminski, R; Crawford, G

    2015-05-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with infant morbidity and mortality. This is the first study of LBW in Kansas using vital statistics to determine maternal and health care system factors associated with LBW. Low birth weight. Determine if prenatal care, maternal socio-demographic or medical factors, or insurance status were associated with LBW. Birth certificate data were merged with Medicaid eligibility data and subjected to logistic regression analysis. Of the 37,081 single vaginal births, LBW rates were 5.5% overall, 10.8% for African Americans, and 5% for White Americans. Lacking private insurance was associated with 34% more LBW infants (AOR 1.34; 95% CI 1.13-1.58), increased comorbidity, and late or less prenatal care. Low birth weight was associated with maternal medical comorbidity and with previous adverse birth outcomes. Insurance status, prenatal care, and maternal health during pregnancy are associated with LBW. Private insurance was consistently associated with more prenatal care and better outcomes. This study has important implications regarding health care reform.

  11. Comparison of primary dentition caries experience in pre-term low birth-weight and full-term normal birth-weight children aged one to six years

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    Sowmya Anaberu Rajshekar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of the study were to determine and compare the primary dentition caries experience and the variables that may influence the occurrence of caries, in preterm low birth weight and full term normal birth weight children aged one to six years. Settings and Design: A cross-sectional comparative study was conducted among 250 full term normal birth weight (FTNBW and 250 preterm low birth weight (PTLBW children one to six years, born in the two hospitals in Davangere: Bapuji Hospital and Chigatere Hospital. A purposive sampling was used to select the study group. Materials and Methods: Required and relevant information regarding demographic characteristics, feeding practices and oral hygiene practices were obtained. Dentition status and treatment need index (World Health Organization 1997 was used to record dental caries. Statistical analysis used: Chi-square test, Student′s t-test and ANalysis Of VAriance (ANOVA test were used for statistical analysis. Results: Statistically significant difference was observed in caries prevalence between PTLBW and FTNBW groups (P<0.05, however, the difference in mean Decayed, missing and filled teeth index (dmft was not statistically significant (P=0.30. Statistically significant differences were observed in caries experience between the two groups in relation to exclusive breast feeding for longer duration, i.e 7-12 months (P<0.05, bottle feeding habits (P<0.05 and sticky food consumption (P<0.01. Conclusions: A significant relationship was found between caries and PTLBW status though the difference in caries experience between the groups was not statistically significant, thus illustrating the higher caries risk in PTLBW children compared to FTNBW children.

  12. 超低出生体重儿生存状况分析%Investigation of the extremely low birth weight infant living condition

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陆丹芳; 童笑梅

    2013-01-01

    【Objective】 To investigate the extremely low birth weight infant's (ELBWI) quality of life and related intervention measures through review of ELBWI's living condition from a single centre NICU in recently years. 【Method】 It was retrospectively analyzed about the clinical data of 32 patients of ELBWI from February 2000 to January 2012. 【Results】 The ELBWI suvival rate, mortality rate, abandon rate were 34. 4%, 25. 0%,and 40. 6% respectively. The Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ART) ELBWI suvival rate was 75. 0%. Female suvival rate(72. 7%) was higer than male's in all suvival patients. The common direct causes of death were pulmonary haemorrhage (62. 5%), hyaline membrane disease (12. 5%),intracranial haemorrhage(12. 5%) and gastrointestinal bleeding(12. 5%). The data were divided into two stages (February 2000~January 2006 vs February 2006~January 2012). Compared with the former group,the abandon rate of the later was obviously lower(28. 0% vs 85. 7%) and suvival rate was significantly higher (44% vs 0%). There was significant diffrence of ART between survival group and mortality/abandon group(P<0. 05) with single factor analysis and logistic regression analysis.【Conclusion】 Positive treatment and timely processing of complications can improve ELBWI survival rate and reduce mortality. The treatment of survival limits.ELBWI should weigh up pros and cons,and should elevated the living quality of ELBWI.%[目的] 通过对12年来中心NICU中超低出生体重儿(extremely low birth weight infant,ELBWI)的生存状况分析,探讨ELBWI的生存质量及相关干预措施. [方法]对本院新生儿病房NICU自2000年2月-2012年1月的32例ELBWI进行回顾性分析. [结果]12年来ELBWI存活率34.4%,病死率25.0%,放弃率40.6%,辅助生育的ELBWI均积极治疗,存活率75.0%.所有存活者中女性占72.7%,明显高于男性.直接死亡原因最常见肺出血(62.5%),其次为早产儿肺透明膜病(12.5

  13. What has high fertility got to do with the low birth weight problem in Africa?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivy Kodzi

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND There has been much concern about adverse individual and societal consequences of high fertility in sub-Saharan Africa. One concern is that children of high birth orders may have low birth weight. However, the evidence for such an effect is not strong. OBJECTIVE Our objective is to investigate whether a woman's high parity status might increase her risks of having a baby with low birth weight. METHODS Pooling 60 Demographic and Health Surveys data-sets from 32 sub-Saharan countries, we selected children of mothers who had at least two births of order two or higher within the five years preceding the surveys. We modeled the probability of having a child with low birth weight and controlled for all mother-specific, household, or community characteristics that are constant over the period of analysis, by including fixed-effects for the mother. We also controlled for salient factors including sex, maternal age, preceding birth interval, and whether prenatal care was received. RESULTS We found no adverse effect of increasing parity on the odds of having a child with low birth weight at normative ranges; such effects only manifest at extremely high parities - nine or more children. At moderately high parities, the chance of low birth weight is actually lower than at very low parities. CONCLUSIONS While high fertility may lead to various adverse outcomes for African families, low birth weight appears not to be among these outcomes. Other factors, such as adolescent childbearing, poverty, and inadequate prenatal care may be more important determinants of low birth weight in Africa.

  14. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  15. Disease Human - MDC_LowBirthWeight

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC Local Govt | GIS Inventory — Polygon feature class based on Zip Code boundaries showing the percentage of babies born in Miami-Dade County in 2006 with low birth weights. Low birth weight is...

  16. Do the early development of gestures and receptive and expressive language predict language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight children?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolt, S; Lind, A; Matomäki, J; Haataja, L; Lapinleimu, H; Lehtonen, L

    2016-01-01

    It is unclear what the predictive value of very early development of gestures and language is on later language ability in prematurely born very-low-birth-weight (VLBW; birth weight ≤1500g) children. The aim of the present study was to analyse the predictive value of early gestures and a receptive lexicon measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3, as well as the predictive value of receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0 for language skills at 5;0 in VLBW children. The subjects were 29 VLBW children and 28 full-term children whose language development has been followed intensively between the ages of 0;9 and 2;0 using the Finnish version of the MacArthur Developmental Inventory and the Reynell Developmental Language Scales (RDLS III). At 5;0, five selected verbal subtests of the Nepsy II test and the Boston Naming Test (BNT) were used to assess children's language skills. For the first time in VLBW children, the development of gestures measured between the ages of 0;9 and 1;3 was shown to correlate significantly and positively with language skills at 5;0. In addition, both receptive and expressive language ability measured at 2;0 correlated significantly and positively with later language skills in both groups. Moreover, according to the hierarchical regression analysis, the receptive language score of the RDLS III at 2;0 was a clear and significant predictor for language skills at 5;0 in both groups. The findings particularly underline the role of early receptive language as a significant predictor for later language ability in VLBW children. The results provide evidence for a continuity between early language development and later language skills. After reading this article, readers will understand the associations between the very early (≤2 years of age) development of gestures and language (i.e. early receptive lexicon, expressive lexicon at 2;0, receptive and expressive language ability at 2;0) and the language skills at 5;0 in prematurely born

  17. Modification of epigenetic patterns in low birth weight children: importance of hypomethylation of the ACE gene promoter.

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    Marina Rangel

    Full Text Available There is a growing body of evidence that epigenetic alterations are involved in the pathological mechanisms of many chronic disorders linked to fetal programming. Angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE appears as one candidate gene that brings new insights into the epigenetic control and later development of diseases. In this view, we have postulated that epigenetic modifications in the ACE gene might show different interactions between birth weight (BW, blood pressure levels, plasma ACE activity and ACE I/D polymorphism. To explore this hypothesis, we performed a cross-sectional study to evaluate the DNA methylation of 3 CpG sites using pyrosequencing within the ACE gene promoter of peripheral blood leukocytes from 45 LBW children compared with 70 NBW children. Our results have revealed that LBW children have lower methylation levels (P<0.001 in parallel with a higher ACE activity (P = 0.001. Adjusting for prematurity, gender, age, body mass index, and family history of cardiovascular disease did not alter these findings. We have also performed analyses of individual CpG sites. The frequency of DNA methylation was significantly different at two CpG sites (site 1: nucleotide position +555; and site 3: nucleotide position +563. In addition, we have found a significant inverse correlation between degree of DNA methylation and both ACE activity (P<0.001 and systolic blood pressure levels (P<0.001. We also observed that the methylation level was significantly lower in LBW children who are carriers of the DD genotype compared to NBW children with DD genotype (P<0.024. In conclusion, we are able to demonstrate that the hypomethylation in the 3 CpG sites of ACE gene promoter is associated with LBW in 6 to 12 year-old children. The magnitude of these epigenetic changes appears to be clinically important, which is supported by the observation that discrete changes in DNA methylation can affect systolic blood pressure and ACE protein activity levels.

  18. Mental Health in Low-to-Moderate Risk Preterm, Low Birth Weight, and Small for Gestational Age Children at 4 to 5 Years: The Role of Early Maternal Parenting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westrupp, Elizabeth M.; Mensah, Fiona K.; Giallo, Rebecca; Cooklin, Amanda; Nicholson, Jan M.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The majority of children born preterm, with low birth weight, or small for gestational age are born with low-to-moderate risk (LTM), yet most research focuses on the high-risk group. Little is known about whether children with LTM perinatal risk are at greater risk for mental health problems, or what the role of early maternal…

  19. Anthropometric and Health-Related Behavioral Factors in the Explanation of Social Inequalities in Low Birth Weight in Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuela Pfinder

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE. This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES (adjusted odds ratio (OR 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI 1.59, 4.86 and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24. Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  20. Anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors in the explanation of social inequalities in low birth weight in children with prenatal alcohol exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfinder, Manuela

    2014-01-08

    There is evidence for social inequalities in the health status of children with prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE). This study aimed to describe social inequalities in low birth weight (LBW) in children/adolescents with PAE and to examine the contribution of anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors to the explanation of social inequalities. A total of 2,159 participants with parental self-reported moderate to regular PAE (enrolled in the cross-sectional German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Children and Adolescents) were examined. At similar levels of PAE, the risk of LBW was significantly increased in subjects with a low socioeconomic status (SES) (adjusted odds ratio (OR) 2.78, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.59, 4.86) and middle SES (adjusted OR 2.04, 95% CI 1.28, 3.24). Maternal height, maternal body mass index (BMI) and smoking during pregnancy mediated the association. The mediating effect of maternal height was 12.5% to 33.7%. Maternal BMI explained 7.9% of the socioeconomic difference in LBW between the high and low SES groups in children with PAE. The mediating effect of smoking during pregnancy was 17.3% to 31.5%. Maternal height, maternal BMI and smoking during pregnancy together explained 24.4% to 60.1% of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE. A large proportion of the socioeconomic differences in LBW in children with PAE can be attributed to anthropometric and health-related behavioral factors.

  1. Prediction of height achievement at five years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight : Continuation of catch-up growth after two years of age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qvigstad, E.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.; Ens-Dokkum, M.H.; Schreuder, A.M.; Veen, S.; Brand, R.; Oostdijk, W.; Ruys, J.H.

    1993-01-01

    To predict height at five years in a cohort of 565 very preterm and/or very low-birth-weight children, hypothesized growth determinants were subjected to discriminant analysis. Many neonatal parameters were not significantly associated with short stature at five years of age. A correct classificatio

  2. Which factors could explain the low birth weight paradox?

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    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight children are unusual among well-off families. However, in Brazil, low birth weight rate was higher in a more developed city than in a less developed one. The study objective was to find out the reasons to explain this paradox. METHODS: A study was carried out in two municipalities, Ribeirão Preto (Southeastern Brazil and São Luís (Northeastern Brazil, which low birth weight rates were 10.7% and 7.6% respectively. Data from two birth cohorts were analyzed: 2,839 newborns in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and 2,439 births in São Luís in 1997-1998. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Low birth weight risk factors in São Luís were primiparity, maternal smoking and maternal age less than 18 years. In Ribeirão Preto, the associated variables were family income between one and three minimum wages, maternal age less than 18 and equal to or more than 35 years, maternal smoking and cesarean section. In a combined model including both cohorts, Ribeirão Preto presented a 45% higher risk of low birth weight than São Luís. When adjusted for maternal smoking habit, the excess risk for low birth weight in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís was reduced by 49%, but the confidence interval was marginally significant. Differences in cesarean section rates between both cities contributed to partially explain the paradox. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking was the most important risk factor for explaining the difference in low birth weight between both cities. The other factors contributed little to explain the difference in low birth weight rates.

  3. Clinical analysis of 165 extremely low birth weight infants%超低出生体重儿165例临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    庄严; 高喜容; 刘新晖; 熊月娥; 刘雨; 张琼

    2014-01-01

    Objective To analyze the clinical features and prognosis of extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI).Method Data of totally 165 hospitalized ELBWI between August 1st,2008 and November 30th,2013 in Hunan Children's Hospital were analyzed.The information of general data and births,prenatal care,delivery room stabilization,transfer information,complications,treatment,outcome and follow up were summarized.Result (1) One hundred and sixty-five ELBWI were involved,their mean gestational age was(28.4 ± 2.4) weeks,mean birth weight (910.9 ± 93.1) g.(2) Rate of delivery in tertiary hospital was 46.7% (77/165)and prenatal steroids exposure was found in 52.1% (86/165).None of the cases were treated with continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) in delivery room.(3) Rate of infants who were transfered to the class Ⅲ b neonatal ward within 12 hours after birth was 58.8% (97/165).(4) The main complications of them included neonatal respiratory distress syndrome (NRDS,77.0%,127/165),bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD,70.1%,75/107),patent ductus arteriosus (PDA,50.0%,40/80),preterm retinopathy (ROP,43.0%,46/107),sepsis 39.4% (65/165),intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH,34.8%,49/141),necrotizing enterocolitis(NEC,8.0%,7/88).(5) Treatment:97.6%(161/165) received oxygen therapy and 66.1% (109/165) received mechanical ventilation,55.2% (91/165) used CPAP.89.8% (114/127) of the NRDS used PS; 44.0% (33/75) of the BPD used low dose dexamethasone,32.0% (24/75) used low dose nitric oxide; 60.0% (24/40)of the PDA used medication.32.6% (15/46) of the ROP received laser photocoagulation.The average time of beginning enteral feeding was 2.0 d,the mean time to achieve full gastrointestinal feeding was 43.4 d.(6) Outcome:rate of survival in 165 cases with ELBWI was 51.5% (85/165),treatment was abandoned in 37.6% (62/165),total mortality was 48.5% (80/165).There were significant difference in survival rate between different birth weight group

  4. Association of metabolic syndrome with low birth weight, intake of high-calorie diets and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight and obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velazquez-Bautista, Marlen; López-Sandoval, Joana Jazmín; González-Hita, Mercedes; Vázquez-Valls, Eduardo; Cabrera-Valencia, Iris Zamihara; Torres-Mendoza, Blanca Miriam

    2017-01-01

    The theory of fetal programming suggests that low birth weight (LBW) predisposes to greater food intake and increases the chance of overweight and obesity, which are in turn associated to conditions such as metabolic syndrome (MS) and acanthosis nigricans. The study objective was to ascertain whether an association exists between MS, LBW, intake of high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans in children and adolescents with overweight or obesity. A case-control was conducted on 100 children who attended the overweight and obesity outpatient clinic of the OPD Hospital Civil de Guadalajara "Fray Antonio Alcalde". Subjects were stratified in groups with and without MS based on the criteria of the International Diabetes Federation for children aged less than 16 years. Data on LBW, intake of high-calorie diets for 24-hour dietary recalls (average 2 days a week), and acanthosis nigricans (Simone criteria) were obtained by questioning the parents. Frequencies and logistic regression were calculated using SPSS version 22. The results show that 82% of children and adolescents were obese and 18% overweight, and 73% had MS. MS was associated to LBW (OR: 4.83 [95% CI: 1.9-12.47]), high-calorie diets (OR:136.8 [95% CI: 7.7-2434]), and acanthosis nigricans (OR: 1872 [95% CI: 112.9-31028]). In children and adolescents with overweight and obesity, LBW, high-calorie diets, and acanthosis nigricans are associated to a higher probability of MS. Copyright © 2016 SEEN. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  5. Fatores prognósticos para o desenvolvimento cognitivo de prematuros de muito baixo peso Prognostic factors for cognitive development of very low birth weight premature children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Dalva Barbosa Baker Méio

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Crianças prematuras, de muito baixo peso, podem apresentar alterações em seu desenvolvimento cognitivo. No Brasil, pouco se conhece sobre a evolução dessas crianças na idade pré-escolar. O objetivo do estudo foi descrever o desenvolvimento cognitivo de uma população de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso e verificar possíveis fatores prognósticos para desenvolvimento cognitivo anormal. MÉTODOS: Um estudo de coorte foi realizado com uma população de crianças pré-escolares, nascidas prematuras, de muito baixo peso, entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993. O desenvolvimento cognitivo foi avaliado por meio do teste WPPSI-R (Wechsler Preschool and Primary Intelligence Scales aplicado por psicólogas, utilizando dois pontos de corte para definição de anormalidade: escores abaixo de 1 e 2, desvios padrões da média (DP. RESULTADOS: Foram avaliadas 79 crianças de quatro a cinco anos de idade. A média do escore total do teste WIPPSI-R foi de 75,6 (±11,9. A incidência de escore total anormal foi de 77,2% e de 32,9% (1DP e 2 DP, respectivamente. Após o ajuste por "tipo de parto", ser pequeno para a idade gestacional (OR=6,19; IC95% 1,60-23,86, ultra-som transfontanela anormal (OR=5,90; IC95% 1,04-9,83 e ser do sexo masculino (OR=3,20; IC 95% 1,32-26,35 foram os fatores que predisseram escore total OBJECTIVE: Very low birth weight premature children often show cognitive development abnormalities. There is scarce information about the outcome of these children at preschool age in Brazil.The objective of the study is to describe the cognitive development of a population of premature newborns and to assess possible prognostic factors for abnormalities. METHODS: A cohort study was conducted in a preschool children population whose subjects were very low birth weight premature babies born between January 1991 and September 1993. WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and it was applied by psychologists. Two

  6. Importância dos minerais na alimentação do pré-termo extremo Minerals in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cleide E. P. Trindade

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Revisão crítica da literatura sobre os minerais cálcio, fósforo e microelementos na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando a importância no crescimento, mineralização óssea e como componente de dietas. FONTES DOS DADOS: Utilizamos o banco de dados MEDLINE e o Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews, de 1994 a 2004. Selecionamos artigos com enfoques originais, artigos de revisão e livros específicos. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: As dificuldades na nutrição de prematuros extremos aumentam a freqüência de prematuros com restrição de crescimento, cujas conseqüências futuras estão para serem determinadas. Todavia, há pouca literatura sobre minerais, especialmente sobre micronutrientes na nutrição do pré-termo extremo, considerando-se o deficiente armazenamento e a importância destes em nutrição. O principal enfoque desta revisão foi sobre o cálcio e o fósforo na mineralização óssea e na suplementação em nutrição parenteral e enteral, bem como a avaliação crítica da nutrição pós-alta sobre a mineralização óssea. São abordadas as necessidades de micronutrientes, principalmente selênio e zinco, e a função antioxidante do selênio na provável prevenção de doenças do prematuro com atuação de radicais livres. CONCLUSÃO: Considerando os baixos estoques de minerais em prematuros extremos, há necessidade de mais pesquisas sobre minerais na nutrição destes prematuros para definir suas reais necessidades, os aspectos metabólicos, bem como aplicar os conhecimentos na formulação de dietas que permitam prevenir quadros de deficiência e conseqüências a longo prazo. Ainda há controvérsias sobre a influência de fórmulas pós-alta sobre a evolução da doença óssea da prematuridade.OBJECTIVE: To review the literature on the role of calcium, phosphorus and trace elements in the nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, considering their importance for metabolism, bone mineralization

  7. Lower systolic blood pressure at age 7 y in low-birth-weight children who received iron supplements in infancy: results from a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindberg, Josefine; Norman, Mikael; Westrup, Björn; Domellöf, Magnus; Berglund, Staffan K

    2017-08-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) (≤2500 g) is associated with iron deficiency in infancy and high blood pressure (BP) later in life.Objective: We investigated the effect of iron supplementation that was given to LBW infants on midchildhood BP.Design: The study was a randomized, double-blind, controlled trial that included 285 marginally LBW (2000-2500-g) infants at 2 Swedish centers between May 2004 and November 2007. The infants were randomly assigned to receive a placebo or 1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) from 6 wk to 6 mo of age. In secondary analyses at the age of 7 y, systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and the prevalence of children with BP within the hypertensive range (>90th percentile) were compared between the groups.Results: BP was analyzed via intention to treat in 189 children (66%). The mean ± SD SBP was 103 ± 8.1, 101 ± 7.5, and 101 ± 7.8 mm Hg in children who had received the placebo (n = 70), 1 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 54), or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1) (n = 65), respectively. When the iron-supplemented groups were combined in covariate-adjusted analyses, the mean SBP in LBW children who had received iron supplementation in infancy was 2.2 mm Hg (95% CI: 0.3, 4.2 mm Hg) lower than in those who were unsupplemented (P = 0.026). Multivariate logistic regression showed that iron supplementation in infancy reduced the odds of having an SBP within the hypertensive range at 7 y of age (OR: 0.32; 95% CI: 0.11, 0.96). For DBP, there were no significant differences between the intervention groups.Conclusions: LBW children who receive iron supplementation (1 or 2 mg Fe · kg(-1) · d(-1)) in infancy have lower SBP at 7 y. This (to our knowledge) novel observation suggests that the increased risk of hypertension that is observed in children and adults who are born small might be reduced with early micronutrient interventions. This trial was registered at clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00558454. © 2017 American Society for

  8. Association of Low-Birth Weight with Malnutrition in Children under Five Years in Bangladesh: Do Mother's Education, Socio-Economic Status, and Birth Interval Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Shafiqur Rahman

    Full Text Available Malnutrition in children under five years remains a significant problem in Bangladesh, despite substantial socio-economic progress and a decade of interventions aimed at improving it. Although several studies have been conducted to identify the important risk factors of malnutrition, none of them assess the role of low birth weight (LBW despite its high prevalence (36%. This study examines the association between LBW and malnutrition using data from the Bangladesh Demographic and Health Survey (BDHS 2011 and provides practical guidelines for improving nutritional status of children.Malnutrition in children is measured in terms of their height-for-age, weight-for-height, and weight-for-age. Children whose Z-scores for either of these indices are below two standard deviations (-2SD from median of WHO's reference population are considered as stunted, wasted or underweight, respectively. The association between malnutrition and LBW was investigated by calculating adjusted risk-ratio (RR, which controls for potential confounders such as child's age and sex, mother's education and height, length of preceding-birth-interval, access to food, area of residence, household socio-economic status. Adjusted RR was calculated using both Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel approach and multivariable logistic regression models controlling for confounder.The prevalence of malnutrition was markedly higher in children with LBW than those with normal birth-weights (stunting: 51% vs 39%; wasting: 25% vs 14% and underweight: 52% vs 33%. While controlling for the known risk factors, children with LBW had significantly increased risk of becoming malnourished compared to their counter part with RR 1.23 (95% CI:1.16-1.30, 1.71 (95% CI:1.53-1.92 and 1.47 (95% CI: 1.38-1.56 for stunting, wasting and underweight, respectively. The observed associations were not modified by factors known to reduce the prevalence of malnutrition, such as higher education of mother, better household socio

  9. Early and intensive nutritional strategy combining parenteral and enteral feeding promotes neurodevelopment and growth at 18months of corrected age and 3years of age in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohnishi, Satoshi; Ichiba, Hiroyuki; Tanaka, Yuko; Harada, Sayaka; Matsumura, Hisako; Kan, Ayako; Asada, Yuki; Shintaku, Haruo

    2016-09-01

    To evaluate whether aggressive nutrition can improve long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes and growth in extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants born appropriate for gestational age (AGA). This single-center cohort study included 137 ELBW AGA infants born in two epochs. The first group received standard nutrition (SN; n=79) consisting of amino acids started at 0.5g/kg/day on Day 4 of life and increased to 1.0g/kg/day. The second aggressive nutrition (AN) group received amino acids started at 1.5-2.0g/kg/day within 24h of life and increased to 3.5g/kg/day. Parenteral and enteral feedings were combined in both groups. Neurodevelopmental outcomes by the Kyoto Scale of Psychological Development and growth were followed up to 18months of corrected age or 3years of age and compared by univariate and multivariate analyses. Baseline characteristics were similar between the two groups. At 3years of age, AN children had a significantly greater mean value of head circumference, but not length or weight, than SN children (49.1 vs 48.0cm, p=0.014). The cognitive-adaptive (C-A) score in the AN group was also significantly higher than that in the SN group (98.3 vs 91.9 at 18months, p=0.039 and 89.5 vs 83.1 at 3years, p=0.047). AN infants born ≥26weeks of gestation were less likely to develop borderline disability in C-A, language-social and overall developmental scores compared to gestational age-matched SN infants. Parenteral and enteral AN after birth improved the long-term cognitive neurodevelopment in ELBW AGA infants, especially in those born ≥26weeks of gestational age, however results need to be confirmed in a larger, multi-site randomized trial. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Outcome of Children Born with Extremely Low Birth Weight. Survival, health and development

    OpenAIRE

    Ingibjörg Georgsdóttir 1953

    2013-01-01

    Markmið: Markmið rannsóknarinnar Litlir fyrirburar – lifun, heilsa og þroski var að meta lífslíkur og horfur lítilla fyrirbura á Íslandi. Einnig var markmiðið að skoða heilsu, þroska og hegðun barna og unglinga sem fæddust á árunum 1991-1995 og vógu minna en 1000g við fæðingu, og bera saman við fullburða jafnaldra. Aðferðir: Upplýsingum um lifun fyrirbura, heilsufar mæðra og fyrirbura var safnað fyrir árin 1982-1990, 1991-1995 og 2001-2005 og gerður saman¬burður milli tímabilanna þriggja....

  11. Abnormalities in orbitofrontal cortex gyrification and mental health outcomes in adolescents born extremely preterm and/or at an extremely low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganella, Eleni P; Burnett, Alice; Cheong, Jeanie; Thompson, Deanne; Roberts, Gehan; Wood, Stephen; Lee, Katherine; Duff, Julianne; Anderson, Peter J; Pantelis, Christos; Doyle, Lex W; Bartholomeusz, Cali

    2015-03-01

    Extremely preterm (EP, orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are determined during the third trimester, however little is known about OFC patterning in EP/ELBW cohorts, for whom this gestational period is disturbed. This study investigated whether the distribution of OFC pattern types and frequency of intermediate and/or posterior orbital sulci (IOS/POS) differed between EP/ELBW and control adolescents. This study also investigated whether OFC pattern type was associated with mental illness or executive function outcome in adolescence. Magnetic resonance images of 194 EP/ELBW and 147 full term (>37 completed weeks) and/or normal birth weight (> 2500 g) adolescents were acquired, from which the OFC pattern of each hemisphere was classified as Type I, II, or III. Compared with controls, more EP/ELBW adolescents possessed a Type II in the left hemisphere (P = 0.019). The EP/ELBW group had fewer IOS (P = 0.024) and more POS (P = 0.021) in the left hemisphere compared with controls. OFC pattern type was not associated with mental illness, however in terms of executive functioning, Type III in the left hemisphere was associated with better parent-reported metacognition scores overall (P = 0.008) and better self-reported behavioral regulation scores in the control group (P = 0.001) compared with Type I. We show, for the first time that EP/ELBW birth is associated with changes in orbitofrontal development, and that specific patterns of OFC folding are associated with executive function at age 18 years in both EP/ELBW and control subjects.

  12. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth-weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of more than 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, the authors investigate whether birth…

  13. Screening for Dysregulation among Toddlers Born Very Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Sarah J.; MacLean, Peggy; Duvall, Susanne Woolsey; Lowe, Jean R.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Children born very low birth weight (VLBW) are at increased risk for regulatory difficulties. However, identifying toddlers at risk has been impeded by a lack of screening measures appropriate for this population. Methods: We studied the nature of dysregulation in toddlers born VLBW (N = 32) using the Infant-Toddler Social and…

  14. Low Birth Weight, Preschool Education, and School Remediation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temple, Judy A.; Reynolds, Arthur J.; Arteaga, Irma

    2010-01-01

    Studies have documented a strong relationship between low birth-weight status and adverse child outcomes such as poor school performance and need for special education services. Following a cohort of more than 1,300 low-income and predominately African American children in the Chicago Longitudinal Study, the authors investigate whether birth…

  15. Effect of breastfeeding quality improvement on breastfeeding rate in very low birth weight and extremely low birth weight infants%母乳喂养质量改进对极低和超低出生体重儿亲母母乳喂养率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘凤; 韩树萍; 余章斌; 张俊; 陈小慧; 吴薇敏; 楚雪; 刘蓓蓓

    2016-01-01

    ObjectiveTo study the effect of breastfeeding quality improvement on the breastfeeding rate in very low birth weight (VLBW) and extremely low birth weight (ELBW) infants in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). MethodsA retrospective analysis was performed for the clinical data of VLBW and ELBW infants who were admitted from July 2014 to July 2015 (pre-improvement group) and those who were admitted from August 2015 to June 2016 after the implementation of breastfeeding quality improvement measures (post-improvement group). The parameters including condition of breastfeeding (breastfeeding rate, breastfeeding amount, and breastfeeding time), duration of parenteral nutrition, time to enteral feeding, and incidence of feeding intolerance were compared between the two groups. ResultsThe implementation of breastfeeding quality improvement measures signiifcantly increased breastfeeding rate and amount, signiifcantly shortened time to addition of human milk fortiifer, duration of parenteral nutrition, and time to enteral feeding, and signiifcantly decreased the incidence of feeding intolerance.ConclusionsBreastfeeding quality improvement measures can increase breastfeeding rate in the NICU and decrease gastrointestinal complications in preterm infants.%目的:探讨NICU中母乳喂养质量改进措施对极低和超低出生体重儿亲母母乳喂养率的影响。方法回顾性调查收集2014年7月至2015年7月收治的极低和超低出生体重儿(质量改进前组)以及实施母乳质量改进措施后的2015年8月至2016年6月的极低和超低出生体重儿(质量改进后组)资料。对两组患儿住院期间亲母母乳喂养情况(喂养率、喂养量、喂养时间)、静脉营养持续时间、达到全肠道喂养的时间,喂养不耐受发生率等指标进行比较。结果实施质量改进后,亲母母乳喂养率和喂养量均明显增高,母乳强化剂添加时间、静脉营养时间、达全肠道喂养时间

  16. Analysis of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants%超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余华娟

    2013-01-01

    目的探讨超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症的发生情况。方法对2010年3月~2012年12月本院出生的129例超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症进行临床分析。结果新生儿呼吸窘迫综合征(NRDS),呼吸暂停,肺部感染,气漏,支气管肺发育不良(BPD)3组间比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05),其中<1000 g组发生率最高,1250~1499 g组发生率最低。3组痊愈率比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论对超低和极低出生体重儿早期呼吸系统并发症进行密切监护和针对治疗,可提高患儿的成活率,提高生存质量。%Objective To investigate the occurrence of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants. Methods Early respiratory complications of 129 cases with extremely low and very low birth weight infants born in our hospital from March 2010 to December 2012 were analyzed. Results There were significant differences in NRDS,apnea,pulmonary infection,gas leakage and BPD among the three groups(P<0.05).The incidence of the group with birth weight less than 1000 g was the highest,while the incidence of the group with birth weight ranged from 1250 g to 1499 g was the lowest.There was significant difference in the cure rate among the three groups(P<0.05). Concluson Close monitoring and corresponding treatment of early respiratory complications on extremely low and very low birth weight infants can improve the survival rate and life quality of infants.

  17. Risk Factors Related to Low Birth Weight in Cienfuegos Municipality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Rafael Zerquera Rodriguez

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: the low birth weight still constitutes a complex a complex health problem. It is determined by some factors and it is the most important predictive index of infantile mortality. Objective: identifying the risk factors related to low birth weight. Methods: a descriptive study was conducted. There were analyzed the 77 birth of children with inferior weigh to 2500g, occurred in 2010 at the municipality of Cienfuegos, puerperas were included, mothers of those children. The pregnancy's follow-up cards, patient’s clinical records and municipal and provincial statistics were checked. In addition to the socio-demographic characteristics, the nutritional state, numbers of pregnancies, heavy profit during pregnancy, age, toxic habits and diseases correlated to pregnancy were analyzed. Results: the index of low birth weigh oscillated between 3.6 and 6.7 per month. The 52% of low birth weight newborn’s mothers had school university level. The 74 % of mothers work. The 70.1 % were smokers and the 57, 1 % developed a gravidum hypertensive disease. Conclusions: the most associated factors to low birth weight were, the mother’s habit to smoke, as well as the diseases that affected them during pregnancy, fundamentally the hypertensive disease and the vaginal sepsis.

  18. 极低和超低出生体重儿神经发育预后及其影响因素%Neurodevelopmental outcomes and its risk factors of very low and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟倩; 曹云; 王艺; 张澜; 杨红; 邵肖梅; 徐秀; 陆春梅

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the neurodevelopmental outcomes and its risk factors of very low birth weight infant (VLBWI) and extremely low birth weight infants (ELBWI).Methods Data of 85 VLBWI and ELBWI hospitalized in Children's Hospital of Fudan University from October 2005 to November 2009 who had finished infant development test of Baley Scales of Infant Development Ⅱ (Bayley Ⅱ) for neurological development at corrected gestational age between 18 to 42 months were retrospectively reviewed.Twelve infants who accepted treatment in other hospital over 10 days were excluded; the rest 73 infants were divided into normal (neurodevelopment) group or abnormal group according to the definition of neurodevelopmental impairment reported by National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) Neonatal Network.Potential risk factors of neurodevelopmental impairment were analyzed with Logistic stepwise regression.Results The mean gestational age of 73 infants was (30.4±2.3) weeks; among which 13 were smaller than 28 weeks,42 between 28 and 32 weeks,and 18 older than 32 weeks.The mean birth weight was (1208.0±208.5) g; among which 15 (20.6%) <1000 g,and 58 (79.4%) were between 1000 g and 1500 g.Four babies (5.5%) were diagnosed as movement retardation,and neurodevelopmental impairment occurred in 16 cases (21.9 %),psychomotor developmental index <70 occurred in 6 cases (8.2%,one case complicating with cerebral palsy); mental developmental index <70 occurred in 2 cases (2.7%); both psychomotor developmental index and mental developmental index <70 occurred in 7 cases (9.6 %,two cases complicating with cerebral palsy),and one case (1.4 %) was cerebral palsy only.Blind in either eyes and hearing impairment requiring deaf-aid were not found in any of the 73 babies.Logistic stepwise regression showed that use of mechanical ventilation was related to neurodevelopmental impairment (OR =6.183,95% CI:1.664-22.983,P =0.003).Psychomotor

  19. The Relationship between Behavior Ratings and Concurrent and Subsequent Mental and Motor Performance in Toddlers Born at Extremely Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Messinger, Daniel; Lambert, Brittany; Bauer, Charles R.; Bann, Carla M.; Hamlin-Smith, Kasey; Das, Abhik

    2010-01-01

    When predicting child developmental outcomes, reliance on children's scores on measures of developmental functioning alone might mask more subtle behavioral difficulties, especially in children with developmental risk factors. The current study examined predictors and stability of examiner behavior ratings and their association with concurrent and…

  20. Late-onset sepsis in very and extremely low birth weight infants%62例极低/超低出生体重儿晚发型败血症的临床分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文辉; 杨杰; 李奕; 罗耀明

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the features of late-onset sepsis (LOS) in the very low birth weight(VLBW) infants and extremely low birth weight(ELBW) infants,and to explore the laboratory examination for the early detection of LOS in premature infants.Methods Data were collected from 62 VLBW/ELBW infants diagnosed with LOS and admitted into the neonatal intensive care units of our hospital and Gnangdong Women and Children' s Hospital from January,2010 to June,2013.60 VLBW/ELBW infants without sepsis admitted into these two hospitals' departments of neonate pediatrics in the same period were randomly selected as a control group.The risk factors,main infection and laboratory examination indexes were retrospectively analyzed in VLBW/ ELBW infants with LOS.Results The gestational age,mechanical ventilation,central venipuncturation,and the time of parenteral nutrition were the major risks leading to LOS in VLBW/ELBW infants.The main approaches of infection were respiratory tract infection,intestinal infection,and skin infection.The clinical symptoms of LOS were different.The first symptoms were mainly abdominal distension or stomach retention,apnea or blood oxygen fluctuations,anhelation,poor response,fever,and tachycardia.And the analysis showed that CRP and PCT significantly increased in the early stage of LOS,but the WBC and platelet didn' t significantly change.Blood culture indicated that the main bacteria was Gram negative bacteria.Conclusions VLBW/ELBW infants were susceptibility to the LOS.Clinical features don' t show in the early stage of LOS.Infection can be found out detecting CRP and PCT.%目的 分析早产极低/超低出生体重儿晚发型败血症的临床特点,探讨早期发现早产儿晚发型败血症的方法.方法 选择2010年1月至2013年6月于我院及广东省妇幼保健院新生儿ICU住院,按晚发型败血症诊断标准诊断的62例早产极低/超低出生体重儿,并随机选择同期我院及广东省妇幼保健

  1. Effect of intrapartum nursing of NICU nurse specialist to rescue extremely low birth weight infants%NICU专科护士产时护理对超低出生体重儿抢救效果的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于新颖; 刘丹妮; 王玲

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨产时NICU专科护士配合抢救对超低出生体重儿抢救效果的影响.方法 将2008年11月至2012年1月出生的超低出生体重儿按出生单双日分组,单日为观察组30例,产时为NICU专科护士配合抢救和护理;双日为对照组30例,产时是产科接产医生配合抢救,观察配合人员改变后对抢救效果的影响.结果 观察组5 min Apgar评分明显高于对照组[(8.13±0.68)分比(6.73±0.83)分],差异有统计学意义(t=7.152,P<0.01).观察组体温、pH值、BE值明显高于对照组,差异均有统计学意义(t值分别为13.274,6.152,2.691;P均<0.05);抢救时间较对照组缩短[(12.67±2.86) min比(14.33±2.86)min],差异亦有统计学意义(t=-2.260,P<0.05).结论 产时NICU专科护士配合抢救和护理可明显提高超低出生体重儿的抢救效果,缩短抢救时间,为后续治疗奠定基础.%Objective To investigate the rescuing effect of extremely low birth weight infants under the assistance of intrapanrtum NICU nurse specialist.Methods Sixty extremely low birth weight infants born from November 2008 to January 2012 were divided into two groups according to the odd-even date of their birth.30 infants who were born on odd days were the observation group and rescued and nursed by intrapanrtum NICU nurse specialist,while 30 infants who were born on even days were the control group and rescued by obstetric doctors.The effect of personnel change on rescuing was observed and compared.Results In the observation group,5 minute Apgar scorewas significantly higher than that in the control group [(8.13 ±0.68) vs (6.73 ±0.83) (t = 7.152,P < 0.01) ; the body temperature,pH value and BE value were all significantly higher than those in the control group (t = 13.274,6.152,2.691,respectively;P <0.05) ; rescue time was shorter than that of the control group [(12.67 ± 2.86) min vs (14.33 ± 2.86) min] (t =-2.260,P < 0.05).Conclusions The assistance and nursing by

  2. Research Progress of Early Treatment Management of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant%超低出生体质量儿的早期治疗管理进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孔祎琳; 陈燕华; 李慧; 周晓玉; 薛梅

    2014-01-01

    The extremely low birth weight (ELBW)infant means that the premature infants′birth body weight is less than 1 000 g.At present,with the increase of neonatal intensive care technology,the survival rate of the ELBW infant is gradually improving,but the early treatment management of ELBW is still one of the most difficult problems in the world.The current studies showed many disputes in the early treatment management of the ELBW infant.This review summarized the early treatment management of the ELBW infant from the perspectives of breathing management, nutrition management, infection and complications.%超低出生体质量(ELBW)儿是指出生体质量<1000 g的早产儿。随着新生儿重症监护技术的提高,ELBW儿的存活率呈逐年上升趋势,但其早期治疗管理仍是国内外学者关注的重点及难题之一。目前,就 ELBW儿的早期治疗管理仍存争议。笔者拟就从呼吸管理、营养管理、感染及并发症处理方面对ELBW儿的早期治疗管理,进行综述如下。

  3. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality. Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing. Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity. Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types. Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence. [Paediatr Indones. 2013;53:177-80.].

  4. Anthropometric measurements for detecting low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kusharisupeni

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background In several provinces of Eastern Indonesia, the majority of births take place at home (60% and are assisted by traditional birth attendants. Most of these newborns do not have their birth weight recorded, due to lack of available weighing scales or lack of skill to perform the measurement, especially in rural areas. As such, an early identification of low birth weight cases is needed to prevent infant morbidity and mortality.Objective To assess anthropometric measurements including calf, chest, and head circumferences as a method of choice for detecting low birth weight, as substitute for actual weighing.Methods This cross-sectional study was performed at Banjar Baru, South Kalimantan, Indonesia, from January to March 2012. Subjects were full term, singleton, and live-born infants during the study period, and obtained from private clinics by a purposive sampling procedure. Calf, chest, and head circumferences were measured to identify the most suitable substitute for birth weight using Pearson’s correlation, ROC, sensitivity, and specificity.Results In this study, a correlation was shown between birth weight and all anthropometric measurements. Optimal calf, chest, and head circumference cutoff points to identify low birth weight infants were 10.3 cm, 30.7 cm, and 31.2 cm, respectively. The area under the curves (AUC showed good accuracy for all measurement types. Calf circumference had the closest estimated true prevalence to the true prevalence (8� .52% and 8.6%, respec-.52% respec- 52% respec-%8.6%, respec-.6%, 6%, respec-%, respectively compared to the other measurement types.Conclusion Calf circumference is the most suitable measurement as a substitute for birth weight, due to its estimated true prevalence.

  5. 促进早产低体重儿智能及心理发育的综合干预%Affect of Comprehensive Intervention for preterm low birth weight children with intelligence and psychological development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴雅娟; 吕庆鹏; 何志萍; 曾巧慧

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the affect of Comprehensive Intervention for preterm low birth weight children with intelligence and psychological development.Methods 40 preterm low birth weight children from January 2010 to December 2012 from the second people's hospital of nanhai district as the observation group.And selected 44 cases with preterm low birth weight children at the same period as the control group.The control group treated withthe traditional treatment and care of preterm children.And the the observation group treated with Comprehensive intervention on the basis of the control group.The Mental development index (MDI) and psychological development were compared after the intervention.Results The MDI in the observation group after six months (102.5 ± 11.8 score vs 82.9 ± 12.7 score),12 months (108.9 ± 10.9 score vs91.5 ± 13.4 score) and two years later (116.5 ± 8.9 score vs98.9 ± 12.2 score) intervention were significantly higher than the same period in the control group,P<0.05.After 1 year intervention,the Big movement,fine motor,adaptability,language and social behavior score in the observation group were significantly higher than the control group.P<0.05.Conclusions The Comprehensive intervention can effectively enhance the intelligence and psychological development of preterm low birth weight children.%目的 探讨综合干预对早产低体重儿智能及心理发育的影响.方法 将佛山市南海区第二人民医院2010年1月至2012年12月收治的40例早产低体重儿作为观察组,同期选择44例早产低体重儿作为对照组,对照组仅采用传统的早产儿治疗及护理,观察组在对照组基础上进行综合干预,比较两组新生儿干预后的智能发育指数(MDI)及心理发育状况.结果 观察组干预6个月(102.5±11.8分vs 82.9±12.7分)、12个月(108.9±10.9分vs91.5±13.4分)及2年后(116.5±8.9分vs98.9±12.2分)的MDI指数均显著高于对照组同期,干预1年后,观察组新生儿的大运

  6. Effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firas S. Azzeh

    Full Text Available Introduction: Infants with low birth weights are provided with hospital nutrition support to enhance their survivability and body weights. However, different hospitals have different nutrition support formulas. Therefore, the effectiveness of these nutrition support formulas should be investigated. Objective: To assess the effect of hospital nutrition support on growth velocity and nutritional status of low birth weight infants at Al-Noor hospital, Saudi Arabia. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted between October, 2010 and December, 2012. Three hundred newborns were recruited from Al-Noor Hospital in Makkah city, Saudi Arabia. Infants were selected according to their birth weights and were divided equally into three groups; (i Low Birth Weight (LBW infants (15012500 g birth weight, (ii Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW infants (1001-1500 g birth weight and (iii Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW infants ( 0.05 were observed among groups. Serum calcium, phosphorus and potassium levels at discharge were higher (p < 0.05 than that at birth for ELBW and VLBW groups; while sodium level decreased in ELBW group to be within normal ranges. Albumin level was improved (p < 0.05 in ELBW group. Conclusion: Health care management for low birth weight infants in Al-Noor Hospital was not sufficient to achieve normal growth rate for low birth weight infants, while biochemical indicators were remarkably improved in all groups.

  7. Growth during the first two years predicts pre-school height in children born with very low birth weight (VLBW): results of a study of 1,320 children in Germany.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trebar, Branko; Traunecker, Richard; Selbmann, Hans-Konrad; Ranke, Michael B

    2007-08-01

    Children born with very low birth weight (VLBW) are at risk of impaired growth. We aimed to study VLBW survivors (90.8%) born in 1998/1999 in the state of Baden-Württemberg (n = 2103) for whom growth data were available up to age six. Classification as appropriate for gestational age (AGA) or small for gestational age (SGA) depended on size at birth. Models to predict height SDS at 5 y were developed using data for 1 yr (Model 1) and 2 yrs (Model 2). The data of 1320 (63%) children were available: SGA: n = 730, AGA: n = 590. At 6 yrs, 8.3% AGA and 13.4% SGA children were short (weight SDS, birth weight SDS; (b) Model 2 (n = 991; R2 = 0.72; error: 0.65 SDS): 1st yr Ht SDS; change (2nd yr) in Ht and weight SDS; MPH SDS; 1st yr weight SDS; birth weight SDS. Thus, some AGA and SGA children born VLBW remain short and preventive strategies need to be developed for those at risk.

  8. Magnitude and Correlates of Low Birth Weight at Term in Rural Wardha, Central India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kumar V

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Birth weight is one of the most important determinant of the neonatal and infant survival. The goal of reducing low birth weight incidence by at least one third between 2000 and 2010 was one of the major goals in ‘A World Fit for Children’. The prevention of low birth weight is a public health priority, particularly in developing countries with high magnitude. Knowledge regarding magnitude and correlates help prevent the condition. Hence, the present study was carried out to study the magnitude and the correlates of low birth weight. Methodology: Two hundred and six newborn babies were recruited on a birth cohort from two Primary Health Centres (PHC of Wardha district to study growth in first year of life. Here, we present the baseline analysis of 172 children who were born full term to study the correlates of low birth weight babies born full term. The children were recruited within first week of their birth. Data was collected on socio-demographic profile, birth history, and maternal characteristics. Proportion of low birth weight was expressed in percentage along with 95% confidence interval. Univariate and multivariate logistic regression was used to study the correlates. Findings are expressed in odds ratios with their 95% confidence intervals. Results: The magnitude of low birth weight at term was found to be 33.1% (95% CI: 26.4%-40.4%. On univariate analysis, significant correlates of low birth weight were consumption of less than 50 iron-folic acid tables and being born to than mother. On multivariate analysis, the significant correlates were female sex of child (OR=2.856, being born to thin mother (OR=5.320, consumption of less than 50 tablets (OR=4.648, and complications of pregnancy (OR=2.917. Conclusions: The magnitude of low birth weight is very high and modifiable correlates of low birth weight are nutritional status of mother, lower consumption of IFA tablets and complications of pregnancy.

  9. Change of Nosocomial Infection of Very Low or Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in the Last 10 Years%极低和超低出生体质量儿医院感染的十年变迁

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴俊; 吴本清; 黄进洁; 罗亮; 陈霆

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨新生儿重症监护病房(NICU)极低和超低出生体质量儿医院感染的流行病学情况及病原菌的变化趋势.方法 回顾性分析2001年1月-2010年12月在我院NICU住院的654例极低和超低出生体质量儿的医院感染发生情况,将发生医院感染的162例极低和超低出生体质量儿分为2001年1月-2005年12月和2006年1月-2010年12月两组,对比分析两组医院感染的发病率、感染疾病和病原菌的变迁.结果 第一组和第二组医院感染发生率分别为22.55%和26.01%,两者间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组医院感染疾病均以肺炎为主,前后五年比较所占比例有所下降,但两者间差异无统计学意义(P>0.05);败血症的构成比由22.6%增加至38.5%,两者间差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组病原菌均以革兰阴性菌为主,前后五年构成比显示革兰阳性菌和真菌呈上升趋势,肺炎克雷伯杆菌成为第一位的医院感染致病菌,凝固酶阴性葡萄球菌明显上升,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 极低和超低出生体质量儿医院感染发生率有上升趋势,败血症构成比增加,应根据病原菌谱的变化合理应用抗生素.%To investigate the change trends of pathogens and epidemiological condition of nosocomial infection ( NI ) of very low or extremely low birth weight infants in neonate intensive care unit ( NICU ) . Methods The data of 654 very low or extremely low birth weight infants in NICU of our hospital from January 2001 to December 2010 were investigated retrospectively. The 162 infants diagnosed with nosocomial infection were divided into 2 groups according to their hospitalization periods ; from 2001 to 2005 ( group I ) and from 2006 to 2010 ( group H )The NI rate, infected site and pathogens were comparatively analyzed between the two groups. Results The NI rate was 22. 55% in group I and 26. 01% in group H , with no statistical difference (P>0.05). The most common infection

  10. Low birth weight and male reproductive function

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Main, K M; Jensen, R B; Asklund, C

    2006-01-01

    size and function into adulthood. Current human data, however, are often based on highly selected hospital populations and lack precise distinctions between low birth weight, SGA, timing of growth restriction and a differentiation of catch-up growth patterns. Despite the methodological inadequacies...... are limited. Prospective studies, case-control investigations and registry surveys show that impaired intrauterine growth increases the risks of congenital hypospadias, cryptorchidism and testicular cancer approximately two- to threefold. Although few studies focus on the effect of intrauterine growth on male...... pubertal development, testicular hormone production or sperm quality, available evidence points towards a subtle impairment of both Sertoli cell and Leydig cell function. Animal studies support the hypothesis that impaired perinatal growth restriction, depending on the timing, can affect postnatal testis...

  11. Growth Rate of Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Children and Influencing Factors%极低出生体重早产儿的生长速率和影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁凤

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨影响极低出生体重早产儿生长速率的影响因素,以更好地指导极低出生体重早产儿的治疗。方法选择我院NICU病室收治的198例极低出生体重早产儿为对象,按照患儿出生后生长速率是否≥15 g·kg-1·d-1,将患儿分为正常生长组和缓慢生长组。其中:正常组患儿76例,缓慢生长组122例。统计患儿出生胎龄、出生时体重、氨基酸开始日龄、氨基酸总量、脂肪乳开始日龄、脂肪乳总量、开始喂养日龄、总热卡达120 kcal·kg-1·d-1日龄和奶量达150 mL·kg-1·d-1日龄,并采用单因素分析方法,探讨影响极低出生体重早产儿生长速率的因子。结果患儿在出生第1周体重下降,从第2周开始体重一直增长。单因素结果表明:出生时体重、氨基酸总量、脂肪乳总量、开始喂养时间、奶量达标时间、总热卡达标时间是影响极低出生体重早产儿生长速率的显著性因素(P 0.05)。结论对于极低出生体重早产儿采取积极的营养支持策略,可以有效地促进患儿生长。%Objective To investigate the factors that influence VLBW children's growth rate to better guide VLBW children's treatment. Methods 198 cases of very low birth weight preterm children were divided into normal-growth group (76 cases) and slow-growth group (122 cases), according to whether the growth rate of children born≥15 g·kg-1·d-1. The birth gestational age, birth weight, age of amino acids beginning, the total amount of amino acids, age of fat emulsion beginning, total amount of fat milk, age of start feeding, age of total heat Qatar 120 kcal·kg-1·d-1 and age of milk capacity of 150 mL·kg-1·d-1 were analysed. By single-factor analysis, we explored the influencing factors of very low birth weight preterm children growth rate. Results Children born in the first week in weight loss, weight from the first two weeks has started to grow. Univariate results showed

  12. Effects of neonatal enteral glutamine supplementation on cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes in very preterm and/or very low birth weight children at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Kieviet, Jorrit F; Oosterlaan, Jaap; van Zwol, Annelies; Boehm, Guenther; Lafeber, Harrie N; van Elburg, Ruurd M

    2012-12-28

    In very preterm ( glutamine supplementation between day 3 and day 30 of life had neither beneficial nor detrimental effects on long-term cognitive, motor and behavioural outcomes of very preterm and/or VLBW children at school age, although visuomotor abilities were poorer in children that received glutamine.

  13. 极低出生体重儿童学龄期的行为适应分析%Analysis of behavioral adjustment in school-aged children born with very low birth weight

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小璐; 钟敏泉; 岑超群; 邹小兵; 杨杰; 钟向明

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To evaluate behavioral adjustment and its influential factors among school-aged children born with very low birth weight(VLBW). [Method] The BASICS Behavioral Adjustment Scale was used to investigate 235 very low birth weight children and 396 normal birth weight(NBW) children who studied in mainstream schools, parents of the children completed the questionaire. [Results] A total of 570 out of 631 questionaires were completed, with a response rate of 90. 3%. Scores for VLBW group in dimension of achievement, self-relations, internal state and total scores were significantly higher than those of the NBW group (respectively 3. 06±0. 93,3. 62 ± 0. 88,4. 11 ± 1. 18 and 3. 19 ± 0. 71 vs 2. 29 ± 0. 85,2. 27 ± 0. 78,2. 45 ± 0. 86 and 2. 31 ± 0. 75,P all<0. 05). Multiple regression analysis showed that higer family economics status and main caregiver education level were predictors of better behavioral adjustment among the VLBW group. While those with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and higer doses of corticosteroid had worse behavioral adjustment.[conclusion] VLBW children have increased behavior problems, early evaluation and intervention is recommended.%[目的]评估极低出生体重(very low birth weight,VLBW)儿童学龄期行为适应状况并探讨相关的影响因素. [方法]采用BASICS行为适应量表对235名就读主流学校的极低出生体重儿童和396名正常出生体重儿童的家长进行问卷调查. [结果]调查的631个家庭中570个家庭完成问卷,应答率90.3%.极低出生体重儿童组成就[(3.06±0.93)分]、自我关系[(3.62±0.88)分]、内在状态[(4.11±1.18)分]得分及行为适应总分[(3.19±0.71)分]高于正常出生体重儿童组,分别为[(2.29±0.85)分],[(2.27±0.78)分],[(2.45±0.86)分]和[(2.31±0.75)分],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).多元线性回归分析结果显示,家庭收入高、主要管教者受教育程度高的VLBW儿童行为适应较好,新生儿期患颅内出血

  14. Both very low- and very high in vitro cytokine responses were associated with infant death in low-birth-weight children from Guinea bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Andreas; Jensen, Kristoffer J; Erikstrup, Christian

    2014-01-01

    with lipopolysaccharide (LPS), phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), or purified protein derivative (PPD). The outcome was mortality between bleeding and 1 year of age. Non-linear associations between cytokine responses and mortality were examined. RESULTS: Cytokine measurements were available from 390 children. The mortality rate...... (MR) was high (6.8/100 person-years-observation (PYO)). Both low and high cytokine responses to LPS and PHA were associated with high mortality (MR up to 25/100 PYO in the lowest 10% and 9.2/100 PYO in the highest 10%). In BCG-vaccinated children, higher IFN-γ responses to PPD were associated...

  15. Catch-up growth up to ten years of age in children born very preterm or with very low birth weight

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knops, N.B.B.; Sneeuw, K.C.A.; Brand, R.; Hille, E.T.M.; Ouden, A.L. den; Wit, J.M.; Verloove-Vanhorick, S.P.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Improved survival due to advances in neonatal care has brought issues such as postnatal growth and development more to the focus of our attention. Most studies report stunting in children born very preterm and/or small for gestational age. In this article we study the growth pattern of t

  16. Visual Perception and Visual-Motor Integration in Very Preterm and/or Very Low Birth Weight Children: A Meta-Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geldof, C. J. A.; van Wassenaer, A. G.; de Kieviet, J. F.; Kok, J. H.; Oosterlaan, J.

    2012-01-01

    A range of neurobehavioral impairments, including impaired visual perception and visual-motor integration, are found in very preterm born children, but reported findings show great variability. We aimed to aggregate the existing literature using meta-analysis, in order to provide robust estimates of the effect of very preterm birth on visual…

  17. Relationship between Stereoscopic Vision, Visual Perception, and Microstructure Changes of Corpus Callosum and Occipital White Matter in the 4-Year-Old Very Low Birth Weight Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Przemko Kwinta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To assess the relationship between stereoscopic vision, visual perception, and microstructure of the corpus callosum (CC and occipital white matter, 61 children born with a mean birth weight of 1024 g (SD 270 g were subjected to detailed ophthalmologic evaluation, Developmental Test of Visual Perception (DTVP-3, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI at the age of 4. Results. Abnormal stereoscopic vision was detected in 16 children. Children with abnormal stereoscopic vision had smaller CC (CC length: 53±6 mm versus 61±4 mm; p<0.01; estimated CC area: 314±106 mm2 versus 446±79 mm2; p<0.01 and lower fractional anisotropy (FA values in CC (FA value of rostrum/genu: 0.7±0.09 versus 0.79±0.07; p<0.01; FA value of CC body: 0.74±0.13 versus 0.82±0.09; p=0.03. We found a significant correlation between DTVP-3 scores, CC size, and FA values in rostrum and body. This correlation was unrelated to retinopathy of prematurity. Conclusions. Visual perceptive dysfunction in ex-preterm children without major sequelae of prematurity depends on more subtle changes in the brain microstructure, including CC. Role of interhemispheric connections in visual perception might be more complex than previously anticipated.

  18. High intake of dietary long-chain ω-3 fatty acids is associated with lower blood pressure in children born with low birth weight: NHANES 2003-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skilton, Michael R; Raitakari, Olli T; Celermajer, David S

    2013-05-01

    Reduced fetal growth is associated with increased systolic blood pressure. Recently, we found an inverse association between serum ω-3 fatty acids and systolic blood pressure in young adults born with impaired fetal growth. We investigated the associations of dietary intake in childhood of the long-chain ω-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid with blood pressure parameters in children born with reduced birth weight. We analyzed data from 3457 children aged 8 to 15 years participating in the continuous National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2003-2004, 2005-2006, and 2007-2008. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24-hour dietary recalls, birth weight by questionnaire, and blood pressure was measured. Systolic blood pressure was 1.1 mm Hg higher in those with reduced (pressure was significantly higher in these children (3.4 mm Hg). In the 354 participants with reduced birth weight, when compared with children with the lowest tertile of intake, those who had the highest tertile of dietary eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid intake had significantly lower systolic blood pressure (-4.9 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -9.7 to -0.1]) and pulse pressure (-7.7 mm Hg [95% confidence interval, -15.0 to -0.4]). High-dietary intakes of eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid are associated with lower systolic blood pressure and pulse pressure in children born with reduced birth weight. These data are consistent with the hypothesis that long-chain ω-3 fatty acids reduce blood pressure in those with impaired fetal growth.

  19. 早产低出生体质量儿乳牙萌出和相关影响因素的调查研究%Deciduous tooth eruption time in low birth-weight prematurely born children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张锋; 卢东旭; 邓文娇; 李海飞; 江文; 刘寿桃

    2012-01-01

    目的:研究早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌时间,并追踪观察早产低出生体质量儿多个时间点乳牙萌出的数目,探索影响乳牙萌出的相关因素.方法:选择早产低出生体质量儿35例和足月出生婴儿71例为对象,定期进行口腔检查并记录牙齿初萌时间、萌出牙位、萌出数目,统计分析孕周、出生体质量、性别、分娩方式、胎数、喂养方式等因素对乳牙萌出有无影响.结果:①两组最早萌出的牙均为下颌乳前牙,足月儿乳牙初萌明显早于早产低出生体质量儿(P<0.05),其中早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌年龄平均为出生后8.9个月,足月儿为出生后7个月;②按照牙齿初萌的生理年龄计算,早产低出生体质量儿牙齿初萌为70.4周,而足月儿为67.3周,两组婴儿间无统计学差异(P>0.05);③早产低出生体质量儿在出生后9个月、12个月时牙齿萌出数目明显低于足月儿(P<0.05);④在影响牙齿萌出的相关因素中,孕周、出生体质量与牙齿初萌年龄呈明显负相关,与牙齿萌出数目明显正相关;而喂养方式、性别、分娩方式以及胎数对乳牙萌出时间没有影响.结论:早产低出生体质量儿乳牙初萌明显较足月儿推迟,但以生理年龄计算,两组婴儿牙齿初萌时间无统计学差异.出生体质量与孕周是影响牙齿初萌时间和牙齿萌出数目的相关因素.%AIM: To compare the eruption time of first deciduous tooth in low birth-weight prematurely bom children with normal birth weight full-term born children so as to find out whether the eruption of first deciduous tooth is affected by the birth status. METHODS: Thirty-five low birth weight prematurely born infants and 71 normal birth weight full-term born children were included in this study. Dental examination was performed at 6, 9 and 12 months and all the eruption teeth were recorded. Birth status data was obtained from the medical history of hospital. RESULTS

  20. The association of low birth weight with serum C reactive protein in 3‐year‐old children living in Cuba: A population‐based prospective study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fundora‐Hernández, Hermes; Batista‐Gutierrez, Lourdes; Suárez‐Medina, Ramón; de la C. Mora‐Faife, Esperanza; García‐García, Gladys; del Valle‐Infante, Ileana; Gómez‐Marrero, Liem; Britton, John; Fogarty, Andrew W.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective Low birthweight is associated with a decreased risk of childhood leukemia and an increased risk of both cardiovascular disease and all‐cause mortality in adult life. Possible biological mediators include systemic innate immunity and inflammation. We tested the hypothesis that birthweight was inversely associated with serum high sensitivity C reactive protein assay (hsCRP), a measure of both innate immunity and systemic inflammation. Methods Data on birthweight and current anthropometric measures along with a range of exposures were collected at 1 and 3 years of age in a population‐based cohort study of young children living in Havana, Cuba. A total of 986 children aged 3‐years‐old provided blood samples that were analyzed for serum hsCRP levels. Results Nearly 49% of children had detectable hsCRP levels in their serum. Lower birthweight was linearly associated with the natural log of hsCRP levels (beta coefficient −0.70 mg L−1 per kg increase in birthweight, 95% CI: −1.34 to −0.06). This was attenuated but still present after adjustment for the child's sex and municipality (−0.65 mg L−1 per kg birthweight; 95% CI: −1.38 to +0.08). There were no associations between growth from birth or anthropometric measures at 3 years and systemic inflammation. Conclusions Birthweight was inversely associated with serum hsCRP levels in children aged 3 years living in Cuba. These observations provide a potential mechanism that is present at the age of 3 years to explain the association between low birthweight and both decreased childhood leukemia and increased cardiovascular disease in adults. PMID:27859847

  1. Nutrition management strategy of very low and extremely low birth weight infants%极低和超低出生体质量儿营养管理策略

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩树萍

    2014-01-01

    Extrauterine growth restriction is a major clinical problem for very low and extremely low birth weight infants.They need the rapid accumulation of protein and energy after born;otherwise it will lead to an increase in nutritional deficiencies,malnutrition and neurological problems.The ideal nutritional strategies is to provide parenteral nutrition after birth,amino acids and lipids are initially provided at a minimum of 2.0 g/(kg · d) and 1.0 g/(kg — d),which advance to 3.5-4.0 g/(kg · d) and 3.0 g/(kg · d),keep the appropriate protein/energy ratio.The appropriate vitamin,minerals and elements should be provided.Enteral feeding should be initiated immediately about 24 h after birth,minimal feeding [10-20 mL/(kg · d)] should last 3-5 days.Human milk should gradually increase to 75-120 mL/(kg · d) and add human milk fortifier.Parenteral nutrition is stopped when human milk fed to 120 mL/(kg · d).%极低和超低出生体质量儿出生早期如无快速积累蛋白和能量,将发生营养不足,导致神经发育不良和疾病的增加.理想的营养策略为出生就开始肠外营养,氨基酸、脂肪乳剂分别从2.0 g/(kg·d)和1.0g/(kg·d)开始,并快速达到3.5 ~4.0g/(kg·d)、3.0 g/(kg·d),保持适当的蛋白/能量比,合理添加维生素、矿物质和微量元素.肠内营养于出生后24 h左右开始喂养,微量喂养10~20 mL/(kg·d),持续3~5d后逐渐增加奶量.母乳喂养者奶量增至75~ 120 mL/(kg·d)可添加母乳强化剂.奶量至120 mL/(kg·d)停肠外营养.

  2. 住院极低和超低出生体质量儿506例救治体会%Treatment Experience of 506 Cases of Very Low and Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants in NICU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨素娥; 董玉红; 翟炳辉

    2012-01-01

    Objective To analysethe remedy circumtance of 506 cases of very low birth weight infant ( VLBWI )and extremely 1 ow birth weight infant( ELBWI )in neonatal intensive care unit( NICU )of Sanme-nxia central hospital. Methods 506 cases of VLBWI and ELBWI from April 2004 toMarch 2011 were divided into the first 4-year group and the second 4-year group. Then the major complications and turnovers between the two groups were compared. Results The complications in the second group such as asphyxia, scle-first group. The decreased rates on infectious diease was non-significant. Compared to the first 4-year group, the suvival rates went up remarkablly and the mortality fallde dratically( P < 0. 05 ). Conclusion In order to reduce neonatal mortality rate, improvement in the technical level of NICU staff, co-operation between obstetrics and pediatrics, stress on the training of primary hospital should be the priorities.%目的 分析三门峡市中心医院新生儿重症监护室(NICU)住院极低出生体质量儿(VLBWI)和超低出生体质量儿(ELBWI)的救治情况.方法 将我院NICU自2004年4月至2011年3月收治的506例VLBWI和ELBWI分成前后4年2组,比较主要并发症发生率和转归情况.结果 后4年组和前4年组相比,主要并发症如窒息、硬肿症、肺透明膜病、颅内出血的发生率下降有统计学意义,感染性疾病的发生率下降,无统计学意义.但治愈率增高,病死率下降,差异有显著统计学意义(P<0.05).结论 不断提高NICU医护人员技术水平,进行产儿科合作,开展宫内转运,加强基层网络医院医护人员的培训,重视细节化管理,可明显降低本地区此类患儿病死率,提高治愈率.

  3. Child Health USA 2014: Preterm Birth and Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... percent of infants born very preterm or at low birth weight. However, even babies born “late preterm” (34–36 weeks’ gestation) or at moderately low birth weight (1,500–2,499 grams) are more ...

  4. Dilemas nutricionais no pré-termo extremo e repercussões na infância, adolescência e vida adulta Nutritional dilemmas in extremely low birth weight infants and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Simon Camelo Jr.

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Rever a literatura atual sobre a alimentação do recém-nascido pré-termo extremo, enfocando os principais dilemas nutricionais e repercussões na infância, adolescência e vida adulta. FONTE DOS DADOS: Foi realizada revisão bibliográfica utilizando os bancos de dados MEDLINE, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews e Best Evidence. SÍNTESE DOS DADOS: Cada vez mais fica evidente que as práticas alimentares estabelecidas com os pré-termo podem afetar não só o desenvolvimento imediato, mas também sua evolução a longo prazo. A nutrição neste período pode determinar se o adulto será mais ou menos saudável. Existe um longo caminho de aprendizado sobre a segurança e eficácia dos nutrientes administrados para os pré-termo; sobre as técnicas para avaliar as diferentes estratégias alimentares; e sobre os efeitos a longo prazo destes regimes no desenvolvimento, crescimento e aparecimento de doenças. CONCLUSÃO: Apesar dos grandes avanços na área, ainda são necessários estudos básicos e clínicos para aprofundar a compreensão das necessidades nutricionais do recém-nascido pré-termo e a forma mais adequada de supri-las, evitando-se conseqüências indesejáveis a longo prazo.OBJECTIVE: To review the recent medical literature on nutrition of extremely low birth weight infants, focusing on nutritional disorders and their effects on childhood, adolescence and adulthood. SOURCES OF DATA: An extensive review of the related literature was performed using MEDLINE, the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and the Best Evidence database. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: There is a growing body of evidence that early nutritional practices may affect short-term growth and development outcome. In addition, these practices may play a role in determining adult health and disease. There is still much to be learned about safe and efficacious nutrient administration in preterm infants; about techniques to assess the effect of different

  5. Risk Factors for Neutropenia in Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants%极低出生体重儿中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晨; 王丹华

    2014-01-01

    目的:研究极低出生体重儿中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素。方法回顾性纳入2011年1月至2013年12月在北京协和医院新生儿重症监护室住院治疗的极低出生体重儿。根据生后第一周内有无中性粒细胞减少症,分为早发中性粒细胞减少症和无早发中性粒细胞减少症病例;同时根据第一周后有无中性粒细胞减少症,分为晚发中性粒细胞减少症和无晚发中性粒细胞减少症病例。分别对其临床情况进行比较,对中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素进行分析。结果共108例患儿纳入本研究,平均胎龄(30.1±2.2)周,平均出生体重(1188±216) g。其中32例发生早发中性粒细胞减少症,53例发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症。早发中性粒细胞减少症患儿孕母妊娠期患高血压疾病发生率高于未发生早发中性粒细胞减少症患儿(59.4%比31.6%, P=0.007)。晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿胎龄小于未发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿[(29.5±2.3)周比(30.6±2.0)周, P=0.009];出生体重低于未发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿[(1123±212) g比(1251±201) g, P=0.002];早发感染、晚发感染的发生率均高于未发生晚发中性粒细胞减少症患儿(50.9%比30.9%, P=0.034;100%比43.6%, P<0.001)。早发感染患儿中血小板减少症发生率高于中性粒细胞减少症发生率(45.5%比25.0%, P=0.045)。结论早发中性粒细胞减少症与晚发中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素不同。孕母妊娠期高血压疾病可能是早发中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素;小胎龄、低出生体重、早发感染和晚发感染可能是晚发中性粒细胞减少症的危险因素。%Objective To investigate the risk factors for neutropenia in extremely low birth weight ( EL-BW) infants.Methods We retrospectively studied the clinical data of ELBW infants treated in Neonatal

  6. 早产低出生体重婴幼儿智力和运动发育纵向随访研究%Follow-up study on mental and motor development of preterm low birth weight children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦伟; 冉霓; 衣明纪; 傅芃; 冯雪英

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] To explore and observe the effects of preterm low birth weight on mental and motor development of children,and the variation tendency of development from 6 to 24 months. [Methods] 86 preterm low birth weight children were selected and 115 normal birth weight children served as a control group. Bayley Scales of Infant Development was used to evaluate their neurodevelopment at age 6,12,18 and 24 months. The result was indicated as mental development index (MDI) .psychomotor development index (PDI),MDIJ and PDIJ of age-adjusted. [Results] There were significant differences in the mean MDI and PDI between preterm low birth weight children and the control group (P< 0. 05). After preterm group age-adjusted, there was no significant difference of MDIJ except that of 6 months. But the premature had lower PDIJ score than control group in most ages. There were still 9 cases of MDK85(10. 5%)and 10 cases of PDI<85(11. 6%)at 24 months in preterm group respectively. Correlation analysis showed that there were significant relations between MDI and parental education,MDIJ6,PDIJ6 and PDIJ 12 (r=0. 387~0. 664,P<0. 05) ,and there were significant relations between PDI and maternal age,paternal education, MDIJ6,PDIJ6,MDIJ12 and PDIJ12 (r=- 0. 473-0. 672,P <0. 05). [Conclusions] Premature and LBW have adverse impact on children's neurodevelopment,but the condition could improve with growing up from 6 to 24 months.%[目的]探讨早产低出生体重对6~24月龄儿童智力和运动发育的影响及随年龄而变化的趋势. [方法]观察组:早产低出生体重儿86例;正常对照组115例,采用纵向随访方法,在儿童6月、12月、18月和24月龄时,应用Bayley婴幼儿发育量表进行评估,结果用智力发育指数(mental development index,MDI)和运动发育指数(psychomotor development index,PDI)、以及校正年龄后的智力和运动发育指数(MDIJ和PDIJ)表示. [结果]早产组在6月、12月、18月及24月龄时MDI及PDI均低于正

  7. Principais características biológicas e sociais do recém-nascido de baixo peso The main biological and social characteristics of children low birth-weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Yunes

    1978-09-01

    utilization of health facilities, ideal age of delivery and ideal number of children. The main biological and social characteristics identified and analyzed in this study put forth elements that will help to establish comprehensive care to the pregnant woman, thus allowing a decrease in the occurrence of low birth-weight.

  8. Breast-feeding among Mothers of Low Birth Weight Infants

    OpenAIRE

    Lefebvre, Francine

    1990-01-01

    The physical and emotional condition of the mother delivering a premature or low birth weight infant may be quite different than that of the mother of a healthy term infant when initiating breast-feeding. Despite this difference, incidence and duration of lactation among mothers of pre-term or low birth weight infants was found to be quite good compared with that of mothers of term infants. Considerable problems, however, are encountered by premature or low birth weight infants when breast-fe...

  9. Neuro-Cognitive Performance of Very Preterm or Very Low Birth Weight Adults at 26 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eryigit Madzwamuse, Suna; Baumann, Nicole; Jaekel, Julia; Bartmann, Peter; Wolke, Dieter

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children born very preterm (VP low birth weight (VBLW <1500 g; subsequently VP/VLBW) have been previously reported to have more cognitive impairment and specific executive functioning problems than term children; however, it remains unclear whether these problems persist into adulthood. This…

  10. Low birth weight infants and Calmette-Guérin bacillus vaccination at birth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Roth, Adam Anders Edvin; Jensen, Henrik; Garly, May-Lill

    2004-01-01

    In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW) children are often not vaccinated with Calmette-Guérin bacillus (BCG) at birth. Recent studies have suggested that BCG may have a nonspecific beneficial effect on infant mortality. We evaluated the consequences of not vaccinating LBW children at birth...

  11. Severe acute malnutrition in very low birth weight preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enweronu-Laryea, Christabel C; Aryee, Irene N A; Adei, Eunice A P

    2012-05-01

    Malnutrition in preterm low birth weight infants has adverse long-term metabolic, growth, and neurodevelopmental effects. In the past 3 decades, parenteral nutrition, enriched preterm formula, and fortification of human milk have been used to alleviate these adverse effects. Unfortified human breast milk does not provide sufficient nutrients for the growth and development of preterm infants at the volumes recommended; however, it is usually the only source of nutrition available for such infants in low-resource countries. Many newborns, including very low birth weight infants, are surviving in these countries because of concerted efforts to achieve the fourth millennium development goal. These efforts have not addressed the nutrition needs of sick preterm very low birth weight infants. The authors report 3 cases of severe acute malnutrition in very low birth weight newborns and suggest possible interventions.

  12. DENGUE DURING PREGNANCY: ASSOCIATION WITH LOW BIRTH WEIGHT AND PREMATURITY

    Science.gov (United States)

    RIBEIRO, Christiane Fernandes; LOPES, Vânia Glória Silami; Brasil, Patricia; da Silva, Licinio Esmeraldo; RIBEIRO, Pedro Henrique Fernandes Josephson; UGENTI, Luca Cipriani; NOGUEIRA, Rita Maria Ribeiro

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of dengue virus infection during pregnancy and its correlation with low birth weight, prematurity, and asphyxia. A non-concurrent cohort study reveals the association of dengue during pregnancy with prematurity and low birth weight, when birth occurred during the maternal-fetal viremia period (p = 0.016 and p < 0.0001, respectively). PMID:26910454

  13. 103例超未成熟儿及超低出生体重儿转归及影响因素分析%Outcome and influencing factors of 103 cases of extremely premature infant and extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓磊; 梅花; 刘春枝; 张亚昱; 刘春丽; 宋丹; 张钰恒

    2016-01-01

    目的 总结超未成熟儿及超低出生体重儿发生的原因、相关影响因素及转归情况.方法 分析内蒙古医科大学附属医院2009年1月至2015年12月NICU收治的符合条件的103例超低出生体重儿及超未成熟儿的临床资料,包括母孕期病史、新生儿出生时情况、诊治经过及预后.结果 103例患儿存活67例,死亡36例,存活率65.0% (67/103).妊娠高血压综合征、感染、胎膜早破等为发生超未成熟和超低出生体重儿的主要因素,影响两者的转归因素包括胎龄、性别、出生体重、肺出血、支气管肺发育不良、坏死性小肠结肠炎(P<0.05).长期住院的存活患儿后期易并发贫血.死亡直接原因前4位包括肺出血、呼吸窘迫综合征、新生儿肺炎及坏死性小肠结肠炎.结论 加强高危妊娠监测管理,预防早产,加强NICU超未成熟儿及超低出生体重儿的监护管理,及早发现、及早处理各种并发症,防止医院感染发生,是提高两者存活率,改善生活质量的根本措施.%Objective To summarize the causes,related factors and outcome of extremely premature infants and extremely low birth weight infants.Methods One hundred and three cases of extremely premature infants and extremely low birth weight infants were admired to First Affiliated Hospital of Inner Mongolia Medical University between January 2009 and December 2015.The study was performed to analyze the clinical data of the 103 cases,included history of pregnancy,birth situation,treatment and prognosis.Results In these 103 cases,67 infants survived,36 infants died.The survival rate was 65.0% (67/103).The extremely premature infants and extremely low birth weight infants were mainly associated with pregnancy-induced hypertension,infection,premature rupture of membranes.Factors that could affect the outcome of these cases included gestational age,sex,birth weight,pulmonary hemorrhage,bronchopulmonary dysplasia and necrotizing

  14. A Study Of Risk Factors For Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deswal B S

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question: What is the extent of low weight babies born in hospitals and its association with some maternal factors? Objectives: 1. To find an overall prevalence of low birth weight babies amongst hospital births in Meerut city. 2. To identify and quantify the effects of some risk factors for low birth weight. Setting: District women Hospital of Meerut city of western U.P. Study Design: Hospital based matched case-control study. Sample size: 491 low birth weight babies as ‘cases’ and an equal number of babies of normal birth weight in ‘control’ group matched for maternal age, sex of baby, birth order and institution of delivery. Study variables: Socio-economic Status: maternal biological factors including obstetric history: antenatal factors: nutritional factors: history of abortion: toxaemia of pregnancy etc. Results: Overall proportion of low birth weight babies was found to be 21.8% amongst hospital live births and 30.9% born to mothers aged below 30 years of age. Low maternal weight, under nutrition, lack of antenatal care, short inter-pregnancy interval, toxacmia of pregnancy were independent factors increasing the risk of low birth weight significantly. Conclusions: The study suggested that a substantial proportion of low birth weight babies can be averted by improving maternal nutritional status including anemic condition, birth spacing and proper antenatal care.

  15. Developmental outcome of low birth-weight and preterm newborns: a re-view of current evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farin Soleimani

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW and preterm birth are one the most important causes of death in the world and therefore are considered as one of the major health problems. Global statistics demonstrates an increase in the prevalence of low birth weight in the developing countries. Low birth weight infants are exposed to complications such as major neurosensory impairements, cerebral palsy, cognitive and language delays, neuromotor developmental delay, blindness and hearing loss, behavioral and psychosocial disorders, learning difficulties and dysfunction in scholastic performances. The majority of infant's death and developmental disorders were due to disorders relating to prematurity and unspecified low birth weight. Infants weighing less than 2500 g, is a major determinant of both neonatal and infant mortality rates and, together with congenital anomalies (e.g., cardiac, central nervous system, and respiratory, contributes significantly to childhood morbidity. Various studies indicate that low birth weight infants are suffering from physiological and psychosocial disabilities, two to three times more than the other children. At school age, preterm and low birth weight infants have poorer physical growth, cognitive function, and school performance. These disadvantages appear to persist into adulthood and therefore have broad implications for society. Although the survival rates have increased dramatically and the incidence of morbidities has decreased, the complications are still considered to be associated with economical and social burdens. Most children with Low birth weight suffer from multiple disabilities. Therefore, they need special and consistent care. On demand of reducing the infant mortality rate, the need to decrease the complications in low birth weight and preterm infants should be considered by the policy makers in health care system. In this review article, we assessed current evidences on developmental outcomes of low birth weight and

  16. Developmental Outcomes of Premature and Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reza Saeidi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Prematurity is the most common cause of death and disability And Preterm infants, are prone to developmental complications. For this reason this study was designed for follow up of these babies until 2 years by modified DDST-2. Methods: This study was a prospective longitudinal descriptive study from March 2009 to March 2011 in clinic of sheikh and Imam Reza Hospitals, mashhad, Iran. Sample size with Confidence coefficient of 95% and power 80%, was determined 100 hundred babies. Infants were seen by a pediatrician at a follow up clinic at 1, 3, 6, 9,12,15,18, 24, months.The developmental assessment was done using Denver-2 Developmental Screening Test. Results: mean age for smiling was 4/6 ± 2/1  months which significantly differed with appropriate age (p = 0.000, mean age for telling two syllables words 11/7±  1/9 months, without significant difference of appropriate age.(p = 0.139. Average age for understanding NO was 10/4±  2/0 months that significantly differed with appropriate age(p = 0.000. The average age for telling 6 word was 17/8±  3/0, without significant difference with appropriate age (p = 0.510. Conclusion: Children with history of prematurity and low birth weight have more disability and developmental delay so they need to developmental screening tests.

  17. Maternal autonomy and low birth weight in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Priyanka; Anderson, Alex K

    2011-09-01

    The prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) is a major public health issue in India (30.0%) and is the highest among South-Asian countries. Maternal autonomy or the mother's status in the household indicates her decision-making power with respect to movement, finance, healthcare use, and other household activities. Evidence suggests that autonomy of the mother is significantly associated with the child's nutritional status. Although previous studies in India reported the determinants of LBW, literature on the association between mother's autonomy and birth weight are lacking. This study, therefore, aims to examine the influence of maternal autonomy on birth weight of the newborn. The study, a secondary data analysis, examined data from the 2005-2006 National Health and Family Survey (NFHS 3) of India. A maternal autonomy score was created through proximal component factor analysis and categorized as high, medium, and low autonomy levels. The main outcome variable included birth weight of the index child obtained from health cards and mother's recall. Descriptive and logistic regression analyses were performed. Results from the study indicate that 20.0% of the index children included in the analysis were born at LBW. Low maternal autonomy was an independent predictor of LBW (odds ratio [OR] 1.28, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.07-1.53, p=0.007) after adjusting for other factors, and medium autonomy level was not significant. These findings clearly indicate the importance of empowering women in India to combat the high incidence of LBW.

  18. Socioeconomic factors and low birth weight in Mexico

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    Villa-Barragán Juan

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Low birth weight (LBW is a public health problem linked to lack of equity in populations. Despite efforts to decrease the proportion of newborns with LBW, success has been quite limited. In recent years, studies focused on explaining how social factors influence this problem have shown that populations with greater inequities have a greater proportion of newborns with LBW. Methods The objective was to describe socioeconomic factors related to LBW adjusted by demographic, reproductive and health services variables in Mexico City. A case-control study was carried out in three hospitals with gynaecological and obstetrics services in Mexico City during the first half of 1996. During the recruiting period all children with LBW (cases, defined as newborns weighing Results We found that low socioeconomic level was the most important risk factor for LBW and was independent of other factors, including those related to reproduction and nutrition, smoking, morbidity during pregnancy, accessibility to health services and prenatal care (OR 2.68; 95% CI 1.19, 6.03. Conclusion We found that socioeconomic factors are relevant to LBW. However further research should be done in different population groups as well as developing precise ways of measuring socioeconomic factors and their role in reproductive health.

  19. [Risk factors for low birth weight].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bortman, M

    1998-05-01

    Low birthweight (LBW) is the main known determinant of infant mortality. In spite of the sharp decrease in infant mortality rates and of the rise in survival rates for children with LBW, no important decrease in LBW rates has been observed in Neuquen, Argentina. The purpose of this study was to try to understand the risk factors for LBW, the frequency of LBW in the population, and the role of prenatal care in its prevention, as well as to develop a risk factor scale that could be used to identify women at higher risk of giving birth to a child with LBW. With this in mind we performed a cross-sectional study based on 50% of the data entered into the Perinatal Information System for 1988-1995 by the 29 hospitals in Neuquen province (46,171 births). The distribution of birthweight and the frequency of potential risk factors for LBW were examined. The relationship between such factors and LBW was studied using a logistic regression model. On the basis of the results obtained, an additive scale was drawn up and validated with the remaining 50% of the data for registered births. The highest odds ratio (OR) was seen in women who had no prenatal care (OR = 8.78; 95%CI: 6.7 to 11.4). ORs for inadequate prenatal care, lateness in attending the first prenatal visit, preeclampsia or eclampsia, hemorrhage and anomalies of the placenta or placental membranes, and a history of a previous child with LBW were greater than 2.0. The risk of having children with LBW was also higher in women over the age of 40, women under 20, single women, smoking mothers, women with an intergenesic interval of less than 18 months, and women with a body mass index of less than 20. Finally, there was a direct linear relationship between points on the risk scale and the risk of having a LBW infant.

  20. Maternal factors in predicting low birth weight babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Hematram; Lee, Nagarajah

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the association between maternal factors and low birth weight among newborns at a tertiary hospital in Malaysia. This was a cross-sectional study where mothers were followed through from first booking till delivery. There were 666 mothers who delivered from May 2007 to March 2008. Infants' birth weight were compared with maternal age, pre-pregnancy BMI, fathers BMI, parity, ethnicity, per capita monthly income, and maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. A multiple logistic regressions was used to determine the relationship of maternal factors and low birth weight, while the ROC curve was constructed to assess the sensitivity and specificity of the predictive model. Among the significant risk factors of low birth weight were older age (35 years and above), low pre-pregnancy BMI (per capita monthly income were included in the analysis.

  1. Incidence of low birth weight among Love Canal residents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vianna, N J; Polan, A K

    1984-12-01

    The incidence of low birth weight among white live-born infants from 1940 through 1978 was studied in various sections of the Love Canal. A statistically significant excess was found in the historic swale area from 1940 through 1953, the period when various chemicals were dumped in this disposal site. Potential confounding factors such as medical-therapeutic histories, smoking, education, maternal age, birth order, length of gestation, and urban-rural difference did not appear to account for this observation. Low birth weight rates were comparable to those of upstate New York from 1954 through 1978, the period when there was no deposition of chemical wastes.

  2. Decline in the negative association between low birth weight and cognitive ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özcan, Berkay; Myrskylä, Mikko

    2017-01-01

    Low birth weight predicts compromised cognitive ability. We used data from the 1958 National Child Development Study (NCDS), the 1970 British Cohort Study (BCS), and the 2000–2002 Millennium Cohort Study (MCS) to analyze how this association has changed over time. Birth weight was divided into two categories, <2,500 g (low) and 2,500–4,500 g (normal) and verbal cognitive ability was measured at the age of 10 or 11 y. A range of maternal and family characteristics collected at or soon after the time of birth were considered. Linear regression was used to analyze the association between birth weight and cognitive ability in a baseline model and in a model that adjusted for family characteristics. The standardized difference (SD) in cognitive scores between low-birth-weight and normal-birth-weight children was large in the NCDS [−0.37 SD, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.46, −0.27] and in the BCS (−0.34, 95% CI: −0.43, −0.25) cohorts, and it was more than halved for children born in the MCS cohort (−0.14, 95% CI: −0.22, −0.06). The adjustment for family characteristics did not explain the cross-cohort differences. The results show that the association between low birth weight and decreased cognitive ability has declined between the 1950s and 1970s birth cohorts and the 2000--2002 birth cohort, despite a higher proportion of the low-birth-weight babies having a very low birth weight (<1,500 g) in the more recent birth cohort. Advancements in obstetric and neonatal care may have attenuated the negative consequences associated with being born small. PMID:27994141

  3. Born with low birth weight in rural Southern India

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomas, Nihal; Grunnet, Louise G; Poulsen, Pernille

    2012-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) is common in the Indian population and may represent an important predisposing factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D) and the metabolic syndrome. Intensive metabolic examinations in ethnic LBW Asian Indians have been almost exclusively performed in immigrants living outside India...

  4. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    OpenAIRE

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-con...

  5. Links between motor control and classroom behaviors: Moderation by low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razza, Rachel A; Martin, Anne; Brooks-Gunn, Jeanne

    2016-08-01

    It is unclear from past research on effortful control whether one of its components, motor control, independently contributes to adaptive classroom behaviors. The goal of this study was to identify associations between early motor control, measured by the walk-a-line task at age 3, and teacher-reported learning-related behaviors (approaches to learning and attention problems) and behavior problems in kindergarten classrooms. Models tested whether children who were vulnerable to poorer learning behaviors and more behavior problems due to having been born low birth weight benefited more, less, or the same as other children from better motor control. Data were drawn from the national Fragile Families and Child-Wellbeing Study (n = 751). Regression models indicated that motor control was significantly associated with better approaches to learning and fewer behavior problems. Children who were low birth weight benefitted more than normal birth weight children from better motor control with respect to their approaches to learning, but equally with respect to behavior problems. Additionally, for low but not normal birth weight children, better motor control predicted fewer attention problems. These findings suggest that motor control follows a compensatory model of development for low birth weight children and classroom behaviors.

  6. Evaluation of growth in very low birth weight preterm babies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeşinel, Serdar; Aldemir, Esin Yıldız; Kavuncuoğlu, Sultan; Yeşinel, Seda; Yıldız, Hayrettin

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate physical growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) preterm babies at a mean age of three years and to investigate the factors which affected growth. The factors including maternal problems, prenatal problems, early neonatal problems, nutrition, familial socioeconomical status and presence of chronic disease which affected catch-up growth in terms of height and weight in VLBW infants followed up in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of our hospital were examined. The target height formula was used in assessment of growht in height and the contribution of genetic properties was investigated. The points of the subjects on the growth curve were plotted according to the Percentile Curve of the Turkish Children prepared by Neyzi et al. The states of the subjects with and without intrauterine growth retardation (were compared. The study was intitiated after obtaining approval from the ethics committeee of our hospital (100/25.10.2005). One hundred and seventeen preterm babies (57 females and 60 males) with a mean adjusted age of 35.8±2.39 80 of whom were appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 28 of whom were symmetrical (small gestational age) SGA and 9 of whom were asymmetrical SGA were included in the study. The mean gestational age (GA) was found to be 31±2.16 weeks and the mean birth weight (BW) was found to be 1271±226 g. The mean current height was found to be 92.06±4.90 cm. The mean weight was found to be 12.98±1.94 kg. The mean target height was calculated to be 163.66±8.1 cm (157.20 cm for the girls and 170.20 cm for the boys). It was found that 15 preterm babies (12.8%) could not achieve the target height (girls: 6%, boys: 6.8%). The risk factors related with failure to achieve target height were found to include ventilator treatment, presence of chronic disease, advanced stage intracranial bleeding (ICB), posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus, absence of breastfeeding, failure to sit at the table with the family and

  7. Use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment of retinopathy of prematurity with general anesthesia%喉罩通气道全麻用于超低出生体重儿视网膜病变激光光凝术的麻醉处理

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马兰; 张建文; 左云霞

    2013-01-01

    报道1例胎龄27+4周,现月龄1月27 d,体重1.67 kg的超低出生体重伴双眼早产儿视网膜病变(retinopathy of prematurity,ROP)的早产儿在喉罩通气道全麻下行双眼激光光凝术治疗.%This case report describes the successful use of laryngeal mask airway in an extremely low birth weight premature infant undergoing laser photocoagulation treatment.The premature infant with gestational age of 27 ~ weeks is retinopathy in both eyes,57 d old,and 1.67 kg weight.

  8. Cognitive function and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Imamura, Atsuko; Takagishi, Yuka; Takada, Satoru; Uetani, Yoshiyuki; Nakamura, Toru; Nakamura, Hajime [Kobe Univ. (Japan). School of Medicine; Inagaki, Yuko

    1996-07-01

    Twenty-two very low birth weight infants at preschool ages of 5-6 years were studied to clarify the correlation between cognitive function and MRI findings. Cognitive function was evaluated by the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-Revised (WISC-R) and the Frostig developmental test of visual perception. Ventricular enlargement, assessed by the bioccipital index (B.I.) measured on MRI, was correlated to cognitive disorders. Children with periventricular high intensity areas (T{sub 2}-weighted images) extending from the posterior periventricular region to the parietal lobe tend to highly suffer from cerebral palsy and visuoperceptual impairment. These results indicate that the disorders of cognitive function in very low birth weight infants were caused by a damage of association fibers in periventricular areas which was detectable by MRI. (author)

  9. Definition and outpatient management of the very low-birth-weight infant with bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groothuis, Jessie R; Makari, Doris

    2012-04-01

    Bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), also known as chronic lung disease of prematurity, is the major cause of pulmonary disease in infants. The pathophysiology and management of BPD have evolved over the past four decades as improved neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) modalities have increased survival rates. The likelihood for developing BPD increases with the degree of prematurity and reaches 25-35% in very low-birth-weight and extremely low-birth-weight infants. BPD affects many organ systems, and infants with BPD are at increased risk for rehospitalization and numerous complications following NICU discharge. The management of BPD and medically related problems, particularly during the first 2 years of life, remains a continuing challenge for parents and healthcare providers. It is important that a multidisciplinary team consisting of the neonatologist/attending physician, primary care physician, and other specialized support staff work in concert and meet regularly to provide continuity of care and accurate patient assessments.

  10. Low birth weight is not associated with thyroid autoimmunity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brix, Thomas Heiberg; Hansen, Pia Skov; Rudbeck, Annette Beck

    2006-01-01

    .002 (-0.010 to 0.014); P = 0.77]. When restricting the analysis to twin pairs with a within-pair difference in birth weight of 500 g or greater or to twin pairs born 4 wk or more before term, the regression coefficients were almost unchanged. Controlling for potential confounders (sex, zygosity......CONTEXT: Low birth weight has been proposed as a risk factor for the development of antibodies toward thyroid peroxidase (TPOAb) and thyroglobulin (TgAb) in adult life. However, the association could also be due to genetic or environmental factors affecting both birth weight and the development...... of thyroid autoantibodies. The effect of these confounders can be minimized through investigation of twin pairs. OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: To examine the impact of low birth weight on the development of thyroid autoimmunity, we studied whether within-twin-cohort and within-twin-pair differences in birth weight...

  11. [An epidemiologic study on low-birth-weight babies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitamura, K

    1984-07-01

    A case-control study was made in Gunma Prefecture of 1,390 mothers of babies born weighing 2,500 grams or less and an equal number of mothers of 3,000-up to-4,000 gram babies matched by place and month of birth. A correlation was found between low-birth-weight babies and maternal age, stature, menstrual history and past history. The mother's occupation, educational career, smoking habits, amount of sleep each day, date of issue of the Mother's Handbook and the number of the periodical health examinations received can be listed as socio-medical factors. Bleeding and lower abdominal pain during pregnancy, anemia and toxemia of pregnancy are found as prenatal factors. Low-birth-weight babies are found to be correlated with multiple pregnancy, breech presentation, placenta previa and premature separation of the placenta, also.

  12. Maternal panic disorder: Infant prematurity and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Susan L; Racu, Camellia; Gregg, Vanessa; Simmens, Samuel J

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this pilot research was to investigate whether infants of mothers with panic disorder (PD) would be at higher risk for prematurity and low birth weight (corrected for gestational age) than controls. Medical records were reviewed for 25 mothers with PD and 33 mothers without a lifetime history of anxiety disorders or other major psychopathology as determined by diagnostic interview. Mothers also completed questionnaires concerning demographic information and life stresses. Compared to controls, infants with PD mothers were not significantly more likely to be born prematurely or earlier than controls but did show smaller birth weight corrected for gestational age, even after accounting for possible confounding influences. Additional research is needed to confirm these preliminary findings. Studying PD mothers during pregnancy could provide insight concerning mechanisms for the development of low birth weight and psychopathology.

  13. Race, ethnicity, concentrated poverty, and low birth weight disparities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, Mario; Sims, Tammy L; Bruce, Marino A

    2008-07-01

    This study examines the extent to which the relationship between area socioeconomic position (SEP) and low birth weight (LBW) varies by race and ethnicity. A cross-sectional, secondary data analysis was performed with 1992-1994 Vital Statistics and 1990 U.S. Census data for selected metropolitan areas. Low birth weight (poverty was defined as poor persons living in neighborhoods with 40% or more poverty in metropolitan areas. The results showed that the relationship between concentrated poverty and LBW varied by race and ethnicity. Concentrated poverty was significant for Latinos, even when controlling for maternal health and MSA-level factors. By contrast, maternal health characteristics, such as pre-term birth, teen birth and tobacco use, explained much of the variance in African-American and White LBW These findings extend the discussion about race, class, and health disparities to include Latinos and shows how the relationship between SEP and LBW can vary within an ethnic group.

  14. Prevalence of Low Birth Weight and Obesity in Central Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rafiei, M.; Ayatollahi, S. M. T.

    2008-01-01

    To estimate the prevalence of low birth weight (LBW) and to document distribution of body mass index (BMI) at birth in Arak (central Iran) neonates of the 10,241 live neonates (5241 boys, 5000 girls, sex ratio 105) born in 2004 in Arak. A birth weight of less than 2500 g was classified as LBW. BMI based on the original supine length and weight…

  15. IS LOW BIRTH WEIGHT ASSOCIATED WITH CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nutan Nalini

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Daily we see lots of still birth cases and the agony associated with it after carrying the fetus for so many months with the negative outcome it is quite disheartening. Malnutrition is quite rampant in the country as far as the females are concerned and in the name of the religion and rituals, it complicates the issue further. If the mother is malnourished, the chance of low birth weight baby is high. OBJECTIVES To correlate the prevalence of cardiac anomalies in low birth weight fetuses. MATERIAL AND METHOD The study was carried out in 40 stillbirth fetuses with detailed account of nutritional status of the mother, consanguinity, history of previous pregnancies, miscarriages, socio-economic status and exposure to drugs/radiation. The number of cases with fetus having cardiac anomalies was quite significant. RESULTS Out of total 40 stillbirth fetuses, 29 (72.5% stillbirths were from less than 2.5kg and 11 (27.5% were from more than 2.5kg. Cardiac anomalies were present in 16 and 02 cases respectively. Fused heart-01, mesocardia-01, Dextrocardia with CORV-02, Interrupted aortic arch-02, Abnormal origin of right subclavian artery-01, Tetralogy of Fallot-01, VSD-07, ASD-01, transposition of great vessels-01, persistent truncus arteriosus with tricuspid atresia, elongated hypertrophied abnormally positioned Rt. Atrium, rudimentary Rt. Ventricle-01, mal-attachment of ductus arteriosus-03, double superior vena cava-01, dilated caval system-01. CONCLUSION Considering the high incidence of cardiac anomalies in fetuses of low birth weight, we must try to create awareness and support the expectant mothers to avoid the low birth weight babies and thus the congenital anomalies.

  16. Is adolescent pregnancy a risk factor for low birth weight?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alzira Maria D'avila Nery Guimarães

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate whether adolescent pregnancy is a risk factor for low birth weight (LBW babies. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study of mothers and their newborns from a birth cohort in Aracaju, Northeastern Brazil. Data were collected consecutively from March to July 2005. Information collected included socioeconomic, biological and reproductive aspects of the mothers, using a standardized questionnaire. The impact of early pregnancy on birth weight was evaluated by multiple logistic regression. RESULTS: We studied 4,746 pairs of mothers and their babies. Of these, 20.6% were adolescents (< 20 years of age. Adolescent mothers had worse socioeconomic and reproductive conditions and perinatal outcomes when compared to other age groups. Having no prenatal care and smoking during pregnancy were the risk factors associated with low birth weight. Adolescent pregnancy, when linked to marital status "without partner", was associated with an increased proportion of low birth weight babies. CONCLUSIONS: Adolescence was a risk factor for LBW only for mothers without partners. Smoking during pregnancy and lack of prenatal care were considered to be independent risk factors for LBW.

  17. Maternal serum magnesium level and low birth weight neonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammadreza Parizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of study was to compare the serum level of magnesium in mothers having low birth weight with those having normal birth weight neonates. Methods: In a case-control study, women who delivered low birth weight neonate (cases, compared with normal birth weight (controls in serum concentration of magnesium. Blood samples collected within 24 h after delivery. Concentration of magnesium assessed by standard atomic absorption spectro-photometry. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to control of potential confounding variables. Results: A total of 116 mothers (67 cases and 49 control were studied. Mothers in two groups did not differ in age, body mass index, and socioeconomic or demographic factors. Maternal magnesium concentration did not differ between two groups 0.86 ± 0.11 m.mol/l versus 0.94 ± 0.22 m.mol/l respectively ( P = 0.09. Conclusion: There is no significant difference between serum magnesium levels of low birth weight infants′ mother and normal weight infants′ mother.

  18. The effect of low birth weight on height, weight and behavioral outcomes in the medium-run.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    2013-01-01

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight. Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long run. While previous studies focusing mainly on LBW effects on physical growth and cognitive outcomes have found effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood, others have found a diminishing negative effect over time. The purpose of this paper was to bring new evidence to this issue by analyzing the medium run effects of low birth weight on child behavioral outcomes as well as physical growth at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11 years using data from the Danish Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time enabled us to chart the evolution of anthropometric and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helped understanding the nature and timing of interventions.

  19. IGF-I and relation to growth in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term born infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; Twisk, Jos W. R.; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M.

    2017-01-01

    Background In very-low-birth-weight infants IGF-I plays an important role in postnatal growth restriction and is probably also involved in growth restriction in childhood. We compared IGF-I and its relation to growth in early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants and term appropriate for gestational age born infants. Methods We included 41 very-low-birth-weight and 64 term infants. Anthropometry was performed at all visits to the outpatient clinic. IGF-I and insulin were measured in blood samples taken at 6 months and 2 years corrected age (very-low-birth-weight children) and at 3 months, 1 and 2 years (term children). Results Over the first 2 years of life growth parameters are lower in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children, but the difference in length decreases significantly. During the first 2 years of life IGF-I is higher in very-low-birth-weight children compared to term children. In both groups there is a significant relationship between IGF-I and (change in) length and weight over the first 2 years of life and between insulin and change in total body fat. Conclusions Considering the relation of IGF-I to growth and the decrease in difference in length, higher IGF-I levels in very-low-birth-weight infants in early childhood probably have an important role in catch-up growth in length. PMID:28182752

  20. Growth of preterm low birth weight infants until 24 months corrected age: effect of maternal hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiy, Alice M; Rugolo, Ligia M S S; Luca, Ana K C De; Corrente, José E

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the growth pattern of low birth weight preterm infants born to hypertensive mothers, the occurrence of growth disorders, and risk factors for inadequate growth at 24 months of corrected age (CA). Cohort study of preterm low birth weight infants followed until 24 months CA, in a university hospital between January 2009 and December 2010. gestational age < 37 weeks and birth weight of 1,500-2,499 g. multiple pregnancies, major congenital anomalies, and loss to follow up in the 2nd year of life. The following were evaluated: weight, length, and BMI. growth failure and risk of overweight at 0, 12, and 24 months CA. Student's t-test, Repeated measures ANOVA (RM-ANOVA), and multiple logistic regression were used. A total of 80 preterm low birth weight infants born to hypertensive mothers and 101 born to normotensive mothers were studied. There was a higher risk of overweight in children of hypertensive mothers at 24 months; however, maternal hypertension was not a risk factor for inadequate growth. Logistic regression showed that being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the first 12 months of life were associated with poorer growth at 24 months. Preterm low birth weight born infants to hypertensive mothers have an increased risk of overweight at 24 months CA. Being born small for gestational age and inadequate growth in the 1st year of life are risk factors for growth disorders at 24 months CA. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  1. Nutritional support of very low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ditzenberger, Georgia

    2009-06-01

    Nutritional support to promote optimal postnatal growth for very low birth weight (VLBW) newborns less than 1500 g at birth during the initial prolonged hospitalization is a significant issue. This article reviews the concepts involved in the nutritional support of VLBW newborns, including definitions and discussions of growth, optimal postnatal growth, body composition, initial weight loss, growth expectations, growth assessment tools used during the postnatal period, the relation between inadequate nutrition and neurodevelopment, the relation between protein intake and cognitive outcome, postnatal nutrition balance, the potential for programming of future adult-onset chronic conditions, a review of fetal nutritional intake, and current recommendations for nutritional support of VLBW newborns.

  2. Screening of congenital hypothyroidism in preterm, low birth weight and very low birth weight neonates: A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hashemipour, Mahin; Hovsepian, Silva; Ansari, Arman; Keikha, Mojtaba; Khalighinejad, Pooyan; Niknam, Negar

    2017-07-22

    Evidence from different screening programs indicated that the rate of congenital hypothyroidism (CH) was higher in pre-term and low-birth-weight (LBW) newborns than normal ones. Incomplete development of hypothalamic-pituitary axis in this group of neonates results in the delayed rise of TSH and missing cases with CH. Hence, there is a great need for a practicable systematic screening method for proper diagnosis of CH in this group of neonates. In this review, we systematically reviewed papers with the following key words ([Congenital Hypothyroidism AND Screening AND Thyroxine AND Thyroid Stimulating Hormone AND Low Birth Weight AND Premature]) in international electronic databases including PubMed, Scopus, and Google Scholar. After quality assessment of selected documents, data of finally included papers were extracted. In this review, 1452 papers (PubMed: 617; Scopus: 714; Google scholar: 121) were identified through electronic database search. One hundred and ninety four articles were assessed for eligibility, from which 36 qualified articles were selected for final evaluation. From the reviewed articles, 38.9%, 11.11% and 8.3% recommended rescreening in this group of neonates, lowering the screening cutoff of TSH and using cutoffs according to the gestational age, respectively. Some of them (13.9%) recommended using both TSH and T4 for screening of preterm infants. After reviewing available data, we recommend repeating the screening test in pre-term, LBW and very-low- birth-weight (VLBW) infants at age of two, six and ten weeks by measuring TSH and FT4 levels simultaneously and considering TSH = 10 mU/L as the cutoff level for positive and suspicious cases. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Aquired Cytomegalovirus Infection of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infant

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    Serdar Alan

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Breast milk is a major source for acquired cytomegalovirus infection especially in premature infants and acquired CMV infection occurs in infants whose mothers were seropositive for CMV. Although most of mothers of premature infants are seropositive in Turkey, acquired life-threatening breast milk acquired CMV infection was reported occasionally. Treatment of preterm with symptomatic breast milk acquired CMV infection should be done according to the severity of clinical signs. In this report, a preterm case with a diagnosis of breast milk-acquired CMV meningitis and sepsis without multiorgan failure on the 111th day of life, who did not require antiviral therapy was presented and discussed in the context of the acquired CMV literature. In preterm babies, when there is sepsis with no apparent causes, unexplained thrombocytopenia, elevated liver transaminases and direct hyperbilirubinemia acquired CMV infection should be suspected. (Jo­ur­nal of Cur­rent Pe­di­at­rics 2013; 11: 138-41

  4. A cumulative risk factor model for early identification of academic difficulties in premature and low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roberts, G.; Bellinger, D.; McCormick, Marie C.

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: Premature and low birth weight children have a high prevalence of academic difficulties. This study examines a model comprised of cumulative risk factors that allows early identification of these difficulties. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of data from a large cohort of premature

  5. Pathways of job style and preterm low birth weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salehi, Katayoun; Mahmoodi, Zohreh; Kabir, Kourosh; Dolatian, Mahrokh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Preterm and low birth weight tend to occur as a direct result of prenatal risky behaviors, diseases, as well as fetal exposure to harmful social and environmental factors. The present study aimed to investigate the relationship between job style and preterm low birth weight. Methods The present case-control study was conducted in the Kamali hospital, Teheran, Iran in 2014. Participants included 156 mothers having a gestational age of less than 37 weeks and infants weighing less than 2500 gm. Additionally, the control group consisted of 433 mothers with a gestational age of over 37 weeks and having infants weighing between 2500–4000 gm. The data were collected using the Mother’s Lifestyle Scale (MLS) during pregnancy based on recognized social determinants of health and those developed by the researchers. The domain of the mother’s job style was assessed using a questionnaire consisting of 18 items on topics such as working conditions, job satisfaction, and perceived employer empathy. Higher overall scores in this instrument indicate the mother’s poorer job style. The data were analyzed using SPSS version 16 and Lisrel version 8.8 through a statistical path analysis. Results The model fit indices indicated that there was found to be high favorability, demonstrated that the model fit and that there were rational relationships (CFI=1, RMSEA=0.00), and showed that on the direct path that the mother’s job style had the most adverse effect (B=−0.3) with weight gain during pregnancy showing the most positive effect (B=0.16) on PLBW. The mother’s level of education was found to be the only variable that affected PLBW negatively in both the direct and indirect paths through the mother’s job style and household income (B=−0.17). Conclusion According the path analysis model, job style has a direct influence on preterm low birth weight. Thus, special consideration should be placed on aspects surrounding a mother’s job situation in order to

  6. Medium-term consequences of low birth weight on health and behavioral deficits - is there a catch-up effect?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Datta Gupta, Nabanita; Deding, Mette; Lausten, Mette

    A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.  Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run.  While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthoo...... Longitudinal Survey of Children. Observing the same children at different points in time allows us to chart the evolution of health and behavioral deficits among children born with low birth weight and helps inform the nature and timing of interventions.......A number of studies have documented negative long term effects of low birth weight.  Yet, not much is known about the dynamics of the process leading to adverse health and educational outcomes in the long-run.  While some studies find effects of the same size at both school age and young adulthood......, others find a diminishing negative effect over time due to a catching-up process.  The purpose of this paper is to try to resolve this puzzle by analyzing the medium term consequences of low birth weight measured as various child outcomes at ages 6 months, 3, 7 and 11, using data from the Danish...

  7. Risk Factors Of Low Birth Weight; Case-Control Study

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    Özgür Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW (defined as a birth weight of less than 2500 grams is associated with fetal and neonatal morbidity and mortality, impaired cognitive development, and the advent of chronic diseases in later life. The global incidence of LBW is around 15,5%. The aim of this study was to identify risk factors for low birthweight in the centre of Denizli province. A case-control study was carried out and mothers of 295 newborns with birthweight between 1500-2499 g (cases and 302 newborns with birthweight between 2500-4000 g (controls were analyzed. The questionnare was applied to women using face to face technics between July,2009 and June,2010 . The questionnare included birth weight and birth lenght of newborn, the date of last pregnacy and type of last delivery, profile of mother, anthropometric measures, life styles, habits, addictions, sociodemographic and socioeconomic characteristics of mother and father of newborn. Analysis included frequency and percent distributions, means, standart deviations. In group comparisions for categorical variable, chi square test and odds ratio (OR was used. Logistic regression model was performed for some selected risk factors. P<0.05 was considered statistically significant. Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS program, Version 10 was used for data entry and analysis. When backward logistic regression model was performed for some selected factors in relation to low birth weight, there was a positive relationship between multiple pregnancy [OR(95%CI 18.50 (8.54, 40.39], BMI lower than 20 kg/m2 of mother before pregnancy andemployment status [OR(95%CI 1.98 (1.23, 3.19], weight gain of 7 kg and under during pregnanacy [OR(95%CI 2.49 (1.56, 3.96], a history of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 3.44 (1.69, 7.02], first- degree and second- degree relative’s histories of giving birth to low birth weight infant [OR(95%CI 4.28 (2.61, 6.94], X- ray exposure in the three months before and

  8. Guidelines for Feeding Very Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Sourabh Dutta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the fact that feeding a very low birth weight (VLBW neonate is a fundamental and inevitable part of its management, this is a field which is beset with controversies. Optimal nutrition improves growth and neurological outcomes, and reduces the incidence of sepsis and possibly even retinopathy of prematurity. There is a great deal of heterogeneity of practice among neonatologists and pediatricians regarding feeding VLBW infants. A working group on feeding guidelines for VLBW infants was constituted in McMaster University, Canada. The group listed a number of important questions that had to be answered with respect to feeding VLBW infants, systematically reviewed the literature, critically appraised the level of evidence, and generated a comprehensive set of guidelines. These guidelines form the basis of this state-of-art review. The review touches upon trophic feeding, nutritional feeding, fortification, feeding in special circumstances, assessment of feed tolerance, and management of gastric residuals, gastro-esophageal reflux, and glycerin enemas.

  9. Hearing loss in low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostakis, D; Petmezakis, J; Papazissis, G; Messaritakis, J; Matsaniotis, N

    1982-07-01

    The hearing of 98 perinatal intensive care survivors with a mean birth weight of 1,540 g was assessed at a mean age of 6 1/2 years. They represented 73% of the long-term survivors with birth weights of 1,800 g or less who had been cared for in our neonatal unit during the three-year period 1971 through 1973. Nine of the 98 infants had sensorineural hearing loss, and 14 had exudative otitis media. During their neonatal period, the infants with hearing loss experienced more frequent apneic attacks, hyperbilirubinemia (serum bilirubin level, greater than 14 mg/dL), and hypothermia compared with their healthy counterparts. There was no evidence that the duration of stay in the incubator or the use of stay in the incubator or the use of ototoxic drugs had affected the hearing of these low-birth-weight infants.

  10. [Low birth weight and obesity: causal or casual association?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribeiro, Adolfo Monteiro; Lima, Marília de Carvalho; de Lira, Pedro Israel Cabral; da Silva, Giselia Alves Pontes

    2015-01-01

    To present the conceptual foundations that explain how events occurring during intrauterine life may influence body development, emphasizing the interrelation between low birth weight and risk of obesity throughout life. Google Scholar, Library Scientific Electronic Online (SciELO), EBSCO, Scopus, and PubMed were the databases. "Catch-up growth", "life course health", "disease", "child", "development", "early life", "perinatal programming", "epigenetics", "breastfeeding", "small baby syndrome", "phenotype", "micronutrients", "maternal nutrition", "obesity", and "adolescence" were isolated or associated keywords for locating reviews and epidemiological, intervention and experimental studies published between 1934 and 2014, with complete texts in Portuguese and English. Duplicate articles, editorials and reviews were excluded, as well as approaches of diseases different from obesity. Within 47 selected articles among 538 eligible ones, the thrifty phenotype hypothesis, the epigenetic mechanisms and the development plasticity were identified as fundamental factors to explain the mechanisms involved in health and disease throughout life. They admit the possibility that both cardiometabolic events and obesity originate from intrauterine nutritional deficiency, which, associated with a food supply that is excessive to the metabolic needs of the organism in early life stages, causes endocrine changes. However, there may be phenotypic reprogramming for low birth weight newborns from adequate nutritional supply, thus overcoming a restrictive intrauterine environment. Therefore, catch-up growth may indicate recovery from intrauterine constraint, which is associated with short-term benefits or harms in adulthood. Depending on the nutritional adequacy in the first years of life, developmental plasticity may lead to phenotype reprogramming and reduce the risk of obesity. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights

  11. The neglected sociobehavioral risk factors of low birth weight

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    Mohsen Momeni

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the most important health indicators in the world. It has certain known and unknown causes. The present study was designed to evaluate the role of socio-behavioral factors on neonatal birth weight.Methods: The current case-control study was conducted on 300 eligible neonates (150 LBW infants as cases and 150 normal body weight infants as controls in 2015. The national pregnancy care forms of the neonates kept in heath care centers in Kerman were used. The data was analyzed running Independent samples t-test, Chi square test, and Fisher’s Exact test in SPSS. The significance level was set as 0.05.Results: Preterm birth (P<0.001, number of primary care during pregnancy (P=0.001, mother’s age (P=0.049, consumption of supplements during pregnancy (P=0.03, and history of substance abuse in mothers (P=0.03 were found to have significant roles in having LBW neonate.Conclusion: Identifying the sociobehavioral risk factors of Preterm labor and modifying them to prevent preterm birth are essential approaches to prevent LBW. Governments should pay special attention to nutritional status of teenage and young girls to have healthy mothers and babies in the future. Women of childbearing age should be screened and educated about risky behaviors. Pregnancy care and support should be delivered to all pregnant women according to the standard methods.Keywords: Low Birth Weight; Risk Factors; Behavior; Preterm Labor

  12. História de desenvolvimento e comportamento de crianças nascidas pré-termo e baixo peso (< 1.500 g Developmental history and behavior of pre-term and low birth-weight children (<1.500g

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Emilia Vita Carvalho

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo comparou a história de desenvolvimento, aprendizagem e comportamento de 20 crianças de 8 a 10 anos nascidas pré-termo The aim of this study is to compare the developmental history, learning and behavior of 20 pre-term and very low birth-weight children (VLB and 20 full- term children at eight- ten years old. Data collection included interviews and the Child Behavioral Scale administered to the mothers and the Raven test to the children. Signs of delay in psychomotor behaviors acquisitions and predominance of the left hand use in the VLB compared to the control group were detected. In the school phase, most of the children of both groups presented average intellectual level and were attending regular schools. In the VLB group there was a significantly higher proportion of school failure than in the control group and there were 20% of children with hearing impairment. Authough both groups had signs of behavior problems, the VLB group showed more respiratory problems, enuresis, school-refuse, agitation, impatience and attachment to the mother than school children from Ribeirão Preto.

  13. Determinants of low birth weight in rural Bangladesh

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    Manzur Kader

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality. Thus, it is an important public health concern. The study was aimed to identify the important socioeconomic, anthropometric and nutritional determinants associated with LBW. Factors included maternal household wealth status, age, literacy, nutritional status, parity, stature, gestational age and chewing betel nut or tobacco. Methods: The study included data of 4436 enrolled pregnant women in the Maternal and Infant Nutrition Intervention Matlab (MINIMat trial from November 2001 to October 2003. A random subset of (n= 3267 single live birth infants born between May 2002 and June 2004 with complete information on birth weight was analyzed. Pearson’s chi square test and logistic regression analysis were done to assess the association between the factors and LBW. Results: Almost one third of the infants were born with LBW and mean birth weight was 2693 g. Maternal poor wealth status, BMI less than 18.5, short stature (height < 152 cm and preterm (<37 weeks birth were found to be strong predictors of LBW. Women’s age, hemoglobin status and chewing tobacco or betel nut were not found to be associated with LBW. Conclusion: Women’s wealth status, literacy, maternal nutrition and prevention of preterm birth are the key factors that need to be considered to improve birth weight of infants. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2013; 2(2.000: 130-134

  14. Gut microbiota of the very-low-birth-weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unger, Sharon; Stintzi, Alain; Shah, Prakeshkumar; Mack, David; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome, of which the bacterial component alone (microbiota), is estimated to include 10 times more cells than human cells of the body, blooms immediately after birth and evolves in composition and complexity throughout childhood. The gut microbiome has a profound impact on gastrointestinal tract development, maintenance of mucosal surface integrity, and contributes to the nutritional status of the host and thus plays a pivotal role in health and disease. New technologies have enabled the detailed characterization of normal microbial symbionts and dysbiosis-disease associations. This review summarizes the stepwise establishment of the intestinal microbiota, influential environmental factors, and how this may be perturbed in preterm very-low-birth-weight infants. The contribution of the microbiota to provision of energy and nutrients for intestinal development and the nutritional status of the host are reviewed. In addition, the crucial role of the gut microbiota in maintaining mucosal integrity is explored along with how its breakdown can lead to sepsis, necrotizing enterocolitis, and systemic inflammatory response syndrome. Finally, the role of enteral feeding type (human milk, formula, and nutrient fortification) in mediating these processes is discussed, and guidance is provided for nutritional strategies to promote health in these fragile infants.

  15. Clinical Study on Preventive and Curative Effects of Caffeine Citrate on Apnea of Prematurity of Children with Very Low Birth Weight%枸橼酸咖啡因防治极低出生体重儿呼吸暂停的临床研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵剑锋; 李俊燕

    2016-01-01

    目的:探讨枸橼酸咖啡因对极低出生体重儿呼吸暂停的防治情况。方法收集极低体重儿80例,随机将患儿分成两组,咖啡因预防组40例,对照组40例,咖啡因预防组患儿入组即给予枸橼酸咖啡因,对照组患儿发生呼吸暂停后及时给予枸橼酸咖啡因。结果咖啡因预防组早产儿呼吸暂停(AOP)发病人数为11例(36.7%),对照组发病人数为24例(80.0%),差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组患儿治疗有效率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05)。结论枸橼酸咖啡因对极低体重患儿呼吸暂停有预防作用,且疗效显著。%Objective To study the preventive and curative effects of caffeine citrate on apnea of prematurity (AOP) of children with very low birth weight. Methods 80 children with very low birth weight were included in this study, which were divided into two groups randomly. 40 patients are included in control group, and the other 40 patients were included in intervention group. The patients in intervention group were given caffeine citrate immediately, and the children in the control group were treated with caffeine citrate after onset of apnea. Results There were 11 AOP cases in caffeine prevention group (incidence of 36.7%) and 24 AOP cases in the control group (incidence of 80.0%), the difference was statistically significant (P0.05). Conclusion Caffeine citrate can prevent the onset of AOP, and the curative effect is significant.

  16. 低出生体重早产儿宫外发育迟缓的相关因素分析%Related factors of extrauterine growth restriction in low birth weight preterm children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    廖文君

    2014-01-01

    目的:探讨胎龄≤32周低出生体重早产儿宫外发育迟缓(EUGR)发生率及其相关影响因素。方法纳入126例胎龄≤32周低出生体重早产儿,记录胎龄(超声或出生时成熟度分析数据)、出生时体重、身长、头围、性别、是否低于胎龄儿、是否存在呼吸窘迫综合征、最大生理性体重减少率、恢复出生体重的天数、起始肠内喂养时间、完全肠内喂养时间(每天奶量>100 ml/kg·d),37~42周时测定早产儿体重、身长、头围,以体重、身长和头围计,分析EUGR发生率、其危险因素以及适于胎龄儿(AGA)和低于胎龄儿(SGA) EUGR发生率。结果 EUGR组胎龄、出生体重、出生身长、出生头围均低于非EUGR组(均P100 ml/kg·d) were recorded. During 37~42 weeks, weight, length, head circumference, body weight, length and head circumference of premature children were measured. Incidence of EUGR and risk factors, and incidences of EUGR in appropriate for gestational age children (AGA) and small for gestational age children (SGA) were analyzed. Results The gestational age, birth weight, birth length, and head circumference at birth of EUGR group were lower than those of the non-EUGR group (all P<0.01), while the rate of weight loss (%), time to regain birth weight, time for starting enteral feeding and giving full enteral feeding were greater than those of non-EUGR group (all P<0.01). The proportion of SGA was significantly greater than that of non-EUGR group (all P<0.05). Based on weight, length, head circumference, incidences of EUGR in all newborns were 47.6%, 39.7%and 4.8%. Toatally, extrauterine growth retardation rate of SGA was significantly higher than that of AGA (all P<0.01).Gestational age, birth weight, recovery time, and time for full enteral feeding were closely related with EUGR. Conclusion Gestation-al age, intrauterine growth retardation, poor nutritional intake and RDS are still the risk factors of EUGR in premature

  17. Desenvolvimento cognitivo de crianças prematuras de muito baixo peso na idade pré-escolar Pre-school cognitive development of very low birth weight preterm children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria D. B. B. Méio

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o desenvolvimento cognitivo na idade pré-escolar de recém-nascidos prematuros de muito baixo peso. MÉTODOS: Uma coorte de prematuros nascidos entre janeiro de 1991 e setembro de 1993, com peso igual ou menor que 1.500 g, egressos de uma unidade de terapia intensiva neonatal pública, foi avaliada na idade pré-escolar pelo teste WPPSI-R, aplicado por psicólogas. Foram excluídas crianças com malformações, síndromes genéticas ou infecção congênita, transferidas de outra instituição, nascidas de parto domiciliar e com condições que impedissem a aplicação do teste. Avaliaram-se crianças pré-escolares de uma escola na mesma cidade, nascidas a termo, para comparação. RESULTADOS: Foram estudados 79/129 crianças, com peso de nascimento médio de 1.219,6 g (±168,9; 44/61 delas (72,1% estavam na escola. Não houve diferença estatisticamente significativa entre os grupos (estudo e perda. As médias dos escores obtidos pelas crianças do estudo foram: total - 75,6±11,9; executivo - 77±12,9; e verbal - 78,6±11,1. Nas crianças da escola, as médias foram: total - 85,1±13,2; executivo - 85,3±13,8; e verbal - 87,7±13,9. Essa diferença foi significativa tanto para os escores total (p OBJECTIVE: To examine the cognitive development of school-aged children born preterm and with very low birthweight. METHODS: A cohort of premature infants born between January, 1991, and September, 1993 was examined at pre-school age. All fo them were born in a public Neonatal Intensive Care Unit, with birth weight less than 1,500g. The WPPSI-R Test was used for cognitive evaluation and applied by psychologists. Babies with malformations, genetic syndromes, congenital infections, transferred from other institutions or born at home, and those with conditions which precluded the application of the test, were excluded. A group of pre-school children in the same city, born at term, were tested for comparison. RESULTS: 79 children were

  18. Pericardial effusion with cardiac tamponade caused by a central venous catheter in a very low birth weight infant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chioukh, Fatma-Zohra; Ameur, Karim Ben; Hmida, Hayet Ben; Monastiri, Kamel

    2016-01-01

    With more and more extreme premature and very low-birth weight babies being resuscitated, umbilical central venous catheterisation is now being used more frequently in neonatal intensive care. One of the life-threatening complications is pericardial effusion and cardiac tamponade; however, it is potentially reversible when it is caught in time. The authors present a case of cardiac tamponade following umbilical venous catheterisation in a neonate. The patient was diagnosed at the appropriate time by echocardiography and urgent pericardiocentesis proved lifesaving.

  19. Evaluation of growth and development pattern in normal, low and very low birth weight neonates at 18 months of age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdeyazdan, Zahra; Ehsanpour, Soheila; Hemmati, Elahe

    2014-01-01

    Growth and development monitoring could lead to general judgment about children's health. With advances in NICUs establishment, the survival rate of very low birth weight (VLBW) neonates has increased in many countries including Iran. Because of the lack of studies about growth and development pattern of low birth weight (LBW) and VLBW neonates in Iran, the present study aimed to compare growth and development of normal, low and very low birth weight neonates at 18 months of age. In a cross- sectional descriptive study, 214 children with age 18 months were enrolled (90 LBW, 90 LBW and 34 VLBW) and their growth and development were assessed. Data gathering tool was a researcher made questionnaire including anthropometrics measures and developmental key points. Data analyzed by descriptive (mean and SD) and inferential (ANOVA) tests using SPSS version 15. There were significant differences in the mean of anthropometric indexes between three groups. Majority of subjects in three groups had normal weight growth trend. Mean scores of gross motor and fine motor development indexes had significant association with birth weight. Meanwhile, there was no significant association between mean scores of social/cognitive and also language developmental aspects and birth weight. Findings revealed that in LBW and VLBW children, growth indexes at the age of 18 months are so far from those of NBW neonates. Further nationwide prospective studies, with a longer period of time is needed to estimate when Iranian LBW children reach at the levels of NBW ones.

  20. Reading difficulty in school-aged very low birth weight infants in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeuchi, Akihito; Koeda, Tatsuya; Takayanagi, Toshimitsu; Sato, Kazuo; Sugino, Noriko; Bonno, Motoki; Kada, Akiko; Nakamura, Makoto; Kageyama, Misao

    2016-10-01

    To investigate the prevalence of and the perinatal risk factors related to reading difficulty in school-aged very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) with normal intelligence. Subjects were 79 Japanese children in the second to fourth grade of elementary school who had been born at very low birth weight and who regularly visited a follow-up clinic at one of four hospitals. All members had a full-scale IQ score of 80 or higher. Perinatal information was obtained retrospectively from medical records. Each subject underwent four reading tasks, testing monomoratic syllable reading, word reading, non-word reading and short sentence reading. Subjects with an SD reading time score greater than 2.0 in two or more tasks were considered to have reading difficulty (RD). Furthermore we investigated the relations between RD and perinatal factors using logistic regression analysis adjusted for potential confounding factors. Twenty-five (31.6%) out of 79 subjects had RD. We discovered that treated retinopathy of prematurity (tRoP) was a significant risk factor (adjusted OR=5.80, 95% confidence interval=1.51-22.33). The rate of RD in school-aged VLBWI was higher than the estimated prevalence of dyslexia in Japan. Even in children with normal intelligence, long-term developmental follow-up including support for reading skills is necessary for VLBWI. Further investigation is desired to elucidate the relations between visual problems and RD in school-aged children. Copyright © 2016 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Outcome of Cytomegalovirus Infection on Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Ali Usman

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Cytomegalovirus (CMV is a DNA virus and a marker of the herpes virus groups. This virus was found only in human and the infection occurs for a long time. The transmission of CMV infection to fetus/neonates is via congenital infections or perinatal infections. Clinical manifestation of symptomatic CMV infection of the fetus has two presentations, early and second early manifestations. Diagnosis of neonatal CMV infection may be done by serologic test based on detection of IgM of CMV infection. The objective of this study is to asses clinical outcome of CMV infection of low birth weight infants delivery with long term sequelae. An observational study was conducted since March 2010 until December 2011 in Advent and Hermina Pasteur Hospital, all subjects were low birth weight infants (LBWI. The inclusion criterias are all LBWI who were delivered in those hospital or were a referred neonates. The exclusion criterias are major congenital defect, which is not related to congenital CMV infection and neonates’ death before one week of life. Every neonate was examine both their physical and peripher blood count, glucose, Ca. Liver function test done for neonates with acute hepatitis and titre IgG and IgM CMV serial, head ultrasound serial and head CT scan/MRI used for babies with intracranial bleeding and hydrocephaly.  During the period of this study there were 50 cases of LBWI, consisted of 41 preterm babies, and 30 small for gestational age babies. Clinical manifestation of acute hepatitis were found in 20% subjects, all of them with the  elevation of liver function test. Microcephaly which occured in the first untill three weeks of life were 8%. Ventricular dilatation were 10% in the first week of life and increased up to 48% after three weeks. Cases with intracranial haemorrhage were found in 6% and 10% with cerebral calcification on head while sensorineural hearing loss were 8%. All of LBWI have 100% serorespon immune IgG. IgM CMV

  2. [Changes in homecare for preterm and low-birth-weight infants from 2002 to 2014].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figueras Aloy, Josep; Esqué Ruiz, M Teresa; Arroyo Gili, Lourdes; Bella Rodriguez, Julia; Álvarez Miró, Roser; Carbonell Estrany, Xavier

    2016-09-01

    Homecare (HC) is a service offering home medical and nursing care to the patient at home in equal quantity and quality as in the hospital. The aim of the article is to describe the changes in the HC of preterm and full-term low-birth-weight infants in our department from 2002-2014. The HC database is revised. The characteristics of the newborns and the social characteristics of the family in three consecutive time periods are analysed. A satisfaction survey of parents is also presented. The main changes in HC include a decrease in the weight at discharge (from 1880g in the 2002-2006 period to 1850g in the 2011-2014 period; P=.006) and at the end of HC (from 2187g to 2163g; P=.001), an increase in the duration of HC (from 10 to 11 days; P=.007) and a lower incidence of new hospitalization (from 3.4% to 1.3%; P=.019) The social characteristics of the family show a higher maternal age with more previous alive children, a family context better suited with a more appropriate housing, and an increase in exclusive breastfeeding at hospital discharge (from 25.5% to 49.0%; P<.001). The overall assessment of the program is ≥7/10 in 98.8% of responses. The results of the HC of preterm and low-birth-weight infants have improved over time, saving approximately 10-11 days of hospitalisation, and without compromising the quality of care or reducing family satisfaction. Copyright © 2015 Asociación Española de Pediatría. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  3. COMPARISON OF LITERACY, AND SOCIOECONOMIC STATUS IN MOTHERS HAVING A NORMAL OR A LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEWBORN

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    F. Azordegan

    1990-06-01

    Full Text Available In a case control study the effects of literacy, socio-economic status and the fertility behavior of mothers were fully investigated in two groups. Out of 13123 babies born in 17 hospitals during almost 8 months in 1988-1989 in Tehran 730 had a low birth weight (less than 2500 gr. As a control group, 1460 births were randomly selected from normal weight births. Some basic findings are as follows: 1Mothers who become pregnant in either age group of “less than 20” or “35 and over” will eventually have a higher chance of delivering a low birth weight baby, and as a result, such babies will gave a higher probability mortality in the first week and first month of their lives. 2 Age at marriage is positively correlated with the level of education. 3 The number of children born alive is negatively correlated with the level of education of mothers. 4 The socio-economic status of the family has a significant impact upon child spacing, and that will affect the probability of having a low birth weight newborn, and finally, will increase the mortality rate of babies.

  4. 双歧杆菌防治极低出生体重儿坏死性小肠结肠炎的作用研究%A research on the effect of bifidobacterium in the field of preventing and curing the NEC of very low birth weight children

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄柏枝; 刘仿

    2011-01-01

    目的:观察应用双歧杆菌预防极低出生体重儿坏死性小肠结肠炎(NEC)的有效性.方法:回顾性分析2005年1月~2008年5月在我院NICU住院治疗的生后存活7 d并且开始胃肠道喂养的极低出生体重儿183例的临床资料.结果:预防组NEC发病率为2.10%(2/95),对照组NEC发生率为11.36%(10/88),两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).住院期间预防组每日体质量增加(8.108±2.205)g,对照组为(6.256±2.298)g,两组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.01).治疗后7 d两组患儿肠道细菌总数、杆菌、球菌总数及杆球菌比值差异均有统计学意义(P0.05).治疗前两组患儿大便双歧杆菌数的比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05);治疗后7 d两组患儿大便双歧杆菌数的比较差异有统计学意义(P0.05).结论:给予极低出生体重儿预防性口服双歧杆菌能够降低NEC发病率,促进其体质量增长.其机制与口服双歧杆菌后促进新生儿肠道正常菌群的定植和优势化、维持肠道正常菌群比率有关.%Objective: To observe the preventing effectiveness of applying bifidobacterium to very low birth weight children with NEC. Methods: The clinical data of 183 patients of NICU hospitalization survival 7 d after birth and fed the gastrointestinal tract of very low birth weight children in our hospital from January 2005 to May 2008 were retrospectively analyzed. Results: From the results, the NEC incidence rate of the preventive group was 2.10% (2/95), while the control group was 11.36% (10/88); the daily weight increase of the preventive group was (8.108±2.205) g, while the control group Was (6.256±2.298) g There were statistical significance in the comparison of both groups (all P

  5. Can Parental Expectations Compensate for the Negative Effects of Low-Birth Weight on Academic Achievement? A Cross-Sectional Analysis of the National PEELS Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier-Zenon, Dolores E.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to examine the potential impact parental expectations have on the academic achievement of children born with low-birth weight to inform educational leaders. Literature on levels of children born with birth weights as low as 1 LB to as high as 9 LBS were evaluated based on: birth weight, academic achievement, and…

  6. Comparação de ibuprofeno via oral e indometacina intravenosa no tratamento da persistência do canal arterial em neonatos com extremo baixo peso ao nascer Comparison of oral ibuprofen and intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of patent ductus arteriosus in extremely low birth weight infants

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    Eun Mi Yang

    2013-02-01

    (PDA in extremely low birth weight (ELBW infants. Oral ibuprofen was compared to intravenous indomethacin regarding efficacy and safety in the treatment of PDA in infants weighting less than 1,000 g at birth. METHOD: This was a retrospective study in a single center. Data on ELBW infants who had an echocardiographically confirmed PDA were collected. The infants were treated with either intravenous indomethacin or oral ibuprofen. Rate of ductal closure, need for additional treatment, drug-related side effects or complications, and mortality were compared between the two treatment groups. RESULT: 26 infants who received indomethacin and 22 infants who received ibuprofen were studied. The overall rate of ductal closure was similar between the two treatments: it occurred in 23 of 26 infants (88.5% treated with indomethacin, and in 18 of 22 infants (81.8% treated with ibuprofen (p = 0.40. The rate of surgical ligation (11.5% versus 18.2%; p = 0.40 did not differ significantly between the two treatment groups. No significant difference was found in post-treatment serum creatinine concentrations between the two groups. There were no significant differences regarding additional side effects or complications. CONCLUSION: In ELBW infants, oral ibuprofen is as efficacious as intravenous indomethacin for the treatment of PDA. There were no differences between the two drugs with respect to safety. Oral ibuprofen could be used as an alternative agent for the treatment of PDA in ELBW infants.

  7. Anthropometric surrogates for screening of low birth weight newborns: a community-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rustagi, Neeti; Prasuna, J G; Taneja, D K

    2012-03-01

    In developing countries, where about 75% of births occur at home or in the community, logistic problems prevent the weighing of every newborn child. This study compares various anthropometric surrogates for identification of low birth weight neonates. A longitudinal community based study was done in an urban resettlement colony and 283 singleton neonates within 7 days of birth were examined for the anthropometric measurements such as head, chest, mid upper arm circumference and foot length as a screening tool for low birth weight. Chest circumference measured within 7 days of birth appeared to be the most appropriate surrogate of low birth weight with highest sensitivity (75.4%), specificity (78.4%), and positive predictive value (48.9%) as compared with other anthropometric parameters. Low birth weight neonates in absence of weighing scales can be early identified by using simple anthropometric measurements for enhanced home-based care and timely referral.

  8. Study on the influence of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on children born with low birth weight%孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张荣莲; 陈烈平; 陈起燕; 修晓燕; 陈菊芳; 王晓梅

    2008-01-01

    目的 探讨孕妇生理心理与孕期保健对低出生体重儿(LBW)的影响.方法 采用回顾性LBW-小于胎龄儿(SGA)-对照(正常)三组病例对照研究方法,对2004年11月至2006年6月在福建省妇幼保健院住院分娩的婴儿及产妇,于产后对896例的产妇进行问卷调查和摘取病历相关资料.将所得变量采用χ2检验进行单因素分析,再将有意义的变量入选logistic回归多因素分析.结果 22个变量因素中有统计学意义的单因素有15个,包括孕妇心理因素2个、生理因素4个、病理因素6个、孕期保健因素3个.经logistic回归多因素分析结果显示孕妇身高、产检次数、无应激试验异常、脐带绕颈、脐血流阻力异常、初检孕周、胎膜早破、孕妇对婴儿性别的企盼、异常家族史等9个因素是LBW的主要影响因素,健康教育知识获取与否是保护因素,说明有些LBW可以在孕期预防.结论 LBW的发生是多种因素综合作用的结果.%Objective To explore the role of maternal physiology, mentality and prenatal health care on low birth weight (LBW). Methods A LBW-small for gestation age (SGA)-control group retrospective study was conducted based upon a population of infants born from November 2004 to June 2006. 896 cases involved in this study were entirely under voluntary participation and subject could withdraw their consent at any point. All subject recruitment and enrollment took place at Fujian Provincial Maternal and Children Hospital at the time of delivery. Using χ2 test for single factor analysis and logistic regression for multiple analyses Results There were 15 out of 22 single factors having statistical significances, including 2 maternal psychological, 4 physiological, 6 pathological and 3 prenatal health care factors respectively. When multi-factorial stepwise regression analyses was performed, there were 9 factors for main relative factors of LBW ,including women's height, number of prenatal

  9. Emergência dos esquemas simbólicos em crianças com síndrome de Down, prematuros muito baixo peso e crianças com desenvolvimento típico Emergence of symbolic schemes in children with Down syndrome, very-low-birth-weight preterm, and typically developing children

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    Lenice de Fátima da Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: verificar a emergência dos esquemas simbólicos simples e combinados e seus respectivos subtipos em 20 crianças prematuras muito baixo peso, 20 crianças com síndrome de Down e 20 crianças com desenvolvimento típico. MÉTODOS: todos os sujeitos foram acompanhados mensalmente durante seis meses, a partir da avaliação inicial em que estavam localizados no final da quinta fase do período sensório-motor. Para tanto, foi utilizado o Protocolo para Observação do Desenvolvimento Cognitivo e da Linguagem Expressiva - versão revisada (PODCLE-r. Os dados foram analisados de forma quantitativa e qualitativa. RESULTADOS: os resultados revelaram que os esquemas simbólicos simples e combinados emergiram de forma semelhante para todos os grupos, embora se tenha observado ritmo de desenvolvimento mais lento para as crianças prematuras muito baixo peso e crianças com síndrome de Down, quando comparadas às crianças com desenvolvimento típico. A análise qualitativa, referente à diversidade e complexidade dos esquemas simbólicos produzidos, mostrou que as crianças prematuras muito baixo peso apresentaram pior desempenho quando comparadas às crianças com síndrome de Down e às com desenvolvimento típico, apresentando também dificuldades específicas quanto ao uso de esquemas simbólicos aplicados a objetos não-figurativos, ou seja, quanto à construção da representação por meio de significantes arbitrários. CONCLUSÃO: estes dados reforçam a importância de se acompanhar a emergência e o desenvolvimento dos esquemas simbólicos simples e combinados nessas crianças, com o objetivo de monitorar e estimular esse desenvolvimento, com vistas a minimizar os efeitos da defasagem cognitiva e a favorecer o desenvolvimento da linguagem.PURPOSE: to check the emergence of isolated and combined symbolic schemes as well as their respective subtypes in 20 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW preterm children, 20 children with Down syndrome (DS

  10. Effect of glutamine with auxiliary enteral and parenteral nutrition on feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Dong Cai; Chun-Hong Chen; Yan-Fang Li

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the clinical effects of glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition on improving the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants.Methods: A total of 40 cases of low birth weight infants (LBW) in our hospital from May 2013 to June 2015 were selected, which were divided equally into the observation group and the control group according to the different nutritional intervention methods. Patients in the control group received routine enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition while children of observed group received glutamine assisted enteral and parenteral nutrition. Differences of children’s growth and development indicators, nutritional status and levels of calcium and phosphorus, gastrin and motilin levels, mucosal barrier and immune function were compared between two groups. Results:After receiving nutritional intervention, children in the observation group had higher levels of serum leptin, GH, IGF-I and adiponectin than the control group patients, while Cor values were lower. The observation group patients who received nutritional intervention had higher TSF, AMC, TP, ALB, calcium and phosphorus levels than the control group, while the ALP values were lower; children of observation group who received nutrition intervention had higher GAS and MOT levels than the control group; children of observation group after intervention had higher peripheral blood CD3+T, CD4+T and CD4+/CD8+ levels than the control group children, while D-lactic acid and blood ammonia levels were lower.Conclusion:Glutamine assisted enteral nutrition and parenteral nutrition could improve the feeding intolerance of low birth weight infants, and it improved the nutritional status as well as growth and development of children as a whole, and thus had positive clinical significance.

  11. Low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia: who are the mothers at risk?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mengesha, Hayelom Gebrekirstos; Wuneh, Alem Desta; Weldearegawi, Berhe; Selvakumar, Divya L

    2017-06-12

    Infant birth weight, which is classified into low birth weight, normal birth weight and macrosomia, is associated with short and long-term health consequences, such as neonatal mortality and chronic disease in life. Macrosomia and low birth weight are double burden problems in developing counties, such as Ethiopia, but the paucity of evidence has made it difficult to assess the extent of this situation. As a result there has been inconsistency in the reported prevalence of low birth weight and macrosomia in Ethiopia. This study aimed to determine the incidence and predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia in Tigray, Northern Ethiopia. We conducted a cross-sectional survey among a cohort of 1152 neonates delivered in Tigray Region at randomly selected hospitals between April and July 2014. We used the birth weight category described previously as an outcome variable. Data were collected using structured questionnaire by midwives. We entered and analyzed data using STATA™ Version 11.0. Data were described using a frequency, percentage, relative risk ratio, and 95% confidence interval. Multinomial logistic regression was conducted to identify independent predictors of low birth weight and macrosomia. In this study, we found a 10.5% and 6.68% incidence of low birth weight and macrosomia, respectively. Seventy (57.8%) of all low birth weight neonates were term births. The predictors for low birth weight were: early marriage (macrosomia were: female gender (RRR: 0.58, CI: 0.35-0.9); high body mass index (RRR: 5.0, CI: 1.56-16); post-maturity (RRR: 2.23, CI: 1.06-4.6); and no maternal complication (RRR: 0.46, CI: 0.27-0.8). In this study, we found gestational age and gender of the neonate to be common risk factors for both low birth weight and macrosomia. Strengthening antenatal follow up, prevention of pre and post maturity, controlling body mass index, and improving socioeconomic status of mothers are recommendations to prevent the double burden (low birth weight

  12. Somatosensory processing abilities of very low-birth weight infants at school age.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeMaio-Feldman, D

    1994-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between somatosensory processing abilities of children at school age and their earlier experiences in the intensive care nursery as very low-birth weight (VLBW) infants. The subjects were 35 VLBW children at school age (20 girls, 15 boys) who were free of congenital deformity and developmentally appropriate for gestational age. The subjects were part of an ongoing longitudinal study. Birth weight, number of days supported by mechanical ventilation, and number of days in the neonatal intensive care unit were examined in relation to somatosensory functions. Somatosensory functions measured were manual form perception, kinesthesia, finger identification, graphesthesia, and localization of tactile stimuli. VLBW children were significantly different on all measures of somatosensory processing when compared with the standardization group. Further research on the VLBW infant's somatosensory functioning will add to the existing body of knowledge concerning development and guide practice. The finding that the infants in this study, who did not have therapy intervention, later presented diminished somatosensory functioning supports the need to develop measures of somatosensory development for use in assessments and treatment during all developmental phases.

  13. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to confirm the association.

  14. Relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight: systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teshome, Amare; Yitayeh, Asmare

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Periodontal disease is a neglected bacterial infection that causes destruction of the periodontium in pregnant women. Yet its impact on the occurrence of adverse pregnancy outcomes has not systematically evaluated and there is no clear statement on the relationship between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. The objective of this study was to summarize the evidence on the impact of periodontal disease on preterm low birth weight. Methods We searched the following data bases from January 2005 to December 2015: CINAHL (cumulative index to nursing and allied health literature), MEDLINE, AMED, EMBASE (excerpta medica database), Cochrane library and Google scholar. Only case-control studies with full text in English were eligible. Critical appraisal of the identified articles was done by two authors independently to provide the possible relevance of the papers for inclusion in the review process. The selected Case control studies were critically appraised with 12 items structured checklist adapted from national institute of health (NIH). Odds ratio (OR) or risk ratios (RR) were extracted from the selected studies. The two reviewers who selected the appropriate studies also extracted the data and evaluated the risk of bias. Results Of 229 articles, ten studies with a total of 2423 participants with a mean age ranged from 13 to 49 years were met the inclusion criteria. The studies focused on preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight and periodontitis. Of the selected studies, 9 implied an association between periodontal disease and increased risk of preterm birth, low birth weight and /or preterm low birth weight outcome (ORs ranging from 2.04 to 4.19) and only one study found no evidence of association. Conclusion Periodontal disease may be one of the possible risk factor for preterm low birth weight infant. However, more precise studies with randomized clinical trial with sufficient follow-up period must be done to

  15. Very Low Birth Weight and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Meere, Jaap; Börger, Norbert A.; Potgieter, Stephanus Theron; Pirila, Silja; De Cock, Paul

    2009-01-01

    It is well recognized that reaction time performance of term-born children with a normal birth weight (NBW > 2500 g) who fulfill the DSM-IV criteria for attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in the primary school age is sensitive for the presentation rate of stimuli. They have been found t

  16. The Study of Mothers’ Periodontal Status and Newborn’s Low Birth Weight

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    M. Shirinzad

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction & Objective: Recent studies have presented evidence that periodontal disease in pregnant women may be a determining factor for newborn’s low birth weight. The present investigation was carried out to verify whether there is an association between maternal periodontal disease and low birth weight of newborns.Materials and Methods: This was a case-control study on 330 women, containing 110 mothers having live newborns with weight 2500 g (control group. The existence of an association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight was evaluated by means of analytic statistics that considered other risk factors for low weight. The two groups were compared with regard to urinary infection, preeclampsia, premature rupture of membrane, placenta previa, primiparous, smoking, age, height, socioeconomic status and periodontal disease.Results: There were no statistically significant differences between the case and control groups for any of the covariables (P>0.05, but there was significant differences for principal independent variable (periodontal disease P<0.05.Conclusion: Results indicated a positive association between periodontal disease and newborn’s low birth weight. Thus periodontal disease is a possible risk factor for low birth weight.

  17. Risk Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight. Cienfuegos Municipality. 2010-2014

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    Yanet Villafuerte Reinante

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: reducing low birth weight is a priority in Cuba’s health policy since it is critical to reduce infant mortality. Objective: to identify the major risk factors associated with low birth weight in Cienfuegos municipality. Methods: a cross-sectional study involving all women who gave birth to low-birth-weight infants was conducted in Cienfuegos municipality from January 2010 through December 2014. Maternal age, maternal medical history, weight gain during pregnancy, nutritional assessment in early pregnancy, interpregnancy interval, gestational age at birth and pregnancy-related conditions were analyzed. Results: Four hundred fifty low-birth-weight infants were born. Hypertension as major illness in the maternal medical history was the main cause of maternal morbidity. In the obstetric history, an interpregnancy interval less than 2 years was frequently observed. It was demonstrated that the conditions mostly associated with pregnancy were vaginal infection, anemia and hypertension. Preterm infants predominated. Conclusions: the modification of these risk factors would have a favorable impact on the reduction of low birth weight.

  18. Catch up growth in low birth weight infants: striking a healthy balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jain, Vandana; Singhal, Atul

    2012-06-01

    Catch-up growth in the first few months of life is seen almost ubiquitously in infants born small for their gestational age and conventionally considered highly desirable as it erases the growth deficit. However, recently such growth has been linked to an increased risk of later adiposity, insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease in both low income and high-income countries. In India, a third of all babies are born with a low birth weight, but the optimal growth pattern for such infants is uncertain. As a response to the high rates of infectious morbidities, undernutrition and stunting in children, the current policy is to promote rapid growth in infancy. However, with socio-economic transition and urbanization making the Indian environment more obesogenic, and the increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease, affecting progressively younger population, the long term adverse programming effect of fast/excessive weight gain in infancy on later body composition and metabolism may outweigh short-term benefits. This review discusses the above issues focusing on the need to strike a healthy balance between the risks and benefits of catch-up growth in Indian infants.

  19. Cerebral metabolite differences in adolescents with low birth weight: assessment with in vivo proton MR spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bathen, Tone F.; Gribbestad, Ingrid S. [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Circulation and Medical Imaging, Trondheim (Norway); Sjoebakk, Torill E. [Department of Neuroscience, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Skranes, Jon; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Martinussen, Marit [St. Olavs Hospital HF, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Children' s and Women' s Health, Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway); Vik, Torstein [Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Department of Public Health and General Practise, Trondheim (Norway); Myhr, Gunnar E. [St. Olavs University Hospital, Department of Radiology, Trondheim (Norway); Axelson, David [MRi Consulting, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-08-15

    Children with very low birth weight (VLBW) have a significantly increased risk of later neurodevelopmental problems, while infants born small for gestational age (SGA) at term are also at some risk of developing neurological impairment. To investigate possible brain metabolite differences in adolescents with VLBW, SGA at term and controls by proton in vivo magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) at 1.5 T. MR spectra were acquired from volumes localized in the left frontal lobe, containing mainly white matter (54 subjects). Peak areas of N-acetyl aspartate (NAA), choline (Cho) and creatine (Cr) were determined, and the peak area ratio of NAA to Cr, total Cho to Cr, or NAA to Cho calculated. Probabilistic neural network (PNN) analysis was performed utilizing the chemical shift region containing resonances from NAA, Cho and Cr as inputs. No significant difference in the peak area ratios could be found using the Kruskal-Wallis test. By application of PNN, a correct classification of 52 of the 54 adolescents with a sensitivity and specificity exceeding 93% for all groups was achieved. Small, yet systematic, differences in brain metabolite distribution among the groups were confirmed by PNN analysis. (orig.)

  20. Dental Caries and Enamel Defects in Very Low Birth Weight Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, S.; Albert, J.M.; Lombardi, G.; Wishnek, S.; Asaad, G.; Kirchner, H.L.; Singer, L.T.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of this study was to examine developmental enamel defects and dental caries in very low birth weight adolescents with high risk (HR-VLBW) and low risk (LR-VLBW) compared to full-term (term) adolescents. Methods The sample consisted of 224 subjects (80 HR-VLBW, 59 LR-VLBW, 85 term adolescents) recruited from an ongoing longitudinal study. Sociodemographic and medical information was available from birth. Dental examination of the adolescent at the 14-year visit included: enamel defects (opacity and hypoplasia); decayed, missing, filled teeth of incisors and molars (DMFT-IM) and of overall permanent teeth (DMFT); Simplified Oral Hygiene Index for debris/calculus on teeth, and sealant presence. A caregiver questionnaire completed simultaneously assessed dental behavior, access, insurance status and prevention factors. Hierarchical analysis utilized the zero-inflated negative binomial model and zero-inflated Poisson model. Results The zero-inflated negative binomial model controlling for sociodemographic variables indicated that the LR-VLBW group had an estimated 75% increase (p enamel defects in the permanent incisors and first molars. Term children had increased caries compared to the LR-VLBW group. The effect of birth group and enamel defects on caries has to be investigated longitudinally from birth. PMID:20975268

  1. Urinary oxalate excretion by very low birth weight infants receiving parenteral nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campfield, T; Braden, G

    1989-11-01

    Renal calcifications have been described in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, and diuretic drug-associated hypercalciuria is believed to play a role in the pathogenesis of this lesion. Hyperoxaluria is an important cause of renal stone formation in children and adults. Because parenteral nutrition solutions contain the oxalate precursors ascorbate and glycine, the relationship between total parenteral nutrition administration and oxalate excretion in VLBW infants was examined. Administration of approximately 0.5 g of total parenteral nutrition protein per kilogram per day to VLBW infants was associated with an increased urinary oxalate concentration and an increased urinary oxalate to creatinine ratio, when compared with VLBW infants receiving a glucose and electrolyte solution. A further increase in urinary oxalate concentration and oxalate to creatinine ratio was noted when total parenteral nutrition protein was increased to approximately 1.5 g of protein per kilogram per day. In VLBW infants who receive total parenteral nutrition, elevated urinary oxalate concentrations may develop and may be a factor in the pathogenesis of nephrocalcinosis in these infants.

  2. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  3. Glomerular number and function are influenced by spontaneous and induced low birth weight in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schreuder, Michiel F; Nyengaard, Jens Randel; Fodor, M;

    2005-01-01

    A link exists between low birth weight and diseases in adulthood, such as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and insulin resistance. Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) has been used to explain this association and has been shown to lead to a nephron endowment in humans. A reduction...... in glomerular number has been described in animal models with induced low birth weight as well but not in animals with spontaneous low birth weight. It therefore is debatable whether the models are suitable. The effect on glomerular number and size was studied in rats with naturally occurring IUGR...... and experimental IUGR, induced by bilateral uterine artery ligation. Design-based stereologic methods were used. Urinary protein excretion was determined as a measure of renal damage. Results showed a decrease of approximately 20% in glomerular number in both groups of IUGR (control 35,400, naturally occurring...

  4. Awake caudal anesthesia for inguinal hernia operations: successful use in low birth weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geze, S; Imamoğlu, M; Cekic, B

    2011-09-01

    Neonates with inguinal hernia face a relatively high risk of incarcerated hernia and bowel obstruction and this therefore requires surgical treatment. Complications following general anesthesia even for minor surgery are more common in low birth weight neonates than in term neonates. Caudal epidural anesthesia without adjunct general anesthesia has been recommended for neonates to reduce the risk of postoperative complications. The successful application of awake caudal anesthesia with levobupivacaine for inguinal hernia repair in 15 low birth weight neonates is reported. Single dose caudal epidural anesthesia was administered for inguinal hernia surgery to avoid complications associated with general anesthesia. Caudal block was performed with 2.5 mg/kg body weight (BW) levobupivacaine. Caudal anesthesia can be recommended as an effective technique for avoiding postoperative anesthetic complications in low birth weight neonates.

  5. A history of low birth weight alters recovery following a future head injury: a case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Adam T; Li, Xiaoqi; Zhang-Rutledge, Kathy; Hanten, Gerri R; Levin, Harvey S

    2014-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW; below 2500 grams) is a general risk factor for a variety of neurodevelopmental difficulties. However, these children may remain more vulnerable to neurologic and environmental insults occurring years later. This prospective case series reports on children who sustained a mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) in middle childhood but who had also been born with birth weights below 2500 grams. PARTICIPANTS were 14 children with mild, moderate, or severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), 5 of whom had birth weights under 2500 grams (LBW) and 9 children with normal birth weight (NBW). All participants were drawn from a larger study on the long-term cognitive and behavioral impact of pediatric TBI and were matched on age, estimated socioeconomic status (SES), and severity of TBI (with NBW children actually having a slightly worse overall injury severity). At baseline, both groups exhibited similar scores on WJ-R Letter Word Identification and Calculations, Tower of London number solved, and CVLT-C total correct. Baseline group differences were observed on the CELF-III Formulated Sentences (NBW > LBW) and on the VABS Adaptive Behavior Composite and Socialization subdomain (LBW > NBW). Over 2 years, relative to the NBW group, the LBW group evidenced declines on both WJ-R subtests, CVLT-C total correct, CELF-III Formulated Sentences, and VABS Adaptive Behavior Composite and Socialization. Although preliminary in nature due to small sample size, findings suggest a history of LBW influences the recovery trajectory following childhood TBI. Academic and adaptive functioning and verbal memory appeared particularly affected.

  6. Prevention of preterm delivery and low birth weight associated with asymptomatic bacteriuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mittendorf, R; Williams, M A; Kass, E H

    1992-04-01

    Since the first report of an association between asymptomatic bacteriuria and low birth weight (less than 2,500 g) in 1962, greater than 30 other studies on the same subject have been published. Some of these confirmed this association while others disputed it. Now, however, by using meta-analysis (a technique considered valid by many but not all statisticians) one may conclude with increased certainty that true associations between asymptomatic bacteriuria and preterm delivery (less than 37 weeks of gestation) and asymptomatic bacteriuria and low birth weight do exist. Because asymptomatic bacteriuria in pregnancy remains prevalent and preventable, a review of this important subject is relevant at this time.

  7. Association between clinical variables related to asthma in schoolchildren born with very low birth weight with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Emília da Silva; Mezzacappa-Filho, Francisco; Severino, Silvana Dalge; Ribeiro, Maria Ângela Gonçalves de Oliveira; Marson, Fernando Augusto de Lima; Morcilo, Andre Moreno; Toro, Adyléia Aparecida Dalbo Contrera; Ribeiro, José Dirceu

    2016-09-01

    to assess the prevalence, spirometry findings and risk factors for asthma in schoolchildren who were very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Observational and cross-sectional study. The parents and/or tutors answered the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. The schoolchildren were submitted to the skin prick test and spirometry assessment. 54 schoolchildren who were very low birth weight infants were assessed and 43 met the criteria for spirometry. Age at the assessment (bronchopulmonary dysplasia=9.5±0.85; without bronchopulmonary dysplasia=10.1±0.86 years) and birth weight (bronchopulmonary dysplasia=916.7±251.2; without bronchopulmonary dysplasia=1,171.3±190.5g) were lower in the group with bronchopulmonary dysplasia (p<0.05). The prevalence of asthma among very low birth weight infants was 17/54 (31.5%), being 6/18 (33.3%) in the group with bronchopulmonary dysplasia. There was an association between wool blanket use in the first year of life (p=0.026) with the presence of asthma at school age. The skin prick test was positive in 13/17 (76.5%) and 23/37 (62.2%) of patients with and without asthma, respectively. The schoolchildren with asthma had lower z-score values of forced expiratory flow between 25% and 75% of forced vital capacity (n=16; -1.04±1.19) when compared to the group of patients without asthma (n=27; -0.38±0.93) (p=0.049). There was no difference between the spirometry variables in the groups regarding the presence or absence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Very low birth weight infants with and without bronchopulmonary dysplasia showed a high prevalence of asthma (33.3% and 30.6%, respectively). Pulmonary flow in the small airways was lower in children with asthma. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  8. Impacto do nascimento pré-termo e com baixo peso na cognição, comportamento e aprendizagem de escolares Impacto del nacimiento pretérmino y con bajo peso en la cognición, el comportamiento y el aprendizaje de escolares Impact of preterm birth and low birth weight on the cognition, behavior and learning of school-age children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Izabele J Riechi

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar o impacto do nascimento pré-termo e com baixo peso no neurodesenvolvimento, na cognição e, consequentemente, na aprendizagem de crianças e adolescentes em idade escolar. MÉTODOS: Estudo transversal caso-controle de 120 escolares com idades entre seis e 15 anos, regularmente matriculados no Ensino Fundamental e pareados socioeconomicamente. Todos foram submetidos ao protocolo de avaliação neuropsicológica, neurológica e escolar. O Grupo Propósito (GP foi formado por 60 escolares nascidos com idade gestacional OBJETIVO: Evaluar el impacto del nacimiento pretérmino y con bajo peso en el neurodesarrollo, la cognición, y por consiguiente en el aprendizaje de niños y adolescentes en edad escolar. MÉTODOS: Estudio transversal caso-control en 120 escolares con edades entre 06 y 15 años, regularmente matriculados en la Primaria y pareados socioeconómicamente. Todos fueron sometidos al protocolo de Evaluación Neuropsicológica, Neurológica y Escolar. El Grupo Propósito fue formado por 60 escolares nacidos con edad gestacional OBJECTIVE: To assess the impact of preterm birth with low birth weight on neurodevelopment, cognition, and academic learning of school-age children. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 120 school-age children with ages between six and 15 years old, attending Elementary Schools, and socio-economically paired. All of them underwent neuropsychological, neurological and academic assessments. The Purpose Group (PG was formed by 60 children born with gestational age <37 weeks and birthweight <2500g. The Control Group (CG had 24 children who were siblings of the PG subjects, and 36 school-age children who were neighbors and colleagues of the PG subjects. The following tools were used for assessment: WISC III, Bender Gestalt Test, Trail Making, Rey Complex Figure, Luria Nebraska-C Neuropsychological Test, Rutter's Behavioral Scale A2, Child Behavior Checklist and Test of School Performance

  9. The Relevance of Maternal Socioeconomic Characteristics for Low Birth Weight – a Case-Control Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Altenhöner, T.; Köhler, M.; Philippi, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: The number of children born underweight (low birth weight, LBW) is increasing despite extensive prevention and screening programmes. The cost is high for the health system, and affected children are burdened with health predictors that can affect them negatively throughout their lives. This study investigates to what extent socioeconomic factors, in addition to known medical causes and the health behaviour of pregnant women, influence LBW. Materials and Methods: In this case-control study 131 mothers of singletons with a birth weight ≤ 2500 g (cases) and 323 mothers of normal birth weight babies (controls) were interviewed with respect to socioeconomic status, health behaviour and stress in the workplace. Medical data were collected by specialist staff using a questionnaire. Results: Independent of medical diagnosis and health behaviour, women with lower level education (OR [95 % CI] = 2.24 [1.12; 4.51]) and those who were not working (OR [95 % CI] = 1.82 [1.10; 3.00]) were more likely to have an LBW baby. No effect was shown for immigrant background (OR [95 % CI] = 1.14 [0.59; 2.21]) or stress in the workplace (OR [95 % CI] = 1.17 [0.90; 1.51]). Discussion and Conclusion: These results show that the association between social and health inequalities starts from before birth. In order to reduce the rising number of babies born underweight, socioeconomic determinants in the care and supervision of pregnant women should systematically receive more attention to enable appropriate early preventive strategies to be implemented. PMID:27065486

  10. Prevalence and Predisposing Factors of Retinopathy of Prematurity in Very Low-Birth-Weight Infants Discharged from NICU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sina Ahmadi

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP is a disease of the eye caused by disorganized growth of retinal blood vessels resulting in scarring and retinal detachment. All preterm babies are at high risk for ROP, and very low birth weight is an additional risk factor. An increased incidence of ROP is expected in Iran because of improved survival of low birth weight and premature babies, and it is obvious that pediatricians and ophthalmologists are concerned about prevention and timely treatment of ROP in these children. To asses the real situation of ROP in our NICU we studied its prevalence and risk factors. Methods: This was a retrospective analysis of premature infants with birth weight of ≤1500 grams or gestational age of ≤32 weeks, admitted April 1, 2005 to March 28, 2006, to the Neonatal Intensive Care Unit of Qaem Hospital, Mashhad, Iran. The collected data of 47 cases in this cross-sectional study are analyzed by SPSS (Mann_Whitney, t-Student. Findings: Forty five infants were included in the study. Out of these, 4 (8.5% developed ROP (inclusive all stages. Our analysis revealed that low gestational age, sepsis and respiratory distress syndrome were independent predictors for the development of ROP. Conclusion:The frequency of ROP in our hospital was lower than the range reported in developed countries, and our risk factors were a little different.

  11. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria ... been related to malaria in pregnancy7-9, it is important to establish their ... Laboratory investigations. Maternal ... of age, for older infants, a cut-off value of 50 per minute ..... from maternal iron deficiency anaemia and dense placental .... Changes in the.

  12. RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN PERIODONTAL DISEASE INDEX AND LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES IN PREGNANT WOMEN WITH PERIODONTITIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ira Komara

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and low birth weight babies. Methods: A case-control study was conducted to determine the relationship between periodontitis in pregnant women through the periodontal disease index (PDI and the low birth weight babies (LBW. The participants were mothers with periodontitis and non-periodontitis mothers aged 20–35 years who gave birth in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology-Dr. Hasan Sadikin General Hospital, Bandung in the period of December to January 2005. Results: Based on the chisquare test results a highly significant relationship between periodontitis and low birth weight (p=0.002 was found. The Odd’s ratio showed that the risk of low birth weight in pregnant women with periodontitis was 15.58 times higher compared to those who did not suffer from periodontitis. The periodontal disease index has an accuracy of 88.6% in predicting the incidence of LBW. It strongly influenced the incidence of LBW with a high Odd’s ratio of 28.0. Pregnant women who suffer from periodontitis with a PDI > 3.25, have 19.2 times higher risk for delivering babies with LBW compared to the non-periodontitis mothers. Conclusions: The loss of attachment affects the possibility of delivering LBW babies.

  13. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  14. Actual and Prescribed Energy and Protein Intakes for Very Low Birth Weight Infants: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abel, Deborah Marie

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as…

  15. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the

  16. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the

  17. Work activities and risk of prematurity, low birth weight and pre-eclampsia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palmer, Keith T; Bonzini, Matteo; Harris, E Clare

    2013-01-01

    Objectives We assessed the evidence relating preterm delivery (PTD), low birth weight, small for gestational age (SGA), pre-eclampsia and gestational hypertension to five occupational exposures (working hours, shift work, lifting, standing and physical workload). We conducted a systematic search...

  18. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  19. Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests a

  20. Pigs as animal model for low-birth-weight babies. Developing cognitive tests and examining neuroprotection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gieling, E.T.

    2013-01-01

    In this thesis the cognitive performance of piglets with low birth weight (LBW) caused by intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR), and the effects of a possible therapy to prevent IUGR-related brain damage and associated cognitive impairments were studied. To achieve these goals, several conditions

  1. Long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid status and early growth of low birth weight infants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Woltil, HA; van Beusekom, CM; Schaafsma, A; Muskiet, FAJ; Okken, A

    1998-01-01

    We correlated arachidonic acid (AA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) status with anthropometric measures and growth rates in a group of low birth weight infants (less than or equal to 2500 g; gestational ages 30-41 weeks; n = 143). AA and DHA status were measured in erythrocytes (RBC) and plasma chole

  2. Treatment Failure of Nosocomial Pertussis Infection in a Very-Low-Birth-Weight Neonate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonacorsi, Stéphane; Farnoux, Caroline; Bidet, Philippe; Caro, Valérie; Aizenfisz, Sophie; Benhayoun, Mounir; Aujard, Yannick; Guiso, Nicole; Bingen, Edouard

    2006-01-01

    We describe a case of nosocomial maternal transmission of Bordetella pertussis to a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) neonate in whom treatment was unsuccessful. This case underscores the need for rapid and sensitive PCR diagnosis in VLBW neonates and in parents with clinical signs of pertussis and suggests that standard treatment may not be appropriate for VLBW neonates. PMID:17021121

  3. Survival Analysis of Very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  4. Survival Analysis of very Low Birth Weight Infant Mortality in Taiwan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); W. Chen (Wei); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2014-01-01

    markdownabstract__Abstract__ This paper examines the determinants of very low birth weight infant (or neonatal) mortality using the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research database from 1997 to 2009. After infants are discharged from hospital, it is not possible to track their mortality, so the C

  5. Massage Interventions and Developmental Skills in Infants Born with Low Birth Weight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelmanson, I. A.; Adulas, E. I.

    2009-01-01

    This study aimed at evaluating possible effects of massage interventions on developmental progress in the infants born with low birth weight (LBW). Forty infants (17 boys, 23 girls) who were born in St. Petersburg in 2000 through 2002 and met a conventional definition of LBW (less than 2500 g at birth) entered the study. Of these, 36 (17 boys, 19…

  6. A Study of Effect Of Maternal Nutrition On Incidence Of Low Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma R.K

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research question : What is the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight ? Objective: To study the effect of maternal nutrition on low birth weight. Setting: Hospital based, Obstetrics & Gynaecology and Neonatology wing of department of paediatrics of Rajendra Hospital attached to Govt. Medical College, Patiala. Study design: Cross- sectional. Sample size : 200 low birth weight babies from 1048 live births. Study variables: Weight of newborn babies, nutritional status of mother, maternal weight, maternal height, dietary habits, mothers haemoglobin. Statistical analysis : Proportions, Chi square test. Results : Out of 1048 babies born. 200 were found to be low birth weight babies giving an overall incidence of 19.1%. incidence of LBW was higher among female babies (19.6% as compared to male babies (18.7%. The difference was statistically not significant. Incidence was 17.2% among non vegetarians while it was 20.7% in vegetarians. The difference was again statistically not significant. The lowest incidence (17% of LBW was observed in mothers having haemoglobin levels 10gm/dl or more and there was improvement in birth weight as haemoglobin levels increased. Incidence of LBW was maximum (26.6% in mothers having height less than 150 cms.

  7. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To

  8. Cytokine responses in very low birth weight infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A. van den Berg; R.M. van Elburg; L. Vermeij; A. van Zwol; G.R. van den Brink; J.W.R. Twisk; E.E.S. Nieuwenhuis; W.P.F. Fetter

    2009-01-01

    Objective: Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants receiving glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition may present with a lower infection rate, which may result from enhanced antimicrobial innate or Th1 cytokine responses. We investigated whether glutamine-enriched enteral nutrition in VLBW infants increase

  9. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hovi, P.; Vohr, B.; Ment, L.R.; Doyle, L.W.; McGarvey, L.; Morrison, K.M.; Evensen, K.A.I.; Pal, S. van der; Grunau, R.E.; Brubakk, A.M.; Andersson, S.; Saigal, S.; Kajantie, E.

    2016-01-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; <1500 g) have higher blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To id

  10. Thiamine supplementation to prevent induction of low birth weight by conventional therapy for gestational diabetes mellitus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bakker, SJL; ter Maaten, JC; Gans, ROB

    2000-01-01

    Conventional treatment for gestational diabetes mellitus increases the proportion of infants born with a low birth weight, a risk factor for cardiovascular disease and diabetes mellitus in later life. Thiamine supplementation during pregnancy may be shown to be a safe preventive measure. During preg

  11. Perinatal outcomes in a South Asian setting with high rates of low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph K S

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It is unclear whether the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia are due to poor fetal growth or short pregnancy duration. Also, it is not known whether the traditional focus on preventing low birth weight has been successful. We addressed these and related issues by studying births in Kaniyambadi, South India, with births from Nova Scotia, Canada serving as a reference. Methods Population-based data for 1986 to 2005 were obtained from the birth database of the Community Health and Development program in Kaniyambadi and from the Nova Scotia Atlee Perinatal Database. Menstrual dates were used to obtain comparable information on gestational age. Small-for-gestational age (SGA live births were identified using both a recent Canadian and an older Indian fetal growth standard. Results The low birth weight and preterm birth rates were 17.0% versus 5.5% and 12.3% versus 6.9% in Kaniyambadi and Nova Scotia, respectively. SGA rates were 46.9% in Kaniyambadi and 7.5% in Nova Scotia when the Canadian fetal growth standard was used to define SGA and 6.7% in Kaniyambadi and Conclusion High rates of fetal growth restriction and relatively high rates of preterm birth are responsible for the high rates of low birth weight in South Asia. Increased emphasis is required on health services that address the morbidity and mortality in all birth weight categories.

  12. The Placental Microbiome Varies in Association with Low Birth Weight in Full-Term Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Zheng

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Substantial evidence indicated that low birth weight was an independent risk factor for obesity, impaired glucose regulation, and diabetes later in life. However, investigations into the association between low birth weight and placental microbiome in full-term neonates are limited. Placentas were collected from low birth weight (LBW and normal birth weight (NBW full-term neonates (gestational age 37 w0d–41 w6d consecutively born at Peking Union Medical College Hospital. The anthropometric measurements were measured and 16S ribosomal DNAamplicon high-throughput sequencing were utilized to define bacteria within placenta tissues. It showed that birth weight, ponderal index, head circumference, and placenta weight were significantly lower in LBW than NBW neonates (p < 0.05. The operational taxonomic units (OTUs (p < 0.05 and the estimators of community richness (Chao indexes (p < 0.05 showed a significantly lower diversity in LBW than NBW neonates. There were significant variations in the composition of placenta microbiota between the LBW and NBW neonates at the phylum and genus level. Furthermore, it indicated that Lactobacillus percentage was positively associated with birth weight (r = 0.541, p = 0.025. In conclusion, our present study for the first time detected the relationship between birth weight and placental microbiome profile in full-term neonates. It is novel in showing that the placental microbiome varies in association with low birth weight in full-term neonates.

  13. Ambient air pollution and low birth weight - are some women more vulnerable than others?

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    Westergaard, Nadja; Gehring, Ulrike; Slama, Rémy; Pedersen, Marie

    2017-07-01

    Ambient air pollution is controllable, and it is one of the greatest environmental threats to human health. Studies conducted worldwide have provided evidence that maternal exposure to ambient air pollution during pregnancy enhances the risk of low birth weight at term (TLBW, air pollution. The aim of this commentary is to review the published literature on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW regarding increased vulnerability for the above-mentioned subgroups. Although more than fifty epidemiological studies have examined the associations between ambient air pollution and TLBW to date, we only identified six studies that examined the potential effect modification of the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW by the above listed maternal risk factors. Two studies assessed effect modification caused by smoking on the association between ambient air pollution and TLBW. The adjusted odds ratio (OR) for TLBW associated with exposure to ambient air pollution were in one study higher among women who smoked during pregnancy, as compared to the OR of non-smoking women, while in the other study the association was in the opposite direction. The association of ambient air pollution and TLBW were higher among women characterized by extreme BMI (two studies) and low SES compared to non-obese women or women of higher SES (four studies), respectively. Only one study reported the estimated effects among asthmatic and non-asthmatic women and no statistically significant effect modification was evident for the risk of TLBW associated with ambient air pollution. The current epidemiologic evidence is scarce, but suggests that pregnant women who are smoking, being underweight, overweight/obese or having lower SES are a vulnerable subpopulation when exposed to ambient air pollution, with and increased risk of having a child with TLBW. The limited evidence precludes for definitive conclusions and further studies are recommended. Copyright © 2017. Published

  14. HOSPITAL BIRTHS OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT IN THE CITY OF CUIABÁ THE PERIOD 2000 TO 2008.

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    Carolina Sampaio Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The ocurrence of low birth weight infants varies among contries, and even a general inidcator of health status of a population to be highly associated with socieconomic conditions(3. Newborns with low birth weight are more vulnerable to problems that increase the risk of morbidity and mortality(9. Several factors may be associated with low newborn weight among mothers with less than 20 years or over 35 years(16,17. Objectives: To describe the low-weight births in hospitals in the city of Cuiaba in the period 2000 to 2008 using the variables of the birth certificate (race, sex of infant and maternal age Method: a quantitative study, cross-sectional, restrospective and described with the use of secundary sources of data obtained from the Information System on Live Births (SINASC. The study population was constituted by the set of all vital statistics records of hospital deliveries of low birth weight infants n= 6.523, in the municipality of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008. Included only information from births and hospital births only, and with body weight equal to or less than 2,500g, this criterion is basead on the WHO classification. Results/Conclusion: The low birth weight hospital in the city of Cuiabá – MT in the period 2000 to 2008, has a prevalence of 6,6%, ocurred among newborns with GA between 37 and 41 weeks (43,3% n= 2827. The low weight births in the state of MT, evolve with the growing reduction of body weight, the highest prevalence being concentrated in the range of 1500 to 2499g weight. The low birth weight are more prevalent in females (53,7%, n=3506 and mullattos (70.4% n= 4595. 49% of mother of lbw infants are those who are aged 21 to 35 years of age (49,7%, n= 3240.

  15. Persistence of Cerebral Palsy Diagnosis: Assessment of a Low-Birth-Weight Cohort at Ages 2, 6, and 9 Years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korzeniewski, Steven J; Feldman, Judith F; Lorenz, John M; Pinto-Martin, Jennifer A; Whitaker, Agnes H; Paneth, Nigel

    2016-03-01

    We examined the stability of nondisabling and disabling cerebral palsy at age 2 in a longitudinally followed tri-county low-birth-weight (cerebral palsy diagnoses at age 2, 61 (9% of the cohort, n = 61/777) had disabling cerebral palsy and 52 (7%, n = 52/777) had nondisabling cerebral palsy. Of 48 followed children diagnosed with disabling cerebral palsy at age 2, 98% were again classified as having cerebral palsy at school age, and 1 had an uncertain cerebral palsy status. By contrast, 41% (n = 17) of the 43 children diagnosed with nondisabling cerebral palsy at age 2 were classified as not having cerebral palsy. Of the 517 followed children who were not diagnosed with cerebral palsy at age 2, 7% (n = 35) were classified as having late emerging nondisabling cerebral palsy at school age.

  16. Which factors could explain the low birth weight paradox? Quais fatores podem explicar o paradoxo do baixo peso ao nascer?

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    Antônio Augusto Moura da Silva

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight children are unusual among well-off families. However, in Brazil, low birth weight rate was higher in a more developed city than in a less developed one. The study objective was to find out the reasons to explain this paradox. METHODS: A study was carried out in two municipalities, Ribeirão Preto (Southeastern Brazil and São Luís (Northeastern Brazil, which low birth weight rates were 10.7% and 7.6% respectively. Data from two birth cohorts were analyzed: 2,839 newborns in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 and 2,439 births in São Luís in 1997-1998. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed, adjusted for confounders. RESULTS: Low birth weight risk factors in São Luís were primiparity, maternal smoking and maternal age less than 18 years. In Ribeirão Preto, the associated variables were family income between one and three minimum wages, maternal age less than 18 and equal to or more than 35 years, maternal smoking and cesarean section. In a combined model including both cohorts, Ribeirão Preto presented a 45% higher risk of low birth weight than São Luís. When adjusted for maternal smoking habit, the excess risk for low birth weight in Ribeirão Preto compared to São Luís was reduced by 49%, but the confidence interval was marginally significant. Differences in cesarean section rates between both cities contributed to partially explain the paradox. CONCLUSIONS: Maternal smoking was the most important risk factor for explaining the difference in low birth weight between both cities. The other factors contributed little to explain the difference in low birth weight rates.OBJETIVO: O baixo peso ao nascer é incomum em recém-nascidos de maior nível socioeconômico. Contudo, no Brasil, a taxa de baixo peso ao nascer foi maior em cidade mais desenvolvida do que em município menos desenvolvido. O objetivo do estudo foi buscar razões para explicar este paradoxo. MÉTODOS: O estudo foi realizado em Ribeir

  17. Quality of Life and Its Associated Factors among School - Aged Children Born with Very Low Birth Weight%极低出生体质量儿童学龄期的生存质量及相关因素分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾小璐; 岑超群; 钟敏泉; 翟琼香; 卢奕云; 杨杰; 钟向明

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the quality of life( QOL) and its associated factors among school - aged children born with very low birth weight( VLBW), which may provide scientific evidences for early clinical intervention. Methods In this cross - sectional case control study ,235 children with VLBW and 396 healthy children with normal birth weight( NBW) were recruited from mainstream schools. The postal paediatric quality of life inventory( PedsQLTM4.0) generic core scales containing 23 items was used and completed by the parents.and the proxy questionnaire included questions on physical functioning,emotional functioning,social functioning and role functioning about their children. The scores of total scale and all dimensions were calculated to analyze the differences of QOL between 2 groups and related factors of VI.BW children. Results A total of 570 out of 631 questionnaires sent out were completed,with a response rate of 90.3%. The mean age of VLBW group at the time of PedsQL completion was (9.6 ± 2.5) years old, with 1 004 - 1 498 g[ (1 201 ± 279) g] of birth weight. The mean age of NBW cases was (9.7 ±3.1) years old,with 2 512-3 955 g[ (3 216 ±435) g] of birth weighl,and scores of VLBW group in terms of emotional function, role function and total scores were significantly lower than those of the NBW group [ respectively (73.12 ± 16.67) scores, (70.43 ±20.67) scores, (75.98 ± 17. 53) scores vs (79. 16 ±17. 22) scores, (77. 43 ±19.63) scores, (80. 21 ± 17. 29) scores, P, < 0. 05]. Multiple regression analysis showed that among the VLBW group, children whose mothers had higher educational level had better QOL,while those with neonatal intracranial hemorrhage and retinopathy of prematurity had worse QOL. Conclusions QOL of children born with VLBW are worse than that of NBW children, especially in the aspects of emotional function and role function. Maternal educational level and pathophysiological slate during neonatal period are important influential

  18. A comparison between the growth trend of normal and low birth weight newborns during the first year of life

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    Nayeri F

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available "n Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-qformat:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:11.0pt; font-family:"Calibri","sans-serif"; mso-ascii-font-family:Calibri; mso-ascii-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-fareast-font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-fareast-theme-font:minor-fareast; mso-hansi-font-family:Calibri; mso-hansi-theme-font:minor-latin; mso-bidi-font-family:Arial; mso-bidi-theme-font:minor-bidi;} Background: Low-birth-weight (LBW children are at higher risk for failure to thrive. The aim of the study was to establish the trend of physical growth in Until now their growth was evaluated with normal birth weight baby's chart."n"n Methods: In this cohort study we investigated demographic characteristics and growth trend during the first of life 406 newborn divided into three groups: LBW (Low Birth Weight n=103, VlBW (Very Low Birth Weight n=20 and NBW (Normal Birth Weight n=303. Body weight, length and head circumference were measured at the time of birth and several follow ups until 12 months of chronological age."n"n Results: NBW growth trend adopts the standard chart. Significant differences in terms of physical growth (weight- height- head circumference were seen between the two groups of preterm (LBW & VLBW and NBW children. Although it was demonstrated that growth velocity of preterm & NBW children were the same. Significant differences for weight was seen between VLBW and LBW group only until 6 months after birth. This difference was seen for height and Head circumference until the end of the first year of life. "n"nConclusions: VLBW and LBW babies need special growth charts. But the adjustment method

  19. Influence of different postures care on sleep qual ity and respiratory function of very low birth weight children%不同体位护理对极低体重出生儿睡眠质量及呼吸功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍秋桂

    2014-01-01

    [目的]探讨不同体位护理对极低体重出生儿(VLBW)睡眠质量、呼吸功能及并发症的影响。[方法]将84例 VLBW按照随机数字表法分为观察组及对照组各42例,两组患儿均给予常规性护理,同时配合轻弹足底、全身抚触及轻叩背部,对照组喂奶后采用仰卧位,而观察组患儿采用俯卧位,即喂奶20 min 后抬高头部并倾斜15°,头偏向一则,四肢呈蛙状,左右交替,头偏向一侧。两组患儿每隔2h~4h改变1次体位,连续干预7 d 后评价干预效果。[结果]与对照组相比,观察组患儿进奶量、体重显著增加,安静睡眠时间显著延长,患儿呼吸次数、呼吸暂停次数、心率、心率变异幅度、呼吸变异幅度显著下降,而血氧饱和度显著增加,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。观察组患儿腹胀、呕吐、胃出血、呼吸暂停、心动过缓发生率显著低于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。[结论]应用俯卧位干预可有效促进VLBW生长发育,改善患儿睡眠质量,减少患儿并发症。%Obj ective:To probe into influence of different postures care on sleep quality and respiratory function and complications of very low birth weight children.Methods:A total of 84 cases of VLBW were randomly divided into observation group and control group based on random num-ber table,42 cases in each.Both groups of children were given routine care,in combination with a flick of the foot,body massage and tapping the back.The cases in control group adopted supine position after feeding, and the children in the observation group were fed after 20 min raise the head and tilted 1 5 °,head to one thing,the limbs were frog like,around the turn,head to one side.Two groups of children changed once position every 2 h~4 h,and the intervention effect was evaluated after 7 d of con-tinuous intervention.Results:Compared with the control group,eating milk amount and body weight were increased

  20. When and why Filipino mothers of term low birth weight infants interrupted breastfeeding exclusively.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrasada, Grace V; Kylberg, Elisabeth

    2009-11-01

    This paper makes use of data collected in a randomised controlled trial that was designed to test the efficacy of postpartum breastfeeding counselling to increase exclusive breastfeeding among term low birth weight infants in Manila during the first six months. Mothers were randomised to a control group or one of two home visit interventions: by trained breastfeeding counsellors or child care counsellors without breastfeeding support training. Sixty mothers received peer breastfeeding counselling while a further 119 mothers did not. The median duration of exclusive breastfeeding among mothers who received counselling was five weeks versus two weeks among those who received no counselling (pbreastfeeding was interrupted to offer infants water, traditional herbal extracts or artificial baby milk. Mothers who interrupted exclusive breastfeeding claimed they had insufficient milk or that their infants had slow weight gain. Early and sustained breastfeeding support will enable mothers to exclusively breastfeed low birth weight infants for the first six months.

  1. Status cognitivo-comportamental de prematuros de baixo peso ao nascimento em idade pré-escolar que vivem em país em desenvolvimento Cognitive and behavioral status of low birth weight preterm children raised in a developing country at preschool age

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    Júlia L. do Espírito Santo

    2009-02-01

    development at preschool age of children born preterm and with low birth weight and raised in a developing country. METHODS: Prospective cross-sectional study of 80 neonates born in a university hospital in southern Brazil. Neuropsychological assessment at age 4-5 years included the Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence (WPPSI, Conners' Parent Rating Scale-Revised, Denver test and neurological examination. Perinatal and early neuropsychomotor development information was collected from the database during follow-up. Results were related to birth weight, sex and gestational age. RESULTS: WPPSI scores were: total IQ 88.00±16.96, verbal IQ 89.72±16.72, and executive IQ 88.12±15.71 for the group with less than 1,500 grams; and total IQ 91.11±14.73, verbal IQ 93.36±12.65, and executive IQ 90.20±16.06 for the group between 1,500 and 2,500 grams. The best scores were obtained in tests that evaluated capacity of abstraction and symbolization, picture completion and common perception, in which only 5% and 6.3% of the children had abnormal results, respectively. The lowest scores were obtained in tests that evaluated visual-motor coordination and flexibility-speed of reasoning, in which 27.5% and 16.3% of the children had abnormal results, respectively. A total of 32.5% had abnormal results in the arithmetic tests. Behaviors related to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD were observed in 48% of the sample. Low score in the Bayley Mental Scale and abnormal result in the Denver test were significantly correlated to ADHD (p = 0.017 and p = 0.004. Abnormal results in the Bayley Mental Scale (p < 0.001, Denver test (p < 0.001 and neurological examination (p = 0.002 were associated with lower IQ. CONCLUSIONS: The results revealed an increased incidence of behavioral and cognitive disorders at preschool age.

  2. Mental health, quality of life and social relations in young adults born with low birth weight

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    Lund Line K

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Being born with low birth weight may have an impact on different aspects of mental health, psychosocial functioning and well-being; however results from studies in young adulthood have so far yielded mixed findings. The aim of this study was to assess the long-term impact in young adulthood on self-reported mental health, health-related quality of life, self-esteem and social relations by investigating differences between two low birth weight groups and a control group. Methods In a follow-up at 20 years of age, 43 preterm VLBW (birth weight ≤ 1500 g, 55 term SGA (birth weight  Results The VLBW and SGA groups reported significantly more mental health problems than controls. The VLBW group predominantly had internalizing problems, and the non-significant association with ASR Total score was reduced by the Intelligence Quotient (IQ. The SGA group had increased scores on both internalizing and externalizing problems, and the association with ASR Total score remained significant after adjusting for IQ in this group. Both low birth weight groups reported less interaction with friends and lower quality of life related to mental health domains than controls. Self-esteem scores were lower than in the control group for athletic competence (VLBW and social acceptance (SGA. Conclusion Our findings suggest that self-reported mental health and well-being in young adulthood may be adversely affected by low birth weight, irrespective of whether this is the result of premature birth or being born SGA at term.

  3. Sepsis-Related Mortality of Very Low Birth Weight Brazilian Infants: The Role of Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Sylvia Maria Porto; de Almeida Cardoso, Maria Helena Cabral; Figuexeds, Ana Lucia; Mattos, Haroldo; Rozembaum, Ronaldo; Ferreira, Vanessa Isidoro; Portinho, Maria Antonieta; Gonçalves, Ana Cristina; da Costa, Elaine Sobral

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to identify risk factors for sepsis-related mortality in low birth weight (1000 g), five-minute Apgar ≤7, gram-negative sepsis, mechanical ventilation (6.7 times higher than no use), and intravascular catheter. Sepsis-related mortality was due, mainly, to Pseudomonas aeruginosa; birth weight ≤1000 g and mechanical ventilation were strong sepsis-related mortality predictors. PMID:20182631

  4. Prenatal Stress and Low Birth Weight: Evidence from the Super Bowl

    OpenAIRE

    Duncan, Brian; Mansour, Hani; Rees, Daniel I.

    2015-01-01

    Studies have estimated the relationship between psychological stress and birth weight by exploiting natural disasters and terrorist attacks, both of which could affect fetal health through other channels. Using data from the National Vital Statistics System for the period 1969-2004, we estimate the effect of prenatal exposure to the Super Bowl on low birth weight. Although major sporting events elicit intense emotions, they do not threaten viewers with direct physical harm or limit access to ...

  5. DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT BABIES BY AN ANTHROPOMETRIC SURROGATE MEASURE: A HOSPITAL BASED STUDY

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    Anjali

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Birth weight is an indicator of both neonatal morbidity and mortality, maternal health, nutrition and quality of antenatal services. OBJECTIVE: To find out important anthropometric parameter(s in the newborn as related to birth weight so that newborns with low birth weight can be identified. MATERIAL AND METHODS: A prospective cross sectional, analytical, hospital based study was conducted at Amritsar on 200 term low birth weight newborn babies(<2.5 kg born during a period of 10 months and their various anthropometric measurements (HC, CC, MAC, TC, CFC were taken according to standard techniques. RESULTS: The study showed a strong correlation (p <0.001 between mid-arm circumference (r=0.834 and birth weight, followed by head circumference (r=0.816 and birth weight. Other parameters were also strongly correlated (p < 0.001. A value of <9.2 cm and <7.6 cm for mid-arm circumference showed highest validity for picking up newborns weighing <2500 gm and <2000 gm respectively. CONCLUSION: Measurement of arm circumference is easier, convenient and statistically superior to other anthropometrical parameters in detection of low birth weight newborn babies. The researchers recommend designing of a simple 'Tri-colored tape' for early detection of 'At Risk' LBW newborns in rural communities for their timely management.

  6. Low birth weight of Vietnamese infants is related to their mother's dioxin and glucocorticoid levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Tung, Dao; Kido, Teruhiko; Honma, Seijiro; Manh, Ho Dung; Nhu, Dang Duc; Okamoto, Rie; Maruzeni, Shoko; Nishijo, Muneko; Nakagawa, Hideaki; Ngoc, Pham Thien; Van Toan, Ngo; Hung, Nguyen Ngoc; Minh, Nguyen Hung; Son, Le Ke

    2016-06-01

    We aimed to determine the relationship between dioxin congeners in maternal breast milk and maternal glucocorticoid levels with newborn birth weight after nearly 45 years of use of herbicides in the Vietnam War. The study subjects comprised 58 mother-infant pairs in a region with high dioxin levels in the soil (hotspot) and 62 pairs from a control region. Dioxin levels in maternal breast milk were measured by HRGC-HRMS. Salivary glucocorticoid levels were determined by LC-MS/MS. Dioxin congener levels in mothers from the hotspot were found to be two to fivefold higher than those in mothers from the control region. Birth weight was inversely correlated with 2,3,7,8-TeCDD and 2,3,4,7,8-PeCDF congener levels. The rate of newborns whose birth weight was less than 2500 g was threefold higher in the hotspot (12 %) than in the control region (4 %). Salivary glucocorticoid levels in mothers with low birth weight infants were significantly higher than those in the normal birth weight group. Low birth weight of Vietnamese newborns in a hotspot for dioxin levels is related to some dioxin congener levels and high glucocorticoid levels in mothers. This finding in mother-infant pairs suggests that excess maternal glucocorticoid levels are related to dioxin burden and they result in low birth weight.

  7. Clinical application of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gabriel, Marta Lucia [Fundacao Faculdade Regional de Medicina (FUNFARME), Sao Jose do Rio Preto, SP (Brazil). Hospital de Base; Piatto, Vania Belintani [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil); Souza, Antonio Soares, E-mail: depimagem@famerp.b [Faculdade de Medicina de Sao Jose do Rio Preto (FAMERP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Diagnostico por Imagem

    2010-07-15

    Objective: the present study was aimed at analyzing the value of the early diagnosis of hemodynamic changes in hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic events in premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates through the evaluation of images and resistance index measurement by means of transcranial Doppler ultrasonography. Materials and methods: fifty premature, very-low-birth-weight neonates were submitted to transcranial Doppler ultrasonography with sequential transfontanellar and transtemporal techniques. Results: cerebral abnormalities were detected in 32% of the neonates (22% with intracranial hemorrhage, 8% with periventricular leukomalacia, and 2% with toxoplasmosis). Among the 34 cases (68%) of neonates in whom no brain lesion was detected at transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, 18 (53%) presented changes in the resistance index. Such resistance index varied according to the time of the examination. Conclusion: there is a correlation between the presence of cerebral hemodynamic changes demonstrated by resistance index measurements and the subsequent development of hemorrhages and hypoxic-ischemic lesions. Although not being a death predictor, changes in the resistance index are associated with the severity of the clinical conditions in preterm, very-low-birth-weight neonates. (author)

  8. Periodontal infection as a risk factor for preterm low birth weight

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    Gandhimadhi D

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is an overwhelming body of evidence strongly suggesting that periodontal infection may have a significant negative impact on pregnancy outcome in some women. The aim of this study was to determine the association, if any, between periodontal disease and preterm low birth weight. Materials and Methods : A total of 211 mothers between the ages of 17 and 35 were grouped into two categories based on the gestational age and weight of the baby as cases (< 37 weeks, < 2500 g and controls (>37 weeks, >2500 g. Relevant obstetric history and information on other primary risk factors for preterm low birth weight were obtained. Investigation reports on blood group, Rh factor and hemoglobin (Hb were also gathered. Oral assessments included: simplified oral hygiene index (OHI-S, gingival bleeding index, probing pocket depth and clinical attachment level (CAL. Results: Cases had significantly more attachment loss and probing pocket depth, poor oral hygiene, more percentage of sites with attachment loss (Extent and more mean attachment loss per site (Severity and less Hb than controls. The number of visits for prenatal care and the percentage of sites with CAL≥2mm (Extent 2 remained significant when compared to other variables. Conclusion: The study indicated that periodontal disease is a contributing factor for preterm low birth weight.

  9. Total body bone development during early childhood in very low birth weight infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osamura, T; Hasegawa, K; Yoshioka, H; Mizuta, R; Sawada, T

    1998-04-01

    Total body bone mineral density was measured by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry in 52 children who were very low birth weight (VLBW) infants without cerebral palsy and mental retardation (postconceptional age, from 10 mo to 6 y and 6 mo). VLBW infants in this study seemed to show compensatory acceleration of total body bone development, catching up with the control group during early childhood. However, in VLBW infants with at least one of the three factors such as total parenteral nutrition for 1 week or more, assisted ventilation for 1 week or more, or oxygen therapy for 28 d or more in their early stage after birth, adequate mineral supplementation might be especially important for long-term bone development.

  10. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferreira, Rachel C; Mello, Rosane R; Silva, Kátia S

    2014-01-01

    to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition) at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI) and mental development index (MDI) of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. mean birth weight was 1,119g (SD: 247) and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2). Approximately 44.3%(n=86) of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n=79) had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI < 85) at 12 months of corrected age. On the mental scale, 76 (39.1%) children presented abnormal cognitive development (MDI<85). Children with neonatal sepsis were 2.5 times more likely to develop changes in neuromotor development (OR: 2.50; CI: 1.23-5.10). There was no association between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development impairment. neonatal sepsis was an independent risk factor for neuromotor development impairment at 12 months of corrected age, but not for mental development impairment. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  11. Neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for neurodevelopmental changes in preterm infants with very low birth weight

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    Rachel C. Ferreira

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate neonatal sepsis as a risk factor for abnormal neuromotor and cognitive development in very low birth weight preterm infants at 12 months of corrected age. METHODS: this was a prospective cohort study that followed the neuromotor and cognitive development of 194 very low birth weight preterm infants discharged from a public neonatal intensive care unit. The Bayley Scale of Infant Development (second edition at 12 months of corrected age was used. The outcomes were the results of the clinical/neurological evaluation and the scores of the psychomotor development index (PDI and mental development index (MDI of the Bayley Scale of Infant Development II. The association between neonatal sepsis and neuromotor development and between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development was verified by logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: mean birth weight was 1,119 g (SD: 247 and mean gestational age was 29 weeks and 6 days (SD: 2. Approximately 44.3%(n = 86 of the infants had neonatal sepsis and 40.7% (n = 79 had abnormal neuromotor development and/or abnormal psychomotor development index (PDI < 85 at 12 months of corrected age. On the mental scale, 76 (39.1% children presented abnormal cognitive development (MDI < 85. Children with neonatal sepsis were 2.5 times more likely to develop changes in neuromotor development (OR: 2.50; CI: 1.23-5.10. There was no association between neonatal sepsis and cognitive development impairment. CONCLUSION: neonatal sepsis was an independent risk factor for neuromotor development impairment at 12 months of corrected age, but not for mental development impairment.

  12. Fatores de risco para mortalidade neonatal em crianças com baixo peso ao nascer Factores de riesgo para mortalidad neonatal en niños con bajo peso al nacer Risk factors for neonatal mortality among children with low birth weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adolfo Monteiro Ribeiro

    2009-04-01

    Informaciones sobre Mortalidad, fueron integrados por la técnica de linkage. En modelo jerarquizado, las variables de los niveles distal (factores socioeconómicos, intermedio (factores de atención a la salud y proximal (factores biológicos fueron sometidas al análisis univariado y regresión logística multivariada. RESULTADOS: Con el ajuste de las variables en la regresión logística multivariada, las variables del nivel distal que permanecieron significativamente asociadas con el óbito neonatal fueron: la cohabitación de los padres, número de hijos vivos y tipo de hospital de nacimiento; en el nivel intermedio: número de consultas en el pre-natal, complejidad del hospital de nacimiento y tipo de parto; y en el nivel proximal: sexo, edad gestacional, peso al nacer, índice de Apgar y presencia de malformación congénita. CONCLUSIONES: Los principales factores asociados a la mortalidad neonatal en los nacidos vivos con bajo peso están relacionados con la atención a la gestante y al recién nacido, reductibles por la actuación del sector salud.OBJECTIVE: To analyze the risk factors associated with neonatal deaths among children with low birth weight. METHODS: A cohort study was carried out on live births weighing between 500 g and 2,499 g from single pregnancies without anencephaly in Recife (Northeastern Brazil between 2001 and 2003. Data on 5,687 live births and 499 neonatal deaths obtained from the Live Birth Information System and the Mortality Information System were integrated through the linkage technique. Using a hierarchical model, variables from the distal level (socioeconomic factors, intermediate level (healthcare factors and proximal level (biological factors were subjected to univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. RESULTS: After adjusting the variables through multivariate logistic regression, the factors from the distal level that remained significantly associated with neonatal death were: cohabitation by the parents, number of

  13. Low birth weight and intelligence in adolescence and early adulthood: a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kormos, C E; Wilkinson, A J; Davey, C J; Cunningham, A J

    2014-06-01

    Research has demonstrated an association between low birth weight (LBW; intelligence quotient (IQ) outcomes in childhood and early adolescence. We systematically evaluated whether this association persists into late adolescence and early adulthood and also assessed the influence of age of IQ assessment on effect size. During Stage 1 (meta-analysis of data on adolescents/adults), we searched for relevant articles in PsychINFO, PubMed, Ovid, CINAHL, ProQuest and ERIC until February 2011 (no lower limit). Studies which assessed full-scale IQ among LBW individuals (analysis provided a pooled estimate of the difference in IQ scores between LBW and NBW individuals. Publication bias was assessed using Rosenthal's classic fail-safe N and Duval and Tweedie's Trim and Fill. During Stage 2, we added data from the Kerr-Wilson et al. meta-analysis (which included data from children; in Meta-analysis of the association between preterm delivery and intelligence. Journal Public Health 2011;33:1-8) to our sample from Stage 1 and conducted a meta-regression to evaluate the effect of age of IQ assessment. Using a total of 15 studies in Stage 1, it was demonstrated that NBW individuals scored an average of 7.63 IQ points higher than LBW individuals, CI = 5.95-9.31. After adjusting for publication bias, NBW samples demonstrated an IQ of 4.98 points higher than LBW samples, CI = 3.20-6.77. Furthermore, age at IQ assessment was a significant moderator of the association between birth weight and IQ, in that the effect size decreased from childhood into young adulthood. Cognitive impairments associated with LBW persist into adolescence and early adulthood; however, the influence of LBW on IQ decreases from childhood to young adulthood. These conclusions must be interpreted with caution due to unmeasured variables and possible influence from publication bias. © The Author 2013. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Faculty of Public Health. All rights reserved. For permissions

  14. Maternal exposure to floricultural work during pregnancy, PON1 Q192R polymorphisms and the risk of low birth weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno-Banda, G.; Blanco-Munoz, J. [Population Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Avenida Universidad 655, Colonia Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Lacasana, M., E-mail: marina.lacasana.easp@juntadeandalucia.es [Andalusian School of Public Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); CIBER of Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP) (Spain); Rothenberg, S.J. [Population Health Research Center, National Institute of Public Health, Avenida Universidad 655, Colonia Santa Maria Ahuacatitlan, 62508 Cuernavaca, Morelos (Mexico); Center of Research and Advanced Studies, National Institute Polytechnic, Department of Toxicology, Av, Instituto Politecnico Nacional No. 2508, Col. San Pedro Zacatenco, Deleg. Gustavo A. Madero, 07360 Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Aguilar-Garduno, C. [Andalusian School of Public Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Andalusian Observatory of Environmental Health, Campus Universitario de la Cartuja, Cuesta del Observatorio, 4, 18080 Granada (Spain); Gamboa, R. [Department of Physiology, National Institute of Cardiology ' Ignacio Chavez' , Juan Badiano 4, Section XVI, 14080, Mexico DF (Mexico); Perez-Mendez, O. [Department of Molecular Biology and cardiovascular Diseases Genomic and Proteomic, National Institute of Cardiology ' Ignacio Chavez' , Juan Badiano 4, Section XVI, 14080, Mexico DF (Mexico)

    2009-10-15

    Background: Although there is evidence from animal studies of impaired reproductive function by exposure to organophosphates (OP), the effects on birth weight have not been sufficiently evaluated in epidemiological studies. Paraoxonase (PON1) detoxifies organophosphates by cleavage of active oxons. Some PON1 gene polymorphisms could reduce the enzyme activity and increase susceptibility to OP toxicity. Objective: To assess the association between maternal exposure to floriculture during pregnancy and the risk of low birth weight (< 2500 g) in their offspring, as well as to evaluate the interaction between this exposure and maternal genotype for PON1 Q192R polymorphisms. Materials and methods: A cross sectional study was carried out in two Mexican states (States of Mexico and Morelos) with high frequencies of greenhouse activity. We interviewed and collected blood samples from 264 females (floriculturists or partners of floricultural workers) who became pregnant during the 10 years prior to the interview. The questionnaire measured socioeconomic characteristics, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diseases and occupational and reproductive history. We also applied a food frequency questionnaire. Information was obtained pertaining to 467 pregnancies. DNA was extracted from white cells, and PON1 genotype was determined by Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism for Q192R polymorphisms. Results were analyzed with generalized estimating equations models. Results: After adjusting for potential confounders, we detected a statistically significant interaction between maternal exposure to flower growing work during pregnancy and PON1 Q192R polymorphisms on risk of low birth weight. The risk of having a baby with LBW is nearly six times higher if a mother is a floriculture worker during pregnancy and has PON1 192RR genotype (OR 5.93, 95% CI 1.28, 27.5). Conclusion: These results suggest that the interaction between maternal floriculture work during pregnancy and 192RR PON1

  15. Risk factors associated with growth failure in the follow-up of very low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rover, Milene M S; Viera, Cláudia S; Silveira, Rita C; Guimarães, Ana T B; Grassiolli, Sabrina

    2016-01-01

    To determine risk factors during neonatal hospital stay and follow-up associated with failure to thrive in the first year of life of very low birth weight newborns. Study of preterm very low birth weight newborns followed from 2006 to 2013 in a public institutional hospital program. The study included newborns that attended at least one appointment in each of the three periods: Period I, up to 3 months of corrected age (CA); Period II, 4-6 months of CA; and Period III, 7-12 months of CA. The variables were analyzed by logistic regression with XLSTAT 2014 software (Microsoft®, WA, USA). Failure to thrive (Z-score below -2 SD) was classified as a dichotomous dependent variable (0 - failure/1 - success), while the other variables were classified as explanatory variables for the hospitalization periods and for each of the follow-up periods (I, II, and III). Children born adequate for gestational age increased the chance of Z-score for weight at discharge>-2 SD (OR=10.217; 95% CI: 1.117-93.436). Metabolic bone disease and retinopathy of prematurity in Period I, as well as hospital readmissions in Periods II and III during follow-up increased the chance of Z-score<-2 SD. Failure to thrive is influenced by intrauterine factors and, subsequently, by several morbidities, both in the birth and hospitalization period, as well as in the post-discharge period and thus, such variables should be prioritized in the follow-up. Copyright © 2016 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  16. Salivary and serum cortisol and relation to blood pressure in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Jong, Miranda; Cranendonk, Anneke; van Weissenbruch, Mirjam M

    2015-10-01

    Programming of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis possibly explains the relation between intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) and/or preterm birth and elevated blood pressure in later life. Very-low-birth-weight infants (birth weight blood pressure, already in early childhood. We investigated cortisol levels, relation to blood pressure and reliability of salivary cortisol in infancy and early childhood in very-low-birth-weight infants. We included 41 children, participating in the randomized controlled Neonatal Insulin Replacement Therapy in Europe (NIRTURE) trial. Serum and salivary samples for cortisol measurement (immunoassay) were taken simultaneously at 6 mo and separately at 2 y corrected age. Blood pressure was measured at 2 y corrected age. Serum cortisol was significantly correlated to systolic and diastolic blood pressure in boys and in the early-insulin treated group. At 2 y corrected age serum cortisol was significantly higher in the early-insulin group compared to the standard care group. At 6 mo corrected age salivary cortisol was significantly correlated to serum cortisol. In very-low-birth-weight boys, the positive correlation between cortisol and blood pressure is present at 2 y corrected age. Early insulin therapy could affect programming of the HPA axis. Salivary cortisol mirrors serum levels at 6 mo corrected age.

  17. The factors affecting morbidity and mortality in low birth-weight infants

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    Mervan Bekdaş

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available jective: To investigate the frequency of short term morbidity and mortality and the factors affecting them for the infants born with low birth-weight at our hospitalMethods: At our hospital, 195 infants born with low birthweight within a period of 18 months were identified and 150 infants born with normal birth-weights were selected as the control group. Results: Within the mentioned period of time, 4.4% (n=168 of the infants born in our hospital had low birthweight, 0.7% (n=27 had very low birth-weight (VLBW. Multiple pregnancies and asphyxiating birth rates were significantly high in these infants as compared to the control group. (p=0.029, p=0.011, respectively. For VLBW infants, the rates of asphyxiating birth (OR=14.2, 95% CI (6.6-30.7, p<0.001, hospitalization at the neonatal intensive care unit (OR=34.8, 95% CI (4.7-256.3, p<0,001 and diagnosis of respiratory distress syndrome (OR=11.5, 95% CI (4-33.5, p<0.001 were significantly high. In all infants, the transient metabolic disorders were identified at a significantly high rate (p=0.045. The birth-weight and gestational age of infants were inversely correlated with their fetal and neonatal mortalities (for all p<0.001. Conclusion: This study demonstrated that the most important factor affecting infants was multiple pregnancies. The birth-weight and gestational age of infants were inversely correlated with their morbidity and mortality rates.Key words: Low birth weight, perinatal risk factors, morbidity, mortality

  18. Early nCPAP versus intubation in very low birth weight infants

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    Pedro Neves Tavares

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available For many years endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation have been the standard of care for very low birth weight infants but, in the last decade, nasal continuous positive airway pressure (nCPAP has been described in many studies as an option for the treatment of preterm infants with respiratory distress syndrome. In fact, recent studies have shown that early nCPAP is not associated with higher rates of morbidity and mortality and does not imply more days of ventilation support when compared to traditional ventilation techniques. The authors conducted a study to compare the outcomes (in terms of mortality, morbidity and need for medical support of very low birth weight infants treated with nCPAP or endotracheal intubation and mechanical ventilation. One hundred and four newborns were enrolled in this study, 44 (42.3% were treated with nCPAP and 60 (57.7% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. A subgroup analysis of newborns with gestational age between 28 and 31 weeks was also performed. It included 57 newborns with similar demographic characteristics, 29 (50.9% treated with nCPAP and 28 (49.1% with endotracheal intubation followed by mechanical ventilation. No statistically significant differences were found in the frequency of death or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Statistically significant differences were found in the prevalence of hyaline membrane disease (p = 0.033 and surfactant administration (p = 0.021 with lower rates in the nCPAP group. No other differences were found in the prevalence of other morbidities or in the need for medical support after birth. These results suggests that nCPAP might be chosen as primary ventilatory support choice in very low birth weight preterm, when there are no contraindications to its use.

  19. Depressive Symptoms Prior to Pregnancy and Infant Low Birth Weight in South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomita, Andrew; Labys, Charlotte A; Burns, Jonathan K

    2015-10-01

    Despite improvements in service delivery and patient management, low birth weight among infants has been a persistent challenge in South Africa. The study aimed to explore the relationship between depression before pregnancy and the low birth weight (LBW) of infants in post-apartheid South Africa. This study utilized data from Waves 1 and 2 of the South African National Income Dynamics Study, the main outcome being a dichotomous measure of child LBW (<2500 g) drawn from the Wave 2 child questionnaire. Depressive symptoms of non-pregnant women was the main predictor drawn from the Wave 1 adult questionnaire. Depressive symptoms were screened using the 10-item four-point Likert version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) instrument. A total score of 10 or greater on the CES-D indicates a positive screen for depressive symptoms. An adjusted logistic regression model was used to examine the relationship between women's depression before pregnancy and infant LBW. A sample size of 651 women in Wave 1 was linked to 672 newborns in Wave 2. The results of the adjusted logistic regression model indicated depressive symptoms (CES-D ≥ 10) prior to pregnancy were associated with infant LBW (adjusted OR 2.84, 95 % CI 1.08-7.46). Another significant covariate in the model was multiple childbirths. Our finding indicates that women's depressive symptoms prior to pregnancy are associated with the low birth weight of newborns and suggests that this association may not be limited to depression present during the ante-natal phase.

  20. Risk factors and clinical analysis of candidemia in very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Jinjian; Wang, Xingmin; Wei, Ba; Jiang, Yongjiang; Chen, Jichang

    2016-11-01

    Candidemia is the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality in preterm or very-low-birth-weight infants. The incidence and risk factors of candidemia in this population are poorly known in western China. A case-control retrospective study of candidemia was conducted from January 2012-November 2015 in the Liuzhou Maternity and Child Healthcare Hospital. Data were analyzed by univariate analysis and multivariate logistic regression. Forty-eight confirmed cases of candidemia were identified during the study period, indicating an incidence of 106.9 per 1,000 admissions of very-low-birth-weight infants. Candida albicans was the most common pathogen and was isolated in 39.6% of infants with candidemia. The mortality rate of the case group was 10.4% versus 2.1% in the control group (P = .128). The multivariable logistic regression model identified that carbapenem use (odds ratio [OR], 11.39; 95% confidence interval [CI], 3.28-39.54), total parenteral nutrition (OR, 10.16; 95% CI, 2.25-45.94), and prolonged hospitalization (OR, 1.04; 95% CI, 1.01-1.07) were all associated with the risk of developing neonatal candidemia. Very-low-birth-weight infants are at a significantly high risk of developing candidemia. The local neonatal intensive care unit management teams should effectively focus on decreasing the overall use of carbapenems, improving catheter care, removing catheters early, and shortening hospitalizations to reduce the incidence of candidemia. Copyright © 2016 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Closed Catheter Access System Implementation in Reducing Bloodstream Infection Rate in Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

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    Lily eRundjan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Bloodstream infection (BSI is one of the significant causes of morbidity and mortality encountered in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU, especially in developing countries. Despite the implementation of infection control practices, such as strict hand hygiene, the BSI rate in our hospital is still high. The use of a closed catheter access system to reduce BSI related to intravascular catheter has hitherto never been evaluated in our hospital. Objective To determine the effects of closed catheter access system implementation in reducing the BSI rate in preterm neonates with low birth weight.Methods Randomized clinical trial was conducted on 60 low birth weight preterm infants hospitalized in the neonatal unit at Cipto Mangunkusumo Hospital, Jakarta, Indonesia from June to September, 2013. Randomized subjects either received a closed or non-closed catheter access system. Subjects were monitored for 2 weeks for the development of BSI based on clinical signs, abnormal infection parameters, and blood culture. Results Closed catheter access system implementation gave a protective effect towards the occurrence of culture-proven BSI (relative risk 0.095, 95% CI 0.011 to 0.85, p=0.026. Risk of culture-proven BSI in the control group was 10.545 (95% CI 1.227 to 90.662, p=0.026. BSI occurred in 75% of neonates without risk factors of infection in the control group compared to none in the study group.Conclusions The use of a closed catheter access system reduced the BSI in low birth weight preterm infants. Choosing the right device design, proper disinfection of device and appropriate frequency of connector change should be done simultaneously.

  2. Socioeconomic and nutritional determinants of low birth weight babies: A hospital based study

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    Smiti Narain

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available According to the World Health Organization (WHO definition, infants with birth weights of less than 2,500 grams are classified as low birth weight (LBW. LBW is a sensitive indicator for predicting the chances of both infant survival and healthy childhood growth and development, and it also reflects the present and past health status of the mother. LBW constitutes an important factor affecting neonatal mortality and morbidity.Objective: To find the incidence of low birth weight babies and its determinants Materials and methods: Present study was a cross sectional type. All mothers delivering live born singleton neonate in study place (Postnatal ward of Rohilkhand Medical College and hospital were interviewed with pretested, predesigned schedule. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 21software and chi square test, OR etc.Results: Overall incidence of LBW was 20% and mean birth weight was 2776.85 + 383.6 gm LBW was found to be more common in the rural population and poor educational status. A higher incidence of LBW was seen in mothers with inadequate diet and those who were anaemic. Conclusion: Low birth weight still poses a fair problem in our perspective, and when we cannot control ethnic factors like height, or do a drastic socio-economic upliftment, some basic factors, like good ANC care, correcting anemia, and above all motivating the mother to follow some habits in the ANC period like adequate consumption of food and adequate rest, institutional deliveries shall take a long way forward in addressing the problem.

  3. Risk Factors for Intraventricular Hemorrhage in Very Low Birth Weight Infant

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    Tahereh Larijani

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The purpose of this study was to determine the risk factors which predispose to the development of high grade IVH (grade 3 and 4 in very low birth weight infants. Material & Methods: In a retrospective case control clinical study files of all premature infants with birth weights less than 1500 grams admitted between April 2004 and Oct 2005 to the neonatal intensive care unit of Akbar Abadi hospital in Tehran were reviewed. 39 infants with IVH grade 3 and 4 were identified. A control group of 82 VLBW infants matched for gestational age and birth weight were selected. Prenatal data, delivery characteristics, neonatal course data and reports of cranial ultrasonography were carefully collected for both groups. Those variables that achieved significance (p<0.05 in univariate analysis entered to multivariate logistic regression analysis. Findings: A total of 325 VLBW infants were evaluated. Mortality rate was 21.5%. Of the remaining the incidence of high grade IVH was 15.5%. Multivariate logistic analysis showed that following factors are associated with greater risk of high grade IVH occurrence: Low gestational age (OR: 3.72; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low birth weight (OR: 3.42; 95% CI: 1.65-8.38, low Apgar score at 5 minute (OR:1.58; 95% CI:1.59-6.32, hyaline membrane disease (HMD, OR: 3.16; 95% CI: 1.42-7.45 and maternal tocolytic therapy with magnesium sulfate (OR: 4.40; 95% CI: 1.10-24.5. Conclusion: Our results showed that maternal tocolytic therapy, mechanical ventilation, low gestational age, low birth weight, apnea, and low 5 minute Apgar score increased the risk of major IVH.

  4. Intraurethral knot in a very-low-birth-weight infant: radiological recognition, surgical management and prevention

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lodha, Abhay; Ly, Linh; McNamara, Patrick J. [Hospital for Sick Children, Division of Neonatology, Toronto (Canada); Brindle, Mary [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Surgery, Toronto (Canada); Daneman, Alan [Hospital for Sick Children, Department of Radiology, Toronto (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    We report a case where a knot developed in a urinary catheter and became lodged within the urethra of a very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) preterm infant. The catheter was removed with the assistance of a urologist. We recommend using caution when placing urinary catheters in VLBW infants and question the appropriateness of feeding tubes as catheters. Recognition on radiographs of malpositioned bladder catheters is vital to the care of these patients. All staff involved in the insertion, maintenance or removal of these catheters should be suitably trained to minimize the risk of knots and related complications. (orig.)

  5. EEG maturation and stability of cerebral oxygen extraction in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Dib, M; Govindan, R; Aly, S; Mohamed, M; du Plessis, A; Aly, H

    2016-04-01

    Fractional cerebral tissue oxygen extraction (FTOE) can be continuously monitored by simultaneous near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) and pulse oximetry. The objective of this study is to test the hypothesis that in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, the more mature EEG activity is, the less variable FTOE is. A prospective study was conducted on VLBW infants (transcutaneous carbon dioxide tension. Increased maturation of EEG activity is associated with decreased variability in cerebral oxygen extraction. The implications of increased variability in FTOE on brain injury in premature infants need further exploration.

  6. Low birth weight: Is it related to assisted reproductive technology or underlying infertility?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondapalli, Laxmi A.; Perales-Puchalt, Alfredo

    2013-01-01

    Since 1978, we have witnessed a successful evolution of assisted reproductive technology (ART), with improvement of the pregnancy rates and a growing demand. However, in recent years, there has been increasing concern regarding its safety due to the potential health impact on its infants. The raise of the developmental origins of adult disease has positioned low birth weight (LBW) as a significant health issue. Despite multiple studies have associated ART with LBW, the etiology of this association remains largely unknown. This paper reviews the potential association between different components of ART and infertility with LBW, while acknowledging the limitations to interpretation of the existing literature. PMID:23375144

  7. Prenatal and neonatal variables associated with enamel hypoplasia in deciduous teeth in low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kátia Maria Dmytraczenko Franco

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated possible prenatal and neonatal variables that may influence the prevalence of tooth enamel hypoplasia in preterm and low birth weight children (LBW and a matched control group of term children with normal birth weight (NBW. The study sample consisted of 61 children born preterm and with LBW examined at 18-34 months of age. The control group was formed by 61 infants born full term and with NBW examined at 31-35 months of age. All children were born at the Center of Integrated Attention of Women's Health (CAISM-UNICAMP. FDI criteria were followed for dental examination. Medical data was collected retrospectively from hospital records. Among preterms, 57.4% had some type of developmental defects of enamel (DDE, 52.5 % had opacities and 21.3 % presented hypoplasia. Among full-term children, 24.6% presented DDE, 24.6% had opacities and 3.3% had hypoplasia. LBW preterm infants presented a higher prevalence of hypoplasia than NBW controls. The deciduous teeth most affected by hypoplasia were maxillary incisors. There was no significant association with prenatal variables; among neonatal variables there was a significant association with respiratory distress syndrome and neurological examination at discharge with an altered result.

  8. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  9. Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding

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    Thayana Regina de Souza Grance

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To develop a homologous human milk supplement for very low-birth weight infant feeding, using an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of human milk fortified with this supplement and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. METHODS: For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45mL underwent a lactose removal process, lyophilization and then were diluted in 50mL of human milk. Measurements of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were performed. RESULTS: The composition of the supplemented milk was: lactose 9.22±1.00g/dL; proteins 2.20±0.36g/dL; lipids 2.91±0.57g/dL; calories 71.93±8.69kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6±32.4mOsmol/kgH2O; sodium 2.04±0.45mEq/dL; potassium 1.42±0.15mEq/dL; calcium 43.44±2.98mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69±1.24mg/dL. CONCLUSIONS: According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, human milk with the proposed supplement can meet the nutritional needs of the very low-birth weight preterm infant.

  10. Risk Factors for Neonatal Mortality Among Very Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Fatemeh Nayeri

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is to determine risk factors causing increase in very low birth way (VLBW neonatal mortality. The medical files of all neonates weighing ≤1500 g, born in Vali-e-Asr hospital (2001-2004 were studied. Two groups of neonates (living and dead were compared up to the time of hospital discharge or death. A total of 317 neonates were enrolled. A meaningful relationship existed between occurrence of death and low gestational age (P=0.02, low birth weight, lower than 1000 g (P=0.001, Apgar score <6 at 5th minutes (P=0.001, resuscitation at birth (P=0.001, respiratory distress syndrome (P=0.001 need for mechanical ventilation (P=0.001, neurological complications (P=0.001 and intraventricular hemorrhage (P=0.001. Regression analysis indicated that each 250 g weight increase up to 1250 g had protective effect, and reduced mortality rate. The causes of death of those neonates weighting over 1250 g should be sought in factors other than weight. Survival rate was calculated to be 80.4% for neonates weighing more than 1000 g. The most important high risk factors affecting mortality of neonates are: low birth weight, need for resuscitation at birth, need for ventilator use and intraventricular hemorrhage.

  11. Contributing death factors in very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis

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    Morteza Ghojazadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neonatal deaths account for 40% of deaths under the age of 5 years worldwide. Therefore, efforts to achieve the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 of reducing childhood mortality by two-thirds by 2015 are focused on reducing neonatal deaths in high-mortality countries. The aim of present study was to determine death factors among very low-birth-weight infants by path method analysis. Materials and Methods: In this study, medical records of 2,135 infants admitted between years 2008 and 2010 in neonatal intense care unit of Alzahra Educational-Medical centre (Tabriz, Iran were analysed by path method using statistical software SPSS 18. Results: Variables such as duration of hospitalisation, birth weight, gestational age have negative effect on infant mortality, and gestational blood pressure has positive direct effect on infant mortality that at whole represented 66.5% of infant mortality variance (F = 1018, P < 0.001. Gestational age termination in the positive form through birth weight, and also gestational blood pressure in negative form through hospitalisation period had indirect effect on infant mortality. Conclusion: The results of the study indicated that the duration of low-birth-weight infant′s hospitalisation is also associated with infant′s mortality (coefficient -0.7; P < 0.001. This study revealed that among the maternal factors only gestational blood pressure was in relationship with infants′ mortality.

  12. Frequency of Thyroid Function Disorders among a Population of Very-Low-Birth-Weight Premature Infants

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    Amir Mohammad Armanian

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Thyroid function disorders, particularly congenital hypothyroidism (CHT, are important endocrine dysfunctions associated with permanent morbidities. CHT is more prevalent among preterm low-birth-weight neonates compared to term infants with normal weight. Methods: This prospective cohort study was conducted on 126 very-low-birth-weight (VLBW neonates referred to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs of two tertiary referral hospitals affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in Isfahan, Iran during 2012-2014. On day five of birth and two, four, and six weeks after birth, blood samples were collected from the infants to determine thyroid function disorders, including transient hypothyroxinemia, neonatal hypothyroidism, transient primary neonatal hypothyroidism, and transient hyperthyrotropinemia. Results: In total, 126 infants with mean gestational age of 30.5±2.29 weeks and mean birth weight of 1246.90±193.58 g were enrolled in this study. Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH level of Conclusion: According to the results of this study, thyroid function disorders are relatively common in preterm VLBW neonates, and serum T4 level is correlated with gestational age in these infants. Therefore, thyroid function tests with a consistent protocol are required for premature infants. It is recommended that further research be performed on larger sample sizes to investigate the prevalence of thyroid function disorders in preterm infants.

  13. Evaluation of postnatal growth in very low birth weight infants: a neonatologist's dilemma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, E; Boni, L; Rossi, C; Coscia, A; Giuliani, F; Spada, E; Milani, S; Fabris, C

    2008-09-01

    Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. The correct evaluation of postnatal growth of these babies is nowadays of primary concern, although the definitions of their optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial. It is known that VLBW infants have a specific postnatal growth pattern markedly different from that of higher birthweight full-term infants. Prospective longitudinal studies are needed to trace VLBW infants growth charts for weight, length and head circumference. These charts will be a useful tool to monitor postnatal growth of VLBW infants both during hospitalisation and after discharge, up to 2 or 3 years of age. A useful tool in VLBW infants growth evaluation could also be absolute velocity charts that, allowing a better and earlier identification of growth anomalies, could permit the observation of phenomena not yet visible on distance charts. Very low birth weight (VLBW) infants' survival has greatly increased in the last few decades thanks to the improvement in obstetrical and neonatal care. These neonates represent about 1-1.5% of all live born infants in developed countries (1) and they constitute the large majority of the population in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). For this reason, the correct evaluation of their postnatal growth is of primary concern nowadays although the definitions of optimal nutrition and postnatal growth pattern are still controversial.

  14. The Development of Nursing Care Services Model for Low Birth Weight Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dessie Wanda

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Low birth weight (LBW infants deal with various problems during transitional period from intra-uterine and extra-uterine because of immature organs’ functions. This leads to LBW as the second death cause in Indonesia, particularly in the fi rst seventh days of infants’ lifes. The problem continues to occur at home when the infants have discharged. This research was aimed to develop the nursing care services model for LBW infants and to test the model. Method: The research design was an action research using quantitative and qualitative approach. This design was chosen as it facilitated improvement in health care system, which was involving nurses and other health providers. Results: Nursing care services provided by the nursing team are hindered by several factors, such as various level of nurses’ knowledge, not optimal health education activities, incomplete standard operational procedure, ethical dilemma, paramedic functions, and documentation system. This model was developed based on conservation and becoming a mother/maternal role attainment theory, family-centered care principles, and input from the experts through focus group discussion. Discussion: The result of this research is going to increase the quality of nursing care for LBW infants by achieving nurses’ and parents’ satisfaction in giving care for their infants which can lead to lower infant death rate.Key words: Model, Low birth weight infant, Nursing services, Action research

  15. Low Birth Weight, Renal Morphometry and Blood Pressure in Adolescent Females

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    Ninive Núñez López

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: nowadays, hypertension is a health problem directly causing disability and death. Epidemiological data suggest that pre- and postnatal nutrition can be an important factor in the etiopathogenesis of this disease. Objective: to evaluate the effects of low birth weight on blood pressure and kidney size in adolescent females. Methods: a cross-sectional study was conducted in 50 adolescent females from Marianao, Havana. The following variables were measured: weight, height, systolic and diastolic blood pressure, birth weight and length and body mass index. Kidney length, width, parenchyma and volume were measured by ultrasound. Results: differences in blood pressure related to weight and length at birth were nonsignificant. Renal variables did not show significant changes in the classification by birth weight. An important relationship between systolic blood pressure and two indicators of the relative kidney size was found. Conclusion: results did not show an association between low birth weight and high blood pressure. It is demonstrated that blood pressure values are positively related to body adiposity and small kidney size.

  16. The effect of kangaroo mother care on mental health of mothers with low birth weight infants

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    Zohreh Badiee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The mothers of premature infants are at risk of psychological stress because of separation from their infants. One of the methods influencing the maternal mental health in the postpartum period is kangaroo mother care (KMC. This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of KMC of low birth weight infants on their maternal mental health. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted in the Department of Pediatrics of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences, Isfahan, Iran. Premature infants were randomly allocated into two groups. The control group received standard caring in the incubator. In the experimental group, caring with three sessions of 60 min KMC daily for 1 week was practiced. Mental health scores of the mothers were evaluated by using the 28-item General Health Questionnaire. Statistical analysis was performed by the analysis of covariance using SPSS. Results: The scores of 50 infant-mother pairs were analyzed totally (25 in KMC group and 25 in standard care group. Results of covariance analysis showed the positive effects of KMC on the rate of maternal mental health scores. There were statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the experimental group and control subjects in the posttest period (P < 0.001. Conclusion: KMC for low birth weight infants is a safe way to improve maternal mental health. Therefore, it is suggested as a useful method that can be recommended for improving the mental health of mothers.

  17. Low birth weight and risk of albuminuria in living kidney donors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berglund, D; MacDonald, D; Jackson, S; Spong, R; Issa, N; Kukla, A; Reule, S; Weber, M; Matas, AJ; Ibrahim, HN

    2015-01-01

    Low birth weight is linked to hypertension, chronic kidney disease and even end stage renal disease. We hypothesized that living kidney donors born with lower birth weight may be at increased risk of hypertension, albuminuria or reduced GFR beyond what is typical following uninephrectomy. 257 living kidney donors who donated at the University of Minnesota between 1967 and 2005 underwent iohexol GFR and urinary albumin excretion measurements. Predictors of iohexol GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2, albuminuria and hypertension were examined using logistic regression. Predictors examined include age at GFR measurement, time since donation, BMI, gender, serum creatinine level (at donation and GFR measurement), systolic and diastolic blood pressure, race, and birth weight. The latter was obtained through self-report and verified through birth certificates and family members. Older age, higher BMI, and time from donation were associated with reduced GFR. Older age and higher BMI were also associated with hypertension. Birth weight was not associated with GFR <60 ml/min/1.73m2: OR=0.70, 95% CI (0.28, 1.74, p=0.45) or hypertension: OR=0.92, 95% CI (0.46, 1.84), p=0.82 but was associated with albuminuria: OR=0.37, 95% CI (0.15, 0.92), p=0.03. This data further strengthens the link between low birth weight and potential adverse renal outcomes. PMID:24547690

  18. Incidence of low birth weight and associated risk factors during March 2002-2003 in Tonekabon, Iran

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    S.Z. Hosseini

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and purpose: Low birth weight (LBW; birthweight 2500 g. or below is a public health problem, because it is associated with increased risk of morbidity and mortality. This prospective study was conducted during March 2002 - 2003, to determine the incidence of low birth weight infants and associated risk factors in neonates born at Shahid Rajaee Hospital in Tonekabone, Iran.Materials and methods: For every LBW case, maternal age, sex, gestational age, parity, route of delivery and spacing between pregnancies of low birth weight were analyzed. For control, the first baby born before and immediately after the LBW baby who weighed more than 2500 g. at birth were analyzed.Results: The results revealed that the incidence of low birth weight was 4.2 % which is lower than population of other cities and only 0.34% (7 cases of newborns weighted 1500 g. or less. The higher incidence of low birth weight was found in the primigravid (P=0.042, in cesarean section (P=0.025 and close spacing of pregnancy (P=0.033. Maternal age and sex of baby had no significant effect on the incidence of low birth weight. There were more premature deliveries in cases than controls (P=0.000.Conclusion: According to present findings, LBW incidence of albeit in Tonekabon in comparison with other cities throught the country is at acceptable level, prevention of premature delivery and conduction of health education programs for high risk groups, especially primigravid can lower the rates.

  19. High versus standard volume enteral feeds to promote growth in preterm or low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abiramalatha, Thangaraj; Thomas, Niranjan; Gupta, Vijay; Viswanathan, Anand; McGuire, William

    2017-09-12

    Breast milk alone, given at standard recommended volumes (150 to 180 mL/kg/d), is not adequate to meet the protein, energy, and other nutrient requirements of growing preterm or low birth weight infants. One strategy that may be used to address these potential nutrient deficits is to give infants enteral feeds in excess of 200 mL/kg/d ('high-volume' feeds). This approach may increase nutrient uptake and growth rates, but concerns include that high-volume enteral feeds may cause feed intolerance, gastro-oesophageal reflux, aspiration pneumonia, necrotising enterocolitis, or complications related to fluid overload, including patent ductus arteriosus and bronchopulmonary dysplasia. To assess the effect on growth and safety of feeding preterm or low birth weight infants with high (> 200 mL/kg/d) versus standard (≤ 200 mL/kg/d) volume of enteral feeds. Infants in intervention and control groups should have received the same type of milk (breast milk, formula, or both), the same fortification or micronutrient supplements, and the same enteral feeding regimen (bolus, continuous) and rate of feed volume advancement.To conduct subgroup analyses based on type of milk (breast milk vs formula), gestational age or birth weight category of included infants (very preterm or VLBW vs preterm or LBW), presence of intrauterine growth restriction (using birth weight relative to the reference population as a surrogate), and income level of the country in which the trial was conducted (low or middle income vs high income) (see 'Subgroup analysis and investigation of heterogeneity'). We used the Cochrane Neonatal standard search strategy, which included searches of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL; 2017, Issue 2) in the Cochrane Library; MEDLINE (1946 to November 2016); Embase (1974 to November 2016); and the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL; 1982 to November 2016), as well as conference proceedings, previous reviews, and trial

  20. A comparison of growth and development of low birth weight and normal newborns at 5 years age

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    Eftekhar H

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available The growth and developmental status of 252 children with low birth weight (<2500 gr born from 1988 to 1989 as cases were compared with 312 children with normal birth weight (>2500 gr at the fifth birthday. The results of comparing these two groups of children show that: 1 In relation to weight for age of survivors, with increasing of age, weight gaining is higher in the control group in comparison with the case group (P=0.00. 2 In relation to height for age the study revealed, that this indicator differs in two groups but the difference is not significant. 3 In regard to Gomez classification: The percentages of all grades of malnutrition (mild, moderate, severe is grater in the case group than controls. 4 By considering the developmental criteria (skipping, drawing triangle from copy, naming 5 colors, repeating sentences of 10 syllables, counting of 10 coins correctly and respectively: The study showed that developmental indicator of the case group differs from controls. The test statistic "t" showed, there is a significant difference between two variables (P=0.005. 5 By using the Riven test for evaluation of IQ, our findings characterized that, the IQ mean of the LBW and NBW are not truely different.

  1. Disposal of household burned garbage and risk of low birth weight in Central Sulawesi Province, Indonesia

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    Puti Sari Hidayangsih

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Pembakaran sampah di dalam rumah tanggadapat mempengaruhi berat badan bayi lahir rendah (BBLR. Pada tulisan ini disajikan pembakaran sampah di rumah tangga terhadap risiko BBLR.Metode: Analisis data menggunakan sebagian data studi potong lintang Riskesdas 2013 di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah. Data yang dianalisis ialah data bayi berusia 0-11 bulan. Berat badan bayi waktu lahir berdasarkan catatan berat bayi saat lahir yang tercatat dalam kuesioner Riskesdas. Bayi dikategorikan BBLR jika berat badan waktu lahir kurang dari 2500 gram. Hasil: Di antara 281 bayi yang mempunyai catatan berat badan lahir terdapat 10,6% (23 bayi yang BBLR. Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan perilaku pengelolaan sampah dengan cara dibakar dibandingkan dengan selain dibakar mempunyai risiko 2,3 kali lipat mengalami BBLR (RRa=2,28; 95% CI=1,18-8,61. Kesimpulan: Bayi yang tinggal di rumah tangga dengan sampah dibakar dibandingkan dengan tanpa sampah dibakar mempunyai risiko lebih tinggi BBLR di Provinsi Sulawesi Tengah, Indonesia. (Health Science Indones 2014;2:89-93Kata kunci: berat badan lahir rendah, pembakaran sampahAbstractBackground: The management of household waste by burning can affect the incidence of low birth weight (LBW. This paper aims to identify the burning of garbage at home and risk of low birth weight. Methods: This analysis used a part of Riskesdas 2013 data in the Central Sulawesi Province. Subjects analyzed were infants aged 0-11 months. Baby’s weight was based on the baby’s birth weightwhich was recorded in the questionnaire of Riskesdas. The infants were categorized as LBW, if the recorded birth weight was less than 2500 grams. Results: Out of 392 babies,  281 babies had recorded birth weightswhich could be proved by documentary evidence. The majority of babies were boys (50.9% and lived in rural areas (58.7%. The proportion of babies who had LBW was 10.6% (23 infants. The babies who were living in households with

  2. Neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight. DOI: 10.5007/1980-0037.2011v13n1p73

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    Alfredo Alexandre Lopes

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available There seems to be consensus that intrauterine influences during human development have long-term implications. The hypothesis has been raised that alterations in an individual’s life cycle provoke lesions, some of them irreversible. The objectives of this study were: (1 to call attention to the problem of distance effects of neuromotor performance, prematurity and low birth weight in children and youngsters; (2 to present relevant aspects of the conceptual framework of fetal programming and its interpretive relevance for deficits in motor performance and coordination. A Pubmed database search was performed using different key words and their possible combinations. Cross-sectional, longitudinal and case-control studies evaluating motor performance and fetal programming were selected. Motor deficit levels ranged from 4% to 51% in the European population and from 4% to 56% in the North American population. A study involving the Australian population reported a motor coordination deficit of 9.5%. There is no absolute agreement regarding the extent, reversibility and significance of motor deficits in view of the wide variability in deficit levels. The mechanisms that will induce problems in the neuromotor development of children, youngsters and adults under adverse conditions of fetal development are unknown and cannot be compensated for by sensorimotor stimulation.

  3. Advantages of kangaroo Mother care in Less Than 2000 Grams Low Birth Weight Neonates

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    Mohsen Jafarzadeh

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Background:The aim of study was to compare the effect of Kangaroo mother care (KMC and conventional methods of care (CMC in low birth weight babies less than 2000 grams.Method: One hundred babies with birth weight less than 2000 grams and without clinical problem were randomized in two groups; the tervention group (N=50 who received Kangaroo mother care and the control group (N=50 with conventional care. Two groups were compared in daily weight gaining, self confidence of mother, duration of hospitalization, clinical cyanosis and nosocomial infection. Collected data was analyzed by SPSS 11.5 software . Irct ID: IRCT201101091162N16.Results: The KMC babies had better daily weight gaining average [18.31±7.57gm vs. 4.8±16.57gm (P0.05.Conclusions: In this study Kangaroo mother care had better effect on daily weight gaining, mother confidence and shorter duration of hospitalization.

  4. PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue in low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gillberg, Linn; Jacobsen, Stine; Rönn, Tina

    2014-01-01

    and insulin-stimulated SAT from LBW and matched normal birth weight (NBW) subjects during control and high-fat overfeeding. MATERIALS/METHODS: Nineteen young healthy men with LBW and 26 NBW controls were studied after both a 5-day high-fat overfeeding and a control diet in a randomized crossover setting. DNA......OBJECTIVE: Increased DNA methylation of the metabolic regulator peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PPARGC1A) has been reported in skeletal muscle from type 2 diabetes (T2D) subjects and from low birth weight (LBW) subjects with an increased risk of T2D. High......-fat overfeeding increases PPARGC1A DNA methylation in muscle in a birth weight dependent manner. However, PPARGC1A DNA methylation in subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) in LBW subjects has not previously been investigated. Our objective was to determine PPARGC1A DNA methylation and mRNA expression in basal...

  5. Increased nocturnal fat oxidation in young healthy men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Lilleøre, S K; Jensen, C B

    2013-01-01

    , potentially contributing to the development of adiposity and/or T2D compared to matched control subjects. MATERIALS/METHODS: Forty-six young, healthy men were included in the study; 20 with LBW (= 10th percentile) and 26 control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW) (50th-90th percentile). The subjects were......OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW), a marker of disturbed fetal growth, is associated with adiposity and increased risk of type 2 diabetes (T2D). The aim of the study was to investigate whether LBW is associated with changes in 24-h energy expenditure (EE) and/or substrate utilization rates...... fed a weight maintenance diet and 24-h energy expenditure (EE), respiratory quotient (RQ), and substrate oxidation were assessed in a respiratory chamber. RESULTS: No differences in 24-h EE, RQ or substrate oxidation were observed between LBW and controls. Interestingly, the LBW group exhibited lower...

  6. Low birth weight. A risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rossing, P; Tarnow, L; Nielsen, F S

    1995-01-01

    for expression of renal disease after exposure to potentially injurious renal stimuli. The aim of this study was to determine if low birth weight is a risk factor for development of diabetic nephropathy. In a case-control study, we investigated 184 (110 men) insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM) patients......It has been demonstrated that intrauterine growth retardation, defined as birth weight below the 10th percentile, gives rise to a reduction in nephron number. Oligonephropathy has been suggested to increase the risk for systemic and glomerular hypertension in adult life as well as enhance risk...... with diabetic nephropathy (persistent albuminuria > 300 mg/24 h) (age [mean +/- SD] 41.0 +/- 9.3 years, duration of diabetes 26.9 +/- 8.2 years) and 182 (111 men) normoalbuminuric (birth...

  7. An audit of caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Khalifeh, A

    2012-02-01

    This study reviewed caesarean sections for very low birth weight babies in a tertiary referral maternity hospital. Maternal and neonatal complications were recorded and classified according to uterine incision type. We reviewed medical records of 89 women over a period of 2 years. The indication for the caesarean section influenced the type of uterine incision made (p = 0.004). Women who had antepartum haemorrhage were more likely to need a vertical incision. There was also a higher incidence of vertical incisions for gestations <28 weeks (p = 0.029). Surprisingly, when the computerised discharge summaries were reviewed retrospectively, all the vertical uterine incisions were recorded as lower segment caesarean sections. This would have a clinical impact on those women in future pregnancies, especially in a highly mobile population.

  8. Metabolic and transcriptional changes in cultured muscle stem cells from low birth weight subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ninna S; Hjort, Line; Broholm, Christa

    2016-01-01

    CONTEXT/OBJECTIVE: Developmental programming of human muscle stem cells could in part explain why individuals born with low birth weight (LBW) have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes (T2D) later in life. We hypothesized that immature muscle stem cell functions including abnormal...... differentiation potential and metabolic function could link LBW with risk of developing T2D. Design/settings/participants: We recruited 23 young men with LBW and 16 age-matched control subjects with normal birth weight (NBW). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis and muscle stem cells were isolated...... as well as decreased levels of glucose transporter-1 and -4 mRNA and of the Akt substrate of 160 kDa mRNA and protein in myotubes from LBW individuals compared with NBW individuals. The myogenic differentiation markers, myogenin and myosin heavy chain 1 and 2, were decreased during late differentiation...

  9. Very low birth weight piglets show improved cognitive performance in the spatial cognitive holeboard task

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    Alexandra eAntonides

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW is common in humans and has been found to cause lasting cognitive and developmental deficits later in life. It is thought that the primary cause is intra-uterine growth restriction due to a shortage of oxygen and nutrients supply to the fetus. Pigs appear to be a good model animal to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW, as LBW is common in commercially farmed breeds of pigs. Moreover, pigs are developmentally similar to humans and can be trained to perform complex tasks. In this study, we trained ten very low birth weight (vLBW piglets and their ten normal birth weight (NBW siblings in a spatial cognitive holeboard task in order to investigate long-term cognitive effects of LBW. In this task, four out of sixteen holes contain a hidden food reward, which allows measuring working memory (short-term and reference memory (long-term in parallel. Piglets were trained for 46-54 trials during the acquisition phase, followed by a 20-trial reversal phase in which a different set of four holes was baited. Both groups acquired the task and improved their performance over time. A mixed model repeated measures ANOVA revealed that vLBW piglets showed a better reference memory performance than NBW piglets in both the acquisition and reversal phase. Additionally, the vLBW piglets fell back less in working memory scores than the NBW animals when switched to the reversal phase. These findings are contrary to findings in humans. Moreover, vLBW pigs had lower hair cortisol concentrations than NBW pigs in flank hair at 12 weeks of age. These results could indicate that restricted intra-uterine growth causes compensatory mechanisms to arise in early development that result in beneficial effects for vLBW piglets, increasing their low survival chances in early-life competition.

  10. Submicroscopic Plasmodium falciparum Infections Are Associated With Maternal Anemia, Premature Births, and Low Birth Weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottrell, Gilles; Moussiliou, Azizath; Luty, Adrian J F; Cot, Michel; Fievet, Nadine; Massougbodji, Achille; Deloron, Philippe; Tuikue Ndam, Nicaise

    2015-05-15

    Molecular, as opposed to microscopic, detection measures the real prevalence of Plasmodium falciparum infections. Such occult infections are common during pregnancy but their impact on pregnancy outcomes is unclear. We performed a longitudinal study to describe that impact. In a cohort of 1037 Beninese pregnant women, we used ultrasound to accurately estimate gestational ages. Infection with P. falciparum, hemoglobin concentration, use of intermittent preventive treatment during pregnancy (IPTp) for malaria, and other parameters were recorded during pregnancy. Using multivariate analyses, we evaluated the impact of submicroscopic infections on maternal anemia, premature birth, and low birth weight. At inclusion, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and microscopy detected infection in 40% and 16% of women, respectively. The proportion infected declined markedly after 2 doses of IPTp but rebounded to 34% (by PCR) at delivery. Submicroscopic infections during pregnancy were associated with lower mean hemoglobin irrespective of gravidity, and with increased anemia risk in primigravidae (odds ratio [OR], 2.23; 95% confidence interval [CI], .98-5.07). Prospectively, submicroscopic infections at inclusion were associated with significantly increased risks of low birth weight in primigravidae (OR, 6.09; 95% CI, 1.16-31.95) and premature births in multigravidae (OR, 2.25; 95% CI, 1.13-4.46). In this detailed longitudinal study, we document the deleterious impact of submicroscopic P. falciparum parasitemia during pregnancy on multiple pregnancy outcomes. Parasitemia occurs frequently during pregnancy, but routine microscopic and rapid diagnostic tests fail to detect the vast majority of episodes. Our findings imply caution in any revision of the current strategies for prevention of pregnancy-associated malaria. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  11. Maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities and low birth weight in offspring in Texas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gong, Xi; Lin, Yan [University of New Mexico, Department of Geography and Environmental Studies, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Benjamin Zhan, F. [Texas State University, Department of Geography, Texas Center for Geographic Information Science, San Marcos, TX (United States)

    2017-03-15

    Health effects of close residential proximity to nuclear facilities have been a concern for both the general public and health professionals. Here, a study is reported examining the association between maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities and low birth weight (LBW) in offspring using data from 1996 through 2008 in Texas, USA. A case-control study design was used together with a proximity-based model for exposure assessment. First, the LBW case/control births were categorized into multiple proximity groups based on distances between their maternal residences and nuclear facilities. Then, a binary logistic regression model was used to examine the association between maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities and low birth weight in offspring. The odds ratios were adjusted for birth year, public health region of maternal residence, child's sex, gestational weeks, maternal age, education, and race/ethnicity. In addition, sensitivity analyses were conducted for the model. Compared with the reference group (more than 50 km from a nuclear facility), the exposed groups did not show a statistically significant increase in LBW risk [adjusted odds ratio (aOR) 0.91 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.81, 1.03) for group 40-50 km; aOR 0.98 (CI 0.84, 1.13) for group 30-40 km; aOR 0.95 (CI 0.79, 1.15) for group 20-30 km; aOR 0.86 (CI 0.70, 1.04) for group 10-20 km; and aOR 0.98 (CI 0.59, 1.61) for group 0-10 km]. These results were also confirmed by results of the sensitivity analyses. The results suggest that maternal residential proximity to nuclear facilities is not a significant factor for LBW in offspring. (orig.)

  12. Perinatal and infant mortality and low birth weight among residents near cokeworks in Great Britain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dolk, H.; Pattenden, S.; Vrijheid, M.; Thakrar, B.; Armstrong, B.

    2000-02-01

    With growing evidence of the adverse health effects of air pollution--especially fine particulates--investigators must concentrate on the fetus, neonate, and infant as potentially vulnerable groups. Cokeworks are a major source of smoke and sulfur dioxide. In the current study, the authors investigated whether populations residing near cokeworks had a higher risk of adverse perinatal and infant outcomes. Zones of 7.5-km radius around 22 cokeworks in Great Britain were studied, within which the authors assumed that exposure declined from highest levels within 2 km to background levels. Routinely recorded birth and death data for Great Britain during the period 1981--1992 were analyzed. Each individual record had a postcode that referred to a small geographical area of typically 15--17 addresses. The authors calculated expected numbers on the basis of regional rates, stratified by year, sex, and a small-area socio-economic deprivation score. For all cokeworks combined, the observed/expected ratio within 2 km of cokeworks was 1.00 for low-birth-weight infants; 0.94 for still births; 0.95 for infant mortality; 0.86 for neonatal mortality; 1.10 for postneonatal mortality; 0.79 for respiratory postneonatal mortality; and 1.07 for postneonatal Sudden Infant Death Syndrome. Respiratory postneonatal mortality was low throughout the entire 0--7.5-km study area. There was no statistically significant decline in risk with distance from cokeworks for any of the outcomes studied. The authors concluded that there was no evidence of an increased risk of low birth weight, stillbirths, and/or neonatal mortality near cokeworks, and there was no strong evidence for any association between residence near cokeworks and postneonatal mortality. One must remember, however, the limited statistical power of the study to detect small risks.

  13. Enteral glutamine supplementation for very low birth weight infants decreases morbidity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neu, J; Roig, J C; Meetze, W H; Veerman, M; Carter, C; Millsaps, M; Bowling, D; Dallas, M J; Sleasman, J; Knight, T; Auestad, N

    1997-11-01

    Glutamine, described as a "conditionally essential" amino acid for critically ill patients, has not been routinely added to parenteral amino acid formulations for critically ill neonates and is provided in only small quantities by the enteral route when enteral intake is low. We conducted a blinded, randomized study of enteral glutamine supplementation in 68 very low birth weight neonates randomly assigned to receive glutamine-supplemented premature formula versus premature formula alone between days 3 and 30 of life. Primary end points consisted of hospital-acquired sepsis, tolerance to subsequent enteral feedings (days with no oral intake), and duration of hospital stay. Hospital acquired sepsis was 30% (control group) and 11% (glutamine group). Logistic regression with birth weight as a covariate showed that: (1) feeding group was significant (p = 0.048) in determining the probability of developing proven sepsis over the course of hospitalization and (2) the estimated odds of developing sepsis were 3.8 times higher for infants in the control group than for those treated with glutamine. Glutamine-supplemented infants had better tolerance to enteral feedings as measured by percent of days on which feedings needed to be withheld (mean percentage of 8.8 vs 23.8, p = 0.007). Analysis of T cells demonstrated a blunting of the rise in HLA-DR+ and CD16 subsets in glutamine-supplemented infants. There were no differences in growth; in serum ammonia, urea, liver transaminase, or prealbumin concentrations; or in mean hospital stay. This study provides evidence for decreased morbidity in very-low-birth-weight neonates who receive enteral glutamine supplementation.

  14. The Relationship between Maternal Vitamin D Deficiency and Low Birth Weight Neonates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Khalessi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective:Maternal hypovitaminosis D may impair fetal growth and cause adverse pregnancy outcomes including intrauterine growth restriction and neonatal low birth weight. The aim of this study is to evaluate the relationship between maternal vitamin D status and neonate’s birth weight.Materials and methods:A cross-sectional, descriptive analytical study was carried out in the nursery ward of 2 hospitals (Tehran-Iran during one year (January 2011- January 2012. One hundred and two neonates were categorized into two groups, neonates with birth weight< 2500 gr (n=52 and neonates with birth weight>2500 gr (n=50. Data regarding medical history, physical examination and anthropometric measurements of neonates were noted in a questionnaire. Birth time blood samples of their mothers were analyzed for serum 25-(OH-vitamin D by ELISA method. Maternal vitamin D status was compared in two groups.Results:Mean maternal vitamin D (vit D level was 31.46 nmol/L. Forty eight percent of mothers had vitamin D deficiency, 27.5% had vit D insufficiency and 24.5% were normal. Mean maternal vitamin D level of LBW neonates was lower than other group; 25.05 vs. 38.13 (p= 0.001. All mothers of neonates with head circumference ≤ 33 cm also had vitamin D deficiency (p= 0.007.Conclusion:Maternal Vitamin Ddeficiency may increase the risk of low birth weight neonate and modifying maternal nutrition behavior and their vit D level could be beneficial on pregnancy outcome.

  15. Altered Methylation of IGF2 Locus 20 Years after Preterm Birth at Very Low Birth Weight.

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    Karoliina Wehkalampi

    Full Text Available People born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW, ≤1500g have higher rates of risk factors for adult-onset diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and type 2 diabetes. These risks may be mediated through epigenetic modification of genes that are critical to normal growth and development.We measured the methylation level of an imprinted insulin-like-growth-factor 2 (IGF2 locus (IGF2/H19 in young adults born preterm at VLBW and in their peers born at term. We studied 158 VLBW and 161 control subjects aged 18 to 27 years from the Helsinki Study of Very Low Birth Weight Adults. Methylation fraction at two IGF2 differentially methylated regions (DMRs - IGF2 antisense transcript (IGF2AS, also known as IGF2 DMR0 and last exon of IGF2 (IGF2_05, also known as IGF2 DMR2 - were measured with Sequenom Epityper. We used linear regression and adjustment for covariates to compare methylation fractions at these DMRs between VLBW and control subjects.At one IGF2AS CpG site, methylation was significantly lower in VLBW than in control subjects, mean difference -0.017 (95% CI; -0.028, -0.005, P = 0.004. Methylation at IGF2_05 was not different between the groups.Methylation of IGF2AS is altered 20 years after preterm birth at VLBW. Altered methylation may be a mechanism of later increased disease risk but more data are needed to indicate causality.

  16. PREVALENCE AND SUSCEPTIBILITY PATTERN OF E. COLI IN LOW BIRTH WEIGHT NEONATES OF EARLY ONSET SEPSIS

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    R. Singh et al.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Neonatal sepsis is one of the commonest cause of neonatal mortality in the developing world which can be classified into early onset sepsis (EOS which occurs in the first 7 days of life and late onset sepsis (LOS which occurs ≥7 days of life. E. coli has been reported to be one of the significant and most common nosocomial pathogen which may cause septicemia, pneumonia and meningitis in the newborn. Most of the antibiotics which have been used extensively as life saving are rendered useless because of the emergence of resistant strains of bacterias. Therefore for determining the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of E. coli which is responsible for EOS and LOS and to establish the relationship with birth weight, a total of 229 blood samples were obtained from the neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU who showed the clinical signs and symptoms of neonatal sepsis and sent for culture and sensitivity. Out of these 229, 102 showed the positive culture, among which early onset sepsis was found in 80 neonates while late onset sepsis was diagnosed in 22 neonates. The most frequent pathogen isolated from positive blood culture was E. coli (66.66% and it was also the most common pathogen in low birth weight and preterm neonates of both early (59 cases- 57.84% and late-onset (9 cases- 8.82% sepsis and the incidence was found higher in early onset sepsis. The isolate was completely resistant to vancomycin and the resistance was higher for monotherapy of semi-synthetic penicillin group of antibiotics than their combination therapy with sulbactum. Imepenam and gatifloxacin showed the highest sensitivity (100%, followed by Piperacillin - tazobactum and ciprofloxacin, however the frequency of resistance was more common in low birth weight neonates of early onset sepsis.

  17. Neurodevelopment of very low birth weight infants in the first two years of life in a Havana tertiary care hospital.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cejas, Gianny; Gómez, Yahima; Roca, María del Carmen; Domínguez, Fernando

    2015-01-01

    Improved survival rates of neonates with very low birth weight (Havana tertiary care hospital. A case-series study was conducted to assess neurodevelopment outcomes of very low birth weight infants over their first two years of life. The study population comprised 116 surviving neonates with very low birth weight (Havana, Cuba, 2006-2010. A longitudinal, multidisciplinary and interdisciplinary follow up of all infants' neurodevelopment was performed, from hospital discharge to age two years, corrected for gestational age at birth. Data on each infant's perinatal variables were collected: birth weight in grams, gestational age at birth, and 1-minute and 5-minute Apgar scores. Patients were classified as having normal neurodevelopment, mild abnormalities and moderate-to-severe abnormalities. Pearson's chi-square test was used to determine possible relationships between perinatal variables studied and neurodevelopment, with exact sampling distribution and 95% confidence level. Normal neurodevelopment was observed in 69% of very low birth weight infants, 25.9% had mild abnormalities, and 5.2% displayed moderate-to-severe abnormalities. The results demonstrate a statistically significant relationship between gestational age and neurodevelopmental outcomes; more neurodevelopmental abnormalities were found in infants born at earlier gestational age (<30 weeks). Surviving very low birth weight neonates with lower gestational age at birth face a higher risk of neurodevelopmental abnormalities.

  18. Effect of Hurricane Katrina on Low Birth Weight and Preterm Deliveries in African American Women in Louisiana, Mississippi, and Alabama

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    Chau-Kuang Chen

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Using three modeling techniques (GLR, GEP, and GM, the effect of Hurricane Katrina on low birth weight and preterm delivery babies for African American women is examined in Louisiana, Mississippi and Alabama. The study results indicate that risk factors associated with low birth weight and preterm delivery for American African women include unemployment and percent of mothers between the ages of 15-19. Among White women, ages 15-19, risk factors included poverty rate, median household income, and total birth rate. The GMs performed accurate predictions with increasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for African American women in the Gulf Coast states and other U.S. states, and decreasing low birth weight and preterm delivery trends for their White counterparts in the same state locations. Data presented between 2007-2010 show low birth weight and preterm delivery for White women as a decreasing tendency while adverse birth outcomes for African American women exhibited a monotonically increasing trend. The empirical findings suggest that health disparities will continue to exist in the foreseeable future, if no effective intervention is taken. The models identify risk factors that contribute to adverse birth outcomes and offer some insight into strategies and programs to address and ameliorate these effects.

  19. Dificuldade de aprendizagem em escolares de muito baixo peso ao nascer Learning difficulties in schoolchildren born with very low birth weight

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    Maura C. C. de Rodrigues

    2006-02-01

    school by means of a systematic review of the literature, identifying patterns of learning difficulties among these schoolchildren, possible cognitive correlations, peculiarities of the lowest birth weight ranges and any interference with outcomes by socioeconomic and/or clinical factors. SOURCES OF DATA: Bibliographic search (MEDLINE, LILACS, Excerpta Medica, reference lists of original articles, periodicals related to the subject, information from experts in the area and thesis and dissertation databases on the keywords: prematurity/very low birth weight, learning difficulties/academic achievement/school performance, follow-up/results/cohort. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: The search returned 114 articles and the 18 of these were selected as having investigated learning difficulties in schoolchildren born with very low birth weights using appropriate methodology. The academic performance of these children was observed to be inferior the whole study population was compared with those born full term. The subject most compromised was mathematics. The risk of suffering from learning difficulties increased in inverse proportion to birth weight. An association was identified between very low birth weight and cognitive compromise. CONCLUSIONS: The systematic approach corroborated the results obtained by published studies: schoolchildren born with very low birth weights exhibited increased risk of learning difficulties when compared with those born at full term. There was a predominance of children with multiple academic subjects compromised and mathematics was the most affected. Risk was observed to follow an ascending gradient as birth weight reduced. There was an association between very low birth weight and cognitive compromise.

  20. Determinantes do baixo peso ao nascer a partir das Declarações de Nascidos Vivos Determinants for low birth weight according to Live Born Certificates

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    Emília de Faria Carniel

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo teve como objetivos conhecer a distribuição do peso de nascimento das crianças de Campinas (SP e indicar fatores de risco para baixo peso. Realizou-se estudo transversal no qual foram utilizados dados das 14.444 Declarações de Nascidos Vivos de 2001. A variável dependente foi o peso de nascimento, e as independentes as características maternas, gestacionais, do parto e do recém-nascido. Na avaliação da associação entre variáveis empregou-se teste de qui-quadrado e calculou-se valores de odds ratio brutos (OR e ajustados (ORaj. A média do peso de nascimento foi 3.142g, variando de 285 a 5.890g; 65,1% das crianças pesaram 3.000g ou mais, 25,7% entre 2.500 e 2.999g e 9,1% menos de 2.500g. Os determinantes para baixo peso em prematuros foram cesariana, gemelaridade, recém-nascidos femininos e os de mulheres com menos de sete consultas de pré-natal. Para crianças a termo os riscos foram gestação dupla, tripla ou mais, filhos de mulheres com mais de 34 anos, das com até sete anos de estudo, com oito a onze e das com menos de sete consultas de pré-natal. A distribuição de peso de nascimento em Campinas foi inadequada e a proporção de baixo peso foi mais que o dobro dos países desenvolvidos. Os recém-nascidos prematuros que nasceram por cesariana, os prematuros e os a termo de gestação múltipla, os femininos, os de mulheres com pré-natal inadequado e os a termo daquelas com maior idade e baixa escolaridade apresentaram maior chance de nascer com baixo peso.The distribution of birth weight was determined for children in Campinas, Brazil, and risk factors for low birth weight were assessed. A cross-sectional study was conducted using the variables from Live Birth Certificates in 2001. The dependent variable was birth weight and the independent ones were mothers' characteristics and those related to their pregnancies and to newborns. The association between variables was assessed by the chi-square test, crude

  1. Prediction Value of CRIB-II in Outcome of Preterm and Low Birth Weight Infants: a Prospective Cohort Study

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    Mohammad Heidarzadeh

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: One of the most common methods of identifying mortality risk is the Clinical Risk Index for Babies scoring system (CRIB- II. The aim of this study was assessing the value of CRIB- II in predicting mortality risk in preterm and low birth weight infants in East Azerbaijan- Iran. Materials and Methods: This prospective cohort study was carried out in 2013-2014 during 6 months in NICUs of Alzahra, Taleqani and Children hospitals of Tabriz-Iran. All infants ≤ 32 weeks’ gestational age or ≤ 1500gr birth weight were included in the study using consecutive method. After calculating CRIB- II score, the infants were followed up at 3 months of age and their outcome was determined. The data was analyzed using SPSS-13, t- test, receiver operating characteristics (ROC and area under curve (AUC and relative risk (RR. Results: Of total 215 infants, 64 infants (29.7% died in the hospital and one infant (0.4% died after discharging from the hospital. 150 (68.8% infants, were alive at 3 months age follow up. The mean of CRIB- II score in the group of dead infants was higher and statistically significant compared to the group of alive infants (P

  2. Pattern of growth of very low birth weight preterm infants, assessed using the WHO Growth Standards, is associated with neurodevelopment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nash, Andrea; Dunn, Michael; Asztalos, Elizabeth; Corey, Mary; Mulvihill-Jory, Bridget; O'Connor, Deborah L

    2011-08-01

    Several Canadian professional organizations recently recommended that the growth of preterm infants be monitored using the World Health Organization Growth Standards (WHO-GS) after hospital discharge. The WHO-GS are a prescriptive set of growth charts that describe how term infants should grow under ideal environmental conditions. Whether preterm infants following this pattern of growth have better outcomes than infants that do not has yet to be evaluated. Our aim was to determine whether the pattern of growth of very low birth weight (VLBW) infants during the first 2 years, assessed using the WHO-GS or the traditional Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reference growth charts (CDC-RGC), is associated with neurodevelopment. Pattern of weight, length, and head circumference gain of appropriate-for-gestation VLBW preterm infants (n = 289) from birth to 18-24 months corrected age was classified, using the WHO-GS and CDC-RGC, as sustained (change in Z-score ≤1 SD), decelerated (decline >1 SD), or accelerated (incline >1 SD). Development was assessed using the Bayley Scales of Infant and Toddler Development (BSID)-III at 18-24 months corrected age. Using the WHO-GS, children with a decelerated pattern of weight gain had lower cognitive (10 points), language (6 points), and motor (4 points) scores than infants with sustained weight gain (p neurodevelopment scores on the BSID-III than a pattern of sustained growth.

  3. 早期胃肠外营养方案对超低出生体重儿电解质的影响%The effect of early parenteral nutrition on preventing electrolyte imbalance within 72 hour after birth in extremely low birth weight infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈春; 崔银珠; 张谦慎

    2012-01-01

    目的 探讨早期胃肠外营养方案对超低出生体重儿(ELBWI)出生72 h内电解质的影响.方法 回顾性分析我院2010-2011年收治的 ELBWI的胃肠外营养方案,根据营养方案不同分为早期胃肠外营养组(EPN组)和延迟胃肠外营养组(LPN组),EPN组生后4 h内开始予以6.7%小儿氨基酸1.6 g/(kg·d),1 g/(kg·d)递增,10%葡萄糖酸钙1 mmol/100 ml,24 h内开始予以20%脂肪乳1 g/(kg·d),1 g/(kg·d)递增;LPN组出生8~24 h开始予以6.7%小儿氨基酸0.5 g/(kg·d),0.5 g/(kg·d)递增,20%脂肪乳0.5 g/(kg·d),0.5 g/(kg·d)递增,根据血钙水平决定是否补钙.分别于出生后24、48 h及72 h检测血清钾、钠、游离钙水平,记录每日液体摄入量、尿量及死亡例数等.结果 与EPN组相比,LPN组72 h内高钾血症、低钙血症发生率均增加(33.3%比3.6%,80.0%比10.7%,P均0.05).结论 对ELBWI早期予氨基酸、钙剂以及24 h内开始脂肪乳可减少早期电解质紊乱,尤其减少早期非少尿性高钾血症,可以预防致命性高血钾的发生.%Objective To study the effect of early parenteral nutrition ( PN ) on preventing life threatening electrolyte imbalance during the first 72 hours after birth in extremely low birthweight infants ( ELBWI ). Methods Retrospective comparative analysis was performed for all ELBWIs admitted to the NICU of a tertiary hospital in south China from January 2010 to December 2011. The infants in the early parenteral nutrition ( EPN ) group started PN within the first 4h after delivery, and the nutrition plan included 1. 6 g/( kg·d ) aminoacids at the beginning with an increment of 1. 0 g/( kg·d ) , lipid was given at 1 g/( kg·d ) within the first 24 hours, with an increment of 1. 0 g/( kg·d ). The infants in late parenteral nutrition ( LPN ) group received PN during 8 - 24 h after birth, including 0. 5 g/( kg·d ) aminoacids with an increment of 1.0 g/( kg·d ), and lipid was started on day 2 by 0. 5 g/( kg·d ) with an increment of 0

  4. Risk of developing adulthood obesity among females born with low birth weight: Results from a non-concurrent study from rural Southern India

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    Arup Chakraborty

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the relationship between birth weight and the evolution of obesity in adult life in women from a rural developmental block in southern India. Design: Non-concurrent cohort Setting: General community- a rural developmental block in southern India. Participants: Two hundred and seventy one young healthy females were recruited from a birth cohort. The study subjects were 98 women in the age group of 19-23 years who had been born with low birth weight (LBW and 173 women in the same age group who had been born with normal birth weight (NBW. Materials and Methods: Data collection involved interview using a structured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Analysis: Chi-square test to assess significance of association, independent sample t test to assess the difference between means, odds ratios for measuring magnitude of association, stratified analysis to identify various interactions and confounders, and multiple logistic regression models to identify the relationship between birth weight and young adult obesity (BMI > 25. Results: A crude odds ratio of 0.564 (95% CI 0.262 - 1.214 was obtained for the association between LBW and development of obesity later in life. In the final logistic regression model, it was found that a young adult female with low birth weight who belonged to a higher socio-economic group had a higher risk of developing obesity (Adjusted odds for the interaction term between LBW and high SES 6.251; 95% CI 1.236 - 31.611. Conclusion: The study could not find any significant association between LBW and development of obesity later in life, but it found a higher probability of developing obesity later in life among low birth weight female children born in high socio-economic status families.

  5. Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sinding, Marianne Munk; Peters, David Alberg; Frøkjær, Jens Brøndum;

    CONTROL ID: 2516296 ABSTRACT FINAL ID: P22.05 TITLE: Prediction of low birth weight: the placental T2* estimated by MRI versus the uterine artery pulsatility index AUTHORS (FIRST NAME, LAST NAME): Marianne Sinding1, David Peters2, Jens B. Frøkjær3, 4, Ole B. Christiansen1, 4, Astrid Petersen5...... (MRI) variable T2* reflects the placental oxygenation and thereby placental function. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the performance of placental T2* in the prediction of low birth weight using the uterine artery (UtA) pulsatility index (PI) as gold standard. Methods: The study population...... was a selected, mixed population regarding the risk of low birth weight. According to our national guidelines, pregnancies with ultrasound estimated fetal weight (EFW) birth weight. We included 96 pregnancies at 20-40 weeks' gestation, of which 68 had an EFW ≥ -15% and 28...

  6. Low birth weight at term and its determinants in a tertiary hospital of Nepal: a case-control study.

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    Sudesh Raj Sharma

    Full Text Available Birth weight of a child is an important indicator of its vulnerability for childhood illness and chances of survival. A large number of infant deaths can be averted by appropriate management of low birth weight babies and prevention of factors associated with low birth weight. The prevalence of low birth weight babies in Nepal is estimated to be about 12-32%.Our study aimed at identifying major determinants of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal. A hospital-based retrospective case control study was conducted in maternity ward of Tribhuvan University Teaching Hospital from February to July 2011. A total of 155 LBW babies and 310 controls were included in the study. Mothers admitted to maternity ward during the study period were interviewed, medical records were assessed and anthropometric measurements were done. Risk factors, broadly classified into proximal and distal factors, were assessed for any association with birth of low-birth weight babies. Regression analysis revealed that a history of premature delivery (adjusted odds ratio; aOR5.24, CI 1.05-26.28, hard physical work during pregnancy (aOR1.48, CI 0.97-2.26, younger age of mother (aOR1.98, CI 1.15-3.41, mothers with haemoglobin level less than 11gm/dl (aOR0.51, CI0.24-1.07 and lack of consumption of nutritious food during pregnancy (aOR1.99, CI 1.28-3.10 were significantly associated with the birth of LBW babies. These factors should be addressed with appropriate measures so as to decrease the prevalence of low birth weight among term babies in Nepal.

  7. Growth and Neurodevelopmental Outcomes of Extremely Low Birth Weight Infants: A Single Center’s Experience

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    Yung-Chieh Lin

    2011-12-01

    Conclusion: ELBW infants have a high incidence of growth and developmental delay at corrected age of 2 years, particularly in male infants or those with BW less than 750 g. This study reveals that ELBW infants require well predischarge planning and postdischarge follow-up.

  8. Coagulation abnormalities and severe intraventricular hemorrhage in extremely low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowski, Andrzej; Dabrowska-Wojciak, Iwona; Mikinka, Marek; Fendler, Wojciech; Walas, Wojciech; Sobala, Wojciech; Kuczkowski, Krzysztof Marek

    2010-07-01

    The association between intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and coagulation in infants has been a subject of controversy. Only few publications assessing risk factors for development of IVH reported results of coagulation studies. To evaluate the levels of coagulation and fibrinolysis systems in ELBW infants and determine their influence on IVH. Following IRB approval coagulation status of 38 ELBW infants was evaluated on first and second day of life. Severity of IVH assessed by cerebral ultrasonography was graded according to Papile classification. Newborns were assigned to either Group A--Grade III or IV, or Group B--Grade I-II, or no IVH. Neonates with Grade III/IV IVH had significantly lower plasma Factor VII (FVII) level on first day of life and FVII differed significantly between Groups A and B with sensitivity of 100%, specificity 41% for a cut-off value of< 7%. In Group A there was no improvement of prothrombin and activated partial thromboplastin times on Day 2. A significant decline of platelet count was also observed. High-grade IVH coincides with severe derangement of coagulation in ELBW infants with FVII level being the most sensitive, it is not clear what the reason for such low FVII concentration is. Further studies are indicated.

  9. Is low birth weight a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 1 diabetes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eshoj, O; Vaag, A; Borch-Johnsen, K

    2002-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To investigate if low birth weight as a consequence of intrauterine malnutrition is a risk factor for the later development of diabetic nephropathy. DESIGN AND SUBJECTS: In a case-control set-up a group of type 1 diabetic subjects with diabetic nephropathy (n = 51) and a matched control...... in the number of patients with nephropathy in the lower versus upper quartiles of birth weights. CONCLUSION: We found no evidence of low birth weight as a risk factor for the development of diabetic nephropathy....

  10. Pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight: A cohort study in rural Belgaum, India

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    Murthy S

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight can cause devastating long term medical and economical impacts to the family as whole and much interest prevails in preventing LBW by controlling its potential risk factors. Pregnancy periodontitis, being reported as one of such risk factors, is amenable to prevention, control and cure. Confirmative evidence can bring drastic improvements in birth weight and also health of the mother. This cohort study was an attempt to find if such a relation exists since limited conclusive evidence is available. Objectives: To determine the relation between pregnancy periodontitis and low birth weight of newborn in primigravida women in rural Belgaum. To assess the oral health status of the same primigravida women in rural Belgaum. Materials & Methods: Study Design & Period: A cohort study for 18 months Study location: 3 rural field areas of JNMC (Handiganur, Kinaye and Vantamuri in Belgaum. Study Population: Primigravida women in the 3 villages in their first trimester in January/February 2011 during enrolment and expected to deliver in August/September 2011. Sample Size: 240 (120 in each cohort. Data Collection: After ethical review, a pilot study was conducted on 10% of study population in each village to essentially pre-test the interview schedule. Then screening visit to enrol women based on eligibility criteria was done. Subsequent screening periodontal examination was done by CPI to allocate the women into study (pregnant women with periodontitis and control (pregnant women without periodontitis cohort. Oral health status was also recorded using OHI-S and DMFT indices. Follow up visits consisted of trimester-wise visit to check on periodontal status and a post delivery visit to record term of delivery and LBW. Data was entered in Microsoft Excel 2007 and SPSS (β version 20 and analyzed in in proportions, percentages, Odds Ratio, Relative Risk, Chi-Square test and Logistic Regression Analysis.Results: The total incidence of

  11. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

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    Stojanović Miodrag

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smoking habits of the mothers, and their connection with LBW. Methods. The questionnaire was carried out among mothers of 2 years old children (n = 956, born after 37 gestational weeks. The characteristics of mothers who had children with LBW, defined as < 2 500 g, (n = 50, were matched with the characteristics of mothers who had children ≥ 2 500 g, (n = 906. For defining risk factors, and protective factors as well, we used univariant and multivariant logistic modeles. Results. As significant risk factors for LBW in an univariant model we had education level of the mothers, smoking during pregnancy, smoking before pregnancy, the number of daily cigarettes, the number of cigarettes used during pregnancy, paternal earnings and socioeconomic factors. In a multivariant model the most significant factors were socioeconomic factors, education level of the mothers, paternal earnings and mothers smoking during pregnancy. Conclusion. Smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors have great influence on LBW. Future studies should be carried out in different social groups, with the intention to define their influence on LBW and reproduction, as well. This should be the proper way of adequate health breeding planning for giving up smoking, the prevention of bad habits and melioration of mothers and children health, as the most vulnerable population.

  12. Setting research priorities to reduce global mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight by 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahl, Rajiv; Martines, Jose; Bhandari, Nita; Biloglav, Zrinka; Edmond, Karen; Iyengar, Sharad; Kramer, Michael; Lawn, Joy E; Manandhar, D S; Mori, Rintaro; Rasmussen, Kathleen M; Sachdev, H P S; Singhal, Nalini; Tomlinson, Mark; Victora, Cesar; Williams, Anthony F; Chan, Kit Yee; Rudan, Igor

    2012-06-01

    This paper aims to identify health research priorities that could improve the rate of progress in reducing global neonatal mortality from preterm birth and low birth weight (PB/LBW), as set out in the UN's Millennium Development Goal 4. We applied the Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative (CHNRI) methodology for setting priorities in health research investments. In the process coordinated by the World Health Organization in 2007-2008, 21 researchers with interest in child, maternal and newborn health suggested 82 research ideas that spanned across the broad spectrum of epidemiological research, health policy and systems research, improvement of existing interventions and development of new interventions. The 82 research questions were then assessed for answerability, effectiveness, deliverability, maximum potential for mortality reduction and the effect on equity using the CHNRI method. The top 10 identified research priorities were dominated by health systems and policy research questions (eg, identification of LBW infants born at home within 24-48 hours of birth for additional care; approaches to improve quality of care of LBW infants in health facilities; identification of barriers to optimal home care practices including care seeking; and approaches to increase the use of antenatal corticosteriods in preterm labor and to improve access to hospital care for LBW infants). These were followed by priorities for improvement of the existing interventions (eg, early initiation of breastfeeding, including feeding mode and techniques for those unable to suckle directly from the breast; improved cord care, such as chlorhexidine application; and alternative methods to Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC) to keep LBW infants warm in community settings). The highest-ranked epidemiological question suggested improving criteria for identifying LBW infants who need to be cared for in a hospital. Among the new interventions, the greatest support was shown for the development of

  13. Effect of Kangaroo Mother Care on Growth and Morbidity Pattern in Low Birth Weight Infants

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    Keerti Swarnkar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC is dened as skin-to-skin contact between a mother and her newborn baby derived from practical similarities to marsupial care giving, proximately exclusive breastfeeding and early discharge from hospital. This concept was proposed as an alternative to conventional methods of care for low birth weight (LBW infants, and in replication to quandaries of earnest overcrowding in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs. KMC essentially utilizes the mother as a natural incubator Aim and Objectives: The aim was to assess the feasibility, acceptability and the effectiveness of KMC in LBW infants. It avoids agitation routinely experienced in busy ward. Material and Methods: A pilot open-labeled quasi-randomised clinical trial was conducted in Level III NICU of a teaching institution. 60 newborn infants <2500 g, meeting inclusion criteria were alternatively randomised into two groups: Kangaroo Mother Care (KMC and Conventional Methods of Care (CMC. Kangaroo mother care was practiced with minimum total period of eight hours a day intermittently for the intervention group while the controls remained in incubators or cots. Weight, head circumference, length, morbidity episodes, hospital stay, feeding patterns were monitored for all infants till postmenstrual age of 42 weeks in preterm babies or till a weight of 2500 g is achieved in term SGA babies. Results: The pilot study conrmed that trial processes were efcient, the intervention was acceptable (to mothers and nurses and that the outcome measures were appropriate; KMC babies achieved signicantly better growth at the end of the study (For preterm babies, weight, length and head circumference gain were signicantly higher in the KMC group (weight 19.28±2.9g/day, length 0.99±0.56cm/week and head circumference 0.72±0.07 cm/week than in the CMC group (P <0.001. A signicantly higher number of babies in the CMC group suffered from hypothermia, hypoglycemia, and

  14. CALF CIRCUMFERENCE AT BIRTH: A SCREENING METHOD FOR DETECTION OF LOW BIRTH WEIGHT

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    Sandip Kumar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low Birth Weight (LBW babies run a higher risk of morbidity and mortality in the perinatal period. However, in our country where almost 70-80% births take place at home and peripheral hospitals, taking accurate weight is a problem due to unavailability of weighing scale and trained personnel. Hence there is a constant search for newer methods to detect LBW babies so that early interventions can be instituted. Various authors have used different surrogate anthropometric measurements from different parts of our country. In the present study, an attempt was made to validate the feasibility of using calf circumference as a predictor of LBW babies that can be used by a trained or untrained person. Objectives: To study various anthropometric measurements including calf circumference in newborns and to correlate various measurements with birth weight. Methods: The present study was conducted in the department of Social & Preventive Medicine, MLB Medical College, Jhansi (UP for a period of one year. The study included 1100 consecutively delivered neonates in the maternity ward of MLB Medical College Hospital, Jhansi (UP. The birth weight (Wt, crown heel length (CHL, crown rump length (CRL, head circumference (HC, chest circumference (CC, mid arm circumference (MAC, thigh circumference (TC and calf circumference (CC by standard techniques. All the measurements were taken by a single person throughout the study period with in 24 hours of delivery. Standard statistical methods were adopted for determination of critical limit, sensitivity, specificity and correlation coefficient of different anthropometric measurements in relation to birth weight. Results: Analysis of data indicates that out of 1100 newborns, 55.64% were low birth weight. The percentage of newborns > 2500gm was 44.36. Overall average birth weight was 2348 ± 505gm. Out of 1100 newborns, 608 (55.27% were males and 492 (44.73% were females. Average birth weight for males was 2412

  15. Age of sitting unsupported and independent walking in very low birth weight preterm infants with normal motor development at 2 years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín Gabriel, M A; Pallás Alonso, C R; De La Cruz Bértolo, J; Caserío Carbonero, S; López Maestro, M; Moral Pumarega, M; Alonso Díaz, C; Lora Pablos, D

    2009-11-01

    The aims of this study is to (i) determine the age of sitting unsupported and independent walking in preterm infants with birth weight under 1500 g (very low birth weight, VLBW); (ii) estimate differences between VLBW children and a reference population and (iii) estimate the association between clinical characteristics and late age at sitting and walking. A longitudinal study was conducted of a cohort of 876 children with VLBW. The World Health Organization (WHO) motor development study population was used as a reference. Ages for both skills were established by interview with parents. Means were compared with t-test, ANOVA and Bonferroni adjustment where appropriate. The inclusion criteria were complied with 694 patients; 50% of VLBW sat at 7 m corrected age (CA) and walked at 13 m CA. Both motor skills were acquired later (7.3 +/- 1.5 and 13.6 +/- 2.8 m) compared with the control group (6 +/- 1.1 and 12.1 +/- 1.8 m). Weight or head circumference at birth below the 10th percentile or the presence of bronchopulmonary dysplasia were associated with delayed acquisition of both skills. Very low birth weight infants typically sit unsupported and walk later than term infants. Tables describing reference values for milestones acquisition for different categories of infants (gestational age, birth weight and other determinants) may contribute to inform the decision making process on access to available resources.

  16. Correlation between developmental disorders and MRI findings in very low birth weight infants

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    Fukuda, Kuniaki; Endo, Shoichi; Goda, Tomoko; Ota, Akira; Akita, Yuji; Furukawa, Seikyo (Kagawa Children' s National Sanatorium, Zentsuji (Japan))

    1994-08-01

    We investigated the prevalence of developmental disorders in very low birth weight infants, their risk factors during the neonatal period, and the correlation between their neurological symptoms and their MRI findings. Seventy-three infants, who were followed up for more than 5 years in the developmental clinic, were enrolled. The developmental disorders included 6 patients with cerebral palsy (CP) and 6 patients with mental retardation (MR). The types of CP were as follows: spastic diplegia (3), spastic quadriplegia (2), athetotic quadriplegia (1). Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and mechanical ventilation (MV) were significant risk factors for CP and MR and retinopathy was also a significant risk factor for MR. Periventricular areas of bright signal intensity on T2 (TR 2000 msec/TE 120 mse) weighted images, compatible with old, small white matter infarcts, gliosis or demyelination, were observed in only three of the seven patients. We measured the width of anterior horns, the maximum diameter of cerebrum, and the minimum thickness of white matter in occipital lobe on T1 (TR 500 msec/TE 20 msec) weighted transaxial images in eight patients (five patients with CP, three patients with MR). The maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters were significantly smaller in patients with CP or MR than those in controls, respectively. The DQ of patients significantly correlated with the maximum diameters of cerebrums and the minimum thickness of white matters in left occipital lobe significantly correlated with DQ. (author).

  17. Prediction of low birth weight using modified Indian council of medical research antenatal scoring method.

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    Metgud, Chandra; Naik, Vijaya; Mallapur, Maheshwar

    2013-12-01

    To study the prediction of low birth weight (LBW) using modified Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) antenatal scoring method. The present longitudinal study was carried out amongst 1138 pregnant women residing in area covered by Kinaye primary health centre (PHC) in rural Karnataka, India. Modified ICMR risk scoring revealed that 597 (52.5%) women had a risk score 6-10 (mild risk), 142 (12.5%) women had risk score 11-15 (moderate risk) and 29 (2.5%) had risk score ≥16 (severe risk), whereas, remaining 370 (32.5%) had a score of 0-5 considered as "no risk group". The incidence of LBW had direct relationship with the risk score. The sensitivity was high (80.6%), whereas, specificity was slightly low (70.4%), positive predictive value was low (43.8%) and negative predictive value high (92.7%) for LBW when the risk score cut-off point was >7. The modified ICMR antenatal scoring method can be used at all levels of health care and is an ideal instrument for prediction of LBW at the community level. It can be easily applied by even a health worker, not time consuming and at the same time does not lose its predictability.

  18. Evaluation of effective factors on low birth weight neonates' mortality using path analysis

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    Babaee Gh

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study have conducted in order to determine of direct or indirect effective factors on mortality of neonates with low birth weight by path analysis.Methods: In this cohort study 445 paired mothers and their neonates were participated in Tehran city. The data were gathered through an answer sheet contain mother age, gestational age, apgar score, pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH and birth weight. Sampling was convenience and neonates of women were included in this study who were referred to 15 government and private hospitals in Tehran city. Live being status of neonates was determined until 24 hours after delivery.Results: The most changes in mortality rate is related to birth weight and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. Second score is related to apgar sore and its negative score means that increasing in apgar score leads to decrease chance of neonate death. Third score is gestational age and its negative score means that increasing in weight leads to increase chance of live being. The less changes in mortality rate is due to hypertensive disorders in pregnancy.Conclusion: The methodology has been used could be adopted in other investigations to distinguish and measuring effect of predictive factors on the risk of an outcome.

  19. Designing new growth charts for low-birth weight babies: Need of the hour in India

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    Pritam Roy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Literature reveals theories explaining low birth weight (LBW babies′ unplanned catch-up growth is related to several non-communicable diseases (NCDs in adult-life. Is the current growth chart as per World Health Organization child growth standards of healthy breast feed infants and young child is applicable for even LBW or small for gestational age babies? There are high chances that these LBW babies who are growing "in their centiles" will be diagnosed as mild or moderate protein energy malnutrition (PEM in clinical settings as the current diagnostic criteria for PEM do not include birth weight as an indicator. Besides they are encouraged for home based extra caloric food to gain weight and thereby encouraging them to "crossing the percentile" in the growth curve. Do these managements really benefit the baby or are we inadvertently exposing them to increased future risk of adult diseases must be considered seriously. Thus, we may require revision to make a separate standardized growth chart for LBW babies indicating how they should grow.

  20. Maternal Demographic and Psychosocial Factors Associated with Low Birth Weight in Eastern Taiwan

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    Yin-Ming Li

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available The relationship between birth weight and maternal sociodemographic characteristics was examined in a sample from two teaching hospitals in eastern Taiwan. Using a structured questionnaire, we conducted face- to-face interviews with women at antenatal clinics between 1998 and 1999 in Hualien City. One year later, we took the outcome of pregnancy from medical records and birth certificates from the Public Health Bureau of Hualien County. Of the 1,128 single live births, 6.8% had low birth weight (LBW using the World Health Organization cut-off of 2,500 g. LBW was more common in teenage ( 30 years, first-time, and unmarried mothers; those with basic/intermediate educational attainment; and residents of aboriginal districts. Teenage pregnancies were more likely than those in adults to be unplanned, and such mothers had smoking or alcohol-drinking behavior. Prevention of teenage pregnancy is crucial to lower LBW rates in eastern Taiwan. For adult mothers, basic or intermediate educational attainment, residence in an aboriginal district, and first-term pregnancy were significant factors associated with LBW, after adjustment for other psychosocial attributes, such as psychologic distress and poor family support. Thus, we should pay more attention when caring for pregnant women with such sociodemographic characteristics, and ensure that they have adequate prenatal care and can adopt a healthy lifestyle.

  1. Very Low Birth Weight and Perinatal Periods of Risk: Disparities in St. Louis

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    Pamela Xaverius

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. Very low birth weight (VLBW is a significant issue in St. Louis, Missouri. Our study evaluated risk factors associated with VLBW in this predominantly urban community. Methods. From 2000 to 2009, birth and fetal death certificates were evaluated (n=160, 189, and mortality rates were calculated for perinatal periods of risk. The Kitagawa method was used to explore fetoinfant mortality rates (FIMR in terms of birth weight distribution and birthweight specific mortality. Multivariable logistic regression was used to assess the magnitude of association of selected risk factors with VLBW. Results. VLBW contributes to 50% of the excess FIMR in St. Louis City and County. The highest proportion of VLBW can be attributed to black maternal race (40.6% in St. Louis City, inadequate prenatal care (19.8%, and gestational hypertension (12.0% among black women. Medicaid was found to have a protective effect for VLBW among black women (population attributable risk (PAR = −14.5. Discussion. Interventions targeting the health of women before and during conception may be most successful at reducing the disparities in VLBW in this population. Interventions geared towards smoking cessation and improvements in Medicaid and prenatal care access for black mothers and St. Louis City residents can greatly reduce VLBW rates.

  2. Outcomes and milestone achievement differences for very low-birth-weight multiples compared with singleton infants.

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    Kirkby, Sharon; Genen, Linda; Turenne, Wendy; Dysart, Kevin

    2010-06-01

    We examined if very low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants of multiple gestation pregnancies experience more complications and take longer to achieve clinical milestones compared with similar singletons. We performed a retrospective analysis of all infants less than 1500 g at birth in a large neonatal database. Singletons were compared with twins and higher-order multiples for demographic, morbidities, and process milestones including feeding, respiratory, thermoregulation, and length of stay. Multivariable regression analyses were performed to control for potential confounding variables. A total of 5507 infants were included: 3792 singletons, 1391 twins, and 324 higher-order multiples. There were no differences in Apgar scores, small for gestational age status, and incidence of necrotizing enterocolitis, severe retinopathy of prematurity, severe intraventricular hemorrhage, sepsis, bronchopulmonary dysplasia, or the need for surgery. Multiples had higher rates of apnea and patent ductus arteriosus than singletons. VLBW multiples achieved milestones at similar rates in most areas compared with singletons except for the achievement of full oral feedings. Length of stay, after controlling for confounding variables, did not differ between the groups. Compared with singletons, VLBW multiples had similar morbidity and achieved most feeding and thermoregulation milestones at similar rates.

  3. Fractional anisotropy in white matter tracts of very-low-birth-weight infants

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    Dudink, Jeroen; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes van; Govaert, Paul [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, P.O. Box 2060, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Pul, Carola van [Maxima Medical Center, Department of Clinical Physics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands)

    2007-12-15

    Advances in neonatal intensive care have not yet reduced the high incidence of neurodevelopmental disability among very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants. As neurological deficits are related to white-matter injury, early detection is important. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) could be an excellent tool for assessment of white-matter injury. To provide DTI fractional anisotropy (FA) reference values for white-matter tracts of VLBW infants for clinical use. We retrospectively analysed DTI images of 28 VLBW infants (26-32 weeks gestational age) without evidence of white-matter abnormalities on conventional MRI sequences, and normal developmental outcome (assessed at age 1-3 years). For DTI an echoplanar sequence with diffusion gradient (b = 1,000 s/mm{sup 2}) applied in 25 non-collinear directions was used. We measured FA and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) of different white-matter tracts in the first 4 days of life. A statistically significant correlation was found between gestational age and FA of the posterior limb of the internal capsule in VLBW infants (r = 0.495, P<0.01). Values of FA and ADC were measured in white-matter tracts of VLBW infants. FA of the pyramidal tracts measured in the first few days after birth is related to gestational age. (orig.)

  4. Diffusion tensor imaging of the cortical plate and subplate in very-low-birth-weight infants

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    Dudink, Jeroen; Govaert, Paul; Zwol, Arjen L. van; Conneman, Nikk; Goudoever, Johannes B. van [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Rotterdam (Netherlands); Buijs, Jan [Maxima Medical Center, Division of Neonatology, Department of Paediatrics, Veldhoven (Netherlands); Lequin, Maarten [Erasmus MC-Sophia Children' s Hospital, Division of Paediatrics, Department of Radiology, Rotterdam, Zuid-holland (Netherlands)

    2010-08-15

    Many intervention studies in preterm infants aim to improve neurodevelopmental outcome, but short-term proxy outcome measurements are lacking. Cortical plate and subplate development could be such a marker. Our aim was to provide normal DTI reference values for the cortical plate and subplate of preterm infants. As part of an ongoing study we analysed diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) images of 19 preterm infants without evidence of injury on conventional MRI, with normal outcome (Bayley-II assessed at age 2), and scanned in the first 4 days of life. Fractional anisotropy (FA) and apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values in the frontal and temporal subplate and cortical plate were measured in single and multiple voxel regions of interest (ROI) placed on predefined regions. Using single-voxel ROIs, statistically significant inverse correlation was found between gestational age (GA) and FA of the frontal (r = -0.5938, P = 0.0058) and temporal (r = -0.4912, P = 0.0327) cortical plate. ADC values had a significant positive correlation with GA in the frontal (r = 0.5427, P = 0.0164) and temporal (r = 0.5540, P = 0.0138) subplate. Diffusion tensor imaging allows in vivo exploration of the evolving cortical plate and subplate. We provide FA and ADC values of the subplate and cortical plate in very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants with normal developmental outcome that can be used as reference values. (orig.)

  5. Late-onset sepsis in very low birth weight infants: a Brazilian Neonatal Research Network Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Souza Rugolo, Ligia Maria Suppo; Bentlin, Maria Regina; Mussi-Pinhata, Marisa; de Almeida, Maria Fernanda Branco; Lopes, José Maria de Andrade; Marba, Sergio Tadeu Martins; Fiori, Humberto Holmer; Procianoy, Renato Soibelmann; Leone, Clea Rodrigues

    2014-12-01

    Late-onset sepsis (LOS) is an important cause of morbidity and mortality in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants. To determine the incidence, risk factors and etiology of LOS. LOS was investigated in a multicenter prospective cohort of infants at eight public university neonatal intensive care units (NICUs). Inclusion criteria included inborn, 23-33 weeks of gestational age, 400-1499 g birth weight, who survived >3 days. Of 1507 infants, 357 (24%) had proven LOS and 345 (23%) had clinical LOS. Infants with LOS were more likely to die. The majority of infections (76%) were caused by Gram-positive organisms. Independent risk factors for proven LOS were use of central venous catheter and mechanical ventilation, age at the first feeding and number of days on parenteral nutrition and on mechanical ventilation. LOS incidence and mortality are high in Brazilian VLBW infants. Most risk factors are associated with routine practices at NICU. © The Author [2014]. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  6. Can we safely administer the recommended dose of phenobarbital in very low birth weight infants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oztekin, Osman; Kalay, Salih; Tezel, Gonul; Akcakus, Mustafa; Oygur, Nihal

    2013-08-01

    We investigated whether the recommended phenobarbital loading dose of 15-20 mg/kg with maintenance of 3-4 mg/kg/day can safely be administered to very low birth weight preterm newborns with seizures. Twenty-four convulsive preterms of Phenobarbital was administered intravenously with a loading dose of 15 mg/kg in approximately 10-15 min. After 24 h, the maintenance dose of 3 mg/kg/day was administered as a single injection. Blood samples were obtained 2, 24, 48, 72, and 96 h after the phenobarbital loading dose was administered, immediately before the next phenobarbital dose was injected. None of the cases had plasma phenobarbital concentrations above the therapeutic upper limit of 40 μg/mL on the 2nd hour; one case (4.7%), on the 24th; 11 cases (45.8%), on the 48th; 15 cases (62.5%), on the 72nd; and 17 cases (70.8%), on the 96th hour. A negative correlation was detected between the serum concentrations of phenobarbital and gestational age on the 72th (p, 0.036; r, -0.608) and 96th hour (p, 0.043; r, -0.769). We suggest that particular attention should be done while administering phenobarbital in preterms, as blood levels of phenobarbital are higher than the reference ranges that those are often reached with the recommended doses in these groups of babies.

  7. Examining the relationship between temperature, rainfall and low birth weight in Africa

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    Grace, Kathryn; Davenport, Frank; Hanson, Heidi; Funk, Christopher C.; Shukla, Shradhanand

    2015-01-01

    This paper examined the relationship between birth weight, precipitation, and temperature in 19 African countries. We matched recorded birth weights from Demographic and Health Surveys covering 1986 through 2010 with gridded monthly precipitation and temperature data derived from satellite and ground-based weather stations. Observed weather patterns during various stages of pregnancy were also used to examine the effect of temperature and precipitation on birth weight outcomes. In our empirical model we allowed the effect of weather factors to vary by the dominant food production strategy (livelihood zone) in a given region as well as by household wealth, mother's education and birth season. This allowed us to determine if certain populations are more or less vulnerable to unexpected weather changes after adjusting for known covariates. Finally we measured effect size by observing differences in birth weight outcomes in women who have one low birth weight experience and at least one healthy birth weight baby. The results indicated that climate does indeed impact birth weight and at a level comparable, in some cases, to the impact of increasing women's education or household electricity status.

  8. Low birth weight and fetal anaemia as risk factors for infant morbidity in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalanda, Boniface; Verhoeff, Francine; le Cessie, Saskia; Brabin, John

    2009-06-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) and fetal anaemia (FA) are common in malaria endemic areas. To investigate the incidence of infectious morbidity in infants in rural Malawi in relation to birth weight and fetal anaemia, a cohort of babies was followed for a year on the basis of LBW (<2500) and FA (cord haemoglobin < 12.5 g/dl). A matched group of normal birth weight (NBW), non-anaemic (NFA) new-borns were enrolled as controls. Morbidity episodes were recorded at 4-weekly intervals and at each extra visit made to a health centre with any illness. Infants in the NBW NFA group experienced an average of 1.15 (95% C.I. 0.99, 1.31), 1.04 (0.89, 1.19), 0.92 (0.73, 1.11) episodes per year of malaria, respiratory infection and diarrhoea respectively. Corresponding values for the LBW FA group were 0.83 (0.5, 1.16), 0.82 (0.5, 1.16) and 0.76 (0.33, 1.19). FA was not associated with a higher incidence of morbidity, but was significantly associated with a shorter time to first illness episode (p = 0.014). LBW was not a significant risk factor for higher morbidity incidence. LBW and FA were not significant risk factors for incidence of illness episodes in infants.

  9. Prevalence and Risk Factors of Low Birth Weight in the Southeast of Iran

    Science.gov (United States)

    Momeni, Mohsen; Danaei, Mina; Kermani, Akram Jabbari Nejad; Bakhshandeh, Marzieh; Foroodnia, Shohreh; Mahmoudabadi, Zahra; Amirzadeh, Raheleh; Safizadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Background: The purpose of this study was to determine the prevalence and related factors of low birth weight (LBW) in the Southeast of Iran. Methods: This cross-sectional study was carried out in Kerman province. Data were collected from Iranian Maternal and Neonatal Network at public and private hospitals. All live births from March 2014 to March 2015 considered as the source population. The risk factors including maternal age, gravida, parity, abortion, pregnancy risk factors, maternal nationality, maternal education, maternity insurance, place of living, consanguinity, neonate sex, preterm labor, place of birth, delivery manager, and delivery type were compared between LBW and normal birth weight groups. Results: The prevalence of LBW was 9.4% in the present study. Preterm labor (odds ratio [OR]: 22.06; P 35 years (OR: 1.21; P = 0.001), delivery by cesarean section (OR: 1.17; P = 0.002), pregnancy risk factors (OR: 1.67; P 35 years old, and maternal medical risk factors are some critical interventions to reduce its burden. Increasing the access to high-quality health-care services in rural and deprived areas is another effective strategy for the prevention of LBW.

  10. Socio-economic and nutritional determinants of low birth weight in India

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    Manzur Kader

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Low birth weight (LBW is an important risk factor for childhood morbidity and mortality, consequently an important public health concern. Aim: This study aims to identify significant socio-economic and nutritional determinants associated with LBW in India. Materials and Methods: Data from 2005 to 2006 National Family Health Survey-3 (NFHS-3 of India was analyzed. A total of 20,946 women (15-49 years who gave birth at least once 5 years preceding the NFHS-3 were included in this study. Infant′s LBW (<2500 grams as outcome variable was examined in association with all independent predictors as infant′s sex, maternal household wealth status, caste, age, education, body mass index (BMI, stature, anemia level, parity, inter-pregnancy interval, antenatal care received, and living place. Results: Almost 20% of the infants were born with LBW. Mother′s low education level, BMI <18.5, short stature (height <145 centimeters and lack of antenatal visits (<4 visits were significant predictors of LBW. Male gender has a protective effect against LBW. Conclusion: Maternal education, nutritional status and antenatal care received are key determinants that need to be addressed to reduce prevalence of LBW in India. Continue implementation of multifaceted health promotion interventions are needed to address these factors effectively.

  11. CHARACTERISTICS AND THE OUTCOME OF VERY LOW BIRTH WEIGHT INFANT BORN IN SANGLAH HOSPITAL DENPASAR

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    Yoga Putra

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Very low birth weight (VLBW infants is one of the most important medical problem especially in developing countries. This issue is due to its high morbidity and mortality rate. On the other hand, the long term impact of VLBW infants are poor growth and development including physical, emotional, intelectual (IQ, and disabilities, therefore it could decrease the quality of human resources and become a burden to their family. The objective of this study was to describe the characteristics and outcome among VLBW infants born in the Sanglah Hospital. This was a retrospective study. Data were collected from medical record of all infants with VLBW delivered in Sanglah Hospital from January to Desember 2009. Uncompleted infants and mother medical records were excluded from this study. Of 64 VLBW infants enrolled into the study of which 54.7%  of this subjects was male, median of weight was 1300 g, mean gestational of age was 30.9 (SD 2.28 weeks, and mean lenght of stay was 30.9 (SD 19.7 days. The survival of VLBW infants in this study was 62.5%,  mortality in the early neonatal period was 70,8%. The percentage of VLBW infants who survive was still low and the major causes mortality were HMD (50% and sepsis (41.6%. The mortality of VLBW happened mostly in early neonatal periode.

  12. Thermal support for the very-low-birth-weight infant: role of supplemental conductive heat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Topper, W H; Stewart, T P

    1984-11-01

    Heated water pads were placed underneath very-low-birth-weight preterm infants receiving care under overhead radiant warmers with plastic heat shields to evaluate the effects on their thermal environments. The electrical input (watts) to the overhead warmer was monitored and temperatures at various locations in the environment and on the infants were recorded. The electrical input to the radiant warmers decreased significantly (P = 0.0015) with the introduction of the heated water pads. Several of the temperatures recorded during the study also showed significant changes, including increased abdominal skin temperatures in these prone infants (P = 0.007) and decreased back-to-abdomen skin temperature gradients (P = 0.007). Less marked changes included higher mattress or pad temperatures (P = 0.019), lower ambient air temperatures within the plastic heat shields (P = 0.022), and increased infant foot temperatures (P = 0.036). We believe that conduction has a significant influence on the thermal environment of the VLBW infant cared for under an overhead radiant warmer and that the use of a heated water pad can markedly alter heat transfer. The impact of conduction appears to have been previously underestimated.

  13. Low birth weight of contemporary African Americans: an intergenerational effect of slavery?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    The average birth weight in the contemporary African-American population is about 250 g lower than the average birth weight of European Americans. Differences in genetic and socioeconomic factors present between these two groups can explain only part of birth weight variation. I propose a hypothesis that the low birth weight of contemporary African Americans not only results from the difference in present exposure to lifestyle factors known to affect fetal development but also from conditions experienced during the period of slavery. Slaves had poor nutritional status during all stages of life because of the inadequate dietary intake accompanied by high energetic costs of physical work and infectious diseases. The concept of "fetal programming" suggests that physiology and metabolism including growth and fat accumulation of the developing fetus, and, thus its birth weight, depend on intergenerational signal of environmental quality passed through generations of matrilinear ancestors. I suggest that several generations that have passed since the abolition of slavery in the United States (1865) has not been enough to obliterate the impact of slavery on the current biological and health condition of the African-American population.

  14. Hepatitis B Postexposure Prophylaxis in Preterm and Low-Birth-Weight Infants

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    Markus Waitz

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective - Recommendations for immunoprophylaxis in low-birth-weight (LBW infants born to hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg-positive mothers vary. We successfully immunized an HBsAg-exposed infant (birth weight: 400 g and performed a literature review on the outcome of postexposure immunoprophylaxis in HBsAg-exposed preterm and LBW infants. Methods - By use of PubMed we identified articles relevant to the topic. Studies were included if the intended vaccine schedule was completed and follow-up data were reported. Results - Antibody response was reported in 31 LBW infants (birth weight < 2,500 g and 49 infants with gestational age of < 38 weeks. Low anti-HBs antibody levels (< 100 IU/L were found in 9 (29% of the 31 LBW infants. Overall, 2 of 20 (10% preterm infants and 2 of 17 (12% LBW were HBsAg-positive on follow-up. In one study, none of the 26 exposed very LBW infants became infected. Conclusion - Due to heterogeneity in immunization schedules, lack of information on transmission rates, and the small number of included subjects, no firm conclusions can be drawn regarding the optimal postexposure prophylaxis in LBW infants. We propose that active and passive immunization at birth should be completed by three further active doses (0–1–2–12 month schedule until further prospective studies are available.

  15. Evaluation of postnatal weight growth in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertino, Enrico; Milani, Silvano; Boni, Luisa; Coscia, Alessandra; Rossetti, Gessica; Testa, Tiziana; Giuliani, Francesca; Appino, Irene; Spada, Elena; Fabris, Claudio

    2007-12-01

    There is general agreement about the need for longitudinal studies of very low birth weight infants (VLBWI) to evaluate their postnatal growth and to generate distance and velocity charts that allow neonatologists and pediatricians to detect earlier whether a child is not growing adequately. There are no satisfactory growth charts for VLBWI. We analyzed the weight growth of 262 VLBWIs from birth to 2 years of corrected age. Individual growth profiles were fitted with a 7-constant exponential-logistic function suitable for modelling weight growth pattern. After a postnatal weight loss, all VLBWIs showed a late neonatal peak of velocity between the seventh and 21st weeks; the large majority of them also experienced an early neonatal peak between the second and the sixth weeks. Small-for-gestational-age VLBWIs with major morbidities grew less than reference appropriate-for-gestational-age VLBWIs without major morbidities: at 2 years, the difference in weight was about 860 g. The more severe growth impairment in VLBWIs with major morbidities was almost entirely due to the reduced height of the late neonatal peak of velocity. The mathematical function used in this study is expected to be a useful tool to trace model-based longitudinal distance and velocity charts specific for VLBWIs. Moreover, this function also could be used to evaluate to what extent different pathological conditions or nutritional and medical care protocols affect growth kinetics.

  16. Hospital transfers and patterns of mortality in very low birth weight neonates with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fullerton, Brenna S; Sparks, Eric A; Morrow, Kate A; Edwards, Erika M; Soll, Roger F; Jaksic, Tom; Horbar, Jeffrey D; Modi, Biren P

    2016-06-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate mortality rates in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants with surgical necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC) by level of available surgical resources and to determine the effect of hospital transfer on mortality. Mortality among 4328 VLBW neonates with surgical NEC born 2009-2013 was assessed using the Vermont Oxford Network database. NICUs were classified by availability of resources as a marker of overall center capability: type A (restrictions on ventilation or do not routinely perform major neonatal surgery), type B (perform major neonatal surgery but not cardiac bypass), and type C (perform major surgery, including cardiac bypass in infants). Mortality was higher among those who had surgery at type B centers versus type C centers (44.3% vs 36.4%, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.20 (95% CI: 1.08, 1.33)). Neonates who were not transferred between birth and surgery had a higher mortality compared to those transferred (44.6% vs 31.6%, adjusted prevalence ratio 1.39 (95% CI: 1.25, 1.55)). Transfer between birth and surgery and a higher level of surgical resources at the operative center were associated with lower mortality. Early transfer of high risk neonates to centers with higher levels of surgical resources may be warranted. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. The Influence of Family Empowerment on the Health Status of Low Birth Weight Infant in Jakarta

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    Yeni Rustina

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Low birth weight (LBW infant is susceptible to health problems since the infant born, during in the hospital and continue after discharge. The purpose of this study was to identify the influence of family empowerment on the health status of LBW infant. Action research using qualitative and quantitative method was used in this study. Qualitative approach was used to identify the experience of mothers of LBW infants as a data based for intervention development, and quantitative approach was used to evaluate the influence of family empowerment program on the health status of LBW infants. There were 7 participants, 20 mothers and their infants in the intervention group and 27 in the control group involved in this study. The study showed that family empowerment was effective in improving the immunization status and follow- up care attendance, reducing the frequency of acute care visits, increasing mothers' knowledge and skill in providing care. In conclusion, mothers need information on providing a proper care for LBW, and family empowerment can significantly improve maternal knowledge and health status of LBW infants.

  18. The Incidence of Low Birth Weight (LBW and Small- for- Gestational Age (SGA and its Related Factors in Neonates, Sabzevar, Iran

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    Nasrin Hashemian Nejad

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Low birth weight (LBW is a high risk for children's health and a problem of public health in under developing countries. SGA increases neonatal and infant death, and neonatal and adult morbidity. So the present study aimed to assess the incidence of LBW, SGA and their related factors in Sabzevar in 2011 to 2012.   Materials and Methods This prospective descriptive-analytic study was conducted on 481 low birth weight neonates born in Mobini academic hospital of Sabzevar in 2011. Neonates who their BW was   Results 480 (6.33% of participating newborns were LBW (out of 7599. Mean weight of LBW neonates was 2039.1±9.6 g. Among LBW neonates, 62 (12.7% and 24 (5% of neonates were VLBW and ELBW, respectively. 162 (34.1% of neonates were SGA (out of LBW neonates. SGA rate was 2.2% (out of total newborns. Family income (p-value=0.026 and mother's education (p-value=0.004 were significantly lower in SGA neonates rather than LBW neonates. The incidence of mothers' urinary infection in VLBW neonates was significantly higher than non-VLBW neonates (p-value

  19. Relationship between Revised Graduated Index (R-GINDEX) of prenatal care utilization & preterm labor and low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tayebi, Tahereh; Hamzehgardeshi, Zeinab; Ahmad Shirvani, Marjan; Dayhimi, Marjaneh; Danesh, Mahmonir

    2014-02-28

    Prenatal care refers to accurate and consistent performance of the principles important to maintain healthy pregnancy outcomes and also for mother and child health. One of the new indices to assess the adequacy of care is Revised Graduated Index of Prenatal Care Utilization (R-GINDEX).The study aims to assess the relationship between quantitative prenatal care factors and preterm labor and low birth weight using R-GINDEX. This historical cohort study has been conducted on 420 mothers during the first two years after delivery in 2010. The adequacy of care was calculated by R-GINDEX. Based on this index, participants have been divided into three care groups including inadequate, adequate and intensive care groups. A significant relationship has been found between R-GINDEX and preterm birth and low birth weight (Pinadequate care group (RR=3.93) and low birth weight (RR= 2.53) was higher than that of the adequate and intensive care group. The results showed that the quantity of prenatal care is effective in reducing preterm birth and low birth weight.

  20. Diminished insulin-mediated forearm blood flow and muscle glucose uptake in young men with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, M P; Højbjerre, L; Alibegovic, A C

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Low birth weight (LBW) is associated with increased risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease. We studied endothelial function and insulin sensitivity in young men with LBW (n = 22) and controls (n = 22). METHODS: Insulin sensitivity and endothelial function was studied...

  1. Early differential defects of insulin secretion and action in 19-year-old caucasian men who had low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi; Dela, Flemming;

    2002-01-01

    Several studies have linked low birth weight (LBW) and type 2 diabetes. We investigated hepatic and peripheral insulin action including intracellular glucose metabolism in 40 19-year-old men (20 LBW, 20 matched control subjects), using the hyperinsulinemic-euglycemic clamp technique at two...

  2. Infant mortality in a very low birth weight cohort from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Brazil

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    Regina Coeli Azeredo Cardoso

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: to evaluate infant mortality in very low birth weight newborns from a public hospital in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil (2002-2006. METHODS: a retrospective cohort study was performed using the probabilistic linkage method to identify infant mortality. Mortality proportions were calculated according to birth weight intervals and period of death. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate overall cumulative survival probability. The association between maternal schooling and survival of very low birth weight infants was evaluated by means of Cox proportional hazard models adjusted for: prenatal care, birth weight, and gestational age. RESULTS: the study included 782 very low birth weight newborns. Of these, (28.6% died before one year of age. Neonatal mortality was 19.5%, and earlyneonatal mortality was 14.9%. Mortality was highest in the lowest weight group (71.6%. Newborns whose mothers had less than four years of schooling had 2.5 times higher risk of death than those whose mothers had eight years of schooling or more, even after adjusting for intermediate factors. CONCLUSIONS: the results showed higher mortality among very low birth weight infants. Low schooling was an independent predictor of infant death in this low-income population sample.

  3. Contribution of parental blood pressures to association between low birth weight and adult high blood pressure: cross sectional study

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    Walker, Brian R; McConnachie, Alex; Noon, Joseph P; Webb, David J; Watt, Graham C M

    1998-01-01

    Objective: To examine the possibility that low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to high blood pressure. Design: Cross sectional study. Setting: Primary care medical centre in Edinburgh. Subjects: One offspring of 452 families (231 men and 221 women aged 16-26 years) in whom blood pressure, weight, and height were measured in 1986 and whose parents had blood pressure measured in 1979. Birth weights were obtained from case records (270 offspring) or by questionnaires sent to the mothers (182 offspring). Main outcome measures: Birth weight and adult systolic blood pressure in offspring in relation to parental blood pressure. Results: If parental blood pressures were not considered, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with a 2.24 mm Hg increase in systolic blood pressure of offspring (P=0.06) after correction for current weight and sex. However, parental blood pressures correlated positively with blood pressure of offspring, and higher maternal blood pressure was associated with lower birth weight (−3.03 g/mm Hg, Ppressures, a 1 kg decrease in birth weight was associated with only a 1.71 mm Hg increase in the systolic blood pressure of the offspring (P=0.15). Conclusions: Low birth weight is a feature of the inherited predisposition to hypertension, perhaps because it is associated with higher maternal blood pressure during pregnancy. Parental blood pressure may be an important confounding factor in the relation between low birth weight and subsequent hypertension. Key messages Hypertension has both inherited and environmental causes The relation between low birth weight and hypertension in later life may result from the mother’s nutritional environment during pregnancy This study found that mothers who have higher blood pressure in later life deliver babies with lower birth weight, who also develop higher blood pressure Hereditary factors therefore explain part of the relation between low birth weight and adult

  4. Wealth status, mid upper arm circumference (MUAC and antenatal care (ANC are determinants for low birth weight in Kersa, Ethiopia.

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    Nega Assefa

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight (LBW is one of the major risk factor for death in early life. However, little is known about predictors of LBW in sub-Saharan Africa. Therefore, the aim of this study was to measure the incidence and determinants of LBW in a rural population of Ethiopia. METHODS: An observational cohort study on pregnant women was conducted from December 2009 to November 2010. During the study period 1295 live birth were registered and the weights of 956 children were measured within 24 hours after birth. Socio-demographic, economic, maternal and organizational factors were considered as a predicators of LBW, defined as birth weight below 2500g. Logistic regression was used to analyze the data, odds ratio (OR and confidence intervals (CI are reported. RESULT: The incidence of LBW was 28.3%. It is significantly associated with poverty [OR 2.1; 95% CI: 1.42, 3.05], maternal Mid Upper Arm Circumference (MUAC less than 23 cm [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.19, 2.19], not attending ANC [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.28], mother's experience of physical violence during pregnancy [OR 1.7; 95% CI: 1.12, 2.48], and longer time to walk to health facility [OR 1.6; 95% CI: 1.11, 2.40]. CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION: The incidence of LBW was high in Kersa. Babies born to women who were poor, undernourished, experienced physical violence during pregnancy and who had poor access to health services were more likely to be LBW in this part of the country. In this largely poor community where ANC coverage is low, to reduce the incidence of LBW, it is essential to improve access for maternal health care. The involvement of husbands and the community at large to seek collective action on LBW is essential.

  5. Increased risk for bronchitis after discharge in non-vaccinated very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stichtenoth, G; Härtel, C; Spiegler, J; Dördelmann, M; Möller, J; Wieg, C; Orlikowsky, T; Stein, A; Herting, E; Goepel, W

    2015-03-01

    In very low birth weight (VLBW) infants, obstructive bronchitis is a frequent cause of hospital re-admission. For VLBW infants, early vaccinations starting at 2 months after birth have been recommended. To analyze risk factors for bronchitis during the first year after discharge and the effects of in-hospital standard vaccination (hexavalent/pneumococci) and/or RSV immunoprophylaxis with palivizumab. A standardized questionnaire was sent to the parents of VLBW infants 7 month after discharge. The reported episodes of bronchitis were correlated with clinically recorded parameters including risk factors for pulmonary morbidity. The effects of in-hospital vaccination were assessed in a subgroup discharged after day 60. A sample of 1 967 responses of infants born 2009-2011 was analyzed. Risk factors for bronchitis were male gender and older siblings. 24% of the population had episodes of bronchitis. In the subgroup discharged after day 60, episodes of bronchitis were reported for 31% of infants who were not vaccinated in-hospital. A significant reduction of the bronchitis rate was found in infants who received palivizumab±standard vaccination (17% bronchitis, p=0.003). Interestingly, in-hospital standard vaccination without RSV immunoprophylaxis was protective (20% bronchitis; p=0.037) as well. Non-vaccinated male VLBW infants with older siblings are at increased risk for bronchitis during the first year after discharge. Vaccination according to schedule seems to have protective effects, while underlying mechanisms are unknown. The rate of timely vaccination in preterm infants should be increased. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  6. The performance of various anthropometric assessment methods for predicting low birth weight in adolescent pregnant women

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    Denise Cavalcante de Barros

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the performance of various anthropometric evaluation methods for adolescent pregnant women in the prediction of birth weight. Methods: It is a cross-sectional study including 826 adolescent pregnant women. In the pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI classification, the recommendations of the World Health Organization were compared with that of the Brazilian Ministry of Health and the Institute of Medicine (IOM of 1992 and 2006. The gestational weight gain adequacy was evaluated according to the classification of IOM of 1992, of 2006 and of the Brazilian Ministry of Health. The newborns were classified as low birth weight (LBW or macrosomic. Multinomial logistic regression was used for statistical analysis and sensibility, specificity, accuracy, positive and negative predictive values were calculated. Results: The evaluation, according to the Brazilian Ministry of Health, showed the best prediction for LBW among pregnant women with low weight gain (specificity = 69.5%. The evaluation according to the IOM of 1992 showed the best prediction for macrosomia among pregnant women with high weight gain (specificity = 50.0%. The adequacy of weight gain according to the IOM of 1992 classification showed the best prediction for LBW (OR = 3.84; 95%CI 2.19 - 6.74, followed by the method of the Brazilian Ministry of Health (OR = 2.88, 95%CI 1.73 - 4.79, among pregnant women with low weight gain. Conclusion: It is recommended the adoption of the Brazilian Ministry of Health proposal, associated with BMI cut-offs specific for adolescents as an anthropometric assessment method for adolescent pregnant women.

  7. Experience of early breast milk feeding in preterm very low birth weight infants.

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    Islam, M Z; Islam, Q R; Roy, S; Akhter, N; Hoque, M M

    2012-04-01

    Although human milk is generally accepted as the gold standard for the feeding of term infants, its use in the preterm and very low birth weight (VLBW) infants particularly in the initial period of birth has been more controversial. Little is known about the risks and benefits of early introduction of breast feeding on preterm VLBW infants. The primary object of this study was to evaluate the safety and benefit of early breast milk feeding in preterm VLBW newborns during their initial hospitalization periods. Therefore a prospective observational study was conducted among 37 preterm VLBW infants who were admitted to the Neonatal ward of Sir Salimullah Medical College and Mitford Hospital during the period of February 15th to July 25th, 2003. Oral feeding with breast milk was started within one hour of birth, and weight gain, feeding tolerance, nosocomial infection rate as well as other associated problems of pre-maturity, and postnatal growth curve were recorded upto 16th postnatal day. Seventy three percent of the newborns tolerate breast milk well from the very beginning, and the rest did not tolerate initially but all of them tolerate within 24 hours of birth. Infants had less initial weight loss (20 ± 10 gm) and faster recovery of birth weight. They regained their birth weight at 12th postnatal day. Hyper-bilirubinaemia was found in only 22% cases, and was observed in the group who initially didn't tolerate breast milk and was on intravenous fluid. Nobody developed symptomatic hypoglycemia or necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC). Two cases of sepsis and another two cases of minor infection like conjunctivitis and oral thrush have occurred. In conclusion it can be said that early breast milk feeding is safe in preterm VLBW infants and it helps to promote growth and reduce the need for intravenous line.

  8. Patient-specific FDG dosimetry for adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niven, Erin

    Fluorodeoxyglucose is the most commonly used radiopharmaceutical in Positron Emission Tomography, with applications in neurology, cardiology, and oncology. Despite its routine use worldwide, the radiation absorbed dose estimates from FDG have been based primarily on data obtained from two dogs studied in 1977 and 11 adults (most likely males) studied in 1982. In addition, the dose estimates calculated for FDG have been centered on the adult male, with little or no mention of variations in the dose estimates due to sex, age, height, weight, nationality, diet, or pathological condition. Through an extensive investigation into the Medical Internal Radiation Dose schema for calculating absorbed doses, I have developed a simple patient-specific equation; this equation incorporates the parameters necessary for alterations to the mathematical values of the human model to produce an estimate more representative of the individual under consideration. I have used this method to determine the range of absorbed doses to FDG from the collection of a large quantity of biological data obtained in adult males, adult females, and very low birth weight infants. Therefore, a more accurate quantification of the dose to humans from FDG has been completed. My results show that per unit administered activity, the absorbed dose from FDG is higher for infants compared to adults, and the dose for adult women is higher than for adult men. Given an injected activity of approximately 3.7 MBq kg-1, the doses for adult men, adult women, and full-term newborns would be on the order of 5.5, 7.1, and 2.8 mSv, respectively. These absorbed doses are comparable to the doses received from other nuclear medicine procedures.

  9. Survival Rate of Low and Very Low Birth Weight Neonates in an Iranian Community

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    A Puyanfar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: This study aimed to assess the incidence and survival rates of neonates weighing less than 2500g for duration of the first 28 days in an Iranian community.Methods: In this prospective longitudinal study, all neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were selected from the list of all neonates born in the only public-sector referral hospital, for a six months period. The weight of neonates at birth along with some demographic variables was recorded on a checklist. A cohort of neonates with birth weight less than 2500g were followed for 28 days. Mortality within 28 days of birth was used as end point. Continuous variables were summarized using mean and 95% confidence intervals, while categorical variables were presented as ratios and percentages.Results: About 1750 neonates were born of which 168 neonates with birth weights less than 2500g were recorded giving a proportion of 9.6%. Of 168 neonates, 21 (12.5% had very low birth weights (VLBW (birth weights<1500g. Survival rates for the groups of LBW (1500

  10. Anthropometric surrogates to identify low birth weight Nepalese newborns: a hospital-based study

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    Singh Dela

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In Nepal, more than 90% of the deliveries take place at home where birth weight is often not recorded. In developing countries, low birth weight (LBW, Methods A cross-sectional study was carried out in Western Regional Hospital, Pokhara between April and June, 2006. All consecutive full-term, singleton, live born babies were included. To ensure reliability and avoid inter-observer bias one of the investigators weighed all the newborns and carried out anthropometric measurements within 24 hours after birth. Circumferences of head, chest, mid-upper arm, thigh and calf were measured according to standard techniques. Non-parametric receiver operating characteristic (ROC curve analyses were carried out using bootstrap to calculate 95% confidence intervals of areas under the curve (AUC. The cut-points with lowest total misclassification rate were chosen to identify LBW babies. Results Out of 400 newborns studied, 204 (51% were males and 196 (49% were females. The mean birth weight was 3029 ± 438 grams and 34 (8.5% newborns were LBW. By ROC-AUC analyses, head circumference (AUC = 0.89, 95% CI 0.85 to 0.93 and chest circumference (AUC = 0.86, 95% CI 0.80 to 0.91 were identified as the optimal surrogate indicators of LBW babies. The optimal cut-points for head circumference and chest circumference to identify LBW newborns were ≥ 33.5 cm and ≥ 30.8 cm respectively. Conclusion Head and chest circumferences were the best anthropometric surrogates of LBW among Nepalese newborns. Further studies are needed in the field to cross-validate our results.

  11. Decision-making under risk and ambiguity in low-birth-weight pigs.

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    Murphy, Eimear; Kraak, Lynn; van den Broek, Jan; Nordquist, Rebecca E; van der Staay, Franz Josef

    2015-03-01

    Low birth weight (LBW) in humans is a risk factor for later cognitive, behavioural and emotional problems. In pigs, LBW is associated with higher mortality, but little is known about consequences for surviving piglets. Alteration in hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis function in LBW pigs suggests altered emotionality, but no behavioural indicators have been studied. Decision-making under uncertain conditions, e.g., risk or ambiguity, is susceptible to emotional influences and may provide a means of assessing long-term effects of LBW in piglets. We tested LBW (N = 8) and normal-birth-weight (NBW; N = 8) male pigs in two decision-making tasks. For decision-making under risk, we developed a simple two-choice probabilistic task, the Pig Gambling Task (PGT), where an 'advantageous' option offered small but frequent rewards and a 'disadvantageous' option offered large but infrequent rewards. The advantageous option offered greater overall gain. For decision-making under ambiguity, we used a Judgement Bias Task (JBT) where pigs were trained to make an active response to 'positive' and 'negative' tone cues (signalling large and small rewards, respectively). Responses to ambiguous tone cues were rated as more or less optimistic. LBW pigs chose the advantageous option more often in later blocks of the PGT, and were scored as less optimistic in the JBT, than NBW pigs. Our findings demonstrate that LBW pigs have developed different behavioural strategies with respect to decision-making. We propose that this is guided by changes in emotionality in LBW piglets, and we provide behavioural evidence of increased negative affect in LBW piglets.

  12. Actual and prescribed energy and protein intakes for very low birth weight infants: An observational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allevato, Anthony J.

    Objectives: To determine (1) whether prescribed and delivered energy and protein intakes during the first two weeks of life met Ziegler's estimated requirements for Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW) infants, (2) if actual energy during the first week of life correlated with time to regain birth weight and reach full enteral nutrition (EN) defined as 100 kcal/kg/day, (3) if growth velocity from time to reach full EN to 36 weeks' postmenstrual age (PMA) met Ziegler's estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day), and (4) growth outcomes at 36 weeks' PMA. Study design: Observational study of feeding, early nutrition and early growth of 40 VLBW infants protein (89% [3.1 g/kg/day]) were significantly less than theoretical estimated requirements. Delivered intakes were 15% less than prescribed because of numerous interruptions in delivery and medical complications. During the second week, the delivered intakes of energy (90% [86 kcal/kg/day]) and protein (102% [3.5 g/kg/day]) improved although the differences between prescribed and delivered were consistently 15%. Energy but not protein intake during the first week was significantly related to time to reach full EN. Neither energy nor protein intake significantly correlated with days to return to birth weight. The average growth velocity from the age that full EN was attained to 36 weeks' PMA (15 g/kg/day) was significantly less than the theoretical estimated fetal growth velocity (16 g/kg/day) (pintakes were consistently less than 15% of the prescribed intakes. Growth velocity between the age when full EN was achieved and 36 weeks' PMA was 6.7% lower than Ziegler's estimate. One-third to one-half of the infants have EUGR at 36 weeks' PMA.

  13. Low birth weight male guinea pig offspring display increased visceral adiposity in early adulthood.

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    Ousseynou Sarr

    Full Text Available Uteroplacental insufficiency (UPI-induced intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR predisposes individuals to adult visceral obesity. We postulated that low birth weight (LBW offspring, from UPI-induced IUGR pregnancies, would display a visceral adipose lipogenic molecular signature involving altered gene expression, phosphorylation status of proteins of the lipid synthesis pathway and microRNA (miR expression profile, occurring in association with increased visceral adiposity. Normal birth weight (NBW and LBW (obtained by uterine artery ablation male guinea pig pups were fed a control diet from weaning to 145 days and sacrificed. Despite being lighter at birth, LBW pups displayed body weights similar to NBW offspring at 145 days. At this age, which represents young adulthood, the relative weights of LBW epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT and lipid content were increased; which was consistent with adipocyte hypertrophy in the LBW offspring. Additionally, the mRNA expression of lipid synthesis-related genes including acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1, diglyceride acyltransferase 2 (DGAT2 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma 1 (PPARγ1, was increased in LBW EWAT. Further, LBW EWAT displayed decreased phospho-ACC (Ser79 and phospho-PPARγ (Ser273 proteins. Moreover, the mRNA expression of hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL and fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4, both involved in promoting adipose lipid storage, was increased in LBW EWAT. Finally, miR-24 and miR-103-2, miRs related to adipocyte development, were both increased in LBW EWAT. These findings indicate that, following an adverse in utero environment, lipid synthesis-related genes and miR expression, along with phosphorylation status of key regulators of lipid synthesis, appear to be chronically altered and occur in association with increased visceral adiposity in young adult IUGR male offspring.

  14. Trends of preterm birth and low birth weight in Japan: a one hospital-based study

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    Yorifuji Takashi

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The proportions of preterm birth (PTB, ie., delivered before 37 gestational weeks and low birth weight (LBW, ie., birth weight less than 2500 g at delivery have been rising in developed countries. We sought to examine the factors contributing to the rise in Japan, with particular focus on the effects of obstetric interventions. Methods We used a database maintained by one large regional hospital in Shizuoka, Japan. We restricted the analysis to mothers who delivered live singleton births from 1997 to 2010 (n = 19,221. We assessed the temporal trends in PTB and LBW, then divided the study period into four intervals and compared the proportions of PTB and LBW. We also compared the newborns’ outcomes between the intervals. Results PTB, in particular medically indicated PTB, increased considerably. The increase was largely explained by changes in caesarean sections. The neonatal outcomes did not worsen, and instead the Apgar scores and proportions requiring neonatal intensive care unit (NICU admission improved. In particular, the risks of NICU admission in the interval from 2007 to 2010 were decreased among all births [odds ratio (OR: 0.84; 95% confidence interval (CI: 0.75, 0.95] and medically indicated births (OR: 0.44; 95% CI: 0.29, 0.68 compared with the interval from 1997 to 2000. Conclusions Despite the increases in PTB as well as LBW, the present study suggests benefits of obstetric interventions. Rather than simple categorization of PTB or LBW, indicators such as perinatal mortality or other outcomes may be more appropriate for evaluation of perinatal health in developed countries.

  15. Increasing illness severity in very low birth weight infants over a 9-year period

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    Locke Robert G

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Recent reports have documented a leveling-off of survival rates in preterm infants through the 1990's. The objective of this study was to determine temporal changes in illness severity in very low birth weight (VLBW infants in relationship to the outcomes of death and/or severe IVH. Methods Cohort study of 1414 VLBW infants cared for in a single level III neonatal intensive care unit in Delaware from 1993–2002. Infants were divided into consecutive 3-year cohorts. Illness severity was measured by two objective methods: the Score for Neonatal Acute Physiology (SNAP, based on data from the 1st day of life, and total thyroxine (T4, measured on the 5th day of life. Death before hospital discharge and severe intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH were investigated in the study sample in relation to illness severity. The fetal death rate was also investigated. Statistical analyses included both univariate and multivariate analysis. Results Illness severity, as measured by SNAP and T4, increased steadily over the 9-year study period with an associated increase in severe IVH and the combined outcome of death and/or severe IVH. During the final 3 years of the study, the observed increase in illness severity accounted for 86% (95% CI 57–116% of the variability in the increase in death and/or severe IVH. The fetal death rate dropped from 7.8/1000 (1993–1996 to 5.3/1000 (1999–2002, p = .01 over the course of the study. Conclusion These data demonstrate a progressive increase in illness in VLBW infants over time, associated with an increase in death and/or severe IVH. We speculate that the observed decrease in fetal death, and the increase in neonatal illness, mortality and/or severe IVH over time represent a shift of severely compromised patients that now survive the fetal time period and are presented for care in the neonatal unit.

  16. Enhanced nutrition improves growth and increases blood adiponectin concentrations in very low birth weight infants

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    Elin W. Blakstad

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Adequate nutrient supply is essential for optimal postnatal growth in very low birth weight (VLBW, birth weight<1,500 g infants. Early growth may influence the risk of metabolic syndrome later in life. Objective: To evaluate growth and blood metabolic markers (adiponectin, leptin, and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1 in VLBW infants participating in a randomized nutritional intervention study. Design: Fifty VLBW infants were randomized to an enhanced nutrient supply or a standard nutrient supply. Thirty-seven infants were evaluated with growth measurements until 2 years corrected age (CA. Metabolic markers were measured at birth and 5 months CA. Results: Weight gain and head growth were different in the two groups from birth to 2 years CA (weight gain: pinteraction=0.006; head growth: pinteraction=0.002. The intervention group improved their growth z-scores after birth, whereas the control group had a pronounced decline, followed by an increase and caught up with the intervention group after discharge. At 5 months CA, adiponectin concentrations were higher in the intervention group and correlated with weight gain before term (r=0.35 and nutrient supply (0.35≤r≤0.45. Leptin concentrations correlated with weight gain after term and IGF-1 concentrations with length growth before and after term and head growth after term (0.36≤r≤0.53. Conclusion: Enhanced nutrient supply improved early postnatal growth and may have prevented rapid catch-up growth later in infancy. Adiponectin concentration at 5 months CA was higher in the intervention group and correlated positively with early weight gain and nutrient supply. Early nutrition and growth may affect metabolic markers in infancy.Clinical Trial Registration (ClinicalTrials.gov no.: NCT01103219

  17. Infant mortality and low birth weight in cities of Northeastern and Southeastern Brazil

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    Silva Antônio Augusto Moura da

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To compare estimates of low birth weight (LBW, preterm birth, small for gestational age (SGA, and infant mortality in two birth cohorts in Brazil. METHODS: The two cohorts were performed during the 1990s, in São Luís, located in a less developed area in Northeastern Brazil, and Ribeirão Preto, situated in a more developed region in Southeastern Brazil. Data from one-third of all live births in Ribeirão Preto in 1994 were collected (2,839 single deliveries. In São Luís, systematic sampling of deliveries stratified by maternity hospital was performed from 1997 to 1998 (2,439 single deliveries. The chi-squared (for categories and trends and Student t tests were used in the statistical analyses. RESULTS: The LBW rate was lower in São Luís, thus presenting an epidemiological paradox. The preterm birth rates were similar, although expected to be higher in Ribeirão Preto because of the direct relationship between preterm birth and LBW. Dissociation between LBW and infant mortality was observed, since São Luís showed a lower LBW rate and higher infant mortality, while the opposite occurred in Ribeirão Preto. CONCLUSIONS: Higher prevalence of maternal smoking and better access to and quality of perinatal care, thereby leading to earlier medical interventions (cesarean section and induced preterm births that resulted in more low weight live births than stillbirths in Ribeirão Preto, may explain these paradoxes. The ecological dissociation observed between LBW and infant mortality indicates that the LBW rate should no longer be systematically considered as an indicator of social development.

  18. Blood Pressure in Young Adults Born at Very Low Birth Weight: Adults Born Preterm International Collaboration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovi, Petteri; Vohr, Betty; Ment, Laura R; Doyle, Lex W; McGarvey, Lorcan; Morrison, Katherine M; Evensen, Kari Anne I; van der Pal, Sylvia; Grunau, Ruth E; Brubakk, Ann-Mari; Andersson, Sture; Saigal, Saroj; Kajantie, Eero

    2016-10-01

    Adults born preterm at very low birth weight (VLBW; blood pressure than those born at term. It is not known whether all VLBW adults are at risk or whether higher blood pressure could be attributed to some of the specific conditions underlying or accompanying preterm birth. To identify possible risk or protective factors, we combined individual-level data from 9 cohorts that measured blood pressure in young adults born at VLBW or with a more stringent birth weight criterion. In the absence of major heterogeneity, we performed linear regression analysis in our pooled sample of 1571 adults born at VLBW and 777 controls. Adults born at VLBW had 3.4 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 2.2-4.6) higher systolic and 2.1 mm Hg (95% confidence interval, 1.3-3.0) higher diastolic pressure, with adjustment for age, sex, and cohort. The difference in systolic pressure was present in men (1.8 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 0.1-3.5) but was stronger in women (4.7 mm Hg; 95% confidence interval, 3.2-6.3). Among the VLBW group, blood pressure was unrelated to gestational age, maternal smoking, multiple pregnancy, retinopathy of prematurity, or bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Blood pressure was higher than that of controls among VLBW adults unexposed to maternal preeclampsia. Among those exposed, it was even higher, especially if born appropriate for gestational age. In conclusion, although female sex and maternal preeclampsia are additional risk factors, the risk of higher blood pressure is not limited to any etiologic subgroup of VLBW adults, arguing for vigilance in early detection of high blood pressure in all these individuals. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. Meta-analysis of the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and preterm delivery/low birth weight.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero, R; Oyarzun, E; Mazor, M; Sirtori, M; Hobbins, J C; Bracken, M

    1989-04-01

    The relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and prematurity/low birth weight (LBW) is still a controversial issue, despite many studies. Meta-analysis, a research tool designed to analyze and combine the results of previous studies, may resolve this discrepancy among contradictory results of clinical trials. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between asymptomatic bacteriuria and preterm delivery/LBW using meta-analysis. Reports from the literature were classified according to study design into cohort or randomized-treatment control trials. Meta-analysis of cohort studies showed that untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria during pregnancy significantly increased rates of LBW and preterm delivery. Nonbacteriuric patients had only about two-thirds the risk (typical relative risk = 0.65; 95% confidence interval 0.57, 0.74) of LBW and half the risk (typical relative risk = 0.50; 95% confidence interval 0.36, 0.70) of preterm delivery of those with untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria. These reduced risks correspond to a 3.4 (confidence interval 1.8, 5.0) percentage-point difference in LBW and a 3.8 (1.1, 6.4) percentage-point difference in preterm delivery. The analysis of randomized clinical trials showed that antibiotic treatment significantly reduced the risk of LBW (typical relative risk = 0.56; 95% confidence interval 0.43, 0.73), with a substantial reduction of 6.4 (confidence interval 3.3, 9.5) percentage points in the rate of LBW. We conclude that clinical and epidemiologic evidence indicates a strong association between untreated asymptomatic bacteriuria and LBW/preterm delivery and that antibiotic treatment is effective in reducing the occurrence of LBW.

  20. Blood Reference Intervals for Preterm Low-Birth-Weight Infants: A Multicenter Cohort Study in Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Hirosuke; Kusuda, Takeshi; Kang, Dongchon; Ichihara, Kiyoshi; Nakashima, Naoki; Ihara, Kenji; Ohga, Shouichi; Hara, Toshiro

    2016-01-01

    Preterm low-birth-weight infants remain difficult to manage based on adequate laboratory tests. The aim of this study was to establish blood reference intervals (RIs) in those newborns who were admitted to and survived in the neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). A multicenter prospective study was conducted among all infants admitted to 11 affiliated NICUs from 2010 to 2013. The clinical information and laboratory data were registered in a network database designed for this study. The RIs for 26 items were derived using the parametric method after applying the latent abnormal values exclusion method. The influence of birth weight (BW) and gestational age (GA) on the test results was expressed in terms of the standard deviation ratio (SDR), as SDRBW and SDRGA, respectively. A total of 3189 infants were admitted during the study period; 246 were excluded due to a lack of blood sampling data, and 234 were excluded for chromosomal abnormalities (n = 108), congenital anomalies requiring treatment with surgical procedures (n = 76), and death or transfer to another hospital (n = 50). As a result, 2709 infants were enrolled in this study. Both the SDRGA and SDRBW were above 0.4 in the test results for total protein (TP), albumin (ALB), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), and red blood cells (RBC); their values increased in proportion to the BW and GA. We derived 26 blood RIs for infants who were admitted to NICUs. These RIs should help in the performance of proper clinical assessments and research in the field of perinatal-neonatal medicine. PMID:27552225

  1. [Homologous human milk supplement for very low birth weight preterm infant feeding].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grance, Thayana Regina de Souza; Serafin, Paula de Oliveira; Thomaz, Débora Marchetti Chaves; Palhares, Durval Batista

    2015-01-01

    To develop a homologous additive of human milk for feeding the very low weight infants with an original and simplified methodology, to know the nutritional composition of fortified human milk with this additive and to evaluate its suitability for feeding these infants. For the production and analysis of human milk with the homologous additive, 25 human milk samples of 45 mL have undergone a lactose removal process, lyophilization and they were diluted in 50 mL of human milk. Doses of lactose, proteins, lipids, energy, sodium, potassium, calcium, phosphorus and osmolality were measured. The composition of the additive milk was lactose 9.22 ± 1.00 g/dL; proteins 2.20 ± 0.36 g/dL; lipids 2.91 ± 0.57 g/dL; calories 71.93 ± 8.69 kcal/dL; osmolality 389.6 ± 32.4 mOsmol/kg H2O; sodium 2.04 ± 0.45 mEq/dL; potassium 1.42 ± 0.15 mEq/dL; calcium 43.44 ± 2.98 mg/dL; and phosphorus 23.69 ± 1.24 mg/dL. According to the nutritional contents analyzed, except for calcium and phosphorus, the human milk with the proposed additive can achieve the nutritional needs of the very low birth weight preterm infant. Copyright © 2014 Associação de Pediatria de São Paulo. Publicado por Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Maternal Nutritional Factors and Low Birth Weight in a Health Area Factores nutricionales maternos y el bajo peso al nacer en un área de salud

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    Amarelis Rodríguez Fuentes

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Background: low birth weight is multifactorial and is commonly attributed to maternal, fetal and environmental causes. Dietary habits linked to inadequate maternal nutritional factors are decisive. Objective: to identify maternal nutritional factors related to low birth weight in patients of the consultation Area # I in Cienfuegos. Methods: an analytical, retrospective and case-control study was conducted from January 2006 to December 2008. We studied 50 mothers of low birth weight infants (cases and 100 mothers of normal weight children (controls at a rate of 2 per case. They were selected out of birth records in the health area. Obstetric medical records were reviewed and an interview was applied to each patient in order to assess their nutritional habits according to meals frequency and more widely consumed food groups. The data processing was performed using SPSS version 15,0. The results are presented in tables with absolute frequencies, percentages and results of the statistical techniques used. Results: maternal age, nutritional status in early pregnancy, weight gain during pregnancy and hemoglobin in the third quarter emerged as risk factors. Women with unstable and insufficient eating habits were 33 times more likely to have low birth weight infants and women who reported unhealthy diets according to more widely consumed food groups were estimated to be nine times more exposed to risk. Conclusions: maternal nutritional factors influenced the incidence of low birth weight, primarily in the cases of inadequate eating habits.Fundamento: el bajo peso al nacer es multifactorial y se atribuye a causas maternas, fetales y ambientales. Los hábitos alimentarios inadecuados unidos a otros factores nutricionales maternos son determinantes. Objetivo: identificar los factores nutricionales maternos relacionados con el bajo peso al nacer en pacientes del Área I del municipio Cienfuegos. Métodos: se realizó un estudio analítico, retrospectivo, de

  3. Early versus Late Trophic Feeding in Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

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    Niloofar Satarzadeh

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Improved survival of preterm infants, beneficial effects of trophic feeding and limited data on timing management of enteral feeding for very low birth weight preterm infants requires more researches to determine the exact starting time and increased volumes. This study aims to compare early (72h trophic feeding with respect to important neonatal outcomes.Methods: In a cohort study from September 2007 to October 2008, a total of 170 preterm infants (1000-1500gram, 26-31 weeks consisting of 125 who received trophic feeding enterally within the first 48 hours of birth(early group and 45 fed enterally after 72 h0urs (late group, without major congenital birth defects and severe asphyxia entered the study. Bolus feeding was started in both groups at 1-2 cc/kg every 4-6 hours of human milk or preterm infant formula and was advanced 1-2 cc/kg/day if tolerated along with parenteralnutrition. Feeding intolerance, possibility of necrotizing entrocolitis (NEC, episodes of sepsis, body weight,length of NICU stay, and duration of parenteral nutrition were assessed serially.Findings: There were no statistically significant differences in the clinical and maternal characteristics ofinfants in the two groups. The time to gain birth weight (13.75±5.21 vs 20.53±6.31 (P<0.001, duration of parenteral nutrition (9.26±4.572 days vs 14.11±6.415 days (P<0.001, hospital stay (12.14±8.612 vs 21.11±1.156 (P<0.001 were significantly shorter in early compared to late feeding group; none of the twogroups experienced a high incidence of late onset sepsis (P=0.73. There was 1 case of confirmed NEC in every group.Conclusion: The benefits of early trophic feeding shown by this study strongly support its use for the preterm infants without adding to complications.

  4. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed very-low-birth-weight neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porcelli, P J; Adcock, E W; DelPaggio, D; Swift, L L; Greene, H L

    1996-08-01

    Preterm infant formulas (PIFs) for very-low-birth-weight (VLBW) infants (birth weight, pyridoxine at levels up to five-fold greater than in term infant formula and 18-fold greater than in human milk. We evaluated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in VLBW infants who received PIF during their first postnatal month. Eighty-eight plasma and 124 urine samples were collected for riboflavin- and pyridoxine-concentration measurements from 57 clinically healthy VLBW infants weekly during their first postnatal month. Concentrations were measured using high-performance liquid chromatography. At the time of the sample, patients were receiving > or = 80% of their total calories via enteral feedings. Plasma riboflavin concentrations rose from 45.3 +/- 7.3 ng/ml at baseline (mean +/- SEM) to 173.5 +/- 20.3 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 177.3-199.7 ng/ml during the following three weekly measurements; values were up to 14-fold above baseline concentration. Urine riboflavin concentration increased from 534 +/- 137 ng/ml at baseline to 3,521 +/- 423 ng/ml by 1 week of age and remained at 4,451-5,216 ng/ml during the next 3 weeks. In a similar pattern, baseline plasma (69.4 +/- 10.4 ng/ml) and urine (145 +/- 30 ng/ml) pyridoxine concentrations were significantly increased by 1 week postnatal age; they remained at 163-248 ng/ml (plasma) and 1,573-2,394 ng/ml (urine) through the first postnatal month. Plasma and urine riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations in enterally fed VLBW infants increased from baseline concentrations by 1 week of postnatal age and remained elevated for the first postnatal month. High daily intake and immature renal development are probable contributing causes of the elevated plasma riboflavin and pyridoxine concentrations. We suggest that lower daily enteral administration of riboflavin and pyridoxine should maintain adequate blood concentrations and minimize potential toxicity.

  5. Transcutaneous Carbon Dioxide Monitoring with Reduced-Temperature Probes in Very Low Birth Weight Infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aly, Safwat; El-Dib, Mohamed; Mohamed, Mohamed; Aly, Hany

    2017-04-01

    Background Obtaining blood gases in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants is an invasive procedure. Studies using transcutaneous carbon dioxide (tcPCO2) have reported variable skin complications with high-temperature probes. No enough data available on tcPCO2 monitoring using reduced-temperature probes (41°C). Objective The objective of this study was to assess reliability and safety of tcPCO2 monitoring at reduced-temperature probe in VLBW infants. Design and Methods A prospective study was conducted on VLBW infants. tcPCO2 was monitored for 12 hours. Default skin probe temperature was adjusted at 41°C. Blood gases were done as clinically indicated. Arterial partial pressure of CO2 (PaCO2) as well as capillary CO2 were compared with simultaneous tcPCO2. Results A total of 124 data points were identified from 50 patients (gestational age [GA] = 28.1 ± 2.4 weeks and birth weight [BW] = 1,035 ± 291 g). Patients were supported with continuous positive airway pressure (40%), noninvasive positive pressure ventilation (16%), mechanical ventilation (18%), and high-frequency oscillation ventilation (24%). PaCO2 was measured using either capillary (58%) or arterial (42%) samples. Mean CO2 did not differ between tcPCO2 (51.3 ± 16) and PaCO2 (49.1 ± 13.7) mm Hg. tcPCO2 showed positive correlation with partial pressure of CO2 (r = 0.6, p < 0.001). This correlation continued to be significant after controlling for GA, postmenstrual age, type of sample, and pH. No skin complications were reported. Conclusion tcPCO2 monitoring using a temperature of 41°C is feasible and reliable in VLBW infants. Thieme Medical Publishers 333 Seventh Avenue, New York, NY 10001, USA.

  6. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants-Consensus Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R Kishore; Singhal, Atul; Vaidya, Umesh; Banerjee, Saswata; Anwar, Fahmina; Rao, Shashidhar

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants. The following were the primary recommendations of the panel: (1) enteral feeding is safe and may be preferred to parenteral nutrition due to the complications associated with the latter; however, parenteral nutrition may be a useful adjunct to enteral feeding in some critical cases; (2) early, fast, or continuous enteral feeding yields better outcomes compared to late, slow, or intermittent feeding, respectively; (3) routine use of nasogastric tubes is not advisable; (4) preterm infants can be fed while on ventilator or continuous positive airway pressure; (5) routine evaluation of gastric residuals and abdominal girth should be avoided; (6) expressed breast milk (EBM) is the first choice for feeding preterm infants due to its beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological, bone health, and growth outcomes; the second choice is donor pasteurized human milk; (7) EBM or donor milk may be fortified with human milk fortifiers, without increasing the osmolality of the milk, to meet the high protein requirements of preterm infants; (8) standard fortification is effective and safe but does not fulfill the high protein needs; (9) use of targeted and adjustable fortification, where possible, helps provide optimal nutrition; (10) optimizing weight gain in preterm infants prevents long-term cardiovascular complications; (11

  7. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants—Consensus Summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, R. Kishore; Singhal, Atul; Vaidya, Umesh; Banerjee, Saswata; Anwar, Fahmina; Rao, Shashidhar

    2017-01-01

    Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW) infants. The following were the primary recommendations of the panel: (1) enteral feeding is safe and may be preferred to parenteral nutrition due to the complications associated with the latter; however, parenteral nutrition may be a useful adjunct to enteral feeding in some critical cases; (2) early, fast, or continuous enteral feeding yields better outcomes compared to late, slow, or intermittent feeding, respectively; (3) routine use of nasogastric tubes is not advisable; (4) preterm infants can be fed while on ventilator or continuous positive airway pressure; (5) routine evaluation of gastric residuals and abdominal girth should be avoided; (6) expressed breast milk (EBM) is the first choice for feeding preterm infants due to its beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological, bone health, and growth outcomes; the second choice is donor pasteurized human milk; (7) EBM or donor milk may be fortified with human milk fortifiers, without increasing the osmolality of the milk, to meet the high protein requirements of preterm infants; (8) standard fortification is effective and safe but does not fulfill the high protein needs; (9) use of targeted and adjustable fortification, where possible, helps provide optimal nutrition; (10) optimizing weight gain in preterm infants prevents long-term cardiovascular complications; (11

  8. Optimizing Nutrition in Preterm Low Birth Weight Infants—Consensus Summary

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Kishore Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Preterm birth survivors are at a higher risk of growth and developmental disabilities compared to their term counterparts. Development of strategies to lower the complications of preterm birth forms the rising need of the hour. Appropriate nutrition is essential for the growth and development of preterm infants. Early administration of optimal nutrition to preterm birth survivors lowers the risk of adverse health outcomes and improves cognition in adulthood. A group of neonatologists, pediatricians, and nutrition experts convened to discuss and frame evidence-based recommendations for optimizing nutrition in preterm low birth weight (LBW infants. The following were the primary recommendations of the panel: (1 enteral feeding is safe and may be preferred to parenteral nutrition due to the complications associated with the latter; however, parenteral nutrition may be a useful adjunct to enteral feeding in some critical cases; (2 early, fast, or continuous enteral feeding yields better outcomes compared to late, slow, or intermittent feeding, respectively; (3 routine use of nasogastric tubes is not advisable; (4 preterm infants can be fed while on ventilator or continuous positive airway pressure; (5 routine evaluation of gastric residuals and abdominal girth should be avoided; (6 expressed breast milk (EBM is the first choice for feeding preterm infants due to its beneficial effects on cardiovascular, neurological, bone health, and growth outcomes; the second choice is donor pasteurized human milk; (7 EBM or donor milk may be fortified with human milk fortifiers, without increasing the osmolality of the milk, to meet the high protein requirements of preterm infants; (8 standard fortification is effective and safe but does not fulfill the high protein needs; (9 use of targeted and adjustable fortification, where possible, helps provide optimal nutrition; (10 optimizing weight gain in preterm infants prevents long-term cardiovascular complications

  9. A Major Cause of Mortality and Morbidity of Very Low Birth Weight Infants: Patent Ductus Arteriosus

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    Fatih Aygün

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In­tro­duc­ti­on: Patent Ductus Arteriosus (PDA, a cardiac pathology commonly seen in preterm infants, has negative effects on mortality and morbidity. Persistent patency of PDA is positively correlated with respiratory distress syndrome (RDS, prolonged respiratory support, pulmonary hemorrhage, broncopulmonary dysplasia (BPD, necrotizing enterocolitis (NEC, intraventricular hemorrhage, renal failure, neurodevelopmental impairment (cerebral palsy, retinopathy of prematurity and death. The standard treatment regimen is to close symptomatic PDA and cyclooxygenase inhibitors such as indomethacin, ibuprofen are the first choises. Our aim in this study is to report PDA rate, treatment and complications in premature infants. Materials and Methods: This study retrospectively enrolled 103 infants born <33 gestational weeks, without any major congenital anomaly or congenital heart defects between January 2010-November 2011. Echocardiograms was performed in the first week. PDA related pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death were demonstrated.Results: Among of 103 infants, 45 were male and 58 were female. Seventy infants were born with cesarian section and 33 were born with normal labor. The mean gestational week was 29.7±2.2, the mean gestational week of infants with PDA was 28.8±2.3. The mean birth weight of infants was 1323±375 grams. The mean Apgar score was 7.25±1.83, the scores of infants with patent ductus arteriosus were significantly low (6.7±1.9. Echocardiography was performed on the mean of 4.8±4.4 days, PDA was determined in 48 of 103 infants (%46. The mean of birth weight of infants with persistant PDA was 1162±351 grams, it was 1465±340 g in the closed group. The rate of pulmonary hemorrhage, NEC, BPD, ROP and death was significantly higher in infants with PDA compared with infants having ductal closure (p<0.05.Conclusion: The early closure of PDA in very low birth weight infants will reduce both mortality and early or late

  10. Nonbiological maternal risk factor for low birth weight on Latin America: a systematic review of literature with meta-analysis

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    Telma Regina Sanches Ranzani da Silva

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To identify non-biological maternal risk factors to low birthweight in Latin America. Methods: Systematic review of literaturethrough meta-analysis. The tool for methodological evaluation was theStrengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in EpidemiologyStatement. Studies in non-pathological maternal risk factors to lowbirthweight and those evaluated by a Strengthening the Reportingof Observational Studies in Epidemiology Statement method under Cgrade were excluded. Results: From seven studies, five pointed outthe influence of maternal age under 20. In four studies maternal ageabove 35 years old was relevant to low birth weight. Other factorswere present in only one or two studies. Conclusion: Accordingto this study the maternal age under 20 and above 35 years old isa relevant factor to low birth weight. There are few studies withuniversal and solid methodology, which difficult a systematic reviewof literature though meta-analysis.

  11. Consequences of low birth weight, maternal illiteracy and poor access to medical care in rural India: infantile iatrogenic Cushing syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karande, Sunil

    2015-08-21

    Home delivery, low birth weight babies and maternal illiteracy among the poor in rural India are frequent. The rural poor prefer to seek healthcare from private providers, most of whom have no formal medical training and buy medicines from private pharmacies without a prescription owing to a weakly regulated environment. This report is of a 4-month-old baby from a remote village in northern India, who presented with exogenous Cushing syndrome. This baby was a full-term low birth weight home delivery. As the baby was not growing well, treatment was started at 1 month by a private doctor with betamethasone drops The mother on her own volition continued giving the betamethasone drops by buying the medicine over the counter from a private pharmacy. This case highlights the gaps in essential health services in rural India and the steps being taken to improve the situation. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  12. [Laser Doppler flowmetry in newborn infants with low birth weight. The effect of differences in humidity on peripheral circulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanssler, L; Roll, C; Breukmann, H

    1992-01-01

    In a group of 10 low birth weight infants we measured skin temperature using infrared thermography and laser Doppler flow in central and peripheral regions of the body. After elevation of incubator humidity from 40 to 80% skin temperature of the foot rose significantly (p less than 0.01). At the same time there was a significant increase (p less than 0.05) of laser Doppler flow. Temperature and laser Doppler flow in the area of the abdomen did not show significant changes. Low birth weight infants are able to regulate peripheral blood flow after changes of ambient humidity. With the method of laser Doppler flowmetry thermoregulatory responses in the microvascular bed can be measured in these infants.

  13. Association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jan Hau; Greenberg, Rachel G; Quek, Bin H; Clark, Reese H; Laughon, Matthew M; Smith, P Brian; Hornik, Christoph P

    2017-06-19

    In very low birth weight infants, persistence of a patent ductus arteriosus results in morbidity and mortality. Therapies to close the ductus are effective, but clinical outcomes may depend on the accuracy of diagnosis and the timing of administration. The objective of the present study was to characterise the association between early echocardiography, therapy for patent ductus arteriosus, and outcomes in very low birth weight infants. This retrospective cohort study used electronic health record data on inborn infants of gestational age ⩽28 weeks and birth weight patent ductus arteriosus was diagnosed in 31,712/48,551 (65%). The diagnosis was more common in infants who had undergone early echocardiography (14,549/15,971 [91%] versus 17,163/32,580 [53%], ppatent ductus arteriosus (odds ratio 1.01, 95% CI 0.90-1.15). Early echocardiography was associated with an increased diagnosis of patent ductus arteriosus, but not with decreased mortality.

  14. Relationship between very low birth weight, environmental factors, and motor and cognitive development of children of 5 and 6 years old Relação entre muito baixo peso ao nascimento, fatores ambientais e o desenvolvimento motor e o cognitivo de crianças aos 5 e 6 anos

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    Gisele E. Oliveira

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To examine the relationships between birth weight, preterm birth, environmental factors and the motor and cognitive development of 5 to 6 year-old children. METHODS: A case control study in which the motor and cognitive performance, as well as the home environment of children aged 5-6 years, born pre-term and weighing OBJETIVO: Examinar as relações entre baixo peso ao nascimento, prematuridade, fatores ambientais e os desenvolvimentos motor e cognitivo de crianças aos 5 e 6 anos de idade. MÉTODOS: Estudo caso-controle no qual os desempenhos motor e cognitivo e o ambiente domiciliar de crianças com idade de 5-6 anos, nascidas pré-termo e com peso < 1.500 gramas, foram comparados com os de pares nascidos a termo e com peso adequado (PA. Foram utilizados os testes Movement Assessment Battery for Children (MABC, Developmental Coordination Disorder Questionnaire (DCDQ, as provas de vocabulário e de cubos do Weschsler Intelligence Test for Children-III (WISC, o Swanson, Nolan and Pelham IV Scale (SNAP IV e o Observation for Measurement of the Environment (HOME. RESULTADOS: 50,54% das crianças nascidas com muito baixo peso (MBP foram a óbito, e 15,2% deste grupo desenvolveram sequelas severas. Os escores para os grupos de MBP e de PA foram: HOME 33,83±7,81(MBP, 39,61±8,75(PA; MABC 8,17±7,10(MBP, 3,06±3,80(PA; DCDQ 54,0±11,3(MBP, 63,0±7,5(PA; WISC Cubos 8,35±2,15(MBP, 10,57±2,25(PA; WISC Vocabulário 9,61±2,62(MBP, 13,48±2,45(PA; SNAP IV 4,04±4,95(MBP, 1,57±3,27(PA. Foram encontradas diferenças significativas entre os grupos, com melhor desempenho em todos os testes no grupo de PA. Os resultados dos testes motores e cognitivos tiveram correlação com o peso ao nascer (p<0,01 e com o HOME (p<0,05. CONCLUSÕES: Os resultados reforçaram as evidências de que crianças nascidas prematuras e de MBP são mais propensas a apresentar dificuldades motoras e cognitivas que seus pares nascidos a termo e de PA. Fatores ambientais

  15. The last and first frontier – emerging challenges for HIV treatment and prevention in the first week of life with emphasis on premature and low birth weight infants

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    Mark F Cotton

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: There is new emphasis on identifying and treating HIV in the first days of life and also an appreciation that low birth weight (LBW and preterm delivery (PTD frequently accompany HIV-related pregnancy. Even in the absence of HIV, PTD and LBW contribute substantially to neonatal and infant mortality. HIV-exposed and -infected infants with these characteristics have received little attention thus far. As HIV programs expand to meet the 90-90-90 target for ending the HIV pandemic, attention should focus on newborn infants, including those delivered preterm or of LBW. Discussion: In high prevalence settings, infant diagnosis of HIV is usually undertaken after the neonatal period. However, as in utero infection may be diagnosed at birth, earlier initiation of therapy may limit viral replication and prevent early damage. Globally, there is growing awareness that preterm and LBW infants constitute a substantial proportion of births each year. Preterm infants are at high risk for vertical transmission. Feeding difficulties, apnoea of prematurity and vulnerability to sepsis occur commonly. Feeding intolerance, a frequent occurrence, may compromise oral administration of medications. Although there is growing experience with post-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-exposed term newborn infants, there is less experience with preterm and LBW infants. For treatment, there are even fewer options for preterm infants. Only zidovudine has adequate dosing recommendations for treating term and preterm infants and has an intravenous formulation, essential if feeding intolerance occurs. Nevirapine dosing for prevention, but not treatment, is well established for both term and preterm infants.HIV diagnosis at birth is likely to be extremely stressful for new parents, more so if caring for preterm or LBW infants. Programs need to adapt to support the medical and emotional needs of young infants and their parents, where interventions may be lifesaving

  16. Use of low birth weight as selecting criterion for the routine surveillance of congenital anomalies of infectious origin.

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    Antonio José Bermúdez

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Surveillance of congenital anomalies receives importance in the world-wide context of eradicating the congenital rubella syndrome. Objective: To identify the congenital anomalies and to consider the low birth weight  a criterion to test IgM for the complex TORCH. Methodology: Surveillance of the congenital specific and non specific anomalies of the congenital rubella syndrome(CRS and low birth weight in ten hospitals. It was considered as case, everything new born with some congenital anomaly or low weight for the gestational age. Serum tests for rubella, toxoplasmosis, citomegalovirus, herpes and parvovirus were practiced. For the negative cases cariotype was performed. Results: A total of 840 cases were selected, 669 by low weight for the gestational age, 52 by anomalies not related to CRS, 52; by anomalies that could be related to the CRS, 105. The most frequent anomalies were congenital heart diseases,  5.1%; hepatosplenomegalies, 3.9%; and microcephalies, 1.2%. There were confirmatory IgM titles for rubella in 0.5% of cases; toxoplasmosis 1.4%; citomegalovirus 1.5%; parvovirus 1.2%; herpes 0.5%; and positive test for congenital syphilis, 3.7%. In total there were 8.8% positive results for any congenital infectious disease. The relative risk for low birth weight having IgM positive rubella was RR = 2.83 (IC: 1.26:6.36-0.95. Discussion and conclusions: The surveillance for CRS, through the monitoring of febrile in the first year and by the presence of some specific congenital anomalies, could be improved in sensitivity by means of the routine monitoring of congenital anomalies, with the inclusion of low birth weight, like a selecting criterion to study the infectious agents.

  17. Neonatal sepsis and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants in Matanzas, Cuba 2006-2010: a prospective cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robaina Castellanos, Gerardo Rogelio; Riesgo Rodríguez, Solangel de la Caridad

    2016-04-07

    Neonatal sepsis has been associated with poor neurodevelopmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (VLBW infants). The impact of neonatal sepsis on neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants discharged from Cuban neonatal intensive care units is unknown. To determine the impact of neonatal sepsis as a risk factor of neurodevelopmental disorders in a Cuban very low birth weight infants’ population. A cohort study was carried out that enrolled 89 infants with birth weight less than 1500 g who were admitted during the period 2006-2010 to the Teaching Provincial Gynecological and Obstetrical Hospital of Matanzas. All patients were followed-up at the outpatient clinic until two years of corrected gestational age. Then they were divided into two groups: those who had been diagnosed with neonatal sepsis (n=19) and those who had not (n=70). The association power of neonatal sepsis with neurodevelopmental disorders was determined with calculation of relative risk (RR) and their confidence intervals at 95% (CI95%). A multivariate analysis with logistic regression enabled us to compare sepsis with other neonatal variables as risk factors. Very low birth weight infants with neonatal sepsis had an increased risk of neurodevelopmental disorders (47.4 vs 17.1%; RR 2.7 CI95% 1.3-5.5; p=0.005). This risk was significant after correction for other variables (male sex, mechanical respiratory assistance, bronchopulmonary dysplasia and hyperbilirrubinemia >15 mg/dl) (odds ratio 4.0; CI95% 1.1-14.3; p=0.03). Neonatal sepsis should be considered an important factor among the multiple events related to poor neurodevelopmental outcome in the preterm newborn.

  18. Incidence of intracranial haemorrhage in low-birth weight infants and its outcome: a hospital based prospective study

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    Rajesh Debbarma

    2016-10-01

    Conclusions: Low gestational age, specially <34 weeks, very low birth weight, male gender, difficult vaginal delivery, birth asphyxia, and hypothermia are risk factors for intracranial hemorrhage, specially intra-ventricular hemorrhage. For better evaluation of risk factors for ICH and its outcome, multicentric study should be performed with large number of simple and longer time period of follow up with the help of newer modalities of investigation. [Int J Res Med Sci 2016; 4(10.000: 4279-4285

  19. Mitochondrial function in skeletal muscle is normal and unrelated to insulin action in young men born with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brøns, Charlotte; Jensen, Christine B; Storgaard, Heidi

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Low birth weight (LBW) is an independent risk factor of insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes. Recent studies suggest that mitochondrial dysfunction and impaired expression of genes involved in oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) may play a key role in the pathogenesis of insulin...... mitochondrial dysfunction per se is the underlying key metabolic defect that explains or precedes whole body insulin resistance in LBW subjects at risk for developing type 2 diabetes....

  20. Maternal smoking during pregnancy and socioeconomic factors as predictors of low birth weight in term pregnancies in Niš

    OpenAIRE

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aim. Low birth weight (LBW) is a result of preterm birth or intrauterine growth retardation, and in both cases is the strongest single factor associated with perinatal and neonatal mortality. It is considered that socioeconomic factors, as well as mothers bad habits, play the most significant role in the development of LBW, which explains notable number of researches focused on this particular problem. The aim of this study was to characterize socioeconomic factors, as well as smok...

  1. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Aziz, Norlaili Abdul

    2016-01-01

    Background Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a child...

  2. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Dahlui, Maznah; Azahar, Nazar; Oche, Oche Mansur; Abdul Aziz, Norlaili

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality.Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria.Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a chil...

  3. Risk factors for low birth weight in Nigeria: evidence from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Maznah Dahlui; Nazar Azahar; Oche Mansur Oche; Norlaili Abdul Aziz

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low birth weight (LBW) continues to be the primary cause of infant morbidity and mortality. Objective: This study was undertaken to identify the predictors of LBW in Nigeria. Design: The data for this study was extracted from the 2013 Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey conducted by the National Population Commission. Several questionnaires were used in the survey, some covering questions on pregnancy characteristics. The inclusion criteria include mothers who gave birth to a ch...

  4. Relationship of Characteristics of Baby’s Mother with the Low Birth Weight in Regional General Hospital in Sorong

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    Agustina Naa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The mortality rate of low birth weight is part of a reflection of the public health status. Low birth weight babies are born with birth weight less than 2,500 grams regardless of pregnancy. The aim of research to determine the relationship characteristic of mothers of infants with LBW. This type of research is observational analytic with cross sectional design. Collecting data through observation sheet on record medic mothers who gave birth in hospitals 2014, in Sorong, West Papua Province in July-August 2015. The results reveal no relationship nutritional status of mothers with LBW (p = 0.000 and 9.54 RP. No relationship of anemia in mothers with LBW (p = 0.000 and 9.20 RP, no relationship of pregnancy range with LBW births (p = 0.000 and 5.01 RP, no maternal employment status relationship with the incidence of low birth weight (p = 0.001 and RP 3.22, there is a relationship with the mother's education level LBW (p = 0.005 and 2.82 RP, no correlation between age mothers with LBW (p = 0.011 and 2.51 RP and the biggest risk factors based on the RP is factor of maternal nutritional status (p = 0.000 and 9.54 RP.

  5. Application of family stage comprehensive health guidance in very low birth weight infants%家庭阶段性综合保健指导在极低出生体重儿中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟群; 张菊玲; 秦珊珊; 周小芬

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To investigate the stage of comprehensive home health guidance in very low birth weight children. METHODS 15 very low birth weight premature infants were followed up regularly and received early intervention comprehensive guidance. Arranged person responsible for the 15 infants, with CD, books "Baby fitness scientific method ", "Create the best start in life", "0-2 years moving backward family training" from Professor Bao Xiulan for teaching. Early intervention was in five stages, trained VLBW children in four aspects of action, language, cognitive ability and personal social intercourse, at the same time, focused on the physical development and disease prevention of VLBW. Guided parents to do early intervention in family. All cases were followed for regular development examination. RESULTS 15 cases completed 18 months of full monitoring, in 12 cases with complete CDCC, including 1 case of MDI < 69, 14 cases with MDI between 71-112 score; PDI was in the normal range, without cerebral palsy. CONCLUSION Family stage comprehensive health intervention guidance emphasizes family rehabilitation as the core, attaches importance to both basic health care and rehabilitation, could promote the development of extremely low birth weight infants' intelligence.%目的 探讨家庭阶段性综合保健指导在极低出生体重儿中的应用.方法 15例极低出生体重儿早产儿,出生病情稳定后即开始接受早期综合干预指导,早期干预分5个阶段,专人负责,以鲍秀兰教授等编制的光盘、书籍:《婴儿科学健身法》、《塑造最佳人生开端》、《0~2岁运动落后的家庭指导》为教材,对VLBW儿童在动作、语言、认知能力及个人-社会交往4个方面进行训练指导,同时重视VLBW的体格发育及疾病预防.干预措施主要通过家长在家庭中实施,每月进行发育评估.结果 15例均完成18月龄的全程监测,12例完成CDCC测查,其中1例MDI< 69,14例MDI在71~112分之间

  6. Bio-social Predictors of Low Birth Weight- A Prospective study at a Tertiary care Hospital of North Karnataka, India

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    DP Paneru

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Low Birth Weight is a multi-factorial problem of health and social concern Worldwide. India accounts for 40 percent of Low birth weight (LBW babies of the developing World and more than half of those in Asia. Despite the multitude of services rendered to improve maternal health care, LBW remains a public health problem in India. Objective: To determine bio-social predictors of low birth weight amongst the institutional births in North Karnataka, India. METHODS: A prospective hospital based study was conducted in Belgaum district of north Karnataka during July 2012-March 2013. A total of 426 pregnant women registered within 20 weeks of gestation during July–September 2013; eventually delivered in the same hospital were included in the study. Birth weight was measured by a digital weighing scale of 100 gram accuracy. Data were collected through individual interviews using pretested questionnaire. Data were analyzed by SPSS (16.0 Version. Descriptive statistics and multivariate regression were applied. P value < 0.05 considered significant. RESULTS: Mean age of subjects was 23.2254±3.09 years. About 96.7% were literates. Mean age at first pregnancy was 21.37±2.70 years. Low birth weight was observed amongst 22.5% new born (Mean weight: 2089.58±268.31gm. Almost 10.0% were preterm births. Paternal education and occupation, socio-economic status, religion, maternal blood group and gestation age at delivery were found to be the independent and significant bio-social factors predicting the low birth weight. About 68.0% variations in the birth weight were explained by these predictors. CONCLUSIONS: Low paternal education and occupation (farmers/laborers, low socio-economic status, maternal blood group (A is protective and prematurity were found to be independent bio-social predicators of LBW. Programme targeting paternal education may be useful and study of biological plausibility associated with the maternal blood group is recommended.

  7. No association between low birth weight and cardiovascular risk factors in early adulthood: evidence from Sao Paulo, Brazil.

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    Filumena Maria Gomes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A growing literature suggests that low birth weight increases the risk of poor health outcomes in adulthood. We tested this hypothesis among young adults living in São Paulo State, Brazil. METHODS AND FINDINGS: To identify the effects of low birth weight on young adulthood outcomes, a medical assessment of 297 individuals born between 1977 and 1989 was conducted at a primary care unit in São Paulo State, Brazil. We analyzed body mass index (BMI, waist-hip ratio, blood pressure, fasting glucose and total cholesterol levels using linear and logistic regressions. Low birth was negatively associated with BMI (β = -2.0, 95% CI: -3.69, -0.27, p = 0.02, fasting glucose levels (β = -1.9, 95% CI: -3.9, -0.07, p = 0.05, waist-hip ratio (β = -0.03, 95% CI: -0.07, -0.01, p = 0.10, systolic blood pressure (β = -3.32, 95% CI: -7.60, 0.96, p = 0.12, and total cholesterol levels (β = -3.19, 95% CI: -16.43, 10.05, p = 0.636. Low birth weight was also associated with lower odds of young adults being overweight and obese, but neither association was statistically significant. Weight gain in the first 12 months of life was associated with higher adult BMI (β = 0.79, 95% CI: -0.0455, 1.623, p = 0.064 and blood pressure (β = 2.79, 95% CI: 0.22, 5.35, p = 0.034. No associations were found between low birth weight and early life (catch-up growth. CONCLUSIONS: Low birth weight was not associated with poor health outcomes among young adults in Brazil. These results appear inconsistent with the original Barker hypothesis, but will need to be corroborated in larger samples with longer follow-ups to allow a more general evaluation of the validity of the hypothesis in low and middle income countries.

  8. Impact of the global financial crisis on low birth weight in Portugal: a time-trend analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Musa Abubakar; Correia, Sofia; Peleteiro, Barbara; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    The 2007-2008 global financial crisis had adverse consequences on population health of affected European countries. Few contemporary studies have studied its effect on perinatal indicators with long-lasting influence on adult health. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the impact of the 2007-2008 global financial crisis on low birth weight (LBW) in Portugal. Data on 2 045 155 singleton births of 1995-2014 were obtained from Statistics Portugal. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to identify the years in which changes in LBW trends occurred, and to estimate the annual per cent changes (APC). LBW risk by time period expressed as prevalence ratios were computed using the Poisson regression. Contextual changes in sociodemographic and economic factors were provided by their trends. The joinpoint analysis identified 3 distinct periods (2 jointpoints) with different APC in LBW, corresponding to 1995-1999 (APC=4.4; 95% CI 3.2 to 5.6), 2000-2006 (APC=0.1; 95% CI -050 to 0.7) and 2007-2014 (APC=1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). For non-Portuguese, it was, respectively, 1995-1999 (APC=1.4; 95% CI -3.9 to 7.0%), 2000-2007 (APC=-4.2; 95% CI -6.4 to -2.0) and 2008-2014 (APC=3.1; 95% CI 0.8 to 5.5). Compared with 1995-1999, all specific maternal characteristics had a 10-15% increase in LBW risk in 2000-2006 and a 20-25% increase in 2007-2014, except among migrants, for which LBW risk remained lower than in 1995-1999 but increased after the crisis. The increasing LBW risk coincides with a deceleration in gross domestic product growth rate, reduction in health expenditure, social protection allocation on family/children support and sickness. The 2007-2008 global financial crisis was associated with a significant increase in LBW, particularly among infants of non-Portuguese mothers. We recommend strengthening social policies aimed at maternity protection for vulnerable mothers and health system maintenance of social equity in perinatal healthcare.

  9. Impact of the global financial crisis on low birth weight in Portugal: a time-trend analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kana, Musa Abubakar; Correia, Sofia; Peleteiro, Barbara; Severo, Milton; Barros, Henrique

    2017-01-01

    Background The 2007–2008 global financial crisis had adverse consequences on population health of affected European countries. Few contemporary studies have studied its effect on perinatal indicators with long-lasting influence on adult health. Therefore, in this study, we investigated the impact of the 2007–2008 global financial crisis on low birth weight (LBW) in Portugal. Methods Data on 2 045 155 singleton births of 1995–2014 were obtained from Statistics Portugal. Joinpoint regression analysis was performed to identify the years in which changes in LBW trends occurred, and to estimate the annual per cent changes (APC). LBW risk by time period expressed as prevalence ratios were computed using the Poisson regression. Contextual changes in sociodemographic and economic factors were provided by their trends. Results The joinpoint analysis identified 3 distinct periods (2 jointpoints) with different APC in LBW, corresponding to 1995–1999 (APC=4.4; 95% CI 3.2 to 5.6), 2000–2006 (APC=0.1; 95% CI −050 to 0.7) and 2007–2014 (APC=1.6; 95% CI 1.2 to 2.0). For non-Portuguese, it was, respectively, 1995–1999 (APC=1.4; 95% CI −3.9 to 7.0%), 2000–2007 (APC=−4.2; 95% CI −6.4 to −2.0) and 2008–2014 (APC=3.1; 95% CI 0.8 to 5.5). Compared with 1995–1999, all specific maternal characteristics had a 10–15% increase in LBW risk in 2000–2006 and a 20–25% increase in 2007–2014, except among migrants, for which LBW risk remained lower than in 1995–1999 but increased after the crisis. The increasing LBW risk coincides with a deceleration in gross domestic product growth rate, reduction in health expenditure, social protection allocation on family/children support and sickness. Conclusions The 2007–2008 global financial crisis was associated with a significant increase in LBW, particularly among infants of non-Portuguese mothers. We recommend strengthening social policies aimed at maternity protection for vulnerable mothers and health

  10. Prevalence of low birth weight, macrosomia and stillbirth and their relationship to associated maternal risk factors in Hohoe Municipality, Ghana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agbozo, Faith; Abubakari, Abdulai; Der, Joyce; Jahn, Albrecht

    2016-09-01

    birth weight is vital to the development potential of the newborn. Abnormal birth weight (such as low birth weight and macrosomia) is an important determinant of child survival, disabilities, stunting, and long-term adverse consequences for the onset of non-communicable diseases in the life course and therefore demands appropriate public health interventions. Stillbirths are also considered one of the most important, but most poorly understood and documented adverse outcomes of pregnancy. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the prevalence of abnormal birth weight and related maternal risk factors, as well as pregnancy outcomes, such as stillbirth. a retrospective study design was used to analyze 4262 delivery records for singleton pregnancies from January 2013 to December 2014 seen at the Hohoe municipal hospital, Volta region in Ghana. The data on birth weight and related factors were derived from the delivery book. Data was analyzed using STATA. Multinomial logistic regression was used to assess the association between maternal factors such as parity, age and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria, sex of infant and abnormal birth weight. Association between stillbirth and related factors was assessed using logistic regression. prevalence of low birth weight (risk of a first born being of low birth weight than second or third born (RR; 2.04, CI; 1.59-2.64, prisks of mothers low-birthweight infants (RR; 1.46, CI; 1.11-1.93, p=0.007) compared to mothers who were within the age ranges of 20-30 years and also among those who took only one (RR; 1.57, CI; 1.02-2.39, p=0.039) or no intermittent preventive treatment for malaria during pregnancy (RR; 1.57, CI; 1.24-1.98, p=Risk of macrosomic birth was particularly high among 5th born (RR; 2.66, CI; 1.43-4.95, p=0.002) compared to first or second born. Stillbirth rate was 27/1000 births. Thirty-two percent of the stillbirths (n=38) had low birth weight whereas 6.8% (n=8) were macrosomic. There was a greater than

  11. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dempsey, Eugene; Miletin, Jan

    2010-06-16

    Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. No studies met the inclusion criteria. There are no randomised trials that compare preterm banked milk to banked term milk to promote growth and

  12. Randomized Controlled Trial of Slow Versus Rapid Enteral Feeding Advancements on the Clinical Outcomes in Very Low Birth Weight Neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, F; Mannan, M A; Dey, A C; Nahar, N; Hasan, Z; Jahan, I; Dey, S K; Shahidullah, M

    2017-04-01

    Starting and advancement of feeding in very low birth weight (VLBW) infants are big challenges for the neonatal practitioners. Wide variations in volume of feed advancement have observed in earlier trials both in slow and rapid advancement groups. Volume advancement in slow advancement groups have ranged from 10ml/kg/day to 23ml/kg/day and in rapid advancement groups have ranged from 15ml/kg/day to 45ml/kg/day in earlier different studies. This randomized controlled trial was conducted in neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) of Bangabandhu Sheikh Mujib Medical University (BSMMU) from April 2013 to July 2014 to evaluate the effects of slow versus rapid rates of feeding advancements on the clinical outcomes in very low birth weight infants. A total 95 infants were enrolled into two strata according to their birth weight. Infants of each stratum were randomly allocated to either slow or rapid advancement group during initiation of feeding. After gut priming over five days, feeding was advanced daily 10ml/kg in slow and 15ml/kg in rapid advancement group for 1000 - rapid advancement group. The primary outcome variable was time taken to achieve full enteral feed. Total 82 infants completed the trial. Demographically both groups were same. Infants in the rapid feeding advancement group achieved full enteral feedings before the slow advancement group, had significantly fewer days of parenteral nutrition and regained birth weight earlier. There were no statistical differences in episodes of feed interruption, number of infants with apnea, feed intolerance or diagnosis of sepsis. Rapid enteral feeding advancements were well tolerated by very low birth weight infants.

  13. Changes in Perinatal Care and Predictors of In-Hospital Mortality for Very Low Birth Weight Preterm Infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Dong

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Mortality of very low birth weight premature infants is of great public health concern. To better guide local intervention program, it is essential that current and reliable statistics be collected to understand the factors associated with mortality of these infants.Methods: Data of very low birth weight premature infants admitted to a neonatal unit during 2002-2009 was retrospectively collected. Changes in perinatal care between two halves of the study period (2002-2005 and 2006-2009 were identified. Factors associated with in-hospital mortality were found by logistic regression and a predictive score model was established.Findings: A total of 475 cases were enrolled. In-hospital mortality decreased from 29.8% in 2002-2005 to 28.1% in 2006-2009 (P>0.05. More infants born<28 gestational weeks survived to discharge in the latter epoch (38.1% vs 8.3%, P<0.05. Persistent pulmonary hypertension of newborn, pulmonary hemorrhage,birth weight <000 grams, gestational age <33 weeks, feeding before 3 postnatal days and enteral feeding were found predictors of in-hospital mortality by logistic regression. The discriminating ability of the predictivemodel was 82.4% and the cutoff point was -0.56.Conclusion: Survival of very low birth weight premature neonates was not significantly improved in 2006-2009 than 2002-2005. Infants with a score higher than -0.56 were assessed to be at high risk of in-hospital mortality. Multi-center studies of planned follow-up are needed to develop a comprehensive and applicable score system.

  14. Banked preterm versus banked term human milk to promote growth and development in very low birth weight infants.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dempsey, Eugene

    2012-01-31

    BACKGROUND: Human milk banking has been available in many countries for the last three decades. The milk provided from milk banking is predominantly term breast milk, but some milk banks provide preterm breast milk. There are a number of differences between donor term and donor preterm human milk. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of banked preterm milk compared with banked term milk regarding growth and developmental outcome in very low birth weight infants (infants weighing less than 1500 g). SEARCH STRATEGY: We used the standard methods of the Cochrane Neonatal Review Group, including a search of the Cochrane Neonatal Group specialized register and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL, The Cochrane Library, January 2010). We searched the computerised bibliographic databases MEDLINE (1966 to February 2010), EMBASE (1988 to February 2010) and Web of Science (1975 to February 2010). We searched reference lists of all selected articles, review articles and the Oxford Database of Perinatal Trials. We also searched abstracts from neonatal and pediatric meetings (PAS electronic version from 2000 to 2009, ESPR hand search from 2000 to 2009). We applied no language restrictions. SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised and quasi-randomised trials comparing banked donor preterm milk with banked donor term milk regarding growth and developmental outcomes in very low birth weight infants DATA COLLECTION AND ANALYSIS: We planned to perform assessment of methodology regarding blinding of randomisation, intervention and outcome measurements as well as completeness of follow-up. We planned to evaluate treatment effect using a fixed-effect model using relative risk (RR), relative risk reduction, risk difference (RD) and number needed to treat (NNT) for categorical data and using mean, standard deviation and weighted mean difference (WMD) for continuous data. We planned an evaluation of heterogeneity. MAIN RESULTS: No studies met the inclusion criteria. AUTHORS

  15. Stress and health-related well-being among mothers with a low birth weight infant: The role of sleep

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Shih-Yu; Hsu, Hui-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This U.S.A.-based study examined the quantitative and qualitative characteristics of sleep, as well as the role of sleep, in the association of stress with depression, fatigue, and health-related quality of life (H-QOL) among mothers with a low-birth-weight, preterm infant in the neonatal intensive care unit at early postpartum. Fifty-five first-time mothers kept a sleep diary and filled out a battery of questionnaires. The wrist actigraphy method was also applied to collect information on ma...

  16. Normal insulin-stimulated endothelial function and impaired insulin-stimulated muscle glucose uptake in young adults with low birth weight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hermann, T S; Rask-Madsen, C; Ihlemann, N

    2003-01-01

    Low birth weight has been linked to insulin resistance and cardiovascular disease. We hypothesized that insulin sensitivity of both muscle and vascular tissues were impaired in young men with low birth weight. Blood flow was measured by venous occlusion plethysmography during dose-response studies...... infusion increased glucose uptake significantly in the normal birth weight group, compared with the low birth weight group: 0.40 +/- 0.09 to 1.00 +/- 0.16 vs. 0.44 +/- 0.09 to 0.59 +/- 0.1 [ micro mol glucose x (100 ml forearm)(-1) x min(-1)], P = 0.04. Young men with low birth weight have normal insulin...

  17. Prematurity and low birth weight as risk factors for the development of affective disorder, especially depression and schizophrenia: A register study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    JK, Larsen; Bendsen, BB; Foldager, Leslie

    2010-01-01

    Background: The present study examined whether low birth weight, prematurity or low birth weight adjusted for gestational age are risk factors for the subsequent development of affective disorder, especially depression. Methods: A population-based case-control design was applied to the Danish...... Medical Birth Register and the Danish Psychiatric Central Register to identify all individuals born between 1 January 1974 and 31 December 1990 and diagnosed prior to 29 August 2003 with affective disorder alone (ICD-10 F3; 4297 females, 1861 males), schizophrenia alone (ICD-10 F2; 1364 females, 2292...... adjustment for low birth weight. Conclusion: Prematurity and low birth weight were found to be risk factors for subsequent development of affective disorder (especially depression) and schizophrenia....

  18. Low birth weight is associated with earlier onset of end-stage renal disease in Danish patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Orskov, Bjarne; Christensen, Karl Bang; Feldt-Rasmussen, Bo

    2012-01-01

    Low-birth-weight individuals have a higher risk of hypertension and end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Here we investigated whether low birth weight was associated with earlier onset of ESRD in patients with autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD). In collaboration with all Danish depar...... birth weight may contribute to considerable phenotypic variability in the progression of renal disease between individuals with ADPKD....

  19. The Effect of Mother’s Hypertension and Weight and Parent’s Smoking Habit on Low Birth Weight Deliveries in Hospital, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latiffah A Latiff

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Maternal factors such as age, health, diet, and environment are significantly associated with low birth weight. The objectives of this study were to determine the incidence, distribution and major risk factors of low birth weight in Hospital Kuala Lumpur.Materials and methods: A hospital based case–control study was done in Obstetric Ward of Maternity Hospital in Hospital Kuala Lumpur. Data was obtained using questionnaire and Performa. Out of 1021 deliveries, 330 were selected randomly as respondents that comprises of 110 cases and 220 controls. The outcome measure was low birth weight (<2500 grams.Results: The incidence of low birth weight was 10.8%. Among races, the highest occurrence of low birth weight was in Malay, while the highest age group was between 21 years old to 34 years old with majority of the respondent were married. Among the maternal socio-demographic factors, maternal height of less than 150 cm has a significant relationship with low birth weight. In addition, maternal weight of 45 kg and less and maternal weight gain during pregnancy of less than 10 kg were also found to be risk factors. However, none of the socio-demographic factors were significantly associated with low birth weight deliveries. Similarly, signs of premature delivery, maternal vaginal bleeding and fetal growth retardation (IUGR had a significant association.Conclusion: The mothers that have experienced any of the risks that were identified should be monitored and effective prevention should be taken to decrease the chances of low birth weight but not forgetting to promote a health lifestyle to the mother and father as well.

  20. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jia-Jun; Bao, Ying-Ying; Zhang, Guo-Lian; Ma, Li-Xin; Wu, Ming-Yuan

    2014-08-01

    To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), Pbirth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  1. Peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and oxidative and inflammatory stress markers in very-low birth weight newborns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldas, Jamil P S; Braghini, Carolina A; Mazzola, Taís N; Vilela, Maria M S; Marba, Sérgio T M

    2015-01-01

    To evaluate the association between oxidative and inflammatory stress markers with peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH) in very-low birth weight newborns. This was a prospective study conducted in a level III neonatal unit. Basal and stimulated reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs), reduced glutathione (GSH), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) levels were measured in umbilical cord blood. Newborns underwent serial ultrasound at the bedside, at 6, 12, 24, and 72hours of life and at seven days for the diagnosis of PIVH, classified as grades I to IV. Two groups were assessed, those with and without PIVH; maternal and neonatal control variables were used for comparison. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were applied. A total of 125 newborns were assessed. PIVH incidence rate was 12.0%. In the univariate analysis, basal ROI, the use of two or more doses of corticosteroids, birth weight<1,000g, ventilatory support use, and SNAPPE II value ≥ 22 were significantly associated with PIVH. However, in the multivariate analysis, only antenatal steroid use was independently associated with the disease (OR 0,194; 95% CI: 0,048 to 0,773; p=0,02). ROI, GSH, and IL-6 levels were not associated with the occurrence of PIVH in very-low birth weight infants. Copyright © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Pediatria. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  2. Peri-intraventricular hemorrhage and oxidative and inflammatory stress markers in very-low birth weight newborns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jamil P.S. Caldas

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between oxidative and inflammatory stress markers with peri-intraventricular hemorrhage (PIVH in very-low birth weight newborns.METHODS: This was a prospective study conducted in a level III neonatal unit. Basal and stimulated reactive oxygen intermediates (ROIs, reduced glutathione (GSH, and interleukin-6 (IL-6 levels were measured in umbilical cord blood. Newborns underwent serial ultrasound at the bedside, at 6, 12, 24, and 72 hours of life and at seven days for the diagnosis of PIVH, classified as grades I to IV. Two groups were assessed, those with and without PIVH; maternal and neonatal control variables were used for comparison. Univariate and multiple regression analyses were applied.RESULTS: A total of 125 newborns were assessed. PIVH incidence rate was 12.0%. In the univariate analysis, basal ROI, the use of two or more doses of corticosteroids, birth weight < 1,000 g, ventilatory support use, and SNAPPE II value ≥ 22 were significantly associated with PIVH. However, in the multivariate analysis, only antenatal steroid use was independently associated with the disease (OR 0,194; 95% CI: 0,048 to 0,773; p=0,02.CONCLUSION: ROI, GSH, and IL-6 levels were not associated with the occurrence of PIVH in very-low birth weight infants

  3. No relationship between mode of delivery and neonatal mortality and neurodevelopment in very low birth weight infants aged two years

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia-Jun Zhu; Ying-Ying Bao; Guo-Lian Zhang; Li-Xin Ma; Ming-Yuan Wu

    2014-01-01

    Background: To compare neonatal mortality and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of age in very low birth weight infants (≤1500 g) born by cesarean with those by vaginal delivery. Methods: In this retrospective, case-control study, we evaluated neonatal mortality, medical conditions and neurodevelopmental outcomes at two years of corrected age in 710 very low birth weight (VLBW) infants born between January 2005 and December 2010. Of the 710 infants, 351 were born by the cesarean and 359/710 by vaginal route. Results: There were no significant differences in neonatal mortality between the cesarean delivery group and vaginal delivery group [56/351 (15.9%) vs. 71/359 (19.8%), P=0.20]. VLBW infants delivered by the cesarean procedure had a higher incidence of respiratory distress syndrome than those born by the vaginal route [221/351 (63.0%) vs. 178/359 (49.6%), P Conclusions: In neither neurodevelopment nor neonatal mortality did cesarean birth offered significant advantages to VLBW infants. Moreover, the operation might be associated with an increased risk of respiratory distress syndrome for VLBW infants. The mode of delivery of VLBW infants should be largely based on obstetric indications and maternal considerations rather than perceived better outcomes for the neonate.

  4. Does visceral osteopathic treatment accelerate meconium passage in very low birth weight infants?- A prospective randomized controlled trial.

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    Nadja Haiden

    Full Text Available To determine whether the complementary approach of visceral manipulative osteopathic treatment accelerates complete meconium excretion and improves feeding tolerance in very low birth weight infants.This study was a prospective, randomized, controlled trial in premature infants with a birth weight <1500 g and a gestational age <32 weeks who received a visceral osteopathic treatment 3 times during their first week of life or no treatment.Passage of the last meconium occurred after a median of 7.5 days (95% confidence interval: 6-9 days, n = 21 in the intervention group and after 6 days (95% confidence interval: 5-9 days, n = 20, in the control group (p = 0.11. However, osteopathic treatment was associated with a 8 day longer time to full enteral feedings (p = 0.02, and a 34 day longer hospital stay (Median = 66 vs. 100 days i.e.; p=0.14. Osteopathic treatment was tolerated well and no adverse events were observed.Visceral osteopathic treatment of the abdomen did not accelerate meconium excretion in VLBW (very low birth weight-infants. However infants in the osteopathic group had a longer time to full enteral feedings and a longer hospital stay, which could represent adverse effects. Based on our trial results, we cannot recommend visceral osteopathic techniques in VLBW-infants.Clinical trials.gov: NCT02140710.

  5. Compensatory growth feeding strategy does not overcome negative effects on growth and carcass composition of low birth weight pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madsen, J G; Bee, G

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the compensatory growth feeding strategy could be a suitable solution for overcoming the negative effects on growth, carcass composition and meat quality of low birth weight pigs. Forty-two Swiss Large White barrows from 21 litters were selected at weaning and categorized into either being light (L; >0.8 and 1.7 kg) birth weight pigs. From 27.8 kg BW, pigs were assigned within birth weight group to one of three feeding groups: AA: ad libitum access to the grower and finisher diet, RR: restricted access to the grower and finisher diet or RA: restricted access to the grower diet and ad libitum access to the finisher diet. At slaughter, the longissimus (LM) and semitendinosus (STM) muscles were removed from the right side of the carcass. Weight, girth and length of the STM and the LM area were determined after muscle excision. Carcass characteristics and meat quality traits were assessed. Using mATPase histochemistry, myofibre size and myofibre type distribution were determined in the LM and STM. Because of longer days on feed, total feed intake was greater (Pgrowth period, RA barrows grew faster (PGrowth efficiency did not differ between RA and RR barrows but was greater (Pgrowth feeding strategy was inadequate in overcoming the disadvantages of low birth weight.

  6. Congenital malaria in newborns selected for low birth-weight, anemia, and other possible symptoms in Maumere, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Loeki Enggar; Jahja, Natalia Erica; Huwae, Irene Ratridewi; Nara, Mario B; Berens-Riha, Nicole

    2014-12-01

    Congenital malaria is assumed to be a risk factor for infant morbidity and mortality in endemic areas like Maumere, Indonesia. Infected infants are susceptible to its impact such as premature labor, low birth weight, anemia, and other unspecified symptoms. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence of congenital malaria and the influence of mother-infant paired parasite densities on the clinical outcome of the newborns at TC Hillers Hospital, Maumere. An analytical cross sectional study was carried out in newborns which showed criteria associated with congenital malaria. A thick and thin blood smear confirmed by nested PCR was performed in both mothers and infants. The association of congenital malaria with the newborn's health status was then assessed. From 112 mother-infant pairs included in this study, 92 were evaluated further. Thirty-nine infants (42.4%) were found to be infected and half of them were asymptomatic. Infected newborns had a 4.7 times higher risk in developing anemia compared to uninfected newborns (95% CI, 1.3-17.1). The hemoglobin level, erythrocyte amount, and hematocrit level were affected by the infants' parasite densities (Pmalaria, the prevalence is almost 3 times higher than in an unselected collective. Low birth weight, anemia, and pre-term birth were the most common features. Anemia seems to be significantly influenced by infant parasite densities but not by maternal parasitemia.

  7. 活产婴儿低出生体重相关因素分析%Analysis on the related factors of low birth weight among live-born infants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玥娇; 邓长飞; 代礼; 周光萱; 李月花; 朱军

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the related factors of Iow birth weight among live - born infants, provide a theoretical basis for making the direction of children's health care and intervention measures.Methods: Birth defect monitoring method on the basis of population was used in the study, the live -born infants in Tianjin city, Jian'ou city and Gongyi city were selected as study objects, SPSS 13.0 software was used, single factor x2 analysis and binary logistic regression analysis were used to screen the related effect factors of low birth weight infants.Results: The average birth weight of 86 982 live - born infants was 3 325.67 g, the incidence of low birth weight among live - born infants was 2.8%, single factor analysis showed that gender, gestational weeks, nunber of births, maternal age, educational levels of mothers and place of residence were related to low birth weight of live - born infants; binary logistic regression analysis showed that gender, gestational weeks, number of births, educational levels of mothers and place of residence were related to low birth weight of live - born infants.Conclusion: The incidence of low birth weight in the study areas is relatively low, premature delivery is the main effect factor of low birth weight; more attention should be paid to the rural pregnant women with polyembryony, avoiding premature delivery is an important measure to reduce the incidence of low birth weight among live - born infants; strengthening publicity and education may be helpful to improve the maternal knowledge of pregnant women.%目的:探讨活产儿低出生体重相关因素,为制定儿童保健研究方向和干预措施提供理论依据.方法:采用以人群为基础的出生缺陷监测方法,以天津市、建瓯市和巩义市活产儿为研究对象,运用SPSS 13.0软件,采用单因X2分析和二分类Logistic回归分析方法,筛选低出生体重儿相关影响因素.结果:86 982例活产儿平均出生体重为3 325.67 g,活产儿

  8. Lung mechanics and high-resolution computed tomography of the chest in very low birth weight premature infants

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    Rosane Reis de Mello

    Full Text Available CONTEXT: Premature infant lung development may be affected by lung injuries during the first few weeks of life. Lung injuries have been associated with changes in lung mechanics. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate an association between lung mechanics and lung structural alterations in very low birth weight infants (birth weight less than 1500 g. DESIGN: A cross-sectional evaluation of pulmonary mechanics (lung compliance and lung resistance and high resolution computed tomography of the chest at the time of discharge, in 86 very low birth weight infants born at Instituto Fernandes Figueira, a tertiary public healthcare institution in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. Lung compliance and resistance were measured during quiet sleep. High resolution computed tomography was performed using Pro Speed-S equipment. MAIN MEASUREMENTS: Statistical analysis was performed by means of variance analysis (ANOVA/ Kruskal Wallis. The significance level was set at 0.05. RESULTS: Abnormal values for both lung compliance and lung resistance were found in